WorldWideScience

Sample records for value-added metrics developing

  1. Green Net Value Added as a Sustainability Metric Based on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability measurement in economics involves evaluation of environmental and economic impact in an integrated manner. In this study, system level economic data are combined with environmental impact from a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a common product. We are exploring a costing approach that captures traditional costs but also incorporates externality costs to provide a convenient, easily interpretable metric. Green Net Value Added (GNVA) is a type of full cost accounting that incorporates total revenue, the cost of materials and services, depreciation, and environmental externalities. Two, but not all, of the potential environmental impacts calculated by the standard LCIA method (TRACI) could be converted to externality cost values. We compute externality costs disaggregated by upstream sectors, full cost, and GNVA to evaluate the relative sustainability of Bounty® paper towels manufactured at two production facilities. We found that the longer running, more established line had a higher GNVA than the newer line. The dominant factors contributing to externality costs are calculated to come from the stationary sources in the supply chain: electricity generation (27-35%), refineries (20-21%), pulp and paper making (15-23%). Health related externalities from Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Carbon Dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions appear largely driven by electricity usage and emissions by the facilities, followed by pulp processing and transport. Supply

  2. Exploring the potential uses of value-added metrics in the context of postgraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Simon; Patterson, Fiona; Baron, Helen; Knight, Alec; Walsh, Kieran; Irish, Bill; Thomas, Sally

    2016-10-01

    Increasing pressure is being placed on external accountability and cost efficiency in medical education and training internationally. We present an illustrative data analysis of the value-added of postgraduate medical education. We analysed historical selection (entry) and licensure (exit) examination results for trainees sitting the UK Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioners (MRCGP) licensing examination (N = 2291). Selection data comprised: a clinical problem solving test (CPST); a situational judgement test (SJT); and a selection centre (SC). Exit data was an applied knowledge test (AKT) from MRCGP. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses were used to model differences in attainment in the AKT based on performance at selection (the value-added score). Results were aggregated to the regional level for comparisons. We discovered significant differences in the value-added score between regional training providers. Whilst three training providers confer significant value-added, one training provider was significantly lower than would be predicted based on the attainment of trainees at selection. Value-added analysis in postgraduate medical education potentially offers useful information, although the methodology is complex, controversial, and has significant limitations. Developing models further could offer important insights to support continuous improvement in medical education in future.

  3. A Comparison between Value-Added School Estimates and Currently Used Metrics of School Accountability in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Loris P.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared a value-added approach to school accountability to the currently used metrics of accountability in California of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) and Academic Performance Index (API). Five-year student panel data (N?=?53,733) from 29 elementary schools in a large California school district were used to address the research…

  4. ARM Data-Oriented Metrics and Diagnostics Package for Climate Model Evaluation Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chengzhu [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    A Python-based metrics and diagnostics package is currently being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Infrastructure Team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to facilitate the use of long-term, high-frequency measurements from the ARM Facility in evaluating the regional climate simulation of clouds, radiation, and precipitation. This metrics and diagnostics package computes climatological means of targeted climate model simulation and generates tables and plots for comparing the model simulation with ARM observational data. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) model data sets are also included in the package to enable model intercomparison as demonstrated in Zhang et al. (2017). The mean of the CMIP model can serve as a reference for individual models. Basic performance metrics are computed to measure the accuracy of mean state and variability of climate models. The evaluated physical quantities include cloud fraction, temperature, relative humidity, cloud liquid water path, total column water vapor, precipitation, sensible and latent heat fluxes, and radiative fluxes, with plan to extend to more fields, such as aerosol and microphysics properties. Process-oriented diagnostics focusing on individual cloud- and precipitation-related phenomena are also being developed for the evaluation and development of specific model physical parameterizations. The version 1.0 package is designed based on data collected at ARM’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) Research Facility, with the plan to extend to other ARM sites. The metrics and diagnostics package is currently built upon standard Python libraries and additional Python packages developed by DOE (such as CDMS and CDAT). The ARM metrics and diagnostic package is available publicly with the hope that it can serve as an easy entry point for climate modelers to compare their models with ARM data. In this report, we first present the input data, which

  5. Metrix Matrix: A Cloud-Based System for Tracking Non-Relative Value Unit Value-Added Work Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Mark D; Sheafor, Douglas H; Thacker, Paul G; Hardie, Andrew D; Costello, Philip

    2018-03-01

    In the era of value-based medicine, it will become increasingly important for radiologists to provide metrics that demonstrate their value beyond clinical productivity. In this article the authors describe their institution's development of an easy-to-use system for tracking value-added but non-relative value unit (RVU)-based activities. Metrix Matrix is an efficient cloud-based system for tracking value-added work. A password-protected home page contains links to web-based forms created using Google Forms, with collected data populating Google Sheets spreadsheets. Value-added work metrics selected for tracking included interdisciplinary conferences, hospital committee meetings, consulting on nonbilled outside studies, and practice-based quality improvement. Over a period of 4 months, value-added work data were collected for all clinical attending faculty members in a university-based radiology department (n = 39). Time required for data entry was analyzed for 2 faculty members over the same time period. Thirty-nine faculty members (equivalent to 36.4 full-time equivalents) reported a total of 1,223.5 hours of value-added work time (VAWT). A formula was used to calculate "value-added RVUs" (vRVUs) from VAWT. VAWT amounted to 5,793.6 vRVUs or 6.0% of total work performed (vRVUs plus work RVUs [wRVUs]). Were vRVUs considered equivalent to wRVUs for staffing purposes, this would require an additional 2.3 full-time equivalents, on the basis of average wRVU calculations. Mean data entry time was 56.1 seconds per day per faculty member. As health care reimbursement evolves with an emphasis on value-based medicine, it is imperative that radiologists demonstrate the value they add to patient care beyond wRVUs. This free and easy-to-use cloud-based system allows the efficient quantification of value-added work activities. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Value-added probiotic development by high-solid fermentation of sweet potato with Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carmen; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda K; Njiti, Victor; Xia, Qun; Chukwuma, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    Controlled fermentation of Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) var. Beauregard by yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii (MAY 796) to enhance the nutritional value of sweet potato was investigated. An average 8.00 × 10 10 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g of viable cells were obtained over 5-day high-solid fermentation. Yeast cell viability did not change significantly over time at 4°C whereas the number of viable yeast cells reduced significantly at room temperature (25°C), which was approximately 40% in 12 months. Overall, the controlled fermentation of sweet potato by MAY 796 enhanced protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, amino acid, and fatty acid levels. Development of value-added sweet potato has a great potential in animal feed and human nutrition. S. boulardii - fermented sweet potato has great potential as probiotic-enriched animal feed and/or functional food for human nutrition.

  7. Accounting for Co-Teaching: A Guide for Policymakers and Developers of Value-Added Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Eric; Walsh, Elias

    2015-01-01

    We outline the options available to policymakers for addressing co-teaching in a value-added model. Building on earlier work, we propose an improvement to a method of accounting for co-teaching that treats co-teachers as teams, with each teacher receiving equal credit for co-taught students. Hock and Isenberg (2012) described a method known as the…

  8. Lignocellulosic biorefinery as a model for sustainable development of biofuels and value added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bhowmick, Goldy; Sarmah, Ajit K; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2018-01-01

    A constant shift of society's dependence from petroleum-based energy resources towards renewable biomass-based has been the key to tackle the greenhouse gas emissions. Effective use of biomass feedstock, particularly lignocellulosic, has gained worldwide attention lately. Lignocellulosic biomass as a potent bioresource, however, cannot be a sustainable alternative if the production cost is too high and/ or the availability is limited. Recycling the lignocellulosic biomass from various sources into value added products such as bio-oil, biochar or other biobased chemicals in a bio-refinery model is a sensible idea. Combination of integrated conversion techniques along with process integration is suggested as a sustainable approach. Introducing 'series concept' accompanying intermittent dark/photo fermentation with co-cultivation of microalgae is conceptualised. While the cost of downstream processing for a single type of feedstock would be high, combining different feedstocks and integrating them in a bio-refinery model would lessen the production cost and reduce CO 2 emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. THE EFFECT OF LEVERAGE AND ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED ON MARKET VALUE ADDED

    OpenAIRE

    Kristína Jančovičová BOGNÁROVÁ

    2018-01-01

    Economic value added (EVA) is a performance measure developed by Stern Stewart & Co.) that attempts to measure the true economic profit produced by a company. Such a metric is useful for investors who wish to determine how well a company has produced value for its investors, and it can be compared against the company's peers for a quick analysis of how well the company is operating in its industry. Market value added (MVA), on the other hand, is simply the difference between the c...

  10. Missing Link: Integrated Individual Leadership Development, Employee Engagement, and Customer Value-Added Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenbrand, Lois; Simms, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term care is a key public issue that affects all of us in some way at some time of our lives. Nowhere is performance improvement and quality management more imperative. Through an 8-month field study and follow-up case study, we discuss how using an integrated approach to individual leadership development, employee engagement, and customer…

  11. Creativity in ergonomic design: a supplemental value-adding source for product and service development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liang; Proctor, Robert W; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2010-08-01

    This article investigates the role of creativity in ergonomic design and the generic process of developing creative products and services. Creativity is gaining increased emphasis in both academia and industry. More than 50 years of research in creativity indicates that creativity is key to product and service innovation. Nevertheless, there is scarcely any comprehensive review dedicated to appraising the complex construct of creativity, the underlying cognitive process, and the role of creativity in product and service development. We review relevant literature regarding creativity, creative cognition, and the engineering design process to appraise the role of creativity in ergonomic design and to construct a conceptual model of creative product and service development. A framework of ergodesign creativity is advanced that highlights the central role of creativity in synergistically addressing the four dimensions of ergonomic design: functionality, safety, usability, and affectivity. A conceptual model of creative design process is then constructed that is goal oriented and is initiated by active problem finding and problem formulating. This process is carried out in a recursive and dynamic way, facilitated by creative thinking strategies. It is proposed that ergodesign creativity can add supplemental value to products and services, which subsequently affects consumer behavior and helps organizations gain competitive advantage. The proposed conceptual framework of ergodesign creativity and creative design process can serve as the ground for future theory development. Propositions advanced in this study should facilitate designers generating products and services that are creative and commercially competitive.

  12. Nutritional security, healthy marine ecosystems and value added priorities for developing coastal countries

    OpenAIRE

    Failler, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    According to FAO estimates, global consumption of fish, currently 140 million tonnes, is likely to reach 200 million tonnes by 2030 [1]. Industrialized countries where households have strong purchasing power will increase their demand, while developing and emerging countries will use this as a basis to increase both their aquaculture production and the number of fish caught for export. Overall, the demand from international markets will lead to an increase of fish trade from low income countr...

  13. Development of Value-Added Products from Residual Algae to Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Craig [Sapphire Energy, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    DOE Award # EE0000393 was awarded to fund research into the development of beneficial uses of surplus algal biomass and the byproducts of biofuel production. At the time of award, Sapphire’s intended fuel production pathway was a fairly conventional extraction of lipids from biomass, resulting in a defatted residue which could be processed using anaerobic digestion. Over the lifetime of the award, we conducted extensive development work and arrived at the conclusion that anaerobic digestion presented significant technical challenges for this high-nitrogen, high-ash, and low carbon material. Over the same timeframe, Sapphire’s fuel production efforts came to focus on hydrothermal liquefaction. As a result of this technology focus, the residue from fuel production became unsuitable for either anaerobic digestion (or animal feed uses). Finally, we came to appreciate the economic opportunity that the defatted biomass could represent in the animal feed space, as well as understanding the impact of seasonal production on a biofuels extraction plant, and sought to develop uses for surplus biomass produced in excess of the fuel production unit’s capacity.

  14. A study on development of value added technology of pyrophyllite and dickite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Keon-Joon; Choi, Yeon-Ho; Kim, Sang-Bae; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Cho, Sung-Baek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Pyrophyllite and dickite have being utilized as refractories, ceramics, cement, fiber glass, paper, rubber, paints etc.. However, there are not any domestic companies to produce fillers of pyrophyllite and dickite for plastic and rubber. Moreover, several kinds of fillers are imported every year with expensive price for plastic and rubber filler. This study has purpose to develop manufacturing technologies to produce fillers for plastic and rubber of pyrophyllite and dickite. The chemical and mineralogical properties of samples, the optimum grinding condition and device for producing plastic fillers and development of technology of improvement in whiteness, and the optimum synthesis condition of zeolite Y are the scopes and contents of the study. Pyrophyllite samples are taken from Bunam. Principal composed minerals are pyrophyllite, quartz and dickite, having chemical components of 9.2% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 74.8% SiO{sub 2}, and 0.1% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. Dickite sample is taken from Bugok, consists of dickite and quartz having 37.7% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 47.8% SiO{sub 2} and 0.04% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Efficiency of the vibrating mill proved to be greater than ball mill compare with median size. The whiteness of sample increased with roasting temperature. In grinding a Bunam and Bugok sample by vibrating mill for 180 minute, median particle size is 3.06{mu}m and 2.85{mu}m, respectively. The structure water dehydration temperature is about 600 deg.C and mullite is presented around 850 deg.C for dickite, and the whiteness increased with roasting temperature. The whiteness of Bunam and Bugok sample ground by vibrating mill for 180 minute and roasted for 60 minutes at 900 deg.C is 96.5, 98, respectively. The mole ratio of SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is important factor for synthesis of zeolite Y, crystallinity is 56 at SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mole ratio is 13. Reaction time also important factor, crystallinity is 52 at SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mole ratio

  15. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)-(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized.

  16. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)–(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized. (focus issue review)

  17. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)–(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized. PMID:27877800

  18. Forecasting value added of agricultural sub-sectors during fourth five-year development plan in iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassabian, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on forecasting the values added of agricultural sub-sectors, including agronomy, fishing, forestry, animal husbandry and agricultural services, using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) model. It compares the resulting figures with the target estimates throughout the plan within the years 1384-1388 (2005-2009). It turns out that the forecasted values added in the sub-sectors of agronomy and agricultural services are higher and slower than the estimated values added required due to the plan, respectively. Also the high conformity of the estimated and forecasted value added on the horizon of the fourth five-year plan, while the other sub-sectors both the values are close to each other. The results indicate that the capability of ANN method for forecasting variables is more suitable than the other methods. (author)

  19. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  20. Development of a dissertation quality value-added model for humanities and social sciences programs for private higher education institutions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyasinee Laosum

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were: (1 to evaluate the quality of dissertations in the humanities and social sciences of private higher education institutions, (2 to analyze factors affecting the quality at the student, advisor, and institute levels, and (3 to develop a quality, value-added model of the dissertations. Samples consisted of: (1 750 student dissertations in the humanities and social sciences and (2 753 questionnaire responses consisting of 633 students, 108 dissertation advisors, and 12 senior administrators in the participating institutions. A 5-point rating dissertation evaluation scale was developed for use by the researcher and her assistants. Three sets of a dissertation attribution questionnaire used by the students, advisors, and senior administrators were also developed and administered. Descriptive statistics were used with the 5-point rating data. The 3-level HLM package was used to analyze the quality, value-added model of the dissertations. The findings of the study were: (1 the overall quality of the 750 dissertations was at the standard level; (2 there were 5 factors at 3 different levels influencing the dissertation quality with 1 student factor (favorable characteristics in conducting research, 3 advisor factors (experience in research, up-to-date knowledge in research, and the advisor-student ratio, 1 institutional factor (close monitoring and management system; and (3 the quality value-added model was able to predict the variance of the dissertation quality at 36 percent.

  1. THE EFFECT OF LEVERAGE AND ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED ON MARKET VALUE ADDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Jančovičová BOGNÁROVÁ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic value added (EVA is a performance measure developed by Stern Stewart & Co. that attempts to measure the true economic profit produced by a company. Such a metric is useful for investors who wish to determine how well a company has produced value for its investors, and it can be compared against the company's peers for a quick analysis of how well the company is operating in its industry. Market value added (MVA, on the other hand, is simply the difference between the current total market value of a company and the capital contributed by investors (including both shareholders and bondholders. It is typically used for companies that are larger and publicly-traded. MVA is not a performance metric like EVA, but instead is a wealth metric, measuring the level of value a company has accumulated over time. In order to maximise the value for shareholders, companies should strive towards maximising MVA and not necessarily their total market value. It is believed, that the best way to do so is to maximize EVA, which reflects a company’s ability to earn returns above the cost of capital. The leverage available to companies that incur fixed costs and use borrowed capital with a fixed interest charge has been known and quantified by financial managers for some time. In this research the effect of leverage and EVA on MVA as the measure of shareholder wealth creation was analysed. Leverage and EVA have been used as the independent variables whereas MVA has been used as the measure of shareholder wealth creation. Correlation and regression methods have been employed to find out in what way financial managers can practice the effects of leverage and EVA to maximize MVA. The results showed that EVA and leverage have no profound impact on MVA of the selected Slovak companies

  2. Evaluating the Value-Added Impact of Outdoor Management Training for Leadership Development in an MBA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Darrin; Grandzol, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of Outdoor Management Training for the leadership development of students enrolled in an MBA-level Organizational Behavior course. Students enrolled in one of two experiential courses. Both were identical, except one included an intensive outdoor training component called Leadership on the Edge. The…

  3. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  4. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  5. Value adding management: A concept and a case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2012-01-01

    be used more directly and proactively by facilities managers to implement adding value strategies and practices. Methodology: The development of the concept of Value Adding Management is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent theories on added value of FM...... practice value adding management. It underlines the importance of stakeholder and relationship management as part of adding value. The case study confirms the relevance of the basic concept of Value Adding Management. Practical implications: The concept of Value Adding Management is expected to increase......Purpose: To develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. The FM Value Map has been developed to analyse and demonstrate the different ways FM can add value. However, there is a need to develop management tools that can...

  6. A value-added strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the strategy of Siemens AG of Germany in expanding its role in supplying equipment for the independent power project market. The topics of the article include a description of the organization of the company, cooperation with other companies in development of technology and projects, and future expansion of their build-operate-transfer structure worldwide

  7. Value Adding Space Management in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinsfeldt, Mette; Jensen, Per Anker

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : Develop a methodology for space optimisation in educational facilities, that can add value to organisations with particular focus on gymnasiums in Denmark. Background : Gymnasiums are pre-university higher educational institutions, which in 2007 went from being state-owned to being self...... evaluation of the combined use of POE and USEtool and represents an original contribution to the development of knowledge and methodology of value adding space management.......Purpose : Develop a methodology for space optimisation in educational facilities, that can add value to organisations with particular focus on gymnasiums in Denmark. Background : Gymnasiums are pre-university higher educational institutions, which in 2007 went from being state-owned to being self......-governing. Many older gymnasiums face the challenge that the institutions’ buildings and spaces are unsuitable to support modern teaching methods. A space optimisation process can help overcome some of these challenges as long as it makes use of a holistic analysis, is related to the strategic objectives...

  8. ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED AND MARKET VALUE ADDED - MODERN INDICATORS FOR ASSESSMENT THE FIRM’S VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE SICHIGEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial theory developed different categories of indicators - traditional and modern - in order to evaluate the firm’s value creation. The shareholders are directly interested by the value added in the company. The value creation is a complex process that implies correct decisions, common responsibility (managers and shareholders and actions towards an efficient and profitable activity. The traditional indicators of performance are not teoritically correlated with the the value creation and in these circumstances, should be used appropriate financial indicators in order to reflect the value of the company. Therefore, the modern indicators used in the value based management framework offer a greater flexibility and efficiency and represent a good alternative for companies. Such performance indicators used to measure the financial results correlated with shareholder wealth are the Economic Value Added (EVA, as a measure of internal performance and the Market Value Added (MVA as a measure of external performance of the company. Starting from the main deficiencies of the accounting indicators, the objective of this this study is to present the relationship between EVA and MVA and their implications on firms’valuation. Thus, the presentation and analysis of these indicators – EVA and MVA - will underline the main features, their correlations, and influence factors but also the main advantage and disadvantage of each indicator, which will enable the managers to make the correct choice and subsequently the best decision regarding the performance measures.

  9. Bioconversion of sago residue into value added products | Awg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... value added products. DS Awg-Adeni, S Abd-Aziz, K Bujang, MA Hassan ... sago processing mills. This review focuses on the developments in processes and products for the value addition of sago residues through biotechnological means.

  10. Value Adding Management: A New Facilities Management Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...... the relevance of the basic concept and provides an important example of how Value Adding Management can be implemented and added value measured. Originality/value: The study develops a concept of Value Adding Management, which is new in FM literature. It is expected to increase the awareness of the impacts...

  11. Microbial production of value-added nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Guleria, Sanjay; Koffas, Mattheos Ag; Yan, Yajun

    2016-02-01

    Nutraceuticals are important natural bioactive compounds that confer health-promoting and medical benefits to humans. Globally growing demands for value-added nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of human diseases have rendered nutraceuticals a multi-billion dollar market. However, supply limitations and extraction difficulties from natural sources such as plants, animals or fungi, restrict the large-scale use of nutraceuticals. Metabolic engineering via microbial production platforms has been advanced as an eco-friendly alternative approach for production of value-added nutraceuticals from simple carbon sources. Microbial platforms like the most widely used Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been engineered as versatile cell factories for production of diverse and complex value-added chemicals such as phytochemicals, prebiotics, polysaccaharides and poly amino acids. This review highlights the recent progresses in biological production of value-added nutraceuticals via metabolic engineering approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The principal axis approach to value-added calculation.

    OpenAIRE

    He, Q.; Tymms, P.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the achievement of students and the quality of schools has drawn increasing attention from educational researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. Various test-based accountability and feedback systems involving the use of value-added techniques have been developed for evaluating the effectiveness of individual teaching professionals and schools. A variety of models have been employed for calculating value-added measures, including the use of linear regression models whic...

  13. Corporate performance and the measures of value added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Petravičius

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, managers have turned their attention to the ways increasing the value of their companies. A number of competing measures have been developed and marketed by investment and consulting firms. This paper considers the ways in which value can be created or destroyed in a firm and looks at how to calculate the cost of capital used to measure the opportunity cost of investing funds in one particular business instead of others with equivalent risk. Next, we have a look at the four most widely used value enhancement measures including Economic Value Added, Cash Flow Return on Investment, Market Value Added, Cash Value Added and use an example to think of where these approaches yield similar results and where differences might occur. In conclusion, we summarize the new or unique points in these competing measures, establish the information they can give and explain how to use it when managing and creating shareholder value.

  14. Metrics Are Needed for Collaborative Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mohtashami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for metrics for inter-organizational collaborative software development projects, encompassing management and technical concerns. In particular, metrics are needed that are aimed at the collaborative aspect itself, such as readiness for collaboration, the quality and/or the costs and benefits of collaboration in a specific ongoing project. We suggest questions and directions for such metrics, spanning the full lifespan of a collaborative project, from considering the suitability of collaboration through evaluating ongoing projects to final evaluation of the collaboration.

  15. Diagnostic and Value-Added Assessment of Business Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Linda; Harich, Katrin; Norby, Joni; Brzovic, Kathy; Rizkallah, Teeanna; Loewy, Dana

    2005-01-01

    To assess students' business writing abilities upon entry into the business program and exit from the capstone course, a multitiered assessment package was developed that measures students' achievement of specific learning outcomes and provides "value-added" scores. The online segment of the test measures five competencies across three process…

  16. Perbedaan Perusahan Pencipta Economic Value Added Positif Dengan Economic Value Added Negatif

    OpenAIRE

    Suripto, Suripto

    2008-01-01

    This research was to explain and analyze the different variable of Inflation Rate,Exchange Rate, Interest Rate, Ratio Plant Asset, Size Measure Company, Profitability, Growth ,LD / E, TD / TA, Stock of Return, Book To Market between company having Economic ValueAdded ( Positive ) and company having Economic Value Added ( Negative ). Analysis which wasused in this research was multivariate analysis of variant (MANOVA). There was different variableof Inflation Rate, Exchange Rate, Interest Rate...

  17. Aquacultural and socio-economic aspects of processing carps into some value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, H S; Sehgal, G K

    2002-05-01

    Carps are the mainstay of Indian aquaculture, contributing over 90% to the total fish production, which was estimated to be 1.77 million metric tonnes in 1996. Carp culture has a great potential for waste utilization and thus for pollution abatement. Many wastes such as cow, poultry, pig, duck, goat, and sheep excreta, biogas slurry, effluents from different kinds of factories/industries have been efficiently used for enhancing the productivity of natural food of carps and related species. Besides, several organic wastes/byproducts such as plant products, wastes from animal husbandry, and industrial by-products have been used as carp feed ingredients to lower the cost of supplementary feeding. However, to ensure the continued expansion of fish ponds and the pollution control, there must be a market for the fish (carps) produced in these ponds. The carps have, however, a low market value due to the presence of intra-muscular bones, which reduces their consumer acceptability. Thus, a need was felt to develop some boneless convenience products for enhancing the consumer acceptability of the carps. Efforts were made to prepare three value-added fish products, namely fish patty, fish finger and fish salad from carp flesh and were compared with a reference product ('fish pakoura'). Sensory evaluation of these products gave highly encouraging results. The methods of preparation of these products were transferred to some progressive farmers of the region who prepared and sold these products at very attractive prices. Carp processing has a great potential for the establishment of a fish ancillary industry and thus for boosting the production of these species. In Punjab alone, there is a potential of consuming 32,448 metric tonnes per annum of such value-added products (which would require 54,080 metric tonnes of raw fish). The development of value-added products has a significant role in raising the socio-economic status of the people associated with carp culture. The

  18. Profiling value added position in FM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katchamart, Akarapong

    . It is argued that being strategic is not the pre-requisite condition to add value to the core business and stakeholders but rather matching what does FM organization offer - so called FM product - with how does it being offered - so called FM process? By matching FM products with the right FM process, FM...... organizations can best add value. Based on comprehensive literature studies and 7 case studies of private and public organisations from Denmark, Holland, Hong Kong and Thailand, the dissertation analyses, how FM organizations can best create added value. From the analyses the following four value added...... positions have emerged: 1. Support - FM organizations create benefit to its host organization from economies of scope and scale 2. Enable - FM organizations increase the one-off organizational capacity and capability 3. Ensure - FM organizations contribute the business continuity and reliability 4. Enhance...

  19. Implementation of Economic Value Added and Market Value Added Analysis as Valuation Tools of Invest Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Daengs GS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For the investors, financial statement is a benchmark of investors in assessing the company's performance. In fact, investors are not always receiving the accurate company's financial statements information and its levels of fairness are in doubt. The financial statement analysis with using financial ratios is not enough. The investors may need to use alternatives financial statement analyses techniques that reflect the actual company's performance. Therefore, both of the investors and the prospective can use Economic Value Added (EVA and Market Value Added (MVA analysis. With these technical analyses, the investors may know the company's performance where they are invested or to be used as a place to invest whether it has value added or not. With the results of these analyses, it is the expected for the investors to be more confident in making decision whether to buy, sell or hold the ownership in the company.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED AND MARKET VALUE ADDED ON CORPORATE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslim F.A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the influence of economic value added and market value added on corporate value of manufacturing companies on sector consumer goods industry listed in Indonesia Stock Exchanges of 2011-2014. The sample of this research was 10 manufacturing companies on sector consumer goods industry listed in Indonesia Stock Exchanges. The method used was purposive sampling technique. This research used confirmatory factor analysis to form a combined proxy of corporate value comprised price earning ratio, price to book value and Tobin's Q.

  1. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; Tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23

    Significantly improved returns in their aerosol chemistry data can be achieved via the development of a value-added product (VAP) of deriving OA components, called Organic Aerosol Components (OACOMP). OACOMP is primarily based on multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix. The key outputs of OACOMP are the concentration time series and the mass spectra of OA factors that are associated with distinct sources, formation and evolution processes, and physicochemical properties.

  2. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  3. Economic value added or earnings: What explains market value in Indian firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufazil Altaf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the claim made by Stern Stewart & Company that economic value added is a better metric that traditional earning based measures in explaining market value. For better exposition, a sample of 325 Indian firms has been divided into two parts- 170 firms belonging to Indian manufacturing companies and 155 companies belonging to the Indian service sector. After performing univariate and multivariate regression analyses, the results of the study reveal that the operating income has a strong linkage with market value added in both manufacturing and service sectors. For both the sectors, the economic value added shows weaker but positive relationship with the market value added.

  4. Evaluating Teachers: The Important Role of Value-Added

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven; Loeb, Susanna; Goldhaber, Dan; Staiger, Douglas; Raudenbush, Stephen; Whitehurst, Grover

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of teachers based on the contribution they make to the learning of their students, "value-added", is an increasingly popular but controversial education reform policy. In this report, the authors highlight and try to clarify four areas of confusion about value-added. The first is between value-added information and the…

  5. Value added services to CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakaria, B.K.

    2003-01-01

    if applicable, new entities which will enhance its ability to deliver that value. Secondly, AECL is beginning to look at its customers in a different light. That is, as partners, rather than just clients. The key to success of any partnership is the goal that partners share in working together to add value to each other's business, sharing risks and rewards. This is a departure from AECL's traditional customer/supplier model. Forging partnerships requires establishing long-term relationships and setting long term performance goals. This means adjusting over time AECL's business processes, information technology, quality programs, and staffing resources to meet the changing needs of its clients. In light of this changing environment, AECL recently implemented a new operational structure, effective April 1, 2003. In this restructuring, five business units have been created, each focussing on key business offerings to its client base. The Services Business (SBU) is one of the units and will focus on providing value added services to AECL's partners. This paper will describe key elements of the new SBU and the themes that have influenced the design and organization and also provide an update on AECL's achievements in the Service Area. (author)

  6. The economic impact of reduced value added tax rates for groceries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomíra Martinková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The value added tax represents one of the most important sources of state budget revenues of EU Member States. The basic value added tax rate is in the EU currently between 15% in Luxembourg to 27% applied in Hungary. The revenues from this tax represent an average of 17.5% of all tax revenues of EU countries and create an average GDP of 7.0% (year 2016, EU 28. As revenues from value added tax represent a stable income of state budget, the legislative changes in the system of value added tax, mainly its reductions as well as its imposition on groceries, can significantly influence further macroeconomic development. In the last year, the government of the Slovak Republic implemented changes in universal indirect taxing in such way that in addition to the standard value added tax rate of 20%, the Act No. 268/2015 on Value added tax adopted in 2016 a decreased value added tax rate of 10% on selected groceries, in order to support domestic producers and reduce the tax burden of low-income and middle-income groups. According to the European Commission (2007, the reduced rate of value added tax in selected cases has its justification and importance in the country's economy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic impact of the applied reduced value added tax on food in the Slovak Republic in the context of household expenditures and revenues of the state budget.

  7. Amendments to the Law on Value Added Tax in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeana Beshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the objectives and effects of amendments in the Law on Value Added Tax (VAT as part of the new fiscal package in Kosovo. This paper is based on a quantitative analysis. Some of the methods used in this paperwork are: historical- , descriptive-, and comparative method. It relies on facts and researches conducted by international organizations, based on productive forces and on the development of economic capacities in general, also a comparative overview of the fiscal policies applied in different states. This paper presents also the challenges of Kosovo, towards EU, by harmonizing tax legislation, fiscal policy and combating tax evasion.

  8. Understanding Acceptance of Software Metrics--A Developer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarji, Medha

    2009-01-01

    Software metrics are measures of software products and processes. Metrics are widely used by software organizations to help manage projects, improve product quality and increase efficiency of the software development process. However, metrics programs tend to have a high failure rate in organizations, and developer pushback is one of the sources…

  9. Relational Resources in Value Adding Webs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to ...... the high value of informal cluster structures. The paper develops implications for the cluster firms as well as the cluster management in its role as a broker and a moderator....

  10. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for Value-Added Products (VAPs) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun; (2) progress on existing VAPs; (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved; (4) other work that leads to a VAP; (5) top requested VAPs from the ARM Data Archive; and (6) a summary of VAP and data releases to production and evaluation. New information is highlighted in blue text. New information about processed data by the developer is highlighted in red text. The upcoming milestones and dates are highlighted in green.

  11. Western hardwoods : value-added research and demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. W. Green; W. W. Von Segen; S. A. Willits

    1995-01-01

    Research results from the value-added research and demonstration program for western hardwoods are summarized in this report. The intent of the program was to enhance the economy of the Pacific Northwest by helping local communities and forest industries produce wood products more efficiently. Emphasis was given to value-added products and barriers to increased...

  12. Exogenous Variables and Value-Added Assessments: A Fatal Flaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been rapid growth in value-added assessment of teachers to meet the widely supported policy goal of identifying the most effective and the most ineffective teachers in a school system. The former group is to be rewarded while the latter group is to be helped or fired for their poor performance. But, value-added approaches to…

  13. Value Added Methods: Moving from Univariate to Multivariate Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, David; Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn; Morales, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe five value-added methods (VAM) used in school assessment as the backdrop to their main thesis. Then they review the assumptions underlying measurement and evaluation, the foundation of all assessment systems, including value-added. They discuss the traditional criterion variable used in VAM: a standardized test score. Next,…

  14. Exploring Value-Added Options - Opportunities in Mouldings and Millwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Smith; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    The millwork industry, which includes manufacture of doors, windows, stair parts, blinds, mouldings, picture frame material, and assorted trim, can be a lucrative value-added opportunity for sawmills. Those entering the value-added millwork market often find that it is a great opportunity to generate greater profits from upper grades and utility species, such as yellow...

  15. Metric integration architecture for product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, David B.

    1997-06-01

    Present-day product development endeavors utilize the concurrent engineering philosophy as a logical means for incorporating a variety of viewpoints into the design of products. Since this approach provides no explicit procedural provisions, it is necessary to establish at least a mental coupling with a known design process model. The central feature of all such models is the management and transformation of information. While these models assist in structuring the design process, characterizing the basic flow of operations that are involved, they provide no guidance facilities. The significance of this feature, and the role it plays in the time required to develop products, is increasing in importance due to the inherent process dynamics, system/component complexities, and competitive forces. The methodology presented in this paper involves the use of a hierarchical system structure, discrete event system specification (DEVS), and multidimensional state variable based metrics. This approach is unique in its capability to quantify designer's actions throughout product development, provide recommendations about subsequent activity selection, and coordinate distributed activities of designers and/or design teams across all design stages. Conceptual design tool implementation results are used to demonstrate the utility of this technique in improving the incremental decision making process.

  16. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for value-added chicken product attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-10-01

    A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application:  An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Test marketing for value-added root and tuber based products in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test marketing for value-added root and tuber based products in Ikwuano local government area ... JE Ewuziem, C Aniedu, E Oti, VO Onyenobi ... root and tuber based products, developed at National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike.

  18. School system evaluation by value added analysis under endogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Jorge; San Martín, Ernesto; Van Bellegem, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Value added is a common tool in educational research on effectiveness. It is often modeled as a (prediction of a) random effect in a specific hierarchical linear model. This paper shows that this modeling strategy is not valid when endogeneity is present. Endogeneity stems, for instance, from a correlation between the random effect in the hierarchical model and some of its covariates. This paper shows that this phenomenon is far from exceptional and can even be a generic problem when the covariates contain the prior score attainments, a typical situation in value added modeling. Starting from a general, model-free definition of value added, the paper derives an explicit expression of the value added in an endogeneous hierarchical linear Gaussian model. Inference on value added is proposed using an instrumental variable approach. The impact of endogeneity on the value added and the estimated value added is calculated accurately. This is also illustrated on a large data set of individual scores of about 200,000 students in Chile.

  19. Does Distance to Subsidiaries affect Headquarters Value Added?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    How does distance between MNC headquarters and their subsidiaries affect the value added generated by headquarters? Integrating theories on spatial transaction costs with the headquarter view of the MNC, we link two types of distances, geographic distance and contextual distance, with headquarters...... value added. We test our hypotheses on an original dataset of 124 manufacturing subsidiaries in Europe. We find that the relation between distance and headquarters value added is conditional on the degree of subsidiaries’ external embeddedness. We find no direct effect of distance. The value added...... of headquarters is highest for subsidiaries that are not externally embedded in the host country and that operate at a large distance. It is lowest for locally responsive subsidiaries with high external embeddedness operating at a large distance. We discuss implications for the literature on headquarters-subsidiaries...

  20. Changes of the value added tax in the tax-harmonization process with EC directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Votavová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to bring near the topical process of the assimilation the Czech law of value added tax to the EC-directives. The attention will be paid to the development of the harmonization this law in 1993 – 2003 and I will describe and analyse the choice sections of the value added tax law (with the effective date from 1. 5. 2004. I will explain the changes by tax rates.

  1. Developing a Security Metrics Scorecard for Healthcare Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrefaey, Heba; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In healthcare, information security is a key aspect of protecting a patient's privacy and ensuring systems availability to support patient care. Security managers need to measure the performance of security systems and this can be achieved by using evidence-based metrics. In this paper, we describe the development of an evidence-based security metrics scorecard specific to healthcare organizations. Study participants were asked to comment on the usability and usefulness of a prototype of a security metrics scorecard that was developed based on current research in the area of general security metrics. Study findings revealed that scorecards need to be customized for the healthcare setting in order for the security information to be useful and usable in healthcare organizations. The study findings resulted in the development of a security metrics scorecard that matches the healthcare security experts' information requirements.

  2. A REVIEW OF THE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED LITERATURE AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Sabol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present a cornucopia of approaches and ways of defining, measuring and using the concept of Economic Value Added (EVA. EVA is a financial performance measure that emphasizes the maximization of shareholder value, as opposed to mere maximization of net profit. The authors familiarize the readers with important ideas and research that have contributed to the development of the concept of EVA. The nature of this paper is exclusive to the review of secondary sources, such as theoretical insights as well as the results of numerous empirical research of EVA. Furthermore, the paper will show various adjustments to financial statements before accounting profits can be used to calculate EVA. The results of the aforementioned research will unequivocally present EVA as one of the most widely used and accepted measures of overall firm performance, gaining more popularity when coupled with the notions of strategic (financial management. The paper concludes by determining the role and place of the concept of EVA in the process of value and performance management, as well as strategic management.

  3. Processing biogas planet digestates into value-added products -BIOVIRTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paavola, T.; Rintala, J. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), Email: teija.paavola@mtt.fi; Sahltroem, L.; Maunuksela, L.; Torniainen, M. (Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: leena.sahlstrom@evira.fi; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J. (Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: jukka.rintala@jyu.fi; Vikman, M.; Kapanen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: minna.vikman@vtt.fi

    2010-10-15

    The objective of BIOVIRTA project is to develop technologies and practices with which digestates, originating from anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes and by-products, can be refined to value-added and safe products for various end-uses. It is expected that the operational preconditions for biogas plants will be significantly enhanced when the end-products are proven safe and applicable. Selection of the raw materials for anaerobic codigestion is the main operational strategy that could influence the nutrient content in the digestate. This has been clearly established in the laboratory and full-scale studies with various digestates originating from different raw materials, e.g. rendering and slaughterhouse byproducts. The nutrient content in the digestate also affects the opportunities to produce refined digestate products. In this project, the possibilities for several processing technologies, e.g. mechanical separation and stripping, have been intensively evaluated for the production of different digestate products. Their mass balances have also been estimated. The feasibility for the use of the digestate products has been assessed based on their chemical and hygienic quality and for various end-uses, including as organic fertiliser and/or soil improver in crop production. The preliminary results of these field-experiments showed that the yield of barley fertilised with digestate products was comparable to inorganic fertilisers. (orig.)

  4. Cloud Type Classification (cldtype) Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Donna [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Yan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lim, K-S [Korean Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (South Korea); Riihimaki, Laura [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The Cloud Type (cldtype) value-added product (VAP) provides an automated cloud type classification based on macrophysical quantities derived from vertically pointing lidar and radar. Up to 10 layers of clouds are classified into seven cloud types based on predetermined and site-specific thresholds of cloud top, base and thickness. Examples of thresholds for selected U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites are provided in Tables 1 and 2. Inputs for the cldtype VAP include lidar and radar cloud boundaries obtained from the Active Remotely Sensed Cloud Location (ARSCL) and Surface Meteorological Systems (MET) data. Rain rates from MET are used to determine when radar signal attenuation precludes accurate cloud detection. Temporal resolution and vertical resolution for cldtype are 1 minute and 30 m respectively and match the resolution of ARSCL. The cldtype classification is an initial step for further categorization of clouds. It was developed for use by the Shallow Cumulus VAP to identify potential periods of interest to the LASSO model and is intended to find clouds of interest for a variety of users.

  5. Facilities Management and Value Adding - The LEGO case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The paper outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which is investigated, tested and discussed based...... on a case study of LEGO. Results: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms the relevance of the basic concept and provides an important...... example of how Value Adding Management can be implemented and added value measured. Practical Implications: The concept of Value Adding Management is expected to increase the awareness of the impacts and strategic importance of FM for organisations and can be a practical tool for facilities managers...

  6. Development of quality metrics for ambulatory pediatric cardiology: Infection prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jonathan N; Barrett, Cindy S; Franklin, Wayne H; Graham, Eric M; Halnon, Nancy J; Hattendorf, Brandy A; Krawczeski, Catherine D; McGovern, James J; O'Connor, Matthew J; Schultz, Amy H; Vinocur, Jeffrey M; Chowdhury, Devyani; Anderson, Jeffrey B

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, the American College of Cardiology's (ACC) Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Council established a program to develop quality metrics to guide ambulatory practices for pediatric cardiology. The council chose five areas on which to focus their efforts; chest pain, Kawasaki Disease, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries after arterial switch, and infection prevention. Here, we sought to describe the process, evaluation, and results of the Infection Prevention Committee's metric design process. The infection prevention metrics team consisted of 12 members from 11 institutions in North America. The group agreed to work on specific infection prevention topics including antibiotic prophylaxis for endocarditis, rheumatic fever, and asplenia/hyposplenism; influenza vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis (palivizumab); preoperative methods to reduce intraoperative infections; vaccinations after cardiopulmonary bypass; hand hygiene; and testing to identify splenic function in patients with heterotaxy. An extensive literature review was performed. When available, previously published guidelines were used fully in determining metrics. The committee chose eight metrics to submit to the ACC Quality Metric Expert Panel for review. Ultimately, metrics regarding hand hygiene and influenza vaccination recommendation for patients did not pass the RAND analysis. Both endocarditis prophylaxis metrics and the RSV/palivizumab metric passed the RAND analysis but fell out during the open comment period. Three metrics passed all analyses, including those for antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with heterotaxy/asplenia, for influenza vaccination compliance in healthcare personnel, and for adherence to recommended regimens of secondary prevention of rheumatic fever. The lack of convincing data to guide quality improvement initiatives in pediatric cardiology is widespread, particularly in infection prevention. Despite this, three metrics were

  7. Value added tax-theoretical and practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Božidar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Value added tax has been applied for four decades now and as a novelty it has already worn off both in theory and practice. It has indisputable advantages and relatively minor shortcomings compared to other forms of consumption taxation. Today it is one of the most widely used form of consumption tax in the world, being levied in about 120 countries accounting for around 70 per cent of the world population, including all European countries except Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Federation and the Republic of Srpska. The burden of value added tax is visible at each stage in the production and distribution chain, thus eliminating taxation accumulation and is borne ultimately by the final consumer of final goods and services in the consuming country. The consumption type is a dominant type of value added tax. It ensures that the fixed and current assets purchases are exempt from VAT, and as such, it encourages technological progress and investment. By applying the country of destination principle (VAT is chargeable in the country where the goods or services are consumed - exports are exempt from tax while imports are taxed, value added tax eliminates double taxation and retains tax sovereignty of the importing country. In the last ten years there have been attempts to introduce value added tax in Serbia. The introduction of value added tax is the condition for the accession to the EU and we should expect that the latest attempt to introduce this tax in the Serbia taxation system will be successful. Namely, VAT Act is expected to be passed during 2004 and enforced as of January 1, 2005.

  8. Value-added tax fraud in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronowitz, A.A.; Laagland, D.C.G.; Paulides, G.

    1996-01-01

    Questions addressed in this project included:What are the existing control mechanisms and how do they operate? What public bodies are responsible for the fight against Value Added Tax (VAT) fraud and what are their competencies? What are the possibilities to exchange information between member

  9. Value-Added Tax -- Can Schools Use It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Richard G.

    1973-01-01

    Defines the value-added tax and examines it in light of equity, economic effects, cost of administration, and stability and yield. Compares the tax with the property tax and suggests alternative ways in which States and the Federal Government may participate in the financing of education. (DN)

  10. Creating value added to customers: Marketing and sales role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damnjanović Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the new trends in sales and marketing areas which reshaping markets and changing the way business is done. Marketing and sales management need a well-defined strategy for added value exploration, creation and delivery. The holistic marketing process involves all stakeholders and required them to participate in the value added creation process.

  11. Requirements for Logical Models for Value-Added Tax Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Ken Friis

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are ubiquitous in commercial enterprises of all sizes and invariably need to account for the notion of value-added tax (VAT). The legal and technical difficulties in handling VAT are exacerbated by spanning a broad and chaotic spectrum of intricate country...

  12. Creating value added to customers: Marketing and sales role

    OpenAIRE

    Damnjanović Vesna; Filipović Vinka

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the new trends in sales and marketing areas which reshaping markets and changing the way business is done. Marketing and sales management need a well-defined strategy for added value exploration, creation and delivery. The holistic marketing process involves all stakeholders and required them to participate in the value added creation process.

  13. How to Use Value-Added Measures Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Value-added models are a specific type of "growth model," a diverse group of statistical techniques to isolate a teacher's impact on his or her students' testing progress while controlling for other measurable factors, such as student and school characteristics, that are outside that teacher's control. Opponents, including many teachers, argue…

  14. Cost-savings accruable to removing value added tax from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the important and essential role that medicines play in any society, all medicines, including those identified as essential, are uniformly subjected to 14% value added tax (VAT), regardless of their therapeutic value in the private healthcare sector of South Africa. The aim of this article is to demonstrate ...

  15. New growing media and value added organic waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Rijpsma, E.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Public pressure to use peat alternatives in horticultural rooting media offers room for the re-use of local organic waste materials. The re-use of organic wastes requires value added processing such as composting, co-composting, digestion, fractioning/sieving, pressing, binding, stabilising by

  16. Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, RK; Sivaraman, C; McFarlane, SA

    2012-10-31

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) value-added product (VAP) and the procedures used to derive atmospheric temperature profiles from the raw RL measurements. Sections 2 and 4 describe the input and output variables, respectively. Section 3 discusses the theory behind the measurement and the details of the algorithm, including calibration and overlap correction.

  17. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  18. Sulphur highways : value-added solutions to create sulphur demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, R.

