WorldWideScience

Sample records for valuable model organisms

  1. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  2. Transplantation after blunt trauma to the liver: a valuable option or just a "waste of organs"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuer M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Liver injury due to trauma is a rare indication for transplantation. The main indications in such cases were uncontrollable bleeding and insufficient hepatic function. Because of poor results, liver transplantation in these patients is occasionally described as "waste of organs", however based on insufficient data. This study aims to report our experience and to critically question the indication of transplantation in these patients. Methods All liver transplantations at our institution were reviewed retrospectively. This covered 1,529 liver transplants between September 1987 and December 2008. Of them, 6 transplants were performed due to motor-vehicle accidents which caused uncontrollable acute liver trauma in 4 patients. The patients' peri-operative course, short- and long-term outcomes were analyzed. Results Five deceased-donor liver transplantations (4 full size, 1 split and 1 living donor (right transplantation were performed. The median GCS score was 9/15; the median MELD score was 15. Postoperative complications were observed in 3 patients, requiring re-operation in 2. After a median (range follow-up of 32.95 (10.3-55.6 months, 2 patients are alive and remain well on immunosuppression. Conclusion Liver transplantation in patients with otherwise surgically uncontrollable acute liver injury can be indicated as a life saving procedure and can be performed successfully in highly selected cases.

  3. Heterozygous CDKL5 Knockout Female Mice Are a Valuable Animal Model for CDKL5 Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fuchs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available CDKL5 disorder is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like five gene. CDKL5 disorder primarily affects girls and is characterized by early-onset epileptic seizures, gross motor impairment, intellectual disability, and autistic features. Although all CDKL5 female patients are heterozygous, the most valid disease-related model, the heterozygous female Cdkl5 knockout (Cdkl5 +/− mouse, has been little characterized. The lack of detailed behavioral profiling of this model remains a crucial gap that must be addressed in order to advance preclinical studies. Here, we provide a behavioral and molecular characterization of heterozygous Cdkl5 +/− mice. We found that Cdkl5 +/− mice reliably recapitulate several aspects of CDKL5 disorder, including autistic-like behaviors, defects in motor coordination and memory performance, and breathing abnormalities. These defects are associated with neuroanatomical alterations, such as reduced dendritic arborization and spine density of hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, Cdkl5 +/− mice show age-related alterations in protein kinase B (AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling, two crucial signaling pathways involved in many neurodevelopmental processes. In conclusion, our study provides a comprehensive overview of neurobehavioral phenotypes of heterozygous female Cdkl5 +/− mice and demonstrates that the heterozygous female might be a valuable animal model in preclinical studies on CDKL5 disorder.

  4. Organic reductants based leaching: A sustainable process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangping; Guo, Chunxiu; Ma, Hongrui; Li, Jiazhu; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Ling; Kang, Duozhi

    2018-05-01

    It is significant to recover metal values from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for the alleviation or prevention of potential risks towards environmental pollution and public health, as well as for the conservation of valuable metals. Herein a hydrometallurgical process was proposed to explore the possibility for the leaching of different metals from waste cathodic materials (LiCoO 2 ) of spent LIBs using organics as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. According to the leaching results, about 98% Co and 96% Li can be leached under the optimal experimental conditions of reaction temperature - 95 °C, reaction time - 120 min, reductive agent dosage - 0.4 g/g, slurry density - 25 g/L, concentration of sulfuric acid-3 mol/L in H 2 SO 4  + glucose leaching system. Similar results (96% Co and 100% Li) can be obtained in H 2 SO 4  + sucrose leaching system under optimized leaching conditions. Despite a complete leaching of Li (∼100%), only 54% Co can be dissolved in the H 2 SO 4  + cellulose leaching system under optimized leaching conditions. Finally, different characterization methods, including UV-Vis, FT-IR, SEM and XRD, were employed for the tentative exploration of reductive leaching reactions using organic as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. All the leaching and characterization results confirm that both glucose and sucrose are effective reductants during leaching, while cellulose should be further degraded to organics with low molecular weights to achieve a satisfactory leaching performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adding geochemical and isotope tracers to models of hillslope evolution: valuable constraints or monumental headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, S. M.; Yoo, K.; Hurst, M. D.; Weinman, B. A.; Maher, K.

    2011-12-01

    Landscapes evolve through time, both in terms of their geomorphology and their geochemistry. Past studies have highlighted that topography suffers from the problem of equifinality: the topographic configuration of landscapes can be the result of many different, yet equally plausible, erosion histories. In hillslope soils the properties and chemistry of the soils themselves could provide additional constraints on landscape evolution. Here we present results from a combination of modelling and field studies that seek to quantify the co-evolution of hillslope morphology and the solid state chemistry of hillslope soils. The models follow large numbers of individual particles as they are entrained into a physically mobile soil layer, weathered, and accumulate isotopes such as 10Be and 21Ne. We demonstrate that multiple hillslope properties mitigate (but do not eliminate) the problem of equifinality and demonstrate the importance of accounting for individual particle residence times and ages in interpretation of both isotope and weathering data.

  6. Heterozygous CDKL5 Knockout Female Mice Are a Valuable Animal Model for CDKL5 Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Claudia; Gennaccaro, Laura; Trazzi, Stefania; Bastianini, Stefano; Bettini, Simone; Martire, Viviana Lo; Ren, Elisa; Medici, Giorgio; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Rimondini, Roberto; Ciani, Elisabetta

    2018-01-01

    CDKL5 disorder is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like five) gene. CDKL5 disorder primarily affects girls and is characterized by early-onset epileptic seizures, gross motor impairment, intellectual disability, and autistic features. Although all CDKL5 female patients are heterozygous, the most valid disease-related model, the heterozygous female Cdkl5 knockout (Cdkl5 +/−) mouse, has been little characterized. The lack of...

  7. The leech nervous system: a valuable model to study the microglia involvement in regenerative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Marrec-Croq, Françoise; Drago, Francesco; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS). During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair.

  8. The Leech Nervous System: A Valuable Model to Study the Microglia Involvement in Regenerative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Le Marrec-Croq

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS. During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair.

  9. FORMALIZATION OF THE ACCOUNTING VALUABLE MEMES METHOD FOR THE PORTFOLIO OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND INFORMATION COMPUTER TOOLS FOR ITS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii D. Bushuiev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of project management has been steadily demonstrating a trend toward increasing the role of flexible "soft" management practices. A method for preparing solutions for the formation of a value-oriented portfolio based on a comparison of the level of internal organizational values is proposed. The method formalizes the methodological foundations of value-oriented portfolio management in the development of organizations in the form of approaches, basic terms and technological methods with ICT using, which makes it possible to use them as an integral knowledge system for creating an automated system for managing portfolios of organizations. The result of the study is the deepening of the theoretical provisions for managing the development of organizations through the implementation of a value-oriented portfolio of projects, which allowed formalize the method of recording value memes in the development portfolios of organizations, to disclose its logic, essence, objective basis and rules.

  10. Organic oxalate as leachant and precipitant for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Liang; Qiu Keqiang

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Vacuum pyrolysis as a pretreatment was used to separate cathode material from aluminum foils. ► Cobalt and lithium can be leached using oxalate while cobalt can be directly precipitated as cobalt oxalate. ► Cobalt and lithium can be separated efficiently from each other only in the oxalate leaching process. ► High reaction efficiency of LiCoO 2 was obtained with oxalate. - Abstract: Spent lithium-ion batteries containing lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium are considered as an attractive secondary resource. In this work, an environmentally compatible process based on vacuum pyrolysis, oxalate leaching and precipitation is applied to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. Oxalate is introduced as leaching reagent meanwhile as precipitant which leaches and precipitates cobalt from LiCoO 2 and CoO directly as CoC 2 O 4 ·2H 2 O with 1.0 M oxalate solution at 80 °C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L −1 for 120 min. The reaction efficiency of more than 98% of LiCoO 2 can be achieved and cobalt and lithium can also be separated efficiently during the hydrometallurgical process. The combined process is simple and adequate for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Estimation of the solubility parameters of model plant surfaces and agrochemicals: a valuable tool for understanding plant surface interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayet, Mohamed; Fernández, Victoria

    2012-11-14

    Most aerial plant parts are covered with a hydrophobic lipid-rich cuticle, which is the interface between the plant organs and the surrounding environment. Plant surfaces may have a high degree of hydrophobicity because of the combined effects of surface chemistry and roughness. The physical and chemical complexity of the plant cuticle limits the development of models that explain its internal structure and interactions with surface-applied agrochemicals. In this article we introduce a thermodynamic method for estimating the solubilities of model plant surface constituents and relating them to the effects of agrochemicals. Following the van Krevelen and Hoftyzer method, we calculated the solubility parameters of three model plant species and eight compounds that differ in hydrophobicity and polarity. In addition, intact tissues were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the surface free energy, polarity, solubility parameter and work of adhesion of each were calculated from contact angle measurements of three liquids with different polarities. By comparing the affinities between plant surface constituents and agrochemicals derived from (a) theoretical calculations and (b) contact angle measurements we were able to distinguish the physical effect of surface roughness from the effect of the chemical nature of the epicuticular waxes. A solubility parameter model for plant surfaces is proposed on the basis of an increasing gradient from the cuticular surface towards the underlying cell wall. The procedure enabled us to predict the interactions among agrochemicals, plant surfaces, and cuticular and cell wall components, and promises to be a useful tool for improving our understanding of biological surface interactions.

  12. Converting the organic fraction of solid waste from the city of Abu Dhabi to valuable products via dark fermentation – Economic and energy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The cost and energy demand for dark fermentation using OFMSW were established. • Dark fermentation using OFMSW can produce a carbon source for bioprocesses of about 330 USD/t COD . • A maximum purification cost of VFAs from dark fermentation using OFMSW was established to 15 USD/m 3 . • Replacing fossil fuel based products by dark fermentation will probably lead to net energy savings. - Abstract: Landfilling the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) leads to greenhouse gas emissions and loss of valuable resources. Sustainable and cost efficient solutions need to be developed to solve this problem. This study evaluates the feasibility of using dark fermentation (DF) to convert the OFMSW to volatile fatty acids (VFAs), fertilizer and H 2 . The VFAs in the DF effluent can be used directly as substrate for subsequent bioprocesses or purified from the effluent for industrial use. DF of the OFMSW in Abu Dhabi will be economically sustainable once VFA purification can be accomplished on large scale for less than 15 USD/m 3 effluent . With a VFA minimum selling price of 330 USD/t COD , DF provides a competitive carbon source to sugar. Furthermore, DF is likely to use less energy than conventional processes that produce VFAs, fertilizer and H 2 . This makes DF of OFMSW a promising waste treatment technology and biorefinery platform

  13. Converting the organic fraction of solid waste from the city of Abu Dhabi to valuable products via dark fermentation – Economic and energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonk, Fabian, E-mail: fbonk@masdar.ac.ae; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo, E-mail: jbastidas@masdar.ac.ae; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye, E-mail: jschmidt@masdar.ac.ae

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The cost and energy demand for dark fermentation using OFMSW were established. • Dark fermentation using OFMSW can produce a carbon source for bioprocesses of about 330 USD/t{sub COD}. • A maximum purification cost of VFAs from dark fermentation using OFMSW was established to 15 USD/m{sup 3}. • Replacing fossil fuel based products by dark fermentation will probably lead to net energy savings. - Abstract: Landfilling the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) leads to greenhouse gas emissions and loss of valuable resources. Sustainable and cost efficient solutions need to be developed to solve this problem. This study evaluates the feasibility of using dark fermentation (DF) to convert the OFMSW to volatile fatty acids (VFAs), fertilizer and H{sub 2}. The VFAs in the DF effluent can be used directly as substrate for subsequent bioprocesses or purified from the effluent for industrial use. DF of the OFMSW in Abu Dhabi will be economically sustainable once VFA purification can be accomplished on large scale for less than 15 USD/m{sup 3}{sub effluent}. With a VFA minimum selling price of 330 USD/t{sub COD}, DF provides a competitive carbon source to sugar. Furthermore, DF is likely to use less energy than conventional processes that produce VFAs, fertilizer and H{sub 2}. This makes DF of OFMSW a promising waste treatment technology and biorefinery platform.

  14. Converting the organic fraction of solid waste from the city of Abu Dhabi to valuable products via dark fermentation--Economic and energy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2015-06-01

    Landfilling the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) leads to greenhouse gas emissions and loss of valuable resources. Sustainable and cost efficient solutions need to be developed to solve this problem. This study evaluates the feasibility of using dark fermentation (DF) to convert the OFMSW to volatile fatty acids (VFAs), fertilizer and H2. The VFAs in the DF effluent can be used directly as substrate for subsequent bioprocesses or purified from the effluent for industrial use. DF of the OFMSW in Abu Dhabi will be economically sustainable once VFA purification can be accomplished on large scale for less than 15USD/m(3)(effluent). With a VFA minimum selling price of 330 USD/tCOD, DF provides a competitive carbon source to sugar. Furthermore, DF is likely to use less energy than conventional processes that produce VFAs, fertilizer and H2. This makes DF of OFMSW a promising waste treatment technology and biorefinery platform. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenging and valuable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, J.D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Challenging and valuable Inaugural speech given on May 7th 2008 at the occasion of the acceptance of the position of Professor Sustainable Housing Transformation at the faculty of Architeeture of the Delft University of Technology by Prof. J.D.M. van Hal MSc PhD.

  16. Controversies in Cardiovascular Research: Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes – boutique science or valuable arrhythmia model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollmann, Björn C

    2013-01-01

    As part of the series on Controversies in Cardiovascular Research, the article reviews the strengths and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) as models of cardiac arrhythmias. Specifically, the article attempts to answer the following questions: Which clinical arrhythmias can be modeled by iPSC-CM? How well can iPSC-CM model adult ventricular myocytes? What are the strengths and limitations of published iPSC-CM arrhythmia models? What new mechanistic insight has been gained? What is the evidence that would support using iPSC-CM to personalize anti-arrhythmic drug therapy? The review also discusses the pros and cons of using the iPSC-CM technology for modeling specific genetic arrhythmia disorders such as long QT syndrome, Brugada Syndrome or Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia. PMID:23569106

  17. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  18. A valuable animal model of spinal cord injury to study motor dysfunctions, comorbid conditions, and aging associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Pascal; Guertin, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    Most animal models of contused, compressed or transected spinal cord injury (SCI) require a laminectomy to be performed. However, despite advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these models, the laminectomy itself is generally associated with significant problems including longer surgery and anaesthesia (related post-operative complications), neuropathic pain, spinal instabilities, deformities, lordosis, and biomechanical problems, etc. This review provides an overview of findings obtained mainly from our laboratory that are associated with the development and characterization of a novel murine model of spinal cord transection that does not require a laminectomy. A number of studies successfully conducted with this model provided strong evidence that it constitutes a simple, reliable and reproducible transection model of complete paraplegia which is particularly useful for studies on large cohorts of wild-type or mutant animals - e.g., drug screening studies in vivo or studies aimed at characterizing neuronal and non-neuronal adaptive changes post-trauma. It is highly suitable also for studies aimed at identifying and developing new pharmacological treatments against aging associated comorbid problems and specific SCI-related dysfunctions (e.g., stereotyped motor behaviours such as locomotion, sexual response, defecation and micturition) largely related with 'command centers' located in lumbosacral areas of the spinal cord.

  19. The Rg1 allele as a valuable tool for genetic transformation of the tomato 'Micro-Tom' model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quecini Vera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cultivar Micro-Tom (MT is regarded as a model system for tomato genetics due to its short life cycle and miniature size. However, efforts to improve tomato genetic transformation have led to protocols dependent on the costly hormone zeatin, combined with an excessive number of steps. Results Here we report the development of a MT near-isogenic genotype harboring the allele Rg1 (MT-Rg1, which greatly improves tomato in vitro regeneration. Regeneration was further improved in MT by including a two-day incubation of cotyledonary explants onto medium containing 0.4 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA before cytokinin treatment. Both strategies allowed the use of 5 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, a cytokinin 100 times less expensive than zeatin. The use of MT-Rg1 and NAA pre-incubation, followed by BAP regeneration, resulted in high transformation frequencies (near 40%, in a shorter protocol with fewer steps, spanning approximately 40 days from Agrobacterium infection to transgenic plant acclimatization. Conclusions The genetic resource and the protocol presented here represent invaluable tools for routine gene expression manipulation and high throughput functional genomics by insertional mutagenesis in tomato.

  20. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework ...

  1. The System Dynamics Model for Development of Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Črtomir; Škraba, Andrej; Kljajić, Miroljub; Pažek, Karmen; Bavec, Martina; Bavec, Franci

    2008-10-01

    Organic agriculture is the highest environmentally valuable agricultural system, and has strategic importance at national level that goes beyond the interests of agricultural sector. In this paper we address development of organic farming simulation model based on a system dynamics methodology (SD). The system incorporates relevant variables, which affect the development of the organic farming. The group decision support system (GDSS) was used in order to identify most relevant variables for construction of causal loop diagram and further model development. The model seeks answers to strategic questions related to the level of organically utilized area, levels of production and crop selection in a long term dynamic context and will be used for simulation of different policy scenarios for organic farming and their impact on economic and environmental parameters of organic production at an aggregate level.

  2. Virtual Organizations: Trends and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Mohammad Reza; Malekpour, Abbaas

    The Use of ICT in business has changed views about traditional business. With VO, organizations with out physical, geographical, or structural constraint can collaborate with together in order to fulfill customer requests in a networked environment. This idea improves resource utilization, reduces development process and costs, and saves time. Virtual Organization (VO) is always a form of partnership and managing partners and handling partnerships are crucial. Virtual organizations are defined as a temporary collection of enterprises that cooperate and share resources, knowledge, and competencies to better respond to business opportunities. This paper presents an overview of virtual organizations and main issues in collaboration such as security and management. It also presents a number of different model approaches according to their purpose and applications.

  3. FAMILY THOUGHT IN THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE MODEL OF THE WORLD: HISTORY OF THE VALUABLE RELATION TO A FAMILY ACCORDING TO RUSSIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Samoylova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consider the structure of a word meaning a family in diachronic aspect. The valuable attitude towards concept «family» is characteristic of the entire periods in the history of Russian, and transformation of semantics of the word concept is insignificant. The central idea in definition of a family in modern Russian is the idea of spiritual proximity of people, the close emotional relations. The word is actively used in figurative sense for expression of estimated meanings. In a different way there is a history of values of the terms of relationship entering a theme group «family». In modern Russian these words cease to express a positive emotional assessment at the use in relation to not relatives. According to authors, it demonstrates change of valuable reference points in a modern language picture of the world.

  4. Recovering valuable shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, C

    1922-09-26

    A process is described for the recovery of valuable shale oils or tars, characterized in that the oil shale is heated to about 300/sup 0/C or a temperature not exceeding this essentially and then is treated with a solvent with utilization of this heat.

  5. Model of organ dose combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valley, J.-F.; Lerch, P.

    1977-01-01

    The ICRP recommendations are based on the limitation of the dose to each organ. In the application and for a unique source the critical organ concept allows to limit the calculation and represents the irradiation status of an individuum. When several sources of radiation are involved the derivation of the dose contribution of each source to each organ is necessary. In order to represent the irradiation status a new parameter is to be defined. Propositions have been made by some authors, in particular by Jacobi introducing at this level biological parameters like the incidence rate of detriment and its severity. The new concept is certainly richer than a simple dose notion. However, in the actual situation of knowledge about radiation effects an intermediate parameter, using only physical concepts and the maximum permissible doses to the organs, seems more appropriate. The model, which is a generalization of the critical organ concept and shall be extended in the future to take the biological effects into account, will be presented [fr

  6. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  7. Energy threat to valuable land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caufield, C.

    1982-01-01

    Having considered the varying estimates of future UK energy requirements which have been made, the impact on the environment arising from the use of valuable sites for energy production is examined. It is shown that energy installations of all kinds clash with areas of natural beauty or ecological importance. As an example, a recent investigation of potential sites for nuclear power stations found that most of them were on or next to sites of special scientific interest, and other areas officially designated to be regarded as special or to be protected in some way. (U.K.)

  8. MVT a most valuable theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Smorynski, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This book is about the rise and supposed fall of the mean value theorem. It discusses the evolution of the theorem and the concepts behind it, how the theorem relates to other fundamental results in calculus, and modern re-evaluations of its role in the standard calculus course. The mean value theorem is one of the central results of calculus. It was called “the fundamental theorem of the differential calculus” because of its power to provide simple and rigorous proofs of basic results encountered in a first-year course in calculus. In mathematical terms, the book is a thorough treatment of this theorem and some related results in the field; in historical terms, it is not a history of calculus or mathematics, but a case study in both. MVT: A Most Valuable Theorem is aimed at those who teach calculus, especially those setting out to do so for the first time. It is also accessible to anyone who has finished the first semester of the standard course in the subject and will be of interest to undergraduate mat...

  9. Rasch-family models are more valuable than score-based approaches for analysing longitudinal patient-reported outcomes with missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bock, Élodie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Blanchin, Myriam; Le Neel, Tanguy; Kubis, Gildas; Bonnaud-Antignac, Angélique; Dantan, Étienne; Sébille, Véronique

    2016-10-01

    The objective was to compare classical test theory and Rasch-family models derived from item response theory for the analysis of longitudinal patient-reported outcomes data with possibly informative intermittent missing items. A simulation study was performed in order to assess and compare the performance of classical test theory and Rasch model in terms of bias, control of the type I error and power of the test of time effect. The type I error was controlled for classical test theory and Rasch model whether data were complete or some items were missing. Both methods were unbiased and displayed similar power with complete data. When items were missing, Rasch model remained unbiased and displayed higher power than classical test theory. Rasch model performed better than the classical test theory approach regarding the analysis of longitudinal patient-reported outcomes with possibly informative intermittent missing items mainly for power. This study highlights the interest of Rasch-based models in clinical research and epidemiology for the analysis of incomplete patient-reported outcomes data. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. using stereochemistry models in teaching organic compounds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of stereochemistry models on students' ... consistent with the names given to organic compounds. Some of ... Considering class level, what is the performance of the students in naming organic.

  11. Tree-Structured Digital Organisms Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Teruhiko; Nobesawa, Shiho; Tahara, Ikuo

    Tierra and Avida are well-known models of digital organisms. They describe a life process as a sequence of computation codes. A linear sequence model may not be the only way to describe a digital organism, though it is very simple for a computer-based model. Thus we propose a new digital organism model based on a tree structure, which is rather similar to the generic programming. With our model, a life process is a combination of various functions, as if life in the real world is. This implies that our model can easily describe the hierarchical structure of life, and it can simulate evolutionary computation through mutual interaction of functions. We verified our model by simulations that our model can be regarded as a digital organism model according to its definitions. Our model even succeeded in creating species such as viruses and parasites.

  12. Modelling organic particles in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couvidat, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere is investigated via the development of a new model named H 2 O (Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Organics). First, a parameterization is developed to take into account secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene oxidation. It takes into account the effect of nitrogen oxides on organic aerosol formation and the hydrophilic properties of the aerosols. This parameterization is then implemented in H 2 O along with some other developments and the results of the model are compared to organic carbon measurements over Europe. Model performance is greatly improved by taking into account emissions of primary semi-volatile compounds, which can form secondary organic aerosols after oxidation or can condense when temperature decreases. If those emissions are not taken into account, a significant underestimation of organic aerosol concentrations occurs in winter. The formation of organic aerosols over an urban area was also studied by simulating organic aerosols concentration over the Paris area during the summer campaign of Megapoli (July 2009). H 2 O gives satisfactory results over the Paris area, although a peak of organic aerosol concentrations from traffic, which does not appear in the measurements, appears in the model simulation during rush hours. It could be due to an underestimation of the volatility of organic aerosols. It is also possible that primary and secondary organic compounds do not mix well together and that primary semi volatile compounds do not condense on an organic aerosol that is mostly secondary and highly oxidized. Finally, the impact of aqueous-phase chemistry was studied. The mechanism for the formation of secondary organic aerosol includes in-cloud oxidation of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, methacrolein and methylvinylketone, formation of methyltetrols in the aqueous phase of particles and cloud droplets, and the in-cloud aging of organic aerosols. The impact of wet deposition is also studied to better estimate the

  13. Organic production in a dynamic CGE model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo

    2004-01-01

    for conventional production into land for organic production, a period of two years must pass before the land being transformed can be used for organic production. During that time, the land is counted as land of the organic industry, but it can only produce the conventional product. To handle this rule, we make......Concerns about the impact of modern agriculture on the environment have in recent years led to an interest in supporting the development of organic farming. In addition to environmental benefits, the aim is to encourage the provision of other “multifunctional” properties of organic farming...... such as rural amenities and rural development that are spillover benefit additional to the supply of food. In this paper we further develop an existing dynamic general equilibrium model of the Danish economy to specifically incorporate organic farming. In the model and input-output data each primary...

  14. Cardiac Electromechanical Models: From Cell to Organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Trayanova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The heart is a multiphysics and multiscale system that has driven the development of the most sophisticated mathematical models at the frontiers of computation physiology and medicine. This review focuses on electromechanical (EM models of the heart from the molecular level of myofilaments to anatomical models of the organ. Because of the coupling in terms of function and emergent behaviors at each level of biological hierarchy, separation of behaviors at a given scale is difficult. Here, a separation is drawn at the cell level so that the first half addresses subcellular/single cell models and the second half addresses organ models. At the subcelluar level, myofilament models represent actin-myosin interaction and Ca-based activation. Myofilament models and their refinements represent an overview of the development in the field. The discussion of specific models emphasizes the roles of cooperative mechanisms and sarcomere length dependence of contraction force, considered the cellular basis of the Frank-Starling law. A model of electrophysiology and Ca handling can be coupled to a myofilament model to produce an EM cell model, and representative examples are summarized to provide an overview of the progression of field. The second half of the review covers organ-level models that require solution of the electrical component as a reaction-diffusion system and the mechanical component, in which active tension generated by the myocytes produces deformation of the organ as described by the equations of continuum mechanics. As outlined in the review, different organ-level models have chosen to use different ionic and myofilament models depending on the specific application; this choice has been largely dictated by compromises between model complexity and computational tractability. The review also addresses application areas of EM models such as cardiac resynchronization therapy and the role of mechano-electric coupling in arrhythmias and

  15. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutić Dragutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introduction of new products, modification of products, promotion, distribution etc. They rarely found it necessary to focus a bit more to different aspects of marketing management, for example: marketing planning and marketing control, marketing organization and leading. This paper deals with aspects of project - matrix marketing organization management. Two-dimensional and more-dimensional models are presented. Among two-dimensional, these models are analyzed: Market management/products management model; Products management/management of product lifecycle phases on market model; Customers management/marketing functions management model; Demand management/marketing functions management model; Market positions management/marketing functions management model. .