    2010-09-15

    Producers generally view sulphur as a nuisance with essentially no benefit. In Alberta, a greater portion of sulphur production will shift from natural gas to the oilsands producing areas where there is limited infrastructure to move it out. Increased amounts of sour oil and gas production together with greater fuel desulphurization have also led to more sulphur being produced. In order to address the inevitable storage issue, Shell is considering value-added uses for the product, such as sulphur asphalt. The company developed Thiopave, a sulphur-based product for use in asphalt paving mixtures that can improve the mechanical performance of asphalt. The sulphur can be added to the asphalt mix as a solid pellet, which helps reduce the emission of sulphur vapour, odour and eye irritation. Twenty Thiopave projects are planned for the 2010 paving season in 9 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. Sulphur Enhanced Asphalt Modifier (SEAM) was the first generation of Thiopave developed in 2003. SEAM replaces 20 to 25 percent by volume of the bitumen in asphalt mix. The properties allow Thiopave-enhanced roads to perform better than conventional roads in both consistently high temperature regions and climates with wide temperature variations. In 2007, an asphalt mix containing 40 percent by mass of Thiopave was used in a trial in Qatar. The Thiopave asphalt mix was compared with a conventional mix at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 degrees C to determine the stiffness ratio. It was determined that Thiopave mixes containing high-penetration bitumen can be used to build temperature resistant roads that are stiffer in hot summer temperatures while improving the pavement's cold weather cracking performance. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  19. ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED SEBAGAI UKURAN KEBERHASILAN KINERJA MANAJEMEN PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Linawati Utomo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The company's performance is mostly measured by analysis based on the financial ratio for a specific period. This type of measurement is highly dependent upon the accounting methods used in preparing the financial statement. Therefore a company's performance often looks good and improving overtime, but in reality its performance is deteriorating. The unreliable accounting measure needs an improved performance measure that will recognize and encourage management actions and strategies to increase the overall value of the company and ultimately to punish any activity that reduce value. The introduction of Economic Value Added (EVA has been very relevant recently because based on its definition, EVA measures the amount of value added created by specific action or strategy taken in a company. EVA is also used in the process of goal setting, capital budgeting, performance assessment, and most importantly, incentive compensation within a company. Its implication to the overall being of a company is so important these days that it should not be overlooked when companies plan their strategies. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kinerja sebuah perusahaan lebih banyak diukur berdasarkan rasio-rasio keuangan selama satu periode tertentu. Pengukuran berdasarkan rasio keuangan ini sangatlah bergantung pada metode atau perlakuan akuntansi yang digunakan dalam menyusun laporan keuangan perusahaan. Sehingga seringkali kinerja perusahaan terlihat baik dan meningkat, yang mana sebenarnya kinerja tidak mengalami peningkatan dan bahkan menurun. Diperlukannya suatu alat ukur kinerja yang menunjukkan prestasi manajemen sebenarnya dengan tujuan untuk mendorong aktivitas atau strategi yang menambah nilai ekonomis (value added activities dan menghapuskan aktivitas yang merusak nilai (non-value added activities. Economic Value Added (EVA sangat relevan dalam hal ini karena EVA dapat mengukur kinerja (prestasi manajemen berdasarkan besar kecilnya nilai tambah yang diciptakan

  20. Management of Tax Payments Under the Definitive Value Added Tax Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurušs Māris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a large value added tax fraud in the European Union. The current value added tax system is universal as tax is applied to all parties involved in the chain transactions, thus creating a risk of tax losses if one of the parties involved in the chain transaction does not pay tax in good faith. There is the action plan to introduce the definitive value added tax to prevent tax fraud in intra-community transactions. However, in order to ensure normal value added tax administration in all member states, a number of measures are needed to be done. It is necessary to develop a mutual settlement mechanism in cases of intra-community transactions. The aim of this research is to develop a possible solution for the management of tax payments under the definitive value added tax regime. The results of the research show that to manage tax payments, several payment management systems can be used. However, as a solution, a special clearing system could be introduced. Quantitative research methods such as statistical methods were used in order to analyze the situation of tax fraud in EU and its main causes, as well as mathematical modeling methods to analyze the definitive VAT system and to calculate the balance between countries in an example for clearing mechanism.

  1. Perceptions Towards Non-Value-Adding Activities During The Construction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Haryati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-value-adding activities are pure waste during the construction process. However, most of the construction practitioner does not realise that most of the activities performed during the construction process add no value to their project. A total of 375 numbers of questionnaires distributed to the Developer, Jabatan Kerja Raya, Consultants and Contractors. The study found that awareness by construction participants in Malaysia to take actions against non-value-adding activities during the construction process is relatively low. Through analysed by using the Pareto Chart, it has been found that defects and waiting time are two categories of non-value-adding activities that need to be prioritised by the industry. It is also found that non-value-adding activities most frequently occurred during structural and architectural work. This paper also reviewed on the causes of non-value-adding activities and discussed its effect towards time, cost, quality and productivity of the construction project. This paper is also important to give clearness and broader understandings on this form of waste other than material waste.

  2. Value management program: performance, quantification, and presentation of imaging value-added actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Samir

    2015-03-01

    Health care is in a state of transition, shifting from volume-based success to value-based success. Hospital executives and referring physicians often do not understand the total value a radiology group provides. A template for easy, cost-effective implementation in clinical practice for most radiology groups to demonstrate the value they provide to their clients (patients, physicians, health care executives) has not been well described. A value management program was developed to document all of the value-added activities performed by on-site radiologists, quantify them in terms of time spent on each activity (investment), and present the benefits to internal and external stakeholders (outcomes). The radiology value-added matrix is the platform from which value-added activities are categorized and synthesized into a template for defining investments and outcomes. The value management program was first implemented systemwide in 2013. Across all serviced locations, 9,931.75 hours were invested. An annual executive summary report template demonstrating outcomes is given to clients. The mean and median individual value-added hours per radiologist were 134.52 and 113.33, respectively. If this program were extrapolated to the entire field of radiology, approximately 30,000 radiologists, this would have resulted in 10,641,161 uncompensated value-added hours documented in 2013, with an estimated economic value of $2.21 billion. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Value added planning: yes, in my backyard! : understanding value added planning in the city of Amersfoort, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diemont, E.; Cilliers, J.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2011-01-01

    Amersfoort local municipality would like to renew the quality of the green spaces within the urban areas, to enhance the value of these spaces and to determine the economic value of green spaces. The concept of Value Added Planning was introduced to address these objectives. The value of green is

  4. Value-added Chemicals from Biomass by Heterogeneous Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil

    feedstock, having retained one C-C bond originating from the biomass precursor, the aspects of utilising heterogeneous catalysis for its conversion to value added chemicals is investigated. Through a simple analysis of known, but not industrialised catalytic routes, the direct conversion of ethanol....... The results of the thesis, taking one example of biomass conversion, show that the utilisation of biomass in the production of chemicals by heterogeneous catalysis is promising from a technical point of view. But risks of market price excursions dominated by fossil based chemicals further set a criterion...... been implemented. The subject on chemical production has received less attention. This thesis describes and evaluates the quest for an alternative conversion route, based on a biomass feedstock and employing a heterogeneous catalyst capable of converting the feedstock, to a value-added chemical...

  5. MODELS OF APPLICATION ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED IN AUTOMOTIVE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva MALICHOVA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises are currently trying to bring new technologies into production and use new procedures and recommendations in various management activities. However, they should not forget to change their approach to the evaluation of the results achieved and focus on the use of modern methods of performance evaluation and prove to apply them in their enterprises. The aim of this paper is to point out several variants of the calculation of Economic value added (EVA indicator, define the possibilities to apply EVA methods to the conditions of enterprises in the Slovak Republic and the need to adjust data providing financial statements and data for current accounts. Application of economic value added should be able to contribute to changes in the views of the owners and managers of enterprises in the Slovak republic for use not only as financial indicators.

  6. Practical aspects of value added tax in the agricultural enterprises in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax policy represents one of the EU integration policies. The aim of the tax policy is to remove the national differences in taxation systems by withdrawing the obstacles to the competition and free movement of goods, services, people and capital on the internal market. Tax harmonization has the greatest development in the area of value added taxation, but differences still can be found. Those differences influence not only the farming business. The paper is aimed on five EU member states – Czech Republic, Poland, Rumania, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Based on the EU regulations in the area of value added tax and the practical experience during its application, it is possible to identify the critical areas and to contribute to its correction and to provide the value added tax neutrality and efficiency on the EU territory.

  7. DESIRABLE ATTRIBUTES FOR VALUE ADDED MEAT PRODUCTS SURVEY 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Jean D.; Senauer, Benjamin; Jonk, Yvonne

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this consumer survey was to learn more about consumer preferences for meat characteristics. Value added meat processors faced with the problem of trying to identify market niches wanted to know what types of consumers had similar preferences and what their specific preferences and concerns are. In addition, we wanted to learn more about attitudes that are believed to be changing due to new information about the relationship between diet and long term health, lifestyles that dem...

  8. KINERJA KEUANGAN KONVENSIONAL, ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED, DAN RETURN SAHAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sudiyatno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh kinerja keuangan konvensional; Return on Asset (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, Residual Income (RI, dan kinerja keuangan yang lebih modern; Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap return saham pada perusahaan-perusahaan dalam industry makanan dan minuman yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode sensus, karena semua perusahaan dalam industry makanan dan minuman digunakan sebagai sampel. Namun dalam proses samplingnya mengunakan metode purposive sampling, yaitu menggunakan sampel dengan criteria-kriteria tertentu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Return on Asset (ROA dan Residual Income (RI berpengaruh positif dan secara statistik signifikan terhadap return saham pada level signifikansi 1%. Sedangkan Return on Equity (ROE berpengaruh negative dan secara statistik signifikan terhadap return saham pada level signifikansi 10%, dan Economic Value Added (ERA berpengaruh positif tetapi tidak signifikan terhadap return saham.This study aims to test the effect of conventional financial performance i.e. Return on Asset (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, Residual Income (RI, and the more modern financial performance which is Economic Value Added (EVA toward stock returns on companies in the food and beverage industry listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Sampling technique in this study uses the census method, all companies in the food and beverage industry are used as a sample. The process of sampling using purposive sampling method. The result shows that Return On Asset (ROA and Residual Income (RI are positive and statistic significant impact on the stock returns at significance level 1%. While the Return on Equity (ROE is negative and statistic significant impact on the stock returns at significance level 10%, Economic Value Added (EVA is positive and statistic not significant impact on the stock returns.

  9. Value-Added Taxes, Chain Effects, and Informality

    OpenAIRE

    Áureo de Paula; Jose A. Scheinkman

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates determinants of informal economic activity. We present an equilibrium model of informality and test its implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. A novel theoretical contribution in this model is the role of value added taxes in transmitting informality. It predicts that the informality of a firm is correlated to the informality of f...

  10. Determinants of value added tax revenue in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    WAWIRE, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Past studies that have been undertaken on the responsiveness of Value Added Tax revenues to changes in GDP in Kenya have found a positive relationship. However, the studies omit key determinants of tax revenues, such as the nature of the tax system, institutional, demographic and structural features of the economy. Due to this omission, the estimated income elasticities are unreliable for planning purposes, a situation that might be responsible for the recurring budget deficits. The...

  11. Value Added Services and Adoption of Mobile Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augsburg, Christel; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of Value Added Services (VAS) in consumers’ adoption of mobile payments. VAS are supplementary digital services offered in connection with mobile payments; in this study exemplified by receipts, loyalty cards, and coupons. A research model is derived from...... that intention to adopt mobile payments increases as VAS are introduced and that this increase comes from a positive change in Perceived Usefulness, compatibility, and Convenience....

  12. Value-added beef products (Productos Carnicos con Valor Agregado)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donaldson; Will Holder; Jan Holder

    2006-01-01

    I'm speaking for Will and Jan Holder, who couldn't be here. I happen to be familiar with Will and Jan's company, Ervin's Natural Beef, and its program because I've sold them cattle. Will and Jan's value-added beef program is based on their family ranch in the area known as The Blue, in the mountains of eastern Arizona.

  13. Value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Paknezhad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that conventional accounting does not provide actual value of a firm since they only take into account the tangible assets. Intellectual capital provides a new concept for considering actual value of the assets, which helps calculate intangible values of the firm. In this paper, we use value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC to measure the performance of a firm. The study investigates the relationship between intellectual capital and return on assets and value added for three consecutive years between 2008 and 2010. The results indicate that there is no meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and return on assets for fiscal years of 2008 and 2009 but there is a meaningful relationship between these two items for the fiscal year of 2010 when . Our findings also indicate that there is no meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and value added for the years of 2008 and 2010 but there is a meaningful relationship between the items for the fiscal year of 2009. The results somewhat confirm the recently published results in the literature, which argues the use of VAIC for assessing the direct impact of IC on other financial factors.

  14. Tax expenditures and the efficiency of Croatian value added tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Sopek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of value added taxation in Croatia along with main changes in relevant legislation and to estimate total amount of tax expenditures. Results show that the proportion of tax expenditures in GDP in Croatia in 2010 amounted to less than 4%, a proportion lower than in any of the EU new member states, as well as almost twice as low as the EU-27 average. It can be concluded that the Croatian value added taxation system is efficient in this way, as was additionally shown by an analysis according to which Croatia in 2010 had better efficiency indicators than all the observed EU member states. The Croatian VAT system is mainly harmonized with EU directives, but abolition of the zero rate is still expected; this will increase government revenue by approximately 0.4-0.8% of GDP, depending on a chosen scenario. It has been suggested that a detailed analysis of the overall value added taxation system should be initiated, with the aim of optimizing cost-benefits. The main focus should be placed on the determination of the optimal VAT registration threshold, the costs and benefits of the introduced reliefs and exemptions in the tax system and the potential effects of the repeal of the zero rate.

  15. Impact of value-adding services on quality, loyalty and brand equity in the brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Juga, J. (Jari); Juntunen, J. (Jouni); Paananen, M. (Mikko)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of logistics value-adding services and perceived service quality on brand equity among B2B customers of a brewery company. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model is developed and tested using survey data from 173 hotel, restaurant and catering (HoReCa) industry customers of a brewery company in Finland. Findings: Value-adding services play an important role in building the brewery company’s brand eq...

  16. Ιnvestment in green economy as a potential source of value added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Klasinc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The hypothesis of the paper is that domestic value added created by exports in Croatia could be increased by investments in green economy. Methodology - In the developed economies only specific products, processes and functions that outperform emerging economies in Global Value Chains are able to profit from the larger share of value added. Large portion of "green economy" is knowledge intensive, and if knowledge based economy (KBC plays a significant role in determining the domestic value added created by exports, economies with a larger stock of KBC should have a larger difference in VAX between knowledge-intensive industries and less knowledge-intensive industries. Domestic value added embodied in exports can be proxied by attracted FDI. Findings - The results seem to show some support to the hypothesis. In Croatia it has already been shown that sectors of economy with larger stock of intellectual capital measured by Intellectual Capital Efficiency (ICE index attracted more FDI, which can also serve as a predictor for larger value added in exports due to higher productivity. Knowledge intensity of 18 industries in the US as the benchmark economy shows that "Electrical and optical equipment" has above average knowledge intensity of 0,53, and it can be matched with "green economy" in Croatian industries that attracted more FDI and have higher levels of KBC. Research limitations and implications - Although this study is limited just to KBC, as an extension, the potential role of financial development could be included. Also, the length of time series for VAX measured by OECD does not allow for more thorough analysis. Originality/value – Although not conclusive, this paper is an important first step giving direction to subsequent studies of effects of KBC on value added.

  17. Production facility site selection factors for Texas value-added wood producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd H. Michael; Joanna Teitel; James E. Granskog

    1998-01-01

    Value-added wood products manufacturers serve an important role in the economies of many U.S. regions and are therefore sought after by entities such as economic development agencies. The reasons why certain locations for a prospective prodution facility would be more attractive to secondary wood industry producers are not clearly understood. Therefore, this research...

  18. The Role of Value Added Tax on Economic Growth of Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The achievement of economic growth is crucial for countries sustainable development. Recently, Value Added Tax (VAT) becomes a major worldwide tax instrument which enhances economic growth. Being a tax levied on the final consumption of goods and services, VAT is collected at each stage of production and ...

  19. Using a Value-Added Approach to Assess the Sociology Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Daphne E.; White, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Universities across the nation have been called upon to provide evidence of student learning through direct means of assessment. Value-added assessment, which aims to document the development of student learning from the beginning of the university experience to the end, has been called "accountability's new frontier" by the American…

  20. Identifying hubs and spokes in global supply chains using redirected trade in value added

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejour, Arjan; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo; Veenendaal, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The increasing importance of global supply chains has prompted the use of analytical tools based on trade in value added - instead of traditional measures in gross value. We use this analytical framework to develop indicators that identify production hubs and supply spokes in global supply chains.

  1. Development of Quality Metrics in Ambulatory Pediatric Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Devyani; Gurvitz, Michelle; Marelli, Ariane; Anderson, Jeffrey; Baker-Smith, Carissa; Diab, Karim A; Edwards, Thomas C; Hougen, Tom; Jedeikin, Roy; Johnson, Jonathan N; Karpawich, Peter; Lai, Wyman; Lu, Jimmy C; Mitchell, Stephanie; Newburger, Jane W; Penny, Daniel J; Portman, Michael A; Satou, Gary; Teitel, David; Villafane, Juan; Williams, Roberta; Jenkins, Kathy

    2017-02-07

    The American College of Cardiology Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology (ACPC) Section had attempted to create quality metrics (QM) for ambulatory pediatric practice, but limited evidence made the process difficult. The ACPC sought to develop QMs for ambulatory pediatric cardiology practice. Five areas of interest were identified, and QMs were developed in a 2-step review process. In the first step, an expert panel, using the modified RAND-UCLA methodology, rated each QM for feasibility and validity. The second step sought input from ACPC Section members; final approval was by a vote of the ACPC Council. Work groups proposed a total of 44 QMs. Thirty-one metrics passed the RAND process and, after the open comment period, the ACPC council approved 18 metrics. The project resulted in successful development of QMs in ambulatory pediatric cardiology for a range of ambulatory domains. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Setting Foundations for Developing Disaster Response Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Mahshid; Bell, Sue Anne; Puppala, Neha; Awad, Osama; Moore, Melinda

    2017-08-01

    There are few reported efforts to define universal disaster response performance measures. Careful examination of responses to past disasters can inform the development of such measures. As a first step toward this goal, we conducted a literature review to identify key factors in responses to 3 recent events with significant loss of human life and economic impact: the 2003 Bam, Iran, earthquake; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami; and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Using the PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) database, we identified 710 articles and retained 124 after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seventy-two articles pertained to the Haiti earthquake, 38 to the Indian Ocean tsunami, and 14 to the Bam earthquake. On the basis of this review, we developed an organizational framework for disaster response performance measurement with 5 key disaster response categories: (1) personnel, (2) supplies and equipment, (3) transportation, (4) timeliness and efficiency, and (5) interagency cooperation. Under each of these, and again informed by the literature, we identified subcategories and specific items that could be developed into standardized performance measures. The validity and comprehensiveness of these measures can be tested by applying them to other recent and future disaster responses, after which standardized performance measures can be developed through a consensus process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:505-509).

  3. VALUE ADDED TAX IN THE ECONOMIC CRISIS CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to present the major aspects concerning the value added tax in the context of economic crisis in European Union countries and Romania. The paper realizes an analysis of the impact of economic crises on VAT in the European space underlining the current situation when the revenues from VAT represent a valuable source of financing the public expenditures. In Romania the economic crises has led to increasing o f VAT rate from 19% to 24%. This measure is an important fiscal measure for the state budget and this study tries to reflect the impact of this VAT rate increase on the public revenues and consumption.

  4. Comparative economic value added on Southeast Asian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintang Dewanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the bank's performance comparison across countries in some ASEAN members which are listed in the stock exchange, as well as to analyse the influence of Economic Value Added (EVA and some financial ratios on the company stock return. Analysis suggests some results. In Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, the movement of EVA follows the movement of Gross Domestic Product (GDP. This study also finds that Earning per Share (EPS, only in Singapore, and Return on Equity (ROE and Return on Assets (ROA, only in the Philippines, have an influence on stock return. Only in the Philippines where EVA together with ROA has an effect on stock return.

  5. Economic value added model upon conditions of banking company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of this article is the application of the economic value added model (EVA upon the conditions of a banking company. Due to the character of banking business, which is in a different structure of financial sheet, it is not possible to use the standard model EVA for this banking company. The base of this article is the outlined of basic principles of the EVA mode in a non-banking company. Basic specified banking activity dissimilarities are analysed and a directed methodology adjustment of a model such as this, so that it is possible to use it for a banking company.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF VALUE ADDED TEA BAGS AND CAPSULES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    supported the use of artemisia annua tea and capsules for the treatment of malaria ... There is also the need for further studies to determine the active ... night sleep, cleared nasal and head stuffiness', and felt relieved from malaria .... antioxidants and their potential synergism with artemisinin against malaria and cancer.

  7. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added taxes too. In this paper, we are trying to analyze the development of e-commerce in the world and e-taxation regulations and problems in the European Union (EU and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. The EU and OECD countries are making regulations in this issue. The last regulation is Base Erosion and Profit Shifting 15 point action plan in 2014. Taxation of the digital economy is the first action plan. In addition this, some regulations about taxation of digital economy are being done in Turkey in the case of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting action plan.

  8. The specifics of applying value added tax for local authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Grásgruber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available If local authorities units carry out an economic activity, are considered to be taxable under Act No. 235/2004 Coll., On Value Added Tax as amended. Adjustment of VAT in all countries of the European Union is based on Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 on the common system of value added tax as amended. The application of this directive is binding for all EU member states and national treatment of VAT may diverge from the Directive only in cases where the Directive permits. Decisions of the European Court of Justice are of considerable importance during the interpretation of the Czech VAT Act.For the municipalities and regions article defines the activities that are considered to be an economic activity and activities that are deemed to exercise of public administration and are not therefore subject to VAT. Further the paper defines the concept of turnover of local authorities. At paper there are evaluating the impact of the application of VAT on municipalities and regions in the provision of the individual fulfillment. Great attention must municipalities and region devote to the problem of correct application of claim to tax deduction if they carry out the exercise of public administration, taxable activities and fulfillments exempt from VAT.

  9. Development of soil quality metrics using mycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baar, J.

    2010-07-01

    Based on the Treaty on Biological Diversity of Rio de Janeiro in 1992 for maintaining and increasing biodiversity, several countries have started programmes monitoring soil quality and the above- and below ground biodiversity. Within the European Union, policy makers are working on legislation for soil protection and management. Therefore, indicators are needed to monitor the status of the soils and these indicators reflecting the soil quality, can be integrated in working standards or soil quality metrics. Soil micro-organisms, particularly arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), are indicative of soil changes. These soil fungi live in symbiosis with the great majority of plants and are sensitive to changes in the physico-chemical conditions of the soil. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AMF are reliable and sensitive indicators for disturbances in the soils and can be used for the development of soil quality metrics. Also, it was studied whether soil quality metrics based on AMF meet requirements to applicability by users and policy makers. Ecological criterions were set for the development of soil quality metrics for different soils. Multiple root samples containing AMF from various locations in The Netherlands were analyzed. The results of the analyses were related to the defined criterions. This resulted in two soil quality metrics, one for sandy soils and a second one for clay soils, with six different categories ranging from very bad to very good. These soil quality metrics meet the majority of requirements for applicability and are potentially useful for the development of legislations for the protection of soil quality. (Author) 23 refs.

  10. Productivity and value added distribution in family-owned businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Gallizo Larraz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identify similarities and/or differences in the distribution of Value Added characterizing family businesses as opposed to non-family held firms, and analyse productivity by linking the distribution of the wealth generated by the company to a variety of related agents or stakeholders (employees, providers of loan capital, and shareholders. Design/methodology: A data series consisting of VA distribution in a sample of 8,609 Spanish companies, of which 5,109 are family firms and another 3,500 companies which are not, for the period comprising 2008 to 2013 was employed for this study. The data from the financial statements pertaining to these companies was taken from the SABI system (a privately-funded database analysing the financials of Spanish and Portuguese firms, operated by INFORMA, SA, selecting only those companies that employ standardized financial reporting practices. Findings and results: The work shows the existence of significant differences between family and non-family businesses in the distribution of value added among the different stakeholders. Given that, although both types of company spend most of the value added to remunerate staff, the family company spends a higher proportion thereof on self-financing as compared to non-family businesses, which spend a higher percentage on the remuneration of firm ownership. On the other hand, the lower labour productivity of family businesses is apparent, a result that can be explained both by the lower staff monetary remuneration, as well as the use of production technologies that are also less capital-intensive. Limitations: The study included only medium and large companies. These are companies that report financial statements offering more disaggregated data (through use of the standard forms. This owes to the legal requirement of these companies to file a cash flow statement, a necessary source for deriving information on dividends paid by the company. Added value: This is

  11. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, R. K. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Shippert, T. R. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Accurate height-resolved measurements of higher-order statistical moments of vertical velocity fluctuations are crucial for improved understanding of turbulent mixing and diffusion, convective initiation, and cloud life cycles. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. These instruments provide measurements of clear-air vertical velocity profiles in the lower troposphere with a nominal temporal resolution of 1 sec and height resolution of 30 m. The purpose of the Doppler lidar vertical velocity statistics (DLWSTATS) value-added product (VAP) is to produce height- and time-resolved estimates of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis from these raw measurements. The VAP also produces estimates of cloud properties, including cloud-base height (CBH), cloud frequency, cloud-base vertical velocity, and cloud-base updraft fraction.

  12. An overview of the implementation of Economic Value Added (EVA™)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    will benefit from using EVA™ in conjunction with other metrics. Management needs ... 1Management, investors and other stakeholders need to be aware of a company's performance to .... This means that profit should account for the cost of capital when ... These adjustments are made to derive managerial information closer.

  13. Towards an Integrated Value Adding Management Model for FM and CREM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose : To present an integrated process model of adding value by Facilities Management (FM) and Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) that is a generalisation of existing conceptual frameworks and aims to be a basis for management of added value in practice. Background : The growing research...... frameworks are too complex and lack of common terminology and clear operationalisations of intervention-impact relationships. Approach (Theory/Methodology) :A generalised Value Adding Management process model is developed based on a common cause-effect model identified in existing conceptual frameworks...... aims at supporting the practical management and measurement of added value. A typology with six types of FM/CREM interventions is developed from earlier research. The concept of Value Adding Management is investigated and the 12 most important added value parameters are identified. Research limitations...

  14. Value Added Tax Gap in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stavjaňová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an estimation of tax evasion of value added tax in the Czech Republic during 2006–2012. For the estimation I have used the concept of tax gap which is based on a comparison of the theoretical tax liability in the economy with the actual tax receipts. According to my results the VAT gap in the Czech Republic gradually increased during the observed period and it is more than CZK 100 billion in the last three years. The most significant growth of VAT gap occurred between the years 2007 and 2008 and between 2011 and 2012 when the reduced VAT rate was increased by 4 percentage points. The second part of the paper focuses on impact of my estimates on tax policy of the Czech Republic. I discuss two different possibilities how the additional revenue gained from VAT gap reduction could be used – either to decrease the government deficit and therefore to meet the Maastricht criteria or to decrease tax burden on labour which influences particularly low income workers.

  15. Value added medicines: what value repurposed medicines might bring to society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives : Despite the wide interest surrounding drug repurposing, no common terminology has been yet agreed for these products and their full potential value is not always recognised and rewarded, creating a disincentive for further development. The objectives of the present study were to assess from a wide perspective which value drug repurposing might bring to society, but also to identify key obstacles for adoption of these medicines and to discuss policy recommendations. Methods : A preliminary comprehensive search was conducted to assess how the concept of drug repurposing was described in the literature. Following completion of the literature review, a primary research was conducted to get perspective of various stakeholders across EU member states on drug repurposing ( healthcare professionals, regulatory authorities and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) bodies/payers, patients, and representatives of the pharmaceutical industry developing medicines in this field). Ad hoc literature review was performed to illustrate, when appropriate, statements of the various stakeholders. Results : Various nomenclatures have been used to describe the concept of drug repurposing in the literature, with more or less broad definitions either based on outcomes, processes, or being a mix of both. In this context, Medicines for Europe (http://www.medicinesforeurope.com/value-added-medicines/) established one single terminology for these medicines, known as value added medicines, defined as 'medicines based on known molecules that address healthcare needs and deliver relevant improvements for patients, healthcare professionals and/or payers'. Stakeholder interviews highlighted three main potential benefits for value added medicines: (1) to address a number of medicine-related healthcare inefficiencies related to irrational use of medicines, non-availability of appropriate treatment options, shortage of mature products, geographical inequity in medicine access

  16. Economic Value Added as a Dependence on the Corporate- and Market-life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Zdeněk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic value added (EVA is an indicator which is widely used as the main tool for financial analysis. There are two methods of calculating it. The original method which was made by Stern & Stewart is defined as the net operating profit after taxes minus the cost of capital. The second method which was developed and used by the “Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade” indicates that, the economic value added is the difference between return on equity and the alternate cost of equity that is composed of separate risk rewards, and this “spread” is consequently multiplied by the equity. Economic value added depends on many factors. Whereas some of them are controllable by the company, others are not. This article is focused on the relationship between economic value added and the corporate- vs. market life cycle. This is because, there is an assumption that conditions for developing EVA changes depending on the actual phase of corporate- and market life cycle. In this research, the model by Reiners (2004 is used to identify the phases of corporate- and market life cycle and the method provided by the “Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade” is used to calculate EVA. However, there is a consideration of the relativity of EVA in the form of “spread” because of the intercompany comparison. The study found that, the highest spread is achieved by companies that are in the phase of expansion and phase of market expansion. On the contrary, companies in the phase of declension during market declension achieved the lowest and negative spread.

  17. Implementation of whole slide imaging in surgical pathology: A value added approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Isaacs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI makes it possible to capture images of an entire histological slide. WSI has established roles in surgical pathology, including support of off-site frozen section interpretation, primary diagnosis, educational activities, and laboratory quality assurance (QA activities. Analyses of the cost of WSI have traditionally been based solely on direct costs and diagnostic accuracy; however, these types of analyses largely ignore workflow and cost issues that arise as a result of redundancy, the need for additional staffing, and customized software development when WSI is integrated into routine diagnostic surgical pathology. The pre-scan, scan, and post-scan costs; quality control and QA costs; and IT process costs can be significant, and consequently, pathology groups can find it difficult to perform a realistic cost-benefit analysis of adding WSI to their practice. Materials and Methods: In this paper, we report a "value added" approach developed to guide our decisions regarding integration of WSI into surgical pathology practice. The approach focuses on specific operational measures (cost, time, and enhanced patient care and practice settings (clinical, education, and research to identify routine activities in which the addition of WSI can provide improvements. Results: When applied to our academic pathology group practice, the value added approach resulted in expanded and improved operations, as demonstrated by outcome based measures. Conclusion: A value added can be used to perform a realistic cost-benefit analysis of integrating WSI into routine surgical pathology practice.

  18. Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkurko, Konstantin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Garrett, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gaustad, K [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) addresses a need for high-resolution multi-angle imaging of hydrometeors in freefall with simultaneous measurement of fallspeed. As illustrated in Figure 1, the MASC consists of three cameras, separated by 36°, each pointing at an identical focal point approximately 10 cm away. Located immediately above each camera, a light aims directly at the center of depth of field for its corresponding camera. The focal point at which the cameras are aimed lies within a ring through which hydrometeors fall. The ring houses a system of near-infrared emitter-detector pairs, arranged in two arrays separated vertically by 32 mm. When hydrometeors pass through the lower array, they simultaneously trigger all cameras and lights. Fallspeed is calculated from the time it takes to traverse the distance between the upper and lower triggering arrays. The trigger electronics filter out ambient light fluctuations associated with varying sunlight and shadows. The microprocessor onboard the MASC controls the camera system and communicates with the personal computer (PC). The image data is sent via FireWire 800 line, and fallspeed (and camera control) is sent via a Universal Serial Bus (USB) line that relies on RS232-over-USB serial conversion. See Table 1 for specific details on the MASC located at the Oliktok Point Mobile Facility on the North Slope of Alaska. The value-added product (VAP) detailed in this documentation analyzes the raw data (Section 2.0) using Python: images rely on OpenCV image processing library and derived aggregated statistics rely on some clever averaging. See Sections 4.1 and 4.2 for more details on what variables are computed.

  19. Ten years of medical education registrars: Value added?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Victoria; Davin, Lorna

    2018-05-22

    There is a paucity of any long-term follow up of trainees' career pathways or organisational outcomes from medical education registrar posts in emergency medicine training. We report on the experience of a selected group of medical education trainees during and subsequent to their post and reflect on the value added to emergency medical education at three institutions. We conducted an online survey study, examining quantitative outcomes and qualitative reflections, of emergency physicians who had previously undertaken a medical education registrar post. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise responses to Likert items. The authors independently analysed and interpreted the reflective responses to identify key themes and sub-themes. Nineteen of 21 surveys were completed. Most respondents were in formal educational roles, in addition to clinical practice. The thematic analysis revealed that the medical education registrar experience, and the subsequent contribution of these trainees to medical education, is significantly shaped by external factors. These include the extent of faculty support, and the value placed on medical education by hospitals/departments/leaders. Acquisition of knowledge and skills in medical education was only part of a broader developmental journey and transitioning of identity for the trainees. Our findings suggest that medical education trainees in emergency medicine progress to educational roles, and most respondents attribute their career progression to the medical education training experience. We recommend that medical education registrar programmes need to be valued within the clinical service, supported by faculty and a 'community of practice', to support trainees' transition to clinician educator leadership roles. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. Análise Financeira pelo Método: Economic Value Added - EVA e Market Value Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenir Menegat

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo se propõe se propõe a apresentar a ferramenta de análise denominada Economic Value Added - EVA, fazer um breve relato de seu surgimento, evolução e evidenciar através de exemplos didáticos o porque de seu sucesso como instrumento de análise empresarial, tornando-se para algumas empresas uma filosofia de gestão norteadora das decisões. Toda sua base teórica está embasada no valor econômico agregado ou adicionado para o acionista, deixando de lado a idéia de gestão com base apenas no resultado, mas no resultado com valor agregado para aquele que investiu seu capital na empresa e dela espera o retorno capaz de suprir sua expectativa que o motivou a empregar seu dinheiro na empresa e não em outra opção do mercado.

  1. How Can Value-Added Measures Be Used for Teacher Improvement? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The question for this brief is whether education leaders can use value-added measures as tools for improving schooling and, if so, how to do this. Districts, states, and schools can, at least in theory, generate gains in educational outcomes for students using value-added measures in three ways: creating information on effective programs, making…

  2. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER; Adnan GERÇEK

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added tax...

  3. Pengukuran Kinerja Perusahaan Melalui Economic Value Added (Eva) Dan (Mva) Market Value

    OpenAIRE

    Andhaniwati, Erry

    2011-01-01

    Performance corporating to constitute one of prescriptive factor gets on descent of stock price because firm performance constitute to refuse fathom for investor deeping to determine stock bid price. Economic Value Added, and Market Value Added are umpteen corporate performance grader that can be utilized by investor in assesses how well firm performance. Therefore to the effect this research is subject to be analyse influence among Economic Value Added , and Market Value Added to stock pr...

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7006 - Value added tax exclusion (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Value added tax exclusion... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7006 Value added tax exclusion (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(f), use the following clause: Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997...

  5. Pragmatic quality metrics for evolutionary software development models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Walker

    1990-01-01

    Due to the large number of product, project, and people parameters which impact large custom software development efforts, measurement of software product quality is a complex undertaking. Furthermore, the absolute perspective from which quality is measured (customer satisfaction) is intangible. While we probably can't say what the absolute quality of a software product is, we can determine the relative quality, the adequacy of this quality with respect to pragmatic considerations, and identify good and bad trends during development. While no two software engineers will ever agree on an optimum definition of software quality, they will agree that the most important perspective of software quality is its ease of change. We can call this flexibility, adaptability, or some other vague term, but the critical characteristic of software is that it is soft. The easier the product is to modify, the easier it is to achieve any other software quality perspective. This paper presents objective quality metrics derived from consistent lifecycle perspectives of rework which, when used in concert with an evolutionary development approach, can provide useful insight to produce better quality per unit cost/schedule or to achieve adequate quality more efficiently. The usefulness of these metrics is evaluated by applying them to a large, real world, Ada project.

  6. Prototypic Development and Evaluation of a Medium Format Metric Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, H.; Rofallski, R.; Luhmann, T.; Rosenbauer, R.; Ochsner, D.; Rieke-Zapp, D.

    2018-05-01

    Engineering applications require high-precision 3D measurement techniques for object sizes that vary between small volumes (2-3 m in each direction) and large volumes (around 20 x 20 x 1-10 m). The requested precision in object space (1σ RMS) is defined to be within 0.1-0.2 mm for large volumes and less than 0.01 mm for small volumes. In particular, focussing large volume applications the availability of a metric camera would have different advantages for several reasons: 1) high-quality optical components and stabilisations allow for a stable interior geometry of the camera itself, 2) a stable geometry leads to a stable interior orientation that enables for an a priori camera calibration, 3) a higher resulting precision can be expected. With this article the development and accuracy evaluation of a new metric camera, the ALPA 12 FPS add|metric will be presented. Its general accuracy potential is tested against calibrated lengths in a small volume test environment based on the German Guideline VDI/VDE 2634.1 (2002). Maximum length measurement errors of less than 0.025 mm are achieved with different scenarios having been tested. The accuracy potential for large volumes is estimated within a feasibility study on the application of photogrammetric measurements for the deformation estimation on a large wooden shipwreck in the German Maritime Museum. An accuracy of 0.2 mm-0.4 mm is reached for a length of 28 m (given by a distance from a lasertracker network measurement). All analyses have proven high stabilities of the interior orientation of the camera and indicate the applicability for a priori camera calibration for subsequent 3D measurements.

  7. PROTOTYPIC DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A MEDIUM FORMAT METRIC CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hastedt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Engineering applications require high-precision 3D measurement techniques for object sizes that vary between small volumes (2–3 m in each direction and large volumes (around 20 x 20 x 1–10 m. The requested precision in object space (1σ RMS is defined to be within 0.1–0.2 mm for large volumes and less than 0.01 mm for small volumes. In particular, focussing large volume applications the availability of a metric camera would have different advantages for several reasons: 1 high-quality optical components and stabilisations allow for a stable interior geometry of the camera itself, 2 a stable geometry leads to a stable interior orientation that enables for an a priori camera calibration, 3 a higher resulting precision can be expected. With this article the development and accuracy evaluation of a new metric camera, the ALPA 12 FPS add|metric will be presented. Its general accuracy potential is tested against calibrated lengths in a small volume test environment based on the German Guideline VDI/VDE 2634.1 (2002. Maximum length measurement errors of less than 0.025 mm are achieved with different scenarios having been tested. The accuracy potential for large volumes is estimated within a feasibility study on the application of photogrammetric measurements for the deformation estimation on a large wooden shipwreck in the German Maritime Museum. An accuracy of 0.2 mm–0.4 mm is reached for a length of 28 m (given by a distance from a lasertracker network measurement. All analyses have proven high stabilities of the interior orientation of the camera and indicate the applicability for a priori camera calibration for subsequent 3D measurements.

  8. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE QUALIS OF SOFTWARE TECHNICAL PRODUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpi, Marinho Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To recommend metrics to qualify software production and to propose guidelines for the CAPES quadrennial evaluation of the Post-Graduation Programs of Medicine III about this issue. Identification of the development process quality features, of the product attributes and of the software use, determined by Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT), International Organization Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical (IEC), important in the perspective of the CAPES Medicine III Area correlate users, basing the creation proposal of metrics aiming to be used on four-year evaluation of Medicine III. The in use software quality perception by the user results from the provided effectiveness, productivity, security and satisfaction that originate from its characteristics of functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability and portability (in use metrics quality). This perception depends on the specific use scenario. The software metrics should be included in the intellectual production of the program, considering the system behavior measurements results obtained by users' performance evaluation through out the favorable responses punctuation sum for the six in use metrics quality (27 sub-items, 0 to 2 points each) and for quality perception proof (four items, 0 to 10 points each). It will be considered as very good (VG) 85 to 94 points; good (G) 75 to 84 points; regular (R) 65 to 74 points; weak (W) 55 to 64 points; poor (P) software propondo diretrizes para a avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Medicina III. Identificação das características de qualidade para o processo de desenvolvimento, para os atributos do produto e para o uso de software, determinadas pela Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT), International Organization Standardization (ISO) e International Electrotechnical (IEC), importantes na perspectiva dos usuários correlatos da Área Medicina III da CAPES, embasando a criação de proposta

  9. Value Added Elements According to Buyer Companies in a B2B Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Battaglia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how buyer companies perceive the value added to products and services offered by their suppliers and identifies the predominant elements that affect purchasing decisions and establishment of relationships between companies in a B2B context. A multiple case study was developed in 12 buyer companies from three industrial segments in southern Brazil: metal-mechanics, furniture and foods. The findings show that for supplier companies in the metal-mechanics industry to add value, they must identify buyers’ needs, develop technology/innovation, be focused on competitive aspects, keep control of the supply chain, provide different purchasing channels, develop partnerships, and adapt to cultural aspects. Companies in the food industry consider the model for creating value to adapt to meet customer needs, the effective use of purchasing channels, functionality of products, and technical knowledge. The companies in the furniture industry value the methods that suppliers use to capture and implement required changes, effective control of the supply chain, and the representativeness of the suppliers’ brand in the market. This study captures the perception of buyer companies in relation to predominant value-adding elements and could guide decisions for the adoption of managerial actions by supplier companies focused on adding value.

  10. Understanding the value added to clinical care by educational activities. Value of Education Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, G S; Headrick, L A; Boex, J R

    1999-10-01

    In an era of competition in health care delivery, those who pay for care are interested in supporting primarily those activities that add value to the clinical enterprise. The authors report on their 1998 project to develop a conceptual model for assessing the value added to clinical care by educational activities. Through interviews, nine key stakeholders in patient care identified five ways in which education might add value to clinical care: education can foster higher-quality care, improve work satisfaction of clinicians, have trainees provide direct clinical services, improve recruitment and retention of clinicians, and contribute to the future of health care. With this as a base, an expert panel of 13 clinical educators and investigators defined six perspectives from which the value of education in clinical care might be studied: the perspectives of health-care-oriented organizations, clinician-teachers, patients, education organizations, learners, and the community. The panel adapted an existing model to create the "Education Compass" to portray education's effects on clinical care, and developed a new set of definitions and research questions for each of the four major aspects of the model (clinical, functional, satisfaction, and cost). Working groups next drafted proposals to address empirically those questions, which were critiqued at a national conference on the topic of education's value in clinical care. The next step is to use the methods developed in this project to empirically assess the value added by educational activities to clinical care.

  11. Evolution of Value Added Chains in Asia Pacific Region and Opportunities for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Alekseevich Makarov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the changing patterns of transnational value chains in the Asia-Pacific region. The methodology is based on the analysis of data extracted from the OECD – WTO Trade in Value Added Database (2016. The study demonstrates that 1 Asia-Pacific countries show extremely high involvement in the global value chains; 2 intra-Asian value chains develop at a fast pace, reflecting the trend towards regiona-lization of economic ties in Asia-Pacific (caused by the processes of transformation within China, the growing income divergence in the region and the development of regional integration mechanisms; 3 the level of participation in global value chains differs across countries and is subject to constant changes. In particular, Chinese manufacturers are moving to the processes with higher value added, and the role of an ‘assembly shop’ in the region is shifting to the ASEAN countries. Russia’s participation in the value chains in the Asia-Pacific region is currently limited to its role as a supplier of raw materials. High tariffs make manufacturing oriented towards Asia less viable, especially considering that most of Asia-Pacific countries have free trade agreements with each other. However, favorable rules of origin in Asian RTAs as well as good political relations with leading Asian countries in conditions of tensions between them still create some opportunities for involving Russia in regional value chains at the more advanced stages

  12. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  13. A Closer Look at Revealed Comparative Advantage: Gross-versus Value Added Trade Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    2015-01-01

    With the availability of international value added trade data it has become evident that gross export data and value added data do not provide the same information. Although gross exports crosses national borders and is the target of trade policy, value added data tell us what fragment in the production chain is internationally competitive in a particular country. With respect to comparative advantage the differences between the two types of data are often illustrated by means of examples usi...

  14. Coaching Small Biotech Companies into Success: The Value-adding Function of VC

    OpenAIRE

    Terttu Luukkonen,; Mari Maunula,

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports an empirical study on the non-financial value-added provided by Venture Capital investors to their investee firms. This study will use a four-class grouping of the various non-financial value-adding capabilities provided by VC firms, namely, scouting, monitoring, signalling and value-adding services. The study examines biotechnology industry in Finland. Finland has a dual system with independent (partially ever-green) VC companies and public or semi-public VC organisations. ...

  15. PENGUKURAN KINERJA PERUSAHAAN PT. HADJI KALLA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kinerja Economic Value Added (EVA) yang dicapai oleh perusahaan PT. Hadji Kalla, sedangkan metode analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis perkembangan Economic Value Added (EVA), Net Operating Profit After Tax (NOPAT) dan The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of the Economic Value Added (EVA), which is achieved by the company PT. Hadji Kalla...

  16. Mushroom cultivation, processing and value added products: a patent based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Somya; Rasane, Prasad; Kaur, Sawinder; Garba, Umar; Singh, Jyoti; Raj, Nishant; Gupta, Neeru

    2018-06-03

    Edible mushrooms are an abundant source of carbohydrates, proteins, and multiple antioxidants and phytonutrients. This paper presents a general overview on the edible fungus describing the inventions made in the field of its cultivation, equipment and value added products. To understand and review the innovations and nutraceutical benefits of mushrooms as well as to develop interest regarding the edible mushrooms. Information provided in this review is based on the available research investigations and patents. Mushrooms are an edible source of a wide variety of antioxidants and phytonutrients with a number of nutraceutical properties including anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenic. Thus, several investigations are made for cultivation and improvement of the yield of mushrooms through improvisation of growth substrates and equipment used for mushroom processing. The mushroom has been processed into various products to increase its consumption, providing the health and nutritional benefit to mankind. This paper summarizes the cultivation practices of mushroom, its processing equipments, methods of preservation, value added based products, and its nutraceutical properties. The review also highlights the various scientific feats achieved in terms of patents and research publications promoting mushroom as a wholesome food. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Value added tax and the financial performance of quoted Agribusinesses in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwaoma Ironkwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the impact of value-added tax on corporate financial performance of quoted companies. To achieve this purpose, we developed some hypotheses and critically reviewed existing theoretical and empirical literatures. Agribusinesses quoted in the Nigerian Stock Exchange Factbook of 2009 were considered as the population for this study. The population elements include the General Managers, Chief Accountants, Finance Managers, Chief Internal Auditors, External Auditors, and Tax Administrators of the selected companies. A total of forty (42 respondents were considered for this study. A well structured questionnaire designed in five-point Likert Scale was administered on the respondents to elicit their responses. The data generated for this study were presented in tabular form and analyzed using frequencies and simple percentages while the stated hypotheses were statistically tested with the simple regression analysis and the t-test. Our findings indicated that Value-Added Tax (VAT impacted negatively on the financial performance of agribusinesses though the impact is of insignificant value. Based on our findings, we recommended that agribusinesses should endeavour to keep appropriate source documents of all transactions for efficient VAT operations and that the governments should ensure that proper tax incentive scheme is designed and fully implemented to promote the growth of agribusinesses, in Nigeria.

  18. Two-way communication promote value-added services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This article reviews a number of developments in the efforts of electric utilities to establish two-way communications with their customers in order to develop products and services to fit each customer`s needs. In their efforts, utilities are facing an array of technology, including broadband, radio frequency, cellular, satellite, dial inbound, and power line carrier current. Individual efforts with each technology are noted. In many cases, the utilities are finding that existing cable and telephone companies are powerful allies in their efforts. Finding that their technology is marketable, the electric utilities are also diversifying horizontally and marketing their communications tools to other, both inside and outside of the utility industry.

  19. A Study on Value Added Tax for Business Enterprise Taxation - An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    安部,知格

    2002-01-01

    In recent years,the argument whetter we should switch over the base of taxation for business enterprise from the income standard to other standards or not is rising. In these circumstances,as one of the other standards,the value-added tax has been taken up. The value-added tax appeared in Japan as the one which can be replaced income standard taxation for business enterprise by Shoup Mission in 1949. This paper considers the meaning of the value-added tax. Consequently,I think,the value-added...