  16. The Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — ZFIN serves as the zebrafish model organism database. It aims to: a) be the community database resource for the laboratory use of zebrafish, b) develop and support...

  17. Complex Systems and Self-organization Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Bertelle, Cyrille; Kadri-Dahmani, Hakima

    2009-01-01

    The concern of this book is the use of emergent computing and self-organization modelling within various applications of complex systems. The authors focus their attention both on the innovative concepts and implementations in order to model self-organizations, but also on the relevant applicative domains in which they can be used efficiently. This book is the outcome of a workshop meeting within ESM 2006 (Eurosis), held in Toulouse, France in October 2006.

  18. Modeling self-organization of novel organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Mehmet

    In this thesis, the structural organization of oligomeric multi-block molecules is analyzed by computational analysis of coarse-grained models. These molecules form nanostructures with different dimensionalities, and the nanostructured nature of these materials leads to novel structural properties at different length scales. Previously, a number of oligomeric triblock rodcoil molecules have been shown to self-organize into mushroom shaped noncentrosymmetric nanostructures. Interestingly, thin films of these molecules contain polar domains and a finite macroscopic polarization. However, the fully polarized state is not the equilibrium state. In the first chapter, by solving a model with dipolar and Ising-like short range interactions, we show that polar domains are stable in films composed of aggregates as opposed to isolated molecules. Unlike classical molecular systems, these nanoaggregates have large intralayer spacings (a ≈ 6 nm), leading to a reduction in the repulsive dipolar interactions that oppose polar order within layers. This enables the formation of a striped pattern with polar domains of alternating directions. The energies of the possible structures at zero temperature are computed exactly and results of Monte Carlo simulations are provided at non-zero temperatures. In the second chapter, the macroscopic polarization of such nanostructured films is analyzed in the presence of a short range surface interaction. The surface interaction leads to a periodic domain structure where the balance between the up and down domains is broken, and therefore films of finite thickness have a net macroscopic polarization. The polarization per unit volume is a function of film thickness and strength of the surface interaction. Finally, in chapter three, self-organization of organic molecules into a network of one dimensional objects is analyzed. Multi-block organic dendron rodcoil molecules were found to self-organize into supramolecular nanoribbons (threads) and

  19. The conceptual model of organization social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    LUO, Lan; WEI, Jingfu

    2014-01-01

    With the developing of the research of CSR, people more and more deeply noticethat the corporate should take responsibility. Whether other organizations besides corporatesshould not take responsibilities beyond their field? This paper puts forward theconcept of organization social responsibility on the basis of the concept of corporate socialresponsibility and other theories. And the conceptual models are built based on theconception, introducing the OSR from three angles: the types of organi...

  20. Putting "Organizations" into an Organization Theory Course: A Hybrid CAO Model for Teaching Organization Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, David R.; Venkatachary, Ranga

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a retrospective analysis of an instructor's multiyear redesign of a course on organization theory into what is called a hybrid Classroom-as-Organization model. It is suggested that this new course design served to apprentice students to function in quasi-real organizational structures. The authors further argue…

  1. Safety Cultural Competency Modeling in Nuclear Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Oh, Yeon Ju; Luo, Meiling; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear safety cultural competency model should be supplemented through a bottom-up approach such as behavioral event interview. The developed model, however, is meaningful for determining what should be dealt for enhancing safety cultural competency of nuclear organizations. The more details of the developing process, results, and applications will be introduced later. Organizational culture include safety culture in terms of its organizational characteristics.

  2. A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea ZAMFIR

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a knowledge-based strategic management of services model, with a view to emphasise an approach to gaining competitive advantage through knowledge, people and networking. The long-term evolution of the service organization is associated with the way in which the strategic management is practised.

  3. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The f...

  4. Emergent organization in a model market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Avinash Chand; Manchanda, Kaustubh; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna

    2017-09-01

    We study the collective behaviour of interacting agents in a simple model of market economics that was originally introduced by Nørrelykke and Bak. A general theoretical framework for interacting traders on an arbitrary network is presented, with the interaction consisting of buying (namely consumption) and selling (namely production) of commodities. Extremal dynamics is introduced by having the agent with least profit in the market readjust prices, causing the market to self-organize. In addition to examining this model market on regular lattices in two-dimensions, we also study the cases of random complex networks both with and without community structures. Fluctuations in an activity signal exhibit properties that are characteristic of avalanches observed in models of self-organized criticality, and these can be described by power-law distributions when the system is in the critical state.

  5. In Vivo RNAi-Based Screens: Studies in Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Yamamoto-Hino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a technique widely used for gene silencing in organisms and cultured cells, and depends on sequence homology between double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and target mRNA molecules. Numerous cell-based genome-wide screens have successfully identified novel genes involved in various biological processes, including signal transduction, cell viability/death, and cell morphology. However, cell-based screens cannot address cellular processes such as development, behavior, and immunity. Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans are two model organisms whose whole bodies and individual body parts have been subjected to RNAi-based genome-wide screening. Moreover, Drosophila RNAi allows the manipulation of gene function in a spatiotemporal manner when it is implemented using the Gal4/UAS system. Using this inducible RNAi technique, various large-scale screens have been performed in Drosophila, demonstrating that the method is straightforward and valuable. However, accumulated results reveal that the results of RNAi-based screens have relatively high levels of error, such as false positives and negatives. Here, we review in vivo RNAi screens in Drosophila and the methods that could be used to remove ambiguity from screening results.

  6. Integrated modelling of two xenobiotic organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Gernaey, K.V.; Henze, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model that describes the fate and transport of two selected xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in a simplified representation. of an integrated urban wastewater system. A simulation study, where the xenobiotics bisphenol A and pyrene are used as reference...... compounds, is carried out. Sorption and specific biological degradation processes are integrated with standardised water process models to model the fate of both compounds. Simulated mass flows of the two compounds during one dry weather day and one wet weather day are compared for realistic influent flow...... rate and concentration profiles. The wet weather day induces resuspension of stored sediments, which increases the pollutant load on the downstream system. The potential of the model to elucidate important phenomena related to origin and fate of the model compounds is demonstrated....

  7. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future.

  8. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  9. Switchgrass a valuable biomass crop for energy

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The demand of renewable energies is growing steadily both from policy and from industry which seeks environmentally friendly feed stocks. The recent policies enacted by the EU, USA and other industrialized countries foresee an increased interest in the cultivation of energy crops; there is clear evidence that switchgrass is one of the most promising biomass crop for energy production and bio-based economy and compounds. Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a comprehensive guide to  switchgrass in terms of agricultural practices, potential use and markets, and environmental and social benefits. Considering this potential energy source from its biology, breed and crop physiology to its growth and management to the economical, social and environmental impacts, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy brings together chapters from a range of experts in the field, including a foreword from Kenneth P. Vogel, to collect and present the environmental benefits and characteristics of this a ...

  10. Vulnerability of particularly valuable areas. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report is part of the scientific basis for the management plan for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report focuses on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas to petroleum activities, maritime transport, fisheries, land-based and coastal activities and long-range transboundary pollution. A working group with representatives from many different government agencies, headed by the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Nature Management, has been responsible for drawing up the present report on behalf of the Expert Group for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The present report considers the 12 areas that were identified as particularly valuable during an earlier stage of the management plan process on the environment, natural resources and pollution. There are nine areas along the coast and three open sea areas in the North Sea that were identified according to the same predefined criteria as used for the management plans for the Barents Sea: Lofoten area and the Norwegian Sea. The most important criteria for particularly valuable areas are importance for biological production and importance for biodiversity.(Author)

  11. Vulnerability of particularly valuable areas. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report is part of the scientific basis for the management plan for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report focuses on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas to petroleum activities, maritime transport, fisheries, land-based and coastal activities and long-range transboundary pollution. A working group with representatives from many different government agencies, headed by the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Nature Management, has been responsible for drawing up the present report on behalf of the Expert Group for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The present report considers the 12 areas that were identified as particularly valuable during an earlier stage of the management plan process on the environment, natural resources and pollution. There are nine areas along the coast and three open sea areas in the North Sea that were identified according to the same predefined criteria as used for the management plans for the Barents Sea: Lofoten area and the Norwegian Sea. The most important criteria for particularly valuable areas are importance for biological production and importance for biodiversity.(Author)

  12. Modelling the behaviour of organic degradation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.E.; Ewart, F.T.; Greenfield, B.F.

    1989-03-01

    Results are presented from recent studies at Harwell which show that the degradation products which are formed when certain organic waste materials are exposed to the alkaline conditions typical of a cementitious environment, can enhance the solubility of plutonium, even at pH values as high as 12, by significant factors. Characterisation of the degradation products has been undertaken but the solubility enhancement does not appear to be related to the concentration of any of the major organic species that have been identified in the solutions. While it has not been possible to identify by analysis the organic ligand responsible for the increased solubility of plutonium, the behaviour of D-Saccharic acid does approach the behaviour of the degradation products. The PHREEQE code has been used to simulate the solubility of plutonium in the presence of D-Saccharic acid and other model degradation products, in order to explain the solubility enhancement. The extrapolation of the experimental conditions to the repository is the major objective, but in this work the ability of a model to predict the behaviour of plutonium over a range of experimental conditions has been tested. (author)

  13. Marine organisms: an alternative source of potentially valuable natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Kelecom

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper recalls the outcoming of marine natural products research and reviews a selection of marirne bioactive metabolites in current use together with promising trends in marine pharmacology.

  14. Virtuous organization: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamahani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For years, the idea of virtue was unfavorable among researchers and virtues were traditionally considered as culture-specific, relativistic and they were supposed to be associated with social conservatism, religious or moral dogmatism, and scientific irrelevance. Virtue and virtuousness have been recently considered seriously among organizational researchers. The proposed study of this paper examines the relationships between leadership, organizational culture, human resource, structure and processes, care for community and virtuous organization. Structural equation modeling is employed to investigate the effects of each variable on other components. The data used in this study consists of questionnaire responses from employees in Payam e Noor University in Yazd province. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent out and a total of 211 valid responses were received. Our results have revealed that all the five variables have positive and significant impacts on virtuous organization. Among the five variables, organizational culture has the most direct impact (0.80 and human resource has the most total impact (0.844 on virtuous organization.

  15. An Organization's Extended (Soft) Competencies Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, João; Macedo, Patrícia; Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.

    One of the steps usually undertaken in partnerships formation is the assessment of organizations’ competencies. Typically considered competencies of a functional or technical nature, which provide specific outcomes can be considered as hard competencies. Yet, the very act of collaboration has its specific requirements, for which the involved organizations must be apt to exercise other type of competencies that affect their own performance and the partnership success. These competencies are more of a behavioral nature, and can be named as soft-competencies. This research aims at addressing the effects of the soft competencies on the performance of the hard ones. An extended competencies model is thus proposed, allowing the construction of adjusted competencies profiles, in which the competency levels are adjusted dynamically according to the requirements of collaboration opportunities.

  16. Modeling photocurrent transients in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I; Greenham, N C

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the transient photocurrents of organic photovoltaic devices in response to a sharp turn-on of illumination, by numerical modeling of the drift-diffusion equations. We show that the photocurrent turn-on dynamics are determined not only by the transport dynamics of free charges, but also by the time required for the population of geminate charge pairs to reach its steady-state value. The dissociation probability of a geminate charge pair is found to be a key parameter in determining the device performance, not only by controlling the efficiency at low intensities, but also in determining the fate of charge pairs formed by bimolecular recombination at high intensities. Bimolecular recombination is shown to reduce the turn-on time at high intensities, since the typical distance traveled by a charge pair is reduced.

  17. Computational modeling of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jeffrey Chuen-Fai

    In this work, the metal-organic frameworks MIL-53(Cr), DMOF-2,3-NH 2Cl, DMOF-2,5-NH2Cl, and HKUST-1 were modeled using molecular mechanics and electronic structure. The effect of electronic polarization on the adsorption of water in MIL-53(Cr) was studied using molecular dynamics simulations of water-loaded MIL-53 systems with both polarizable and non-polarizable force fields. Molecular dynamics simulations of the full systems and DFT calculations on representative framework clusters were utilized to study the difference in nitrogen adsorption between DMOF-2,3-NH2Cl and DMOF-2,5-NH 2Cl. Finally, the control of proton conduction in HKUST-1 by complexation of molecules to the Cu open metal site was investigated using the MS-EVB methodology.

  18. Recovery and utilization of valuable metals from spent nuclear fuel. 3: Mutual separation of valuable metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirishima, K.; Shibayama, H.; Nakahira, H.; Shimauchi, H.; Myochin, M.; Wada, Y.; Kawase, K.; Kishimoto, Y.

    1993-01-01

    In the project ''Recovery and Utilization of Valuable Metals from Spent Fuel,'' mutual separation process of valuable metals recovered from spent fuel has been studied by using the simulated solution contained Pb, Ru, Rh, Pd and Mo. Pd was separated successfully by DHS (di-hexyl sulfide) solvent extraction method, while Pb was recovered selectively from the raffinate by neutralization precipitation of other elements. On the other hand, Rh was roughly separated by washing the precipitate with alkaline solution, so that Rh was refined by chelate resin CS-346. Outline of the mutual separation process flow sheet has been established of the combination of these techniques. The experimental results and the process flow sheet of mutual separation of valuable metals are presented in this paper

  19. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  20. Model for Railway Infrastructure Management Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Stojić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The provision of appropriate quality rail services has an important role in terms of railway infrastructure: quality of infrastructure maintenance, regulation of railway traffic, line capacity, speed, safety, train station organization, the allowable lines load and other infrastructure parameters.The analysis of experiences in transforming the railway systems points to the conclusion that there is no unique solution in terms of choice for institutional rail infrastructure management modes, although more than nineteen years have passed from the beginning of the implementation of the Directive 91/440/EEC. Depending on the approach to the process of restructuring the national railway company, adopted regulations and caution in its implementation, the existence or absence of a clearly defined transport strategy, the willingness to liberalize the transport market, there are several different ways for institutional management of railway infrastructure.A hybrid model for selection of modes of institutional rail infrastructure management was developed based on the theory of artificial intelligence, theory of fuzzy sets and theory of multicriteria optimization.KEY WORDSmanagement, railway infrastructure, organizational structure, hybrid model

  1. [Psychopathology and film: a valuable interaction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duppen, Z; Summa, M; Fuchs, T

    2015-01-01

    Film or film fragments are often used in psychopathology education. However, so far there have been very few articles that have discussed the benefits and limitations of using films to explain or illustrate psychopathology. Although numerous films involves psychopathology in varying degrees, it is not clear how we can use films for psychopathology education. To examine the advantages, limitations and possible methods of using film as a means of increasing our knowledge and understanding of psychiatric illnesses. We discuss five examples that illustrate the interaction of film and psychopathology. On the one hand we explain how the psychopathological concepts are used in each film and on the other hand we explain which aspects of each film are valuable aids for teaching psychopathology. The use of film makes it possible to introduce the following topics in psychopathological teaching programme: holistic psychiatric reasoning, phenomenology and the subjective experience, the recognition of psychopathological prototypes and the importance of context. There is undoubtedly an analogy between the method we have chosen for teaching psychopathology with the help of films and the holistic approach of the psychiatrist and his or her team. We believe psychopathology education can benefit from films and we would recommend our colleagues to use it in this way.

  2. PICKLED PUMPKIN IS VALUABLE FOOD PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Sannikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main directions of the food industry development is the production of functional food products. Changes in the human’s diet structure cause that none of population group does receive necessary amount of vitamins, macro and microelements in healthy routine diet. To solve this problem, food stuffs enhanced by different ingredients enable to improve the biological and food value. The pumpkin is a valuable source of such important substances as carotene and pectin. Addition of garlic and hot pepper ingredients to process of pumpkin pickling enables to enrich the products with carbohydrates, proteins, microelements, which have low or no content in the pumpkin fruit. Therefore, the study of the influence of the different quantities of garlic and hot pepper additions on chemical composition of finished product is very important. The influence of plant additions used on chemical composition of finished product had been well determined. It was shown that through increased doses of garlic and hot pepper ingredients as compared with control, the carotene and dry matter content then decreased by 1.16%-3.43% in pickled pumpkin, while the pectin content depended on added component. The highest pectin content, 0.71% was observed at addition of 10 g. garlic ingredient per 1 kg. of raw matter, that was 4.1 times higher than control. With increased addition of hot pepper ingredient the pectin accumulation was decreasing from 0.58% in control to 0.36% in variant 10g. per 1kg. of raw matter.

  3. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    OpenAIRE

    Gutić Dragutin; Rudelj Siniša

    2009-01-01

    Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introdu...

  4. Another Catastrophe: Loss of Valuable Histopathology Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    When the BP Gulf of Mexico oil spill began in April 2010 and reports of effects on marine organisms spilled into the media, immediate concerns centered on the mortalities and rescuing affected wildlife. As affected species became known, plans for a Natural Resource Damage Assessm...

  5. Rheumatology outpatient nurse clinics: a valuable addition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, D.; Hutten, J.B.F.; Francke, A.L.; Rasker, J.J.; Huijer Abu-Saad, H.; Zee, J. van der

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: "Transmural rheumatology nurse clinics," where nursing care is provided under the joint responsibility of a home care organization and a hospital, were recently introduced into Dutch health care. This article gives insight into outcomes of the transmural rheumatology nurse clinics.

  6. Rheumatology outpatient nurse clinics: a valuable addition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, Denise; Hutten, Jack B.F.; Francke, Anneke L.; Rasker, Johannes J.; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: Transmural rheumatology nurse clinics, where nursing care is provided under the joint responsibility of a home care organization and a hospital, were recently introduced into Dutch health care. This article gives insight into outcomes of the transmural rheumatology nurse clinics. -

  7. The Time Is Right to Focus on Model Organism Metabolomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S. Edison

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Model organisms are an essential component of biological and biomedical research that can be used to study specific biological processes. These organisms are in part selected for facile experimental study. However, just as importantly, intensive study of a small number of model organisms yields important synergies as discoveries in one area of science for a given organism shed light on biological processes in other areas, even for other organisms. Furthermore, the extensive knowledge bases compiled for each model organism enable systems-level understandings of these species, which enhance the overall biological and biomedical knowledge for all organisms, including humans. Building upon extensive genomics research, we argue that the time is now right to focus intensively on model organism metabolomes. We propose a grand challenge for metabolomics studies of model organisms: to identify and map all metabolites onto metabolic pathways, to develop quantitative metabolic models for model organisms, and to relate organism metabolic pathways within the context of evolutionary metabolomics, i.e., phylometabolomics. These efforts should focus on a series of established model organisms in microbial, animal and plant research.

  8. Models of care and organization of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Alina; Xiong, Michael; Lester, Jenna; Burnside, Nancy J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the overall organization of services and delivery of health care in the United States. Health maintenance organization, fee-for-service, preferred provider organizations, and the Veterans Health Administration are discussed, with a focus on structure, outcomes, and areas for improvement. An overview of wait times, malpractice, telemedicine, and the growing population of physician extenders in dermatology is also provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Organization model and formalized description of nuclear enterprise information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Feng; Song Yafeng; Li Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Organization model is one of the most important models of Nuclear Enterprise Information System (NEIS). Scientific and reasonable organization model is the prerequisite that NEIS has robustness and extendibility, and is also the foundation of the integration of heterogeneous system. Firstly, the paper describes the conceptual model of the NEIS on ontology chart, which provides a consistent semantic framework of organization. Then it discusses the relations between the concepts in detail. Finally, it gives the formalized description of the organization model of NEIS based on six-tuple array. (authors)

  10. 3D Bioprinting of Tissue/Organ Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Gantelius, Jesper; Svahn, Helene Andersson

    2016-04-04

    In vitro tissue/organ models are useful platforms that can facilitate systematic, repetitive, and quantitative investigations of drugs/chemicals. The primary objective when developing tissue/organ models is to reproduce physiologically relevant functions that typically require complex culture systems. Bioprinting offers exciting prospects for constructing 3D tissue/organ models, as it enables the reproducible, automated production of complex living tissues. Bioprinted tissues/organs may prove useful for screening novel compounds or predicting toxicity, as the spatial and chemical complexity inherent to native tissues/organs can be recreated. In this Review, we highlight the importance of developing 3D in vitro tissue/organ models by 3D bioprinting techniques, characterization of these models for evaluating their resemblance to native tissue, and their application in the prioritization of lead candidates, toxicity testing, and as disease/tumor models. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Authentication in Virtual Organizations: A Reputation Based PKI Interconnection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazan, Ahmad Samer; Laborde, Romain; Barrere, Francois; Benzekri, Abdelmalek

    Authentication mechanism constitutes a central part of the virtual organization work. The PKI technology is used to provide the authentication in each organization involved in the virtual organization. Different trust models are proposed to interconnect the different PKIs in order to propagate the trust between them. While the existing trust models contain many drawbacks, we propose a new trust model based on the reputation of PKIs.

  12. MODELING OF MANAGEMENT PROCESSES IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Iovan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When driving any major change within an organization, strategy and execution are intrinsic to a project’s success. Nevertheless, closing the gap between strategy and execution remains a challenge for many organizations [1]. Companies tend to focus more on execution than strategy for quick results, instead of taking the time needed to understand the parts that make up the whole, so the right execution plan can be put in place to deliver the best outcomes. A large part of this understands that business operations don’t fit neatly within the traditional organizational hierarchy. Business processes are often messy, collaborative efforts that cross teams, departments and systems, making them difficult to manage within a hierarchical structure [2]. Business process management (BPM fills this gap by redefining an organization according to its end-to-end processes, so opportunities for improvement can be identified and processes streamlined for growth, revenue and transformation. This white paper provides guidelines on what to consider when using business process applications to solve your BPM initiatives, and the unique capabilities software systems provides that can help ensure both your project’s success and the success of your organization as a whole. majority of medium and small businesses, big companies and even some guvermental organizations [2].

  13. Self-Organizing Map Models of Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic PDP architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development.

  14. Penium margaritaceum as a model organism for cell wall analysis of expanding plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Maja Gro; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard

    2015-01-01

    organization of the polymeric networks of the cell wall around the protoplast also contributes to the direction of growth, the shape of the cell, and the proper positioning of the cell in a tissue. In essence, plant cell expansion represents the foundation of development. Most studies of plant cell expansion...... have focused primarily upon late divergent multicellular land plants and specialized cell types (e.g., pollen tubes, root hairs). Here, we describe a unicellular green alga, Penium margaritaceum (Penium), which can serve as a valuable model organism for understanding cell expansion and the underlying......The growth of a plant cell encompasses a complex set of subcellular components interacting in a highly coordinated fashion. Ultimately, these activities create specific cell wall structural domains that regulate the prime force of expansion, internally generated turgor pressure. The precise...

  15. Penium margaritaceum as a model organism for cell wall analysis of expanding plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydahl, Maja G; Fangel, Jonatan U; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Johansen, I Elisabeth; Andreas, Amanda; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter; Jørgensen, Bodil; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2015-01-01

    The growth of a plant cell encompasses a complex set of subcellular components interacting in a highly coordinated fashion. Ultimately, these activities create specific cell wall structural domains that regulate the prime force of expansion, internally generated turgor pressure. The precise organization of the polymeric networks of the cell wall around the protoplast also contributes to the direction of growth, the shape of the cell, and the proper positioning of the cell in a tissue. In essence, plant cell expansion represents the foundation of development. Most studies of plant cell expansion have focused primarily upon late divergent multicellular land plants and specialized cell types (e.g., pollen tubes, root hairs). Here, we describe a unicellular green alga, Penium margaritaceum (Penium), which can serve as a valuable model organism for understanding cell expansion and the underlying mechanics of the cell wall in a single plant cell.

  16. Is anorectal endosonography valuable in dyschesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Outryve, S M; Van Outryve, M J; De Winter, B Y; Pelckmans, P A

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Dyschesia can be provoked by inappropriate defecation movements. The aim of this prospective study was to demonstrate dysfunction of the anal sphincter and/or the musculus (m.) puborectalis in patients with dyschesia using anorectal endosonography. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with a medical history of dyschesia and a control group of 20 healthy subjects underwent linear anorectal endosonography (Toshiba models IUV 5060 and PVL-625 RT). In both groups, the dimensions of the anal sphincter and the m. puborectalis were measured at rest, and during voluntary squeezing and straining. Statistical analysis was performed within and between the two groups. Results: The anal sphincter became paradoxically shorter and/or thicker during straining (versus the resting state) in 85% of patients but in only 35% of control subjects. Changes in sphincter length were statistically significantly different (panismus”. PMID:12377809

  17. The initiative on Model Organism Proteomes (iMOP) Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrimpf, Sabine P; Mering, Christian von; Bendixen, Emøke

    2012-01-01

    iMOP – the Initiative on Model Organism Proteomes – was accepted as a new HUPO initiative at the Ninth HUPO meeting in Sydney in 2010. A goal of iMOP is to integrate research groups working on a great diversity of species into a model organism community. At the Tenth HUPO meeting in Geneva...

  18. Modeling the Explicit Chemistry of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madronich, Sasha [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-09

    The atmospheric burden of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) remains one of the most important yet uncertain aspects of the radiative forcing of climate. This grant focused on improving our quantitative understanding of SOA formation and evolution, by developing, applying, and improving a highly detailed model of atmospheric organic chemistry, the Generation of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) model. Eleven (11) publications have resulted from this grant.

  19. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces the multi-element isotope data observed in previous experimental studies. Furthermore, it precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways as well as their range of variation consistent with observed bulk isotope fractionation. It was also possible to directly validate the model capability to predict the evolution of position-specific isotope ratios with available experimental data. Therefore, the approach is useful both for a mechanism-based evaluation of experimental results and as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. - Highlights: • Mechanism-based, position-specific isotope modeling of micropollutants degradation. • Simultaneous description of concentration and primary and secondary isotope effects. • Key features of the model are demonstrated with three illustrative examples. • Model as a tool to explore reaction mechanisms and to design experiments. - We propose a modeling approach incorporating mechanistic information and

  20. Global habitat preferences of commercially valuable tuna

    KAUST Repository

    Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Dufour, Florence; Kell, Laurence T.; Merino, Gorka; Ibaibarriaga, Leire; Chust, Guillem; Irigoien, Xabier; Santiago, Josu; Murua, Hilario; Fraile, Igaratza; Chifflet, Marina; Goikoetxea, Nerea; Sagarminaga, Yolanda; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Herrera, Miguel Angel; Marc Fromentin, Jean; Bonhomeau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its pivotal role in future implementations of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, current knowledge about tuna habitat preferences remains fragmented and heterogeneous, because it relies mainly on regional or local studies that have used a variety of approaches making them difficult to combine. Therefore in this study we analyse data from six tuna species in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans in order to provide a global, comparative perspective of habitat preferences. These data are longline catch per unit effort from 1958 to 2007 for albacore, Atlantic bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Both quotient analysis and Generalised Additive Models were used to determine habitat preference with respect to eight biotic and abiotic variables. Results confirmed that, compared to temperate tunas, tropical tunas prefer warm, anoxic, stratified waters. Atlantic and southern bluefin tuna prefer higher concentrations of chlorophyll than the rest. The two species also tolerate most extreme sea surface height anomalies and highest mixed layer depths. In general, Atlantic bluefin tuna tolerates the widest range of environmental conditions. An assessment of the most important variables determining fish habitat is also provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Global habitat preferences of commercially valuable tuna

    KAUST Repository

    Arrizabalaga, Haritz

    2015-03-01

    In spite of its pivotal role in future implementations of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, current knowledge about tuna habitat preferences remains fragmented and heterogeneous, because it relies mainly on regional or local studies that have used a variety of approaches making them difficult to combine. Therefore in this study we analyse data from six tuna species in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans in order to provide a global, comparative perspective of habitat preferences. These data are longline catch per unit effort from 1958 to 2007 for albacore, Atlantic bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Both quotient analysis and Generalised Additive Models were used to determine habitat preference with respect to eight biotic and abiotic variables. Results confirmed that, compared to temperate tunas, tropical tunas prefer warm, anoxic, stratified waters. Atlantic and southern bluefin tuna prefer higher concentrations of chlorophyll than the rest. The two species also tolerate most extreme sea surface height anomalies and highest mixed layer depths. In general, Atlantic bluefin tuna tolerates the widest range of environmental conditions. An assessment of the most important variables determining fish habitat is also provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Karathia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Model organisms are used for research because they provide a framework on which to develop and optimize methods that facilitate and standardize analysis. Such organisms should be representative of the living beings for which they are to serve as proxy. However, in practice, a model organism is often selected ad hoc, and without considering its representativeness, because a systematic and rational method to include this consideration in the selection process is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we propose such a method and apply it in a pilot study of strengths and limitations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The method relies on the functional classification of proteins into different biological pathways and processes and on full proteome comparisons between the putative model organism and other organisms for which we would like to extrapolate results. Here we compare S. cerevisiae to 704 other organisms from various phyla. For each organism, our results identify the pathways and processes for which S. cerevisiae is predicted to be a good model to extrapolate from. We find that animals in general and Homo sapiens in particular are some of the non-fungal organisms for which S. cerevisiae is likely to be a good model in which to study a significant fraction of common biological processes. We validate our approach by correctly predicting which organisms are phenotypically more distant from S. cerevisiae with respect to several different biological processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method we propose could be used to choose appropriate substitute model organisms for the study of biological processes in other species that are harder to study. For example, one could identify appropriate models to study either pathologies in humans or specific biological processes in species with a long development time, such as plants.

  3. SPECTRAL COLOR INDICES BASED GEOSPATIAL MODELING OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN CHITWAN DISTRICT, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. K. Mandal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Space Technology provides a resourceful-cost effective means to assess soil nutrients essential for soil management plan. Soil organic matter (SOM is one of valuable controlling productivity of crops by providing nutrient in farming systems. Geospatial modeling of soil organic matter is essential if there is unavailability of soil test laboratories and its strong spatial correlation. In the present analysis, soil organic matter is modeled from satellite image derived spectral color indices. Brightness Index (BI, Coloration Index (CI, Hue Index (HI, Redness Index (RI and Saturation Index (SI were calculated by converting DN value to radiance and radiance to reflectance from Thematic Mapper image. Geospatial model was developed by regressing SOM with color indices and producing multiple regression model using stepwise regression technique. The multiple regression equation between SOM and spectral indices was significant with R = 0. 56 at 95% confidence level. The resulting MLR equation was then used for the spatial prediction for the entire study area. Redness Index was found higher significance in estimating the SOM. It was used to predict SOM as auxiliary variables using cokringing spatial interpolation technique. It was tested in seven VDCs of Chitwan district of Nepal using Thematic Mapper remotely sensed data. SOM was found to be measured ranging from 0.15% to 4.75 %, with a mean of 2.24 %. Remotely sensed data derived spectral color indices have the potential as useful auxiliary variables for estimating SOM content to generate soil fertility management plans.

  4. A linear solvation energy relationship model of organic chemical partitioning to dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipka, Undine; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2011-09-01

    Predicting the association of contaminants with both particulate and dissolved organic matter is critical in determining the fate and bioavailability of chemicals in environmental risk assessment. To date, the association of a contaminant to particulate organic matter is considered in many multimedia transport models, but the effect of dissolved organic matter is typically ignored due to a lack of either reliable models or experimental data. The partition coefficient to dissolved organic carbon (K(DOC)) may be used to estimate the fraction of a contaminant that is associated with dissolved organic matter. Models relating K(DOC) to the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) have not been successful for many types of dissolved organic carbon in the environment. Instead, linear solvation energy relationships are proposed to model the association of chemicals with dissolved organic matter. However, more chemically diverse K(DOC) data are needed to produce a more robust model. For humic acid dissolved organic carbon, the linear solvation energy relationship predicts log K(DOC) with a root mean square error of 0.43. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  5. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Mabee, B.; Wulf Tregar, S.

    2017-12-01

    National and international organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal and economic benefits that can be derived from applications of Earth observations, yet improvements are needed to connect to the decision processes that produce actions with direct societal benefits. There is a need to substantiate the benefits of Earth science applications in socially and economically meaningful terms in order to demonstrate return on investment and to prioritize investments across data products, modeling capabilities, and information systems. However, methods and techniques for quantifying the value proposition of Earth observations are currently not fully established. Furthermore, it has been challenging to communicate the value of these investments to audiences beyond the Earth science community. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES), a cooperative agreement between Resources for the Future (RFF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has the goal of advancing methods for the valuation and communication of the applied benefits linked with Earth observations. The VALUABLES Consortium will focus on three pillars: (a) a research pillar that will apply existing and innovative methods to quantify the socioeconomic benefits of information from Earth observations; (b) a capacity building pillar to catalyze interdisciplinary linkages between Earth scientists and social scientists; and (c) a communications pillar that will convey the value of Earth observations to stakeholders in government, universities, the NGO community, and the interested public. In this presentation, we will describe ongoing and future activities of the VALUABLES Consortium, provide a brief overview of frameworks to quantify the socioeconomic value of Earth observations, and describe how Earth scientists and social scientist can get involved in the Consortium's activities.

  6. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  7. Daphnia as an Emerging Epigenetic Model Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kami D. M. Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia offer a variety of benefits for the study of epigenetics. Daphnia’s parthenogenetic life cycle allows the study of epigenetic effects in the absence of confounding genetic differences. Sex determination and sexual reproduction are epigenetically determined as are several other well-studied alternate phenotypes that arise in response to environmental stressors. Additionally, there is a large body of ecological literature available, recently complemented by the genome sequence of one species and transgenic technology. DNA methylation has been shown to be altered in response to toxicants and heavy metals, although investigation of other epigenetic mechanisms is only beginning. More thorough studies on DNA methylation as well as investigation of histone modifications and RNAi in sex determination and predator-induced defenses using this ecologically and evolutionarily important organism will contribute to our understanding of epigenetics.

  8. Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

    2007-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

  9. Self-organized quantum rings : Physical characterization and theoretical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fomin, V.M.; Gladilin, V.N.; Devreese, J.T.; Koenraad, P.M.; Fomin, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    An adequate modeling of the self-organized quantum rings is possible only on the basis of the modern characterization of those nanostructures.We discuss an atomic-scale analysis of the indium distribution of self-organized InGaAs quantum rings (QRs). The analysis of the shape, size and composition

  10. Resilient organizations: matrix model and service line management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Judith A

    2005-09-01

    Resilient organizations modify structures to meet the demands of the marketplace. The author describes a structure that enables multihospital organizations to innovate and rapidly adapt to changes. Service line management within a matrix model is an evolving organizational structure for complex systems in which nurses are pivotal members.

  11. (Tropical) soil organic matter modelling: problems and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van H.

    2001-01-01

    Soil organic matter plays an important role in many physical, chemical and biological processes. However, the quantitative relations between the mineral and organic components of the soil and the relations with the vegetation are poorly understood. In such situations, the use of models is an

  12. Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies of ecological speciation tend to focus on a few model biological systems. In contrast, few studies on non-model organisms have been able to infer ecological speciation as the underlying mechanism of evolutionary divergence. Questions: What are the pitfalls in studying ecological...... speciation in non-model organisms that lead to this bias? What alternative approaches might redress the balance? Organism: Genetically differentiated types of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) exhibiting differences in prey preference, habitat use, morphology, and behaviour. Methods: Review of the literature...... on killer whale evolutionary ecology in search of any difficulty in demonstrating causal links between variation in phenotype, ecology, and reproductive isolation in this non-model organism. Results: At present, we do not have enough evidence to conclude that adaptive phenotype traits linked to ecological...

  13. Modelling the self-organization and collapse of complex networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modelling the self-organization and collapse of complex networks. Sanjay Jain Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  14. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories. PMID:24312061

  15. Labour Quality Model for Organic Farming Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, B.; Freyer, B.; Leitner, H.

    2008-01-01

    The debate on labour quality in science is controversial as well as in the organic agriculture community. Therefore, we reviewed literature on different labour quality models and definitions, and had key informant interviews on labour quality issues with stakeholders in a regional oriented organic agriculture bread food chain. We developed a labour quality model with nine quality categories and discussed linkages to labour satisfaction, ethical values and IFOAM principles.

  16. Xanthusbase: adapting wikipedia principles to a model organism database

    OpenAIRE

    Arshinoff, Bradley I.; Suen, Garret; Just, Eric M.; Merchant, Sohel M.; Kibbe, Warren A.; Chisholm, Rex L.; Welch, Roy D.

    2006-01-01

    xanthusBase () is the official model organism database (MOD) for the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In many respects, M.xanthus represents the pioneer model organism (MO) for studying the genetic, biochemical, and mechanistic basis of prokaryotic multicellularity, a topic that has garnered considerable attention due to the significance of biofilms in both basic and applied microbiology research. To facilitate its utility, the design of xanthusBase incorporates open-source software, leve...

  17. Knowledge Loss: A Defensive Model In Nuclear Research Organization Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Bin Sulaiman; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is an essential part of research based organization. It should be properly managed to ensure that any pitfalls of knowledge retention due to knowledge loss of both tacit and explicit is mitigated. Audit of the knowledge entities exist in the organization is important to identify the size of critical knowledge. It is very much related to how much know-what, know-how and know-why experts exist in the organization. This study conceptually proposed a defensive model for Nuclear Malaysia's organization memory and application of Knowledge Loss Risk Assessment (KLRA) as an important tool for critical knowledge identification. (author)

  18. NEW MODEL FOR QUANTIFICATION OF ICT DEPENDABLE ORGANIZATIONS RESILIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Arsovski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Business environment today demands high reliable organizations in every segment to be competitive on the global market. Beside that, ICT sector is becoming irreplaceable in many fields of business, from the communication to the complex systems for process control and production. To fulfill those requirements and to develop further, many organizations worldwide are implementing business paradigm called - organizations resilience. Although resilience is well known term in many science fields, it is not well studied due to its complex nature. This paper is dealing with developing the new model for assessment and quantification of ICT dependable organizations resilience.

  19. A model to accumulate fractionated dose in a deforming organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Di; Jaffray, D.A.; Wong, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Measurements of internal organ motion have demonstrated that daily organ deformation exists throughout the course of radiation treatment. However, a method of constructing the resultant dose delivered to the organ volume remains a difficult challenge. In this study, a model to quantify internal organ motion and a method to construct a cumulative dose in a deforming organ are introduced. Methods and Materials: A biomechanical model of an elastic body is used to quantify patient organ motion in the process of radiation therapy. Intertreatment displacements of volume elements in an organ of interest is calculated by applying an finite element method with boundary conditions, obtained from multiple daily computed tomography (CT) measurements. Therefore, by incorporating also the measurements of daily setup error, daily dose delivered to a deforming organ can be accumulated by tracking the position of volume elements in the organ. Furthermore, distribution of patient-specific organ motion is also predicted during the early phase of treatment delivery using the daily measurements, and the cumulative dose distribution in the organ can then be estimated. This dose distribution will be updated whenever a new measurement becomes available, and used to reoptimize the ongoing treatment. Results: An integrated process to accumulate dosage in a daily deforming organ was implemented. In this process, intertreatment organ motion and setup error were systematically quantified, and incorporated in the calculation of the cumulative dose. An example of the rectal wall motion in a prostate treatment was applied to test the model. The displacements of volume elements in the rectal wall, as well as the resultant doses, were calculated. Conclusion: This study is intended to provide a systematic framework to incorporate daily patient-specific organ motion and setup error in the reconstruction of the cumulative dose distribution in an organ of interest. The realistic dose

  20. Charge carrier relaxation model in disordered organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Sun, Pengxiao; Liu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation phenomena of charge carrier in disordered organic semiconductors have been demonstrated and investigated theoretically. An analytical model describing the charge carrier relaxation is proposed based on the pure hopping transport theory. The relation between the material disorder, electric field and temperature and the relaxation phenomena has been discussed in detail, respectively. The calculated results reveal that the increase of electric field and temperature can promote the relaxation effect in disordered organic semiconductors, while the increase of material disorder will weaken the relaxation. The proposed model can explain well the stretched-exponential law by adopting the appropriate parameters. The calculation shows a good agreement with the experimental data for organic semiconductors

  1. Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    ). The four simulated organic stormwater MP (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate — IPBC, benzene, glyphosate and pyrene) were selected according to their different urban sources and environmental fate. This ensures that the results can be extended to other relevant stormwater pollutants. All three models use......Urban water managers need to estimate the potential removal of organic micropollutants (MP) in stormwater treatment systems to support MP pollution control strategies. This study documents how the potential removal of organic MP in stormwater treatment systems can be quantified by using multimedia...... models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP...

  2. [Single embryo transfer: is Scandinavian model valuable in France?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaisch-Allart, J; Mayenga, J-M; Grefenstette, I; Chouraqui, A; Serkine, A-M; Abirached, F; Kulski, O

    2008-11-01

    The aim of infertility treatment is clearly to obtain one healthy baby. If the transfer of a top quality single embryo could provide a baby to all the patients, there would be no more discussion. The problem is that, nowadays, French pregnancy rates after fresh embryo or frozen embryo transfer are not the same as in Nordic countries. All studies show that in unselected patients, single embryo transfer decreases twin pregnancy rate but decreases pregnancy rate too. Pregnancy rate is dependent on embryo quality, women's age, rank of IVF attempt (clear data) but also on body mass index, ovarian reserve, smoking habits. All these data cannot be taken into account in a law. That is the reason why a flexible policy of transfer adapted to each couple is preferable. Each couple and each IVF team are unique and must keep the freedom to choose how many embryos must be transferred to obtain healthy babies, and to avoid twin pregnancies but without demonizing them.

  3. Model of metastatic growth valuable for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, Peter; Ahlman, Haakan; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to make a Monte Carlo simulation approach to estimate the distribution of tumor sizes and to study the curative potential of three candidate radionuclides for radionuclide therapy: the high-energy electron emitter 90 Y, the medium-energy electron emitter 177 Lu and the low-energy electron emitter 103m Rh. A patient with hepatocellular carcinoma with recently published serial CT data on tumor growth in the liver was used. From these data the growth of the primary tumor, and the metastatis formation rate, were estimated. Assuming the same tumor growth of the primary and all metastases and the same metastatis formation rate from both primary and metastases the metastatic size distribution was simulated for various time points. Tumor cure of the metastatic size distribution was simulated for uniform activity distribution of three radionuclides; the high-energy electron emitter 90 Y, the mean-energy electron emitter 177 Lu and the low-energy electron emitter 103m Rh. The simulation of a tumor cure was performed for various time points and tumor-to-normal tissue activity concentrations, TNC. It was demonstrated that it is important to start therapy as early as possible after diagnosis. It was of crucial importance to use an optimal radionuclide for therapy. These simulations demonstrated that 90 Y was not suitable for systemic radionuclide therapy, due to the low absorbed fraction of the emitted electrons in small tumors ( 103m Rh was slightly better than 177 Lu. For high TNC values low-energy electron emitters, e.g., 103m Rh was the best choice for tumor cure. However, the short half-life of 103m Rh (56 min) might not be optimal for therapy. Therefore, other low-energy electron emitters, or alpha emitters, should be considered for systemic targeted therapy

  4. Modelling the fate of oxidisable organic contaminants in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, D.A.; Prommer, H.; Miller, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    modelling framework is illustrated by pertinent examples, showing the degradation of dissolved organics by microbial activity limited by the availability of nutrients or electron acceptors (i.e., changing redox states), as well as concomitant secondary reactions. Two field-scale modelling examples......Subsurface contamination by organic chemicals is a pervasive environmental problem, susceptible to remediation by natural or enhanced attenuation approaches or more highly engineered methods such as pump-and-treat, amongst others. Such remediation approaches, along with risk assessment...... are discussed, the Vejen landfill (Denmark) and an example where metal contamination is remediated by redox changes wrought by injection of a dissolved organic compound. A summary is provided of current and likely future challenges to modelling of oxidisable organics in the subsurface. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  5. Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to study nanotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cynthia; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry; Cai, Yu; Bay, Boon-Huat; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2015-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an in vivo model organism for the study of genetics and development since 100 years ago. Recently, the fruit fly Drosophila was also developed as an in vivo model organism for toxicology studies, in particular, the field of nanotoxicity. The incorporation of nanomaterials into consumer and biomedical products is a cause for concern as nanomaterials are often associated with toxicity in many in vitro studies. In vivo animal studies of the toxicity of nanomaterials with rodents and other mammals are, however, limited due to high operational cost and ethical objections. Hence, Drosophila, a genetically tractable organism with distinct developmental stages and short life cycle, serves as an ideal organism to study nanomaterial-mediated toxicity. This review discusses the basic biology of Drosophila, the toxicity of nanomaterials, as well as how the Drosophila model can be used to study the toxicity of various types of nanomaterials.

  6. Mutant mice: experimental organisms as materialised models in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Lara; Keuck, Lara K

    2013-09-01

    Animal models have received particular attention as key examples of material models. In this paper, we argue that the specificities of establishing animal models-acknowledging their status as living beings and as epistemological tools-necessitate a more complex account of animal models as materialised models. This becomes particularly evident in animal-based models of diseases that only occur in humans: in these cases, the representational relation between animal model and human patient needs to be generated and validated. The first part of this paper presents an account of how disease-specific animal models are established by drawing on the example of transgenic mice models for Alzheimer's disease. We will introduce an account of validation that involves a three-fold process including (1) from human being to experimental organism; (2) from experimental organism to animal model; and (3) from animal model to human patient. This process draws upon clinical relevance as much as scientific practices and results in disease-specific, yet incomplete, animal models. The second part of this paper argues that the incompleteness of models can be described in terms of multi-level abstractions. We qualify this notion by pointing to different experimental techniques and targets of modelling, which give rise to a plurality of models for a specific disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial arrangement of organic compounds on a model mineral surface: implications for soil organic matter stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Loukas; Ambaye, Haile; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Kilbey, S Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Lauter, Valeria; Mayes, Melanie A

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the mineral-organic carbon interface may influence the extent of stabilization of organic carbon compounds in soils, which is important for global climate futures. The nanoscale structure of a model interface was examined here by depositing films of organic carbon compounds of contrasting chemical character, hydrophilic glucose and amphiphilic stearic acid, onto a soil mineral analogue (Al2O3). Neutron reflectometry, a technique which provides depth-sensitive insight into the organization of the thin films, indicates that glucose molecules reside in a layer between Al2O3 and stearic acid, a result that was verified by water contact angle measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the thermodynamic driving force behind glucose partitioning on the mineral interface: The entropic penalty of confining the less mobile glucose on the mineral surface is lower than for stearic acid. The fundamental information obtained here helps rationalize how complex arrangements of organic carbon on soil mineral surfaces may arise.

  8. A Framework for Formal Modeling and Analysis of Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Sharpanskykh, O.; Treur, J.; P., Yolum

    2007-01-01

    A new, formal, role-based, framework for modeling and analyzing both real world and artificial organizations is introduced. It exploits static and dynamic properties of the organizational model and includes the (frequently ignored) environment. The transition is described from a generic framework of

  9. Healing models for organizations: description, measurement, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, K

    2000-01-01

    Healthcare leaders are continually searching for ways to improve their ability to provide optimal healthcare services, be financially viable, and retain quality caregivers, often feeling like such goals are impossible to achieve in today's intensely competitive environment. Many healthcare leaders intuitively recognize the need for more humanistic models and the probable connection with positive patient outcomes and financial success but are hesitant to make significant changes in their organizations because of the lack of model descriptions or documented recognition of the clinical and financial advantages of humanistic models. This article describes a study that was developed in response to the increasing work in humanistic or healing environment models and the need for validation of the advantages of such models. The healthy organization model, a framework for healthcare organizations that incorporates humanistic healing values within the traditional structure, is presented as a result of the study. This model addresses the importance of optimal clinical services, financial performance, and staff satisfaction. The five research-based organizational components that form the framework are described, and key indicators of organizational effectiveness over a five-year period are presented. The resulting empirical data are strongly supportive of the healing model and reflect positive outcomes for the organization.

  10. A self-organized criticality model for plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Newman, D.; Lynch, V.E.

    1996-01-01

    Many models of natural phenomena manifest the basic hypothesis of self-organized criticality (SOC). The SOC concept brings together the self-similarity on space and time scales that is common to many of these phenomena. The application of the SOC modelling concept to the plasma dynamics near marginal stability opens new possibilities of understanding issues such as Bohm scaling, profile consistency, broad band fluctuation spectra with universal characteristics and fast time scales. A model realization of self-organized criticality for plasma transport in a magnetic confinement device is presented. The model is based on subcritical resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. Three-dimensional nonlinear calculations based on this model show the existence of transport under subcritical conditions. This model that includes fluctuation dynamics leads to results very similar to the running sandpile paradigm

  11. An Ising model for metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höft, Nicolas; Horbach, Jürgen; Martín-Mayor, Victor; Seoane, Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    We present a three-dimensional Ising model where lines of equal spins are frozen such that they form an ordered framework structure. The frame spins impose an external field on the rest of the spins (active spins). We demonstrate that this "porous Ising model" can be seen as a minimal model for condensation transitions of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks. Using Monte Carlo simulation techniques, we compare the phase behavior of a porous Ising model with that of a particle-based model for the condensation of methane (CH4) in the isoreticular metal-organic framework IRMOF-16. For both models, we find a line of first-order phase transitions that end in a critical point. We show that the critical behavior in both cases belongs to the 3D Ising universality class, in contrast to other phase transitions in confinement such as capillary condensation.

  12. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  13. Modelization of tritium transfer into the organic compartments of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Arapis, G.; Kirchmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Uptake of tritium oxide and its conversion into organic tritium was studied in four different types of algae with widely varying size and growth characteristics (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, two strains of Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella bioculata). Water in the cell and the vacuales equilibrates rapidly with external tritium water. Tritium is actively incorporated into organically bound form as the organisms grow. During the stationary phase, incorporation of tritium is slow. There exists a discrimination against the incorporation of tritium into organically bound form. A model has been elaborated taking in account these different factors. It appears that transfer of organic tritium by algae growing near the sites of release would be significant only for actively growing algae. Algae growing slowly may, however, be useful as cumulative indicators of discontinuous tritium release. (author)

  14. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  15. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    OpenAIRE

    Fels-Klerx, van der, H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van, L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys). The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize ...

  16. Lotka-Volterra competition models for sessile organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Matthew; Tanner, Jason E

    2008-04-01

    Markov models are widely used to describe the dynamics of communities of sessile organisms, because they are easily fitted to field data and provide a rich set of analytical tools. In typical ecological applications, at any point in time, each point in space is in one of a finite set of states (e.g., species, empty space). The models aim to describe the probabilities of transitions between states. In most Markov models for communities, these transition probabilities are assumed to be independent of state abundances. This assumption is often suspected to be false and is rarely justified explicitly. Here, we start with simple assumptions about the interactions among sessile organisms and derive a model in which transition probabilities depend on the abundance of destination states. This model is formulated in continuous time and is equivalent to a Lotka-Volterra competition model. We fit this model and a variety of alternatives in which transition probabilities do not depend on state abundances to a long-term coral reef data set. The Lotka-Volterra model describes the data much better than all models we consider other than a saturated model (a model with a separate parameter for each transition at each time interval, which by definition fits the data perfectly). Our approach provides a basis for further development of stochastic models of sessile communities, and many of the methods we use are relevant to other types of community. We discuss possible extensions to spatially explicit models.

  17. Modeling Temperature Dependent Singlet Exciton Dynamics in Multilayered Organic Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa, Leonardo Evaristo; de Oliveira Neto, Pedro Henrique; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Organic nanofibers have shown potential for application in optoelectronic devices because of the tunability of their optical properties. These properties are influenced by the electronic structure of the molecules that compose the nanofibers, but also by the behavior of the excitons generated...... dynamics in multilayered organic nanofibers. By simulating absorption and emission spectra, the possible Förster transitions are identified. Then, a Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model is employed in combination with a genetic algorithm to theoretically reproduce time resolved photoluminescence measurements...