  20. Sustainable innovation : In Search for the Value Added Configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, R.; Faber, N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of sustainable innovation goes beyond realizing technical solutions. For innovation to be effective, knowledge that is developed during the innovating activity requires to be dispersed to assure benefit of the innovation in production, use, maintenance and disposal. Actually doing so

  1. 76 FR 10089 - Value-Added Producer Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ..., business plans, and marketing strategies. The program will also provide working capital for expenses such as implementing an existing viable marketing strategy. The Agency will implement the program to meet... Majority-Controlled Producer-Based Business Ventures develop strategies to create marketing opportunities...

  2. 75 FR 29920 - Value-Added Producer Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ..., business plans, and marketing strategies. The program will also provide working capital for expenses such as implementing an existing viable marketing strategy. The Agency proposes to implement the program... Majority-Controlled Producer-Based Business Ventures develop strategies to create marketing opportunities...

  3. Development of quality metrics for ambulatory pediatric cardiology: Chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jimmy C; Bansal, Manish; Behera, Sarina K; Boris, Jeffrey R; Cardis, Brian; Hokanson, John S; Kakavand, Bahram; Jedeikin, Roy

    2017-12-01

    As part of the American College of Cardiology Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Section effort to develop quality metrics (QMs) for ambulatory pediatric practice, the chest pain subcommittee aimed to develop QMs for evaluation of chest pain. A group of 8 pediatric cardiologists formulated candidate QMs in the areas of history, physical examination, and testing. Consensus candidate QMs were submitted to an expert panel for scoring by the RAND-UCLA modified Delphi process. Recommended QMs were then available for open comments from all members. These QMs are intended for use in patients 5-18 years old, referred for initial evaluation of chest pain in an ambulatory pediatric cardiology clinic, with no known history of pediatric or congenital heart disease. A total of 10 candidate QMs were submitted; 2 were rejected by the expert panel, and 5 were removed after the open comment period. The 3 approved QMs included: (1) documentation of family history of cardiomyopathy, early coronary artery disease or sudden death, (2) performance of electrocardiogram in all patients, and (3) performance of an echocardiogram to evaluate coronary arteries in patients with exertional chest pain. Despite practice variation and limited prospective data, 3 QMs were approved, with measurable data points which may be extracted from the medical record. However, further prospective studies are necessary to define practice guidelines and to develop appropriate use criteria in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Countermeasure development using a formalised metric-based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Laurence

    2008-10-01

    Guided weapons, are a potent threat to both air and surface platforms; to protect the platform, Countermeasures are often used to disrupt the operation of the tracking system. Development of effective techniques to defeat the guidance sensors is a complex activity. The countermeasure often responds to the behaviour of a responsive sensor system, creating a "closed loop" interaction. Performance assessment is difficult, and determining that enough knowledge exists to make a case that a platform is adequately protected is challenging. A set of metrics known as Countermeasure Confidence Levels (CCL) is described. These set out a measure of confidence in prediction of Countermeasure performance. The CCL scale provides, for the first time, a method to determine whether enough evidence exists to support development activity and introduction to operational service. Application of the CCL scale to development of a hypothetical countermeasure is described. This tracks how the countermeasure is matured from initial concept to in-service application. The purpose of each stage is described, together with a description of what work is likely to be needed. This will involve timely use of analysis, simulation, laboratory work and field testing. The use of the CCL scale at key decision points is described. These include procurement decision points, and entry-to-service decisions. Each stage requires collection of evidence of effectiveness. Completeness of the available evidence can be assessed, and duplication can be avoided. Read-across between concepts, weapon systems and platforms can be addressed and the impact of technology insertion can be assessed.

  5. The impact of student composition on schools’ value-added performance : a comparison of seven empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Thomas, Sally M.

    In many countries, policy makers struggle with the development of value added indicators of school performance for educational accountability purposes and in particular with the choice whether school context measured in the form of student composition variables should be included. This study

  6. Wood ethanol: a BC value-added opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloy, B. W.; O' Connor, D. V.

    1998-12-01

    The environmental, economic and social benefits to be derived from the conversion of woodwaste to ethanol are reviewed as part of the justification by the Greenhouse Gas Forum, a multi-stakeholder environmental advisory group, to recommend to the BC government to support the development and commercialization of technologies to produce ethanol fuel using waste from British Columbia's sawmills. The Greenhouse Gas Forum also recommended government support for the construction of a demonstration ethanol plant by the private sector. The principal arguments underlying the Greenhouse Gas Forum's recommendations are: (1) reduction in BC's greenhouse gas emissions by one mega tonne, or two per cent of BC's 1990 emissions, (2) reducing carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and other toxic emissions that contribute to urban smog, and (3) accelerating the elimination of sawmill waste burners and providing a substitute for MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a fuel additive) and MTBE ( methyl tertiary butyl ether, a component used in gasoline), thus helping to reduce health hazards from fine particulate inhalation. Economic and social benefits envisaged include creation of leading edge technology at the University of British Columbia, a substantial number of new jobs, and the potential for the development of various co-products from wood ethanol conversion. The report examines five different technologies to produce ethanol (the processes developed by Iogen, BC International, and Arkenol Inc., the Paszner ACOS process and a gasification-fermentation process), the market demand for ethanol blended gasoline and concludes that there are strong environmental, health and economic reasons for BC to increase the use of wood-ethanol as a transportation fuel and to support the establishment of an ethanol plant using wood residue. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs., 1 glossary.

  7. Wood ethanol: a BC value-added opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B. W.; O'Connor, D. V.

    1998-12-01

    The environmental, economic and social benefits to be derived from the conversion of woodwaste to ethanol are reviewed as part of the justification by the Greenhouse Gas Forum, a multi-stakeholder environmental advisory group, to recommend to the BC government to support the development and commercialization of technologies to produce ethanol fuel using waste from British Columbia's sawmills. The Greenhouse Gas Forum also recommended government support for the construction of a demonstration ethanol plant by the private sector. The principal arguments underlying the Greenhouse Gas Forum's recommendations are: (1) reduction in BC's greenhouse gas emissions by one mega tonne, or two per cent of BC's 1990 emissions, (2) reducing carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and other toxic emissions that contribute to urban smog, and (3) accelerating the elimination of sawmill waste burners and providing a substitute for MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a fuel additive) and MTBE ( methyl tertiary butyl ether, a component used in gasoline), thus helping to reduce health hazards from fine particulate inhalation. Economic and social benefits envisaged include creation of leading edge technology at the University of British Columbia, a substantial number of new jobs, and the potential for the development of various co-products from wood ethanol conversion. The report examines five different technologies to produce ethanol (the processes developed by Iogen, BC International, and Arkenol Inc., the Paszner ACOS process and a gasification-fermentation process), the market demand for ethanol blended gasoline and concludes that there are strong environmental, health and economic reasons for BC to increase the use of wood-ethanol as a transportation fuel and to support the establishment of an ethanol plant using wood residue. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs., 1 glossary

  8. Bio-composites : opportunities for value-added biobased materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drzal, L.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Composite Materials and Structures Center

    2003-07-01

    In order to reduce dependency on foreign oil, there is a growing need to develop and commercialize new bio-based green materials and technologies that can produce bio-based structural materials that are competitive with current synthetic products. The use of bio-based products would also improve the environment and create new opportunities for the agricultural economy. This paper described ongoing research into bio-based materials and products that replace petroleum-based products. In particular, it examined the use of biocomposites made by embedding natural/biofibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, henequen, pineapple leaf fiber, corn stalk fibers and native Michigan grasses into petroleum-derived traditional plastics such as polypropylene, unsaturated polyesters and epoxies. It also examines the use of green biocomposites developed by embedding these bio-fibers into renewable resource-based bioplastics such as cellulosic plastics and soy-based plastics. New processing methods that combine biofibers with plastics were needed to produce the biocomposites with desirable mechanical properties. The study showed that biofiber reinforced petroleum-based plastic biocomposites can produce a structural material that offers a balance between ecology, economy and technology. The potential for using these materials for automotive and building materials was also presented. 1 tab., 28 figs.

  9. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Q; tilp, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Shippert, T [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Parworth, C; Mei, F [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2013-08-23

    Organic aerosol (OA, i.e., the organic fraction of particles) accounts for 10–90% of the fine aerosol mass globally and is a key determinant of aerosol radiative forcing. But atmospheric OA is poorly characterized and its life cycle insufficiently represented in models. As a result, current models are unable to simulate OA concentrations and properties accurately. This deficiency represents a large source of uncertainty in quantification of aerosol effects and prediction of future climate change. Evaluation and development of aerosol models require data products generated from field observations. Real-time, quantitative data acquired with aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) (Canagaratna et al. 2007) are critical to this need. The AMS determines size-resolved concentrations of non-refractory (NR) species in submicrometer particles (PM1) with fast time resolution suitable for both ground-based and aircraft deployments. The high-resolution AMS (HR-AMS), which is equipped with a high mass resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer, can be used to determine the elemental composition and oxidation degrees of OA (DeCarlo et al. 2006).

  10. Value-added products from spent bleaching earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Muzammil Ngatiman; James, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Bleaching earth is used in the bleaching process of physical refining of palm oil to remove color, phospholipids, residue gums, oxidized products and any trace metals from the oil. These colored pigments are trapped and absorbed in the bleaching earth, thus transforming the originally whitish earth to dark grey and is, from then, named spent bleaching earth (SBE). SBE is considered as an industrial by-product as there is hardly any practical application for it. Large quantity of SBE is commonly disposed of in landfills, which poses potential hazards to environment. New economical ways in utilizing it is sought to eliminate the problem arises from its disposal. This paper presents a study on the possibility of developing a soil conditioner using enhanced SBE as the base material. The study found that there are certain attributes observed in the enhanced SBE that could be of advantages for SBE to become a good soil conditioner. The enhanced SBE contains organic matters and about 18-20 % of residue oil which exhibits good water holding capacity in slow release of water, and enriched nutrient content for plant nutrient uptake. (author)

  11. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  12. Value Added Service and Service Quality from the Customer’s Perspective: An Empirical Investigation in Thai Telecommunication Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowanee Srikanjanarak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global competition has led to an intensively competitive market among service providers. Several organizations have created and developed a variety of products or services; in particular the telecommunications industry has developed mobile phone services. Various value-added services linked to mobile phone services, such as communication, entertainment, information services and money transfer services have been intensively incorporated to sustain and serve the customer’s need, which in turn demands performance maximization. In service marketing literature, SERVQUAL and SERVPERF have been reported as failing to measure service quality in new industries such as the retail industry’s B2B service. Therefore, service quality models for the mobile phone service industry need to be further developed.Service quality models have placed little focus on value-added services and no research has yet operationalized the concept of value-added services in a service quality model from the customer’s perspective of the service industry. Hence, this paper aims to conceptualize a service quality model based on Gronroos’ Model, other exploratory research and the current market situation in the service context. A total of 998 structured questionnaires were distributed to pre-paid mobile phones users in nine provinces around Thailand. The results indicate four dimensions of service quality. The value-added services have shown a particularly high level of measurements of satisfaction. These findings reveal a meaningful insight into how customers perceive the value-added services offered by service providers. This will help managers to design an appropriate variety of service options that suit their customers and in turn may lead to the development of a long-term relationship with their organizations.

  13. Development, Validation, and Implementation of a Medical Judgment Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami A. Ahmed DO, MHPE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical decision making is a critical, yet understudied, aspect of medical education. Aims: To develop the Medical Judgment Metric (MJM, a numerical rubric to quantify good decisions in practice in simulated environments; and to obtain initial preliminary evidence of reliability and validity of the tool. Methods: The individual MJM items, domains, and sections of the MJM were built based on existing standardized frameworks. Content validity was determined by a convenient sample of eight experts. The MJM instrument was pilot tested in four medical simulations with a team of three medical raters assessing 40 participants with four levels of medical experience and skill. Results: Raters were highly consistent in their MJM scores in each scenario (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.965 to 0.987 as well as their evaluation of the expected patient outcome (Fleiss’s Kappa 0.791 to 0.906. For each simulation scenario, average rater cut-scores significantly predicted expected loss of life or stabilization (Cohen’s Kappa 0.851 to 0.880. Discussion : The MJM demonstrated preliminary evidence of reliability and validity.

  14. From maturity to value-added innovation: lessons from the pharmaceutical and agro-biotechnology industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, James; Tait, Joyce; Wield, David

    2011-03-01

    The pharmaceutical and agro-biotechnology industries have been confronted by dwindling product pipelines and rapid developments in life sciences, thus demanding a strategic rethink of conventional research and development. Despite offering both industries a solution to the pipeline problem, the life sciences have also brought complex regulatory challenges for firms. In this paper, we comment on the response of these industries to the life science trajectory, in the context of maturing conventional small-molecule product pipelines and routes to market. The challenges of managing transition from maturity to new high-value-added innovation models are addressed. Furthermore, we argue that regulation plays a crucial role in shaping the innovation systems of both industries, and as such, we suggest potentially useful changes to the current regulatory system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional composition of Chickpea (Cicerarietinum-L and value added products - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Hirdyani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important pulse crop grown and consumed all over the world, especially in the Afro-Asian countries. It is a good source of carbohydrates and protein, and the protein quality is considered to be better than other pulses. Chickpea has significant amounts of all the essential amino acids. Starch is the major storage carbohydrate followed by dietary fibre, lipids are present in low amounts but chickpea is rich in nutritionally important unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic and oleic acid.It can be utilized to develop nutritious value added products and hence products can also be used as nutritious food for low income group in developing countries and for patients suffering with life style diseases.

  16. The Reliability, Impact, and Cost-Effectiveness of Value-Added Teacher Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews evidence regarding the intertemporal reliability of teacher rankings based on value-added methods. Value-added methods exhibit low reliability, yet are broadly supported by prominent educational researchers and are increasingly being used to evaluate and fire teachers. The article then presents a cost-effectiveness analysis…

  17. Stability of Teacher Value-Added Rankings across Measurement Model and Scaling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Leslie R.; Bovaird, James A.; Wu, ChaoRong

    2017-01-01

    Value-added assessment methods have been criticized by researchers and policy makers for a number of reasons. One issue includes the sensitivity of model results across different outcome measures. This study examined the utility of incorporating multivariate latent variable approaches within a traditional value-added framework. We evaluated the…

  18. English Value-Added Measures: Examining the Limitations of School Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Value-added "Progress" measures are to be introduced for all English schools in 2016 as "headline" measures of school performance. This move comes despite research highlighting high levels of instability in value-added measures and concerns about the omission of contextual variables in the planned measure. This article studies…

  19. The Value Relevance Of Value Added And Stakeholder Compensation Across Business Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    John Darcy

    2011-01-01

    This research performed a partial test of the instrumental validity of the stakeholder model by examining the value relevance of value added relative to income and the incremental value relevance of two stakeholder compensation components of value added, wages and interest for Japan, Germany, United States, and United Kingdom.

  20. The Politics and Statistics of Value-Added Modeling for Accountability of Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincove, Jane Arnold; Osborne, Cynthia; Dillon, Amanda; Mills, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Despite questions about validity and reliability, the use of value-added estimation methods has moved beyond academic research into state accountability systems for teachers, schools, and teacher preparation programs (TPPs). Prior studies of value-added measurement for TPPs test the validity of researcher-designed models and find that measuring…

  1. Analisis Determinasi Financial Performance Perusahaan Industri Manufaktur Makanan Dan Minuman Yang Go Public Suatu Pendekatan Metode Economic Value Added (EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Affandi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to obtain empirical evidence concerning the effect of Financial Performance Determinant (Capital Structure and Profit Margin on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA method at the food and beverage manufacture business sectors. The results of this study is expected to contribute for the development of financial management and strategic management. The study was carried out at the food and beverage manufacture business sectors registered in Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. The characteristic of this study is confirmatory research. The research method used is associative and explanatory, and to hypothesis testing of the research has used multiple regression. Sampling method is used purposive sampling with total sample are 15 corporate registered in Bursa Efek Indonesia during 2006-2007 period. While for data processing is used SPSS 14.0 for windows programs. The result of this study is: The first hypothesis testing founded theres the significant effect of capital structure on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA. The second hypothesis testing founded theres the significant effect of profit margin on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA. So, in the EVA predicting can used capital structure and profit margin indicators, because capital structure and profit margin both have a significant effect on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA.

  2. Metrics Evolution in an Energy Research and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Brent

    2011-01-01

    All technology programs progress through three phases: Discovery, Definition, and Deployment. The form and application of program metrics needs to evolve with each phase. During the discovery phase, the program determines what is achievable. A set of tools is needed to define program goals, to analyze credible technical options, and to ensure that the options are compatible and meet the program objectives. A metrics system that scores the potential performance of technical options is part of this system of tools, supporting screening of concepts and aiding in the overall definition of objectives. During the definition phase, the program defines what specifically is wanted. What is achievable is translated into specific systems and specific technical options are selected and optimized. A metrics system can help with the identification of options for optimization and the selection of the option for deployment. During the deployment phase, the program shows that the selected system works. Demonstration projects are established and classical systems engineering is employed. During this phase, the metrics communicate system performance. This paper discusses an approach to metrics evolution within the Department of Energy's Nuclear Fuel Cycle R and D Program, which is working to improve the sustainability of nuclear energy.

  3. Uma análise da correlação entre o EVA® e o MVA® no contexto das empresas brasileiras de capital aberto Correlation between Economic Value Added and Market Value Added for publicly owned Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Odálio dos Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do tema da criação de valor, da forma como é medida pelo EVA® (Valor Econômico Adicionado e pelo MVA® (Valor de Mercado Agregado, duas metodologias desenvolvidas no final dos anos 80 pela empresa americana de consultoria Stern Stewart & Co. O EVA® é definido como a diferença entre o lucro operacional líquido depois de impostos e o custo do capital investido na empresa, enquanto o MVA® é determinado pela diferença entre o valor de mercado da empresa e o capital total nela investido. Um estudo realizado por G. Bennett Stewart III, que idealizou essas metodologias juntamente com o seu sócio Joel M. Stern, encontrou uma forte correlação entre o EVA® e o MVA®. Visando averiguar se tal resultado se aplica também ao caso das empresas brasileiras, os autores deste artigo realizaram uma pesquisa semelhante, baseada numa amostra formada por empresas de capital aberto cujas ações foram negociadas na Bovespa (Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo durante o período de 1996 a 2001.This article deals with value creation as measured by Economic Value Added (EVA® and Market Value (MVA® which are methods developed by an American consultant, Stern Stewart & Co, in the late l980's. Economic Value Added is defined as the difference between net operating profit after taxes and the cost of capital invested in a company, while Market Value Added is the difference between market value and the total capital invested in a company. G. Bennett Stewart III, who conceived this approach together with his partner Joel M. Stern, found a strong correlation between Economic Value Added and Market Value Added. Our research investigated whether this also applies to a sample of publicly owned Brazilian companies traded on the São Paulo Stock Exchange between 1996 and 2001.

  4. Studies on the preparation of value-added products for industrial minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Studies on the preparation of value-added products for limestone: This study has investigated to raise to high grade by economical processes with low grade of domestic limestone. We investigated the status of application utilize and related industries with the domestic limestone, and then being consideration with condition selected the adequate sample from Andong, Jungsun and Kumsan area. Magnetic materials were involved in impurities of sample, so magnetic separation method was applied in elimination of the ferro- and para-magnetic materials, such as chlorite, muscovite, quartz, dolomite, magnetite, feldspar and so on. Investigation of flotation was undertaken to eliminate impurities from limestone crude ore and the tests were performed to get a optimum condition adding oleic acid as a promoter, sodium silicate and sodium carbonate as a conditioning agents and MIBC as a frother, while to float the sulfide minerals added amyl xanthate as a promoter, and sulfuric acid as a pH regulator. Selective crushing and classification methods were performed to eliminate impurities depends on the mineral properties and should be the selective crushing methods are very useful at the manufacturing factory of heavy calcium carbonate with the dry milling system. 2) A study on development of value added technology of pyrophyllite and dickite: Pyrophyllite and dickite have being utilized as refractories, ceramics, cement, fiber glass, paper, rubber, paints etc. However, there are not any domestic companies to produce fillers of pyrophyllite and dickite for plastic and rubber. Moreover, several kinds of fillers are imported every year with expensive price for plastic and rubber filler. This study has purpose to develop manufacturing technologies to produce fillers for plastic and rubber of pyrophyllite and dickite. The chemical and mineralogical properties of samples, the optimum grinding condition and device for producing plastic fillers and

  5. “PERFORMANCE TREND” AND “PERFORMANCE CURRENT” RATINGS BY ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU BOGEANU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Value Added (EVA is an index of “durable development.” It was proposed by the Stern-Stewart Office and represents the true economic profit of companies. A company reports economic profit only if thereported accounting profit is higher than the opportunity cost of equity. The authors of the EVA model (Stern-Stewart have also proposed the ways of restating the financial statements to get a “fair image” of the results, thuseliminating the “accounting distortions.”Based on the performance indexes calculated based on EVA and second-generation indexes relating toEVA, we calculated two types of rating: Rating Performance Current and Rating Performance Trend. The rating iscalculated by means of the percentiles technique and the results are split into 22 rating classes.The used database is Russell 3000.

  6. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  8. How Do Value-Added Indicators Compare to Other Measures of Teacher Effectiveness? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent drive to revamp teacher evaluation and accountability, measures of a teacher's value added have played the starring role. But the star of the show is not always the best actor, nor can the star succeed without a strong supporting cast. In assessing teacher performance, observations of classroom practice, portfolios of teachers' work,…

  9. Conceptual Soundness, Metric Development, Benchmarking, and Targeting for PATH Subprogram Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey. G.; Doris, E.; Coggeshall, C.; Antes, M.; Ruch, J.; Mortensen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the conceptual soundness of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) program's revised goals and establish and apply a framework to identify and recommend metrics that are the most useful for measuring PATH's progress. This report provides an evaluative review of PATH's revised goals, outlines a structured method for identifying and selecting metrics, proposes metrics and benchmarks for a sampling of individual PATH programs, and discusses other metrics that potentially could be developed that may add value to the evaluation process. The framework and individual program metrics can be used for ongoing management improvement efforts and to inform broader program-level metrics for government reporting requirements.

  10. High value added lipids produced by microorganisms: a potential use of sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruna Soares; Vieira, João Paulo Fernandes; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Mantelatto, Paulo Eduardo; Zaiat, Marcelo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to present an innovative concept of high value added lipids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, using carbon sources, such as sugars, acids and alcohols that could come from sugarcane vinasse, which is the main byproduct from ethanol production that is released in the distillation step. Vinasse is a rich carbon source and low-cost feedstock produced in large amounts from ethanol production. In 2019, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply estimates that growth of ethanol domestic consumption will be 58.8 billion liters, more than double the amount in 2008. This represents the annual production of more than 588 billion liters of vinasse, which is currently used as a fertilizer in the sugarcane crop, due to its high concentration of minerals, mainly potassium. However, studies indicate some disadvantages such as the generation of Greenhouse Gas emission during vinasse distribution in the crop, as well as the possibility of contaminating the groundwater and soil. Therefore, the development of programs for sustainable use of vinasse is a priority. One profitable alternative is the fermentation of vinasse, followed by an anaerobic digester, in order to obtain biomaterials such as lipids, other byproducts, and methane. Promising high value added lipids, for instance carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), with a predicted market of millions of US$, could be produced using vinasse as carbon source, to guide an innovative concept for sustainable production. Example of lipids obtained from the fermentation of compounds present in vinasse are vitamin D, which comes from yeast sucrose fermentation and Omega 3, which can be obtained by bacteria and fungi fermentation. Additionally, several other compounds present in vinasse can be used for this purpose, including sucrose, ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, acetate and other carbon sources. Finally, this paper illustrates the potential market and

  11. Trade in value added in the West Pacific: An input-output analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of trade between the four regions in the West Pacific in both gross and value added terms is analyzed using international input-output tables. It is found that value added exports of computers and electronic equipment of the Asian economies are very limited in comparison with their gross exports, and that the largest shares of value added exports were accounted for by the services sectors in every region, particularly so in Japan and the US. Surpluses and deficits in bilateral t...

  12. Toward a better comprehension of Lean metrics for research and product development management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, Janaina Mascarenhas Hornos; Oehmen, Josef; Rebentisch, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a compilation and empirical survey-based evaluation of the metrics most commonly used by program managers during product development management. This work is part of a bigger project of MIT, PMI and INCOSE. Three methodological procedures were applied: systematic literature...... review, focus-group discussions, and survey. The survey results indicate the metrics considered to be the most and least useful for managing lean engineering programs, and reveals a shift of interest towards qualitative metrics, especially the ones that address the achievement of stakeholder values......, and the absence of useful metrics regarding the lean principles People and Pull....

  13. Exploring the impact of a spatial data infrastructure on value-added resellers and vice versa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available , Information and Computational Viewpoints of the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing. Within the Enterprise Viewpoint, we identified six stakeholders, including a Value-added Reseller (VAR), a stakeholder who adds value to an existing product...

  14. Analisis Economic Value Added (EVA) dalam Menilai Kinerja Keuangan Perusahaan pada PT. Unilever Indonesia, Tbk.

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfauzi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the financial performance of PT. Unilever Indonesia, Tbk which is measured by Economic Value Added (EVA). Variable which is needed to compute The EVA are Net Profit After Tax (NOPAT), Cost of Capital (CoC), and Economic Value Added (EVA). EVA concept is different with another financial performance instruments. Because in computing EVA, Cost of Capital is included. That’s why accounting profitable company doesn’t mean it has positive EV...

  15. Measuring Corporate Sustainability and Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance Value Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a model for measuring sustainable value which would complexly assess environmental, social, and corporate governance contribution to value creation. In the paper the concept of the Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is presented. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is based on the Sustainable Value Added model and combines weighted environmental, social, and corporate governance indicators with their benchmarks determined by Data Envelopment Analysis. Benchmark values of indicators were set for each company separately and determine the optimal combination of environmental, social, and corporate governance inputs to economic outcomes. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added methodology is applied on real-life corporate data and presented through a case study. The value added of most of the selected companies was negative, even though economic indicators of all of them are positive. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is intended to help owners, investors, and other stakeholders in their decision-making and sustainability assessment. The use of environmental, social, and corporate governance factors helps identify the company’s strengths and weaknesses, and provides a more sophisticated insight into it than the one-dimensional methods based on economic performance alone.

  16. Study of activity based costing implementation for palm oil production using value-added and non-value-added activity consideration in PT XYZ palm oil mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, M. T.; Wahyuni, D.; Sinaga, T. S.; Silaban, A.

    2018-02-01

    Cost allocation at manufacturing industry particularly in Palm Oil Mill still widely practiced based on estimation. It leads to cost distortion. Besides, processing time determined by company is not in accordance with actual processing time in work station. Hence, the purpose of this study is to eliminates non-value-added activities therefore processing time could be shortened and production cost could be reduced. Activity Based Costing Method is used in this research to calculate production cost with Value Added and Non-Value-Added Activities consideration. The result of this study is processing time decreasing for 35.75% at Weighting Bridge Station, 29.77% at Sorting Station, 5.05% at Loading Ramp Station, and 0.79% at Sterilizer Station. Cost of Manufactured for Crude Palm Oil are IDR 5.236,81/kg calculated by Traditional Method, IDR 4.583,37/kg calculated by Activity Based Costing Method before implementation of Activity Improvement and IDR 4.581,71/kg after implementation of Activity Improvement Meanwhile Cost of Manufactured for Palm Kernel are IDR 2.159,50/kg calculated by Traditional Method, IDR 4.584,63/kg calculated by Activity Based Costing Method before implementation of Activity Improvement and IDR 4.582,97/kg after implementation of Activity Improvement.

  17. Development of a perceptually calibrated objective metric of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Brian W.; Jin, Elaine W.; Prokushkin, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    A system simulation model was used to create scene-dependent noise masks that reflect current performance of mobile phone cameras. Stimuli with different overall magnitudes of noise and with varying mixtures of red, green, blue, and luminance noises were included in the study. Eleven treatments in each of ten pictorial scenes were evaluated by twenty observers using the softcopy ruler method. In addition to determining the quality loss function in just noticeable differences (JNDs) for the average observer and scene, transformations for different combinations of observer sensitivity and scene susceptibility were derived. The psychophysical results were used to optimize an objective metric of isotropic noise based on system noise power spectra (NPS), which were integrated over a visual frequency weighting function to yield perceptually relevant variances and covariances in CIE L*a*b* space. Because the frequency weighting function is expressed in terms of cycles per degree at the retina, it accounts for display pixel size and viewing distance effects, so application-specific predictions can be made. Excellent results were obtained using only L* and a* variances and L*a* covariance, with relative weights of 100, 5, and 12, respectively. The positive a* weight suggests that the luminance (photopic) weighting is slightly narrow on the long wavelength side for predicting perceived noisiness. The L*a* covariance term, which is normally negative, reflects masking between L* and a* noise, as confirmed in informal evaluations. Test targets in linear sRGB and rendered L*a*b* spaces for each treatment are available at http://www.aptina.com/ImArch/ to enable other researchers to test metrics of their own design and calibrate them to JNDs of quality loss without performing additional observer experiments. Such JND-calibrated noise metrics are particularly valuable for comparing the impact of noise and other attributes, and for computing overall image quality.

  18. Value-Added Business Based On Small Scale Of Fisheries A Case Study On Nortern And Shouthern Coasts Of Java Lamongan And Pelabuhanratu Regency Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wardono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of fisheries sector is intended to improve the role of creating a strong linkage with other sectors by increasing the value added absorbing labor forces and increasing peoples income so that this can make the economy grow well. The value added is a value that increases due to a commodity that has been processed transported or stored in a production. Lamongan and Pelabuhanratu regencies are one of fisheries centers on the north and the south coast of Java Island. The aim of this research was to know the value added and the business margin of fisheries from the processing and marketing aspects. The research was carried out in two locations Northern coast Lamongan regencies and Shouther coasts Pelabuhanratu regencies Indoneisa. The data used were primary data the people involved in the business including fishing marketing and processing product. The results showed that the process of fisheries product yielded the value added and margin that were created from the incorporation of business benefit added input contribution other input and direct reward for the labor forces. The value added and the business margin of product processing can reach 2 to 3 fold from the main input value. The value added and the business margin of fisheries product processing were very big. This was the source of economy growth there. The effort to develop the business of fisheries product processing in the small scale need to be supported with various programs especially in the market access and funding.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF METRICS FOR ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN PROFESSIONAL MASTER'S COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Propose metric to qualify the production conveyed through articles published in Professional Master's Programs and, from there, to establish guidance for the evaluation of postgraduate programs of Medicine III. Analysis of the documents of 2013 area graduate programs strict sense concerning the application and measurement of score the articles published, and creation of proposal for metric of the theme with the quadrennial review of Medicine III. Were evaluated the medicines area documents I, II and III; Biological Sciences (I) and Interdisciplinary, as well as the 2013 reports of CAPES. All programs establish metrics for "Classification of Published Articles" within its bibliographic production although with different percentages respecting its specificities. With these data collected and correlating their relevance with the surgical areas, was drafted proposal for quantification of the quality of the published articles to "Professional Postgraduate Programs" at surgical area that have specific characteristics according to their guidelines, directing their scientific production to technique journals preferably. The metric suggested for published articles, that should be included in intellectual production of the Area Document, should be considered for the extract A1 = 100 points; A2 = 85 points; B1 = 80 points; B2 = 70 points; B3 = 60 points; B4 = 40 points and B5 = 20 points. Propor métrica para qualificar a produção veiculada através de artigos publicados em programas de mestrado profissional e, a partir daí, estabelecer orientação para a avaliação dos programas de pós-graduação da Medicina III. Análise dos documentos de área de 2013 dos programas de pós-graduação senso estrito no que concerne à aplicação e mensuração de pontuação a artigos publicados, e criação de proposta para métrica do tema com vistas à avaliação quadrienal da Medicina III. Foram avaliados os documentos de área das Medicinas I, II e III; Ciências Biológicas I

  20. Intellectual Capital Approach to Modern Management through the Perspective of a Company’s Value Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Survilaitė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of value creation in small and medium-sized business companies has always been in focus. The changing environment makes a strong impact on all companies all over the world. Nowadays, the value added, which is created by the company, not only depends on tangible but also on intangible assets. It is not enough just to manage internal resources to be efficient or generate high value added. Knowledge and information as an important tool for the management of the external environment have become a new factor of a company. Since elements of the intellectual capital system are intangible and hardly measurable in company’s value added, this paper aims to create a model for the analysis of the creation of a company’s value added through intellectual capital. Subsequent to the review of literature on value creation and management, the authors proposed a model for value creation through intermediate, which presented three main elements of value added creation.

  1. A Method for Proposing Valued-Adding Attributes in Customized Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia S. Hentschke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most emerging economies, there has been many incentives and high availability of funding for low-cost housing projects. This has encouraged product standardization and the application of mass production ideas, based on the assumption that this is the most effective strategy for reducing costs. However, the delivery of highly standardized housing units to customers with different needs, without considering their lifestyle and perception of value, often results in inadequate products. Mass customization has been pointed out as an effective strategy to improve value generation in low-cost housing projects, and to avoid waste caused by renovations done in dwellings soon after occupancy. However, one of the main challenges for the implementation of mass customization is the definition of a set of relevant options based on users’ perceived value. The aim of this paper is to propose a method for defining value adding attributes in customized housing projects, which can support decision-making in product development. The means-end chain theory was used as theoretical framework to connect product attributes and costumers’ values, through the application of the laddering technique. The method was tested in two house-building projects delivered by a company from Brazil. The main contribution of this method is to indicate the customization units that are most important for users along with the explanation of why those units are the most relevant ones.

  2. Value-added materials from the hydrometallurgical processing of jarosite waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite is a leach residue that can be produced by industrial bulk metal treatment processes and typically has the chemical formula MxFe3(SO42(OH6, where M normally represents a metal cation. The largest source of jarosite is electrolytic zinc processing [1], which worldwide has an annual production of 11-12 Mt and an associated jarosite waste of 5-6 Mt that can cause important challenges due to its classification as a problem waste. Moreover, as zinc ore typically contains many other commercial/critical metals, the content of valuable materials in this material is significant. An analysis of jarosite from Kokkola, Finland shows that it contained as much metal as many present day commercial ores: ~15% iron, 2% zinc, 3 % lead, 150 g/t silver, 0.5 g/t gold, 100 g/t indium and 40 g/t gallium. Until now, jarosite related research has concentrated on its use in landfill and construction purposes [2], though there is increasing interest in finding methods to efficiently reprocess/recycle jarosite into valuable products [3, 4]. The hydrometallurgical process currently under development by VTT and Aalto University exploits jarosite powdery nature to undertake wet chemical processing. This low cost and energy efficient operation is targeted at the recovery of concentrates which contain the major value-added metals.

  3. An Application in Healthcare Sector towards Accounting of Value Added Tax Generated by International Business Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin GÖNEN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The world has become into a single market and geographical boundaries has disappeared due to globalization in international commerce caused by recent rapid technological advancements in our country and internationally. The significance of export incentive is arising day by day in order to countries having a voice in the field in addition to developing market shares and improving competition powers. Besides, considering many times that our country faced with a foreign trade deficit made encouraging exports compulsory. On this basis, Value Added Tax Law numbered 3065, export exemptions made available for exporters are appeared as a successful and efficient implementation. The aim of this study is to reveal applicability of VAT in healthcare sector generated by international business transactions. Through this aim, sample case analysis is used as a qualitative research method. As a result of the research conducted, exemptions of VAT are applied to goods available for sale through inward processing regime. During the importation of raw materials which are going to be used for processing of goods to be exported by suspension system, taxes are paid in importation of raw materials thus paid VAT amounts in regime context are received back from affiliated tax office.

  4. The value added of accountancy programs: a study in the Southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cristina dos Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the accounting profession has gone through different changes. The role of accountants in society has evolved, making their function more sophisticated and turning their academic background fundamental to execute tasks in companies. In that context, this paper aims to identify the factors that explain the Value Added of higher education institutions to Accountancy students. Therefore, the results of the specific knowledge test, part of the National Student Performance Examination (Enade 2009, were used, based on a sample of 251 Accountancy programs from the Southeast. In the empirical analysis of the data, descriptive statistics and the linear regression model were used. Based on the valued added method, the Production Function theory was applied, controlling for the students’ individual and socioeconomic characteristics. The results suggest that the main determinants of the Value Added are as follows: the existence of a teaching plan, the number of students receiving grants and the size of the student group.

  5. Value-added biotransformation of cellulosic sugars by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stephan; Dong, Jia; Jin, Yong-Su

    2018-07-01

    The substantial research efforts into lignocellulosic biofuels have generated an abundance of valuable knowledge and technologies for metabolic engineering. In particular, these investments have led to a vast growth in proficiency of engineering the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for consuming lignocellulosic sugars, enabling the simultaneous assimilation of multiple carbon sources, and producing a large variety of value-added products by introduction of heterologous metabolic pathways. While microbial conversion of cellulosic sugars into large-volume low-value biofuels is not currently economically feasible, there may still be opportunities to produce other value-added chemicals as regulation of cellulosic sugar metabolism is quite different from glucose metabolism. This review summarizes these recent advances with an emphasis on employing engineered yeast for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars into a variety of non-ethanol value-added products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping value added positions in facilities management by using a product-process matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katchamart, Akarapong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this exploratory research paper is to present a product-process matrix that assists FM organizations and their stakeholders to map their value added position in their organizations. Using this matrix, FM practitioners are able to assess the existing value added delivering...... of the matrix are an FM product structure and an FM process structure. The supporting empirical data were collected through semi-structured interviews from selected FM organizations supplemented by relevant documents. Findings – Based on a product-process matrix, a typology of FM value added positions...... greater values to the client’s core business. Meanwhile, misaligning dilutes the value delivery. Research limitations/implications – This normative matrix can be used as a decision-making tool for a client to assess its FM performances and activities, and to determine the needs of FM provision...

  7. IS THE VALUE ADDED TAX A SUPERIOR SALES TAX IN ALL SALES TAXES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA ALİ SARILI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Value Added Tax (VAT is a tax imposed on the value added to a product at each stage of the production and distribution process. Value added is never taxed twice under VAT and thus cascading (tax on tax effects do not occur. It is a single tax on goods and services but the tax is collected multiple stages. At each of these stages, the amount of tax payable is computed by subtracting the tax previously paid on purchases from the tax charged on sales by the traders for each taxation period. In last three decades, VAT, a relatively new and better commodity taxation, has been introduced in many countries. It has replaced different types of sales taxes in such countries. This article attempts to evaluate VAT by comparing with other sales taxes.

  8. Summary of the U.S. National Workshop. Results for ATF Metrics Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    This presentation discussed the main outcomes of a recent US National Workshop on Accident-Tolerant Fuels, focusing on results for ATF metrics development. All thermal, mechanical and chemical properties are relevant in defining the metrics for accident tolerance, but considerable testing and analyses are needed to identify the dominant attributes and quantify the metrics. Current analysis tools are not fully adequate to complete the task, and a need was highlighted for strong collaborations to complete the experimental data to qualify the new tools

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on Fuel...

  10. Development and Implementation of a Design Metric for Systems Containing Long-Term Fluid Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.

    2016-01-01

    John Steele, a chemist and technical fellow from United Technologies Corporation, provided a water quality module to assist engineers and scientists with a metric tool to evaluate risks associated with the design of space systems with fluid loops. This design metric is a methodical, quantitative, lessons-learned based means to evaluate the robustness of a long-term fluid loop system design. The tool was developed by a cross-section of engineering disciplines who had decades of experience and problem resolution.

  11. An Exploratory Study of Value-Added and Academic Optimism of Urban Reading Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff-Franklin, Clairie L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between state-recorded value- added (VA) scores and academic optimism (AO) scores, which measure teacher self-efficacy, trust, and academic emphasis. The sample for this study is 87 third through eighth grade Reading teachers, from fifty-five schools, in an urban school district in Ohio who…

  12. On the Practices and Challenges of Measuring Higher Education Value Added: The Case of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavelson, Richard J.; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Mariño, Julián P.; Molina Mantilla, Adriana; Morales Forero, Andrés; Wiley, Edward E.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the nature of higher education are leading towards increased interest in the assessment of student learning. This study considers an attempt to apply value-added models for the purposes of comparing student learning across institutions, taking care to discuss special considerations inherent to the application of these models to higher…

  13. Sustainable multipurpose biorefineries for third-generation biofuels and value-added co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern biorefinery facilities conduct many types of processes, including those producing advanced biofuels, commodity chemicals, biodiesel, and value-added co-products such as sweeteners and bioinsecticides, with many more co-products, chemicals and biofuels on the horizon. Most of these processes ...

  14. Misreporting in the Value-Added Tax and the Optimal Enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoseini, M.

    2014-01-01

    A common fraud by registered traders in the value-added tax system is under-reporting sales and over-reporting purchases. This paper models this problem by linking the level of misreporting to the risk-aversion of taxpayers and the level of transactions with final consumers. In addition, it analyses

  15. How to Enforce Value-Added Tax? The Role of Inter-Sectoral Linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoseini, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper models and empirically tests a self-enforcing feature of the value added tax (VAT) which is absent in the theory: An incentive that makes formal traders buy from suppliers who pay VAT too. In addition, it explores how the government can deploy this feature to enforce VAT more

  16. 76 FR 37774 - Announcement of Value-Added Producer Grant Application Deadlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... communities in urban or rural areas, with limited access to healthy foods and with a high poverty and hunger... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Announcement of Value-Added Producer Grant Application Deadlines AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Funding...

  17. Handbook for Local Coordinators: Value-Added, Compact Disk, Union Catalog Test Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles

    In 1988, the Associated College Libraries of Central Pennsylvania received a grant to create a value-added, compact disk, union catalog from the U.S. Department of Education's College Library Technology and Cooperative Grants Program, Title II of the Higher Education Act. Designed to contain, in time, 2,000,830 records from 17 member library…

  18. Methods for Accounting for Co-Teaching in Value-Added Models. Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Heinrich; Isenberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Isolating the effect of a given teacher on student achievement (value-added modeling) is complicated when the student is taught the same subject by more than one teacher. We consider three methods, which we call the Partial Credit Method, Teacher Team Method, and Full Roster Method, for estimating teacher effects in the presence of co-teaching.…

  19. The Disaggregation of Value-Added Test Scores to Assess Learning Outcomes in Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Wagner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study disaggregates posttest, pretest, and value-added or difference scores in economics into four types of economic learning: positive, retained, negative, and zero. The types are derived from patterns of student responses to individual items on a multiple-choice test. The micro and macro data from the "Test of Understanding in College…

  20. Management of west African dwarf goats fed value-added cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to assist the rural small ruminant farmers in the proper feeding of their animals brought about the formulation and recommendation of value-added cassava-based diet(s) which the low income rural farmers can adopt for the feeding of their West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. This was premised on the observation of ...

  1. Getting Value out of Value-Added: Report of a Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Henry, Ed.; Chudowsky, Naomi, Ed.; Koenig, Judith, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Value-added methods refer to efforts to estimate the relative contributions of specific teachers, schools, or programs to student test performance. In recent years, these methods have attracted considerable attention because of their potential applicability for educational accountability, teacher pay-for-performance systems, school and teacher…

  2. Value Adding Management of buildings and facility services in four steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Jensen, Per Anker; Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new Value Adding Management (VAM) model that aims to support decision makers in identifying appropriate interventions in buildings, other facilities and services that add value to the organisation, to manage its implementation, and to measure the output and outcomes. The pap...

  3. Value Adding Management (VAM) of buildings and facility services in four steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard; Jensen, Per Anker; Bergsma, Feike

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new Value Adding Management (VAM) model that aims to support decision makers in identifying appropriate interventions in buildings, other facilities and services that add value to the organisation, to manage its implementation, and to measure the output and outcomes. The paper

  4. Subtraction by Distraction: Publishing Value-Added Estimates of Teachers by Name Hinders Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Diana; Miller, Raegen T.

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010 the "Los Angeles Times" published a special report on their website featuring performance ratings for nearly 6,000 Los Angeles Unified School District teachers. The move was controversial because the ratings were based on so-called value-added estimates of teachers' contributions to student learning. As with most…

  5. Reformers, Batting Averages, and Malpractice: The Case for Caution in Value-Added Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The essay considers two analogies that help to reveal the limitations of value-added modeling: the first, a comparison with batting averages, shows that the model's reliability is quite limited even though year-to-year correlation figures may seem impressive; the second, a comparison between medical malpractice and so-called educational…

  6. The Implications of Summer Learning Loss for Value-Added Estimates of Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth; Hayes, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    School districts across the United States increasingly use value-added models (VAMs) to evaluate teachers. In practice, VAMs typically rely on lagged test scores from the previous academic year, which necessarily conflate summer with school-year learning and potentially bias estimates of teacher effectiveness. We investigate the practical…

  7. An Integrative Approach to Value-Added Planning: From Community Needs to Local Authority Revenue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of value-added planning (as part of the Valuing Attractive Landscapes in the Urban Economy, INTERREG IVB North West Europe Project) is introduced in this paper to facilitate integrative planning, focusing on the benefits that use and non-use green spaces can provide to an urban area. The

  8. The International Comparison of Value Added, Productivity and Purchasing Power Parities in Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddison, Angus; Ooststroom, Harry van

    1993-01-01

    This study is part of the ICOP (International Comparison of Output and Productivity) project of the University of Groningen. It presents international comparisons of levels of value added, productivity and purchasing power parities (PPPs) in agriculture for 13 countries for 1975. An early version of

  9. Value-Added Models for Teacher Preparation Programs: Validity and Reliability Threats, and a Manageable Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Heiser, Lawrence A.; McCormick, Jazarae K.; Forgan, James

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes standardized student assessments are increasingly used in value-added evaluation models to connect teacher performance to P-12 student learning. These assessments are also being used to evaluate teacher preparation programs, despite validity and reliability threats. A more rational model linking student performance to candidates who…

  10. Value-Added Measures in Education: What Every Educator Needs to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2011-01-01

    In "Value-Added Measures in Education", Douglas N. Harris takes on one of the most hotly debated topics in education. Drawing on his extensive work with schools and districts, he sets out to help educators and policymakers understand this innovative approach to assessment and the issues associated with its use. Written in straightforward language…

  11. Make Room Value Added: Principals' Human Capital Decisions and the Emergence of Teacher Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason A.; Rubin, Mollie; Neumerski, Christine M.; Cannata, Marisa; Drake, Timothy; Schuermann, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, states and districts are combining student growth measures with rigorous, rubric-aligned teacher observations in constructing teacher evaluation measures. Although the student growth or value-added components of these measures have received much research and policy attention, the results of this study suggest that the data generated…

  12. Energy- and value added services in the electric power market in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsson, Peter

    2000-03-01

    This report tries to give a comprehensive picture of the offerings of energy- and value added services on the deregulated Swedish electric power market. A compilation of the service offerings from some 50 electric utilities is given. Market movements within deregulated sectors are treated with special emphasis on the electric power business

  13. Measurement Error and Bias in Value-Added Models. Research Report. ETS RR-17-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    By aggregating residual gain scores (the differences between each student's current score and a predicted score based on prior performance) for a school or a teacher, value-added models (VAMs) can be used to generate estimates of school or teacher effects. It is known that random errors in the prior scores will introduce bias into predictions of…

  14. Value-added strategy models to provide quality services in senior health business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Neng-Pai; Su, Shyi; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chang, Yao-Mao; Handa, Yujiro; Khan, Hafsah Arshed Ali; Elsa Hsu, Yi-Hsin

    2017-06-20

    The rapid population aging is now a global issue. The increase in the elderly population will impact the health care industry and health enterprises; various senior needs will promote the growth of the senior health industry. Most senior health studies are focused on the demand side and scarcely on supply. Our study selected quality enterprises focused on aging health and analyzed different strategies to provide excellent quality services to senior health enterprises. We selected 33 quality senior health enterprises in Taiwan and investigated their excellent quality services strategies by face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews with CEO and managers of each enterprise in 2013. A total of 33 senior health enterprises in Taiwan. Overall, 65 CEOs and managers of 33 enterprises were interviewed individually. None. Core values and vision, organization structure, quality services provided, strategies for quality services. This study's results indicated four type of value-added strategy models adopted by senior enterprises to offer quality services: (i) residential care and co-residence model, (ii) home care and living in place model, (iii) community e-business experience model and (iv) virtual and physical portable device model. The common part in these four strategy models is that the services provided are elderly centered. These models offer virtual and physical integrations, and also offer total solutions for the elderly and their caregivers. Through investigation of successful strategy models for providing quality services to seniors, we identified opportunities to develop innovative service models and successful characteristics, also policy implications were summarized. The observations from this study will serve as a primary evidenced base for enterprises developing their senior market and, also for promoting the value co-creation possibility through dialogue between customers and those that deliver service. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  15. Safety, codes and standards for hydrogen installations. Metrics development and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aaron P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); San Marchi, Christopher W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Automakers and fuel providers have made public commitments to commercialize light duty fuel cell electric vehicles and fueling infrastructure in select US regions beginning in 2014. The development, implementation, and advancement of meaningful codes and standards is critical to enable the effective deployment of clean and efficient fuel cell and hydrogen solutions in the energy technology marketplace. Metrics pertaining to the development and implementation of safety knowledge, codes, and standards are important to communicate progress and inform future R&D investments. This document describes the development and benchmarking of metrics specific to the development of hydrogen specific codes relevant for hydrogen refueling stations. These metrics will be most useful as the hydrogen fuel market transitions from pre-commercial to early-commercial phases. The target regions in California will serve as benchmarking case studies to quantify the success of past investments in research and development supporting safety codes and standards R&D.