  18. Electrochemical model of the polyaniline based organic memristive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V. A.; Erokhin, V. V.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical organic memristive device with polyaniline active layer is a stand-alone device designed and realized for reproduction of some synapse properties in the innovative electronic circuits, including the neuromorphic networks capable for learning. In this work, a new theoretical model of the polyaniline memristive is presented. The developed model of organic memristive functioning was based on the detailed consideration of possible electrochemical processes occuring in the active zone of this device. Results of the calculation have demonstrated not only the qualitative explanation of the characteristics observed in the experiment but also the quantitative similarities of the resultant current values. It is shown how the memristive could behave at zero potential difference relative to the reference electrode. This improved model can establish a basis for the design and prediction of properties of more complicated circuits and systems (including stochastic ones) based on the organic memristive devices

  19. A model-independent view of the mature organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, M.; Langston, D.

    1996-12-31

    Over the last 10 years, industry has been dealing with the issues of process and organizational maturity. This focus on process is driven by the success that manufacturing organizations have had implementing the management principles of W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran. The organizational-maturity focus is driven by organizations striving to be ISO 9000 compliant or to achieve a specific level on one of the maturity models. Unfortunately, each of the models takes a specific view into what is a very broad arena. That is to say, each model addresses only a specific subset of the characteristics of maturity. This paper attempts to extend beyond these specific views to answer the general question, What is a mature organization and its relationship to Quantitative management and statistical process control?

  20. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.

  1. Recycled Cell Phones - A Treasure Trove of Valuable Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel E.

    2006-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet examines the potential value of recycling the metals found in obsolete cell phones. Cell phones seem ubiquitous in the United States and commonplace throughout most of the world. There were approximately 1 billion cell phones in use worldwide in 2002. In the United States, the number of cell phone subscribers increased from 340,000 in 1985 to 180 million in 2004. Worldwide, cell phone sales have increased from slightly more than 100 million units per year in 1997 to an estimated 779 million units per year in 2005. Cell phone sales are projected to exceed 1 billion units per year in 2009, with an estimated 2.6 billion cell phones in use by the end of that year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that, by 2005, as many as 130 million cell phones would be retired annually in the United States. The nonprofit organization INFORM, Inc., anticipated that, by 2005, a total of 500 million obsolete cell phones would have accumulated in consumers' desk drawers, store rooms, or other storage, awaiting disposal. Typically, cell phones are used for only 1 1/2 years before being replaced. Less than 1 percent of the millions of cell phones retired and discarded annually are recycled. When large numbers of cell phones become obsolete, large quantities of valuable metals end up either in storage or in landfills. The amount of metals potentially recoverable would make a significant addition to total metals recovered from recycling in the United States and would supplement virgin metals derived from mining.

  2. New Therapies Offer Valuable Options for Patients with Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two phase III clinical trials of new therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma presented in June at the 2011 ASCO conference confirmed that vemurafenib and ipilimumab (Yervoy™) offer valuable new options for the disease.

  3. Semantic Document Image Classification Based on Valuable Text Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Pourghassem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge extraction from detected document image is a complex problem in the field of information technology. This problem becomes more intricate when we know, a negligible percentage of the detected document images are valuable. In this paper, a segmentation-based classification algorithm is used to analysis the document image. In this algorithm, using a two-stage segmentation approach, regions of the image are detected, and then classified to document and non-document (pure region regions in the hierarchical classification. In this paper, a novel valuable definition is proposed to classify document image in to valuable or invaluable categories. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on a database consisting of the document and non-document image that provide from Internet. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in the semantic document image classification. The proposed algorithm provides accuracy rate of 98.8% for valuable and invaluable document image classification problem.

  4. Valuable Internet Advertising and Customer Satisfaction Cycle(VIACSC)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Awais; Tanzila Samin; Muhammad Bilal

    2012-01-01

    Now-a-days it is very important for the business persons to attract their target customers towards their products through valuable mode of promotion and communication. Increasing use of World Wide Web has completely changed the scenario of business sector. Customized products and services, customers preferences, @ and dot com craze have elevated the importance of internet advertising. This research paper investigates valuable internet advertising which will help to enhance the value of intern...

  5. Molecular analysis of the replication program in unicellular model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotes have long been reported to show temporal programs of replication, different portions of the genome being replicated at different times in S phase, with the added possibility of developmentally regulated changes in this pattern depending on species and cell type. Unicellular model organisms, primarily the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been central to our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of replication origins and the temporal program of replication in particular. But what exactly is a temporal program of replication, and how might it arise? In this article, we explore this question, drawing again on the wealth of experimental information in unicellular model organisms.

  6. Self-organized Criticality Model for Ocean Internal Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gang; Hou Yijun; Lin Min; Qiao Fangli

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple spring-block model for ocean internal waves based on the self-organized criticality (SOC). The oscillations of the water blocks in the model display power-law behavior with an exponent of -2 in the frequency domain, which is similar to the current and sea water temperature spectra in the actual ocean and the universal Garrett and Munk deep ocean internal wave model [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 2 (1972) 225; J. Geophys. Res. 80 (1975) 291]. The influence of the ratio of the driving force to the spring coefficient to SOC behaviors in the model is also discussed. (general)

  7. Device model investigation of bilayer organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, B. K.; Davids, P. S.; Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Organic materials that have desirable luminescence properties, such as a favorable emission spectrum and high luminescence efficiency, are not necessarily suitable for single layer organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) because the material may have unequal carrier mobilities or contact limited injection properties. As a result, single layer LEDs made from such organic materials are inefficient. In this article, we present device model calculations of single layer and bilayer organic LED characteristics that demonstrate the improvements in device performance that can occur in bilayer devices. We first consider an organic material where the mobilities of the electrons and holes are significantly different. The role of the bilayer structure in this case is to move the recombination away from the electrode that injects the low mobility carrier. We then consider an organic material with equal electron and hole mobilities but where it is not possible to make a good contact for one carrier type, say electrons. The role of a bilayer structure in this case is to prevent the holes from traversing the device without recombining. In both cases, single layer device limitations can be overcome by employing a two organic layer structure. The results are discussed using the calculated spatial variation of the carrier densities, electric field, and recombination rate density in the structures. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  8. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimeters), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured, and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  9. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Schütz, Gerhard J.; Eggeling, Christian; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Ever since technologies enabled the characterization of eukaryotic plasma membranes, heterogeneities in the distributions of its constituents were observed. Over the years this led to the proposal of various models describing the plasma membrane organization such as lipid shells, picket-and-fences, lipid rafts, or protein islands, as addressed in numerous publications and reviews. Instead of emphasizing on one model we in this review give a brief overview over current models and highlight how current experimental work in one or the other way do not support the existence of a single overarching model. Instead, we highlight the vast variety of membrane properties and components, their influences and impacts. We believe that highlighting such controversial discoveries will stimulate unbiased research on plasma membrane organization and functionality, leading to a better understanding of this essential cellular structure. PMID:27747212

  10. Dynamic Simulation of an Organic Rankine Cycle—Detailed Model of a Kettle Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pili

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs are nowadays a valuable technology to produce electricity from low and medium temperature heat sources, e.g., in geothermal, biomass and waste heat recovery applications. Dynamic simulations can help improve the flexibility and operation of such plants, and guarantee a better economic performance. In this work, a dynamic model for a multi-pass kettle evaporator of a geothermal ORC power plant has been developed and its dynamics have been validated against measured data. The model combines the finite volume approach on the tube side and a two-volume cavity on the shell side. To validate the dynamic model, a positive and a negative step function in heat source flow rate is applied. The simulation model performed well in both cases. The liquid level appeared the most challenging quantity to simulate. A better agreement in temperature was achieved by increasing the volume flow rate of the geothermal brine by 2% over the entire simulation. Measurement errors, discrepancies in working fluid and thermal brine properties and uncertainties in heat transfer correlations can account for this. In the future, the entire geothermal power plant will be simulated, and suggestions to improve its dynamics and control by means of simulations will be provided.

  11. An Ontology for Modeling Complex Inter-relational Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wautelet, Yves; Neysen, Nicolas; Kolp, Manuel

    This paper presents an ontology for organizational modeling through multiple complementary aspects. The primary goal of the ontology is to dispose of an adequate set of related concepts for studying complex organizations involved in a lot of relationships at the same time. In this paper, we define complex organizations as networked organizations involved in a market eco-system that are playing several roles simultaneously. In such a context, traditional approaches focus on the macro analytic level of transactions; this is supplemented here with a micro analytic study of the actors' rationale. At first, the paper overviews enterprise ontologies literature to position our proposal and exposes its contributions and limitations. The ontology is then brought to an advanced level of formalization: a meta-model in the form of a UML class diagram allows to overview the ontology concepts and their relationships which are formally defined. Finally, the paper presents the case study on which the ontology has been validated.

  12. Zebrabase: An intuitive tracking solution for aquatic model organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Oltova, Jana; Bartunek, Petr; Machonova, Olga; Svoboda, Ondrej; Skuta, Ctibor; Jindrich, Jindrich

    2018-01-01

    Small fish species, like zebrafish or medaka, are constantly gaining popularity in basic research and disease modeling as a useful alternative to rodent model organisms. However, the tracking options for fish within a facility are rather limited. Here, we present an aquatic species tracking database, Zebrabase, developed in our zebrafish research and breeding facility that represents a practical and scalable solution and an intuitive platform for scientists, fish managers and caretakers, in b...

  13. A model of virtual organization for corporate visibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the existing numerous research in business, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), examines a theoretical framework for value creation in a virtual world. Following a proposed model, a new strategic paradigm is created for corporate value; and virtual organization (VO) apply the use of ...

  14. Modeling of the transient mobility in disordered organic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germs, W.C.; Van der Holst, J.M.M.; Van Mensfoort, S.L.M.; Bobbert, P.A.; Coehoorn, R.

    2011-01-01

    In non-steady-state experiments, the electrical response of devicesbased on disordered organic semiconductors often shows a large transient contribution due to relaxation of the out-of-equilibrium charge-carrier distribution. We have developed a model describing this process, based only on the

  15. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  16. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for Small Businesses and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by small businesses and organizations. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  17. SOMPROF: A vertically explicit soil organic matter model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.; Beer, M.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.

    2011-01-01

    Most current soil organic matter (SOM) models represent the soil as a bulk without specification of the vertical distribution of SOM in the soil profile. However, the vertical SOM profile may be of great importance for soil carbon cycling, both on short (hours to years) time scale, due to

  18. Modeling growth of specific spoilage organisms in tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilapia is an important aquatic fish, but severe spoilage of tilapia is most likely related to the global aquaculture. The spoilage is mostly caused by specific spoilage organisms (SSO). Therefore, it is very important to use microbial models to predict the growth of SSO in tilapia. This study firstly verified Pseudomonas and Vibrio ...

  19. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la serna, J. B.; Schütz, G.; Eggeling, Ch.; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, SEP 2016 (2016), 106 ISSN 2296-634X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06989S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : plasma membrane * membrane organization models * heterogeneous distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Lamination of organic solar cells and organic light emitting devices: Models and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyewole, O. K.; Yu, D.; Du, J.; Asare, J.; Fashina, A.; Anye, V. C.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a combined experimental, computational, and analytical approach is used to provide new insights into the lamination of organic solar cells and light emitting devices at macro- and micro-scales. First, the effects of applied lamination force (on contact between the laminated layers) are studied. The crack driving forces associated with the interfacial cracks (at the bi-material interfaces) are estimated along with the critical interfacial crack driving forces associated with the separation of thin films, after layer transfer. The conditions for successful lamination are predicted using a combination of experiments and computational models. Guidelines are developed for the lamination of low-cost organic electronic structures

  1. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study the researcher attempted 1 to understand the basic features of organic farming in The Paguyuban Pasundans Cianjur 2 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community 3 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize and applied the values of benefits of organic farming in support of environmental health on their lived experiences in the community 4 The purpose was to describe and understand how the stakeholders who are able to articulate their ideas regarding the model of sustainable organic farming 5 The Policy Recommendation for Organic Farming. The researcher employed triangulation thorough finding that provides breadth and depth to an investigation offering researchers a more accurate picture of the phenomenon. In the implementation of triangulation researchers conducted several interviews to get saturation. After completion of the interview results are written compiled and shown to the participants to check every statement by every participant. In addition researchers also checked the relevant documents and direct observation in the field The participants of this study were the stakeholders namely 1 The leader of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic Farmer Cianjur PPOFC 2 Members of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic FarmersCianjur 3 Leader of NGO 4 Government officials of agriculture 5 Business of organic food 6 and Consumer of organic food. Generally the findings of the study revealed the following 1 PPOFC began to see the reality as the impact of modern agriculture showed in fertility problems due to contaminated soil by residues of agricultural chemicals such as chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. So he wants to restore the soil fertility through environmentally friendly of farming practices 2 the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community farmers did not

  2. On the influence of the exposure model on organ doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, G.; Eckerl, H.

    1988-01-01

    Based on the design characteristics of the MIRD-V phantom, two sex-specific adult phantoms, ADAM and EVA were introduced especially for the calculation of organ doses resulting from external irradiation. Although the body characteristics of all the phantoms are in good agreement with those of the reference man and woman, they have some disadvantages related to the location and shape of organs and the form of the whole body. To overcome these disadvantages related to the location and shape of organs and form of the whole body. To overcome these disadvantages related to the location and shape of organs and the form of the whole body. To overcome these disadvantages and to obtain more realistic phantoms, a technique based on computer tomographic data (voxel-phantom) was developed. This technique allows any physical phantom or real body to be converted into computer files. The improvements are of special importance with regard to the skeleton, because a better modeling of the bone surfaces and separation of hard bone and bone marrow can be achieved. For photon irradiation, the sensitivity of the model on organ doses or the effective dose equivalent is important for operational radiation protection

  3. Modeling of secondary organic aerosol yields from laboratory chamber data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory chamber data serve as the basis for constraining models of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. Current models fall into three categories: empirical two-product (Odum, product-specific, and volatility basis set. The product-specific and volatility basis set models are applied here to represent laboratory data on the ozonolysis of α-pinene under dry, dark, and low-NOx conditions in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. Using five major identified products, the model is fit to the chamber data. From the optimal fitting, SOA oxygen-to-carbon (O/C and hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C ratios are modeled. The discrepancy between measured H/C ratios and those based on the oxidation products used in the model fitting suggests the potential importance of particle-phase reactions. Data fitting is also carried out using the volatility basis set, wherein oxidation products are parsed into volatility bins. The product-specific model is most likely hindered by lack of explicit inclusion of particle-phase accretion compounds. While prospects for identification of the majority of SOA products for major volatile organic compounds (VOCs classes remain promising, for the near future empirical product or volatility basis set models remain the approaches of choice.

  4. VALUABLE AND ORIENTATION FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Zagvyazinsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to show that in modern market conditions it is necessary to keep humanistic valuable and orientation installations of domestic education and not to allow its slipping on a line item of utilitarian, quickly achievable, but not long-term benefits. Theoretical significance. The author emphasizes value of forming of an ideal – harmonious development of the personality – and the collectivist beginnings for disclosure of potential of each school student, a student, a worker, a specialist; also the author emphasizes on requirement of the stimulating, but not strictly regulated management of education. It is proved that copying of the western model of consecutive individualization of education without preserving the collectivist beginning is unacceptable in training, especially in educational process. In more general, strategic foreshortening this means that parity of the problem resolution of economy and the social sphere with which it is impossible to cope without support and educational development and first of all education, it is especially important during the periods of economic crises and stagnation for providing an exit from a crisis state on the basis of the advancing preparation and rational use of the personnel which neatly are considered as a human capital. Practical significance. Resources and positive tendencies in a development of education, especially elite, and also educational systems of some territories, including the Tyumen region where traditions of the enthusiasts-pioneers mastering the remote territories of oil and gas fields remain are shown. 

  5. Accounting for microbial habitats in modeling soil organic matter dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Garnier, Patricia; Nunan, Naoise; Pot, Valérie; Raynaud, Xavier; Vieublé, Laure; Otten, Wilfred; Falconer, Ruth; Monga, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The extreme heterogeneity of soils constituents, architecture and inhabitants at the microscopic scale is increasingly recognized. Microbial communities exist and are active in a complex 3-D physical framework of mineral and organic particles defining pores of various sizes, more or less inter-connected. This results in a frequent spatial disconnection between soil carbon, energy sources and the decomposer organisms and a variety of microhabitats that are more or less suitable for microbial growth and activity. However, current biogeochemical models account for C dynamics at the macroscale (cm, m) and consider time- and spatially averaged relationships between microbial activity and soil characteristics. Different modelling approaches have intended to account for this microscale heterogeneity, based either on considering aggregates as surrogates for microbial habitats, or pores. Innovative modelling approaches are based on an explicit representation of soil structure at the fine scale, i.e. at µm to mm scales: pore architecture and their saturation with water, localization of organic resources and of microorganisms. Three recent models are presented here, that describe the heterotrophic activity of either bacteria or fungi and are based upon different strategies to represent the complex soil pore system (Mosaic, LBios and µFun). These models allow to hierarchize factors of microbial activity in soil's heterogeneous architecture. Present limits of these approaches and challenges are presented, regarding the extensive information required on soils at the microscale and to up-scale microbial functioning from the pore to the core scale.

  6. [Biomechanical modeling of pelvic organ mobility: towards personalized medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Michel; Rubod, Chrystèle; Vallet, Alexandra; Witz, Jean-François; Brieu, Mathias

    2011-11-01

    Female pelvic mobility is crucial for urinary, bowel and sexual function and for vaginal delivery. This mobility is ensured by a complex organ suspension system composed of ligaments, fascia and muscles. Impaired pelvic mobility affects one in three women of all ages and can be incapacitating. Surgical management has a high failure rate, largely owing to poor knowledge of the organ support system, including the barely discernible ligamentous system. We propose a 3D digital model of the pelvic cavity based on MRI images and quantitative tools, designed to locate the pelvic ligaments. We thus obtain a coherent anatomical and functional model which can be used to analyze pelvic pathophysiology. This work represents a first step towards creating a tool for localizing and characterizing the source of pelvic imbalance. We examine possible future applications of this model, in terms of personalized therapy and prevention.

  7. Modeling Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Emissions of Combustion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jathar, Shantanu Hemant

    Atmospheric aerosols exert a large influence on the Earth's climate and cause adverse public health effects, reduced visibility and material degradation. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), defined as the aerosol mass arising from the oxidation products of gas-phase organic species, accounts for a significant fraction of the submicron atmospheric aerosol mass. Yet, there are large uncertainties surrounding the sources, atmospheric evolution and properties of SOA. This thesis combines laboratory experiments, extensive data analysis and global modeling to investigate the contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SVOC and IVOC) from combustion sources to SOA formation. The goals are to quantify the contribution of these emissions to ambient PM and to evaluate and improve models to simulate its formation. To create a database for model development and evaluation, a series of smog chamber experiments were conducted on evaporated fuel, which served as surrogates for real-world combustion emissions. Diesel formed the most SOA followed by conventional jet fuel / jet fuel derived from natural gas, gasoline and jet fuel derived from coal. The variability in SOA formation from actual combustion emissions can be partially explained by the composition of the fuel. Several models were developed and tested along with existing models using SOA data from smog chamber experiments conducted using evaporated fuel (this work, gasoline, fischertropschs, jet fuel, diesels) and published data on dilute combustion emissions (aircraft, on- and off-road gasoline, on- and off-road diesel, wood burning, biomass burning). For all of the SOA data, existing models under-predicted SOA formation if SVOC/IVOC were not included. For the evaporated fuel experiments, when SVOC/IVOC were included predictions using the existing SOA model were brought to within a factor of two of measurements with minor adjustments to model parameterizations. Further, a volatility

  8. Predicting long-term organic carbon dynamics in organically amended soils using the CQESTR model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, Cesar; Polo, Alfredo [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias; Gollany, Hero T. [Columbia Plateau Conservation Research Center, Pendleton, OR (United States). USDA-ARS; Baldoni, Guido; Ciavatta, Claudio [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technologies

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The CQESTR model is a process-based C model recently developed to simulate soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and uses readily available or easily measurable input parameters. The current version of CQESTR (v. 2.0) has been validated successfully with a number of datasets from agricultural sites in North America but still needs to be tested in other geographic areas and soil types under diverse organic management systems. Materials and methods: We evaluated the predictive performance of CQESTR to simulate long-term (34 years) soil organic C (SOC) changes in a SOM-depleted European soil either unamended or amended with solid manure, liquid manure, or crop residue. Results and discussion: Measured SOC levels declined over the study period in the unamended soil, remained constant in the soil amended with crop residues, and tended to increase in the soils amended with manure, especially with solid manure. Linear regression analysis of measured SOC contents and CQESTR predictions resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.626 (P < 0.001) and a slope and an intercept not significantly different from 1 and 0, respectively (95% confidence level). The mean squared deviation and root mean square error were relatively small. Simulated values fell within the 95% confidence interval of the measured SOC, and predicted errors were mainly associated with data scattering. Conclusions: The CQESTR model was shown to predict, with a reasonable degree of accuracy, the organic C dynamics in the soils examined. The CQESTR performance, however, could be improved by adding an additional parameter to differentiate between pre-decomposed organic amendments with varying degrees of stability. (orig.)

  9. Organized versus self-organized criticality in the abelian sandpile model

    OpenAIRE

    Fey-den Boer, AC Anne; Redig, FHJ Frank

    2005-01-01

    We define stabilizability of an infinite volume height configuration and of a probability measure on height configurations. We show that for high enough densities, a probability measure cannot be stabilized. We also show that in some sense the thermodynamic limit of the uniform measures on the recurrent configurations of the abelian sandpile model (ASM) is a maximal element of the set of stabilizable measures. In that sense the self-organized critical behavior of the ASM can be understood in ...

  10. IT Business Value Model for Information Intensive Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Gastaud Maçada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have highlighted the capacity Information Technology (IT has for generating value for organizations. Investments in IT made by organizations have increased each year. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to analyze the IT Business Value for Information Intensive Organizations (IIO - e.g. banks, insurance companies and securities brokers. The research method consisted of a survey that used and combined the models from Weill and Broadbent (1998 and Gregor, Martin, Fernandez, Stern and Vitale (2006. Data was gathered using an adapted instrument containing 5 dimensions (Strategic, Informational, Transactional, Transformational and Infra-structure with 27 items. The instrument was refined by employing statistical techniques such as Exploratory and Confirmatory Factorial Analysis through Structural Equations (first and second order Model Measurement. The final model is composed of four factors related to IT Business Value: Strategic, Informational, Transactional and Transformational, arranged in 15 items. The dimension Infra-structure was excluded during the model refinement process because it was discovered during interviews that managers were unable to perceive it as a distinct dimension of IT Business Value.

  11. Scalability of Sustainable Business Models in Hybrid Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jabłoński

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of change in modern business create new mechanisms for company management to determine their pursuit and the achievement of their high performance. This performance maintained over a long period of time becomes a source of ensuring business continuity by companies. An ontological being enabling the adoption of such assumptions is such a business model that has the ability to generate results in every possible market situation and, moreover, it has the features of permanent adaptability. A feature that describes the adaptability of the business model is its scalability. Being a factor ensuring more work and more efficient work with an increasing number of components, scalability can be applied to the concept of business models as the company’s ability to maintain similar or higher performance through it. Ensuring the company’s performance in the long term helps to build the so-called sustainable business model that often balances the objectives of stakeholders and shareholders, and that is created by the implemented principles of value-based management and corporate social responsibility. This perception of business paves the way for building hybrid organizations that integrate business activities with pro-social ones. The combination of an approach typical of hybrid organizations in designing and implementing sustainable business models pursuant to the scalability criterion seems interesting from the cognitive point of view. Today, hybrid organizations are great spaces for building effective and efficient mechanisms for dialogue between business and society. This requires the appropriate business model. The purpose of the paper is to present the conceptualization and operationalization of scalability of sustainable business models that determine the performance of a hybrid organization in the network environment. The paper presents the original concept of applying scalability in sustainable business models with detailed

  12. A taxonomy of nursing care organization models in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Carl-Ardy; D'Amour, Danielle; Tchouaket, Eric; Rivard, Michèle; Clarke, Sean; Blais, Régis

    2012-08-28

    Over the last decades, converging forces in hospital care, including cost-containment policies, rising healthcare demands and nursing shortages, have driven the search for new operational models of nursing care delivery that maximize the use of available nursing resources while ensuring safe, high-quality care. Little is known, however, about the distinctive features of these emergent nursing care models. This article contributes to filling this gap by presenting a theoretically and empirically grounded taxonomy of nursing care organization models in the context of acute care units in Quebec and comparing their distinctive features. This study was based on a survey of 22 medical units in 11 acute care facilities in Quebec. Data collection methods included questionnaire, interviews, focus groups and administrative data census. The analytical procedures consisted of first generating unit profiles based on qualitative and quantitative data collected at the unit level, then applying hierarchical cluster analysis to the units' profile data. The study identified four models of nursing care organization: two professional models that draw mainly on registered nurses as professionals to deliver nursing services and reflect stronger support to nurses' professional practice, and two functional models that draw more significantly on licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and assistive staff (orderlies) to deliver nursing services and are characterized by registered nurses' perceptions that the practice environment is less supportive of their professional work. This study showed that medical units in acute care hospitals exhibit diverse staff mixes, patterns of skill use, work environment design, and support for innovation. The four models reflect not only distinct approaches to dealing with the numerous constraints in the nursing care environment, but also different degrees of approximations to an "ideal" nursing professional practice model described by some leaders in the

  13. A taxonomy of nursing care organization models in hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last decades, converging forces in hospital care, including cost-containment policies, rising healthcare demands and nursing shortages, have driven the search for new operational models of nursing care delivery that maximize the use of available nursing resources while ensuring safe, high-quality care. Little is known, however, about the distinctive features of these emergent nursing care models. This article contributes to filling this gap by presenting a theoretically and empirically grounded taxonomy of nursing care organization models in the context of acute care units in Quebec and comparing their distinctive features. Methods This study was based on a survey of 22 medical units in 11 acute care facilities in Quebec. Data collection methods included questionnaire, interviews, focus groups and administrative data census. The analytical procedures consisted of first generating unit profiles based on qualitative and quantitative data collected at the unit level, then applying hierarchical cluster analysis to the units’ profile data. Results The study identified four models of nursing care organization: two professional models that draw mainly on registered nurses as professionals to deliver nursing services and reflect stronger support to nurses’ professional practice, and two functional models that draw more significantly on licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and assistive staff (orderlies) to deliver nursing services and are characterized by registered nurses’ perceptions that the practice environment is less supportive of their professional work. Conclusions This study showed that medical units in acute care hospitals exhibit diverse staff mixes, patterns of skill use, work environment design, and support for innovation. The four models reflect not only distinct approaches to dealing with the numerous constraints in the nursing care environment, but also different degrees of approximations to an “ideal” nursing professional practice

  14. an assessment of timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is observed that most of the timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds have low ... sector of the economy by providing major raw materials (saw logs, ... the trees also produce industrial raw materials like latex, ... villagers while avoiding some of the ecological costs of ..... enzymes of rats with carbon tetrachloride.

  15. Ravens reconcile after aggressive conflicts with valuable partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2011-03-25

    Reconciliation, a post-conflict affiliative interaction between former opponents, is an important mechanism for reducing the costs of aggressive conflict in primates and some other mammals as it may repair the opponents' relationship and reduce post-conflict distress. Opponents who share a valuable relationship are expected to be more likely to reconcile as for such partners the benefits of relationship repair should outweigh the risk of renewed aggression. In birds, however, post-conflict behavior has thus far been marked by an apparent absence of reconciliation, suggested to result either from differing avian and mammalian strategies or because birds may not share valuable relationships with partners with whom they engage in aggressive conflict. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of reconciliation in a group of captive subadult ravens (Corvus corax) and show that it is more likely to occur after conflicts between partners who share a valuable relationship. Furthermore, former opponents were less likely to engage in renewed aggression following reconciliation, suggesting that reconciliation repairs damage caused to their relationship by the preceding conflict. Our findings suggest not only that primate-like valuable relationships exist outside the pair bond in birds, but that such partners may employ the same mechanisms in birds as in primates to ensure that the benefits afforded by their relationships are maintained even when conflicts of interest escalate into aggression. These results provide further support for a convergent evolution of social strategies in avian and mammalian species.

  16. Salt Lakes of the African Rift System: A Valuable Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt Lakes of the African Rift System: A Valuable Research Opportunity for Insight into Nature's Concenrtated Multi-Electrolyte Science. JYN Philip, DMS Mosha. Abstract. The Tanzanian rift system salt lakes present significant cultural, ecological, recreational and economical values. Beyond the wealth of minerals, resources ...

  17. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformations through different reaction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Organic compounds are produced in vast quantities for industrial and agricultural use, as well as for human and animal healthcare [1]. These chemicals and their metabolites are frequently detected at trace levels in fresh water environments where they undergo degradation via different reaction pathways. Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. Recent advances in analytical techniques have promoted the fast development and implementation of multi-element CSIA. However, quantitative frameworks to evaluate multi-element stable isotope data and incorporating mechanistic information on the degradation processes [2,3] are still lacking. In this study we propose a mechanism-based modeling approach to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. We validate the proposed approach with the concentration and multi-element isotope data of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways and their range of variation consistent with observed multi-element (C, N) bulk isotope fractionation. The proposed approach can also be used as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. [1] Schwarzenbach, R.P., Egli, T., Hofstetter, T.B., von Gunten, U., Wehrli, B., 2010. Global Water Pollution and Human Health. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-100809-125342. [2] Jin, B., Haderlein, S.B., Rolle, M

  18. Molecular analysis of the replication program in unicellular model organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuraman, M. K.; Brewer, Bonita J.

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotes have long been reported to show temporal programs of replication, different portions of the genome being replicated at different times in S phase, with the added possibility of developmentally regulated changes in this pattern depending on species and cell type. Unicellular model organisms, primarily the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been central to our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of replication origins and the temporal program o...

  19. Understanding rare disease pathogenesis: a grand challenge for model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieter, Philip; Boycott, Kym M

    2014-10-01

    In this commentary, Philip Hieter and Kym Boycott discuss the importance of model organisms for understanding pathogenesis of rare human genetic diseases, and highlight the work of Brooks et al., "Dysfunction of 60S ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10) disrupts neurodevelopment and causes X-linked microcephaly in humans," published in this issue of GENETICS. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Quasi-dynamic model for an organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamgbopa, Musbaudeen O.; Uzgoren, Eray

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Study presents a simplified transient modeling approach for an ORC under variable heat input. • The ORC model is presented as a synthesis of its models of its sub-components. • The model is compared to benchmark numerical simulations and experimental data at different stages. - Abstract: When considering solar based thermal energy input to an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), intermittent nature of the heat input does not only adversely affect the power output but also it may prevent ORC to operate under steady state conditions. In order to identify reliability and efficiency of such systems, this paper presents a simplified transient modeling approach for an ORC operating under variable heat input. The approach considers that response of the system to heat input variations is mainly dictated by the evaporator. Consequently, overall system is assembled using dynamic models for the heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) and static models of the pump and the expander. In addition, pressure drop within heat exchangers is neglected. The model is compared to benchmark numerical and experimental data showing that the underlying assumptions are reasonable for cases where thermal input varies in time. Furthermore, the model is studied on another configuration and mass flow rates of both the working fluid and hot water and hot water’s inlet temperature to the ORC unit are shown to have direct influence on the system’s response

  1. Sordaria macrospora, a model organism to study fungal cellular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, Ines; Nowrousian, Minou; Kück, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    During the development of multicellular eukaryotes, the processes of cellular growth and organogenesis are tightly coordinated. Since the 1940s, filamentous fungi have served as genetic model organisms to decipher basic mechanisms underlying eukaryotic cell differentiation. Here, we focus on Sordaria macrospora, a homothallic ascomycete and important model organism for developmental biology. During its sexual life cycle, S. macrospora forms three-dimensional fruiting bodies, a complex process involving the formation of different cell types. S. macrospora can be used for genetic, biochemical and cellular experimental approaches since diverse tools, including fluorescence microscopy, a marker recycling system and gene libraries, are available. Moreover, the genome of S. macrospora has been sequenced and allows functional genomics analyses. Over the past years, our group has generated and analysed a number of developmental mutants which has greatly enhanced our fundamental understanding about fungal morphogenesis. In addition, our recent research activities have established a link between developmental proteins and conserved signalling cascades, ultimately leading to a regulatory network controlling differentiation processes in a eukaryotic model organism. This review summarizes the results of our recent findings, thus advancing current knowledge of the general principles and paradigms underpinning eukaryotic cell differentiation and development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Aging, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction in different model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Ozdemir, A Tugrul; Adams, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    Brain aging is a multifactorial process that is occurring across multiple cognitive domains. A significant complaint that occurs in the elderly is a decrement in learning and memory ability. Both rodents and zebrafish exhibit a similar problem with memory during aging. The neurobiological changes that underlie this cognitive decline are complex and undoubtedly influenced by many factors. Alterations in the birth of new neurons and neuron turnover may contribute to age-related cognitive problems. Caloric restriction is the only non-genetic intervention that reliably increases life span and healthspan across multiple organisms although the molecular mechanisms are not well-understood. Recently the zebrafish has become a popular model organism for understanding the neurobiological consequences but to date very little work has been performed. Similarly, few studies have examined the effects of dietary restriction in zebrafish. Here we review the literature related to memory decline, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction across model organisms and suggest that zebrafish has the potential to be an important animal model for understanding the complex interactions between age, neurobiological changes in the brain, and dietary regimens or their mimetics as interventions.

  3. Turbulence and Self-Organization Modeling Astrophysical Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Marov, Mikhail Ya

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on the development of continuum models of natural turbulent media. It provides a theoretical approach to the solutions of different problems related to the formation, structure and evolution of astrophysical and geophysical objects. A stochastic modeling approach is used in the mathematical treatment of these problems, which reflects self-organization processes in open dissipative systems. The authors also consider examples of ordering for various objects in space throughout their evolutionary processes. This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers in the fields of mechanics, astrophysics, geophysics, planetary and space science.

  4. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  5. Silkworm: A Promising Model Organism in Life Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xu; Zhu, Feifei; Chen, Keping

    2017-09-01

    As an important economic insect, silkworm Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) has numerous advantages in life science, such as low breeding cost, large progeny size, short generation time, and clear genetic background. Additionally, there are rich genetic resources associated with silkworms. The completion of the silkworm genome has further accelerated it to be a modern model organism in life science. Genomic studies showed that some silkworm genes are highly homologous to certain genes related to human hereditary disease and, therefore, are a candidate model for studying human disease. In this article, we provided a review of silkworm as an important model in various research areas, including human disease, screening of antimicrobial agents, environmental safety monitoring, and antitumor studies. In addition, the application potentiality of silkworm model in life sciences was discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  6. An Instructional Development Model for Global Organizations: The GOaL Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Noriko; Schwen, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an instructional development model, GOaL (Global Organization Localization), for use by global organizations. Topics include gaps in language, culture, and needs; decentralized processes; collaborative efforts; predetermined content; multiple perspectives; needs negotiation; learning within context; just-in-time training; and bilingual…

  7. Dryout modeling in support of the organic tank safety project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1998-08-01

    This work was performed for the Organic Tank Safety Project to evaluate the moisture condition of the waste surface organic-nitrate bearing tanks that are classified as being conditionally safe because sufficient water is present. This report describes the predictive modeling procedure used to predict the moisture content of waste in the future, after it has been subjected to dryout caused by water vapor loss through passive ventilation. This report describes a simplified procedure for modeling the drying out of tank waste. Dryout occurs as moisture evaporates from the waste into the headspace and then exits the tank through ventilation. The water vapor concentration within the waste of the headspace is determined by the vapor-liquid equilibrium, which depends on the waste's moisture content and temperature. This equilibrium has been measured experimentally for a variety of waste samples and is described by a curve called the water vapor partial pressure isotherm. This curve describes the lowering of the partial pressure of water vapor in equilibrium with the waste relative to pure water due to the waste's chemical composition and hygroscopic nature. Saltcake and sludge are described by two distinct calculations that emphasize the particular physical behavior or each. A simple, steady-state model is devised for each type to obtain the approximate drying behavior. The report shows the application of the model to Tanks AX-102, C-104, and U-105

  8. Microbial Leaching of Some Valuable Elements From Egyptian Phosphate Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, H.M.; Hassanein, R.A.; Mahdy, H.M.A.; Mahmoud, K.F.; Abouzeid, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Four phosphate rock samples representing different phosphate mineralization modes in Egypt were selected from Abu Tartar, Nile valley and Red sea areas. Factors affecting the phosphate rock solubilization and some of the contained valuable elements by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescence, were studied with especial orientation towards the completion of phosphate rock samples solubilization especially die low grade one. Effect of nitrogen source type on leaching efficiency by Aspergillus niger when two nitrogen sources on the phosphate bioleaching efficiency, it is clear that the ammonium chloride is more favorable as nitrogen source than sodium nitrate in the bioleaching of phosphate rocks. When Aspergillus niger was applied under die following conditions: 50 g/1 of sucrose as a carbon source, 0.1 N of ammonium chloride as a nitrogen source, 10 days incubation period, 0.5% solid: liquid ratio for P 2 O 5 and 5% for U and REE and - 270 mesh of grain size. The optimum leaching of P 2 O 5 , U and REE from phosphate rock samples reached (23.27%, 17.4%, 11.4%, respectively), while at -60 mesh they reached to 16.58%, 28.9%, 30.2% respectively. The optimum conditions for the maximal leaching efficiencies of P 2 O 5 , U and REE when applying the Penicillium sp. from the phosphate rock samples were: 100 g/1 of sucrose as a carbon source for P 2 O 5 and U and 10 g/1 for REE, 7,15 and 10 days incubation period for P 2 O 5 , U and REE, respectively, 0.5% solid: liquid ratio for P 2 O 5 and 5% for U and REE. Finally, the application of phosphate rock samples grinded to -270 mesh of grain size for P 2 O 5 and (-60 to -140) for U and REE. The studied leaching efficiency of P 2 O 5 , U and REE gave at -270 mesh 33.66%, 24.3%, 15.9% respectively, while at -60 mesh they gave 33.76%, 26.7%, 17.8% and at -140 mesh gave 31.32%, 27.9%, 17.6%, respectively.The optimum conditions for the P 2 O 5 leaching efficiency when applying the Pseudomonas fluorescence were

  9. Mesoscopic kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of organic photovoltaic device characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Robin G. E.; Wright, Edward N.; O'Kane, Simon E. J.; Walker, Alison B.; Blakesley, James C.

    2012-12-01

    Measured mobility and current-voltage characteristics of single layer and photovoltaic (PV) devices composed of poly{9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis[N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)]bis(N,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylene)diamine} (PFB) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) have been reproduced by a mesoscopic model employing the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) approach. Our aim is to show how to avoid the uncertainties common in electrical transport models arising from the need to fit a large number of parameters when little information is available, for example, a single current-voltage curve. Here, simulation parameters are derived from a series of measurements using a self-consistent “building-blocks” approach, starting from data on the simplest systems. We found that site energies show disorder and that correlations in the site energies and a distribution of deep traps must be included in order to reproduce measured charge mobility-field curves at low charge densities in bulk PFB and F8BT. The parameter set from the mobility-field curves reproduces the unipolar current in single layers of PFB and F8BT and allows us to deduce charge injection barriers. Finally, by combining these disorder descriptions and injection barriers with an optical model, the external quantum efficiency and current densities of blend and bilayer organic PV devices can be successfully reproduced across a voltage range encompassing reverse and forward bias, with the recombination rate the only parameter to be fitted, found to be 1×107 s-1. These findings demonstrate an approach that removes some of the arbitrariness present in transport models of organic devices, which validates the KMC as an accurate description of organic optoelectronic systems, and provides information on the microscopic origins of the device behavior.

  10. MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date.

  11. VALUABLE AND ORIENTATION FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE COUNTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir I. Zagvyazinsky

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to show that in modern market conditions it is necessary to keep humanistic valuable and orientation installations of domestic education and not to allow its slipping on a line item of utilitarian, quickly achievable, but not long-term benefits. Theoretical significance. The author emphasizes value of forming of an ideal – harmonious development of the personality – and the collectivist beginnings for disclosure of potential of each school student, a student, a...

  12. OBJECT ORIENTED MODELLING, A MODELLING METHOD OF AN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TĂNĂSESCU ANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Now, most economic organizations use different information systems types in order to facilitate their activity. There are different methodologies, methods and techniques that can be used to design information systems. In this paper, I propose to present the advantages of using the object oriented modelling at the information system design of an economic organization. Thus, I have modelled the activity of a photo studio, using Visual Paradigm for UML as a modelling tool. For this purpose, I have identified the use cases for the analyzed system and I have presented the use case diagram. I have, also, realized the system static and dynamic modelling, through the most known UML diagrams.

  13. Organization And Financing Models Of Health Service In Selected Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Marković

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The introductory part of the work gives a short theoretical presentation regarding possible financing models of health services in the world. In the applicative part of the work we shall present the basic practical models of financing health services in the countries that are the leaders of classic methods of health services financing, e. g. the USA, Great Britain, Germany and Croatia. Working out the applicative part of the work we gave the greatest significance to analysis of some macroeconomic indicators in health services (tendency of total health consumption in relation to GDP, average consumption per insured person etc., to structure analysis of health insurance and just to the scheme of health service organization and financing. We presume that each model of health service financing contains certain limitations that can cause problem (weak organization, increase of expenses etc.. This is the reason why we, in the applicative part of the work, paid a special attention to analysis of financial difficulties in the health sector and pointed to the needs and possibilities of solving them through possible reform measures. The end part of the work aims to point out to advantages and disadvantages of individual financing sources through the comparison method (budgetary – taxes or social health insurance – contributions.

  14. A neural model of figure-ground organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Edward; Schütze, Hartmut; Niebur, Ernst; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    Psychophysical studies suggest that figure-ground organization is a largely autonomous process that guides--and thus precedes--allocation of attention and object recognition. The discovery of border-ownership representation in single neurons of early visual cortex has confirmed this view. Recent theoretical studies have demonstrated that border-ownership assignment can be modeled as a process of self-organization by lateral interactions within V2 cortex. However, the mechanism proposed relies on propagation of signals through horizontal fibers, which would result in increasing delays of the border-ownership signal with increasing size of the visual stimulus, in contradiction with experimental findings. It also remains unclear how the resulting border-ownership representation would interact with attention mechanisms to guide further processing. Here we present a model of border-ownership coding based on dedicated neural circuits for contour grouping that produce border-ownership assignment and also provide handles for mechanisms of selective attention. The results are consistent with neurophysiological and psychophysical findings. The model makes predictions about the hypothetical grouping circuits and the role of feedback between cortical areas.

  15. Molecular simulation of a model of dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison; Diallo, Mamadou S; Schulten, Hans-Rolf

    2005-08-01

    A series of atomistic simulations was performed to assess the ability of the Schulten dissolved organic matter (DOM) molecule, a well-established model humic molecule, to reproduce the physical and chemical behavior of natural humic substances. The unhydrated DOM molecule had a bulk density value appropriate to humic matter, but its Hildebrand solubility parameter was lower than the range of current experimental estimates. Under hydrated conditions, the DOM molecule went through conformational adjustments that resulted in disruption of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), although few water molecules penetrated the organic interior. The radius of gyration of the hydrated DOM molecule was similar to those measured for aquatic humic substances. To simulate humic materials under aqueous conditions with varying pH levels, carboxyl groups were deprotonated, and hydrated Na+ or Ca2+ were added to balance the resulting negative charge. Because of intrusion of the cation hydrates, the model metal-humic structures were more porous, had greater solvent-accessible surface areas, and formed more H-bonds with water than the protonated, hydrated DOM molecule. Relative to Na+, Ca2+ was both more strongly bound to carboxylate groups and more fully hydrated. This difference was attributed to the higher charge of the divalent cation. The Ca-DOM hydrate, however, featured fewer H-bonds than the Na-DOM hydrate, perhaps because of the reduced orientational freedom of organic moieties and water molecules imposed by Ca2+. The present work is, to our knowledge, the first rigorous computational exploration regarding the behavior of a model humic molecule under a range of physical conditions typical of soil and water systems.

  16. Modeling nanostructure-enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Jost

    A promising approach for improving the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells (OSCs) is by incorporating nanostructures in their thin film architecture to improve the light absorption in the device’s active polymer layers. Here, we present a modelling framework for the prediction...... of optical and plasmonic field enhancement by nanostructures in (or close to) the active layers and electrodes in OSCs. We incorporate finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations alongside semi- analytical approaches, as the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) and mode-coupling theory. Our simulation...

  17. Antithrombin III in animal models of sepsis and organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickneite, G

    1998-01-01

    Antithrombin III (AT III) is the physiological inhibitor of thrombin and other serine proteases of the clotting cascade. In the development of sepsis, septic shock and organ failure, the plasma levels of AT III decrease considerably, suggesting the concept of a substitution therapy with the inhibitor. A decrease of AT III plasma levels might also be associated with other pathological disorders like trauma, burns, pancreatitis or preclampsia. Activation of coagulation and consumption of AT III is the consequence of a generalized inflammation called SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome). The clotting cascade is also frequently activated after organ transplantation, especially if organs are grafted between different species (xenotransplantation). During the past years AT III has been investigated in numerous corresponding disease models in different animal species which will be reviewed here. The bulk of evidence suggests, that AT III substitution reduces morbidity and mortality in the diseased animals. While gaining more experience with AT III, the concept of substitution therapy to maximal baseline plasma levels (100%) appears to become insufficient. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies now suggests to adjust the AT III plasma levels to about 200%, i.e., doubling the normal value. During the last few years several authors proposed that AT III might not only be an anti-thrombotic agent, but to have in addition an anti-inflammatory effect.

  18. A Multiagent Modeling Environment for Simulating Work Practice in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we position Brahms as a tool for simulating organizational processes. Brahms is a modeling and simulation environment for analyzing human work practice, and for using such models to develop intelligent software agents to support the work practice in organizations. Brahms is the result of more than ten years of research at the Institute for Research on Learning (IRL), NYNEX Science & Technology (the former R&D institute of the Baby Bell telephone company in New York, now Verizon), and for the last six years at NASA Ames Research Center, in the Work Systems Design and Evaluation group, part of the Computational Sciences Division (Code IC). Brahms has been used on more than ten modeling and simulation research projects, and recently has been used as a distributed multiagent development environment for developing work practice support tools for human in-situ science exploration on planetary surfaces, in particular a human mission to Mars. Brahms was originally conceived of as a business process modeling and simulation tool that incorporates the social systems of work, by illuminating how formal process flow descriptions relate to people s actual located activities in the workplace. Our research started in the early nineties as a reaction to experiences with work process modeling and simulation . Although an effective tool for convincing management of the potential cost-savings of the newly designed work processes, the modeling and simulation environment was only able to describe work as a normative workflow. However, the social systems, uncovered in work practices studied by the design team played a significant role in how work actually got done-actual lived work. Multi- tasking, informal assistance and circumstantial work interactions could not easily be represented in a tool with a strict workflow modeling paradigm. In response, we began to develop a tool that would have the benefits of work process modeling and simulation, but be distinctively able to

  19. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  20. Generic Modelling of Faecal Indicator Organism Concentrations in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl M. Stapleton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To meet European Water Framework Directive requirements, data are needed on faecal indicator organism (FIO concentrations in rivers to enable the more heavily polluted to be targeted for remedial action. Due to the paucity of FIO data for the UK, especially under high-flow hydrograph event conditions, there is an urgent need by the policy community for generic models that can accurately predict FIO concentrations, thus informing integrated catchment management programmes. This paper reports the development of regression models to predict base- and high-flow faecal coliform (FC and enterococci (EN concentrations for 153 monitoring points across 14 UK catchments, using land cover, population (human and livestock density and other variables that may affect FIO source strength, transport and die-off. Statistically significant models were developed for both FC and EN, with greater explained variance achieved in the high-flow models. Both land cover and, in particular, population variables are significant predictors of FIO concentrations, with r2 maxima for EN of 0.571 and 0.624, respectively. It is argued that the resulting models can be applied, with confidence, to other UK catchments, both to predict FIO concentrations in unmonitored watercourses and evaluate the likely impact of different land use/stocking level and human population change scenarios.

  1. LSOT: A Lightweight Self-Organized Trust Model in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiquan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in automobile industry and wireless communication technology, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs have attracted the attention of a large number of researchers. Trust management plays an important role in VANETs. However, it is still at the preliminary stage and the existing trust models cannot entirely conform to the characteristics of VANETs. This work proposes a novel Lightweight Self-Organized Trust (LSOT model which contains trust certificate-based and recommendation-based trust evaluations. Both the supernodes and trusted third parties are not needed in our model. In addition, we comprehensively consider three factor weights to ease the collusion attack in trust certificate-based trust evaluation, and we utilize the testing interaction method to build and maintain the trust network and propose a maximum local trust (MLT algorithm to identify trustworthy recommenders in recommendation-based trust evaluation. Furthermore, a fully distributed VANET scenario is deployed based on the famous Advogato dataset and a series of simulations and analysis are conducted. The results illustrate that our LSOT model significantly outperforms the excellent experience-based trust (EBT and Lightweight Cross-domain Trust (LCT models in terms of evaluation performance and robustness against the collusion attack.

  2. Self-Organized Criticality Theory Model of Thermal Sandpile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiao-Dong; Qu Hong-Peng; Xu Jian-Qiang; Han Zui-Jiao

    2015-01-01

    A self-organized criticality model of a thermal sandpile is formulated for the first time to simulate the dynamic process with interaction between avalanche events on the fast time scale and diffusive transports on the slow time scale. The main characteristics of the model are that both particle and energy avalanches of sand grains are considered simultaneously. Properties of intermittent transport and improved confinement are analyzed in detail. The results imply that the intermittent phenomenon such as blobs in the low confinement mode as well as edge localized modes in the high confinement mode observed in tokamak experiments are not only determined by the edge plasma physics, but also affected by the core plasma dynamics. (paper)

  3. Dynamical quenching and annealing in self-organization multiagent models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, E.; Ceva, Horacio; Perazzo, R. P.

    2001-07-01

    We study the dynamics of a generalized minority game (GMG) and of the bar attendance model (BAM) in which a number of agents self-organize to match an attendance that is fixed externally as a control parameter. We compare the usual dynamics used for the minority game with one for the BAM that makes a better use of the available information. We study the asymptotic states reached in both frameworks. We show that states that can be assimilated to either thermodynamic equilibrium or quenched configurations can appear in both models, but with different settings. We discuss the relevance of the parameter G that measures the value of the prize for winning in units of the fine for losing. We also provide an annealing protocol by which the quenched configurations of the GMG can progressively be modified to reach an asymptotic equilibrium state that coincides with the one obtained with the BAM.

  4. Modeling financial markets by self-organized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We present a financial market model, characterized by self-organized criticality, that is able to generate endogenously a realistic price dynamics and to reproduce well-known stylized facts. We consider a community of heterogeneous traders, composed by chartists and fundamentalists, and focus on the role of informative pressure on market participants, showing how the spreading of information, based on a realistic imitative behavior, drives contagion and causes market fragility. In this model imitation is not intended as a change in the agent's group of origin, but is referred only to the price formation process. We introduce in the community also a variable number of random traders in order to study their possible beneficial role in stabilizing the market, as found in other studies. Finally, we also suggest some counterintuitive policy strategies able to dampen fluctuations by means of a partial reduction of information.

  5. Models of charge pair generation in organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Sheridan; Frost, Jarvist M; Nelson, Jenny

    2015-01-28

    Efficient charge pair generation is observed in many organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunctions, despite nominal electron-hole binding energies which greatly exceed the average thermal energy. Empirically, the efficiency of this process appears to be related to the choice of donor and acceptor materials, the resulting sequence of excited state energy levels and the structure of the interface. In order to establish a suitable physical model for the process, a range of different theoretical studies have addressed the nature and energies of the interfacial states, the energetic profile close to the heterojunction and the dynamics of excited state transitions. In this paper, we review recent developments underpinning the theory of charge pair generation and phenomena, focussing on electronic structure calculations, electrostatic models and approaches to excited state dynamics. We discuss the remaining challenges in achieving a predictive approach to charge generation efficiency.