  16. Using Web Metric Software to Drive: Mobile Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidal, Junior

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have developed mobile versions of their websites. In order to understand their users, web developers have conducted both usability tests and focus groups, yet analytical software and web server logs can also be used to better understand users. Using data collected from these tools, the Ursula C. Schwerin Library has made informed…

  17. Value-Added Electricity Services: New Roles for Utilities and Third-Party Providers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blansfield, J. [Inst. for Electric Innovations, Washington, DC (United States); Wood, L. [Inst. for Electric Innovations, Washington, DC (United States); Katofsky, R. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Stafford, B. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Waggoner, D. [Advanced Energy Economy, Washington, DC (United States); Schwartz, L. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-30

    New energy generation, storage, delivery, and end-use technologies support a broad range of value-added electricity services for retail electricity customers. Sophisticated energy management services, distributed generation coupled with storage, and electric vehicle charging are just a few examples of emerging offerings. Who should provide value-added services — utilities or third parties, or both, and under what conditions? What policy and regulatory changes may be needed to promote competition and innovation, to account for utility costs to enable these services, and to protect consumers? The report approaches the issues from three perspectives: utilities, third-party service providers, and consumers: -Jonathan Blansfield and Lisa Wood, Institute for Electric Innovation -Ryan Katofsky, Benjamin Stafford and Danny Waggoner, Advanced Energy Economy -National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates

  18. Value added tax evasion and excise duty fraud on fuel market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Semerád

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of current problems in the motor fuel market. It analyzes bottlenecks in setting the legislative changes in value added tax, excise tax and the legislation concerning fuels. The biggest problem is tax evasions that favor one group of business entities at the expense of another, and also cause that the state loses revenues mainly from indirect taxes. Therefore, attention is directed to quality control of fuels as a means of consumer protection and prevention of tax evasion and ways to combat tax evasion in import, distribution and storage of mineral oils. The examples are the most common errors found in fraudulent companies. Based on the data collected the possible ultimate evasion was estimated. Therefore, I propose that value added tax law should be amended and some other measures to improve supervision by public authorities like tax authorities and customs administration offices should be taken.

  19. 'Ecological value added' in an integrated ecosystem-economy model. An indicator for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratena, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper sets up an input-output system of the relevant ecosystem flows that determine the carbon cycle in the global ecosystem. Introducing energy as the value added component in the ecosystem allows to calculate ecosystem prices expressed in 'energy values'. Linking the ecosystem with the economy in an integrated input-output model then allows to calculate prices of economic activities and of ecosystem activities. In analogy to the 'Ecological Footprint', where productive land is needed to absorb anthropogenic emissions, in this integrated input-output model additional carbon sinks are introduced for emission absorption. These carbon sinks need solar energy input, i.e. 'ecological value added'. Emission absorption as well as GDP therefore become activities valued in the numeraire of the integrated system, i.e.'energy values'. From that sustainability indicators can be derived

  20. PENILAIAN KINERJA KEUANGAN PT. BANK MUAMALAT INDONESIA, TBK DENGAN METODE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia Ahya Nur Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the financial performance with the use of the EVA method to the assessment of the performance of PT Bank Mualamat Indonesia Tbk in the period 2010 - 2014. The research method used is quantitative descriptive method using Economic Value Added (EVA, which is an analytical method for evaluating the performance a company to take measurements of the profits (value economically produced by the company during the period (period of time specific. The results show the value of Bank Muamalat EVA is negative, meaning that Bank Muamalat in the year 2010- 2014 can not create value-added enterprise or net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT produced by the company is not able to finance or cover all capital costs or expenses incurred. In 2014 the value of EVA Bank Muamalat increasing, although still negative.

  1. Institutional Challenges to Developing Metrics of Success in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    develop national policy and strategic goals. If an IW conflict has a 11 Richard L. Daft , Essentials...13 Richard L. Daft , Essentials of Organization Theory and Design (Mason, OH:Thomson Learning, 2003), 52. 14 Henry...37 Richard L. Daft , Essentials of Organization Theory & Design (Mason, OH: Thompson Learning, 2003), 52

  2. Metrics-based control in outsourced software development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, Laura; van Eck, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Measurements have been recognised as vital instruments to improve control in outsourced software development projects. However, project managers are still struggling with the design and implementation of effective measurement programs. One reason for this is that although there is a large body of

  3. ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    It has been challenging to directly compare U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing processes and the spatial gap between model and the single-point measurements. To facilitate the use of ARM radar data in numerical models, an ARM cloud radar simulator was developed to converts model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations that mimic the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large global climate model [GCM] grid-cell), thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. The ARM cloud radar simulator value-added product (VAP) was developed based on the CloudSat simulator contained in the community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) (Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011), which has been widely used in climate model evaluation with satellite data (Klein et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2010). The essential part of the CloudSat simulator is the QuickBeam radar simulator that is used to produce CloudSat-like radar reflectivity, but is capable of simulating reflectivity for other radars (Marchand et al., 2009; Haynes et al., 2007). Adapting QuickBeam to the ARM cloud radar simulator within COSP required two primary changes: one was to set the frequency to 35 GHz for the ARM Ka-band cloud radar, as opposed to 94 GHz used for the CloudSat W-band radar, and the second was to invert the view from the ground to space so as to attenuate the beam correctly. In addition, the ARM cloud radar simulator uses a finer vertical resolution (100 m compared to 500 m for CloudSat) to resolve the more detailed structure of clouds captured by the ARM radars. The ARM simulator has been developed following the COSP workflow (Figure 1) and using the capabilities available in COSP

  4. Microalgal cultivation for value-added products: a critical enviro-economical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Richa; Pandey, Arya; Ahmad, Shamshad; Kumar, Ashwani; Pathak, Vinayak V; Tyagi, V V

    2017-08-01

    The present review focuses on the cultivation of algal biomass for generating value-added products (VAP) and to assess their economic benefits and harmful environmental impact. Additionally, the impact of bioreactor designs on the yield of microalgal biomass for VAP is also considered. All these factors are discussed in relation to the impact of microalgae production on the bio-economy sector of commercial biotechnology.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED AND CASH CONVERSION CYCLE IN COMPANIES LISTED ON THE WSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bolek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic Value Added (EVA a profitability measure and a Cash Conversion Cycle a liquidity and profitability measure are presented in this article. These ratios represent the dynamic approach to management of companies. The relationship between them may be considered as an advanced approach to management in a current economy based on intangible assets and know- how and capital allocated fast and efficient according to information common access.

  6. Value Added Taxes, Chain Effects and Informality”, Second Version

    OpenAIRE

    Aureo de Paula; Jose A. Scheinkman

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates determinants of informal economic activity. We present an equilibrium model of informality and test its implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. A novel theoretical contribution in this model is the role of value added taxes in transmitting informality. It predicts that the informality of a firm is correlated to the informality of f...

  7. Methods for conversion of carbohydrates in ionic liquids to value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haibo [The Woodlands, TX; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Zongchao C [Norwood, NJ

    2011-05-10

    Methods are described for converting carbohydrates including, e.g., monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides in ionic liquids to value-added chemicals including furans, useful as chemical intermediates and/or feedstocks. Fructose is converted to 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) in the presence of metal halide and acid catalysts. Glucose is effectively converted to HMF in the presence of chromium chloride catalysts. Yields of up to about 70% are achieved with low levels of impurities such as levulinic acid.

  8. Revenue-sharing analysis in the mobile value-added services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; TANG Shou-lian

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a framework e within which the revenue-sharing in mobile value-added services can be analyzed.It shows that the revenue-sharing ratio between a network operator and a content provider (CP) has no significant effect on prices, market shares or social welfare in the case of nonstandardization. This implies that the revenue-sharing ratio cannot be used as a policy variable.

  9. Method for conversion of carbohydrate polymers to value-added chemical products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongchao C [Norwood, NJ; Brown, Heather M [Kennewick, WA; Su, Yu [Richland, WA

    2012-02-07

    Methods are described for conversion of carbohydrate polymers in ionic liquids, including cellulose, that yield value-added chemicals including, e.g., glucose and 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) at temperatures below 120.degree. C. Catalyst compositions that include various mixed metal halides are described that are selective for specified products with yields, e.g., of up to about 56% in a single step process.

  10. The wood industry in Atlantic Canada: A focus on value-added

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This report prepared by the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency in consultation with the four Atlantic provinces focuses on the value-added aspects of the wood products industry in Atlantic Canada. It also examines the state of the resource, the state of the industry, productivity and economic benefits, products and markets, trade and regulations, and needs, challenges and targets. The analysis was undertaken to determine the possibility of further utilization of forest resources in the region for value-added products, and to assess the possibilities for the wood products industry of Atlantic Canada exploring world markets for its products. The inventory of resources found 1.4 billion cubic meter of wood-growing productive forest land in the region, with softwoods accounting for 76 per cent of the forests. Concern was expressed about forest stands at regeneration levels. Total Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) for the Atlantic Provinces in 1995 was almost 20 million cubic meter, approximately 10 per cent of the national total. Although total harvests are below the AAC for the region, softwood harvesting in 1994 and in 1995 was well above the AAC. The analysis concluded that given the current level of harvesting, sustained growth in Atlantic Canada's wood industries will have to rely on access to external fibre sources and better use of the existing fibre source. At the same time, since many value-added manufacturers in the region rely on imported wood resources, the health of the value-added wood industry does not appear to be completely dependent on the sustainability of forest resources in the Atlantic region. Part Two of the report provides an economic profile of the industry, including brief reviews on employment, wages and salaries, exports and imports, transportation, education and training, research and technology and marketing. refs., tabs

  11. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2014-12-01

    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid-liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass-solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed.

  12. a European Global Navigation Satellite System — the German Market and Value Adding Chain Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollerthun, A.; Wieser, M.

    2002-03-01

    Since Europe is considering to establish a "market-driven" European Global Navigation Satellite System, the German Center of Aerospace initiated a market research to justify a German investment in such a European project. The market research performed included the following market segments: aviation, railway, road traffic, shipping, surveying, farming, military, space applications, leisure, and sport. In these market segments, the forementioned inputs were determined for satellite navigation hardware (receivers) as well as satellite navigation services. The forecast period was from year 2007 to 2017. For the considered period, the market amounts to a total of DM 83.0 billion (approx. US $50 billion), whereas the satellite navigation equipment market makes up DM 39.8 billion, and charges for value-added-services amount to DM 43.2 billion. On closer examination road traffic can be identified as the dominant market share, both in the receiver-market and service-market. With a share of 96% for receivers and 73% for services the significance of the road traffic segment becomes obvious. The second part of this paper investigates the effects the market potential has on the Value-Adding-Chain. Therefore, all participants in the Value-Adding-Chain are identified, using industrial cost structure models the employment effect is analyzed, and possible tax revenues for the state are examined.

  13. The effects of audit value added on audit survival: Evidence from CPAs of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerungrat Sudsomboon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to investigate the relationship between antecedents and consequences of audit value added (AVA. AVA is performance of the auditors who work with dedication and commitment to quality work and usefulness for user. AVA composes three dimensions as well as audit best practice, audit continuous learning, and professional ethic awareness. The results from the questionnaire survey of 135 CPAs in Thailand. The findings identified that only two dimensions of AVA has positive relationship with all consequences as well as audit continuous learning and professional ethic awareness. Which the consequences of this study are financial information transparency, stakeholder acceptance, and audit survival. In addition, the finding shows the relationship between antecedence and audit value added are positive significant. Which the antecedence of this study are Stakeholder pressure, audit regulation change, and business environment climate. Surprisingly, have not significant the relationship between audit best practice that dimensions of audit value added and consequences. The summary of this paper not only provides theoretical and managerial contributions but also suggestions and directions of the future research are elaborate.

  14. The Impact of Corporate Governance on Financial Performance: (Measured using Accounting and Value-Added based Measures): Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Aziz, Khairul Annuar

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to test empirically which measure, an accounting based financial performance measure such as Return on Equity, Price to Earnings Ratio, Earnings Per Share and Return on Capital Employed; or value-added based financial performance measures such as Economic Value Added and Market Value Added; is more closely related with Corporate Governance Compliance. This paper also aims to study the level of Corporate Governance Compliance of the Smaller Companies listed on the KLSE, the mea...

  15. Recent advances in engineering propionyl-CoA metabolism for microbial production of value-added chemicals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangan, Kajan; Bruder, Mark; Akawi, Lamees; Miscevic, Dragan; Kilpatrick, Shane; Moo-Young, Murray; Chou, C Perry

    2017-09-01

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and mounting environmental concerns associated with petrochemical manufacturing practices have generated significant interests in developing whole-cell biocatalytic systems for the production of value-added chemicals and biofuels. Although acetyl-CoA is a common natural biogenic precursor for the biosynthesis of numerous metabolites, propionyl-CoA is unpopular and non-native to most organisms. Nevertheless, with its C3-acyl moiety as a discrete building block, propionyl-CoA can serve as another key biogenic precursor to several biological products of industrial importance. As a result, engineering propionyl-CoA metabolism, particularly in genetically tractable hosts with the use of inexpensive feedstocks, has paved an avenue for novel biomanufacturing. Herein, we present a systematic review on manipulation of propionyl-CoA metabolism as well as relevant genetic and metabolic engineering strategies for microbial production of value-added chemicals and biofuels, including odd-chain alcohols and organic acids, bio(co)polymers and polyketides. [Formula: see text].

  16. Recent advances on conversion and co-production of acetone-butanol-ethanol into high value-added bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxue; Dong, Weiliang; Jiang, Yujia; Ma, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Wenming; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Min

    2018-06-01

    Butanol is an important bulk chemical and has been regarded as an advanced biofuel. Large-scale production of butanol has been applied for more than 100 years, but its production through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process by solventogenic Clostridium species is still not economically viable due to the low butanol titer and yield caused by the toxicity of butanol and a by-product, such as acetone. Renewed interest in biobutanol as a biofuel has spurred technological advances to strain modification and fermentation process design. Especially, with the development of interdisciplinary processes, the sole product or even the mixture of ABE produced through ABE fermentation process can be further used as platform chemicals for high value added product production through enzymatic or chemical catalysis. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the most recent advances on the conversion of acetone, butanol and ABE mixture into various products, such as isopropanol, butyl-butyrate and higher-molecular mass alkanes. Additionally, co-production of other value added products with ABE was also discussed.

  17. Lignocellulose: A sustainable material to produce value-added products with a zero waste approach-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Ahmad, Zanib; Asgher, Muhammad; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-06-01

    A novel facility from the green technologies to integrate biomass-based carbohydrates, lignin, oils and other materials extraction and transformation into a wider spectrum of marketable and value-added products with a zero waste approach is reviewed. With ever-increasing scientific knowledge, worldwide economic and environmental consciousness, demands of legislative authorities and the manufacture, use, and removal of petrochemical-based by-products, from the last decade, there has been increasing research interests in the value or revalue of lignocellulose-based materials. The potential characteristics like natural abundance, renewability, recyclability, and ease of accessibility all around the year, around the globe, all makes residual biomass as an eco-attractive and petro-alternative candidate. In this context, many significant research efforts have been taken into account to change/replace petroleum-based economy into a bio-based economy, with an aim to develop a comprehensively sustainable, socially acceptable, and eco-friendly society. The present review work mainly focuses on various aspects of bio-refinery as a sustainable technology to process lignocellulose 'materials' into value-added products. Innovations in the bio-refinery world are providing, a portfolio of sustainable and eco-efficient products to compete in the market presently dominated by the petroleum-based products, and therefore, it is currently a subject of intensive research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Value-added conversion of waste cooking oil and post-consumer PET bottles into biodiesel and polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yu; Luo, Xiaolan; Wang, Feng; Li, Yebo

    2016-06-01

    A sustainable process of value-added utilization of wastes including waste cooking oil (WCO) and post-consumer PET bottles for the production of biodiesel and polyurethane (PU) foams was developed. WCO collected from campus cafeteria was firstly converted into biodiesel, which can be used as vehicle fuel. Then crude glycerol (CG), a byproduct of the above biodiesel process, was incorporated into the glycolysis process of post-consumer PET bottles collected from campus to produce polyols. Thirdly, PU foams were synthesized through the reaction of the above produced polyols with isocyanate in the presence of catalysts and other additives. The characterization of the produced biodiesel demonstrated that its properties meet the specification of biodiesel standard. The effect of crude glycerol loading on the properties of polyols and PU foams were investigated. All the polyols showed satisfactory properties for the production of rigid PU foams which had performance comparable to those of some petroleum-based analogs. A mass balance and a cost analysis for the conversion of WCO and waste PET into biodiesel and PU foams were also discussed. This study demonstrated the potential of WCO and PET waste for the production of value-added products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performation Metrics Development Analysis for Information and Communications Technology Outsourcing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, James L., III

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how and to what extent the development and use of the OV-5a operational architecture decomposition tree (OADT) from the Department of Defense (DoD) Architecture Framework (DoDAF) affects requirements analysis with respect to complete performance metrics for performance-based services acquisition of ICT under rigid…

  20. Towards a consensus on datasets and evaluation metrics for developing B-cell epitope prediction tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenbaum, Jason A.; Andersen, Pernille; Blythe, Martin

    2007-01-01

    and immunology communities. Improving the accuracy of B-cell epitope prediction methods depends on a community consensus on the data and metrics utilized to develop and evaluate such tools. A workshop, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), was recently held in Washington...

  1. Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into value-added and renewable fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Lan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO 2 to form value-added and renewable fuels is considered to be a promising avenue to solve the problems relating to CO 2 . However, the state-of-the-art photocatalytic efficiency of CO 2 reduction is far from being optimal as a viable economical process. The present review is mainly focused on the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts for CO 2 photoreduction and the undergoing mechanisms, which is anticipated to contribute to further advancement in CO 2 photoreduction with on-going efforts. - Highlights: • Brief introduction about the basic principle of artificial photosynthesis of CO 2 . • Progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts for CO 2 reduction. • Efforts devoted to excavate the in-depth mechanism of CO 2 photoreduction. • Perspectives on future research directions and open issues in CO 2 photoreduction. - Abstract: The increasing energy crisis and the worsening global climate caused by the excessive utilization of fossil fuel have boosted tremendous research activities about CO 2 capture, storage and utilization. Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO 2 to form value-added and renewable fuels such as methane or methanol has been consistently drawing increasing attention. It is like killing two birds with one stone since it can not only reduce the greenhouse effects caused by CO 2 emission but also produce value added chemicals for alternative energy supplying. This review provides a brief introduction about the basic principles of artificial photosynthesis of CO 2 and the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts from the viewpoint of light harvesting and photogenerated charge carriers boosting. Moreover, the undergoing mechanisms of CO 2 photoreduction are discussed with selected examples, in terms of adsorption of reactants, CO 2 activation as well as the possible reaction pathways

  2. Microbial Conversion of Waste Glycerol from Biodiesel Production into Value-Added Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel that is capable of being utilized by a conventional diesel engine. However, the biodiesel production process generates glycerol-containing waste streams which have become a disposal issue for biodiesel plants and generated a surplus of glycerol. A value-added opportunity is needed in order to compensate for disposal-associated costs. Microbial conversions from glycerol to valuable chemicals performed by various bacteria, yeast, fungi, and microalgae are discussed in this review paper, as well as the possibility of extending these conversions to microbial electrochemical technologies.

  3. Going beyond "highly-qualified personnel" to "value-added personnel"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel, Marc; Fox, Bradley; Gelsthorpe, Leanne; Hamilton, Roxy; Marshall, Robert; Williamson, Guida

    2005-10-01

    Employers clamour for more "Highly-Qualified Personnel" (HQP) to hire, and photonics is no exception. The challenge facing all new graduates lies in what actually constitutes a Highly-Qualified Person. Yesterday, an HQP was often understood to be a graduate with a Bachelor's, Master's or Ph.D. degree. Today, industry is demanding that an HQP be either a university or college graduate with strong academic standing AND a sound business and communications skill set. In this paper, we introduce the concept of "Value-Added Personnel" (VAP), which marries both scientific and "soft-skills" aspects, and we present a new program in Ontario to produce VAPs.

  4. THE FACTORIAL ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA WITHIN A COMPANY FROM THE ROMANIAN SEASIDE HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA-ANDREEA TRANDAFIR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aimed to show that the only indicator that can provide solutions at the operational level of a company is the economic value added. That is why we focused on the factorial analysis of this indicator, trying to highlight the influences that the economic value added determinants had on value destruction in the analysed company.

  5. Using a 'value-added' approach for contextual design of geographic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a 'value-added' approach can be used for user-centred design of geographic information. An information science perspective was used, with value being the difference in outcomes arising from alternative information sets. Sixteen drivers navigated a complex, unfamiliar urban route, using visual and verbal instructions representing the distance-to-turn and junction layout information presented by typical satellite navigation systems. Data measuring driving errors, navigation errors and driver confidence were collected throughout the trial. The results show how driver performance varied considerably according to the geographic context at specific locations, and that there are specific opportunities to add value with enhanced geographical information. The conclusions are that a value-added approach facilitates a more explicit focus on 'desired' (and feasible) levels of end user performance with different information sets, and is a potentially effective approach to user-centred design of geographic information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of the Sugar Import Reduction on Iran Economic Value Added (Input- Output Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Hayatgheibi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at understanding interactions and linkages between the sugar sector with other economic sectors, and the influence of sugar import reduction on the economic value added. To achieve the purpose, the Input-Output table of Iran for the year 2006, Leontief inverse matrix and hypothetical extraction method were used. Based on the results, sugar industry has the most forward linkages with “Manufacture of food products and beverages,…”, “husbandry, aviculture,…”, “cultivation, horticulture”, “bakery products” and “restaurants”. This sector has also strong backward linkages with “cultivation, horticulture”, “chemicals and chemical products”, “other services”, “transport and telecommunication” and “financial services, insurance and bank”. Furthermore, either one unit increase in the final demand of sugar or one unit decrease in the sugar import increases the output of whole economic, agricultural and fishing, industry and mining, and services sectors by 2.3060, 0.6019, 1.4331, and 0.2710 unit, respectively. The increasing coefficients of the value added for the above sectors are 0.4308, 0.3700, and 0.1992 unit, respectively.

  7. VALUE-ADDED TAX AND ITS EFFICIENCY: EU–28 AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Hodzic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses value-added tax (VAT, with special emphasis on efficiency in the EU-28 Member States and Turkey, over the period from 2009 to 2013. From the results of the analysis, we concluded that, the highest efficiency ratio (50.8 was recorded in Croatia in 2013. This indicates that Croatia’s value-added tax revenues as percentage of gross domestic product in the state budget were very high (12.7 in comparison to Turkey’s (9.0 in 2013. As such, VAT is one of the most important taxes in the EU-28 Member States and many countries worldwide, like Turkey. The current VAT system in EU-28 Member States and Turkey is quite complex for the growing number of businesses operating cross-border. To increase investment, competitiveness and growth, an action plan on VAT is proposed for the creation of a single VAT area. The VAT system needs to be more efficient and simpler for businesses to use.

  8. Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

    2007-03-30

    The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

  9. Trade in Value Added (TiVA in EU New Member States (EU NMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kersan-Škabić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary trade analysis indicates the necessity of calculating trade in value added (TiVA which is created through global value chains (GVCs. This paper aims to determine the characteristics and importance of GVC trade in the EU new member states (EU NMS with special emphasis placed on the industry level. The results demonstrate different levels of GVC participation of the EU NMS, where Hungary is the most integrated country and Croatia the least integrated. Regional GVCs exist because a huge part of value added (VA comes from EU member states, as in gross export as well as in final demand (Europe as a hub. The most important source countries are Germany and Italy and there is also evidence of geographical and historical relations between the countries. The domination of backward participation has been found in the analysis made on the industrial level, i.e. the EU NMS are highly dependent on the import of intermediates for the production and export of final products. Strong interconnections between imports of intermediate products and exports of final products have been found in the manufacture of computers, electronics and optical products; manufacture of wood, paper, printing and reproduction. This research has contributed to the scarce literature concerning GVC (TiVA in EU NMS and has opened up new possibilities for further research and analysis.

  10. The taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a Comparative Law approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Villanueva Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the definitions of the main taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a comparative approach to thelegislation of different countries (Spain, Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In this regard, it analyzes which legislations offer definitions according to the principles of generality, fiscal neutrality and legal certainty for VAT. Moreover, it points out that the VAT systems of those countries do not require as a condition for the configuration of the taxable events that the transactions involve a «value added» or a final consumption. In the specificcase of «supplies of goods», the VAT systems have a similar definition of the taxable event, although there are a few differences. However, in the case of«supplies of services», which is the most important taxable event for VAT, there are important differences at the time each country defines it. This is not a desirable effect for the international trade of services, since the lack of harmonization produces double taxation or double non taxation.

  11. Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into value-added and renewable fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2015-07-01

    The increasing energy crisis and the worsening global climate caused by the excessive utilization of fossil fuel have boosted tremendous research activities about CO2 capture, storage and utilization. Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO2 to form value-added and renewable fuels such as methane or methanol has been consistently drawing increasing attention. It is like killing two birds with one stone since it can not only reduce the greenhouse effects caused by CO2 emission but also produce value added chemicals for alternative energy supplying. This review provides a brief introduction about the basic principles of artificial photosynthesis of CO2 and the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts from the viewpoint of light harvesting and photogenerated charge carriers boosting. Moreover, the undergoing mechanisms of CO2 photoreduction are discussed with selected examples, in terms of adsorption of reactants, CO2 activation as well as the possible reaction pathways. Finally, perspectives on future research directions and open issues in CO2 photoreduction are outlined.

  12. The relationship between settlement population size and sustainable development measured by two sustainability metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, Bernadette; Morrissey, John; Foley, Walter; Moles, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the relative sustainability of 79 Irish villages, towns and a small city (collectively called 'settlements') classified by population size. Quantitative data on more than 300 economic, social and environmental attributes of each settlement were assembled into a database. Two aggregated metrics were selected to model the relative sustainability of settlements: Ecological Footprint (EF) and Sustainable Development Index (SDI). Subsequently these were aggregated to create a single Combined Sustainable Development Index. Creation of this database meant that metric calculations did not rely on proxies, and were therefore considered to be robust. Methods employed provided values for indicators at various stages of the aggregation process. This allowed both the first reported empirical analysis of the relationship between settlement sustainability and population size, and the elucidation of information provided at different stages of aggregation. At the highest level of aggregation, settlement sustainability increased with population size, but important differences amongst individual settlements were masked by aggregation. EF and SDI metrics ranked settlements in differing orders of relative sustainability. Aggregation of indicators to provide Ecological Footprint values was found to be especially problematic, and this metric was inadequately sensitive to distinguish amongst the relative sustainability achieved by all settlements. Many authors have argued that, for policy makers to be able to inform planning decisions using sustainability indicators, it is necessary that they adopt a toolkit of aggregated indicators. Here it is argued that to interpret correctly each aggregated metric value, policy makers also require a hierarchy of disaggregated component indicator values, each explained fully. Possible implications for urban planning are briefly reviewed

  13. Value-added Synthesis of Graphene: Recycling Industrial Carbon Waste into Electrodes for High-Performance Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Sik; Park, Chibeom; Xu, Wentao; Baek, Kangkyun; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kimoon; Choi, Hee Cheul; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2015-11-16

    We have developed a simple, scalable, transfer-free, ecologically sustainable, value-added method to convert inexpensive coal tar pitch to patterned graphene films directly on device substrates. The method, which does not require an additional transfer process, enables direct growth of graphene films on device substrates in large area. To demonstrate the practical applications of the graphene films, we used the patterned graphene grown on a dielectric substrate directly as electrodes of bottom-contact pentacene field-effect transistors (max. field effect mobility ~0.36 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1)), without using any physical transfer process. This use of a chemical waste product as a solid carbon source instead of commonly used explosive hydrocarbon gas sources for graphene synthesis has the dual benefits of converting the waste to a valuable product, and reducing pollution.

  14. Value-added Synthesis of Graphene: Recycling Industrial Carbon Waste into Electrodes for High-Performance Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Sik; Park, Chibeom; Xu, Wentao; Baek, Kangkyun; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kimoon; Choi, Hee Cheul; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a simple, scalable, transfer-free, ecologically sustainable, value-added method to convert inexpensive coal tar pitch to patterned graphene films directly on device substrates. The method, which does not require an additional transfer process, enables direct growth of graphene films on device substrates in large area. To demonstrate the practical applications of the graphene films, we used the patterned graphene grown on a dielectric substrate directly as electrodes of bottom-contact pentacene field-effect transistors (max. field effect mobility ~0.36 cm2·V-1·s-1), without using any physical transfer process. This use of a chemical waste product as a solid carbon source instead of commonly used explosive hydrocarbon gas sources for graphene synthesis has the dual benefits of converting the waste to a valuable product, and reducing pollution.

  15. Value-added Synthesis of Graphene: Recycling Industrial Carbon Waste into Electrodes for High-Performance Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Sik; Park, Chibeom; Xu, Wentao; Baek, Kangkyun; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kimoon; Choi, Hee Cheul; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a simple, scalable, transfer-free, ecologically sustainable, value-added method to convert inexpensive coal tar pitch to patterned graphene films directly on device substrates. The method, which does not require an additional transfer process, enables direct growth of graphene films on device substrates in large area. To demonstrate the practical applications of the graphene films, we used the patterned graphene grown on a dielectric substrate directly as electrodes of bottom-contact pentacene field-effect transistors (max. field effect mobility ~0.36 cm2·V−1·s−1), without using any physical transfer process. This use of a chemical waste product as a solid carbon source instead of commonly used explosive hydrocarbon gas sources for graphene synthesis has the dual benefits of converting the waste to a valuable product, and reducing pollution. PMID:26567845

  16. Integrating a health-related-quality-of-life module within electronic health records: a comparative case study assessing value added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea Christopher M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology (HIT applications that incorporate point-of-care use of health-related quality of life (HRQL assessments are believed to promote patient-centered interactions between seriously ill patients and physicians. However, it is unclear how willing primary care providers are to use such HRQL HIT applications. The specific aim of this study was to explore factors that providers consider when assessing the value added of an HRQL application for their geriatric patients. Methods Three case studies were developed using the following data sources: baseline surveys with providers and staff, observations of staff and patients, audio recordings of patient-provider interactions, and semi-structured interviews with providers and staff. Results The primary factors providers considered when assessing value added were whether the HRQL information from the module was (1 duplicative of information gathered via other means during the encounter; (2 specific enough to be useful and/or acted upon, and; (3 useful for enough patients to warrant time spent reviewing it for all geriatric patients. Secondary considerations included level of integration of the HRQL and EHR, impact on nursing workflow, and patient reluctance to provide HRQL information. Conclusions Health-related quality of life modules within electronic health record systems offer the potential benefit of improving patient centeredness and quality of care. However, the modules must provide benefits that are substantial and prominent in order for physicians to decide that they are worthwhile and sustainable. Implications of this study for future research include the identification of perceived "costs" as well as a foundation for operationalizing the concept of "usefulness" in the context of such modules. Finally, developers of these modules may need to make their products customizable for practices to account for variation in EHR capabilities and practice

  17. Development and validation of trauma surgical skills metrics: Preliminary assessment of performance after training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Stacy; Garofalo, Evan; Shalin, Valerie; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin F

    2015-07-01

    Maintaining trauma-specific surgical skills is an ongoing challenge for surgical training programs. An objective assessment of surgical skills is needed. We hypothesized that a validated surgical performance assessment tool could detect differences following a training intervention. We developed surgical performance assessment metrics based on discussion with expert trauma surgeons, video review of 10 experts and 10 novice surgeons performing three vascular exposure procedures and lower extremity fasciotomy on cadavers, and validated the metrics with interrater reliability testing by five reviewers blinded to level of expertise and a consensus conference. We tested these performance metrics in 12 surgical residents (Year 3-7) before and 2 weeks after vascular exposure skills training in the Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) course. Performance was assessed in three areas as follows: knowledge (anatomic, management), procedure steps, and technical skills. Time to completion of procedures was recorded, and these metrics were combined into a single performance score, the Trauma Readiness Index (TRI). Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test compared pretraining/posttraining effects. Mean time to complete procedures decreased by 4.3 minutes (from 13.4 minutes to 9.1 minutes). The performance component most improved by the 1-day skills training was procedure steps, completion of which increased by 21%. Technical skill scores improved by 12%. Overall knowledge improved by 3%, with 18% improvement in anatomic knowledge. TRI increased significantly from 50% to 64% with ASSET training. Interrater reliability of the surgical performance assessment metrics was validated with single intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.7 to 0.98. A trauma-relevant surgical performance assessment detected improvements in specific procedure steps and anatomic knowledge taught during a 1-day course, quantified by the TRI. ASSET training reduced time to complete vascular

  18. THE VALUE ADDED TAX AND THE EVASION CHAIN OF INTRA-COMMUNITARIAN VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliman Eugen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship IRS taxpayer runs the risk of turning into a psychological war in which, however, given the positions held, the IRS is by far on a favorable footing. Between the apparently excessively formal position held by the IRS, which seems to conceal behind the laws, and the sometimes forced interpretation of the laws, by the taxpayer, there are the courts of law, also disturbed by the legislative changes which appear to have entered a perpetual motion. The objective of the fiscal administration regarding the value added tax is to combat tax evasion and fraud. It is very important to combat evasion in the VAT field because it represents the indirect tax of the largest share in the consolidated general budget. VAT evasion represents the intention of not paying the tax, withholding or not declaring it, or requesting its refund which would not be fit, due to the exaggeration of the deductible amount of the VAT. The essential aim of the IRS inspector is to verify the correctness of the declared amount of the value added tax. It should also be observed whether the incorrectness is deliberate or whether it was due to misunderstanding, carelessness or the ignorance of the payer. In all cases judgment is necessary, as for the cases of negligence the amount to be paid must be corrected and accompanied by applying fines and / or penalties, and in the cases of intended fraud legal actions are to be applied in order to obtain a conviction. Deceitful deductions represent other methods for tax evasion and are undertaken based on fake invoices, invoices often used several times for deduction, or invoices related to purchases that have never been made. Thus there are examples of economic agents who have practiced the right to deduct the VAT due to the acquisition of goods which consisted in the property of other economic agents. In other cases noticed was the deduction of VAT on goods or services that were not included in the activities of the economic

  19. Photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} into value-added and renewable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Lan [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, New Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Xu, Yi-Jun, E-mail: yjxu@fzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, New Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO{sub 2} to form value-added and renewable fuels is considered to be a promising avenue to solve the problems relating to CO{sub 2}. However, the state-of-the-art photocatalytic efficiency of CO{sub 2} reduction is far from being optimal as a viable economical process. The present review is mainly focused on the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts for CO{sub 2} photoreduction and the undergoing mechanisms, which is anticipated to contribute to further advancement in CO{sub 2} photoreduction with on-going efforts. - Highlights: • Brief introduction about the basic principle of artificial photosynthesis of CO{sub 2}. • Progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts for CO{sub 2} reduction. • Efforts devoted to excavate the in-depth mechanism of CO{sub 2} photoreduction. • Perspectives on future research directions and open issues in CO{sub 2} photoreduction. - Abstract: The increasing energy crisis and the worsening global climate caused by the excessive utilization of fossil fuel have boosted tremendous research activities about CO{sub 2} capture, storage and utilization. Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO{sub 2} to form value-added and renewable fuels such as methane or methanol has been consistently drawing increasing attention. It is like killing two birds with one stone since it can not only reduce the greenhouse effects caused by CO{sub 2} emission but also produce value added chemicals for alternative energy supplying. This review provides a brief introduction about the basic principles of artificial photosynthesis of CO{sub 2} and the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts from the viewpoint of light harvesting and photogenerated charge carriers boosting. Moreover, the undergoing mechanisms of CO{sub 2} photoreduction are discussed with selected examples, in terms of adsorption of

  20. Area of Concern: A new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridoutt, Bradley G.; Pfister, Stephan; Manzardo, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplace. In response, a task force...... operating under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative project on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) has been working to develop generic guidance for developers of footprint metrics. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a universal footprint definition and related...... terminology as well as to discuss modelling implications. The task force has worked from the perspective that footprints should be based on LCA methodology, underpinned by the same data systems and models as used in LCA. However, there are important differences in purpose and orientation relative to LCA...

  1. Microbial chemical factories: recent advances in pathway engineering for synthesis of value added chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamankar, Himanshu; Prather, Kristala L J

    2011-08-01

    The dwindling nature of petroleum and other fossil reserves has provided impetus towards microbial synthesis of fuels and value added chemicals from biomass-derived sugars as a renewable resource. Microbes have naturally evolved enzymes and pathways that can convert biomass into hundreds of unique chemical structures, a property that can be effectively exploited for their engineering into Microbial Chemical Factories (MCFs). De novo pathway engineering facilitates expansion of the repertoire of microbially synthesized compounds beyond natural products. In this review, we visit some recent successes in such novel pathway engineering and optimization, with particular emphasis on the selection and engineering of pathway enzymes and balancing of their accessory cofactors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Upgrading of lignocellulosic biorefinery to value-added chemicals: Sustainability and economics of bioethanol-derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    with a sustainability assessment method is used as evaluation tool. First, an existing superstructure representing the lignocellulosic biorefinery design network is extended to include the options for catalytic conversion of bioethanol to value-added derivatives. Second, the optimization problem for process upgrade...... of operating profit for biorefineries producing bioethanol-derived chemicals (247 MM$/a and 241 MM$/a for diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene, respectively). Second, the optimal designs for upgrading bioethanol (i.e. production of 1,3-butadiene and diethyl ether) performed also better with respect...... to sustainability compared with the petroleum-based processes. In both cases, the effects of the market price uncertainties were also analyzed by performing quantitative economic risk analysis and presented a significant risk of investment for a lignocellulosic biorefinery (12 MM$/a and 92 MM$/a for diethyl ether...

  3. Bacillus aryabhattai BA03: a novel approach to the production of natural value-added compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Alicia; Carballo, Julia; Pérez, María José; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    A strain designated as BA03, with the ability to transform ferulic acid into vanillin and 4-vinylguaiacol, was isolated from contaminated cryovials. The production of natural value-added compounds was dependent on the media employed. The morphological and physiological characteristics of this strain were compared with those of the typical vanillin-producer strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116. According to a partial 16S rRNA sequence, we determined that BA03 belonged to Bacillus aryabhattai. In addition, analysis of the results showed that this strain exhibited interesting enzymatic activity, including cellulases, laccases, lipases and pectinases. In light of this, we propose new functions for this multitasking microorganism. We suggest that it may be used for converting lignocellulosic wastes into byproducts with industrial uses, and also for treating disposal residues such as dyes in the textile industry. Hence, the possibility for novel research with B. aryabhattai opens up in the fields of biodegradation and/or revalorization of wastes.

  4. Value-Added Products Derived from Waste Activated Sludge: A Biorefinery Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantial research has been carried out on sustainable waste activated sludge (WAS management in the last decade. In addition to the traditional approach to reduce its production volume, considering WAS as a feedstock to produce bio-products such as amino acids, proteins, short chain fatty acids, enzymes, bio-pesticides, bio-plastics, bio-flocculants and bio-surfactants represents a key component in the transformation of wastewater treatment plants into biorefineries. The quality of these bio-products is a key factor with respect to the feasibility of non-conventional WAS-based production processes. This review provides a critical assessment of the production process routes of a wide range of value-added products from WAS, their current limitations, and recommendations for future research to help promote more sustainable management of this under-utilised and ever-growing waste stream.

  5. AIP1OGREN: Aerosol Observing Station Intensive Properties Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, Annette [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flynn, Connor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The aip1ogren value-added product (VAP) computes several aerosol intensive properties. It requires as input calibrated, corrected, aerosol extensive properties (scattering and absorption coefficients, primarily) from the Aerosol Observing Station (AOS). Aerosol extensive properties depend on both the nature of the aerosol and the amount of the aerosol. We compute several properties as relationships between the various extensive properties. These intensive properties are independent of aerosol amount and instead relate to intrinsic properties of the aerosol itself. Along with the original extensive properties we report aerosol single-scattering albedo, hemispheric backscatter fraction, asymmetry parameter, and Ångström exponent for scattering and absorption with one-minute averaging. An hourly averaged file is produced from the 1-minute files that includes all extensive and intensive properties as well as submicron scattering and submicron absorption fractions. Finally, in both the minutely and hourly files the aerosol radiative forcing efficiency is provided.

  6. Problematic aspects of the economic value added measure in environment of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Beranová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The EVA indicator has been constructed in the recent past as a reaction to requirements of the new economic environment. As the EVA indicator has been introduced by Stewart Stern & Co. in the early nineties, past two decades many economists have been discussing the pros and cons of EVA application as well as various adjustments needed to calculate some relevant result. A range of attitudes to the adjustments to accounting data towards economic data exist there. As the indicator of economic value added is considered to be a criterion of company’s real economic performance it is necessary to be very careful at applying encouraged adjustments. In this article, the authors compare and discuss these adjustments advised in order to reach some ideal number. Accounting differences of US GAAP, IFRS and Czech Accounting Standards are taken into consideration.

  7. Power station fly ash. A review of value-added utilization outside of the construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.S.; Scott, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The disposal of fly ash from coal-fired power stations causes significant economic and environmental problems. A relatively small percentage of the material finds application as an ingredient in cement and other construction products, but the vast majority of material generated each year is held in ash dams or similar dumps. This unproductive use of land and the associated long-term financial burden of maintenance has led to realization that alternative uses for fly ash as a value-added product beyond incorporation in construction materials are needed. Utilization of fly ash in such areas as novel materials, waste management, recovery of metals and agriculture is reviewed in this article with the aim of looking at new areas that will expand the positive reuse of fly ash, thereby helping to reduce the environmental and economic impacts of disposal

  8. Supply of goods free of charge in value added tax system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideration represents one of the cumulatively prescribed conditions for the taxation of supplies of goods in value added tax system. In the absence of consideration there is in general no basis for taxation, which makes room for untaxed final consumption - the case in which a taxpayer deducts input VAT on purchased good that is subsequently used for his own or another person's final consumption free of charge. In this paper, the author analyzes the situations in which, for taxation purposes, the supplies of goods free of charge will be treated equally as supplies for consideration and, relying on the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice, notes the deviations of the domestic practice from the communautaire one, while providing concrete recommendations for their elimination.

  9. Handling value added tax (VAT) in economic evaluations: should prices include VAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Mickael; Christiansen, Terkel; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    In health economic evaluations, value added tax is commonly treated as a transfer payment. Following this argument, resources are valued equal to their net-of-tax prices in economic evaluations applying a societal perspective. In this article we argue that if there is the possibility that a new healthcare intervention may expand the healthcare budget, the social cost of input factors should be the gross-of-tax prices and not the net-of-tax prices. The rising interest in cost-benefit analysis and the use of absolute thresholds, net benefit estimates and acceptability curves in cost-effectiveness analysis makes this argument highly relevant for an appropriate use of these tools in prioritisation.

  10. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar Corrections Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toto, Tami [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Giangrande, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-10-15

    The KAZRCOR Value -added Product (VAP) performs several corrections to the ingested KAZR moments and also creates a significant detection mask for each radar mode. The VAP computes gaseous attenuation as a function of time and radial distance from the radar antenna, based on ambient meteorological observations, and corrects observed reflectivities for that effect. KAZRCOR also dealiases mean Doppler velocities to correct velocities whose magnitudes exceed the radar’s Nyquist velocity. Input KAZR data fields are passed through into the KAZRCOR output files, in their native time and range coordinates. Complementary corrected reflectivity and velocity fields are provided, along with a mask of significant detections and a number of data quality flags. This report covers the KAZRCOR VAP as applied to the original KAZR radars and the upgraded KAZR2 radars. Currently there are two separate code bases for the different radar versions, but once KAZR and KAZR2 data formats are harmonized, only a single code base will be required.

  11. Motivation and Organizational Behavior. Staff between Value Added and ConflictGenerating Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea A. Udrescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an organization work together two categories of motivations, the organization's management and the employees' one, the workers' one. It is often stated that the competitive added value has the particular way in which the employees are motivated and also their skills within the organization. The authors believe that the added value in a competitive market is the result of the synergy of the two types of motivations, the entrepreneurial and managerial ones and employee's own motivation. In situations where a synergy between the interests of workers and the organization's ones, the global interests of the company's is characterized by continuous growth of value added, while lack of motivation generates unequivocally conflicting states that diminishes the aspects of the outcome activities quality.

  12. MODEL PENENTUAN HARGA SAHAM: PENGUJIAN CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL MELALUI PENGUJIAN ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suripto Suripto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research tested the influence of characteristics of the firms and of EVA (Eco-nomic Value Added to stock of returns. This Research sample was company Self-100 ValueCreator of year 2001 until 2006. Result of research indicated that company size measure,profitability, capital structure (characteristics of the firms and EVA by stimulant had aneffect on significant to stock of returns, but by partial only characteristics company. Condi-tion of company fundamentals had an effect on significance to stock of returns. This indica-tion that investor still considered factors of fundamentals was having investment. EVA didnot have an effect on significant to stock of returns. This finding indicated that Model deter-mination of stock of returns (CAPM Irrelevant determined the level of EVA and also indicatedthat CAPM (Capital Assets Pricing Model was not relevant in determining stock of returns inIndonesian Stock Exchange.

  13. ARM Climate Research Facility Spectral Surface Albedo Value-Added Product (VAP) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, S; Gaustad, K; Long, C; Mlawer, E

    2011-07-15

    This document describes the input requirements, output data products, and methodology for the Spectral Surface Albedo (SURFSPECALB) value-added product (VAP). The SURFSPECALB VAP produces a best-estimate near-continuous high spectral resolution albedo data product using measurements from multifilter radiometers (MFRs). The VAP first identifies best estimates for the MFR downwelling and upwelling shortwave irradiance values, and then calculates narrowband spectral albedo from these best-estimate irradiance values. The methodology for finding the best-estimate values is based on a simple process of screening suspect data and backfilling screened and missing data with estimated values when possible. The resulting best-estimate MFR narrowband spectral albedos are used to determine a daily surface type (snow, 100% vegetation, partial vegetation, or 0% vegetation). For non-snow surfaces, a piecewise continuous function is used to estimate a high spectral resolution albedo at 1 min temporal and 10 cm-1 spectral resolution.

  14. Analysis of value added services on GDP Growth Rate using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas KUNDA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Information Technology has spawned large amount of databases and huge data in numerous areas. The research in databases and information technology has given rise to an approach to store and manipulate this data for further decision making. In this paper certain data mining techniques were adopted to analyze the data that shows relevance with desired attributes. Regression technique was adopted to help us find out the influence of Agriculture, Service and Manufacturing on the performance of gross domestic product (GDP. Trend and time series technique was applied to the data to help us find out what trend of GDP with respect to service, agriculture and manufacturing sector for the past decade has been. Finally Correlation was also used to help us analyze the relationship among the variables (service, agriculture and manufacturing sector. From the three techniques analyzed, service value added variable was the most prominent variable which showed the strong influence on GDP growth rate.

  15. Development of Cardiovascular and Neurodevelopmental Metrics as Sublethal Endpoints for the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzykwa, Julie C; Olivas, Alexis; Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin

    2018-06-19

    The fathead minnow fish embryo toxicity (FET) test has been proposed as a more humane alternative to current toxicity testing methods, as younger organisms are thought to experience less distress during toxicant exposure. However, the FET test protocol does not include endpoints that allow for the prediction of sublethal adverse outcomes, limiting its utility relative to other test types. Researchers have proposed the development of sublethal endpoints for the FET test to increase its utility. The present study 1) developed methods for previously unmeasured sublethal metrics in fathead minnows (i.e., spontaneous contraction frequency and heart rate) and 2) investigated the responsiveness of several sublethal endpoints related to growth (wet weight, length, and growth-related gene expression), neurodevelopment (spontaneous contraction frequency, and neurodevelopmental gene expression), and cardiovascular function and development (pericardial area, eye size and cardiovascular related gene expression) as additional FET test metrics using the model toxicant 3,4-dichloroaniline. Of the growth, neurological and cardiovascular endpoints measured, length, eye size and pericardial area were found to more responsive than the other endpoints, respectively. Future studies linking alterations in these endpoints to longer-term adverse impacts are needed to fully evaluate the predictive power of these metrics in chemical and whole effluent toxicity testing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  17. Development and Analysis of Psychomotor Skills Metrics for Procedural Skills Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, Chembian; Ray, Rebecca; Rutherford, Drew; Zinn, Mike; Pugh, Carla

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop and analyze the metrics associated with a force production task involving a stationary target with the help of advanced VR and Force Dimension Omega 6 haptic device. We study the effects of force magnitude and direction on the various metrics namely path length, movement smoothness, velocity and acceleration patterns, reaction time and overall error in achieving the target. Data was collected from 47 participants who were residents. Results show a positive correlation between the maximum force applied and the deflection error, velocity while reducing the path length and increasing smoothness with a force of higher magnitude showing the stabilizing characteristics of higher magnitude forces. This approach paves a way to assess and model procedural skills decay.

  18. A newly developed dispersal metric indicates the succession of benthic invertebrates in restored rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqing; Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode. Second, we tested this metric using benthic invertebrate community data from a) 23 large restored river sites with substantial improvements of river bottom habitats dating back 1 to 10years, b) 23 unrestored sites very close to the restored sites, and c) 298 adjacent surrounding sites (mean±standard deviation: 13.0±9.5 per site) within a distance of up to 5km for each restored site in the low mountain and lowland areas of Germany. We hypothesize that our metric will reflect the temporal succession process of benthic invertebrate communities colonizing the restored sites, whereas no temporal changes are expected in the unrestored and surrounding sites. By applying our metric to these three river treatment categories, we found that the average dispersal capacity of benthic invertebrate communities in the restored sites significantly decreased in the early years following restoration, whereas there were no changes in either the unrestored or the surrounding sites. After all taxa had been divided into quartiles representing weak to strong dispersers, this pattern became even more obvious; strong dispersers colonized the restored sites during the first year after restoration and then significantly decreased over time, whereas weak dispersers continued to increase

  19. BMR: Benchmarking Metrics Recommender for Personnel issues in Software Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garcia-Crespo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an architecture which applies document similarity measures to the documentation produced during the phases of software development in order to generate recommendations of process and people metrics for similar projects. The application makes a judgment of similarity of the Service Provision Offer (SPO document of a new proposed project to a collection of Project History Documents (PHD, stored in a repository of unstructured texts. The process is carried out in three stages: firstly, clustering of the Offer document with the set of PHDs which are most similar to it; this provides the initial indication of whether similar previous projects exist, and signifies similarity. Secondly, determination of which PHD in the set is most comparable with the Offer document, based on various parameters: project effort, project duration (time, project resources (members/size of team, costs, and sector(s involved, indicating comparability of projects. The comparable parameters are extracted using the GATE Natural Language Processing architecture. Lastly, a recommendation of metrics for the new project is made, which is based on the transferability of the metrics of the most similar and comparable PHD extracted, here referred to as recommendation.

  20. Deriving phenological metrics from NDVI through an open source tool developed in QGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Lia; Teodoro, A. C.; Gonçalves, Hernãni

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation indices have been commonly used over the past 30 years for studying vegetation characteristics using images collected by remote sensing satellites. One of the most commonly used is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The various stages that green vegetation undergoes during a complete growing season can be summarized through time-series analysis of NDVI data. The analysis of such time-series allow for extracting key phenological variables or metrics of a particular season. These characteristics may not necessarily correspond directly to conventional, ground-based phenological events, but do provide indications of ecosystem dynamics. A complete list of the phenological metrics that can be extracted from smoothed, time-series NDVI data is available in the USGS online resources (http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/methods_deriving.php).This work aims to develop an open source application to automatically extract these phenological metrics from a set of satellite input data. The main advantage of QGIS for this specific application relies on the easiness and quickness in developing new plug-ins, using Python language, based on the experience of the research group in other related works. QGIS has its own application programming interface (API) with functionalities and programs to develop new features. The toolbar developed for this application was implemented using the plug-in NDVIToolbar.py. The user introduces the raster files as input and obtains a plot and a report with the metrics. The report includes the following eight metrics: SOST (Start Of Season - Time) corresponding to the day of the year identified as having a consistent upward trend in the NDVI time series; SOSN (Start Of Season - NDVI) corresponding to the NDVI value associated with SOST; EOST (End of Season - Time) which corresponds to the day of year identified at the end of a consistent downward trend in the NDVI time series; EOSN (End of Season - NDVI) corresponding to the NDVI value

  1. Recent advances in the production of value added chemicals and lipids utilizing biodiesel industry generated crude glycerol as a substrate - Metabolic aspects, challenges and possibilities: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Narisetty; Sindhu, Raveendran; Madhavan, Aravind; Anju, Alphonsa Jose; Castro, Eulogio; Faraco, Vincenza; Pandey, Ashok; Binod, Parameswaran

    2017-09-01

    One of the major ecological concerns associated with biodiesel production is the generation of waste/crude glycerol during the trans-esterification process. Purification of this crude glycerol is not economically viable. In this context, the development of an efficient and economically viable strategy would be biotransformation reactions converting the biodiesel derived crude glycerol into value added chemicals. Hence the process ensures the sustainability and waste management in biodiesel industry, paving a path to integrated biorefineries. This review addresses a waste to wealth approach for utilization of crude glycerol in the production of value added chemicals, current trends, challenges, future perspectives, metabolic approaches and the genetic tools developed for the improved synthesis over wild type microorganisms were described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Saving Lives at Birth; development of a retrospective theory of change, impact framework and prioritised metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Marek; Ruysen, Harriet; Blencowe, Hannah; Yee, Kristen; Clune, Karen; DeSilva, Mary; Leffler, Marissa; Hillman, Emily; El-Noush, Haitham; Mulligan, Jo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Silver, Karlee; Lawn, Joy E

    2018-01-29

    Grand Challenges for international health and development initiatives have received substantial funding to tackle unsolved problems; however, evidence of their effectiveness in achieving change is lacking. A theory of change may provide a useful tool to track progress towards desired outcomes. The Saving Lives at Birth partnership aims to address inequities in maternal-newborn survival through the provision of strategic investments for the development, testing and transition-to-scale of ground-breaking prevention and treatment approaches with the potential to leapfrog conventional healthcare approaches in low resource settings. We aimed to develop a theory of change and impact framework with prioritised metrics to map the initiative's contribution towards overall goals, and to measure progress towards improved outcomes around the time of birth. A theory of change and impact framework was developed retrospectively, drawing on expertise across the partnership and stakeholders. This included a document and literature review, and wide consultation, with feedback from stakeholders at all stages. Possible indicators were reviewed from global maternal-newborn health-related partner initiatives, priority indicator lists, and project indicators from current innovators. These indicators were scored across five domains to prioritise those most relevant and feasible for Saving Lives at Birth. These results informed the identification of the prioritised metrics for the initiative. The pathway to scale through Saving Lives at Birth is articulated through a theory of change and impact framework, which also highlight the roles of different actors involved in the programme. A prioritised metrics toolkit, including ten core impact indicators and five additional process indicators, complement the theory of change. The retrospective nature of this development enabled structured reflection of the program mechanics, allowing for inclusion of learning from the first four rounds of the

  3. The validity and reliability of value-added and target-setting procedures with special reference to Key Stage 3

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Ian Robin

    2003-01-01

    The validity of value-added systems of measurement is crucially dependent upon there being a demonstrably unambiguous relationship between the so-called baseline, or intake measures, and any subsequent measure of performance at a later stage. The reliability of such procedures is dependent on the relationships between these two measures being relatively stable over time. A number of questions arise with regard to both the validity and reliability of value-added procedures at any level in educ...

  4. ANALISIS PENGARUH ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA DAN RASIO KEUANGAN TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Sri Hariani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the simultaneous impact and partial impact of financial ratios (ROA, ROE, EPS and Economic Value-Added (EVA on stock return. One of the four independent variables, that is EVA, are new concepts for measuring financial performance. Explanatory method was used in this research, and the sample was collected using purposive sampling method from Jakarta Islamic Index listed in Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI, Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2005 - 2007. Multiple linear regression was used for the analysis in this research.The result of the analysis shows that all independent variables, that is Return on Assets (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, Earnings per Share (EPS and EVA have both simultaneous and partial impact on the dependent variable, that is stock return. An interesting finding is that the regression coefficients are different among the variables. ROE and EPS were found to have positive and significant impact on dependent variable while EVA and ROA were found to have negative and significant impact on dependent variable. A positive value for ROE means that the ROE variable can be taken as a measure for a company’s effectivity in utilizing equity in the effort to gain profit. While EPS was found to have the most dominant impact on stock price. The higher the EPS, the greater management’s success in gaining profit for the shareholder or investors. ROA was found to have negative and significant. A finding of this research which is contrary to previous research is that economic value added (EVA was found to have negative and significant impact on stock price. However this finding can be explained as follows: first, the average debt in the companies in the sample is greater than the value of their equity so that EVA will increase due to the reduction in WACC. The increase in EVA is accompanied by a reduction in stock return. Second, positive EVA is not accompanied by any increase of stock performance in the market; and

  5. Pengaruh Struktur Kepemilikan Terhadap Kinerja Dengan Value Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (VAIC Sebagai Variabel Intervening [The Influence of Ownership Structure on Performance with Value Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (VAIC as an Intervening Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Ismiyanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of science, innovation, and economics shifts the view of how to run a labor-based business into a knowledge-based business. Intellectual capital (IC, which is based on the competitive advantage of companies, is considered as one of the hidden assets that contributes to the measurement of companies’ value. Value Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (VAICTM is a method developed by Pulic, which became the standard to gauge IC on research in various countries. Ownership structure has indicated effects on VAICTM, because shareholder’s governance reflects the control and supervision of company's assets and performance. VAICTM also has indicated impacts on ROE and company’s market performance, which is proxied by Q  Ratio Modification. The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of ownership structure, such as managerial, domestic institutional, foreign institutional, and government ownership on VAICTM, as well as the influence of VAICTM to the ROE and Q  Ratio Modification on 218 observations of listed companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period of 2009-2011 using the recursive regression analysis method. The results showed a significantly negative effect of government ownership on VAICTM, and VAICTM had a significantly positive effect on ROE and Q  Ratio Modification. BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, inovasi, dan ekonomi menggeser pandangan cara menjalankan bisnis yang berbasis tenaga kerja (labor-based business menjadi bisnis yang berkarakter ilmu pengetahuan (knowledge-based business. Intellectual capital (IC yang bertumpu pada keunggulan bersaing perusahaan dianggap menjadi salah satu hidden assets yang berkontribusi terhadap pengukuran nilai perusahaan. Value Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (VAICTM adalah metode yang dikembangkan oleh Pulic, yang menjadi standar pengukur IC pada banyak penelitian di berbagai negara. Struktur kepemilikan diindikasikan memiliki efek terhadap

  6. IAS telecommunication infrastructure and value added network services provided by IASNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Oleg L.; Marchenko, Sergei

    The topology of a packet switching network for the Soviet National Centre for Automated Data Exchange with Foreign Computer Networks and Databanks (NCADE) based on a design by the Institute for Automated Systems (IAS) is discussed. NCADE has partners all over the world: it is linked to East European countries via telephone lines while satellites are used for communication with remote partners, such as Cuba, Mongolia, and Vietnam. Moreover, there is a connection to the Austrian, British, Canadian, Finnish, French, U.S. and other western networks through which users can have access to databases on each network. At the same time, NCADE provides western customers with access to more than 70 Soviet databases. Software and hardware of IASNET use data exchange recommendations agreed with the International Standard Organization (ISO) and International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT). Technical parameters of IASNET are compatible with the majority of foreign networks such as DATAPAK, TRANSPAC, TELENET, and others. By means of IASNET, the NCADE provides connection of Soviet and foreign users to information and computer centers around the world on the basis of the CCITT X.25 and X.75 recommendations. Any information resources of IASNET and value added network services, such as computer teleconferences, E-mail, information retrieval system, intelligent support of access to databanks and databases, and others are discussed. The topology of the ACADEMNET connected to IASNET over an X.25 gateway is also discussed.

  7. Distributions of positive correlations in sectoral value added growth in the global economic network*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-02-01

    International trade has grown considerably during the process of globalization. Complex supply chains for the production of goods have resulted in an increasingly connected International Trade Network (ITN). Traditionally, direct trade relations between industries have been regarded as mediators of supply and demand spillovers. With increasing network connectivity the question arises if higher-order relations become more important in explaining a national sector's susceptibility to supply and demand changes of its trading partner. In this study we address this question by investigating empirically to what extent the topological properties of the ITN provide information about positive correlations in the production of two industry sectors. We observe that although direct trade relations between industries serve as important indicators for correlations in the industries' value added growth, opportunities of substitution for required production inputs as well as second-order trade relations cannot be neglected. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the relation between trade and economic productivity and can serve as a basis for the improvement of crisis spreading models that evaluate contagion threats in the case of a node's failure in the ITN.

  8. B. C. Hydro's new value-added customer service: the building check-up program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepting, C.; Jung, C.; Herman, L.

    1996-01-01

    A recently initiated program of British Columbia Hydro, called 'building check-up' (BCU), which provides a package of value-added services to commercial and institutional customers, was described. The B. C. Hydro program offers a menu of services, allowing customers to select their own combinations. Type of services included in the menu range from basic billing information to energy audits, hourly energy analysis, bill calibration, energy efficiency screening and reporting. The program was instituted in response to a need to adjust demand-side management programs as the utility industry moves towards deregulation, and subsequent increased competition. The objective of the programs is not only to retain present customers but also to pursue new customers in a more competitive environment. Details of the various service components were provided. A preliminary assessment of the program found favorable customer reception. Future evaluation programs envisage formalized participant feedback, and a determination of the direct and indirect cost-effectiveness of the BCU program. 6 figs

  9. Toward an Understanding of Motivational Influences on Prospective Memory Using Value-Added Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I Cook

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased prospective memory performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2 and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2 conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in prospective memory was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational prospective memory showed mixed results regarding whether prospective memory improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, prospective memory improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of prospective memory.

  10. VANTAGENS E DESVANTAGENS DA MENSURAÇAO DO LUCRO ECONOMICO USO DO ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED - EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Bockmann Siqueira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A globalização da economia, a velocidade e a qualidade das informações, o avanço das telecomunicações e da informatização e o aprimoramento de técnicas gerenciais são aspectos que contribuem de forma expressiva para a crescente e irreversível competitividade dos mercados. Nesse ambiente de rápidas mudanças, onde a busca por resultados e uma constante, o valor tem-se tornado cada vez mais questionado e discutido nas organizações, impondo-se-lhes a necessidade de estar permanentemente alertas e aptas a enfrentar as crises com vistas à produção de riquezas Para tanto as empresas estão sempre em busca de elementos que Ihes proporcionem um diferencial em relação à concorrência, quer seja em termos de estratégias, quer seja em termos de produtos, preços, informações na tecnologia. Dentro dente contexto, e que se desenvolve o presente trabalho, cujo objetivo c fazer uma analise do Economic Value Added - EVA, apresentando o fim a que o modelo se destina, segundo seus criadores, e confrontando diversos posicionamentos em relação it sua eficácia e eficiência, na tentativa de ressaltar seus aspectos positivos e negativos.

  11. APPLYING THE THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS TO INCREASE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED: PART 1—THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malan Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article, presented in two parts, explains how to apply the Theory of Constraints (TOC in a business to increase Economic Value Added (EVA. The first part deals with the theory, while the second part deals with the implementation. The goal of a business, the measurements of the goal and the priority of the measurements are discussed. The future reality of a company which implements TOC principles is shown through cause and effect to lead to an increase in EVA. The increase in EVA is caused by an increase in return on investment and a reduction in the cost of capital. The actions the company must take to increase EVA is presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel, aangebied in twee dele, verduidelik hoe om die Teorie van Beperkinge (TVB in a besigheid toe te pas om Ekonomiese Toegevoegde Waarde (ETW te vermeerder. Die eerste gedeelte verduidelik die teorie, terwyl die tweede gedeelte die toepassing hanteer. Die doel van ’n besigheid, die maatstawwe van die doel en die prioriteit van die maatstawwe word bespreek. Deur middel van oorsaak en effek word gewys dat die toekomstige werklikheid van ’n besigheid wat TVB beginsels toepas lei tot ’n toename in ETW. Die toename in ETW word veroorsaak deur ’n toename in opbrengs op belegging en ’n afname in die koste van kapitaal. Die aksies wat ’n besigheid moet neem om ETW te vermeerder, word genoem.

  12. Value Added Tax and price stability in Nigeria: A partial equilibrium analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Ikpe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of Value Added Tax (VAT that was implemented in Nigeria in 1994 has generated much debate in recent times, especially with respect to its effect on the level of aggregate prices. This study empirically examines the influence of VAT on price stability in Nigeria using partial equilibrium analysis. We introduced the VAT variable in the framework of a combination of structuralist, monetarist and fiscalist approaches to inflation modelling. The analysis was carried out by applying multiple regression analysis in static form to data for the 1994-2010 period. The results reveal that VAT exerts a strong upward pressure on price levels, most likely due to the burden of VAT on intermediate outputs. The study rules out the option of VAT exemptions for intermediate outputs as a solution, due to the difficulty in distinguishing between intermediate and final outputs. Instead, it recommends a detailed post-VAT cost-benefit analysis to assess the social desirability of VAT policy in Nigeria.

  13. Incorporating big data into treatment plan evaluation: Development of statistical DVH metrics and visualization dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Charles S; Yao, John; Eisbruch, Avraham; Balter, James M; Litzenberg, Dale W; Matuszak, Martha M; Kessler, Marc L; Weyburn, Grant; Anderson, Carlos J; Owen, Dawn; Jackson, William C; Haken, Randall Ten

    2017-01-01

    To develop statistical dose-volume histogram (DVH)-based metrics and a visualization method to quantify the comparison of treatment plans with historical experience and among different institutions. The descriptive statistical summary (ie, median, first and third quartiles, and 95% confidence intervals) of volume-normalized DVH curve sets of past experiences was visualized through the creation of statistical DVH plots. Detailed distribution parameters were calculated and stored in JavaScript Object Notation files to facilitate management, including transfer and potential multi-institutional comparisons. In the treatment plan evaluation, structure DVH curves were scored against computed statistical DVHs and weighted experience scores (WESs). Individual, clinically used, DVH-based metrics were integrated into a generalized evaluation metric (GEM) as a priority-weighted sum of normalized incomplete gamma functions. Historical treatment plans for 351 patients with head and neck cancer, 104 with prostate cancer who were treated with conventional fractionation, and 94 with liver cancer who were treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy were analyzed to demonstrate the usage of statistical DVH, WES, and GEM in a plan evaluation. A shareable dashboard plugin was created to display statistical DVHs and integrate GEM and WES scores into a clinical plan evaluation within the treatment planning system. Benchmarking with normal tissue complication probability scores was carried out to compare the behavior of GEM and WES scores. DVH curves from historical treatment plans were characterized and presented, with difficult-to-spare structures (ie, frequently compromised organs at risk) identified. Quantitative evaluations by GEM and/or WES compared favorably with the normal tissue complication probability Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, transforming a set of discrete threshold-priority limits into a continuous model reflecting physician objectives and historical experience

  14. Value-added Data Services at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptoukh, G. G.; Alcott, G. T.; Kempler, S. J.; Lynnes, C. S.; Vollmer, B. E.

    2004-05-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), in addition to serving the Earth Science community as one of the major Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), provides much more than just data. Among the value-added services available to general users are subsetting data spatially and/or by parameter, online analysis (to avoid downloading unnecessary all the data), and assistance in obtaining data from other centers. Services available to data producers and high-volume users include consulting on building new products with standard formats and metadata and construction of data management systems. A particularly useful service is data processing at the DISC (i.e., close to the input data) with the users' algorithms. This can take a number of different forms: as a configuration-managed algorithm within the main processing stream; as a stand-alone program next to the on-line data storage; as build-it-yourself code within the Near-Archive Data Mining (NADM) system; or as an on-the-fly analysis with simple algorithms embedded into the web-based tools. Partnerships between the GES DISC and scientists, both producers and users, allow the scientists concentrate on science, while the GES DISC handles the of data management, e.g., formats, integration and data processing. The existing data management infrastructure at the GES DISC supports a wide spectrum of options: from simple data support to sophisticated on-line analysis tools, producing economies of scale and rapid time-to-deploy. At the same time, such partnerships allow the GES DISC to serve the user community more efficiently and to better prioritize on-line holdings. Several examples of successful partnerships are described in the presentation.

  15. Custom auroral electrojet indices calculated by using MANGO value-added services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.; Moore, W. B.; King, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    A set of computational routines called MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is utilized to calculate customized versions of the auroral electrojet indices, AE, AL, and AU. MANGO is part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The MANGO value-added service package is composed of a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of magnetic field disturbance, station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"-style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to completion producing as much derived data as possible. The capabilities of the MANGO service package will be demonstrated through their application to the study of auroral electrojet current flow during magnetic substorms. Traditionally, the AE indices are calculated by using data from about twelve ground stations located at northern auroral zone latitudes spread longitudinally around the world. Magnetogram data are corrected for secular variation prior to calculating the standard version of the indices but the data are not corrected for diurnal variations. A custom version of the AE indices will be created by using the MANGO routines including a step to subtract diurnal curves from the magnetic field data at each station. The custom AE indices provide more accurate measures of auroral electrojet activity due to isolation of the sunstorm electrojet magnetic field signiture. The improvements in the accuracy of the custom AE indices over the tradition indices are largest during the northern hemisphere summer when the range of diurnal variation reaches its maximum.

  16. A practical guide for implementing and maintaining value-added clinical systems learning roles for medical students using a diffusion of innovations framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Jed D; Graaf, Deanna; Ahluwalia, Amarpreet; Wolpaw, Dan R; Thompson, Britta M

    2018-03-21

    After emphasizing biomedical and clinical sciences for over a century, US medical schools are expanding experiential roles that allow students to learn about health care delivery while also adding value to patient care. After developing a program where all 1st-year medical students are integrated into interprofessional care teams to contribute to patient care, authors use a diffusion of innovations framework to explore and identify barriers, facilitators, and best practices for implementing value-added clinical systems learning roles. In 2016, authors conducted 32 clinical-site observations, 29 1:1 interviews with mentors, and four student focus-group interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Authors discussed drafts of the categorization scheme, and agreed upon results and quotations. Of 36 sites implementing the program, 17 (47%) remained, 8 (22%) significantly modified, and 11 (31%) withdrew from the program. Identified strategies for implementing value-added roles included: student education, patient characteristics, patient selection methods, activities performed, and resources. Six themes influencing program implementation and maintenance included: (1) educational benefit, (2) value added to patient care from student work, (3) mentor time and site capacity, (4) student engagement, (5) working relationship between school, site, and students, and, (6) students' continuity at the site. Health systems science is an emerging focus for medical schools, and educators are challenged to design practice-based roles that enhance education and add value to patient care. Health professions' schools implementing value-added roles will need to invest resources and strategize about best-practice strategies to guide efforts.

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF KEY PROCESSES THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF VALUE ADDED IN TECHNOLOGY- BASED COMPANIES A SINGLE PROJECT PRODUCTIONS OF THE WATER SECTOR IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Maylín, Hernández Oro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the main results of research designed to improve key business processes, using a procedure designed for this purpose, and which includes among its main stages, the analysis of value added by activity, adapting to technology based companies’ productions by one of the water sector project in Cuba. The procedure consistently combines different techniques such as multi-criteria decision analysis for selection of the key processes and analysis of value added by activity to identify key processes to improve and identify opportunities for improvement. The main results are able to identify, classify and relate the processes taking place in the organization, and represent them in a process map, and then determine the key processes for improvement, based on the analysis of value added at each process of each of the activities in it. Derived from the results obtained are proposed and implemented a set of organizational improvements had a positive economic impact for the company under study, allowing a positive conclusion on the feasibility of implementation, flexibility and robustness of the procedure developed in technology-based companies single project productions of the water sector in Cuba to support their business management.

  18. Development of Methodologies, Metrics, and Tools for Investigating Human-Robot Interaction in Space Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Neta; Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis; Sandor, Aniko; Boyer, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Robonaut, and Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV), as well as interviews with robotics trainers, robot operators, and developers of gesture interfaces. A survey of methods and metrics used in HRI was completed to identify those most applicable to space robotics. These methods and metrics included techniques and tools associated with task performance, the quantification of human-robot interactions and communication, usability, human workload, and situation awareness. The need for more research in areas such as natural interfaces, compensations for loss of signal and poor video quality, psycho-physiological feedback, and common HRI testbeds were identified. The initial findings from these activities and planned future research are discussed. Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator

  19. Metrication manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, A.F.A.; Digby, R.B.; Thong, S.P.; Lacey, F.

    1978-04-01

    In April 1978 a meeting of senior metrication officers convened by the Commonwealth Science Council of the Commonwealth Secretariat, was held in London. The participants were drawn from Australia, Bangladesh, Britain, Canada, Ghana, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Trinidad and Tobago. Among other things, the meeting resolved to develop a set of guidelines to assist countries to change to SI and to compile such guidelines in the form of a working manual

  20. Developing a composite weighted quality metric to reflect the total benefit conferred by a health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskler, Glen B; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2015-03-01

    To improve individual health quality measures, which are associated with varying degrees of health benefit, and composite quality metrics, which weight individual measures identically. We developed a health-weighted composite quality measure reflecting the total health benefit conferred by a health plan annually, using preventive care as a test case. Using national disease prevalence, we simulated a hypothetical insurance panel of individuals aged 25 to 84 years. For each individual, we estimated the gain in life expectancy associated with 1 year of health system exposure to encourage adherence to major preventive care guidelines, controlling for patient characteristics (age, race, gender, comorbidity) and variation in individual adherence rates. This personalized gain in life expectancy was used to proxy for the amount of health benefit conferred by a health plan annually to its members, and formed weights in our health-weighted composite quality measure. We aggregated health benefits across the health insurance membership panel to analyze total health system performance. Our composite quality metric gave the highest weights to health plans that succeeded in implementing tobacco cessation and weight loss. One year of compliance with these goals was associated with 2 to 10 times as much health benefit as compliance with easier-to-follow preventive care services, such as mammography, aspirin, and antihypertensives. For example, for women aged 55 to 64 years, successful interventions to encourage weight loss were associated with 2.1 times the health benefit of blood pressure reduction and 3.9 times the health benefit of increasing adherence with screening mammography. A single health-weighted quality metric may inform measurement of total health system performance.

  1. Cost-savings accruable to removing value added tax from antiretrovirals in the South African private health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Bangalee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the important and essential role that medicines play in any society, all medicines, including those identified as essential, are uniformly subjected to 14% value added tax (VAT, regardless of their therapeutic value in the private healthcare sector of South Africa. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the potential cost-saving attained from the removal of VAT from the private sector pricing of essential medicines, using antiretroviral treatment as an example. Methods: An empirical analysis was undertaken to illustrate the potential cost-saving achieved by removing VAT from the Single Exit Price and the dispensing fee of essential medicines. This outcome was demonstrated by applying the methodology to an adult fixed dose combination 1st line antiretroviral regimen as well as to a group of 3rd line antiretroviral medicines. Results: The potential saving for the lowest priced generic and originator 1st line antiviral regimen accrued to ZAR 693.84 and ZAR 1085.04 over a year respectively. Regarding the 3rd line antiretroviral drugs, results yielded an annual saving of ZAR 1678.68 (darunavir, ZAR5741.04 (maraviroc and ZAR 159.48 (rilpivirine. Conclusions: Lobbying for the removal of VAT from the supply chain of medicines should be intensified. Policy development to monitor and recover lost government revenue through the removal of taxes should be explored.

  2. Towards Improved Satellite-In Situ Oceanographic Data Interoperability and Associated Value Added Services at the Podaac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Huang, T.; Holt, B.

    2015-12-01

    The earth science enterprise increasingly relies on the integration and synthesis of multivariate datasets from diverse observational platforms. NASA's ocean salinity missions, that include Aquarius/SAC-D and the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field campaign, illustrate the value of integrated observations in support of studies on ocean circulation, the water cycle, and climate. However, the inherent heterogeneity of resulting data and the disparate, distributed systems that serve them complicates their effective utilization for both earth science research and applications. Key technical interoperability challenges include adherence to metadata and data format standards that are particularly acute for in-situ data and the lack of a unified metadata model facilitating archival and integration of both satellite and oceanographic field datasets. Here we report on efforts at the PO.DAAC, NASA's physical oceanographic data center, to extend our data management and distribution support capabilities for field campaign datasets such as those from SPURS. We also discuss value-added services, based on the integration of satellite and in-situ datasets, which are under development with a particular focus on DOMS. The distributed oceanographic matchup service (DOMS) implements a portable technical infrastructure and associated web services that will be broadly accessible via the PO.DAAC for the dynamic collocation of satellite and in-situ data, hosted by distributed data providers, in support of mission cal/val, science and operational applications.

  3. VALUE-ADDED SERVICE INVESTING AND PRICING STRATEGIES FOR A TWO-SIDED PLATFORM UNDER INVESTING RESOURCE CONSTRAINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guowei Dou; Ping He

    2017-01-01

    Investing on value-added service (VAS) amplifies users' participation and platform profit.However,the investing resource is usually limited in practice.This paper investigates VAS investing and pricing strategies for a two-sided platform under investing resource constraint.We reveal that with VAS investment,Subsidizing can still be done to enlarge users' demand,even when the investing cost becomes higher.For optimal pricing strategies,the network effect will be the dominating determinant if the gap between two marginal cross-side benefits (i.e.the benefit that users obtain when each new user join the other side of the platform) is large.Interestingly,we show that with the increase of the marginal investing cost,users might either be priced higher or lower.If the marginal investing cost increases to a high level,and the gap between the two marginal cross-side benefits is large,lowering the access fee for users possessing the higher cross-side network effect does not necessarily compensate more profit loss caused by higher cost.Moreover,after VAS is developed,raising the access fee for those whose marginal investing benefit is large does not necessarily generate more profit as well.The opposite strategy further enlarges users' utility,and promotes the investment to benefit more users.

  4. Sustainability Assessment of a Military Installation: A Template for Developing a Mission Sustainability Framework, Goals, Metrics and Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    integration across base MSF Category: Neighbors and Stakeholders (NS) No. Conceptual Metric No. Conceptual Metric NS1 “ Walkable ” on-base community...34 Walkable " on- base community design 1 " Walkable " community Design – on-base: clustering of facilities, presence of sidewalks, need for car...access to public transit LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND) 0-100 index based on score of walkable community indicators Adapt LEED-ND

  5. Relating life cycle assessment indicators to gross value added for Dutch dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Dolman, M.A.; Van Calker, K.J.; De Boer, I.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable dairy production requires farms that are economically viable, environmentally sound and socially acceptable. A low environmental impact of milk production is not necessarily associated with an economically viable farm. To gain insight into a possible trade-off between economic and environmental sustainability, the relation between the environmental and economic indicators of dairy farms was quantified, and farm characteristics that influence this relation were identified. Economic and environmental indicators were quantified for 119 specialized dairy farms in 2005, based on data from the Dutch Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). Economic indicators used were: gross value added expressed per kg fat-and-protein-corrected milk (FPCM) or expressed per unit of labour, i.e. labour productivity. Environmental indicators used were: land use per kg FPCM, energy use per kg FPCM, global warming potential per kg FPCM, eutrophication and acidification potential per kg FPCM or per ha of land. Environmental indicators were deduced from a life cycle assessment. High labour productivity on dairy farms was associated with low on-farm energy use, total and on-farm land use, total and on-farm global warming potential, and total and off-farm acidification potential per kg FPCM. High labour productivity, however, was associated also with high on-farm eutrophication and acidification potential per hectare. From partial least squares regression analysis, it was concluded that relations between economic and environmental indicators were affected mainly by milk production per ha, annual milk production per cow, farm size, and amount of concentrates per kg FPCM. An increase in annual milk production per cow, for example, not only increased labour productivity, reduced energy use and global warming potential per kg FPCM but also, in the case of an unchanged stocking density, increased eutrophication and acidification per ha. To be economically and environmentally sustainable

  6. Preparation of value-added metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) using waste PET bottles as source of acid linker

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dyosiba, Xoliswa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available of Value-added Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) Using Waste PET Bottles as Source of Acid Linker Xoliswa Dyosiba, Jianwei Ren, Nicholas M. Musyoka, Henrietta W. Langmi, Mkhulu Mathe, Maurice S. Onyango PII: S2214-9937(16)30053-7 DOI: doi:10.1016/j..., Hen- rietta W. Langmi, Mkhulu Mathe, Maurice S. Onyango, Preparation of Value-added Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) Using Waste PET Bottles as Source of Acid Linker, Sustainable Materials and Technologies (2016), doi:10.1016/j.susmat.2016...

  7. Does school ethos explain the relationship between value-added education and teenage substance use? A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Wolfgang A.; Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Aveyard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies found lower substance use in schools achieving better examination and truancy results than expected, given their pupil populations (high value-added schools). This study examines whether these findings are replicated in West Scotland and whether school ethos indicators focussing on pupils' perceptions of schooling (environment, involvement, engagement and teacher–pupil relations) mediate the associations. Teenagers from forty-one schools (S2, aged 13, n = 2268; S4, aged 15, n = 2096) previously surveyed in primary school (aged 11, n = 2482) were surveyed in the late 1990s. School value-added scores were derived from standardised residuals of two regression equations separately predicting from pupils' socio-demographic characteristics (1) proportions of pupils passing five Scottish Standard Grade Examinations, and (2) half-day truancy loss. Outcomes were current smoking, monthly drinking, ever illicit drug use. Random effects logistic regression models adjusted for potential pupil-level confounders were used to assess (1) associations between substance use and school-level value-added scores and (2) whether these associations were mediated by pupils' perceptions of schooling or other school-level factors (school roll, religious denomination and mean aggregated school-level ethos scores). Against expectations, value-added education was positively associated with smoking (Odds Ratios [95% confidence intervals] for one standard deviation increase in value-added scores were 1.28 [1.02–1.61] in S2 and 1.13 [1.00–1.27] in S4) and positively but weakly and non-significantly associated with drinking and drug use. Engagement and positive teacher–pupil relations were strongly and negatively associated with all substance use outcomes at both ages. Other school-level factors appeared weakly and largely non-significantly related to substance use. Value-added scores were unrelated to school ethos measures and no ethos measure mediated associations

  8. Does school ethos explain the relationship between value-added education and teenage substance use? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Wolfgang A; Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Aveyard, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies found lower substance use in schools achieving better examination and truancy results than expected, given their pupil populations (high value-added schools). This study examines whether these findings are replicated in West Scotland and whether school ethos indicators focussing on pupils' perceptions of schooling (environment, involvement, engagement and teacher-pupil relations) mediate the associations. Teenagers from forty-one schools (S2, aged 13, n = 2268; S4, aged 15, n = 2096) previously surveyed in primary school (aged 11, n = 2482) were surveyed in the late 1990s. School value-added scores were derived from standardised residuals of two regression equations separately predicting from pupils' socio-demographic characteristics (1) proportions of pupils passing five Scottish Standard Grade Examinations, and (2) half-day truancy loss. Outcomes were current smoking, monthly drinking, ever illicit drug use. Random effects logistic regression models adjusted for potential pupil-level confounders were used to assess (1) associations between substance use and school-level value-added scores and (2) whether these associations were mediated by pupils' perceptions of schooling or other school-level factors (school roll, religious denomination and mean aggregated school-level ethos scores). Against expectations, value-added education was positively associated with smoking (Odds Ratios [95% confidence intervals] for one standard deviation increase in value-added scores were 1.28 [1.02-1.61] in S2 and 1.13 [1.00-1.27] in S4) and positively but weakly and non-significantly associated with drinking and drug use. Engagement and positive teacher-pupil relations were strongly and negatively associated with all substance use outcomes at both ages. Other school-level factors appeared weakly and largely non-significantly related to substance use. Value-added scores were unrelated to school ethos measures and no ethos measure mediated associations between value-added

  9. Japanese Consumption Tax with Regard to Cross-Border Service Trading : A Comparison with EU-Type Value Added Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    細木, 宏和; ホソキ, ヒロカズ; Hirokazu, HOSOKI

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines a tax jurisdiction issue of the consumption tax system with regard to Japanese service trading. The Destination principle for service trading has not been established in Japanese consumption tax, but taxation at the place of consumption is gradually being adopted for value-added taxes in the EU. Under these circumstances, it is necessary for us to revise the Japanese consumption tax system in favor of taxation at the place of consumption, using EU-type value-added tax syst...

  10. The Use of a School Value-Added Model for Educational Improvement: A Case Study from the Portuguese Primary Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia; Couto, Alcino Pinto

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of a value-added approach for promoting school improvement. It presents yearly value-added estimates, analyses their stability over time, and discusses the contribution of this methodological approach for promoting school improvement programmes in the Portuguese system of evaluation. The value-added model is applied…

  11. Hospital readiness for health information exchange: development of metrics associated with successful collaboration for quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korst, Lisa M; Aydin, Carolyn E; Signer, Jordana M K; Fink, Arlene

    2011-08-01

    The development of readiness metrics for organizational participation in health information exchange is critical for monitoring progress toward, and achievement of, successful inter-organizational collaboration. In preparation for the development of a tool to measure readiness for data-sharing, we tested whether organizational capacities known to be related to readiness were associated with successful participation in an American data-sharing collaborative for quality improvement. Cross-sectional design, using an on-line survey of hospitals in a large, mature data-sharing collaborative organized for benchmarking and improvement in nursing care quality. Factor analysis was used to identify salient constructs, and identified factors were analyzed with respect to "successful" participation. "Success" was defined as the incorporation of comparative performance data into the hospital dashboard. The most important factor in predicting success included survey items measuring the strength of organizational leadership in fostering a culture of quality improvement (QI Leadership): (1) presence of a supportive hospital executive; (2) the extent to which a hospital values data; (3) the presence of leaders' vision for how the collaborative advances the hospital's strategic goals; (4) hospital use of the collaborative data to track quality outcomes; and (5) staff recognition of a strong mandate for collaborative participation (α=0.84, correlation with Success 0.68 [P<0.0001]). The data emphasize the importance of hospital QI Leadership in collaboratives that aim to share data for QI or safety purposes. Such metrics should prove useful in the planning and development of this complex form of inter-organizational collaboration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Are We Doing Any Good? A Value-Added Analysis of UBC's Science One Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Waltham

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Science One is a full academic year interdisciplinary alternative to the traditional first-year experience in the Faculty of Science at the University of British Columbia (UBC. Anecdotal reports suggest that alumni/ae of the program do very well in upper-level classes and many become successful graduate and medical students. The high faculty/student ratio makes the program an expensive one, however, and thus we have sought rigorous evidence of the benefits to our students. Our approach has been a value-added one; we have compared high-school and upper-level undergraduate grades for students in all UBC's first-year science programs. We have found a clear signal that there is a large benefit to participating in Science One, and conclude that this arises from a combination of the recruitment of enthusiastic students who are up for a challenge, the Science One admissions process, and taking the program itself.Science One consiste en une année scolaire interdisciplinaire complète qui représente une variante de l’expérience traditionnelle vécue en première année à la Faculté des sciences de l’Université de la Colombie-Britannique (UBC. Des rapports isolés suggèrent que les anciens étudiants du programme obtiennent de très bons résultats dans les cours de niveau supérieur et plusieurs obtiennent leur diplôme avec succès et étudient en médecine. Cependant, le ratio élevé enseignant/étudiant fait en sorte que le programme coûte cher, c’est pourquoi les auteurs ont cherché à obtenir des données probantes sur les avantages qu’il présente pour leurs étudiants. Ils ont employé la méthode de la valeur ajoutée; ont comparé les notes obtenues au secondaire et celles des étudiants de premier cycle inscrits à des cours de niveau supérieur dans tous les programmes scientifiques offerts à l’UBC. Ils ont découvert que la participation à Science One est très bénéfique et ont conclu que cela résulte d

  13. Building for a better hospital. Value-adding management & design of healthcare real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan van der Zwart

    2014-09-01

    are representative in the physical
built environment of hospitals. This is possible by comparing the results of design assessment with measures of user experiences in actual buildings, e.g. by building-in- use studies or so-called Post-Occupancy Evaluations (POE. Toolbox to support value adding management & design One of the results of this research is the design of a toolbox that can contribute to
the decision-making regarding accommodation for hospitals. This toolbox provides
a structure for the context, value, design and management of accommodation and is intended as a reference for the alignment between real estate and the organisation
of healthcare. The instruments can be used independently of each other, but can
also be combined. As such, the toolbox provides guidelines for the distribution of responsibilities and tasks between the hospital board, real estate manager, healthcare managers and architects in various phases of occupancy, initiative and design. Existing frameworks as the starting point The case studies demonstrate the usefulness of the conceptual models of CREM in matching accommodation for hospitals and the organisation of healthcare. The model for context-mapping provides a starting point for getting a grip on the position of real estate in the dynamic context of hospitals. The arrangement of different conceptual models in the meta-model and the link to the EFQM model as an abstract description of the organisation results in a roadmap in which the accommodation and organisation of healthcare can be coordinated iteratively. While the meta-model at the level of the CEO provides an overview and outline of the considerations to be made, the integrating framework is a comprehensive tool for real estate managers to further elaborate on these various steps. Generic values from the literature are discussed and translated into the sector-specific added value of hospital real estate. In addition, design assessment makes it possible to test various

  14. Energy- and value added services in the electric power market in Sweden; Energi- och mervaerdestjaenster paa elmarknaden i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsson, Peter

    2000-03-01

    This report tries to give a comprehensive picture of the offerings of energy- and value added services on the deregulated Swedish electric power market. A compilation of the service offerings from some 50 electric utilities is given. Market movements within deregulated sectors are treated with special emphasis on the electric power business.

  15. The Test Matters: The Relationship between Classroom Observation Scores and Teacher Value Added on Multiple Types of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Pam; Cohen, Julie; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Brown, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined how the relationships between one observation protocol, the Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observation (PLATO), and value-added measures shift when different tests are used to assess student achievement. Using data from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project, we found that PLATO was more strongly related to the…

  16. The Effect of Working Condition on Math Teacher Effectiveness: Value-Added Scores and Student Satisfaction in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yincheng; Singh, Kusum

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand how math teachers' effectiveness as measured by value-added scores and student satisfaction with teaching is influenced by school's working conditions. The data for the study were derived from 2009 to 2010 Teacher Working Condition Survey and Student Perception Survey in Measures of Effective…

  17. Assessing the Potential of Using Value-Added Estimates of Teacher Job Performance for Making Tenure Decisions. Working Paper 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Hansen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Reforming teacher tenure is an idea that appears to be gaining traction with the underlying assumption being that one can infer to a reasonable degree how well a teacher will perform over her career based on estimates of her early-career effectiveness. Here we explore the potential for using value-added models to estimate performance and inform…

  18. The Cost-Effectiveness of Replacing the Bottom Quartile of Novice Teachers through Value-Added Teacher Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.; Ritter, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted of Gordon, Kane, and Staiger's (2006) proposal to raise student achievement by identifying and replacing the bottom quartile of novice teachers, using value-added assessment of teacher performance. The cost effectiveness of this proposal was compared to the cost effectiveness of voucher programs, charter…

  19. Predicting Teacher Value-Added Results in Non-Tested Subjects Based on Confounding Variables: A Multinomial Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Nathan Lee

    2017-01-01

    Teacher value-added measures (VAM) are designed to provide information regarding teachers' causal impact on the academic growth of students while controlling for exogenous variables. While some researchers contend VAMs successfully and authentically measure teacher causality on learning, others suggest VAMs cannot adequately control for exogenous…

  20. Assessing the Value-Added by the Environmental Testing Process with the Aide of Physics/Engineering of Failure Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, S.; Gibbel, M.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Code QT Test Effectiveness Program is funding a series of applied research activities focused on utilizing the principles of physics and engineering of failure and those of engineering economics to assess and improve the value-added by the various validation and verification activities to organizations.

  1. Validating "Value Added" in the Primary Grades: One District's Attempts to Increase Fairness and Inclusivity in Its Teacher Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Polasky, Sarah; Holloway-Libell, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    One urban district in the state of Arizona sought to use an alternative achievement test (i.e., the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress for Primary Grades (MAP)) to include more value-added ineligible teachers in the districts' growth and merit pay system. The goal was to allow for its K-2 teachers to be more…

  2. British and German manufacturing productivity compared : A new benchmark for 1935/36 based on double deflated value added

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fremdling, Rainer; de Jong, Herman; Timmer, Marcel P.