  6. Partitioning of Nanoparticles into Organic Phases and Model Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, J.D.; Westerhoff, P.; Hou, W-C.

    2011-08-25

    There is a recognized need to understand and predict the fate, transport and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Recent research focuses on either collection of empirical data (e.g., removal of a specific NP through water or soil matrices under variable experimental conditions) or precise NP characterization (e.g. size, degree of aggregation, morphology, zeta potential, purity, surface chemistry, and stability). However, it is almost impossible to transition from these precise measurements to models suitable to assess the NP behavior in the environment with complex and heterogeneous matrices. For decades, the USEPA has developed and applies basic partitioning parameters (e.g., octanol-water partition coefficients) and models (e.g., EPI Suite, ECOSAR) to predict the environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity of organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides, hydrocarbons, etc.). In this project we have investigated the hypothesis that NP partition coefficients between water and organic phases (octanol or lipid bilayer) is highly dependent on their physiochemical properties, aggregation, and presence of natural constituents in aquatic environments (salts, natural organic matter), which may impact their partitioning into biological matrices (bioaccumulation) and human exposure (bioavailability) as well as the eventual usage in modeling the fate and bioavailability of ENPs. In this report, we use the terminology "partitioning" to operationally define the fraction of ENPs distributed among different phases. The mechanisms leading to this partitioning probably involve both chemical force interactions (hydrophobic association, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, etc.) and physical forces that bring the ENPs in close contact with the phase interfaces (diffusion, electrostatic interactions, mixing turbulence, etc.). Our work focuses on partitioning, but also provides insight into the relative behavior of ENPs as either "more like

  7. Valuable metals - recovery processes, current trends, and recycling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Peter; Lorenz, Tom; Martin, Gunther; Brett, Beate; Bertau, Martin [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Strasse 29, 09599, Freiberg (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    This Review provides an overview of valuable metals, the supply of which has been classified as critical for Europe. Starting with a description of the current state of the art, novel approaches for their recovery from primary resources are presented as well as recycling processes. The focus lies on developments since 2005. Chemistry strategies which are used in metal recovery are summarized on the basis of the individual types of deposit and mineral. In addition, the economic importance as well as utilization of the metals is outlined. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from foundry sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vite T, J.

    1996-01-01

    There were extracted valuable metals from foundry sands such as: gold, platinum, silver, cobalt, germanium, nickel and zinc among others, as well as highly toxic metals such as chromium, lead, vanadium and arsenic. The extraction efficiency was up to 100% in some cases. For this reason there were obtained two patents at the United States, patent number 5,356,601, in October 1994, given for the developed process and patent number 5,376,000, in December 1994, obtained for the equipment employed. Therefore, the preliminary parameters for the installation of a pilot plant have also been developed. (Author)

  9. The hamster flank organ model: Is it relevant to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, T.J.; Lehman, P.A.; Pochi, P.; Odland, G.F.; Olerud, J.

    1989-01-01

    The critical role that androgens play in the etiology of acne has led to a search for topically active antiandrogens and the frequent use of the flank organ of the golden Syrian hamster as an animal model. 17-alpha-propyltestosterone (17-PT) has been identified as having potent antiandrogenic activity in the hamster model, and this report describes its clinical evaluation. Two double-blind placebo controlled studies comparing 4% 17-PT in 80% alcohol versus vehicle alone were conducted. One study examined 17-PT sebosuppressive activity in 20 subjects. The second study examined its efficacy in 44 subjects having mild to moderate acne. A third study measured in vitro percutaneous absorption of 17-PT through hamster flank and monkey skin, and human face skin in-vivo, using radioactive drug. 17-PT was found to be ineffective in reducing either the sebum excretion rate or the number of inflammatory acne lesions. Failure of 17-PT to show clinical activity was not a result of poor percutaneous absorption. Total absorption in man was 7.7% of the dose and only 1.0% in the hamster. The sebaceous gland of hamster flank organ is apparently more sensitive to antiandrogens than the human sebaceous gland

  10. Modeling temperature dependent singlet exciton dynamics in multilayered organic nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Leonardo Evaristo; de Oliveira Neto, Pedro Henrique; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; da Silva Filho, Demétrio Antônio

    2018-05-01

    Organic nanofibers have shown potential for application in optoelectronic devices because of the tunability of their optical properties. These properties are influenced by the electronic structure of the molecules that compose the nanofibers and also by the behavior of the excitons generated in the material. Exciton diffusion by means of Förster resonance energy transfer is responsible, for instance, for the change with temperature of colors in the light emitted by systems composed of different types of nanofibers. To study in detail this mechanism, we model temperature dependent singlet exciton dynamics in multilayered organic nanofibers. By simulating absorption and emission spectra, the possible Förster transitions are identified. Then, a kinetic Monte Carlo model is employed in combination with a genetic algorithm to theoretically reproduce time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for several temperatures. This procedure allows for the obtainment of different information regarding exciton diffusion in such a system, including temperature effects on the Förster transfer efficiency and the activation energy of the Förster mechanism. The method is general and may be employed for different systems where exciton diffusion plays a role.

  11. Towards a paradigm shift in the modeling of soil organic carbon decomposition for earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yujie

    Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon pools and contain approximately 2200 Pg of carbon. Thus, the dynamics of soil carbon plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate system. Earth System Models are used to project future interactions between terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate. However, these models often predict a wide range of soil carbon responses and their formulations have lagged behind recent soil science advances, omitting key biogeochemical mechanisms. In contrast, recent mechanistically-based biogeochemical models that explicitly account for microbial biomass pools and enzyme kinetics that catalyze soil carbon decomposition produce notably different results and provide a closer match to recent observations. However, a systematic evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of the microbial models and how they differ from empirical, first-order formulations in soil decomposition models for soil organic carbon is still needed. This dissertation consists of a series of model sensitivity and uncertainty analyses and identifies dominant decomposition processes in determining soil organic carbon dynamics. Poorly constrained processes or parameters that require more experimental data integration are also identified. This dissertation also demonstrates the critical role of microbial life-history traits (e.g. microbial dormancy) in the modeling of microbial activity in soil organic matter decomposition models. Finally, this study surveys and synthesizes a number of recently published microbial models and provides suggestions for future microbial model developments.

  12. Modeling organic aerosols during MILAGRO: importance of biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The meso-scale chemistry-transport model CHIMERE is used to assess our understanding of major sources and formation processes leading to a fairly large amount of organic aerosols – OA, including primary OA (POA and secondary OA (SOA – observed in Mexico City during the MILAGRO field project (March 2006. Chemical analyses of submicron aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS indicate that organic particles found in the Mexico City basin contain a large fraction of oxygenated organic species (OOA which have strong correspondence with SOA, and that their production actively continues downwind of the city. The SOA formation is modeled here by the one-step oxidation of anthropogenic (i.e. aromatics, alkanes, biogenic (i.e. monoterpenes and isoprene, and biomass-burning SOA precursors and their partitioning into both organic and aqueous phases. Conservative assumptions are made for uncertain parameters to maximize the amount of SOA produced by the model. The near-surface model evaluation shows that predicted OA correlates reasonably well with measurements during the campaign, however it remains a factor of 2 lower than the measured total OA. Fairly good agreement is found between predicted and observed POA within the city suggesting that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are reasonably captured. Consistent with previous studies in Mexico City, large discrepancies are encountered for SOA, with a factor of 2–10 model underestimate. When only anthropogenic SOA precursors were considered, the model was able to reproduce within a factor of two the sharp increase in OOA concentrations during the late morning at both urban and near-urban locations but the discrepancy increases rapidly later in the day, consistent with previous results, and is especially obvious when the column-integrated SOA mass is considered instead of the surface concentration. The increase in the missing SOA mass in the afternoon coincides with the sharp drop in POA

  13. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  14. Modeling evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic mutations in hierarchically organized tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottoriva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC concept is a highly debated topic in cancer research. While experimental evidence in favor of the cancer stem cell theory is apparently abundant, the results are often criticized as being difficult to interpret. An important reason for this is that most experimental data that support this model rely on transplantation studies. In this study we use a novel cellular Potts model to elucidate the dynamics of established malignancies that are driven by a small subset of CSCs. Our results demonstrate that epigenetic mutations that occur during mitosis display highly altered dynamics in CSC-driven malignancies compared to a classical, non-hierarchical model of growth. In particular, the heterogeneity observed in CSC-driven tumors is considerably higher. We speculate that this feature could be used in combination with epigenetic (methylation sequencing studies of human malignancies to prove or refute the CSC hypothesis in established tumors without the need for transplantation. Moreover our tumor growth simulations indicate that CSC-driven tumors display evolutionary features that can be considered beneficial during tumor progression. Besides an increased heterogeneity they also exhibit properties that allow the escape of clones from local fitness peaks. This leads to more aggressive phenotypes in the long run and makes the neoplasm more adaptable to stringent selective forces such as cancer treatment. Indeed when therapy is applied the clone landscape of the regrown tumor is more aggressive with respect to the primary tumor, whereas the classical model demonstrated similar patterns before and after therapy. Understanding these often counter-intuitive fundamental properties of (non-hierarchically organized malignancies is a crucial step in validating the CSC concept as well as providing insight into the therapeutical consequences of this model.

  15. A geometrical model for DNA organization in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Buenemann

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies have revealed that bacteria, such as C. crescentus, show a remarkable spatial ordering of their chromosome. A strong linear correlation has been found between the position of genes on the chromosomal map and their spatial position in the cellular volume. We show that this correlation can be explained by a purely geometrical model. Namely, self-avoidance of DNA, specific positioning of one or few DNA loci (such as origin or terminus together with the action of DNA compaction proteins (that organize the chromosome into topological domains are sufficient to get a linear arrangement of the chromosome along the cell axis. We develop a Monte-Carlo method that allows us to test our model numerically and to analyze the dependence of the spatial ordering on various physiologically relevant parameters. We show that the proposed geometrical ordering mechanism is robust and universal (i.e. does not depend on specific bacterial details. The geometrical mechanism should work in all bacteria that have compacted chromosomes with spatially fixed regions. We use our model to make specific and experimentally testable predictions about the spatial arrangement of the chromosome in mutants of C. crescentus and the growth-stage dependent ordering in E. coli.

  16. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Gilad; Ingham, Colin; Ariel, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  17. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Book

    Full Text Available Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  18. Spectrophotometry and organic matter on Iapetus. 1: Composition models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter D.; Sagan, Carl

    1995-01-01

    Iapetus shows a greater hemispheric albedo asymmetry than any other body in the solar system. Hapke scattering theory and optical constants measured in the laboratory are used to identify possible compositions for the dark material on the leading hemisphere of Iapetus. The materials considered are poly-HCN, kerogen, Murchison organic residue, Titan tholin, ice tholin, and water ice. Three-component mixtures of these materials are modeled in intraparticle mixture of 25% poly-HCN, 10% Murchison residue, and 65% water ice is found to best fit the spectrum, albedo, and phase behavior of the dark material. The Murchison residue and/or water ice can be replaced by kerogen and ice tholin, respectively, and still produce very good fits. Areal and particle mixtures of poly-HCN, Titan tholin, and either ice tholin or Murchison residue are also possible models. Poly-HCN is a necessary component in almost all good models. The presence of poly-HCN can be further tested by high-resolution observations near 4.5 micrometers.

  19. Self-Organized Criticality in an Anisotropic Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-Quan; Wang, Sheng-Jun

    2018-03-01

    We have made an extensive numerical study of a modified model proposed by Olami, Feder, and Christensen to describe earthquake behavior. Two situations were considered in this paper. One situation is that the energy of the unstable site is redistributed to its nearest neighbors randomly not averagely and keeps itself to zero. The other situation is that the energy of the unstable site is redistributed to its nearest neighbors randomly and keeps some energy for itself instead of reset to zero. Different boundary conditions were considered as well. By analyzing the distribution of earthquake sizes, we found that self-organized criticality can be excited only in the conservative case or the approximate conservative case in the above situations. Some evidence indicated that the critical exponent of both above situations and the original OFC model tend to the same result in the conservative case. The only difference is that the avalanche size in the original model is bigger. This result may be closer to the real world, after all, every crust plate size is different. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11675096 and 11305098, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. GK201702001, FPALAB-SNNU under Grant No. 16QNGG007, and Interdisciplinary Incubation Project of SNU under Grant No. 5

  20. Azolla--a model organism for plant genomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yin-Long; Yu, Jun

    2003-02-01

    The aquatic ferns of the genus Azolla are nitrogen-fixing plants that have great potentials in agricultural production and environmental conservation. Azolla in many aspects is qualified to serve as a model organism for genomic studies because of its importance in agriculture, its unique position in plant evolution, its symbiotic relationship with the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena azollae, and its moderate-sized genome. The goals of this genome project are not only to understand the biology of the Azolla genome to promote its applications in biological research and agriculture practice but also to gain critical insights about evolution of plant genomes. Together with the strategic and technical improvement as well as cost reduction of DNA sequencing, the deciphering of their genetic code is imminent.

  1. Giant plasma membrane vesicles: models for understanding membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic membranes into functional domains continues to fascinate and puzzle cell biologists and biophysicists. The lipid raft hypothesis proposes that collective lipid interactions compartmentalize the membrane into coexisting liquid domains that are central to membrane physiology. This hypothesis has proven controversial because such structures cannot be directly visualized in live cells by light microscopy. The recent observations of liquid-liquid phase separation in biological membranes are an important validation of the raft hypothesis and enable application of the experimental toolbox of membrane physics to a biologically complex phase-separated membrane. This review addresses the role of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) in refining the raft hypothesis and expands on the application of GPMVs as an experimental model to answer some of key outstanding problems in membrane biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility And Islamic Business Organizations: A Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnah Muhamad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR has been of growing concern among business communities in recent years. Various corporate leaders maintain that business is considered to contribute fully to the society if it is effi cient, profi table and socially responsible. Islam is considered as addin (a way of life, thus, providing comprehensive guidelines in every aspects of the believers’ life. It is the aim of this paper to propose an Islamic model of corporate social responsibility based on human relationships with the God (hablun min’Allah; with other fellow human being (hablun min’an-nas and with the environment.Keywords : Corporate Social Responsibility, Islamic Business Organization

  3. A NEW ORGANIZATIONAL FORM: STARFISH ORGANIZATION IN BUSINESS MODEL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Aygul Turan; Aysegul Ozbebek Tunc

    2013-01-01

    As we moved into new economy, decentralization is a very powerful strategy day by day. A large number of traditional organizations are decentralized- some of them decentralize a part of the organization, some of them decentralize whole of the organizations- because of being a winner of the competition. As a decentralized organization, starfish organization is a new concept of the organizational science literature. In this framework, we focus on the starfish organization’s structure. The aim o...

  4. Animals as an indicator of carbon sequestration and valuable landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szyszko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of the assessment of a landscape with the use of succession development stages, monitored with the value of the Mean Individual Biomass (MIB of carabid beetles and the occurrence of bird species are discussed on the basis of an example from Poland. Higher variability of the MIB value in space signifies a greater biodiversity. Apart from the variability of MIB, it is suggested to adopt the occurrence of the following animals as indicators, (in the order of importance, representing underlying valuable landscapes: black stork, lesser spotted eagle, white-tailed eagle, wolf, crane and white stork. The higher number of these species and their greater density indicate a higher value of the landscape for biodiversity and ecosystem services, especially carbon sequestration. All these indicators may be useful to assess measures for sustainable land use.

  5. Metagenomes provide valuable comparative information on soil microeukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Stenbæk, Jonas; Santos, Susana

    2016-01-01

    has been identified. Our analyses suggest that publicly available metagenome data can provide valuable information on soil microeukaryotes for comparative purposes when handled appropriately, complementing the current view provided by ribosomal amplicon sequencing methods......., providing microbiologists with substantial amounts of accessible information. We took advantage of public metagenomes in order to investigate microeukaryote communities in a well characterized grassland soil. The data gathered allowed the evaluation of several factors impacting the community structure......, including the DNA extraction method, the database choice and also the annotation procedure. While most studies on soil microeukaryotes are based on sequencing of PCR-amplified taxonomic markers (18S rRNA genes, ITS regions), this work represents, to our knowledge, the first report based solely...

  6. CORRELATION LINKS BETWEEN SOME ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE SIGNS IN BROCCOLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Zablotskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the correlation relationship between the signs, the informativeness of the indicators makes it possible to conduct a preliminary assessment of the plants and more objectively to identify forms with high economically valuable characteristics. Their integrated assessment will identify the best source material for further selection. In literary sources, information on the correlation in broccoli between yields and its elements are not the same. The purpose of our study was to analyze the contingency of various traits and to identify significant correlation links between quantitative traits in broccoli hybrids (42 samples. They were obtained using doubled haploid lines (DH-line of early maturity at 2 planting dates (spring and summer. Studies were conducted in the Odintsovo district of the Moscow region in field experience in 2015, 2016. Significant influence on growth and development was provided by the developing weather conditions during the growing period. The fluctuation of humidification and temperature conditions differed significantly during the years of study and the time of planting, which is an important circumstance for analyzing the data obtained. Based on the results of the research, it was concluded that the value of the correlation coefficient and the strength of the correlation relationship between the characteristics (mass, diameter, head height, plant height, vegetation period are different and depend on the set of test specimens and growing conditions. A significant stable manifestation of positive correlation was revealed during all the years of research and the time of planting between the diameter and mass of the head (r = 0.45-0.96. The variability of the correlation of other economically valuable traits is marked. 

  7. Modeling Organic Contaminant Desorption from Municipal Solid Waste Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, D. R.; Wu, B.; Barlaz, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 25% of the sites on the National Priority List (NPL) of Superfund are municipal landfills that accepted hazardous waste. Unlined landfills typically result in groundwater contamination, and priority pollutants such as alkylbenzenes are often present. To select cost-effective risk management alternatives, better information on factors controlling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in landfills is required. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of HOC aging time, anaerobic sorbent decomposition, and leachate composition on HOC desorption rates, and (2) to simulate HOC desorption rates from polymers and biopolymer composites with suitable diffusion models. Experiments were conducted with individual components of municipal solid waste (MSW) including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), newsprint, office paper, and model food and yard waste (rabbit food). Each of the biopolymer composites (office paper, newsprint, rabbit food) was tested in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form. To determine the effects of aging on alkylbenzene desorption rates, batch desorption tests were performed after sorbents were exposed to toluene for 30 and 250 days in flame-sealed ampules. Desorption tests showed that alkylbenzene desorption rates varied greatly among MSW components (PVC slowest, fresh rabbit food and newsprint fastest). Furthermore, desorption rates decreased as aging time increased. A single-parameter polymer diffusion model successfully described PVC and HDPE desorption data, but it failed to simulate desorption rate data for biopolymer composites. For biopolymer composites, a three-parameter biphasic polymer diffusion model was employed, which successfully simulated both the initial rapid and the subsequent slow desorption of toluene. Toluene desorption rates from MSW mixtures were predicted for typical MSW compositions in the years 1960 and 1997. For the older MSW mixture, which had a

  8. Development of a statistical shape model of multi-organ and its performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Misaki; Shimizu, Akinobu; Kobatake, Hidefumi; Nawano, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Existing statistical shape modeling methods for an organ can not take into account the correlation between neighboring organs. This study focuses on a level set distribution model and proposes two modeling methods for multiple organs that can take into account the correlation between neighboring organs. The first method combines level set functions of multiple organs into a vector. Subsequently it analyses the distribution of the vectors of a training dataset by a principal component analysis and builds a multiple statistical shape model. Second method constructs a statistical shape model for each organ independently and assembles component scores of different organs in a training dataset so as to generate a vector. It analyses the distribution of the vectors of to build a statistical shape model of multiple organs. This paper shows results of applying the proposed methods trained by 15 abdominal CT volumes to unknown 8 CT volumes. (author)

  9. Elimination kinetic model for organic chemicals in earthworms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, N.; Dimitrov, S.; Georgieva, D.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Hankard, P.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Li, H.; Mekenyan, O.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of bioaccumulation in different organisms and environments should take into account the influence of organism and chemical depending factors on the uptake and elimination kinetics of chemicals. Lipophilicity, metabolism, sorption (bioavailability) and biodegradation of

  10. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen [SIMBOL Materials

    2014-04-30

    Executive Summary Simbol Materials studied various methods of extracting valuable minerals from geothermal brines in the Imperial Valley of California, focusing on the extraction of lithium, manganese, zinc and potassium. New methods were explored for managing the potential impact of silica fouling on mineral extraction equipment, and for converting silica management by-products into commercial products.` Studies at the laboratory and bench scale focused on manganese, zinc and potassium extraction and the conversion of silica management by-products into valuable commercial products. The processes for extracting lithium and producing lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide products were developed at the laboratory scale and scaled up to pilot-scale. Several sorbents designed to extract lithium as lithium chloride from geothermal brine were developed at the laboratory scale and subsequently scaled-up for testing in the lithium extraction pilot plant. Lithium The results of the lithium studies generated the confidence for Simbol to scale its process to commercial operation. The key steps of the process were demonstrated during its development at pilot scale: 1. Silica management. 2. Lithium extraction. 3. Purification. 4. Concentration. 5. Conversion into lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products. Results show that greater than 95% of the lithium can be extracted from geothermal brine as lithium chloride, and that the chemical yield in converting lithium chloride to lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products is greater than 90%. The product purity produced from the process is consistent with battery grade lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide. Manganese and zinc Processes for the extraction of zinc and manganese from geothermal brine were developed. It was shown that they could be converted into zinc metal and electrolytic manganese dioxide after purification. These processes were evaluated for their economic potential, and at the present time Simbol

  11. KICS: A Model of Motivational Leadership in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This pure research gave birth to a Model of Motivational Leadership – KICS: which embraces knowledge, intelligence, collaboration and synergy. It is a synergistic  proposition based on the theory of emotional intelligence as the index of competencies needed for effective leadership. It opened with a general discussion on traditional models of leadership, then the roles of knowledge, intelligence, collaboration and synergy as they relate to motivational leadership. Issues of emotional intelligence clusters and synthesis of the model’s elements were discussed, emphasizing how KICS-based motivational leadership skills can be developed and sustained. Motivational leadership entails exciting people’s imaginations and inspiring them to move in a desired direction. It takes more than simple power to motivate and lead in organizations. Realizing that unity and cohesiveness are built from personal bonds, the best leaders ensure to deepen their rapport with employees and colleagues which enhances organizational performance. This pure research argues that the synergy of related emotional intelligence competencies can lead to motivational leadership behaviour. Knowledge is critical to leadership because there are different types of leadership and different situations require different kinds of knowledge, and the person possessing the knowledge demanded by a certain situation in most cases, tends to become the best leader. A knowledgeable person is one who is trained to consider his actions to undertake them deliberately, in a disciplined manner. Added to this ability is the intelligence to endure in a chosen course in the face of distraction, confusion and difficulty, all combined in producing a motivational leader. Knowledge tends to be procedural in nature and to operate outside of focal awareness. It also reflects the structure of the situation more closely than it does in the structure of formal disciplinary knowledge. The survey research design

  12. Conversion of waste polystyrene through catalytic degradation into valuable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jasmin; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Adnan [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2014-08-15

    Waste expanded polystyrene (EPS) represents a source of valuable chemical products like styrene and other aromatics. The catalytic degradation was carried out in a batch reactor with a mixture of polystyrene (PS) and catalyst at 450 .deg. C for 30 min in case of Mg and at 400 .deg. C for 2 h both for MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts. At optimum degradation conditions, EPS was degraded into 82.20±3.80 wt%, 91.60±0.20 wt% and 81.80±0.53 wt% liquid with Mg, MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts, respectively. The liquid products obtained were separated into different fractions by fractional distillation. The liquid fractions obtained with three catalysts were compared, and characterized using GC-MS. Maximum conversion of EPS into styrene monomer (66.6 wt%) was achieved with Mg catalyst, and an increase in selectivity of compounds was also observed. The major fraction at 145 .deg. C showed the properties of styrene monomer. The results showed that among the catalysts used, Mg was found to be the most effective catalyst for selective conversion into styrene monomer as value added product.

  13. GC Analyses of Salvia Seeds as Valuable Essential Oil Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Taârit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of seeds of Salvia verbenaca, Salvia officinalis, and Salvia sclarea were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry. The oil yields (w/w were 0.050, 0.047, and 0.045% in S. verbenaca, S. sclarea, and S. officinalis, respectively. Seventy-five compounds were identified. The essential oil composition of S. verbenaca seeds showed that over 57% of the detected compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes followed by sesquiterpenes (24.04% and labdane type diterpenes (5.61%. The main essential oil constituents were camphor (38.94%, caryophyllene oxide (7.28%, and 13-epi-manool (5.61%, while those of essential oil of S. officinalis were α-thujone (14.77%, camphor (13.08%, and 1,8-cineole (6.66%. In samples of S. sclarea, essential oil consists mainly of linalool (24.25%, α-thujene (7.48%, linalyl acetate (6.90%, germacrene-D (5.88%, bicyclogermacrene (4.29%, and α-copaene (4.08%. This variability leads to a large range of naturally occurring volatile compounds with valuable industrial and pharmaceutical outlets.

  14. Sea Buckthorn Oil—A Valuable Source for Cosmeceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Koskovac

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae. is a thorny shrub that has small, yellow to dark orange, soft, juicy berries. Due to hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients, berries have been used as food and medicine. Sea buckthorn (SB oil derived from berries is a source of valuable ingredients for cosmeceuticals. The unique combination of SB oil ingredients, in qualitative and quantitative aspects, provides multiple benefits of SB oil for internal and external use. Externally, SB oil can be applied in both healthy and damaged skin (burns or skin damage of different etiology, as it has good wound healing properties. Due to the well-balanced content of fatty acids, carotenoids, and vitamins, SB oil may be incorporated in cosmeceuticals for dry, flaky, burned, irritated, or rapidly ageing skin. There have been more than 100 ingredients identified in SB oil, some of which are rare in the plant kingdom (e.g., the ratio of palmitoleic to γ-linolenic acid. This review discusses facts related to the origin and properties of SB oil that make it suitable for cosmeceutical formulation.