    We present a new estimate of Anglo-German manufacturing productivity levels for 1935/36. It is based on archival data on German manufacturing and published British census data. We calculate comparative levels of value added, correcting for differences in prices for outputs and inputs. This so-called

  3. AERA Statement on Use of Value-Added Models (VAM) for the Evaluation of Educators and Educator Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Researcher, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this statement is to inform those using or considering the use of value-added models (VAM) about their scientific and technical limitations in the evaluation of educators and programs that prepare teachers. The statement briefly reviews the background and current context of using VAM for evaluations, enumerates specific psychometric…

  4. Examining the Relationship between Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) and Student Achievement Utilizing the Florida Value-Added Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ivan K.; Hamed, Kastro M.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing a correlational research design, we sought to examine the relationship between the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of in-service teachers and student achievement measured with each individual teacher's Value-Added Model (VAM) score. The TPACK survey results and a teacher's VAM score were also examined, separately,…

  5. The Effect of Macroeconomic Variables on Value-Added Agriculture: Approach of Vector Autoregresive Bayesian Model (BVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pishbahar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are different ideas and opinions about the effects of macroeconomic variables on real and nominal variables. To answer the question of whether changes in macroeconomic variables as a political tool is useful over a business cycle, understanding the effect of macroeconomic variables on economic growth is important. In the present study, the Bayesian Vector autoregresive model and seasonality data for the years between 1991 and 2013 was used to determine the impact of monetary policy on value-added agriculture. Predicts of Vector autoregresive model are usually divertaed due to a lot of parameters in the model. Bayesian vector autoregresive model estimates more reliable predictions due to reducing the number of included parametrs and considering the former models. Compared to the Vector Autoregressive model, the coefficients are estimated more accurately. Based on the results of RMSE in this study, previous function Nrmal-Vyshart was identified as a suitable previous disteribution. According to the results of the impulse response function, the sudden effects of shocks in macroeconomic variables on the value added in agriculture and domestic venture capital are stable. The effects on the exchange rates, tax revenues and monetary will bemoderated after 7, 5 and 4periods. Monetary policy shocks ,in the first half of the year, increased the value added of agriculture, while in the second half of the year had a depressing effect on the value added.

  6. Assurance of Learning in an MBA Program: Exploration of the Value Added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Darrin; Grandzol, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The use of standardized tests as a piece of outcomes assessment has risen in recent years in order to satisfy external accrediting bodies such as the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International. The authors explore the value added by the Graduate Major Field Test in Business (GMFT-B) for assurance of learning in a master of…

  7. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Perceptions of Value-Added Measurement and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viar, Meagan Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Educational leaders are struggling with the issue of academic reform as it pertains to accountability for student achievement. With increasing pressures to improve student achievement, many states have adopted value-added measures to monitor student growth and teacher effectiveness. This study undertook a quantitative approach to examine the…

  8. Developing a Metric for the Cost of Green House Gas Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The authors introduce the levelized cost of carbon (LCC), a metric that can be used to evaluate MassDOT CO2 abatement projects in terms of their cost-effectiveness. The study presents ways in which the metric can be used to rank projects. The data ar...

  9. Development of a metrics dashboard for monitoring involvement in the 340B Drug Pricing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karralli, Rusol; Tipton, Joyce; Dumitru, Doina; Scholz, Lisa; Masilamani, Santhi

    2015-09-01

    An electronic tool to support hospital organizations in monitoring and addressing financial and compliance challenges related to participation in the 340B Drug Pricing Program is described. In recent years there has been heightened congressional and regulatory scrutiny of the federal 340B program, which provides discounted drug prices on Medicaid-covered drugs to safety net hospitals and other 340B-eligible healthcare organizations, or "covered entities." Historically, the 340B program has lacked a metrics-driven reporting framework to help covered entities capture the value of 340B program involvement, community benefits provided to underserved populations, and costs associated with compliance with 340B eligibility requirements. As part of an initiative by a large health system to optimize its 340B program utilization and regulatory compliance efforts, a team of pharmacists led the development of an electronic dashboard tool to help monitor 340B program activities at the system's 340B-eligible facilities. After soliciting input from an array of internal and external 340B program stakeholders, the team designed the dashboard and associated data-entry tools to facilitate the capture and analysis of 340B program-related data in four domains: cost savings and revenue, program maintenance costs, community benefits, and compliance. A large health system enhanced its ability to evaluate and monitor 340B program-related activities through the use of a dashboard tool capturing key metrics on cost savings achieved, maintenance costs, and other aspects of program involvement. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Internet and healthcare in Taiwan: value-added applications on the medical network in the National Health Insurance smart card system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Kuo, Hsiao-Chiao

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of smart card technology has ushered in a new era of electronic medical information systems. Taiwan's Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) implemented the National Health Insurance (NHI) smart card project in 2004. The purpose of the project was to replace all paper cards with one smart card. The NHI medical network now provides three kinds of services. In this paper, we illustrate the status of the NHI smart card system in Taiwan and propose three kinds of value-added applications for the medical network, which are electronic exchange of medical information, retrieval of personal medical records and medical e-learning for future development of health information systems.

  11. Gassmaks. Study of requirement for national focus on research for increased value-added industrial process of natural gas. Final report; Gassmaks. Utredning av behov for nasjonal satsing paa forskning for oekt verdiskaping fra naturgass gjennom industriell foredling. Endelig rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-15

    Final report concludes the importance of establishing the Research and Development program called 'Gassmaks'. The target of this program is increased value added to the natural gas loop. Strengthened know-how, industrial development and international competition force shall contribute to higher value added to community through industrial refining of natural gas. Gassmaks will by research based foundation exploit Norwegian natural gas resources environmental friendly. Highly prioritised are converting and use of natural gas to plastic raw materials, synthesis gas, synthetical fuel, energy processes, carbon materials, metallurgical processes and nutrients as proteins and fat. (AG). 28 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Area of Concern: a new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplac...

  13. Incorporating big data into treatment plan evaluation: Development of statistical DVH metrics and visualization dashboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Mayo, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Statistical DVH offers an easy-to-read, detailed, and comprehensive way to visualize the quantitative comparison with historical experiences and among institutions. WES and GEM metrics offer a flexible means of incorporating discrete threshold-prioritizations and historic context into a set of standardized scoring metrics. Together, they provide a practical approach for incorporating big data into clinical practice for treatment plan evaluations.

  14. Rice Husk Ash as a Renewable Source for the Production of Value Added Silica Gel and its Application: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    properties assumes importance at this juncture. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 23th November 2011, Revised: 09th January 2012, Accepted: 10th January 2012[How to Cite: R. Prasad, and M. Pandey. (2012. Rice Husk Ash as a Renewable Source for the Production of Value Added Silica Gel and its Application: An Overview. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 1-25. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1216.1-25][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1216.1-25 ] | View in 

  15. Investigating the interdependence between non-hydroelectric renewable energy, agricultural value added, and arable land use in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2017-01-01

    We examine the dynamic relationships between per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, real gross domestic product (GDP), non-hydroelectric renewable energy (NHRE) consumption, agricultural value added (AVA), and agricultural land (AGRL) use for the case of Argentina over the period 1980-2013 by employing the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests. The Wald test confirms the existence of a long-run cointegration between variables. T...

  16. Finding a balance between "value added" and feeling valued: revising models of care. The human factor of implementing a quality improvement initiative using Lean methodology within the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Rachel; Wade, Shawna

    2011-01-01

    Growing demand from clients waiting to access vital services in a healthcare sector under economic constraint, coupled with the pressure for ongoing improvement within a multi-faceted organization, can have a significant impact on the front-line staff, who are essential to the successful implementation of any quality improvement initiative. The Lean methodology is a management system for continuous improvement based on the Toyota Production System; it focuses on two main themes: respect for people and the elimination of waste or non-value-added activities. Within the Lean process, value-added is used to describe any activity that contributes directly to satisfying the needs of the client, and non-value-added refers to any activity that takes time, space or resources but does not contribute directly to satisfying client needs. Through the revision of existing models of service delivery, the authors' organization has made an impact on increasing access to care and has supported successful engagement of staff in the process, while ensuring that the focus remains on the central needs of clients and families accessing services. While the performance metrics continue to exhibit respectable results for this strategic priority, further gains are expected over the next 18-24 months.

  17. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Jean-Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guttromson, Ross [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva-Monroy, Cesar [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Katherine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellison, James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rath, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearhart, Jared [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corbet, Tom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanley, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report has been written for the Department of Energy’s Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Office to inform their writing of the Quadrennial Energy Review in the area of energy resilience. The topics of measuring and increasing energy resilience are addressed, including definitions, means of measuring, and analytic methodologies that can be used to make decisions for policy, infrastructure planning, and operations. A risk-based framework is presented which provides a standard definition of a resilience metric. Additionally, a process is identified which explains how the metrics can be applied. Research and development is articulated that will further accelerate the resilience of energy infrastructures.

  18. Utilization of byproducts from potatoes and vegetables for value-added products; Perunan ja vihannesten sivuvirtojen arvokomponenttien hyoetykaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M.; Valimaa, A.-L.; Kankaala, A.; Lotjonen, T.; Virtanen, E.

    2012-07-01

    In this report, by-products are defined as the fractions produced in processing of potatoes and vegetables in addition to the main products. These by-products include peels, potato pulp, potato fruit juice, leftovers from cutting processes and under-sized potatoes left in the field. The amount of the by-products varies depending on the process. For example, in peeling processes the amount of by-products can be as much as 50-100% compared to that of the peeled product. The disposal of the by-products is strictly regulated by the national biowaste strategy, the landfill directive and the new waste legislation. For example, the landfill directive requires a gradual reduction in the amount of biodecomposable community waste. This means that in 2016, an maximum of 25% of the estimated biodecomposable community waste produced can be placed in landfill sites. Moreover, the EU aims at increasing the amount of the renewable traffic fuels to 10% by the year 2020. The utilization of the by-products in an effective and holistic way is not necessary only due to the tight legislative demands, but also n order to make the production economically profitable. For example, it is possible to separate from by-products of potatoes and vegetables commercially valuable biocomponents, such as starch, proteins and fiber, and to produce bioethanol and biogas in biorefinery plants. In the biorefinery plants, chemicals, biofuels and energy are produced sustainably using mechanical, chemical and biological processes. However, in a conventional refinery process usually only one component is utilized, for example potato starch. The North Ostrobothnia region is lacking the biorefinery that utilizes the by-products of potatoes and vegetables. This study was carried out in 2011-2012 by MTT Agrifood Research Finland Oulu. The objective was to develop a biorefinery concept in which by-products from potato and vegetables industry are manufactured to value-added products efficiently utilizing the

  19. Reducing non value adding aluminium alloy in production of parts through high pressure die casting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available in the cast part feed system, including overflows. CSIR intends using the results of this research for further development and application of high temperature die construction materials in high pressure die casting processes of light metal alloys...

  20. Semantic metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bo; Kalfoglou, Yannis; Dupplaw, David; Alani, Harith; Lewis, Paul; Shadbolt, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    In the context of the Semantic Web, many ontology-related operations, e.g. ontology ranking, segmentation, alignment, articulation, reuse, evaluation, can be boiled down to one fundamental operation: computing the similarity and/or dissimilarity among ontological entities, and in some cases among ontologies themselves. In this paper, we review standard metrics for computing distance measures and we propose a series of semantic metrics. We give a formal account of semantic metrics drawn from a...

  1. Shell cracking strength in almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D.A. Webb.) and its implication in uses as a value-added product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, C A

    2008-09-01

    Researchers are currently developing new value-added uses for almond shells, an abundant agricultural by-product. Almond varieties are distinguished by processors as being either hard or soft shelled, but these two broad classes of almond also exhibit varietal diversity in shell morphology and physical characters. By defining more precisely the physical and chemical characteristics of almond shells from different varieties, researchers will better understand which specific shell types are best suited for specific industrial processes. Eight diverse almond accessions were evaluated in two consecutive harvest seasons for nut and kernel weight, kernel percentage and shell cracking strength. Shell bulk density was evaluated in a separate year. Harvest year by almond accession interactions were highly significant (p0.01) for each of the analyzed variables. Significant (p0.01) correlations were noted for average nut weight with kernel weight, kernel percentage and shell cracking strength. A significant (p0.01) negative correlation for shell cracking strength with kernel percentage was noted. In some cases shell cracking strength was independent of the kernel percentage which suggests that either variety compositional differences or shell morphology affect the shell cracking strength. The varietal characterization of almond shell materials will assist in determining the best value-added uses for this abundant agricultural by-product.

  2. Process Design for the Biocatalysis of Value-Added Chemicals from Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Eiteman

    2007-07-31

    This report describes results toward developing a process to sequester CO{sub 2} centered on the enzymes PEP carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase. The process involves the use of bacteria to convert CO{sub 2} and glucose as a co-substrate and generates succinic acid as a commodity chemical product. The study reports on strain development and process development. In the area of strain development, knockouts in genes which divert carbon from the enzymatic steps involved in CO{sub 2} consumption were completed, and were shown not to affect significantly the rate of CO{sub 2} sequestration and succinic acid generation. Furthermore, the pyc gene encoding for pyruvate carboxylase proved to be unstable when integrated onto the chromosome. In the area of process development, an optimal medium, pH and base counterion were obtained, leading to a sequestration rate as great as 800 mg/Lh. Detailed studies of gas phase composition demonstrated that CO{sub 2} composition has a significant affect on CO{sub 2} sequestration, while the presence of 'toxic' compounds in the gas, including NO{sub 2}, CO and SO{sub 2} did not have a detrimental effect on sequestration. Some results on prolonging the rate of sequestration indicate that enzyme activities decrease with time, suggesting methods to prolong enzyme activity may benefit the overall process.

  3. Creating value-added linkages through creative programming: a partnership for nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Linda M; Luke, Gerri; Tenofsky, Linda M

    2007-01-01

    Academic and clinical institutions can effectively collaborate to deliver programs that enhance the educational level of the nursing staff. Creative programming, which offers flexibility and convenience, and a reasonable cost are key elements in the success of a program. Open communication and mutual recognition and respect of the talents, abilities, and values of all developers of the program are essential factors in effective collaborations leading to successful partnerships. Although clear expectations and clarity of functions are important once the partnership has developed, flexibility and a desire to "own" both the problems and the successes of a program are crucial to success.

  4. Characterization of a Value-Added Salmon Product: Infant/Toddler Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santos, Felicia Ann

    2009-01-01

    Salmon are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids. These are important in the human diet and especially for young children in the first two years of life. Wild Alaskan salmon was utilized in a novel way by development and investigation of basic baby food product formulations from sockeye and pink salmon. Thus, physical and sensory properties of baby…

  5. Opportunities of using bio-based materials for value-added composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    Our forests are a naturally renewable resource that has been used as a principal source of bio-energy and building materials for centuries. The growth of world population and affluence has resulted in substantial increases in demand and in consumption for all raw materials. Resulting increases in demand for wood products provides a unique opportunity for developing new...

  6. Value Added Tax Impacton Economic Activity: Importance, Implication and Assessment –The Romanian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MUREȘAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of VAT upon the economic activity in Romania. By developing a new mathematical model we offer several dy-namic and effcient possibilities for observing the modifcations caused by the temporary reduc-tion of taxes upon the personal incomes which suggest that the resulting additional incomes are often saved and less consumed. Analyzing several temporary reductions in incomes, the model describes also a scheme regarding the developments of economic growth. Based on this scheme, are revealed the different arrangements in which a present economic activity infuences a future one. According to the proposed model, it is highlighted that the national income increases as a response to the aggregated demand.

  7. Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2005-11-30

    While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

  8. Retrieving Temperature and Moisture Profiles from AERI Radiance Observations. AERIPROF Value-Added Product Technical Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltz, W. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Howell, H. B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Knuteson, R. O. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Comstock, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahon, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Turner, D. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, W. L. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Woolf, H. M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Sivaraman, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halter, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-04-01

    One of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to collect a long-term series of radiative and atmospheric state observations to improve the parameterization of these processes in global climate models. The ARM Program intended to move away from the traditional approach of directly measuring profiles of temperature and moisture using radiosondes, which is expensive in terms of expendables and manpower, and develop methods to retrieve these profiles with ground-based remote sensors. The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), whose radiance data contains information on the vertical distribution of water vapor and temperature, is an integral part of the ARM profiling plan.

  9. New value added to network services through software-defined optical core networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akiko; Nakatsugawa, Keiichi; Yamashita, Shinji; Soumiya, Toshio

    2016-02-01

    If an optical core network can be handled flexibly, it can be used not only as network infrastructure but also as a temporary broadband resource when customers have to transfer a large volume of data quickly, which will in turn lead to new WAN services. We propose "software-defined optical core networking", which achieves flexible optical network control, meaning it virtualizes optical transport network/wavelength-division multiplexing resources and controls them with resources from other layers, such as Ether/MPLS. We developed a testbed system and verified that users could request broadband resources easily, and our controller could quickly set up an optical channel data unit path for the request.

  10. Green Net Value Added as a Sustainability Metric Based on Life Cycle Assessment: An Application to Bounty® Paper Towel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability measurement in economics involves evaluation of environmental and economic impact in an integrated manner. In this study, system level economic data are combined with environmental impact from a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a common product. We are exploring a co...

  11. Development of a standardized transfusion ratio as a metric for evaluating dialysis facility anemia management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiannong; Li, Suying; Gilbertson, David T; Monda, Keri L; Bradbury, Brian D; Collins, Allan J

    2014-10-01

    Because transfusion avoidance has been the cornerstone of anemia treatment for patients with kidney disease, direct measurement of red blood cell transfusion use to assess dialysis facility anemia management performance is reasonable. We aimed to explore methods for estimating facility-level standardized transfusion ratios (STfRs) to assess provider anemia treatment practices. Retrospective cohort study. Point prevalent US hemodialysis patients on January 1, 2009, with Medicare as primary payer and dialysis duration of 90 days or longer were included (n = 223,901). All dialysis facilities with eligible patients were included (n = 5,345). Dialysis facility assignment. Receiving a red blood cell transfusion in the inpatient or outpatient setting. We evaluated 3 approaches for estimating STfR: ratio of observed to expected numbers of transfusions (STfR(obs)), a Bayesian approach (STfR(Bayes)), and a modified version of the Bayesian approach (STfR(modBayes)). The overall national transfusion rate in 2009 was 23.2 per 100 patient-years. Our model for predicting the expected number of transfusions performed well. For large facilities, all 3 STfRs worked well. However, for small facilities, while the STfR(modBayes) worked well, STfR(obs) values demonstrated instability and the STfR(Bayes) may produce more bias. Administration of transfusions to dialysis patients reflects medical practice both within and outside the dialysis unit. Some transfusions may be deemed unavoidable and transfusion practices are subject to considerable regional variation. Development of an STfR metric is feasible and reasonable for assessing anemia treatment at dialysis facilities. The STfR(obs) is simple to calculate and works well for larger dialysis facilities. The STfR(modBayes) is more analytically complex, but facilitates comparisons across all dialysis facilities, including small facilities. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biotechnological production of value-added carotenoids from microalgae: Emerging technology and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichuk, Kristine; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður; Fu, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relationship between abiotic environmental stresses and lutein biosynthesis in the green microalga Dunaliella salina and suggested a rational design of stress-driven adaptive evolution experiments for carotenoids production in microalgae. Here, we summarize our recent findings regarding the biotechnological production of carotenoids from microalgae and outline emerging technology in this field. Carotenoid metabolic pathways are characterized in several representative algal species as they pave the way for biotechnology development. The adaptive evolution strategy is highlighted in connection with enhanced growth rate and carotenoid metabolism. In addition, available genetic modification tools are described, with emphasis on model species. A brief discussion on the role of lights as limiting factors in carotenoid production in microalgae is also included. Overall, our analysis suggests that light-driven metabolism and the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae in photobioreactors are the main bottlenecks in enhancing biotechnological potential of carotenoid production from microalgae.

  14. Labour-Intensive Services and Changes in Value Added Tax Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzikallova Katerina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available VAT rates have gradually become an important fiscal policy tool of of EU member states. This paper quantifies the influence on the VAT revenue of the potential transfer of selected labour intensive services from the standard to a reduced VAT rate in the Czech Republic. The data used for the analysis were obtained by a questionnaire, as well as through research performed at the General Financial Directorate and the Czech Statistical Office. To analyze the data, a comparison analysis and descriptive statistical methods were used. The change in VAT rate would cause a decrease in VAT revenue up to 1.6 billion CZK per year, but it would also bring positive effects, especially in the business development of the suppliers of labor intensive services. It could also prevent a price increase during the planned introduction of the e-sales system in restaurants.

  15. Aqueous processing of nickel spent catalyst for a value added product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheik, Abdul Rauf; Ghosh, Malay Kumar; Sanjay, Kali; Subbaiah, Tondepu; Mishra, Barada Kanta; Baba, Abdullahi Aalafara

    2013-01-01

    Nickel was recovered from a fertilizer industry spent catalyst by leaching with nitric acid followed by nickel hydroxide precipitation. The optimization of temperature, initial acid concentration and particle size for leaching of the spent catalyst was done through 2 3 factorial design. A maximum extraction of 91.9% was achieved at 90 .deg. C, 1.5M HNO 3 and 62.5 µm particle size. Temperature and acid concentration showed positive effect, while particle size showed no effect. A regression equation was developed and employed to predict conditions for 100% extraction which were experimentally tested. Nickel hydroxide was electrochemically precipitated from the leach liquor and its maximum discharge capacity was found to be 155 mAh/g. A 3-stage counter current leaching circuit was designed to obtain a leach liquor of suitable pH. XRD characterization of the precipitated Ni(OH) 2 shows to consist of both α- and β-forms

  16. The value added of conducting regional versus local stakeholder involvement in evaluating technology acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.

    1995-06-01

    Battelle has conducted a three-year effort, funded by the U. S Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development, to involve stakeholders in evaluating innovative technologies to clean up volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination at arid sites. Stakeholders have been encouraged to participate in the demonstration of these innovative technologies in order to improve decisions made by DOE and its contractors about technology development, demonstration, and deployment. The basic approach is to identify people and organizations with a stake in the remediation process, and hence in the demonstration of innovative technologies. Stakeholders have included public interest group and environmental group representatives, regulators, technology users, Native Americans, Hispanic community members, and local elected officials. These people are invited to be involved and they are presented with substantive information about the technologies. Their input in terms of identifying issues and concerns, defining the kinds of information needed from the demonstrations, and assessing the acceptability of the technologies for deployment, will help ensure that only broadly promising technologies are carried forward. This approach is designed to increase the likelihood of successful deployment of the new technologies needed to accomplish environmental restoration throughout the DOE complex and at private facilities. The hypothesis in conducting this regional stakeholder involvement program is that there will be different data requirements for different sites due to geographical, institutional, programmatic, and cultural differences at the sites. Identifying the broadest set of data requirements, collecting this information during the technology demonstration, and providing the results of the demonstration to stakeholders will enhance the acceptance of the technology at these sites and, thereby, enhance the technology's deployability

  17. Optimal siting of solid waste-to-value-added facilities through a GIS-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Mohib-Ul-Haque; Vaezi, Mahdi; Kumar, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Siting a solid waste conversion facility requires an assessment of solid waste availability as well as ensuring compliance with environmental, social, and economic factors. The main idea behind this study was to develop a methodology to locate suitable locations for waste conversion facilities considering waste availability as well as environmental and social constraints. A geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis was used to identify the most suitable areas and to screen out unsuitable lands. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used for a multi-criteria evaluation of relative preferences of different environmental and social factors. A case study was conducted for Alberta, a western province in Canada, by performing a province-wide waste availability assessment. The total available waste considered in this study was 4,077,514tonnes/year for 19 census divisions collected from 79 landfills. Finally, a location-allocation analysis was performed to determine suitable locations for 10 waste conversion facilities across the province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential of Extracted Locusta Migratoria Protein Fractions as Value-Added Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Claudia; Mirosa, Miranda; Birch, John

    2018-02-09

    Although locusts can be sustainably produced and are nutrient rich, the thought of eating them can be hard to swallow for many consumers. This paper aims to investigate the nutritional composition of Locusta migratoria , including the properties of extracted locust protein, contributing to limited literature and product development opportunities for industry. Locusts sourced from Dunedin, New Zealand, contained a high amount of protein (50.79% dry weight) and fat (34.93%), which contained high amounts of omega-3 (15.64%), creating a desirably low omega-3/omega-6 ratio of 0.57. Three protein fractions including; insoluble locust fraction, soluble locust fraction, and a supernatant fraction were recovered following alkali isoelectric precipitation methodology. Initially, proteins were solubilised at pH 10 then precipitated out at the isoelectric point (pH 4). All fractions had significantly higher protein contents compared with the whole locust. The insoluble protein fraction represented 37.76% of the dry weight of protein recovered and was much lighter in colour and greener compared to other fractions. It also had the highest water and oil holding capacity of 5.17 mL/g and 7.31 mL/g, possibly due to larger particle size. The high supernatant yield (56.60%) and low soluble protein yield (9.83%) was unexpected and could be a result of experimental pH conditions chosen.

  19. Potential of Extracted Locusta Migratoria Protein Fractions as Value-Added Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Clarkson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although locusts can be sustainably produced and are nutrient rich, the thought of eating them can be hard to swallow for many consumers. This paper aims to investigate the nutritional composition of Locusta migratoria, including the properties of extracted locust protein, contributing to limited literature and product development opportunities for industry. Locusts sourced from Dunedin, New Zealand, contained a high amount of protein (50.79% dry weight and fat (34.93%, which contained high amounts of omega-3 (15.64%, creating a desirably low omega-3/omega-6 ratio of 0.57. Three protein fractions including; insoluble locust fraction, soluble locust fraction, and a supernatant fraction were recovered following alkali isoelectric precipitation methodology. Initially, proteins were solubilised at pH 10 then precipitated out at the isoelectric point (pH 4. All fractions had significantly higher protein contents compared with the whole locust. The insoluble protein fraction represented 37.76% of the dry weight of protein recovered and was much lighter in colour and greener compared to other fractions. It also had the highest water and oil holding capacity of 5.17 mL/g and 7.31 mL/g, possibly due to larger particle size. The high supernatant yield (56.60% and low soluble protein yield (9.83% was unexpected and could be a result of experimental pH conditions chosen.

  20. A study on the preparation of value-added products from the nonmetallic minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) A study on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical industry use (muscovite, sericite): For the technical development on utilization of unused mineral resources, the study was carried out on the highly purification and mineral processing of domestic sericite and muscovite. This study was also carried out to make the functional materials for the use of fine chemical industry. Scope and content of study is the high purification and the surface treatment of fine particles of sericite and muscovite. 2) Studies on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical and electronic industry use: Fine natural crystalline graphite which is used as a source material of a high electrically conductive film and an addition of advanced high functional solid lubricant. For use high electrically conductive film and advanced high functional solid lubricant, add new and advanced high functional properties to fine graphite powder through surface modification with gas and organic materials. (author). 71 refs., 45 tabs., 84 figs.

  1. Numerical studies and metric development for validation of magnetohydrodynamic models on the HIT-SI experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, C., E-mail: hansec@uw.edu [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Victor, B.; Morgan, K.; Hossack, A.; Sutherland, D. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Jarboe, T.; Nelson, B. A. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Marklin, G. [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We present application of three scalar metrics derived from the Biorthogonal Decomposition (BD) technique to evaluate the level of agreement between macroscopic plasma dynamics in different data sets. BD decomposes large data sets, as produced by distributed diagnostic arrays, into principal mode structures without assumptions on spatial or temporal structure. These metrics have been applied to validation of the Hall-MHD model using experimental data from the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection experiment. Each metric provides a measure of correlation between mode structures extracted from experimental data and simulations for an array of 192 surface-mounted magnetic probes. Numerical validation studies have been performed using the NIMROD code, where the injectors are modeled as boundary conditions on the flux conserver, and the PSI-TET code, where the entire plasma volume is treated. Initial results from a comprehensive validation study of high performance operation with different injector frequencies are presented, illustrating application of the BD method. Using a simplified (constant, uniform density and temperature) Hall-MHD model, simulation results agree with experimental observation for two of the three defined metrics when the injectors are driven with a frequency of 14.5 kHz.

  2. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased (P noodles and highest for burfi (though in safe limits). Extruded snacks (control and PLR) showed no microbial growth during the entire storage period. Considering the poor marketability of PLRVs for consumption as staple rice, the study signifies the utilitarian value of PLRVs in making products of convenience/commercial importance.

  3. Value Added: the Case for Point-of-View Camera use in Orthopedic Surgical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Matthew D; Thomas, Geb W; Taylor, Leah; Liu, Xiaoxing; Anthony, Chris A; Anderson, Donald D

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic surgical education is evolving as educators search for new ways to enhance surgical skills training. Orthopedic educators should seek new methods and technologies to augment and add value to real-time orthopedic surgical experience. This paper describes a protocol whereby we have started to capture and evaluate specific orthopedic milestone procedures with a GoPro® point-of-view video camera and a dedicated video reviewing website as a way of supplementing the current paradigm in surgical skills training. We report our experience regarding the details and feasibility of this protocol. Upon identification of a patient undergoing surgical fixation of a hip or ankle fracture, an orthopedic resident places a GoPro® point-of-view camera on his or her forehead. All fluoroscopic images acquired during the case are saved and later incorporated into a video on the reviewing website. Surgical videos are uploaded to a secure server and are accessible for later review and assessment via a custom-built website. An electronic survey of resident participants was performed utilizing Qualtrics software. Results are reported using descriptive statistics. A total of 51 surgical videos involving 23 different residents have been captured to date. This includes 20 intertrochanteric hip fracture cases and 31 ankle fracture cases. The average duration of each surgical video was 1 hour and 16 minutes (range 40 minutes to 2 hours and 19 minutes). Of 24 orthopedic resident surgeons surveyed, 88% thought capturing a video portfolio of orthopedic milestones would benefit their education. There is a growing demand in orthopedic surgical education to extract more value from each surgical experience. While further work in development and refinement of such assessments is necessary, we feel that intraoperative video, particularly when captured and presented in a non-threatening, user friendly manner, can add significant value to the present and future paradigm of orthopedic surgical

  4. The Validity of Value-Added Estimates from Low-Stakes Testing Contexts: The Impact of Change in Test-Taking Motivation and Test Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Sara J.; Sundre, Donna L.; Swain, Matthew S.; Williams, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Accountability mandates often prompt assessment of student learning gains (e.g., value-added estimates) via achievement tests. The validity of these estimates have been questioned when performance on tests is low stakes for students. To assess the effects of motivation on value-added estimates, we assigned students to one of three test consequence…

  5. A Monte Carlo Simulation Comparing the Statistical Precision of Two High-Stakes Teacher Evaluation Methods: A Value-Added Model and a Composite Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryden

    2016-01-01

    Value-added models are a class of growth models used in education to assign responsibility for student growth to teachers or schools. For value-added models to be used fairly, sufficient statistical precision is necessary for accurate teacher classification. Previous research indicated precision below practical limits. An alternative approach has…

  6. Development of a clinician reputation metric to identify appropriate problem-medication pairs in a crowdsourced knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allison B; Wright, Adam; Rogith, Deevakar; Fathiamini, Safa; Ottenbacher, Allison J; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-04-01

    Correlation of data within electronic health records is necessary for implementation of various clinical decision support functions, including patient summarization. A key type of correlation is linking medications to clinical problems; while some databases of problem-medication links are available, they are not robust and depend on problems and medications being encoded in particular terminologies. Crowdsourcing represents one approach to generating robust knowledge bases across a variety of terminologies, but more sophisticated approaches are necessary to improve accuracy and reduce manual data review requirements. We sought to develop and evaluate a clinician reputation metric to facilitate the identification of appropriate problem-medication pairs through crowdsourcing without requiring extensive manual review. We retrieved medications from our clinical data warehouse that had been prescribed and manually linked to one or more problems by clinicians during e-prescribing between June 1, 2010 and May 31, 2011. We identified measures likely to be associated with the percentage of accurate problem-medication links made by clinicians. Using logistic regression, we created a metric for identifying clinicians who had made greater than or equal to 95% appropriate links. We evaluated the accuracy of the approach by comparing links made by those physicians identified as having appropriate links to a previously manually validated subset of problem-medication pairs. Of 867 clinicians who asserted a total of 237,748 problem-medication links during the study period, 125 had a reputation metric that predicted the percentage of appropriate links greater than or equal to 95%. These clinicians asserted a total of 2464 linked problem-medication pairs (983 distinct pairs). Compared to a previously validated set of problem-medication pairs, the reputation metric achieved a specificity of 99.5% and marginally improved the sensitivity of previously described knowledge bases. A

  7. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, K A; Mamta; Rao, R J

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste.

  8. Applying value stream mapping techniques to eliminate non-value-added waste for the procurement of endovascular stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichgräber, Ulf K.; Bucourt, Maximilian de

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To eliminate non-value-adding (NVA) waste for the procurement of endovascular stents in interventional radiology services by applying value stream mapping (VSM). Materials and methods: The Lean manufacturing technique was used to analyze the process of material and information flow currently required to direct endovascular stents from external suppliers to patients. Based on a decision point analysis for the procurement of stents in the hospital, a present state VSM was drawn. After assessment of the current status VSM and progressive elimination of unnecessary NVA waste, a future state VSM was drawn. Results: The current state VSM demonstrated that out of 13 processes for the procurement of stents only 2 processes were value-adding. Out of the NVA processes 5 processes were unnecessary NVA activities, which could be eliminated. The decision point analysis demonstrated that the procurement of stents was mainly a forecast driven push system. The future state VSM applies a pull inventory control system to trigger the movement of a unit after withdrawal by using a consignment stock. Conclusion: VSM is a visualization tool for the supply chain and value stream, based on the Toyota Production System and greatly assists in successfully implementing a Lean system.

  9. Pengaruh Pengungkapan Intellectual Capital (IC dan Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap Harga Saham Perusahaan Manufaktur yang terdaftar di BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Fauzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at finding out if The Influence of Intellectual Capital (ICand Economic Value Added (EVA on Stock Price of Manufacturing Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in 2012. The hypothesis of this study is : There is Influence of Intellectual Capital (IC and Economic Value Added (EVA on Stock Price of Manufacturing Company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in 2012. The method used is the author of the survey method with a quantitative approach . This study population is the entire manufacturing companies listed on the Stock Exchange in 2012 his sampling technique is random sampling as many as 36 samples .. Correlation Coefficient significance test ( Test A of 0.512 , indicating that there is a middle relationship between IC and EVA on Stock Price. The results of the coefficient of determination ( R2 Test stated that R2 is 0.262 or 26.2% . This shows that the percentage contribution of the effect of independent variables ( IC and EVA on the dependent variable ( stock price of 26.2 % . Or variations of the independent variables used in the model ( IC and EVA are able to explain 26.2% of variation in the dependent variable ( stock price . While the remaining 73.8 % are influenced or explained by other variables not included in this research model .

  10. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, K.A.; Mamta; Rao, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste. PMID:23961230

  11. Applying value stream mapping techniques to eliminate non-value-added waste for the procurement of endovascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichgräber, Ulf K; de Bucourt, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    OJECTIVES: To eliminate non-value-adding (NVA) waste for the procurement of endovascular stents in interventional radiology services by applying value stream mapping (VSM). The Lean manufacturing technique was used to analyze the process of material and information flow currently required to direct endovascular stents from external suppliers to patients. Based on a decision point analysis for the procurement of stents in the hospital, a present state VSM was drawn. After assessment of the current status VSM and progressive elimination of unnecessary NVA waste, a future state VSM was drawn. The current state VSM demonstrated that out of 13 processes for the procurement of stents only 2 processes were value-adding. Out of the NVA processes 5 processes were unnecessary NVA activities, which could be eliminated. The decision point analysis demonstrated that the procurement of stents was mainly a forecast driven push system. The future state VSM applies a pull inventory control system to trigger the movement of a unit after withdrawal by using a consignment stock. VSM is a visualization tool for the supply chain and value stream, based on the Toyota Production System and greatly assists in successfully implementing a Lean system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Time Spent by Breast Imaging Radiologists to Perform Value-Added Activities at an Academic Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Klevos, Geetika; Arheart, Kristopher; Banks, James; Yepes, Monica; Net, Jose

    2017-04-01

    Health care reform in the United States has generated a paradigm shift in the practice of radiology aimed at increasing the degree of patient-centered care. We conducted a study to quantify the amount of time breast imaging radiologists spend on value-added activities at an academic comprehensive cancer center located in Miami, Florida, and accredited by the American College of Radiology as a Breast Imaging Center of Excellence. A prospective, observational study was conducted during a period of 20 consecutive workdays. Three participating breast imaging radiologists maintained a real-time log of each activity performed. A generalized linear model was used to perform a 1-way analysis of variance. An alpha level of .05 was used to determine statistical significance. The average daily time dedicated to these activities was 92.1 minutes (range, 56.4-132.2). The amount of time significantly differed among breast imaging radiologists and correlated with their assigned daily role (P value-added activities to help improve patients' experience across the continuity of their care. We propose that similar studies be conducted at other institutions to better assess the magnitude of this finding across different breast imaging care settings.

  13. Value-Added Clinical Systems Learning Roles for Medical Students That Transform Education and Health: A Guide for Building Partnerships Between Medical Schools and Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Jed D; Lucey, Catherine; Wolpaw, Terry; Chang, Anna

    2017-05-01

    To ensure physician readiness for practice and leadership in changing health systems, an emerging three-pillar framework for undergraduate medical education integrates the biomedical and clinical sciences with health systems science, which includes population health, health care policy, and interprofessional teamwork. However, the partnerships between medical schools and health systems that are commonplace today use health systems as a substrate for learning. Educators need to transform the relationship between medical schools and health systems. One opportunity is the design of authentic workplace roles for medical students to add relevance to medical education and patient care. Based on the experiences at two U.S. medical schools, the authors describe principles and strategies for meaningful medical school-health system partnerships to engage students in value-added clinical systems learning roles. In 2013, the schools began large-scale efforts to develop novel required longitudinal, authentic health systems science curricula in classrooms and workplaces for all first-year students. In designing the new medical school-health system partnerships, the authors combined two models in an intersecting manner-Kotter's change management and Kern's curriculum development steps. Mapped to this framework, they recommend strategies for building mutually beneficial medical school-health system partnerships, including developing a shared vision and strategy and identifying learning goals and objectives; empowering broad-based action and overcoming barriers in implementation; and generating short-term wins in implementation. Applying this framework can lead to value-added clinical systems learning roles for students, meaningful medical school-health system partnerships, and a generation of future physicians prepared to lead health systems change.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF METRICS FOR TECHNICAL PRODUCTION: QUALIS BOOKS AND BOOK CHAPTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Filho, Jurandir Marcondes; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Czeczko, Nicolau Gregori; Ribas, Carmen A P Marcondes; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes

    2015-01-01

    To propose metrics to qualify the publication in books and chapters, and from there, establish guidance for the evaluation of the Medicine III programs. Analysis of some of the 2013 area documents focusing this issue. Were analyzed the following areas: Computer Science; Biotechnology; Biological Sciences I; Public Health; Medicine I. Except for the Medicine I, which has not adopted the metric for books and chapters, all other programs established metrics within the intellectual production, although with unequal percentages. It´s desirable to include metrics for books and book chapters in the intellectual production of post-graduate programs in Area Document with percentage-value of 5% in publications of Medicine III programs. Propor a métrica para qualificar a produção veiculada através de livros e capítulos e, a partir daí, estabelecer orientação para a avaliação dos programas de pós-graduação da Medicina III. Análise dos documentos de área de 2013 dos programas de pós-graduação senso estrito das áreas: Ciência da Computação; Biotecnologia; Ciências Biológicas I; Saúde Coletiva; Medicina I. Excetuando-se o programa da Medicina I, que não adotou a métrica para classificação de livros e capítulos, todos os demais estabeleceram-na dentro da sua produção intelectual, embora com percentuais desiguais. É desejável inserir a métrica de livros e capitulos de livros na produção intelectual do Documento de Área dos programas, ortorgando a ela percentual de 5% das publicações qualificadas dos programas da Medicina III.

  15. Integrated microbial processes for biofuels and high value-added products: the way to improve the cost effectiveness of biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Teresa Lopes; Gouveia, Luísa; Reis, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    The production of microbial biofuels is currently under investigation, as they are alternative sources to fossil fuels, which are diminishing and their use has a negative impact on the environment. However, so far, biofuels derived from microbes are not economically competitive. One way to overcome this bottleneck is the use of microorganisms to transform substrates into biofuels and high value-added products, and simultaneously taking advantage of the various microbial biomass components to produce other products of interest, as an integrated process. In this way, it is possible to maximize the economic value of the whole process, with the desired reduction of the waste streams produced. It is expected that this integrated system makes the biofuel production economically sustainable and competitive in the near future. This review describes the investigation on integrated microbial processes (based on bacteria, yeast, and microalgal cultivations) that have been experimentally developed, highlighting the importance of this approach as a way to optimize microbial biofuel production process.

  16. Consumer evaluation of palatability characteristics of a beef value-added cut compared to common retail cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Germolus, A J; Buchanan, D S; Berg, P T

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to educate consumers about value-added beef cuts and evaluate their palatability responses of a value cut and three traditional cuts. Three hundred and twenty-two individuals participated in the beef value cut education seminar series presented by trained beef industry educators. Seminar participants evaluated tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like of four samples, bottom round, top sirloin, ribeye, and a value cut (Delmonico or Denver), on a 9-point scale. The ribeye and the value cut were found to be similar in all four attributes and differed from the top sirloin and bottom round. Correlations and regression analysis found that flavor was the largest influencing factor for overall like for the ribeye, value cut, and top sirloin. The value cut is comparable to the ribeye and can be a less expensive replacement. © 2013.

  17. Simultaneous production of bioethanol and value-added d-psicose from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younho; Oh, Chihoon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the production of bioethanol and value added d-psicose from Jerusalem artichoke (JA) was attempted by an enzymatic method. An enzyme mixture used for hydrolysis of 100mgmL -1 JA. The resulting concentrations of released d-fructose and d-glucose were measured at approximately 56mgmL -1 and 15mgmL -1 , respectively. The d-psicose was epimerized from the JA hydrolyzate, and the conversion rate was calculated to be 32.1%. The residual fructose was further converted into ethanol at 18.0gL -1 and the yield was approximately 72%. Bioethanol and d-psicose were separated by pervaporation. This is the first study to report simultaneous d-psicose production and bioethanol fermentation from JA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid phase bio-electrofermentation of food waste to harvest value-added products associated with waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, K; Amulya, K; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-11-01

    A novel solid state bio-electrofermentation system (SBES), which can function on the self-driven bioelectrogenic activity was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. SBES was operated with food waste as substrate and evaluated for simultaneous production of electrofuels viz., bioelectricity, biohydrogen (H2) and bioethanol. The system illustrated maximum open circuit voltage and power density of 443 mV and 162.4 mW/m(2), respectively on 9 th day of operation while higher H2 production rate (21.9 ml/h) was observed on 19th day of operation. SBES system also documented 4.85% w/v bioethanol production on 20th day of operation. The analysis of end products confirmed that H2 production could be generally attributed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type of fermentation. Nevertheless, the presence of additional metabolites in SBES, including formate, lactate, propionate and ethanol, also suggested that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, lowering the conversion of substrate into H2. SBES also documented 72% substrate (COD) removal efficiency along with value added product generation. Continuous evolution of volatile fatty acids as intermediary metabolites resulted in pH drop and depicted its negative influence on SBES performance. Bio-electrocatalytic analysis was carried out to evaluate the redox catalytic capabilities of the biocatalyst. Experimental data illustrated that solid-state fermentation can be effectively integrated in SBES for the production of value added products with the possibility of simultaneous solid waste remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Remedial processing of oil shale fly ash (OSFA) and its value-added conversion into glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes such as sewage sludge, coal fly ash and slag have been recycled into various products such as sintered bricks, ceramics and cement concrete. Application of these recycling approaches is much better and greener than conventional landfills since it can solve the problems of storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for construction materials to protect the environment. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to recycle oil shale fly ash (OSFA), a by-product obtained from the extracting of shale oil in the oil shale industry, into a value-added glass-ceramic material via melting and sintering method. The influence of basicity (CaO/SiO2 ratio) by adding calcium oxide on the performance of glass-ceramics was studied in terms of phase transformation, mechanical properties, chemical resistances and heavy metals leaching tests. Crystallization kinetics results showed that the increase of basicity reduced the activation energies of crystallization but did not change the crystallization mechanism. When increasing the basicity from 0.2 to 0.5, the densification of sintering body was enhanced due to the promotion of viscous flow of glass powders, and therefore the compression strength and bending strength of glass-ceramics were increased. Heavy metals leaching results indicated that the produced OSFA-based glass-ceramics could be taken as non-hazardous materials. The maximum mechanical properties of compression strength of 186 ± 3 MPa, bending strength of 78 ± 6 MPa, good chemical resistances and low heavy metals leaching concentrations showed that it could be used as a substitute material for construction applications. The proposed approach will be one of the potential sustainable solutions in reducing the storage of oil shale fly ash as well as converting it into a value-added product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Material property characterization of co-products from biofuel industries: Potential uses in value-added biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, William; Reddy, Murali M.; Misra, Manju; Mohanty, Amar

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an insight of biofuel production and the status -into the co-products obtained from this industry. Furthermore this work explores the possibility of these co-products as raw materials for value-added uses in material applications. This is achieved by understanding composition, solid density, and moisture content of prominent co-products such as soy meal, DDGS (distillers’ dried grains with solubles) and jatropha meal. Moisture content and density measurements showed no trend. Soy meal has the highest protein content, followed by jatropha and DDGS. Thermal stability of these co-products was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which revealed that the thermal stabilities are ranked as soy meal>DDGS>jatropha meal. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to understand the functional groups in these meals and it showed that the amide group was prominent in all of these meals. In pursuit of finding value-added uses for these co-products of biofuel industries, biodegradable polymer, i.e. polycaprolactone (PCL), based biocomposites were prepared by melt processing technique using extrusion followed by injection molding. Tensile, flexural and impact properties were evaluated. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fractured sections of the biocomposites was examined. -- Highlights: ► This paper gives an insight of biofuel production and its co-products. ► We have characterized biofuel co-products such as soy meal, DDGS and jatropha meal. ► Thermal stability and functional groups of these co-products were determined. ► Polycaprolactone based biocomposites were prepared by melt processing technique. ► Tensile, flexural and impact properties of these biocomposites were evaluated.

  1. Tracker Performance Metric

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Teresa; Lee, Harry; Sanders, Johnnie

    2002-01-01

    .... We have developed the Tracker Performance Metric (TPM) specifically for this purpose. It was designed to measure the output performance, on a frame-by-frame basis, using its output position and quality...