  15. QSAR models for predicting octanol/water and organic carbon/water partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S; Gao, S; Gan, Y; Zhang, Y; Ruan, X; Wang, Y; Yang, L; Shi, J

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative structure-property relationship modelling can be a valuable alternative method to replace or reduce experimental testing. In particular, some endpoints such as octanol-water (KOW) and organic carbon-water (KOC) partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are easier to predict and various models have been already developed. In this paper, two different methods, which are multiple linear regression based on the descriptors generated using Dragon software and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships, were employed to predict suspended particulate matter (SPM) derived log KOC and generator column, shake flask and slow stirring method derived log KOW values of 209 PCBs. The predictive ability of the derived models was validated using a test set. The performances of all these models were compared with EPI Suite™ software. The results indicated that the proposed models were robust and satisfactory, and could provide feasible and promising tools for the rapid assessment of the SPM derived log KOC and generator column, shake flask and slow stirring method derived log KOW values of PCBs.

  16. Evaluation of approaches focused on modelling of organic carbon stocks using the RothC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koco, Štefan; Skalský, Rastislav; Makovníková, Jarmila; Tarasovičová, Zuzana; Barančíková, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    The aim of current efforts in the European area is the protection of soil organic matter, which is included in all relevant documents related to the protection of soil. The use of modelling of organic carbon stocks for anticipated climate change, respectively for land management can significantly help in short and long-term forecasting of the state of soil organic matter. RothC model can be applied in the time period of several years to centuries and has been tested in long-term experiments within a large range of soil types and climatic conditions in Europe. For the initialization of the RothC model, knowledge about the carbon pool sizes is essential. Pool size characterization can be obtained from equilibrium model runs, but this approach is time consuming and tedious, especially for larger scale simulations. Due to this complexity we search for new possibilities how to simplify and accelerate this process. The paper presents a comparison of two approaches for SOC stocks modelling in the same area. The modelling has been carried out on the basis of unique input of land use, management and soil data for each simulation unit separately. We modeled 1617 simulation units of 1x1 km grid on the territory of agroclimatic region Žitný ostrov in the southwest of Slovakia. The first approach represents the creation of groups of simulation units based on the evaluation of results for simulation unit with similar input values. The groups were created after the testing and validation of modelling results for individual simulation units with results of modelling the average values of inputs for the whole group. Tests of equilibrium model for interval in the range 5 t.ha-1 from initial SOC stock showed minimal differences in results comparing with result for average value of whole interval. Management inputs data from plant residues and farmyard manure for modelling of carbon turnover were also the same for more simulation units. Combining these groups (intervals of initial

  17. The prisoner as model organism: malaria research at Stateville Penitentiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    In a military-sponsored research project begun during the Second World War, inmates of the Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois were infected with malaria and treated with experimental drugs that sometimes had vicious side effects. They were made into reservoirs for the disease and they provided a food supply for the mosquito cultures. They acted as secretaries and technicians, recording data on one another, administering malarious mosquito bites and experimental drugs to one another, and helping decide who was admitted to the project and who became eligible for early parole as a result of his participation. Thus, the prisoners were not simply research subjects; they were deeply constitutive of the research project. Because a prisoner’s time on the project was counted as part of his sentence, and because serving on the project could shorten one’s sentence, the project must be seen as simultaneously serving the functions of research and punishment. Michel Foucault wrote about such ‘mixed mechanisms’ in his Discipline and punish. His shining example of such a ‘transparent’ and subtle style of punishment was the panopticon, Jeremy Bentham’s architectural invention of prison cellblocks arrayed around a central guard tower. Stateville prison was designed on Bentham’s model; Foucault featured it in his own discussion. This paper, then, explores the power relations in this highly idiosyncratic experimental system, in which the various roles of model organism, reagent, and technician are all occupied by sentient beings who move among them fluidly. This, I argue, created an environment in the Stateville hospital wing more panoptic than that in the cellblocks. Research and punishment were completely interpenetrating, and mutually reinforcing. PMID:19720327

  18. Towards Increased Relevance: Context-Adapted Models of the Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtenblad, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to take a closer look at the relevance of the idea of the learning organization for organizations in different generalized organizational contexts; to open up for the existence of multiple, context-adapted models of the learning organization; and to suggest a number of such models.…

  19. On agent cooperation : the relevance of cognitive plausibility for multiagent simulation models of organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, J.

    2001-01-01

    Human organizations and computational multiagent systems both are social systems because they are both made up of a large number of interacting parts. Since human organizations are arrangements of distributed real intelligence, any DAI model is in some sense a model of an organization. This

  20. On agent cooperation : The relevance of cognitive plausibility for multiagent simulation models of organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den

    2001-01-01

    Human organizations and computational multiagent systems both are social systems because they are both made up of a large number of interacting parts. Since human organizations are arrangements of distributed real intelligence, any DAI model is in some sense a model of an organization. This

  1. Modelling and Optimization of Organization of Workplaces in a Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a practical example of improvement of foundry production systems in terms of post-finishing of nodular iron castings produced in the conditions of bulk production for automotive industry. The attention was paid to high labour-intensive efforts, which are difficult to be subjected to mechanization and automation. The times of actions related to grinding processing of castings in three grinding positions connected with a belt conveyor were estimated with the use of a time study method. A bottleneck as well as limiting factors were specified in a system. A number of improvements were proposed, aimed at improving work organization on the castings post-finishing line. An analysis of work ergonomics at the workplace was made in order to eliminate unnecessary and onerous for the employee actions. A model of production system using the Arena software, on which a simulation experiment was conducted, was drawn up in order to visualize the analysed phenomena. The effects of the project were shown on graphs comparing times, costs, work ergonomics and overall efficiency of production equipment indicator.

  2. Drug repurposing for aging research using model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehm, Matthias; Kaur, Satwant; Ivanov, Dobril K; Ballester, Pedro J; Marcus, David; Partridge, Linda; Thornton, Janet M

    2017-10-01

    Many increasingly prevalent diseases share a common risk factor: age. However, little is known about pharmaceutical interventions against aging, despite many genes and pathways shown to be important in the aging process and numerous studies demonstrating that genetic interventions can lead to a healthier aging phenotype. An important challenge is to assess the potential to repurpose existing drugs for initial testing on model organisms, where such experiments are possible. To this end, we present a new approach to rank drug-like compounds with known mammalian targets according to their likelihood to modulate aging in the invertebrates Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila. Our approach combines information on genetic effects on aging, orthology relationships and sequence conservation, 3D protein structures, drug binding and bioavailability. Overall, we rank 743 different drug-like compounds for their likelihood to modulate aging. We provide various lines of evidence for the successful enrichment of our ranking for compounds modulating aging, despite sparse public data suitable for validation. The top ranked compounds are thus prime candidates for in vivo testing of their effects on lifespan in C. elegans or Drosophila. As such, these compounds are promising as research tools and ultimately a step towards identifying drugs for a healthier human aging. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Rabeto plus: a valuable drug for managing functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Asim; Halder, Susanta; Mandal, Sanjoy; Mandal, Arpan; Basu, Mitali; Dabholkar, Pareen

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and document the efficacy and tolerability of rabeto plus (FDC of rabeprazole and itopride) in management of functional dyspepsia. It was an open, prospective, non-comparative, multidose study. The patients with functional dyspepsia (NERD or non-erosive reflux disease) attending OPD of a leading, tertiary care, teaching hospital in West Bengal (BS Medical College, Bankura) were inducted in the study. A total of 46 adult patients of either sex with functional dyspepsia and a clinical diagnosis of NERD were given 1 capsule of rabeto plus before breakfast, for up to 4 weeks. Primary efficacy variables were relief from symptoms of heartburn, nausea, vomiting, waterbrash and fullness. Secondary efficacy variables were global assessment of efficacy and toleration by patients and treating physicians. The tolerability was assessed on the basis of record of spontaneously reported adverse events with their nature, intensity and outcome. Out of 55 patients enrolled in the study, 46 completed the study as planned, while 9 patients were lost to follow-up (dropped). Most patients reported near total symptom relief by the end of study. Total symptom score showed remarkable and significant improvement from baseline to end of the study. Importantly, none of the patients reported any side-effect. All participants tolerated the drug well. Moreover, response to study drug was rated as excellent or good by over 93% patients and their treating physicians. This means that 9 out 10 patients receiving rabeto plus reported desired symptom relief from dyspepsia. Thus it was concluded that rabeto plus is a valuable drug for treatment of functional dyspepsia or NERD.

  4. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  6. Modeling the current and future role of particulate organic nitrates in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic nitrates are an important aerosol constituent in locations where biogenic hydrocarbon emissions mix with anthropogenic NOx sources. While regional and global chemical transport models may include a representation of organic aerosol from monoterpene reactions with nitrate ...

  7. A novel approach to assessing environmental disturbance based on habitat selection by zebra fish as a model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Griffith, Daniel M; Vera-Vera, Victoria; Jentzsch, Paul Vargas; Cervera, Laura; Nieto-Ariza, Beatriz; Salvatierra, David; Erazo, Santiago; Jaramillo, Rusbel; Ramos, Luis A; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Ribeiro, Rui

    2018-04-01

    Aquatic ecotoxicity assays used to assess ecological risk assume that organisms living in a contaminated habitat are forcedly exposed to the contamination. This assumption neglects the ability of organisms to detect and avoid contamination by moving towards less disturbed habitats, as long as connectivity exists. In fluvial systems, many environmental parameters vary spatially and thus condition organisms' habitat selection. We assessed the preference of zebra fish (Danio rerio) when exposed to water samples from two western Ecuadorian rivers with apparently distinct disturbance levels: Pescadillo River (highly disturbed) and Oro River (moderately disturbed). Using a non-forced exposure system in which water samples from each river were arranged according to their spatial sequence in the field and connected to allow individuals to move freely among samples, we assayed habitat selection by D. rerio to assess environmental disturbance in the two rivers. Fish exposed to Pescadillo River samples preferred downstream samples near the confluence zone with the Oro River. Fish exposed to Oro River samples preferred upstream waters. When exposed to samples from both rivers simultaneously, fish exhibited the same pattern of habitat selection by preferring the Oro River samples. Given that the rivers are connected, preference for the Oro River enabled us to predict a depression in fish populations in the Pescadillo River. Although these findings indicate higher disturbance levels in the Pescadillo River, none of the physical-chemical variables measured was significantly correlated with the preference pattern towards the Oro River. Non-linear spatial patterns of habitat preference suggest that other environmental parameters like urban or agricultural contaminants play an important role in the model organism's habitat selection in these rivers. The non-forced exposure system represents a habitat selection-based approach that can serve as a valuable tool to unravel the factors

  8. Insect symbionts as valuable grist for the biotechnological mill: an alkaliphilic silkworm gut bacterium for efficient lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xili; Sun, Chao; Chen, Bosheng; Du, Kaiqian; Yu, Ting; Luang-In, Vijitra; Lu, Xingmeng; Shao, Yongqi

    2018-04-07

    Insects constitute the most abundant and diverse animal class and act as hosts to an extraordinary variety of symbiotic microorganisms. These microbes living inside the insects play critical roles in host biology and are also valuable bioresources. Enterococcus mundtii EMB156, isolated from the larval gut (gut pH >10) of the model organism Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), efficiently produces lactic acid, an important metabolite for industrial production of bioplastic materials. E. mundtii EMB156 grows well under alkaline conditions and stably converts various carbon sources into lactic acid, offering advantages in downstream fermentative processes. High-yield lactic acid production can be achieved by the strain EMB156 from renewable biomass substrates under alkaline pretreatments. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology revealed its 3.01 Mbp whole genome sequence. A total of 2956 protein-coding sequences, 65 tRNA genes, and 6 rRNA operons were predicted in the EMB156 chromosome. Remarkable genomic features responsible for lactic acid fermentation included key enzymes involved in the pentose phosphate (PP)/glycolytic pathway, and an alpha amylase and xylose isomerase were characterized in EMB156. This genomic information coincides with the phenotype of E. mundtii EMB156, reflecting its metabolic flexibility in efficient lactate fermentation, and established a foundation for future biotechnological application. Interestingly, enzyme activities of amylase were quite stable in high-pH broths, indicating a possible mechanism for strong EMB156 growth in an alkaline environment, thereby facilitating lactic acid production. Together, these findings implied that valuable lactic acid-producing bacteria can be discovered efficiently by screening under the extremely alkaline conditions, as exemplified by gut microbial symbionts of Lepidoptera insects.

  9. DESIGNING A DATA GOVERNANCE MODEL BASED ON SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY (SSM) IN ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hanung Nindito Prasetyo; Kridanto surendro

    2015-01-01

    Today, many emerging various models of data governance like DAMA, DGI and the latest is a model from IBM. Model DAMA International is a data governance model designed by industry associations. The model requires the fulfillment of the entire artifact in a matrix that has been determined that too many components that must be built in data governance in an organization. While the data governance model is built from the data DGI consulting organization which requires the development of data gove...

  10. Mature and emerging organic markets: Modelling consumer attitude and behaviour with Partial Least Square Approach

    OpenAIRE

    von Meyer-Höfer, Marie; von der Wense, Vera; Padilla Bravo, Carlos; Spiller, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Although the organic food sector has been the subject of research for around 20 years, little is known about consumer behaviour when comparing developed and emerging organic food markets using causal research models. Thus, by developing a behavioural model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the aim of this research article is to investigate the main determinants of organic food consumption in a mature (Germany) and an emerging (Chile) organic market. Subjects aged 18 or above wer...

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As regards to organic farming, organic farms have a lot of shortcomings in ensuring smooth organization of production due to climatic factors or crop sensitivity and action of pests and diseases, but especially to the high cost of inputs, reduced subsidies and difficulties in obtaining fair prices on the market. Understanding how the organizational structure of the business can compete to ensure efficiency at farm level is an important means to resolve these deficiencies. In this context, this paper aims to identify the characteristics of the organization of organic crop farms starting from an interview-based analysis of two large crop specialised farms in Tulcea and Calaraşi Counties. The information obtained through this method of investigation has been translated into a SWOT analysis and represented the basis for comparison with information gathered from other interviews from two organic farms in Scotland. The main conclusions we reached highlight two types of organization systems, one without integration and another with supply chain integration, very similar to the Scottish ones, but also showing a very obvious difference in the mentality of the farm owners; Romanians focusing on meeting the conditions for certification and maintenance of crops in organic, and the Scots at finding new markets.

  12. Modelling the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Jesper; Kilpinen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In a recent study on the honeybee (Apis mellifera), the subgenual organ was observed moving inside the leg during sinusoidal vibrations of the leg (Kilpinen and Storm 1997). The subgenual organ of the honeybee is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg accelerates...

  13. Recycle of valuable products from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Liu, Yang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-10-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge contains lots of iron and alloying elements along with plenty of hazardous organic components, which makes it as an attractive secondary source and an environmental contaminant at the same time. The compound methods of "vacuum distillation + oxidizing roasting" and "vacuum distillation + hydrogen reduction" were employed for the recycle of oily cold rolling mill sludge. First, the sludge was dynamically vacuum distilled in a rotating furnace at 50 r/min and 600°C for 3 h, which removed almost hazardous organic components, obtaining 89.2wt% ferrous resultant. Then, high purity ferric oxide powders (99.2wt%) and reduced iron powders (98.9wt%) were obtained when the distillation residues were oxidized and reduced, respectively. The distillation oil can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock, and the distillation gases can be collected and reused as a fuel.

  14. Current developments in soil organic matter modeling and the expansion of model applications: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Eleanor E; Paustian, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important natural resource. It is fundamental to soil and ecosystem functions across a wide range of scales, from site-specific soil fertility and water holding capacity to global biogeochemical cycling. It is also a highly complex material that is sensitive to direct and indirect human impacts. In SOM research, simulation models play an important role by providing a mathematical framework to integrate, examine, and test the understanding of SOM dynamics. Simulation models of SOM are also increasingly used in more ‘applied’ settings to evaluate human impacts on ecosystem function, and to manage SOM for greenhouse gas mitigation, improved soil health, and sustainable use as a natural resource. Within this context, there is a need to maintain a robust connection between scientific developments in SOM modeling approaches and SOM model applications. This need forms the basis of this review. In this review we first provide an overview of SOM modeling, focusing on SOM theory, data-model integration, and model development as evidenced by a quantitative review of SOM literature. Second, we present the landscape of SOM model applications, focusing on examples in climate change policy. We conclude by discussing five areas of recent developments in SOM modeling including: (1) microbial roles in SOM stabilization; (2) modeling SOM saturation kinetics; (3) temperature controls on decomposition; (4) SOM dynamics in deep soil layers; and (5) SOM representation in earth system models. Our aim is to comprehensively connect SOM model development to its applications, revealing knowledge gaps in need of focused interdisciplinary attention and exposing pitfalls that, if avoided, can lead to best use of SOM models to support policy initiatives and sustainable land management solutions. (topical review)

  15. A review of modelling the interaction between natural organic matter and metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report reviews techniques available to model the interaction between natural organic matter (mainly fulvic and humic acids) and metal cations and protons. A comprehensive overview over the properties of natural organic matter is given and experimental techniques are presented briefly. Two major concepts of modelling have been identified: discrete ligand models and continuous distribution model. Different modelling approaches like Discrete Ligand Models (s.s.), Random-Structure Model, Affinity Spectra, Statistical Distribution Models, Continuous Stability Function Models and surface sorption models and their advantages/disadvantages are discussed. (author)

  16. Participatory plant breeding and organic agriculture: A synergistic model for organic variety development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organic farmers require improved varieties that have been adapted to their unique soils, nutrient inputs, management practices, and pest pressures. One way to develop adapted varieties is to situate breeding programs in the environment of intended use, such as directly on organic farms, and in collaboration with organic farmers. This model is a form of participatory plant breeding, and was originally created in order to meet the needs of under-served, small-scale farmers in developing countries. A robust body of literature supports the quantitative genetic selection theory of participatory plant breeding, and helps to explain its increasing prevalence among organic breeding projects in the United States. The history of the organic farming movement in the United States highlights the cultural relevance of engaging organic farmers in the breeding process, complementing the biological rationale for participatory plant breeding. In addition, limited private investment in organic plant breeding encourages the involvement of plant breeders at public institutions. This paper synthesizes the biological, cultural, and economic justifications for utilizing participatory plant breeding as an appropriate methodology for organic cultivar development.

  17. Stage-structured matrix models for organisms with non-geometric development times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt; Richard M. Feldman; David M. Cairns; Robert N. Coulson; Maria Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; James M. Guldin

    2009-01-01

    Matrix models have been used to model population growth of organisms for many decades. They are popular because of both their conceptual simplicity and their computational efficiency. For some types of organisms they are relatively accurate in predicting population growth; however, for others the matrix approach does not adequately model...

  18. 76 FR 34712 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model; Extension of the Submission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... stakeholders to develop initiatives to test innovative payment and service delivery models to reduce program...] Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model; Extension of the Submission Deadlines for... of the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model letters of intent to June 30, 2011 and the...

  19. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  20. PROCESS DOCUMENTATION: A MODEL FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadpoor, Asefeh; Taheri, Behjat; Nasri, Mehran; Heydari, Kamal; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2015-10-01

    Continuous and interconnected processes are a chain of activities that turn the inputs of an organization to its outputs and help achieve partial and overall goals of the organization. These activates are carried out by two types of knowledge in the organization called explicit and implicit knowledge. Among these, implicit knowledge is the knowledge that controls a major part of the activities of an organization, controls these activities internally and will not be transferred to the process owners unless they are present during the organization's work. Therefore the goal of this study is identification of implicit knowledge and its integration with explicit knowledge in order to improve human resources management, physical resource management, information resource management, training of new employees and other activities of Isfahan University of Medical Science. The project for documentation of activities in department of health of Isfahan University of Medical Science was carried out in several stages. First the main processes and related sub processes were identified and categorized with the help of planning expert. The categorization was carried out from smaller processes to larger ones. In this stage the experts of each process wrote down all their daily activities and organized them into general categories based on logical and physical relations between different activities. Then each activity was assigned a specific code. The computer software was designed after understanding the different parts of the processes, including main and sup processes, and categorization, which will be explained in the following sections. The findings of this study showed that documentation of activities can help expose implicit knowledge because all of inputs and outputs of a process along with the length, location, tools and different stages of the process, exchanged information, storage location of the information and information flow can be identified using proper

  1. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.

  2. Tracking the long-distance dispersal of marine organisms: sensitivity to ocean model resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, Nathan F.; He, Ruoying

    2013-01-01

    Ocean circulation models are widely used to simulate organism transport in the open sea, where challenges of directly tracking organisms across vast spatial and temporal scales are daunting. Many recent studies tout the use of ‘high-resolution’ models, which are forced with atmospheric data on the scale of several hours and integrated with a time step of several minutes or seconds. However, in many cases, the model's outputs that are used to simulate organism movement have been averaged to co...

  3. A phase model of intergenerational learning in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerpott, F.H.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.; Voelpel, S.C.

    Demographic changes challenge organizations to qualify employees across all career stages and to ensure the transfer of company-specific knowledge between experienced and young workers. Human resource development programs for employees from different generations may help address these challenges.

  4. Public attitudes to financial incentive models for organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Schicktanz, Silke; Deleuran, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for organs have stimulated interest in the use of financial incentives for organ donation (FIs), but the literature does not contain an adequate overview of studies of public attitudes toward this mode of procurement. We conducted a literature review of international peer......-reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 on how members of the public position themselves toward FIs. We identified and analyzed 23 studies using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and cross-reference search. The search included whole organs, donation, quantitative and empirical qualitative social...... scientific studies on, public attitudes (excluding professionals and medical students). The review reveals a broad divergence of public opinions on financial incentives. However, quantitative studies showed a low overall level of acceptance of payment for organs in living donation (LD); only a slightly...

  5. Modelling and mapping the topsoil organic carbon content for Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Bas; Kaaya, Abel; Ngonyani Mhaiki, Consolatha; Kiluvia, Shani; Ruiperez-Gonzalez, Maria; Batjes, Niels; Dalsgaard, Soren

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), held in soil organic matter, is a key indicator of soil health and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The soil can act as a net source or sink of carbon depending on land use and management. Deforestation and forest degradation lead to the release of vast amounts of carbon from the soil in the form of greenhouse gasses, especially in tropical countries. Tanzania has a high deforestation rate: it is estimated that the country loses 1.1% of its total forested area annually. During 2010-2013 Tanzania has been a pilot country under the UN-REDD programme. This programme has supported Tanzania in its initial efforts towards reducing greenhouse gas emission from forest degradation and deforestation and towards preserving soil carbon stocks. Formulation and implementation of the national REDD strategy requires detailed information on the five carbon pools among these the SOC pool. The spatial distribution of SOC contents and stocks was not available for Tanzania. The initial aim of this research, was therefore to develop high-resolution maps of the SOC content for the country. The mapping exercise was carried out in a collaborative effort with four Tanzanian institutes and data from the Africa Soil Information Service initiative (AfSIS). The mapping exercise was provided with over 3200 field observations on SOC from four sources; this is the most comprehensive soil dataset collected in Tanzania so far. The main source of soil samples was the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NAFORMA). The carbon maps were generated by means of digital soil mapping using regression-kriging. Maps at 250 m spatial resolution were developed for four depth layers: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 0-30 cm. A total of 37 environmental GIS data layers were prepared for use as covariates in the regression model. These included vegetation indices, terrain parameters, surface temperature, spectral reflectances, a land cover map and a small

  6. A sustainable business model for public service organizations?

    OpenAIRE

    S.P. Osborne; Z. Radnor; I. Vidal; T. Kinder

    2014-01-01

    The current global economic recession presents significant challenges to public service organizations (PSOs) that deliver public services to local communities – irrespective of whether these organizations are situated in the public, private, or third sectors. Governments around the world have responded to this recession by a range of strategies intended to reduce public spending and generate growth. This is not the place to debate such strategies – this task has been undertaken...

  7. Modelling the fate of persistent organic pollutants in Europe: parameterisation of a gridded distribution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevedouros, Konstantinos; MacLeod, Matthew; Jones, Kevin C.; Sweetman, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    A regionally segmented multimedia fate model for the European continent is described together with an illustrative steady-state case study examining the fate of γ-HCH (lindane) based on 1998 emission data. The study builds on the regionally segmented BETR North America model structure and describes the regional segmentation and parameterisation for Europe. The European continent is described by a 5 deg. x 5 deg. grid, leading to 50 regions together with four perimetric boxes representing regions buffering the European environment. Each zone comprises seven compartments including; upper and lower atmosphere, soil, vegetation, fresh water and sediment and coastal water. Inter-regions flows of air and water are described, exploiting information originating from GIS databases and other georeferenced data. The model is primarily designed to describe the fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) within the European environment by examining chemical partitioning and degradation in each region, and inter-region transport either under steady-state conditions or fully dynamically. A test case scenario is presented which examines the fate of estimated spatially resolved atmospheric emissions of lindane throughout Europe within the lower atmosphere and surface soil compartments. In accordance with the predominant wind direction in Europe, the model predicts high concentrations close to the major sources as well as towards Central and Northeast regions. Elevated soil concentrations in Scandinavian soils provide further evidence of the potential of increased scavenging by forests and subsequent accumulation by organic-rich terrestrial surfaces. Initial model predictions have revealed a factor of 5-10 underestimation of lindane concentrations in the atmosphere. This is explained by an underestimation of source strength and/or an underestimation of European background levels. The model presented can further be used to predict deposition fluxes and chemical inventories, and it

  8. The intrapreneur: A distinct and valuable role to be institutionalized and strategically managed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas

    are distinct from routine employees and somewhat similar to entrepreneurs. Thereby intrapreneurs are a human resource that by developing new activities for their employer and also by creating new jobs is very valuable. – The rate of intrapreneurship among employees is higher in Denmark than in almost all other......, especially in Denmark, to adopt strategies for institutionalization and management of this human resource....... more frequently than routine employees are self-efficacious, opportunity-perceiving, risk-willing and role-modeling starters, have meaningful and autonomous jobs, and are satisfied with their jobs and salary, but also experience more stress in work; and in these job-characteristics intrapreneurs...