  2. A Web-Based Graphical Food Frequency Assessment System: Design, Development and Usability Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rodrigo Zenun; Alawadhi, Balqees; Fallaize, Rosalind; Lovegrove, Julie A; Hwang, Faustina

    2017-05-08

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are well established in the nutrition field, but there remain important questions around how to develop online tools in a way that can facilitate wider uptake. Also, FFQ user acceptance and evaluation have not been investigated extensively. This paper presents a Web-based graphical food frequency assessment system that addresses challenges of reproducibility, scalability, mobile friendliness, security, and usability and also presents the utilization metrics and user feedback from a deployment study. The application design employs a single-page application Web architecture with back-end services (database, authentication, and authorization) provided by Google Firebase's free plan. Its design and responsiveness take advantage of the Bootstrap framework. The FFQ was deployed in Kuwait as part of the EatWellQ8 study during 2016. The EatWellQ8 FFQ contains 146 food items (including drinks). Participants were recruited in Kuwait without financial incentive. Completion time was based on browser timestamps and usability was measured using the System Usability Scale (SUS), scoring between 0 and 100. Products with a SUS higher than 70 are considered to be good. A total of 235 participants created accounts in the system, and 163 completed the FFQ. Of those 163 participants, 142 reported their gender (93 female, 49 male) and 144 reported their date of birth (mean age of 35 years, range from 18-65 years). The mean completion time for all FFQs (n=163), excluding periods of interruption, was 14.2 minutes (95% CI 13.3-15.1 minutes). Female participants (n=93) completed in 14.1 minutes (95% CI 12.9-15.3 minutes) and male participants (n=49) completed in 14.3 minutes (95% CI 12.6-15.9 minutes). Participants using laptops or desktops (n=69) completed the FFQ in an average of 13.9 minutes (95% CI 12.6-15.1 minutes) and participants using smartphones or tablets (n=91) completed in an average of 14.5 minutes (95% CI 13.2-15.8 minutes). The median SUS

  3. Development and application of an agricultural intensity index to invertebrate and algal metrics from streams at two scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted at 28-30 sites within eight study areas across the United States along a gradient of nutrient enrichment/agricultural land use between 2003 and 2007. Objectives were to test the application of an agricultural intensity index (AG-Index) and compare among various invertebrate and algal metrics to determine indicators of nutrient enrichment nationally and within three regions. The agricultural index was based on total nitrogen and phosphorus input to the watershed, percent watershed agriculture, and percent riparian agriculture. Among data sources, agriculture within riparian zone showed significant differences among values generated from remote sensing or from higher resolution orthophotography; median values dropped significantly when estimated by orthophotography. Percent agriculture in the watershed consistently had lower correlations to invertebrate and algal metrics than the developed AG-Index across all regions. Percent agriculture showed fewer pairwise comparisons that were significant than the same comparisons using the AG-Index. Highest correlations to the AG-Index regionally were −0.75 for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera richness (EPTR) and −0.70 for algae Observed/Expected (O/E), nationally the highest was −0.43 for EPTR vs. total nitrogen and −0.62 for algae O/E vs. AG-Index. Results suggest that analysis of metrics at national scale can often detect large differences in disturbance, but more detail and specificity is obtained by analyzing data at regional scales.

  4. Metric learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bellet, Aurelien; Sebban, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Similarity between objects plays an important role in both human cognitive processes and artificial systems for recognition and categorization. How to appropriately measure such similarities for a given task is crucial to the performance of many machine learning, pattern recognition and data mining methods. This book is devoted to metric learning, a set of techniques to automatically learn similarity and distance functions from data that has attracted a lot of interest in machine learning and related fields in the past ten years. In this book, we provide a thorough review of the metric learnin

  5. The impact of net value added on predicting the earnings and operating cash flow: An empirical study based on Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Imani Khoshkhoo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information content of earnings and its components and other issues except the earnings such as the operating cash flow (OCF have been tested widely in the accounting and finance literature. Since they have had an essential role in most cases including financial reporting, contracts and evaluation models, specifying the items and financial variables that have had a significant relationship with these two variables are expected to be of utmost importance. One example of these variables and indicators is the value added. Although this variable has an economic concept, reporting of value added to the beneficiaries of business entity as the value-added statement has been observed in the field of accounting theories for many years. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of net value added (NVA as the basic result of value-added statement in predicting the accounting earnings and operating cash flow. For this purpose, the relationship of changes in net value added with the changes in accounting earnings and operating cash flow of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange from 2007 to 2011 was tested. Firstly the Single variable cross-sectional regression was analyzed and then the panel data analysis with the PLS technique was used to do a pooled analysis. The results of testing research hypothesis imply the significant relationship between changes in net value added and accounting earnings in the listed companies as cross-sectional and pooled forms. The results showed no significant relationship between changes in net value added and operating cash flow in the listed companies neither in cross-sectional nor pooled form.

  6. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  7. Utilization of Stone Waste in the Development of Value Added Products: A State of the Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Lakhani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of stone waste, in the form of mineral admixture as a pozzolanic and non-pozzolanic material for mortar and concrete has received considerable attention in recent years. This interest is part of the widely spread attention directed towards the utilisation of wastes and industrial by-products in order to minimise Portland cement (PC and sand consumption, the utilisationof which being environmentally damaging. Another reason is that mortar and concrete, which contain pozzolanic as well as non-pozzolanic materials, exhibit considerable enhancement in durability properties. This paper reviews work carried out on the use of stone waste as a partial non-pozzolanic replacement for sand in mortar and concrete and in the containment of hazardous wastes. The literature demonstrates that different stone wastes is an effective inert filler which causes great improvement in the pore structure and hence the resistance of the concrete to the action of harmful solutions.

  8. Strategic Human Resource Metrics: A Perspective of the General Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring and quantifying strategic human resource outcomes in relation to key performance criteria is essential to developing value-adding metrics. Objectives This paper posits (using a general systems lens that strategic human resource metrics should interpret the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance criteria such as profitability, quality or customer service. Approach Using the general systems model as underpinning theory, the study assesses the variation in response to a Likert type questionnaire with twenty-four (24 items measuring the major attitudinal dispositions of HRM outcomes (employee commitment, satisfaction, engagement and embeddedness. Results A Chi-square test (Chi-square test statistic = 54.898, p=0.173 showed that variation in responses to the attitudinal statements occurred due to chance. This was interpreted to mean that attitudinal human resource outcomes influence performance as a unit of system components. The neutral response was found to be associated with the ‘reject’ response than the ‘acceptance’ response. Value The study offers suggestion on the determination of strategic HR metrics and recommends the use of systems theory in HRM related studies. Implications This study provides another dimension to human resource metrics by arguing that strategic human resource metrics should measure the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance using a systems perspective.

  9. Production equipment development needs for a 700 metric ton/year light water reactor mixed oxide fuel manufacturing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    A literature search and survey of fuel suppliers was conducted to determine how much development of production equipment is needed for a 700 metric tons/y LWR mixed-oxide (UO 2 --PuO 2 ) fuel fabrication plant. Results indicate that moderate to major production equipment development is needed in the powder and pellet processing areas. The equipment in the rod and assembly processing areas need only minor development effort. Required equipment development for a 700 MT/y plant is not anticipated to delay startup of the plant. The development, whether major or minor, can be done well within the time frame for licensing and construction of the plant as long as conventional production equipment is used

  10. The Publications Tracking and Metrics Program at NOAO: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sharon

    2015-08-01

    , and disseminating publications information and metrics, we add to the visibility of the library, gain professional recognition, and produce a value-added service.

  11. The development and application of composite complexity models and a relative complexity metric in a software maintenance environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hops, J. M.; Sherif, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    A great deal of effort is now being devoted to the study, analysis, prediction, and minimization of software maintenance expected cost, long before software is delivered to users or customers. It has been estimated that, on the average, the effort spent on software maintenance is as costly as the effort spent on all other software costs. Software design methods should be the starting point to aid in alleviating the problems of software maintenance complexity and high costs. Two aspects of maintenance deserve attention: (1) protocols for locating and rectifying defects, and for ensuring that noe new defects are introduced in the development phase of the software process; and (2) protocols for modification, enhancement, and upgrading. This article focuses primarily on the second aspect, the development of protocols to help increase the quality and reduce the costs associated with modifications, enhancements, and upgrades of existing software. This study developed parsimonious models and a relative complexity metric for complexity measurement of software that were used to rank the modules in the system relative to one another. Some success was achieved in using the models and the relative metric to identify maintenance-prone modules.

  12. Lipid and fatty acid metabolism in Ralstonia eutropha: relevance for the biotechnological production of value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Lu, Jingnan; Stahl, Ulf; Brigham, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    Lipid and fatty acid metabolism has been well studied in model microbial organisms like Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The major precursor of fatty acid biosynthesis is also the major product of fatty acid degradation (β-oxidation), acetyl-CoA, which is a key metabolite for all organisms. Controlling carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis and from β-oxidation allows for the biosynthesis of natural products of biotechnological importance. Ralstonia eutropha can utilize acetyl-CoA from fatty acid metabolism to produce intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). R. eutropha can also be engineered to utilize fatty acid metabolism intermediates to produce different PHA precursors. Metabolism of lipids and fatty acids can be rerouted to convert carbon into other value-added compounds like biofuels. This review discusses the lipid and fatty acid metabolic pathways in R. eutropha and how they can be used to construct reagents for the biosynthesis of products of industrial importance. Specifically, how the use of lipids or fatty acids as the sole carbon source in R. eutropha cultures adds value to these biotechnological products will be discussed here.

  13. Value-added potential of expeller-pressed canola oil refining: characterization of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols from byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yougui; Thiyam-Hollander, Usha; Barthet, Veronique J; Aachary, Ayyappan A

    2014-10-08

    Valuable phenolic antioxidants are lost during oil refining, but evaluation of their occurrence in refining byproducts is lacking. Rapeseed and canola oil are both rich sources of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols. The retention and loss of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils subjected to various refining steps and the respective byproducts were investigated. Loss of canolol (3) and tocopherols were observed during bleaching (84.9%) and deodorization (37.6%), respectively. Sinapic acid (2) (42.9 μg/g), sinapine (1) (199 μg/g), and canolol (344 μg/g) were found in the refining byproducts, namely, soap stock, spent bleaching clay, and wash water, for the first time. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other nonidentified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg sinapic acid equivalent/g) were found in deodistillates, a byproduct of deodorization. DPPH radical scavenging confirmed the antioxidant potential of the byproducts. This study confirms the value-added potential of byproducts of refining as sources of endogenous phenolics.

  14. Selenoamino Acid-Enriched Green Pea as a Value-Added Plant Protein Source for Humans and Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garousi, Farzaneh; Domokos-Szabolcsy, Éva; Jánószky, Mihály; Kovács, Andrea Balláné; Veres, Szilvia; Soós, Áron; Kovács, Béla

    2017-06-01

    Selenium deficiency in various degrees affects around 15% of the world's population, contributing to a variety of health problems. In this study, we examined the accumulation and biotransformation of soil applied Se-supplementation (sodium selenite and sodium selenate forms) at different concentrations, along with growth and yield formation of green pea, in a greenhouse experiment. Biotransformation of inorganic Se was evaluated using HPLC-ICP-MS for Se-species separation in the above ground parts of green pea. Results showed 3 mg kg -1 Se IV increased green pea growth biomarkers and also caused an increase in protein content in leaves by 17%. Selenomethionine represented 65% of the total selenium content in shoots, but was lower in pods and seeds (54 and 38%, respectively). Selenomethionine was the major species in all plant parts and the only organic selenium form in the lower Se IV concentration range. Elevating the dose of Se IV (≥30 mg kg -1 ) triggered detrimental effects on growth and protein content and caused higher accumulation of inorganic Se in forms of Se VI and Se IV . Selenocysteine, another organic form of proteinogenic amino acid, was determined when Se IV (≥10 mg kg -1 ) was applied in higher concentrations. Thus, agronomic biofortification using the appropriate chemical form and concentration of Se will have positive effects on green pea growth and its enriched shoots and seeds provide a value-added protein source for livestock and humans with significant increased selenomethionine.

  15. Willingness to pay more for value-added pomegranate juice (Punica granatum L.): An open-ended contingent valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Karen Rodrigues; Dias Bartolomeu Abadio Finco, Fernanda; Rosenthal, Amauri; Vinicius Alves Finco, Marcus; Deliza, Rosires

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed at estimating the consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) more for value-added pomegranate juice using the contingent valuation method (CVM). The WTP was estimated applying the open-ended elicitation technique with 454 consumers in two supermarkets located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The average consumer's WTP more for pomegranate juice was estimated in R$2.04 (Brazilian currency) and the income elasticity coefficient at the midpoint was 0.19, i.e., a 10% increase in consumer income will increase, on average, 1.9% the WTP of pomegranate juice (ceteris paribus). Therefore, the income elasticity coefficient was considered inelastic, once an increase in income would have low effect on the WTP for these consumers. The results indicated that the consumers were interested in acquiring a non-traditional juice processed using a technology that preserves vitamins and antioxidants, maintains the flavor of "fresh juice" without colorants and preservatives, despite the pomegranate is not part of the Brazilian diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 3D Geological modelling of the Monfrague synform: a value added to the geologic heritage of the National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumiel, P.; Arias, M.; Monteserin, V.; Segura, M.

    2010-01-01

    3D geological modelling of a tectonic structure called the Monfrague synform has been carried out to obtain a better insight into the geometry of this folding structure. It is a kilometric variscan WNW-ESE trending fold verging towards north and made up by a Palaeozoic sequence (Ordovician-Silurian).This structure with its lithology make up the morphology and the relief of the Park. The Monfrague synform is an asymmetrical folding structure showing southern limb dipping steeply to the south (reverse limb) what is well observed in the Armorican Quartzite at the Salto del Gitano. However, northern limb dips gently (less than 40 degree centigrade) to the south (normal limb). 3D geological modelling has been built on the basis of the geological knowledge and the structural interpretation, using 3D GeoModeller. (www.geomodeller.com). In this software, lithological units are described by a stratigraphic pile. A major original feature of this software is that the 3D description of the geological space is achieved through a potential field formulation in which geological boundaries are isopotential surfaces, and their dips are represented by gradients of the potential. Finally, it is emphasized the idea that a 3D geologic model of these characteristics, with its three-dimensional representation, together with suitable geological sections that clarify the structure in depth, represents a value added to the Geologic Heritage of the National Park and besides it supposes an interesting academic exercise which have a great didactic value. (Author)

  17. Lignin depolymerization and upgrading via fast pyrolysis and electrocatalysis for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Mahlet

    The production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass is needed to replace fossil fuels, which are decreasing in supply at an unsustainable rate. Renewable fuels also address the rising levels of greenhouse gases, an issue for which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change implicated humanity in 2013. In response, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels by 2022. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) uses heat (400-600 °C) without oxygen to convert biomass to liquids fuel precursors offering an alternative to fossil fuels and a means to meet the EISA mandate. The major product, bio-oil, can be further upgraded to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, while biochar can serve as a solid fuel or soil amendment. The combustible gas co-product is typically burned for process heat. Though the most valuable of the pyrolysis products, the liquid bio-oil is highly oxygenated, corrosive, low in energy content and unstable during storage. As a means of improving bio-oil properties, electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) is employed to reduce and deoxygenate reactive compounds. This work specifically focuses on lignin as a feed material for BFP. As lignin comprises up to 30% of the mass and 40% of the energy stored in biomass, it offers great potential for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products by utilizing fast pyrolysis as a conversion method coupled with electrocatalysis as an upgrading method.

  18. Value-added benefits of technology: e-procurement and e-commerce related to the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D; Correa, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide insights into the current supply chain for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the radiology diagnostic imaging equipment business. As is common in many manufacturing and service firms, the rationale of bridging suppliers of OEMs is the ability to leverage technology, software, and accessories pertaining to the various pieces of equipment. Several models of e-procurement and e-commerce related to the health care industry are presented. Although the radiology capital equipment market presents numerous idiosyncrasies that must be addressed to successfully implement an e-business strategy effectively, incredible opportunities exist all along the supply chain for e-business strategies to both eliminate costs and acquire strategic initiatives. Those firms that most successfully listen to their customers and address the barriers to efficiency (B2E) will help move the industry toward more effective utilization of the benefits e-business can create and also obtain first mover advantages. Although the efficiencies that e-business provides are extremely important in the radiology capital equipment market, the main value of e-business in this industry of high-priced and relatively infrequently purchased equipment may well be the value-added benefits the technology brings to its customers, as illustrated in the modeling process. The OEMs that eventually market their finished product directly to hospital and imaging centers via a direct sales force can best take advantage of the connectivity and accessibility of e-commerce.

  19. Learning Low-Dimensional Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Lalit; Mason, Blake; Nowak, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the theoretical foundations of metric learning, focused on three key questions that are not fully addressed in prior work: 1) we consider learning general low-dimensional (low-rank) metrics as well as sparse metrics; 2) we develop upper and lower (minimax)bounds on the generalization error; 3) we quantify the sample complexity of metric learning in terms of the dimension of the feature space and the dimension/rank of the underlying metric;4) we also bound the accuracy ...

  20. Development of quality metrics for ambulatory pediatric cardiology: Transposition of the great arteries after arterial switch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Smith, Carissa M; Carlson, Karina; Ettedgui, Jose; Tsuda, Takeshi; Jayakumar, K Anitha; Park, Matthew; Tede, Nikola; Uzark, Karen; Fleishman, Craig; Connuck, David; Likes, Maggie; Penny, Daniel J

    2018-01-01

    To develop quality metrics (QMs) for the ambulatory care of patients with transposition of the great arteries following arterial switch operation (TGA/ASO). Under the auspices of the American College of Cardiology Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology (ACPC) Steering committee, the TGA/ASO team generated candidate QMs related to TGA/ASO ambulatory care. Candidate QMs were submitted to the ACPC Steering Committee and were reviewed for validity and feasibility using individual expert panel member scoring according to the RAND-UCLA methodology. QMs were then made available for review by the entire ACC ACPC during an "open comment period." Final approval of each QM was provided by a vote of the ACC ACPC Council. Patients with TGA who had undergone an ASO were included. Patients with complex transposition were excluded. Twelve candidate QMs were generated. Seven metrics passed the RAND-UCLA process. Four passed the "open comment period" and were ultimately approved by the Council. These included: (1) at least 1 echocardiogram performed during the first year of life reporting on the function, aortic dimension, degree of neoaortic valve insufficiency, the patency of the systemic and pulmonary outflows, the patency of the branch pulmonary arteries and coronary arteries, (2) neurodevelopmental (ND) assessment after ASO; (3) lipid profile by age 11 years; and (4) documentation of a transition of care plan to an adult congenital heart disease (CHD) provider by 18 years of age. Application of the RAND-UCLA methodology and linkage of this methodology to the ACPC approval process led to successful generation of 4 QMs relevant to the care of TGA/ASO pediatric patients in the ambulatory setting. These metrics have now been incorporated into the ACPC Quality Network providing guidance for the care of TGA/ASO patients across 30 CHD centers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A comparative analysis of two contrasting European approaches for rewarding the value added by drugs for cancer: England versus France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Michael; de Pouvourville, Gerard; Jones, Elizabeth; Haig, Jennifer; Saba, Grece; Cawston, Hélène

    2014-05-01

    Within Europe, contrasting approaches have emerged for rewarding the value added by new drugs. In Ireland, The Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, the price of, and access to, a new drug has to be justified by the health gain it delivers compared with current therapy, typically expressed in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. By contrast, in France and Germany, the assessment of added benefit is expressed on an ordinal scale, based on an assessment of the clinical outcomes as compared with existing care. This assessment then influences price negotiations. The objective of this paper is to assess the pros and cons of each approach, both in terms of the assessments they produce and the efficiency and practical feasibility of the process. We reviewed the technology appraisals performed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) relating to 49 anticancer drug decisions in the UK from September 2003 to January 2012. Estimates of the QALYs gained and incremental cost per QALY gained were then compared with the assessments of the Amélioration du Service Médical Rendu (ASMR) made by the Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) in France for the same drugs in the same clinical indications. We also undertook a qualitative assessment of the two approaches, considering the resources required, timeliness, transparency, stakeholder engagement, and political acceptability. In the UK, the estimates of QALYs gained ranged from 0.003 to 1.46 and estimates of incremental cost per QALY from £3,320 to £458,000. The estimate of cost per QALY gained was a good predictor of the level of restriction imposed on the use of the drug concerned. Patient access schemes, which normally imply price reductions, were proposed in 45 % of cases. In France, the distribution of ASMRs was I, 12 %; II, 18 %; III, 24 %; IV, 18 %; V, 22 %; and uncategorized/non-reimbursed, 4 %. Since ASMRs of IV and above signify minor or no improvement over existing therapy, these ratings imply that, in

  2. An integrated biorefinery concept for conversion of sugar beet pulp into value-added chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Bawn, Maria; Hamley-Bennett, Charlotte; Bharat, Penumathsa K V; Subrizi, Fabiana; Suhaili, Nurashikin; Ward, David P; Bourdin, Sarah; Dalby, Paul A; Hailes, Helen C; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Leak, David J; Shah, Nilay; Sheppard, Tom D; Ward, John M; Lye, Gary J

    2017-09-21

    Over 8 million tonnes of sugar beet are grown annually in the UK. Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the main by-product of sugar beet processing which is currently dried and sold as a low value animal feed. SBP is a rich source of carbohydrates, mainly in the form of cellulose and pectin, including d-glucose (Glu), l-arabinose (Ara) and d-galacturonic acid (GalAc). This work describes the technical feasibility of an integrated biorefinery concept for the fractionation of SBP and conversion of these monosaccharides into value-added products. SBP fractionation is initially carried out by steam explosion under mild conditions to yield soluble pectin and insoluble cellulose fractions. The cellulose is readily hydrolysed by cellulases to release Glu that can then be fermented by a commercial yeast strain to produce bioethanol at a high yield. The pectin fraction can be either fully hydrolysed, using physico-chemical methods, or selectively hydrolysed, using cloned arabinases and galacturonases, to yield Ara-rich and GalAc-rich streams. These monomers can be separated using either Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) or ultrafiltration into streams suitable for subsequent enzymatic upgrading. Building on our previous experience with transketolase (TK) and transaminase (TAm) enzymes, the conversion of Ara and GalAc into higher value products was explored. In particular the conversion of Ara into l-gluco-heptulose (GluHep), that has potential therapeutic applications in hypoglycaemia and cancer, using a mutant TK is described. Preliminary studies with TAm also suggest GluHep can be selectively aminated to the corresponding chiral aminopolyol. The current work is addressing the upgrading of the remaining SBP monomer, GalAc, and the modelling of the biorefinery concept to enable economic and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA).

  3. Analysis of the Relevance of Information Content of the Value Added Statement in the Brazilian Capital Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio André Veras Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of financial statements depends, fundamentally, on the degree of relevance of the information they disclose to users. Thus, studies that measure the relevance of accounting information to the users of financial statements are of some importance. One line of research within this subject is in ascertaining the relevance and importance of accounting information for the capital markets: if a particular item of accounting information is minimally reflected in the price of a share, it is because this information has relevance, at least at a certain level of significance, for investors and analysts of the capital markets. This present study aims to analyze the relevance, in the Brazilian capital markets, of the information content of the Value Added Statement (or VAS - referred to in Brazil as the Demonstração do Valor Adicionado, or DVA. It analyzed the ratio between stock price and Wealth created per share (WCPS, using linear regressions, for the period 2005-2011, for non-financial listed companies included in Melhores & Maiores ('Biggest & Best', an annual listing published by Exame Magazine in Brazil. As a secondary objective, this article seeks to establish whether WCPS represents a better indication of a company's result than Net profit per share (in this study, referred to as NPPS. The empirical evidence that was found supports the concept that the VAS has relevant information content, because it shows a capacity to explain a variation in the share price of the companies studied. Additionally, the relationship between WCPS and the stock price was shown to be significant, even after the inclusion of the control variables Stockholders' equity per share (which we abbreviate in this study to SEPS and NPPS. Finally, the evidence found indicates that the market reacts more to WCPS (Wealth created per share than to NPPS. Thus, the results obtained give some indication that, for the Brazilian capital markets, WCPS may be a better proxy

  4. The Association between State Value-added Taxes and Tobacco Use in India- Evidence from GATS and TCP India Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S

    2017-08-30

    State value-added taxes (VAT) on tobacco products have been increased significantly in recent years in India. Evidence on how these VATs were associated with smoking is highly needed. State bidi and cigarette VAT rates were linked to Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-2010 and Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Survey waves 1 (2010-2011) and 2 (2012-2013), respectively. These linked data were used to analyze the associations between bidi VAT rates and bidi smoking, between cigarette VAT rates and cigarette smoking, and between the two VAT rates and dual use of bidis and cigarettes. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to examine GATS cross-sectional data, whereas Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were employed to examine longitudinal TCP data. We further stratified the analyses by gender. A 10% increase in cigarette VAT rates was associated with a 6.5% (p<0.001) decrease in dual use of cigarettes and bidis among adults and a 0.9% decrease (p<0.05) in cigarette smoking among males in TCP; and with a 21.6% decrease (p<0.05) in dual use among adults and a 17.2% decrease (p<0.001) in cigarette smoking among males in GATS. TCP analyses controlling for state fixed effects are less likely to be biased and indicate a cigarette price elasticity of - 0.44. As female smoking prevalence was extremely low, these associations were non-significant for females. Higher state cigarette VAT rates in India were significantly associated with lower cigarette smoking and lower dual use of cigarettes and bidis. Increasing state VAT rates may significantly reduce smoking in India. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Food waste collection and recycling for value-added products: potential applications and challenges in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Irene M C; Woon, Kok Sin

    2016-04-01

    About 3600 tonnes food waste are discarded in the landfills in Hong Kong daily. It is expected that the three strategic landfills in Hong Kong will be exhausted by 2020. In consideration of the food waste management environment and community needs in Hong Kong, as well as with reference to the food waste management systems in cities such as Linköping in Sweden and Oslo in Norway, a framework of food waste separation, collection, and recycling for food waste valorization is proposed in this paper. Food waste can be packed in an optic bag (i.e., a bag in green color), while the residual municipal solid waste (MSW) can be packed in a common plastic bag. All the wastes are then sent to the refuse transfer stations, in which food waste is separated from the residual MSW using an optic sensor. On the one hand, the sorted food waste can be converted into valuable materials (e.g., compost, swine feed, fish feed). On the other hand, the sorted food waste can be sent to the proposed Organic Waste Treatment Facilities and sewage treatment works for producing biogas. The biogas can be recovered to produce electricity and city gas (i.e., heating fuel for cooking purpose). Due to the challenges faced by the value-added products in Hong Kong, the biogas is recommended to be upgraded as a biogas fuel for vehicle use. Hopefully, the proposed framework will provide a simple and effective approach to food waste separation at source and promote sustainable use of waste to resource in Hong Kong.

  6. Preventing the link between SES and high-risk behaviors: "value-added" education, drug use and delinquency in high-risk, urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Dabroski, Alexis; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A

    2011-06-01

    We examined whether schools achieving better than expected educational outcomes for their students influence the risk of drug use and delinquency among urban, racial/ethnic minority youth. Adolescents (n = 2,621), who were primarily African American and Hispanic and enrolled in Chicago public schools (n = 61), completed surveys in 6th (aged 12) and 8th (aged 14) grades. Value-added education was derived from standardized residuals of regression equations predicting school-level academic achievement and attendance from students' sociodemographic profiles and defined as having higher academic achievement and attendance than that expected given the sociodemographic profile of the schools' student composition. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the effects of value-added education on students' drug use and delinquency. After considering initial risk behavior, value-added education was associated with lower incidence of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use; stealing; and participating in a group-against-group fight. Significant beneficial effects of value-added education remained for cigarette and marijuana use, stealing and participating in a group-against-group fight after adjustment for individual- and school-level covariates. Alcohol use (past month and heavy episodic) showed marginally significant trends in the hypothesized direction after these adjustments. Inner-city schools may break the links between social disadvantage, drug use and delinquency. Identifying the processes related to value-added education in order to improve school environments is warranted given the high costs associated with individual-level interventions.

  7. Pretreatment and Fractionation of Wheat Straw for Production of Fuel Ethanol and Value-added Co-products in a Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated process has been developed for a wheat straw biorefinery. In this process, wheat straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA, which extensively removed lignin but preserved high percentages of the carbohydrate fractions for subsequent bioconversion. The pretreatment conditions included 15 wt% NH4OH, 1:10 solid:liquid ratio, 65 oC and 15 hours. Under these conditions, 48% of the original lignin was removed, whereas 98%, 83% and 78% of the original glucan, xylan, and arabinan, respectively, were preserved. The pretreated material was subsequently hydrolyzed with a commercial hemicellulase to produce a solution rich in xylose and low in glucose plus a cellulose-enriched solid residue. The xylose-rich solution then was used for production of value-added products. Xylitol and astaxanthin were selected to demonstrate the fermentability of the xylose-rich hydrolysate. Candida mogii and Phaffia rhodozyma were used for xylitol and astaxanthin fermentation, respectively. The cellulose-enriched residue obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated straw was used for ethanol production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. In this process, a commercial cellulase was used for hydrolysis of the glucan in the residue and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the most efficient commercial ethanol-producing organism, was used for ethanol production. Final ethanol concentration of 57 g/l was obtained at 27 wt% total solid loading.

  8. PENGARUH MANAJEMEN ASET, MANAJEMEN LIABILITI, MANAJEMEN ASET LIABILITI TERHADAP ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA PADA PERBANKAN KONVENSIONAL YANG TERDAFTAR DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hamidah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Generally, company wants to optimize its profit. Properly manage the asset management, liability management and asset liability management can provide value added profits for the company. A sample of research consists of 18 banking companies listed at Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX during the 2005-2009. This research investigate the relationship net loans/total earning assets (NLA, non performing loan (NPL, liabilities/total assets (LA, equity/total assets (EA, net interest margin (NIM, loan to deposite ratio (LDR on economic value added (EVA. The research use regression of panel data. The result show that net loans/total earning assets (NLA, liabilities/total assets (LA, equity/total assets (EA, net interest margin (NIM, loan to deposite ratio (LDR are have significant effect on economic value added (EVA but non performing loan (NPL.

  9. Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

    2013-01-01

    throughout the jatropha waste-handling process. However additional tests such as digestibility as well as acceptability of the treated jatropha seed cake should be conducted using both in vivo and in vitro studies before recommending the jatropha seed cake as a source of renewable animal feed and other value-added products.

  10. Attack-Resistant Trust Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levien, Raph

    The Internet is an amazingly powerful tool for connecting people together, unmatched in human history. Yet, with that power comes great potential for spam and abuse. Trust metrics are an attempt to compute the set of which people are trustworthy and which are likely attackers. This chapter presents two specific trust metrics developed and deployed on the Advogato Website, which is a community blog for free software developers. This real-world experience demonstrates that the trust metrics fulfilled their goals, but that for good results, it is important to match the assumptions of the abstract trust metric computation to the real-world implementation.

  11. Engineering performance metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delozier, R.; Snyder, N.

    1993-03-01

    Implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to engineering work required the development of a system of metrics which would serve as a meaningful management tool for evaluating effectiveness in accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. A team effort was chartered with the goal of developing a system of engineering performance metrics which would measure customer satisfaction, quality, cost effectiveness, and timeliness. The approach to developing this system involved normal systems design phases including, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation, and integration. The lessons teamed from this effort will be explored in this paper. These lessons learned may provide a starting point for other large engineering organizations seeking to institute a performance measurement system accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. To facilitate this effort, a team was chartered to assist in the development of the metrics system. This team, consisting of customers and Engineering staff members, was utilized to ensure that the needs and views of the customers were considered in the development of performance measurements. The development of a system of metrics is no different than the development of any type of system. It includes the steps of defining performance measurement requirements, measurement process conceptual design, performance measurement and reporting system detailed design, and system implementation and integration.

  12. Incentives for Developers’ Contributions and Product Performance Metrics in Open Source Development: An Empirical Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Haruvy Ernan E; Wu Fang; Chakravarty Sujoy

    2005-01-01

    In open source software development, users rather than paid developers engage in innovation and development without the direct involvement of manufacturers. This paradigm cannot be explained by the two traditional models of innovation, the private investment model and the collective action model. Neither model in itself can explain the phenomenon of the open source model or its success. In order to bridge the gap between existing models and the open source phenomenon, we analyze data from a w...

  13. Metrics and Methodologies for Measuring Teaching Quality in Higher Education: Developing the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The creation of the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) represents a significant development concerning the teaching mission of the university in the UK. This paper considers the background to, and the development of, the TEF. It explains the context from which the TEF emerged and unpacks a series of rationales which illustrate the need for, and…

  14. TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION MANAGEMENT : DEVELOPMENT OF PERFORMANCE BASED PROCESSES, METRICS, AND TOOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    The objective of this study is to develop an evidencebased research implementation database and tool to support research implementation at the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT).A review was conducted drawing from the (1) implementati...

  15. Deep Transfer Metric Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlin Hu; Jiwen Lu; Yap-Peng Tan; Jie Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Conventional metric learning methods usually assume that the training and test samples are captured in similar scenarios so that their distributions are assumed to be the same. This assumption does not hold in many real visual recognition applications, especially when samples are captured across different data sets. In this paper, we propose a new deep transfer metric learning (DTML) method to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations for cross-domain visual recognition by transferring discriminative knowledge from the labeled source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Specifically, our DTML learns a deep metric network by maximizing the inter-class variations and minimizing the intra-class variations, and minimizing the distribution divergence between the source domain and the target domain at the top layer of the network. To better exploit the discriminative information from the source domain, we further develop a deeply supervised transfer metric learning (DSTML) method by including an additional objective on DTML, where the output of both the hidden layers and the top layer are optimized jointly. To preserve the local manifold of input data points in the metric space, we present two new methods, DTML with autoencoder regularization and DSTML with autoencoder regularization. Experimental results on face verification, person re-identification, and handwritten digit recognition validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  16. Application of environmental and economic metrics to guide the development of biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Ramos, Joana; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    the use of adequate tools to evaluate the performance of a process, in particular during process development. Nevertheless, at the early development stage, evaluation of biocatalytic processes is not a trivial task, not only due to the lack of data, but also because at this stage many of the biocatalytic......). Interestingly, it is often argued that the mild conditions frequently used in biocatalytic reactions (ambient temperature and pressure, neutral pH and aqueous-based media) automatically lead to environmentally-friendly and cost-effective production processes. However, such a conclusion is not justified without...

  17. Developing brief fatigue short forms calibrated to a common mathematical metric: is content-balancing important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karon F Cook

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Karon F Cook1, Seung W Choi2, Kurt L Johnson1, Dagmar Amtmann11Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: There are clinical and research settings in which concerns about respondent burden make the use of longer self-report measures impractical. Though computer adaptive testing provides an efficient strategy for measuring patient reported outcomes, the requirement of a computer interface makes it impractical for some settings. This study evaluated how well brief short forms, constructed from a longer measure of patient reported fatigue, reproduced scores on the full measure. When the items of an item bank are calibrated using an item response theory model, it is assumed that the items are fungible units. Theoretically, there should be no advantage to balancing the content coverage of the items. We compared short forms developed using a random item selection process to short forms developed with consideration of the items relation to subdomains of fatigue (ie, physical and cognitive fatigue. Scores on short forms developed using content balancing more successfully predicted full item bank scores than did scores on short forms developed by random selection of items.Keywords: psychometrics, outcomes, quality of life, measurement, fatigue

  18. Developing an outcome-based biodiversity metric in support of the field to market project: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, C. Ashton; Alexander-Vaughn, Louise B.; Collazo, Jaime A.; McKerrow, Alexa; Anderson, John

    2013-01-01

    depends on that animal’s resource specialization, mobility, and life history strategies (Jeanneret et al. 2003a, b; Jennings & Pocock 2009). The knowledge necessary to define the biodiversity contribution of agricultural lands is specialized, dispersed, and nuanced, and thus not readily accessible. Given access to clearly defined biodiversity tradeoffs between alternative agricultural practices, landowners, land managers and farm operators could collectively enhance the conservation and economic value of agricultural landscapes. Therefore, Field to Market: The Keystone Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture and The Nature Conservancy jointly funded a pilot project to develop a biodiversity metric to integrate into Field to Market’s existing sustainability calculator, The Fieldprint Calculator (http://www. fieldtomarket.org/). Field to Market: The Keystone Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture is an alliance among producers, agribusinesses, food companies, and conservation organizations seeking to create sustainable outcomes for agriculture. The Fieldprint Calculator supports the Keystone Alliance’s vision to achieve safe, accessible, and nutritious food, fiber and fuel in thriving ecosystems to meet the needs of 9 billion people in 2050. In support of this same vision, our project provides proof-of-concept for an outcome-based biodiversity metric for Field to Market to quantify biodiversity impacts of commercial row crop production on terrestrial vertebrate richness. Little research exists examining the impacts of alternative commercial agricultural practices on overall terrestrial biodiversity (McLaughlin & Mineau 1995). Instead, most studies compare organic versus conventional practices (e.g. Freemark & Kirk 2001; Wickramasinghe et al. 2004), and most studies focus on flora, avian, or invertebrate communities (Jeanneret et al. 2003a; Maes et al. 2008; Pollard & Relton 1970). Therefore, we used an expert-knowledge-based approach to develop a metric that predicts

  19. Biomass valorisation by staged degasification A new pyrolysis-based thermochemical conversion option to produce value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, P. J.; den Uil, H.; Reith, J. H.; Kiel, J. H. A.; Heeres, H. J.

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass leads to an array Of useful solid, liquid and gaseous products. Staged degasification is a pyrolysis-based conversion route to generate value-added chemicals from biomass. Because of different thermal stabilities of the main biomass constituents hemicellulose.

  20. The detection and settlement of VAT fraud in four countries : Addendum to the report value-added tax fraud in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronowitz, A.A.; Laagland, D.C.G.; Paulides, G.

    1996-01-01

    This addendum to the report 'Value-added tax fraud in the European Union' gives additional information on the detection and settlement of VAT fraud in Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. See link to the report at: More information.

  1. An Elusive Policy Imperative: Data and Methodological Challenges When Using Growth in Student Achievement to Evaluate Teacher Education Programs' "Value-Added"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Lawton, Kerry; Ronan, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    In this study researchers examined the effectiveness of one of the largest teacher education programs located within the largest research-intensive universities within the US. They did this using a value-added model as per current federal educational policy imperatives to assess the measurable effects of teacher education programs on their teacher…

  2. The "Power" of Value-Added Thinking: Exploring the Implementation of High-Stakes Teacher Accountability Policies in Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to ethnographically document the market-based ideological assumptions of Rio de Janeiro's educational policymakers, and the ways in which those assumptions have informed these policymakers' decision to implement value-added modeling-based teacher evaluation policies. Drawing on the anthropological literature on…

  3. Beyond Human Capital Development: Balanced Safeguards Workforce Metrics and the Next Generation Safeguards Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Since its establishment in 2008, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has achieved a number of objectives under its five pillars: concepts and approaches, policy development and outreach, international nuclear safeguards engagement, technology development, and human capital development (HCD). As a result of these efforts, safeguards has become much more visible as a critical U.S. national security interest across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, limited budgets have since created challenges in a number of areas. Arguably, one of the more serious challenges involves NGSI's ability to integrate entry-level staff into safeguards projects. Laissez fair management of this issue across the complex can lead to wasteful project implementation and endanger NGSI's long-term sustainability. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of this problem, focusing on the demographics of the current safeguards workforce and compounding pressures to operate cost-effectively, transfer knowledge to the next generation of safeguards professionals, and sustain NGSI safeguards investments.

  4. Using proliferation risk as a design metric in the development of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, C.; Lebouf, R.

    2001-01-01

    The necessity has arisen for newly proposed nuclear systems to be evaluated with regard to their potential aid to any proliferation. Thus, a mechanism is needed to introduce nonproliferation as a measure in the design phase of a new nuclear system. To accomplish this, a methodology for quantifying and measuring the proliferation risk of proposed system options is required. Such quantification has its difficulties due to inherent uncertainty, e.g. what is the probability that a quantity of material will be stolen in a given situation? Also, the lack of data on such occurrences makes the task of quantification nearly insurmountable. A systematic approach is necessary to estimate the proliferation risk. Currently, an advanced nuclear power system, the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program has been initiated to develop a system that will concurrently generate electricity while destroying long-lived radioactive isotopes. Therefore, because of the issues noted above, an effort to introduce proliferation risk into the design phase has been started. The purpose of this paper is to review previous work in quantification of proliferation risk in an effort to develop the proper basis for the current work. It should be noted that while proliferation on a national level has been studied extensively, efforts to quantify proliferation risk of individual nuclear systems or processes have been limited. Consequently, the available literature base is relatively sparse. (author)

  5. Using proliferation risk as a design metric in the development of nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, C.; Lebouf, R. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab.

    2001-07-01

    The necessity has arisen for newly proposed nuclear systems to be evaluated with regard to their potential aid to any proliferation. Thus, a mechanism is needed to introduce nonproliferation as a measure in the design phase of a new nuclear system. To accomplish this, a methodology for quantifying and measuring the proliferation risk of proposed system options is required. Such quantification has its difficulties due to inherent uncertainty, e.g. what is the probability that a quantity of material will be stolen in a given situation? Also, the lack of data on such occurrences makes the task of quantification nearly insurmountable. A systematic approach is necessary to estimate the proliferation risk. Currently, an advanced nuclear power system, the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program has been initiated to develop a system that will concurrently generate electricity while destroying long-lived radioactive isotopes. Therefore, because of the issues noted above, an effort to introduce proliferation risk into the design phase has been started. The purpose of this paper is to review previous work in quantification of proliferation risk in an effort to develop the proper basis for the current work. It should be noted that while proliferation on a national level has been studied extensively, efforts to quantify proliferation risk of individual nuclear systems or processes have been limited. Consequently, the available literature base is relatively sparse. (author)

  6. Key Performance Indicators in Irish Hospital Libraries: Developing Outcome-Based Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dalton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To develop a set of generic outcome-based performance measures for Irishhospital libraries.Methods – Various models and frameworks of performance measurement were used as atheoretical paradigm to link the impact of library services directly with measurablehealthcare objectives and outcomes. Strategic objectives were identified, mapped toperformance indicators, and finally translated into response choices to a single-questiononline survey for distribution via email.Results – The set of performance indicators represents an impact assessment tool whichis easy to administer across a variety of healthcare settings. In using a model directlyaligned with the mission and goals of the organization, and linked to core activities andoperations in an accountable way, the indicators can also be used as a channel throughwhich to implement action, change, and improvement.Conclusion – The indicators can be adopted at a local and potentially a national level, asboth a tool for advocacy and to assess and improve service delivery at a macro level. Toovercome the constraints posed by necessary simplifications, substantial further research is needed by hospital libraries to develop more sophisticated and meaningful measures of impact to further aid decision making at a micro level.

  7. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  8. Population health metrics: crucial inputs to the development of evidence for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Joshua A

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Valid, reliable and comparable measures of the health states of individuals and of the health status of populations are critical components of the evidence base for health policy. We need to develop population health measurement strategies that coherently address the relationships between epidemiological measures (such as risk exposures, incidence, and mortality rates and multi-domain measures of population health status, while ensuring validity and cross-population comparability. Studies reporting on descriptive epidemiology of major diseases, injuries and risk factors, and on the measurement of health at the population level – either for monitoring trends in health levels or inequalities or for measuring broad outcomes of health systems and social interventions – are not well-represented in traditional epidemiology journals, which tend to concentrate on causal studies and on quasi-experimental design. In particular, key methodological issues relating to the clear conceptualisation of, and the validity and comparability of measures of population health are currently not addressed coherently by any discipline, and cross-disciplinary debate is fragmented and often conducted in mutually incomprehensible language or paradigms. Population health measurement potentially bridges a range of currently disjoint fields of inquiry relating to health: biology, demography, epidemiology, health economics, and broader social science disciplines relevant to assessment of health determinants, health state valuations and health inequalities. This new journal will focus on the importance of a population based approach to measurement as a way to characterize the complexity of people's health, the diseases and risks that affect it, its distribution, and its valuation, and will attempt to provide a forum for innovative work and debate that bridge the many fields of inquiry relevant to population health in order to contribute to the development of valid

  9. The influence of soil properties and nutrients on conifer forest growth in Sweden, and the first steps in developing a nutrient availability metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sundert, Kevin; Horemans, Joanna A.; Stendahl, Johan; Vicca, Sara

    2018-06-01

    The availability of nutrients is one of the factors that regulate terrestrial carbon cycling and modify ecosystem responses to environmental changes. Nonetheless, nutrient availability is often overlooked in climate-carbon cycle studies because it depends on the interplay of various soil factors that would ideally be comprised into metrics applicable at large spatial scales. Such metrics do not currently exist. Here, we use a Swedish forest inventory database that contains soil data and tree growth data for > 2500 forests across Sweden to (i) test which combination of soil factors best explains variation in tree growth, (ii) evaluate an existing metric of constraints on nutrient availability, and (iii) adjust this metric for boreal forest data. With (iii), we thus aimed to provide an adjustable nutrient metric, applicable for Sweden and with potential for elaboration to other regions. While taking into account confounding factors such as climate, N deposition, and soil oxygen availability, our analyses revealed that the soil organic carbon concentration (SOC) and the ratio of soil carbon to nitrogen (C : N) were the most important factors explaining variation in normalized (climate-independent) productivity (mean annual volume increment - m3 ha-1 yr-1) across Sweden. Normalized forest productivity was significantly negatively related to the soil C : N ratio (R2 = 0.02-0.13), while SOC exhibited an empirical optimum (R2 = 0.05-0.15). For the metric, we started from a (yet unvalidated) metric for constraints on nutrient availability that was previously developed by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA - Laxenburg, Austria) for evaluating potential productivity of arable land. This IIASA metric requires information on soil properties that are indicative of nutrient availability (SOC, soil texture, total exchangeable bases - TEB, and pH) and is based on theoretical considerations that are also generally valid for nonagricultural ecosystems

  10. The other Side of the Medal: Development and Metric Characteristics of Negative Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (NCBQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Greblo Jurakić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In sport, winning and losing are usually propounded as the most important criteria for the evaluation of coaches' competences. Thus, negative coaching behaviours are too often ignored, particularly if those behaviours are associated with sport success. Since existing measures for the assessment of coaches' leadership style are dominantly focused on positive aspects of coaching behaviours, the main aim of the study was to develop and validate the Negative Coaching Behaviour Questionnaire (NCBQ. An additional aim was to examine possible differences in perceptions of coaches' behaviour between athletes from individual versus team sports. The NCBQ is a 13-item inventory that assesses undesirable coach’s behaviour on three subscales, i.e. Insensitivity to Athletes’ Wellbeing, Negative Feedback, and Results Orientation. Psychometric characteristics of NCBQ (factor structure, reliability, sensitivity, convergent and divergent validity were tested on a sample of 181 kinesiology students. The results showed that NCBQ is valid and reliable measure useful for the assessment of negative coaching behaviours in various sport-related research. As expected, athletes from team sports reported a higher frequency of negative and a lower frequency of positive coaching behaviours. In future studies, more attention should be given to exploring antecedents, correlates and consequences of different coaching behaviours.

  11. Numerical Calabi-Yau metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Michael R.; Karp, Robert L.; Lukic, Sergio; Reinbacher, Rene

    2008-01-01

    We develop numerical methods for approximating Ricci flat metrics on Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in projective spaces. Our approach is based on finding balanced metrics and builds on recent theoretical work by Donaldson. We illustrate our methods in detail for a one parameter family of quintics. We also suggest several ways to extend our results

  12. Development of the Digital Arthritis Index, a Novel Metric to Measure Disease Parameters in a Rat Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Lim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite a broad spectrum of anti-arthritic drugs currently on the market, there is a constant demand to develop improved therapeutic agents. Efficient compound screening and rapid evaluation of treatment efficacy in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA can accelerate the development of clinical candidates. Compound screening by evaluation of disease phenotypes in animal models facilitates preclinical research by enhancing understanding of human pathophysiology; however, there is still a continuous need to improve methods for evaluating disease. Current clinical assessment methods are challenged by the subjective nature of scoring-based methods, time-consuming longitudinal experiments, and the requirement for better functional readouts with relevance to human disease. To address these needs, we developed a low-touch, digital platform for phenotyping preclinical rodent models of disease. As a proof-of-concept, we utilized the rat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA model of RA and developed the Digital Arthritis Index (DAI, an objective and automated behavioral metric that does not require human-animal interaction during the measurement and calculation of disease parameters. The DAI detected the development of arthritis similar to standard in vivo methods, including ankle joint measurements and arthritis scores, as well as demonstrated a positive correlation to ankle joint histopathology. The DAI also determined responses to multiple standard-of-care (SOC treatments and nine repurposed compounds predicted by the SMarTRTM Engine to have varying degrees of impact on RA. The disease profiles generated by the DAI complemented those generated by standard methods. The DAI is a highly reproducible and automated approach that can be used in-conjunction with standard methods for detecting RA disease progression and conducting phenotypic drug screens.

  13. Employment and taxes in Latin America: An empirical study of the effects of payroll, corporate income and value-added taxes on labor outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically explores the effects of payroll taxes, value-added taxes and corporate income taxes on a variety of labor market outcomes such as participation, employment, informality, and wages. The results are based on nationallevel data of labor variables for 15 Latin American countries, and indicate that the effects of each tax are markedly different and may depend on several aspects of labor and tax institutions. Payroll taxes reduce employment and increase labor costs when their benefits are not valued by workers, but otherwise may increase labor participation and not raise labor costs. Value-added taxes increase informality and reduce skilled labor demand. In contrast, corporate income taxes may help reduce informality, especially among low education workers, but when tax enforcement capabilities are strong they may reduce labor participation and employment of medium- and high-education workers.

  14. VAT application in travel services pursuant to the Czech and EU legislations and a proposal for amendments in the Czech value-added tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The domain of value-added tax has been already fully harmonized. Its regulation dwells on the Council Directive 2006/112/EC on the common system of value-added tax, and all member countries of the European Union are obliged to provide for the implementation of this Directive into their national legislations similarly as the Czech Republic, which entered the European Union on 1 May 2004. The Act no. 235/2004 Coll. on the value-added tax as amended (hereinafter „value-added tax law“ should be therefore in line with the Directive. In reality however, some issues in the VAT law have not been fully harmonized yet. One of these issues is for example the application of a special routine for travel services according to §89 of the VAT law, which is in essential contradiction with the Directive in question, the controversial point being definition of the person of customer whom the Directive understands in a different way than the VAT law. Thus, the characterization of the problem based on the Czech and EU legislations with respect to jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the European Community forms a framework of the paper. Based on a comparative analysis of the application of special and ordinary routines in providing travel services to the customer by the taxpayer, tax incidence in his assessment base is determined. At the same time, the paper also includes a proposal for the change of the definition of customer in the VAT law so that the application of the given routine is fully in line with the EU Directive.

  15. Constructing an allocation factor based on product and process related parameters to assess environmental burdens of producing value-added sludge-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Pradel, M.; Aissani, L.; Canler, J.C.; Roux, J.C.; Villot, J.; Baudez, J.C.; Laforest, V.

    2018-01-01

    Sludge is slowly moving away from providing basic by-products and towards providing value-added products (e.g. fertilisers); therefore, it is no longer perceived as waste but as a product. Consequently, wastewater treatment plants become multifunctional systems that produce two coproducts that are given a second life: sludge and "clean" water. An allocation factor in Life Cycle Assessment can partition environmental burdens of wastewater treatment between these two products, but doing so rema...

  16. Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A D

    2000-01-01

    The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces

  17. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  18. Evaluating Consumer Product Life Cycle Sustainability with Integrated Metrics: A Paper Towel Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated sustainability metrics provide an enriched set of information to inform decision-making. However, such approaches are rarely used to assess product supply chains. In this work, four integrated metrics—presented in terms of land, resources, value added, and stability—ar...

  19. A multi-level model-driven regime for value-added tax compliance in ERP systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossenaerts, J.B.M.; Zegers, A.T.M.; Smits, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    As the economy becomes global and ICT-reliant, approaches practiced in enterprise software product development and enterprise resource planning (ERP) system implementation must cope with increasingly complex situations induced by contemporary supply chain and regulations. Compliance with regulations

  20. Web2.0时代的增值业务互联网营销策略探析%Online Marketing of Value-added Services in Web2.0 Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琳娟

    2011-01-01

    作为代表通信行业发展方向、决定通信运营企业未来命运的增值业务,如何利用互联网进行成功营销成为通信运营企业需要面对的重要课题。本文结合互联网在Web2.0时代显现出来的新特征,分析了当前互联网营销的新特点。在此基础上,结合目前实际的营销案例,提出了适用于电信增值业务的五种互联网营销策略。%It is an important issue for telecom operators to study how to use the Internet to achieve successful marketing of telecom value-added services which are the development direction of the telecom industry and the main source of future revenue growth of telecom operators.Combined with the new features of Internet in the Web2.0,this paper analyzes the new features of current Internet marketing.It gives some practical marketing cases and offers five Internet marketing strategies for telecom value-added services.

  1. Metrics of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhihao; Chen Jingling

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study metrics of quantum states, which are natural generalizations of the usual trace metric and Bures metric. Some useful properties of the metrics are proved, such as the joint convexity and contractivity under quantum operations. Our result has a potential application in studying the geometry of quantum states as well as the entanglement detection.

  2. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Brinke, JoAnn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suspected to contribute significantly to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' (SBS), a complex of subchronic symptoms that occurs during and in general decreases away from occupancy of the building in question. A new approach takes into account individual VOC potencies, as well as the highly correlated nature of the complex VOC mixtures found indoors. The new VOC metrics are statistically significant predictors of symptom outcomes from the California Healthy Buildings Study data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that a summary measure of the VOC mixture, other risk factors, and covariates for each worker will lead to better prediction of symptom outcome. VOC metrics based on animal irritancy measures and principal component analysis had the most influence in the prediction of eye, dermal, and nasal symptoms. After adjustment, a water-based paints and solvents source was found to be associated with dermal and eye irritation. The more typical VOC exposure metrics used in prior analyses were not useful in symptom prediction in the adjusted model (total VOC (TVOC), or sum of individually identified VOCs (ΣVOCi)). Also not useful were three other VOC metrics that took into account potency, but did not adjust for the highly correlated nature of the data set, or the presence of VOCs that were not measured. High TVOC values (2--7 mg m-3) due to the presence of liquid-process photocopiers observed in several study spaces significantly influenced symptoms. Analyses without the high TVOC values reduced, but did not eliminate the ability of the VOC exposure metric based on irritancy and principal component analysis to explain symptom outcome.

  3. Looking inside the Black Box: The Value Added by Career and Technical Student Organizations to Students' High School Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfeld, Corinne; Stone, James R., III; Aragon, Steven R.; Hansen, David M.; Zirkle, Christopher; Connors, James; Spindler, Matt; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Woo, Hui-Jeong

    2007-01-01

    In addition to hands-on learning in classrooms and work-related activities such as co-op, many CTE programs offer a career-focused student organization, known as a Career and Technical Student Organization, or CTSO. CTSOs have been touted as developing such characteristics as leadership and employability skills in students; however, there is…

  4. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures: An Application to Residual Income Based Measures like Economic Value Added

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, M.

    2015-01-01

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (2008) to detect whether the widely used class of Residual Income based performance

  5. Issues in Benchmark Metric Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crolotte, Alain

    It is true that a metric can influence a benchmark but will esoteric metrics create more problems than they will solve? We answer this question affirmatively by examining the case of the TPC-D metric which used the much debated geometric mean for the single-stream test. We will show how a simple choice influenced the benchmark and its conduct and, to some extent, DBMS development. After examining other alternatives our conclusion is that the “real” measure for a decision-support benchmark is the arithmetic mean.

  6. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  7. $\\eta$-metric structures

    OpenAIRE

    Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss recent results about generalized metric spaces and fixed point theory. We introduce the notion of $\\eta$-cone metric spaces, give some topological properties and prove some fixed point theorems for contractive type maps on these spaces. In particular we show that theses $\\eta$-cone metric spaces are natural generalizations of both cone metric spaces and metric type spaces.

  8. Creativity and innovation by empowering the customer: The case of Mulino Bianco. Part II: The digital customer value added

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujor, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    The terms of creativity, co-creation, creative industries, innovation, and coinnovation are more and more used nowadays. While co-creation offers the possibility and encourages a more active involvement from the customers to create value rich experiences, innovation is responsible for the little improvements made for a better life, to grow a business, to improve products, services or company's productivity. Either customers, current and potential, or stakeholders’ involvement into innovation activities, through their creativity, represent an important way of value creation, of actions’ performance that increases the worth of goods, services, or business as a whole. More and more, different size businesses gather ideas for innovation from customers / stakeholders by involving them into the early stages of the innovation process. Actually, it has been shown that their ideas sketch their needs and wishes, and have been described as “need information”. Customers and stakeholders, in general, also offer ideas that have been called “solution information”, which represents, not only need information, but also customer-based proposals that describe how ideas can be transformed into marketable products. The term of creative industries refers to those goods that can technically be reproduced, industrially produced, and commercially sold, this being one of the many definitions found in the literature. Mulino Bianco was first launched in Italy, being one of the value brands of Barilla Group, which we can say, according to the Italian definition and classification, it belongs to creative industries: industry of food and taste. Even though Barilla Group's Research & Development department does its job very efficiently, developing and creating new products under different brands, lately a key strategy for the Group and for Mulino Bianco, by default, is customers’ pro-active involvement in products’ development or creation. One of the tools used for this is the

  9. Modeling and optimization of proton-conducting solid oxide electrolysis cell: Conversion of CO2 into value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namwong, Lawit; Authayanun, Suthida; Saebea, Dang; Patcharavorachot, Yaneeporn; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-11-01

    Proton-conducting solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC-H+) are a promising technology that can utilize carbon dioxide to produce syngas. In this work, a detailed electrochemical model was developed to predict the behavior of SOEC-H+ and to prove the assumption that the syngas is produced through a reversible water gas-shift (RWGS) reaction. The simulation results obtained from the model, which took into account all of the cell voltage losses (i.e., ohmic, activation, and concentration losses), were validated using experimental data to evaluate the unknown parameters. The developed model was employed to examine the structural and operational parameters. It is found that the cathode-supported SOEC-H+ is the best configuration because it requires the lowest cell potential. SOEC-H+ operated favorably at high temperatures and low pressures. Furthermore, the simulation results revealed that the optimal S/C molar ratio for syngas production, which can be used for methanol synthesis, is approximately 3.9 (at a constant temperature and pressure). The SOEC-H+ was optimized using a response surface methodology, which was used to determine the optimal operating conditions to minimize the cell potential and maximize the carbon dioxide flow rate.

  10. Introduction of coconut palm nectar with value added in the tourism región of Quintana Roo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Rogelio Flores

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The coconut palm as consumption product has in other regions of the world an impact that could generate opportunities of economic growth in our country. To generate strategies of production, consumption and permanence of the coconut palm in the market, is a proposal that arises within the framework that INIFAP and Universidad de Colima and the School of Marketing beginning in 2006 up to this days. Through this document, is developing the main characteristics of the coconut palm, a proposal of standardization in the process of elaboration and pop marketing from the experiences obtained in Quintana Roo INIFAP research center and the marketing’s knowledge. Also are explained the processes which must be carried out for a similar process in any coconut region of Mexican country. This report is concluded with a model of competitiveness for the commercialization of the coconut palm.

  11. Novel schemes for production of biodiesel and value-added co-products from microalgal oil using heterogeneous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao

    Microalgae are promising sources of biofuels primarily because of their higher potential productivity compared to terrestrial biofuel crops. However, the production of liquid fuels from microalgae suffers from a lack of viable methods of extraction, conversion and fractionation of various components of the algal biomass. In this dissertation study, a rapid method was developed to accurately evaluate the biodiesel potential of microalgae biomass. The major advantage of this method is in situ fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) preparation directly from wet fresh microalgal and yeast biomass, without prior solvent extraction or dehydration. FAMEs were prepared by a sequential alkaline hydrolysis and acidic esterification process. This method can be used even with high amount of water in the biomass and is applicable to a vast range of microalgae and yeast species. A two-step in situ process was also investigated in this study to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This process has the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption. A cost-effective bio-char based catalyst was tested for the two-step biodiesel production. The results indicated that the bio-char catalyst was superior to commercial Amberly-15. A scalable chlorophyll remove process was also developed as a part of the system. The research resulted in a practical and cost-effective approach for producing biodiesel from crude microalgal oil. An integrated approach was explored in the fourth part of the study to produce biodiesel and fractionate high-value polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Zeolites were employed as the catalyst for selective esterification of fatty acids according to their chain length and degree of saturation. Low-value short chain FFA could be largely converted into FAME, while PUFA would remain unreacted due to

  12. The APIS service : a tool for accessing value-added HST planetary auroral observations over 1997-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, L.; Henry, F.; Prangé, R.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2015-10-01

    The Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy (APIS) service http://obspm.fr/apis/ provides an open and interactive access to processed auroral observations of the outer planets and their satellites. Such observations are of interest for a wide community at the interface between planetology, magnetospheric and heliospheric physics. APIS consists of (i) a high level database, built from planetary auroral observations acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since 1997 with its mostly used Far-Ultraviolet spectro- imagers, (ii) a dedicated search interface aimed at browsing efficiently this database through relevant conditional search criteria (Figure 1) and (iii) the ability to interactively work with the data online through plotting tools developed by the Virtual Observatory (VO) community, such as Aladin and Specview. This service is VO compliant and can therefore also been queried by external search tools of the VO community. The diversity of available data and the capability to sort them out by relevant physical criteria shall in particular facilitate statistical studies, on long-term scales and/or multi-instrumental multispectral combined analysis [1,2]. We will present the updated capabilities of APIS with several examples. Several tutorials are available online.

  13. Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohno Summer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment. Methods Data collection was implemented in six sites in four countries: Andhra Pradesh, India; Bohol, Philippines; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mexico City, Mexico; Pemba Island, Tanzania; and Uttar Pradesh, India. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC developed stringent diagnostic criteria including laboratory, pathology, and medical imaging findings to identify gold standard deaths in health facilities as well as an enhanced verbal autopsy instrument based on World Health Organization (WHO standards. A cause list was constructed based on the WHO Global Burden of Disease estimates of the leading causes of death, potential to identify unique signs and symptoms, and the likely existence of sufficient medical technology to ascertain gold standard cases. Blinded verbal autopsies were collected on all gold standard deaths. Results Over 12,000 verbal autopsies on deaths with gold standard diagnoses were collected (7,836 adults, 2,075 children, 1,629 neonates, and 1,002 stillbirths. Difficulties in finding sufficient cases to meet gold standard criteria as well as problems with misclassification for certain causes meant that the target list of causes for analysis was reduced to 34 for adults, 21 for children, and 10 for neonates, excluding stillbirths. To ensure strict independence for the validation of

  14. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  15. A comparative study of descriptions and value added of bibliographic records through MARC, DC and MODS: From the viewpoints of the users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Chu Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand which bibliographic data are the core elements of the user’s queries? What users’ viewpoints about resource descriptions using different metadata standards? What kinds of value-added items are the users’ favorite when they conduct a bibliographic search? What are users’ viewpoints about bibliographic records integrated with the Digital Archival and Institutional Repository resources through metadata interoperability methods? This research adopted experiments, observation and interviews. The sample subjects are drawn from 14 students of The Graduate Institute of Library and Information Science and College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. First of all, the researcher displayed the bibliographic records using original MARC from the library. Secondly, users compared the images of OPAC from the library with the format of DC and MODS transformed through the MarcEdit software. Additionally, the researcher conducted interviews to understand users’ viewpoints about using three metadata schemas to describe the same book. Finally, the researcher asked the degree of users’ satisfaction about using bibliographic records alone and bibliographic records integrated with the Digital Archival and Institutional Repository resources. The findings suggest that libraries could provide more value-added and comprehensive services of bibliographic records and information retrieval, in order for all kinds of resources to be fully utilized, which helps to meet the users’ information needs.

  16. Exploring Value-Added Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Smith; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at various opportunities for sawmills to add value to rough sawn lumber. The paper discusses edge-glued panels and blanks, mouldings and millwork, niche market opportunities, and timber bridge members.

  17. Value-Added Merit Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Daniel F.

    The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…

  18. Value added products from microalgae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available , feed, pharmaceutical and research industries (Pulz and Gross, 2004). The market for these applications is still emerging, but there have already been new areas of research in microalgal biotechnology to satisfy the new product demands of industry...

  19. Next-Generation Metrics: Responsible Metrics & Evaluation for Open Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilsdon, J.; Bar-Ilan, J.; Peters, I.; Wouters, P.

    2016-07-01

    Metrics evoke a mixed reaction from the research community. A commitment to using data to inform decisions makes some enthusiastic about the prospect of granular, real-time analysis o of research and its wider impacts. Yet we only have to look at the blunt use of metrics such as journal impact factors, h-indices and grant income targets, to be reminded of the pitfalls. Some of the most precious qualities of academic culture resist simple quantification, and individual indicators often struggle to do justice to the richness and plurality of research. Too often, poorly designed evaluation criteria are “dominating minds, distorting behaviour and determining careers (Lawrence, 2007).” Metrics hold real power: they are constitutive of values, identities and livelihoods. How to exercise that power to more positive ends has been the focus of several recent and complementary initiatives, including the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA1), the Leiden Manifesto2 and The Metric Tide3 (a UK government review of the role of metrics in research management and assessment). Building on these initiatives, the European Commission, under its new Open Science Policy Platform4, is now looking to develop a framework for responsible metrics for research management and evaluation, which can be incorporated into the successor framework to Horizon 2020. (Author)

  20. O impacto de indicadores socioambientais no valor adcionado por empresas = The impact of socialenvironmental indicators on the value added by companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moreira Campos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo explicar o impacto no valor adicionado pelas empresas brasileiras que publicaram o Balanço Social (modelo IBASE, no período de 2004 a 2006, dos seguintes indicadores socioambientais: número de empregados, indicadores sociais internos, investimentos em meio ambiente e incentivo remuneratório dos empregados atuantes nas empresas constantes da amostra. No referencial teórico, são abordados aspectos relativos ao Balanço Social, à Demonstração do Valor Adicionado e ao Valor Adicionado. O estudo é composto de pesquisa bibliográfica em obras nacionais e internacionais, que tratam do tema, e de pesquisa documental baseada em uma amostra de 66 empresas que publicaram o relatório no período de 2004 a 2006, sendo utilizada a técnica de regressão com dados em painel (balanceado. Os achados revelam que, dentre os três tipos de painel, após a realização de testes, o de efeitos fixos foi considerado o mais bem indicado para a análise, e que a variação no valor adicionado pelas empresas da amostra é explicada pelo número de empregados, pelos indicadores sociais internos, e pelo incentivo remuneratório dos empregados atuantes nas empresas, contudo, não é explicada pelos investimentos em meio ambiente efetuados pelas empresas pesquisadas no período de 2004 a 2006.This research aims at explaining the impact of the value added by Brazilian companies which published the Social Balance (IBASE model from 2004 to 2006 of the following sustainability indicators: number of employees, internal social indicators, investments on the environment and remunerative incentive of the working employees in the companies which were presented in the display. In the theoretical referential aspects related to the Social Balance are approached as well as the Demonstration of the Value Added and to the Value Added. The study is made of the bibliographic research on national and international works which deal with the theme and

  1. Micro/nano structured coatings of light alloys by cold spray for surface protection and repair of high value-added components: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoya, J.; Cinca, N.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Cold Gas Spray - CGS technique has greatly attracted the attention of the researchers in the last decade due to advantages compared to other conventional thermal spray processes. It presents outstanding characteristics such as high density coatings and absence of thermal degradation (oxidation or phase transformation). In addition, CGS is an efficient and green technology. This paper presents a bibliographic review related to micro/nano structured aluminium-based coatings of by CGS on light alloy substrates. It provides an overview of the feasibility of using the Cold Gas Spray as a technique for the protection, recovery and repair of high value-added components, especially those made of light alloys (aluminium and magnesium base) which, by their low density and mechanical properties, are widely used in several industrial sectors such as transport, aerospace and power generation. (Author)

  2. METRIC context unit architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  3. Diffusion kurtosis metrics as biomarkers of microstructural development: A comparative study of a group of children and a group of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Farida; Maximov, Ivan I; Farrher, Ezequiel; Neuner, Irene; Amort, Laura; Thönneßen, Heike; Oberwelland, Eileen; Konrad, Kerstin; Shah, N Jon

    2017-01-01

    The most common modality of diffusion MRI used in the ageing and development studies is diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) providing two key measures, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. Here, we investigated diffusional changes occurring between childhood (average age 10.3 years) and mitddle adult age (average age 54.3 years) with the help of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), a recent novel extension of DTI that provides additional metrics quantifying non-Gaussianity of water diffusion in brain tissue. We performed voxelwise statistical between-group comparison of diffusion tensor and kurtosis tensor metrics using two methods, namely, the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and the atlas-based regional data analysis. For the latter, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, mean diffusion kurtosis, and other scalar diffusion tensor and kurtosis tensor parameters were evaluated for white matter fibres provided by the Johns-Hopkins-University Atlas in the FSL toolkit (http://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/Atlases). Within the same age group, all evaluated parameters varied depending on the anatomical region. TBSS analysis showed that changes in kurtosis tensor parameters beyond adolescence are more widespread along the skeleton in comparison to the changes of the diffusion tensor metrics. The regional data analysis demonstrated considerably larger between-group changes of the diffusion kurtosis metrics than of diffusion tensor metrics in all investigated regions. The effect size of the parametric changes between childhood and middle adulthood was quantified using Cohen's d. We used Cohen's d related to mean diffusion kurtosis to examine heterogeneous maturation of various fibres. The largest changes of this parameter (interpreted as reflecting the lowest level of maturation by the age of children group) were observed in the association fibres, cingulum (gyrus) and cingulum (hippocampus) followed by superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior longitudinal

  4. Selection of metrics based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and development of a biotic index (CYMOX) for assessing ecological status of coastal and transitional waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Silvia; Mascaró, Oriol; Llagostera, Izaskun; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Bioindicators, based on a large variety of organisms, have been increasingly used in the assessment of the status of aquatic systems. In marine coastal waters, seagrasses have shown a great potential as bioindicator organisms, probably due to both their environmental sensitivity and the large amount of knowledge available. However, and as far as we are aware, only little attention has been paid to euryhaline species suitable for biomonitoring both transitional and marine waters. With the aim to contribute to this expanding field, and provide new and useful tools for managers, we develop here a multi-bioindicator index based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa. We first compiled from the literature a suite of 54 candidate metrics, i. e. measurable attribute of the concerned organism or community that adequately reflects properties of the environment, obtained from C. nodosa and its associated ecosystem, putatively responding to environmental deterioration. We then evaluated them empirically, obtaining a complete dataset on these metrics along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Using this dataset, we selected the metrics to construct the index, using, successively: (i) ANOVA, to assess their capacity to discriminate among sites of different environmental conditions; (ii) PCA, to check the existence of a common pattern among the metrics reflecting the environmental gradient; and (iii) feasibility and cost-effectiveness criteria. Finally, 10 metrics (out of the 54 tested) encompassing from the physiological (δ15N, δ34S, % N, % P content of rhizomes), through the individual (shoot size) and the population (root weight ratio), to the community (epiphytes load) organisation levels, and some metallic pollution descriptors (Cd, Cu and Zn content of rhizomes) were retained and integrated into a single index (CYMOX) using the scores of the sites on the first axis of a PCA. These scores were reduced to a 0-1 (Ecological Quality Ratio) scale by referring the values to the

  5. Evaluating social media's capacity to develop engaged audiences in health promotion settings: use of Twitter metrics as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiger, Brad L; Thackeray, Rosemary; Burton, Scott H; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe G; Fagen, Michael C

    2013-03-01

    Use of social media in health promotion and public health continues to grow in popularity, though most of what is reported in literature represents one-way messaging devoid of attributes associated with engagement, a core attribute, if not the central purpose, of social media. This article defines engagement, describes its value in maximizing the potential of social media in health promotion, proposes an evaluation hierarchy for social media engagement, and uses Twitter as a case study to illustrate how the hierarchy might function in practice. Partnership and participation are proposed as culminating outcomes for social media use in health promotion. As use of social media in health promotion moves toward this end, evaluation metrics that verify progress and inform subsequent strategies will become increasingly important.

  6. Chaotic inflation with metric and matter perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, H.A.; Brandenberger, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A perturbative scheme to analyze the evolution of both metric and scalar field perturbations in an expanding universe is developed. The scheme is applied to study chaotic inflation with initial metric and scalar field perturbations present. It is shown that initial gravitational perturbations with wavelength smaller than the Hubble radius rapidly decay. The metric simultaneously picks up small perturbations determined by the matter inhomogeneities. Both are frozen in once the wavelength exceeds the Hubble radius. (orig.)

  7. Metric diffusion along foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Szymon M

    2017-01-01

    Up-to-date research in metric diffusion along compact foliations is presented in this book. Beginning with fundamentals from the optimal transportation theory and the theory of foliations; this book moves on to cover Wasserstein distance, Kantorovich Duality Theorem, and the metrization of the weak topology by the Wasserstein distance. Metric diffusion is defined, the topology of the metric space is studied and the limits of diffused metrics along compact foliations are discussed. Essentials on foliations, holonomy, heat diffusion, and compact foliations are detailed and vital technical lemmas are proved to aide understanding. Graduate students and researchers in geometry, topology and dynamics of foliations and laminations will find this supplement useful as it presents facts about the metric diffusion along non-compact foliation and provides a full description of the limit for metrics diffused along foliation with at least one compact leaf on the two dimensions.

  8. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  9. BIOTECHNOLOGY DRASTICALLY REDUCES GOSSYPOL LEVELS IN COTTONSEED, COTTONSEED PROCESSING WILL NEED TO BE COMPLETELY REVISED TO CAPTURE THE VALUE-ADDED POTENTIAL OF THIS TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every year the cotton crop on the planet produces about 11 million metric tons of protein. Unfortunately, the Modern plant biotechnology (utilizing RNAi and a seed specific promoter) has produced a genetically enhanced cotton plant that has gossypol production silenced in the seed while retaining no...

  10. Prognostic Performance Metrics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter presents several performance metrics for offline evaluation of prognostics algorithms. A brief overview of different methods employed for performance...

  11. Overview of journal metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihong Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of metrics used for the quantitative evaluation of scholarly journals are reviewed. The impact factor and related metrics including the immediacy index and the aggregate impact factor, which are provided by the Journal Citation Reports, are explained in detail. The Eigenfactor score and the article influence score are also reviewed. In addition, journal metrics such as CiteScore, Source Normalized Impact per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank, h-index, and g-index are discussed. Limitations and problems that these metrics have are pointed out. We should be cautious to rely on those quantitative measures too much when we evaluate journals or researchers.

  12. Progress toward isolation of strains and genetically engineered strains of microalgae for production of biofuel and other value added chemicals: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Ashmita; Khanra, Saumyakanti; Mondal, Madhumanti; Halder, Gopinath; Tiwari, O.N.; Saini, Supreet; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Gayen, Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sample collection, isolation and identification to obtain a pure microalgal species. • Isolation of microalgal strains worldwide based on continent and habitat. • Genetic engineering tools for enhanced production of biodiesel and value added chemicals. • Cultivation systems for genetically modified strain. - Abstract: Microalgae and cyanobacteria are promising sources of biodiesel because of their high oil content (∼10 fold higher) and shorter cultivation time (∼4 fold lesser) than conventional oil producing territorial plants (e.g., soybean, corn and jatropha). These organisms also provide source of several valuable natural chemicals including pigments, food supplements like eicosapentanoic acid [EPA], decosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and vitamins. In addition, many cellular components of these organisms are associated with therapeutic properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, and antiviral. Isolation and identification of high-yielding strains with the faster growth rate is the key for successful implementation of algal biodiesel (or other products) at a commercial level. A number of research groups in Europe, America, and Australia are thus extensively involved in exploration of novel microalgal strain. Further, genetic engineering provides a tool to engineer the native strain resulting in transgenic strain with higher yields. Despite these efforts, no consensus has yet been reached so far in zeroing on the best microalgal strain for sustainable production of biofuel at reasonable cost. The search for novel microalgal strain and transgenesis of microalgae, are continuing side by side with the hope of commercial scale production of microalgae biofuel in near future. However, no consolidated review report exists which guides to isolate and identify a uncontaminated microalgal strain along with their transgenesis. The present review is focused on: (i) key factors for sample collection, isolation, and identification to

  13. Utilizing Waste Thermocol Sheets and Rusted Iron Wires to Fabricate Carbon-Fe3O4 Nanocomposite Based Supercapacitors: Turning Wastes into Value-Added Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiyar, Madagonda M; Liu, Xudong; Ye, Zhibin

    2018-05-14

    In the present work, we demonstrate the synthesis of porous activated carbon (specific surface area, 1,883 m2 g-1), Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and carbon-Fe3O4 nanocomposites using local waste thermocol sheets and rusted iron wires. The resulting carbon, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and carbon-Fe3O4 composites are used as electrode materials for supercapacitor application. In particular, C-Fe3O4 composite electrodes exhibit a high specific capacitance of 1,375 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and longer cyclic stability with 98 % of capacitance retention over 10,000 cycles. Subsequently, asymmetric supercapacitor, i. e., C-Fe3O4//Ni(OH)2/CNT device exhibits a high energy density of 91.1 Wh kg-1 and a remarkable cyclic stability, showing 98% of capacitance retention over 10,000 cycles. Thus, this work has important implications not only for the fabrication of low-cost electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors but also for the recycling of waste thermocol sheets and rust iron wires for value-added reuse. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dehydrated olive-waste cake as a source of high value-added bioproduct: Drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value-added ingredients for various industrial applications. In this work, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and quality indexes of the olive-waste cake during convective dehydration (40-90 °C were investigated. Results on effective moisture diffusivity, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile, total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents as well as antioxidant capacity are also reported. Most of the fatty acids increased their content with respect to control sample with a temperature increase, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids increased 48% and 43% at 70 and 40 °C, respectively. Total flavanol content increased with temperature (48-62 mg catechin equivalents [CTE] 100 g-1 DM except for 80 °C. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were highly correlated to antioxidant capacity (0.923 < r < 0.992, except for 70 and 80 °C, the rest of the samples maintained their initial antioxidant capacity by ORAC analysis. Thus, these parameters show that dried olive-waste cake has a high bioactive compounds with potential use as additives for the food or other industries.

  15. Building intentions with the theory of planned behaviour: a qualitative assessment of salient beliefs about pharmacy value added services in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Christine Liang Hoay; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Aljadhay, Hisham; Gan, Vincent B Y

    2016-12-01

    To improve pharmaceutical care delivery in Malaysia, the Ministry of Health (MOH) had introduced the concept of value added services (VAS). Despite its reported convenience and advantages, VAS utilization rate is low in the country. The study aims to explore patients' understanding, beliefs and expectations towards VAS in Malaysia using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as the theoretical model. A qualitative methodology was used whereby face-to-face interviews were conducted with 12 patients who collected partial medicine supplies from government pharmacies. Participants were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling method in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Interviews were audio-recorded. Verbatim transcription and thematic content analysis were performed on the data. Thematic content analysis yielded five major themes: (i) attitudes towards using VAS, (ii) subjective norms, (iii) perceived behavioural control, (iv) lack of knowledge and understanding of VAS and (v) expectations towards VAS. The interviews explored and informed new information about salient beliefs towards pharmacy VAS. The findings suggest that VAS is still in its infancy and a more robust and effective advertising and marketing campaign is needed to boost the adoption rate. Behavioural attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control elements were discussed and serve as important variables of interest in future study. Expectations towards VAS serve as an important guideline to further improve patient-oriented services. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Accuracy and precision of four value-added blood glucose meters: the Abbott Optium, the DDI Prodigy, the HDI True Track, and the HypoGuard Assure Pro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Catherine A; Kane, Michael P; Bakst, Gary; Busch, Robert S; Abelseth, Jill M; Hamilton, Robert A

    2009-09-01

    This study compared the accuracy and precision of four value-added glucose meters. Finger stick glucose measurements in diabetes patients were performed using the Abbott Diabetes Care (Alameda, CA) Optium, Diagnostic Devices, Inc. (Miami, FL) DDI Prodigy, Home Diagnostics, Inc. (Fort Lauderdale, FL) HDI True Track Smart System, and Arkray, USA (Minneapolis, MN) HypoGuard Assure Pro. Finger glucose measurements were compared with laboratory reference results. Accuracy was assessed by a Clarke error grid analysis (EGA), a Parkes EGA, and within 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of the laboratory value criteria (chi2 analysis). Meter precision was determined by calculating absolute mean differences in glucose values between duplicate samples (Kruskal-Wallis test). Finger sticks were obtained from 125 diabetes patients, of which 90.4% were Caucasian, 51.2% were female, 83.2% had type 2 diabetes, and average age of 59 years (SD 14 years). Mean venipuncture blood glucose was 151 mg/dL (SD +/-65 mg/dL; range, 58-474 mg/dL). Clinical accuracy by Clarke EGA was demonstrated in 94% of Optium, 82% of Prodigy, 61% of True Track, and 77% of the Assure Pro samples (P Abbott Optium was significantly more accurate than the other meter systems, whereas the HDI True Track was significantly less accurate and less precise compared to the other meter systems.

  17. Brand metrics that matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntinga, D.; Bernritter, S.

    2017-01-01

    Het merk staat steeds meer centraal in de organisatie. Het is daarom essentieel om de gezondheid, prestaties en ontwikkelingen van het merk te meten. Het is echter een uitdaging om de juiste brand metrics te selecteren. Een enorme hoeveelheid metrics vraagt de aandacht van merkbeheerders. Maar welke

  18. Privacy Metrics and Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at defining a set of privacy metrics (quantitative and qualitative) in the case of the relation between a privacy protector ,and an information gatherer .The aims with such metrics are: -to allow to assess and compare different user scenarios and their differences; for

  19. Organoleptic and physico-chemical evaluation of capretto baladi goats: a value-added meat alternative in an extensive rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abi Saab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abi Saab, S. Esseily, F. Saliba, M. and Aad P. 2017. Organoleptic and physico-chemical evaluation of capretto baladi goats: a value-added meat alternative in an extensive rearing system. Lebanese Science Journal. 18(1: 73-80. The local Baladi breed is considered a common source of fresh meat in Lebanon. Due to the extensive rearing system and the scarcity of pasture, kids resulting from multiple births are not reared, though cultural preference for young meat may valorize these twin kids as an expensive delicacy. Few studies observed growth parameters, physical-chemical and sensory properties of meat in Baladi kids. Therefore, 24 male Baladi kids were fed milk ad libitum post-natally for 24 days, after which 9 were randomly selected and fed pasture grass ad libitum and goat milk (Control, and 15 were fed only milk (Capretto twice per day. Animals were slaughtered at 4, 6 and 8 weeks of age and body organs compared. Feed intake was measured by weighing kids pre- and post- feeding, and body weight measured twice per week. Meat chemical properties were total ether-extracted fat, kjeldhal protein, and minerals. Meat organoleptic properties were evaluated by consumers for color, taste, odor, richness, juiciness, tenderness and overall appreciation, as cooked by housewives or professionals. Data were analyzed as a CRD using SPSS 10.0 and presented as LSMeans ± SEM. Results showed that Capretto consumed increasing levels of milk from 4 to 8 weeks, with ADG decreasing (P 0.05 between Capretto and control, although capretto showed lower (p<0.05 meat fat content than control kids. Meat organoleptic characteristics were desirable at weeks 4 and 6 for both Capretto and control kids, whereas only Capretto meat stayed desirable at week 8. To conclude, Capretto kids have similar properties to their traditional counterparts, with added desirable properties for a longer growing period, in addition to the increased health benefit of lower fat content.

  20. Impact of the application of the Value Added Tax to imaging tests on out-of-pocket health expenses of households in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Silva-Illanes, Nicolás

    2015-12-09

    Out-of-pocket healthcare expense represents a challenge for health systems for it constitutes a barrier to health care, impacting the equality of access to healthcare systems, something particularly important in the Chilean health system. In this context, the Government recently raised the possibility of incorporating a tax on imaging tests, creating debate over its potential consequences. To explore the impact on household out-of-pocket healthcare expense by the implementation of a value added tax to imaging tests in Chile. Cross-sectional study using data of household expenditures from the VII Household Budget Survey. Out-of-pocket healthcare expense and catastrophic household expenses are calculated comparing two scenarios, with and without the inclusion of the proposed tax. Analyses are presented by income deciles to explore the differential equality impact. 42.8% of diagnostic test expense on household corresponds to imaging studies. Under a scenario of tax implementation, a relative increase of 1.1% of out-of-pocket expenses and 2.2% of catastrophic household expenses is observed. The groups that suffer the greatest impact are those with lower income levels, concentrating in the first fifth deciles. We conclude that, although the increase in the average out-of- pocket spending is moderate, this policy may involve a significant increase in the catastrophic expense of the population with the lowest incomes, thereby increasing health inequalities. Considering the challenges of health system financing in Chile, it appears that such fiscal policy would only worsen the possibility of moving towards lower levels of out-of-pocket of household expenses.

  1. Conversion of finished leather waste incorporated with plant fibers into value added consumer products - An effort to minimize solid waste in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklay, A; Gebeyehu, G; Getachew, T; Yaynshet, T; Sastry, T P

    2017-10-01

    Presently, the leftovers from leather product industries are discarded as waste in Ethiopia. The objective of the present study was therefore, to prepare composite sheets by incorporating various plant fibers like enset (Ensete ventricosum), hibiscus (Hibiscus cannabinus), jute (Corchorus trilocularis L.), palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and sisal (Agave sisal) in various proportions into the leather waste. Resin binder (RB) and natural rubber latex (NRL) were used as binding agents for the preparation of the composite sheets. The composite sheets prepared were characterized for their physicochemical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, stitch tear strength, water absorption, water desorption and flexing strength). Composite sheets prepared using RB having 10% hibiscus, 20% palm and 40% sisal fibers showed better mechanical properties than their respective controls. In composite sheets prepared using NRL having 30% jute fiber exhibited better mechanical properties than its control. Most of the plant fibers used in this study played a role in increasing the performance of the sheets. However, as seen from the results, the contribution of these plant fibers on performance of the composite sheets prepared is dependent on the ratio used and the nature of binder. The SEM studies have exhibited the composite nature of the sheets and FTIR studies have shown the functional groups of collagen protein, cellulose and binders. The prepared sheets were used as raw materials for preparation of items like stiff hand bags, ladies' purse, keychain, chappal upper, wallet, wall cover, mouse pad and other interior decorating products. By preparing such value added products, we can reduce solid waste; minimize environmental pollution and thereby securing environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  3. Using the Biodatamation(TM) strategy to learn introductory college biology: Value-added effects on selected students' conceptual understanding and conceptual integration of the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Jewel Jurovich

    The purpose of this exploratory research was to study how students learn photosynthesis and cellular respiration and to determine the value added to the student's learning by each of the three technology-scaffolded learning strategy components (animated concept presentations and WebQuest-style activities, data collection, and student-constructed animations) of the BioDatamation(TM) (BDM) Program. BDM learning strategies utilized the Theory of Interacting Visual Fields(TM) (TIVF) (Reuter & Wandersee, 2002a, 2002b; 2003a, 2003b) which holds that meaningful knowledge is hierarchically constructed using the past, present, and future visual fields, with visual metacognitive components that are derived from the principles of Visual Behavior (Jones, 1995), Human Constructivist Theory (Mintzes & Wandersee, 1998a), and Visual Information Design Theory (Tufte, 1990, 1997, 2001). Student alternative conceptions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration were determined by the item analysis of 263,267 Biology Advanced Placement Examinations and were used to develop the BDM instructional strategy and interview questions. The subjects were 24 undergraduate students of high and low biology prior knowledge enrolled in an introductory-level General Biology course at a major research university in the Deep South. Fifteen participants received BDM instruction which included original and innovative learning materials and laboratories in 6 phases; 8 of the 15 participants were the subject of in depth, extended individual analysis. The other 9 participants received traditional, non-BDM instruction. Interviews which included participants' creation of concept maps and visual field diagrams were conducted after each phase. Various content analyses, including Chi's Verbal Analysis and quantitizing/qualitizing were used for data analysis. The total value added to integrative knowledge during BDM instruction with the three visual fields was an average increase of 56% for cellular respiration

  4. Measuring Information Security: Guidelines to Build Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Faber, Eberhard

    Measuring information security is a genuine interest of security managers. With metrics they can develop their security organization's visibility and standing within the enterprise or public authority as a whole. Organizations using information technology need to use security metrics. Despite the clear demands and advantages, security metrics are often poorly developed or ineffective parameters are collected and analysed. This paper describes best practices for the development of security metrics. First attention is drawn to motivation showing both requirements and benefits. The main body of this paper lists things which need to be observed (characteristic of metrics), things which can be measured (how measurements can be conducted) and steps for the development and implementation of metrics (procedures and planning). Analysis and communication is also key when using security metrics. Examples are also given in order to develop a better understanding. The author wants to resume, continue and develop the discussion about a topic which is or increasingly will be a critical factor of success for any security managers in larger organizations.

  5. Probabilistic metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, B

    2005-01-01

    Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.

  6. IT Project Management Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many software and IT projects fail in completing theirs objectives because different causes of which the management of the projects has a high weight. In order to have successfully projects, lessons learned have to be used, historical data to be collected and metrics and indicators have to be computed and used to compare them with past projects and avoid failure to happen. This paper presents some metrics that can be used for the IT project management.

  7. Waste cooking oil as substrate for biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate: Turning waste into a value-added product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang, T. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Improper disposal of domestic wastes, such as waste cooking oil (WCO, contributes to the deterioration of the environment and may lead to health problems. In this study, we evaluated the potential of plant-based WCO as a carbon source for the commercial biosynthesis of the bio-plastics, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate. The consumption of WCO for this purpose would mitigate their pollution of the environment at the same time.Methodology and Results: WCO collected from several cafeterias in USM was tested as the carbon source for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA production. A selection of suitable nitrogen source was first conducted in order to obtain an acceptable number of dry cell weight (DCW and PHA content. Urea was found to be a suitable nitrogen source for the two bacterial strains used in our study, Cupriavidus necator H16 and its transformed mutant, C. necator PHB¯4 harboring the PHA synthase gene of Aeromonas caviae (PHB¯4/pBBREE32d13. With WCO as the sole carbon source, C. necator H16 yielded a relatively good dry cell weight (DCW=25.4 g/L, with 71 wt% poly(3-hydroxybutyrate P(3HBcontent. In comparison, the DCW obtained with fresh cooking oil (FCO was 24.8 g/L. The production of poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-3- hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx] from WCO by the transformant C. necator PHB¯4 was comparable, yielding a DCW of 22.3 g/L and P(3HB-co-3HHx content of 85 wt%. Lipase activities for both bacterial strains reached a maximum after 72 h of cultivation when time profile was conducted. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of WCO as a carbon source in the biosynthesis of the bioplastic, PHA, turns a polluting domestic waste into a value-added biodegradable product. This renewable source material can thus be exploited for the low cost production of PHA.

  8. Associations between rate of force development metrics and throwing velocity in elite team handball players: a short research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Mário C; Saavedra, Francisco J; Abrantes, Catarina; Aidar, Felipe J

    2011-09-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring participant's development in distinct sports, yet limited and contradictory data are available in trained subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw in elite team handball players and selected measures of rate of force development like force, power, velocity, and bar displacement during a concentric only bench press exercise in elite male handball players. Fitteen elite senior male team handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric only bench press test with 25, 35, and 45 kg as well as having one-repetition maximum strength determined. Ball throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun. The results of this study indicated significant associations between ball velocity and time at maximum rate of force development (0, 66; pvelocity was only median associated with maximum rate of force development with light loads. A training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team handball players should emphasize bench press movement using light loads.

  9. Software metrics a rigorous and practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Norman

    2014-01-01

    A Framework for Managing, Measuring, and Predicting Attributes of Software Development Products and ProcessesReflecting the immense progress in the development and use of software metrics in the past decades, Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to software metrics. Like its popular predecessors, this third edition discusses important issues, explains essential concepts, and offers new approaches for tackling long-standing problems.New to the Third EditionThis edition contains new material relevant

  10. Metric Guidelines Inservice and/or Preservice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Dolores

    1978-01-01

    Guidelines are given for designing teacher training for going metric. The guidelines were developed from existing guidelines, journal articles, a survey of colleges, and the detailed reactions of a panel. (MN)

  11. Flight Crew State Monitoring Metrics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — eSky will develop specific crew state metrics based on the timeliness, tempo and accuracy of pilot inputs required by the H-mode Flight Control System (HFCS)....

  12. Encounters in an online brand community: development and validation of a metric for value co-creation by customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Ling

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in service marketing have demonstrated the potential value co-creation by customers who participate in online brand communities (OBCs). Therefore, this study forecasts the co-created value by understanding the participation/behavior of customers in a multi-stakeholder OBC. This six-phase qualitative and quantitative investigation conceptualizes, constructs, refines, and tests a 12-item three-dimensional scale for measuring key factors that are related to the experience, interpersonal interactions, and social relationships that affect the value co-creation by customers in an OBC. The scale captures stable psychometric properties, measured using various reliability and validity tests, and can be applied across various industries. Finally, the utility implications and limitations of the proposed scale are discussed, and potential future research directions considered.

  13. Fault Management Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  14. A convergence theory for probabilistic metric spaces | Jäger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We develop a theory of probabilistic convergence spaces based on Tardiff's neighbourhood systems for probabilistic metric spaces. We show that the resulting category is a topological universe and we characterize a subcategory that is isomorphic to the category of probabilistic metric spaces. Keywords: Probabilistic metric ...

  15. The Development and Application of Spatiotemporal Metrics for the Characterization of Point Source FFCO2 Emissions and Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roten, D.; Hogue, S.; Spell, P.; Marland, E.; Marland, G.

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing role for high resolution, CO2 emissions inventories across multiple arenas. The breadth of the applicability of high-resolution data is apparent from their use in atmospheric CO2 modeling, their potential for validation of space-based atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing, and the development of climate change policy. This work focuses on increasing our understanding of the uncertainty in these inventories and the implications on their downstream use. The industrial point sources of emissions (power generating stations, cement manufacturing plants, paper mills, etc.) used in the creation of these inventories often have robust emissions characteristics, beyond just their geographic location. Physical parameters of the emission sources such as number of exhaust stacks, stack heights, stack diameters, exhaust temperatures, and exhaust velocities, as well as temporal variability and climatic influences can be important in characterizing emissions. Emissions from large point sources can behave much differently than emissions from areal sources such as automobiles. For many applications geographic location is not an adequate characterization of emissions. This work demonstrates the sensitivities of atmospheric models to the physical parameters of large point sources and provides a methodology for quantifying parameter impacts at multiple locations across the United States. The sensitivities highlight the importance of location and timing and help to highlight potential aspects that can guide efforts to reduce uncertainty in emissions inventories and increase the utility of the models.

  16. Time asymmetric spacetimes near null and spatial infinity: II. Expansions of developments of initial data sets with non-smooth conformal metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, Juan Antonio Valiente

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the conformal Einstein equations and the conformal representation of spatial infinity introduced by Friedrich to analyse the behaviour of the gravitational field near null and spatial infinity for the development of initial data which are, in principle, non-conformally flat and time asymmetric. The paper is the continuation of the investigation started in Class. Quantum Grav. 21 (2004) 5457-92, where only conformally flat initial data sets were considered. For the purposes of this investigation, the conformal metric of the initial hypersurface is assumed to have a very particular type of non-smoothness at infinity in order to allow for the presence of non-Schwarzschildean stationary initial data sets in the class under study. The calculation of asymptotic expansions of the development of these initial data sets reveals-as in the conformally flat case-the existence of a hierarchy of obstructions to the smoothness of null infinity which are expressible in terms of the initial data. This allows for the possibility of having spacetimes where future and past null infinity have different degrees of smoothness. A conjecture regarding the general structure of the hierarchy of obstructions is presented

  17. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  18. TU-CD-BRD-04: UCLA Experience, with Focus On Developing Metrics and Using RO-ILS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beron, P.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  19. TU-CD-BRD-04: UCLA Experience, with Focus On Developing Metrics and Using RO-ILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beron, P. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2015-06-15

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  20. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...