  9. Catalytic conversion of CO2 into valuable products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham-Huu, C.; Ledoux, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    inertness the recovery of the active phase is extremely easy, i.e. acidic or basic washing, which reduce the cost investment of the process for the final spent catalyst disposal and the fully re-use of the support. The high thermal conductivity of the SiC support could also allow the reduction of the temperature loss during the reaction taken into account the high endothermicity of the reaction. The aim of the presentation is to report the synthesis and use of SiC-based catalyst for CO 2 reforming which allows the conversion of CO 2 into a more valuable products for further fuel processing via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

  10. Modeling the Structure and Effectiveness of Intelligence Organizations: Dynamic Information Flow Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behrman, Robert; Carley, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Dynamic Information Flow Simulation (DIFS), an abstract model for analyzing the structure and function of intelligence support organizations and the activities of entities within...

  11. Clues to γ-secretase, huntingtin and Hirano body normal function using the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myre Michael A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many neurodegenerative disorders, although related by their destruction of brain function, display remarkable cellular and/or regional pathogenic specificity likely due to a deregulated functionality of the mutant protein. However, neurodegenerative disease genes, for example huntingtin (HTT, the ataxins, the presenilins (PSEN1/PSEN2 are not simply localized to neurons but are ubiquitously expressed throughout peripheral tissues; it is therefore paramount to properly understand the earliest precipitating events leading to neuronal pathogenesis to develop effective long-term therapies. This means, in no unequivocal terms, it is crucial to understand the gene's normal function. Unfortunately, many genes are often essential for embryogenesis which precludes their study in whole organisms. This is true for HTT, the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP and presenilins, responsible for early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD. To better understand neurological disease in humans, many lower and higher eukaryotic models have been established. So the question arises: how reasonable is the use of organisms to study neurological disorders when the model of choice does not contain neurons? Here we will review the surprising, and novel emerging use of the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum, a species of soil-living amoeba, as a valuable biomedical tool to study the normal function of neurodegenerative genes. Historically, the evidence on the usefulness of simple organisms to understand the etiology of cellular pathology cannot be denied. But using an organism without a central nervous system to understand diseases of the brain? We will first introduce the life cycle of Dictyostelium, the presence of many disease genes in the genome and how it has provided unique opportunities to identify mechanisms of disease involving actin pathologies, mitochondrial disease, human lysosomal and trafficking disorders and host-pathogen interactions. Secondly, I will

  12. GMO quantification: valuable experience and insights for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milavec, Mojca; Dobnik, David; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Gruden, Kristina; Zel, Jana

    2014-10-01

    Cultivation and marketing of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been unevenly adopted worldwide. To facilitate international trade and to provide information to consumers, labelling requirements have been set up in many countries. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently the method of choice for detection, identification and quantification of GMOs. This has been critically assessed and the requirements for the method performance have been set. Nevertheless, there are challenges that should still be highlighted, such as measuring the quantity and quality of DNA, and determining the qPCR efficiency, possible sequence mismatches, characteristics of taxon-specific genes and appropriate units of measurement, as these remain potential sources of measurement uncertainty. To overcome these problems and to cope with the continuous increase in the number and variety of GMOs, new approaches are needed. Statistical strategies of quantification have already been proposed and expanded with the development of digital PCR. The first attempts have been made to use new generation sequencing also for quantitative purposes, although accurate quantification of the contents of GMOs using this technology is still a challenge for the future, and especially for mixed samples. New approaches are needed also for the quantification of stacks, and for potential quantification of organisms produced by new plant breeding techniques.

  13. Is franchising in health care valuable? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijmeijer, Karlijn J; Fabbricotti, Isabelle N; Huijsman, Robbert

    2014-03-01

    Franchising is an organizational form that originates from the business sector. It is increasingly used in the healthcare sector with the aim of enhancing quality and accessibility for patients, improving the efficiency and competitiveness of organizations and/or providing professionals with a supportive working environment. However, a structured overview of the scientific evidence for these claims is absent, whereas such an overview can be supportive to scholars, policy makers and franchise practitioners. This article provides a systematic review of literature on the outcomes of franchising in health care. Seven major databases were systematically searched. Peer-reviewed empirical journal articles focusing on the relationship between franchising and outcomes were included. Eventually, 15 articles were included and their findings were narratively synthesized. The level of evidence was rated by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation scale. The review shows that outcomes of franchising in health care have primarily been evaluated in low- and middle-income countries in the reproductive health/family planning sector. Articles about high-income countries are largely absent, apart from three articles evaluating pharmacy franchises. Most studies focus on outcomes for customers/clients and less on organizations and professionals. The evidence is primarily of low quality. Based on this evidence, franchising is predominantly positively associated with client volumes, physical accessibility and some types of quality. Findings regarding utilization, customer loyalty, efficiency and results for providers are mixed. We conclude that franchising has the potential to improve outcomes in healthcare practices, but the evidence base is yet too weak for firm conclusions. Extensive research is needed to further determine the value of healthcare franchising in various contexts. We advocate more research in other healthcare sectors in both low- and

  14. Application of several activity coefficient models to water-organic-electrolyte aerosols of atmospheric interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raatikainen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, existing and modified activity coefficient models are examined in order to assess their capabilities to describe the properties of aqueous solution droplets relevant in the atmosphere. Five different water-organic-electrolyte activity coefficient models were first selected from the literature. Only one of these models included organics and electrolytes which are common in atmospheric aerosol particles. In the other models, organic species were solvents such as alcohols, and important atmospheric ions like NH4+ could be missing. The predictions of these models were compared to experimental activity and solubility data in aqueous single electrolyte solutions with 31 different electrolytes. Based on the deviations from experimental data and on the capabilities of the models, four predictive models were selected for fitting of new parameters for binary and ternary solutions of common atmospheric electrolytes and organics. New electrolytes (H+, NH4+, Na+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- and organics (dicarboxylic and some hydroxy acids were added and some modifications were made to the models if it was found useful. All new and most of the existing parameters were fitted to experimental single electrolyte data as well as data for aqueous organics and aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. Unfortunately, there are very few data available for organic activities in binary solutions and for organic and electrolyte activities in aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. This reduces model capabilities in predicting solubilities. After the parameters were fitted, deviations from measurement data were calculated for all fitted models, and for different data types. These deviations and the calculated property values were compared with those from other non-electrolyte and organic-electrolyte models found in the literature. Finally, hygroscopic growth factors were calculated for four 100 nm organic-electrolyte particles and these predictions were compared to

  15. Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us BodyParts3D Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) Data detail Data name Table of 3D org...an model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00837-002 Description of ...data contents List of downloadable 3D organ models in a tab-delimited text file format, describing the correspondence between 3D org...an model IDs and organ names available in PART-OF Tree. D...atabase Site Policy | Contact Us Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Multi-scale modeling of spin transport in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatiyan, Shayan; Souza, Amaury; Kordt, Pascal; McNellis, Erik; Andrienko, Denis; Sinova, Jairo

    In this work, we present our theoretical framework to simulate simultaneously spin and charge transport in amorphous organic semiconductors. By combining several techniques e.g. molecular dynamics, density functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo, we are be able to study spin transport in the presence of anisotropy, thermal effects, magnetic and electric field effects in a realistic morphologies of amorphous organic systems. We apply our multi-scale approach to investigate the spin transport in amorphous Alq3 (Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum) and address the underlying spin relaxation mechanism in this system as a function of temperature, bias voltage, magnetic field and sample thickness.

  17. Similarity-based search of model organism, disease and drug effect phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Gruenberger, Michael; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Schofield, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Semantic similarity measures over phenotype ontologies have been demonstrated to provide a powerful approach for the analysis of model organism phenotypes, the discovery of animal models of human disease, novel pathways, gene functions

  18. Cashew nut shell liquid, a valuable raw material for generating semiconductive polyaniline nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiane Valenti Gonçalves

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL is an abundant and renewable by-product of the cashew nut industry. It appears to be a valuable raw material for generating semiconductive polyaniline (PAni nanomaterial with enhanced thermal stability and well-defined nanofiber morphology following a polymerization dispersion process. This study confirms that CNSL acts as a soft template during PAni synthesis, leading to an improvement in the nanofiber aspect. CNSL also improves the thermal stability of the PAni nanomaterial. Moreover, CNSL is an effective surfactant that promotes and stabilizes the dispersion of PAni nanofibers within water, allowing the more ecofriendly preparation of PAni nanomaterial by substituting the commonly used organic solvent with aqueous media. Finally, although CNSL promotes the formation of the conductive emeraldine salt form of PAni, increasing CNSL concentrations appear to plasticize the PAni polymer, leading to reduced electrical conductivity. However, this reduction is not detrimental, and PAni nanofibers remain semiconductive even under high CNSL concentrations.

  19. Process Optimization for Valuable Metal Recovery from Dental Amalgam Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Parra–Mesa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methodology used for optimizing leaching in a semi pilot plant is presented. This leaching process was applied to recover value metals from dental amalgam residues. 23 factorial design was used to characterize the process during the first stage and in the second one, a central compound rotational design was used for modeling copper percentage dissolved, a function of the nitric acid concentration, leaching time and temperature. This model explained the 81% of the response variability, which is considered satisfactory given the complexity of the process kinetics and, furthermore, it allowed the definition of the operation conditions for better copper recovery, which this was of 99.15%, at a temperature of 55°C, a concentration of 30% by weight and a time of 26 hours.

  20. Models of Purposive Human Organization: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    develop techniques for organizational diagnosis with the D-M model, to be followed by intervention by S-T methodology. 2. Introduction 2.1. Background In...relational and object data for Dinnat-Murphree model construction. 2. Develop techniques for organizational diagnosis with the Dinnat-Murphree model

  1. The Learning Organization: A Model for Educational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rexford

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes public school bureaucracy and ways to reform institutions into learning communities that value shared knowledge and learning experiences. Describes how a bureaucratic organizational structure impairs learning. Proposes the "learning organization" in which adults learn alongside students, planning is decentralized, families are…

  2. Mitochondrial damage and ageing using skin as a model organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Laura; Bowman, Amy; Rashdan, Eyman; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Ageing describes the progressive functional decline of an organism over time, leading to an increase in susceptibility to age-related diseases and eventually to death, and it is a phenomenon observed across a wide range of organisms. Despite a vast repertoire of ageing studies performed over the past century, the exact causes of ageing remain unknown. For over 50 years it has been speculated that mitochondria play a key role in the ageing process, due mainly to correlative data showing an increase in mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) with age. However, the exact role of the mitochondria in the ageing process remains unknown. The skin is often used to study human ageing, due to its easy accessibility, and the observation that the ageing process is able to be accelerated in this organ via environmental insults, such as ultra violet radiation (UVR). This provides a useful tool to investigate the mechanisms regulating ageing and, in particular, the role of the mitochondria. Observations from dermatological and photoageing studies can provide useful insights into chronological ageing of the skin and other organs such as the brain and liver. Moreover, a wide range of diseases are associated with ageing; therefore, understanding the cause of the ageing process as well as regulatory mechanisms involved could provide potentially advantageous therapeutic targets for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lifetimes of organic photovoltaics: photooxidative degradation of a model compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, K.; Alstrup, J.; Jørgensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    A poly phenylene vinylene (PPV-type) oligomer used in organic photovoltaics was designed to facilitate the interpretation of mass spectral data. A film of the oligomer was subjected to various degrees of illumination (1000 W m(-2), AM1.5) in air resulting in photooxidation of the material...

  4. Modelling conventional and organic farming : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acs, S.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Literature shows a significant development of organic farming in Europe but with considerable differences between countries. These depend on general agricultural policy (the set of regulations and laws), specific policy incentives, and also on differences in consumer behaviour. This paper reviews

  5. Mechanistic modelling of the vertical soil organic matter profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes a large global pool of carbon that may play a considerable role for future climate. The vertical distribution of SOM in the profile may be important due to depth-dependence of physical, chemical, and biological conditions, and links to physical processes

  6. Modeling organic aerosol concentrations and properties during winter 2014 in the northwestern Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Chrit, Mounir; Sartelet, Karine; Sciare, Jean; Majdi, Marwa; Nicolas, José; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Dulac, François

    2018-01-01

    Organic aerosols are measured at a remote site (Ersa) on Corsica Cape in the northwestern Mediterranean basin during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (CharMEx) winter campaign of 2014, when high organic concentrations from anthropogenic origin are observed. This work aims at representing the observed organic aerosol concentrations and properties (oxidation state) using the air-quality model Polyphemus with a surrogate approach for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Becau...

  7. Modelling the Impact of Organization Structure and Whistle Blowers on Intra-Organizational Corruption Contagion

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovee, Maziar; Pinto, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    We complement the rich conceptual work on organizational corruption by quantitatively modelling the spread of corruption within organizations. We systematically vary four organizational culture-related parameters, i.e., organization structure, location of bad apple, employees propensity to become corrupted (corruption probability), and number of whistle-blowers. Our simulation studies find that in organizations with flatter structures, corruption permeates the organization at a lower threshol...

  8. Plausible carrier transport model in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite resistive memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nayoung; Kwon, Yongwoo; Choi, Jaeho; Jang, Ho Won; Cha, Pil-Ryung

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate thermally assisted hopping (TAH) as an appropriate carrier transport model for CH3NH3PbI3 resistive memories. Organic semiconductors, including organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, have been previously speculated to follow the space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) model. However, the SCLC model cannot reproduce the temperature dependence of experimental current-voltage curves. Instead, the TAH model with temperature-dependent trap densities and a constant trap level are demonstrated to well reproduce the experimental results.

  9. Model to the evolution of the organic matter in the pampa's soil. Relation with cultivation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriulo, Adrian; Mary, Bruno; Guerif, Jerome; Balesdent, Jerome

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the work is to present a model to describe the evolution of the organic matter in soils of the Argentine's pampa. This model can be utilised to evaluate the evolution of the soil's fertility in the agricultural production at this moment. Three kinds of assay were done. The determination of organic carbon made possible to prove the Henin-Dupuis model and a derived model

  10. From Learning Object to Learning Cell: A Resource Organization Model for Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengquan; Yang, Xianmin; Cheng, Gang; Wang, Minjuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model for organizing learning resources: Learning Cell. This model is open, evolving, cohesive, social, and context-aware. By introducing a time dimension into the organization of learning resources, Learning Cell supports the dynamic evolution of learning resources while they are being used. In addition, by introducing a…

  11. Peningkatan Keterampilan Pengambilan Keputusan Dan Penguasaan Konsep IPA Melalui Model Pembelajaran Advance Organizer Di Sekolah Dasar

    OpenAIRE

    Badarudin

    2017-01-01

    Peningkatan Keterampilan Pengambilan Keputusan dan Penguasaan Konsep IPA melalui Model Pembelajaran Advance Organizer di Sekolah Dasar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan peningkatan keterampilan pengambilan keputusan dan pemahaman konsep IPA siswa sebagai dampak dari implementasi model Advance Organizer. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuasi eksperimen dengan desain Non equivalent (Pre-Test and Post- Test) Control Groups Design. Subyek penelitian adalah siswa kelas V pada ...

  12. Modeling the Current and Future Roles of Particulate Organic Nitrates in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Havala O T; Luecken, Deborah J; Xu, Lu; Boyd, Christopher M; Ng, Nga L; Baker, Kirk R; Ayres, Benjamin R; Bash, Jesse O; Baumann, Karsten; Carter, William P L; Edgerton, Eric; Fry, Juliane L; Hutzell, William T; Schwede, Donna B; Shepson, Paul B

    2015-12-15

    Organic nitrates are an important aerosol constituent in locations where biogenic hydrocarbon emissions mix with anthropogenic NOx sources. While regional and global chemical transport models may include a representation of organic aerosol from monoterpene reactions with nitrate radicals (the primary source of particle-phase organic nitrates in the Southeast United States), secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models can underestimate yields. Furthermore, SOA parametrizations do not explicitly take into account organic nitrate compounds produced in the gas phase. In this work, we developed a coupled gas and aerosol system to describe the formation and subsequent aerosol-phase partitioning of organic nitrates from isoprene and monoterpenes with a focus on the Southeast United States. The concentrations of organic aerosol and gas-phase organic nitrates were improved when particulate organic nitrates were assumed to undergo rapid (τ = 3 h) pseudohydrolysis resulting in nitric acid and nonvolatile secondary organic aerosol. In addition, up to 60% of less oxidized-oxygenated organic aerosol (LO-OOA) could be accounted for via organic nitrate mediated chemistry during the Southern Oxidants and Aerosol Study (SOAS). A 25% reduction in nitrogen oxide (NO + NO2) emissions was predicted to cause a 9% reduction in organic aerosol for June 2013 SOAS conditions at Centreville, Alabama.

  13. Virtual reality simulators: valuable surgical skills trainers or video games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Ross E; Gomez, Pedro Pablo; Ivatury, Srinivas J; Mitra, Hari S; Van Sickle, Kent R

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) and physical model (PM) simulators differ in terms of whether the trainee is manipulating actual 3-dimensional objects (PM) or computer-generated 3-dimensional objects (VR). Much like video games (VG), VR simulators utilize computer-generated graphics. These differences may have profound effects on the utility of VR and PM training platforms. In this study, we aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between VR, PM, and VG platforms. VR and PM simulators for laparoscopic camera navigation ([LCN], experiment 1) and flexible endoscopy ([FE] experiment 2) were used in this study. In experiment 1, 20 laparoscopic novices played VG and performed 0° and 30° LCN exercises on VR and PM simulators. In experiment 2, 20 FE novices played VG and performed colonoscopy exercises on VR and PM simulators. In both experiments, VG performance was correlated with VR performance but not with PM performance. Performance on VR simulators did not correlate with performance on respective PM models. VR environments may be more like VG than previously thought. © 2013 Published by Association of Program Directors in Surgery on behalf of Association of Program Directors in Surgery.

  14. Democracy versus dictatorship in self-organized models of financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hulst, R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-06-01

    Models to mimic the transmission of information in financial markets are introduced. As an attempt to generate the demand process, we distinguish between dictatorship associations, where groups of agents rely on one of them to make decision, and democratic associations, where each agent takes part in the group decision. In the dictatorship model, agents segregate into two distinct populations, while the democratic model is driven towards a critical state where groups of agents of all sizes exist. Hence, both models display a level of organization, but only the democratic model is self-organized. We show that the dictatorship model generates less-volatile markets than the democratic model.

  15. Neotropical electric fishes (Gymnotiformes as model organisms for bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric fishes (Gymnotiformes inhabit Central and South America and form a relatively large group with more than 200 species. Besides a taxonomic challenge due to their still unresolved systematic, wide distribution and the variety of habitats they occupy, these fishes have been intensively studied due to their peculiar use of bioelectricity for electrolocation and communication. Conventional analysis of cells, tissues and organs have been complemented with the studies on the electric organ discharges of these fishes. This review compiles the results of 13 bioassays developed during the last 50 years, which used the quickness, low costs and functionality of the bioelectric data collection of Gymnotiformes to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants and neuroactive drugs.

  16. Organisms modeling: The question of radial basis function networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzy Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists usually a gap between bio-inspired computational techniques and what biologists can do with these techniques in their current researches. Although biology is the root of system-theory and artifical neural networks, computer scientists are tempted to build their own systems independently of biological issues. This publication is a first-step re-evalution of an usual machine learning technique (radial basis funtion(RBF networks in the context of systems and biological reactive organisms.

  17. A double moral hazard model of organization design

    OpenAIRE

    Berkovitch, Elazar; Israel, Ronen; Spiegel, Yossi

    2007-01-01

    We develop a theory of organization design in which the firm's structure is chosen to mitigate moral hazard problems in the selection and the implementation of projects. For a given set of projects, the 'divisional structure' which gives each agent the full responsibility over a subset of projects is in general more efficient than the functional structure under which projects are implemented by teams of agents, each of whom specializes in one task. However, the ex post efficiency of the divis...

  18. Fluvial archives, a valuable record of vertical crustal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Mather, A.; Whittaker, A.

    2017-06-01

    The study of drainage network response to uplift is important not only for understanding river system dynamics and associated channel properties and fluvial landforms, but also for identifying the nature of crustal deformation and its history. In recent decades, geomorphic analysis of rivers has proved powerful in elucidating the tectonic evolution of actively uplifting and eroding orogens. Here, we review the main recent developments that have improved and expanded qualitative and quantitative information about vertical tectonic motions (the effects of horizontal deformation are not addressed). Channel long profiles have received considerable attention in the literature, and we briefly introduce basic aspects of the behaviour of bedrock rivers from field and numerical modelling perspectives, before describing the various metrics that have been proposed to identify the information on crustal deformation contained within their steady-state characteristics. Then, we review the literature dealing with the transient response of rivers to tectonic perturbation, through the production of knickpoints propagating through the drainage network. Inverse modelling of river profiles for uplift in time and space is also shown to be very effective in reconstructing regional tectonic histories. Finally, we present a synthetic morphometric approach for deducing the tectonic record of fluvial landscapes. As well as the erosional imprint of tectonic forcing, sedimentary deposits, such as fluvial terrace staircases, are also considered as a classical component of tectonic geomorphology. We show that these studies have recently benefited from rapid advances in dating techniques, allowing more reliable reconstruction of incision histories and estimation of incision rates. The combination of progress in the understanding of transient river profiles and larger, more rigorous data sets of terrace ages has led to improved understanding of river erosion and the implications for terrace

  19. Models for governing relationships in healthcare organizations: Some empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiti, Anna; Del Vecchio, Mario; Grazzini, Maddalena

    2018-01-01

    Recently, most European countries have undergone integration processes through mergers and strategic alliances between healthcare organizations. The present paper examined three cases within the Italian National Health Service in order to determine how different organizations, within differing institutional contexts, govern an healthcare integration process. Furthermore, we explored the possibility that the governance mode, usually seen as alternatives (i.e., merger or alliance), could be considered as a separate step in the development of a more suitable integration process. Multiple case studies were used to compare different integration approaches. Specifically, three cases were considered, of which two were characterized by collaborative processes and the other by a merger. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers involved in the processes. Each case presents different governing modes, structures, and mechanisms for achieving integration. The role played by the institutional context also led to different results with unique advantages and disadvantages. Three main conclusions are discussed: (a) Alliances and mergers can be interpreted as different steps in a path leading to a better integration; (b) The alignment between institutional/political time horizon and the time needed for the organizations to achieve an integration process lead to a better integration; (c) Trust plays an important role in integration process operating at different levels that of institutional and organizational level and that built between people.

  20. Dynamic root uptake model for neutral lipophilic organics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    and output to stem with the transpiration stream plus first-order metabolism and dilution by exponential growth. For chemicals with low or intermediate lipophilicity (log Kow , 2), there was no relevant difference between dynamic model and equilibrium approach. For lipophilic compounds, the dynamic model...

  1. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH,

  2. Computational Modeling of Cultural Dimensions in Adversary Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    theatre of operations. 50 51 Chapter 5 Adversary Modeling Applications 5.1 Modeling Uncertainty in Adversary Behavior: Attacks in...Underestimate the Strength of Coalition Power 1 1 (= True) 1 1 1 -- Coalition Deploys Forces to Indonesia 1 1 2 1 2 -- Thai can Conduct Unilateral NEO 1 1

  3. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  4. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, A. N.; Viglione, G. A.; Li, Z.; McNeill, V. Faye

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as heterogeneous reactivity, ice nucleation, and cloud droplet formation. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2-6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two semi-empirical surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well described by a weighted Szyszkowski-Langmuir (S-L) model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005). Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1) the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term), and (2) a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2) for surface tension modeling of aerosol systems because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems) and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling results and goodness-of-fit (χ2) values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  5. Modeling equilibrium adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.; Villacorte, Loreen O.; Verliefde, Arne R. D.; Verberk, Jasper Q J C; Heijman, Bas G J; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Johannis C.

    2010-01-01

    to these properties occur in parallel, and their respective dominance depends on the solute properties as well as carbon characteristics. In this paper, a model based on multivariate linear regression is described that was developed to predict equilibrium carbon

  6. Fruit tree model for uptake of organic compounds from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rasmussen, D.; Samsoe-Petersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    -state, and an example calculation is given. The Fruit Tree Model is compared to the empirical equation of Travis and Arms (T&A), and to results from fruits, collected in contaminated areas. For polar compounds, both T&A and the Fruit Tree Model predict bioconcentration factors fruit to soil (BCF, wet weight based......) of > 1. No empirical data are available to support this prediction. For very lipophilic compounds (log K-OW > 5), T&A overestimates the uptake. The conclusion from the Fruit Tree Model is that the transfer of lipophilic compounds into fruits is not relevant. This was also found by an empirical study...... with PCDD/F. According to the Fruit Tree Model, polar chemicals are transferred efficiently into fruits, but empirical data to verify these predictions are lacking....

  7. Integrated corporate structure life cycle management modeling and organization

    OpenAIRE

    Naumenko, M.; Morozova, L.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated business structure presented as complementary pool of its participants skills. The methodical approach to integrated business structure life cycle modeling proposed. Recommendations of enterprises life cycles stages correlate are submitted.

  8. A QUADTREE ORGANIZATION CONSTRUCTION AND SCHEDULING METHOD FOR URBAN 3D MODEL BASED ON WEIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    C. Yao; G. Peng; Y. Song; M. Duan

    2017-01-01

    The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weigh...

  9. Integrating centralized and decentralized organization structures: an education and development model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, R; Banks, A

    2001-01-01

    Organization change efforts have led to critically examining the structure of education and development departments within hospitals. This qualitative study evaluated an education and development model in an academic health sciences center. The model combines centralization and decentralization. The study results can be used by staff development educators and administrators when organization structure is questioned. This particular model maximizes the benefits and minimizes the limitations of centralized and decentralized structures.

  10. Modeling of iodine radiation chemistry in the presence of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghipour, Fariborz; Evans, Greg J.

    2002-01-01

    A kinetic-based model was developed that simulates the radiation chemistry of iodine in the presence of organic compounds. The model's mechanistic description of iodine chemistry and generic semi-mechanistic reactions for various classes of organics, provided a reasonable representation of experimental results. The majority of the model and experimental results of iodine volatilization rates were in agreement within an order of magnitude

  11. Modeling the acid-base chemistry of organic solutes in Adirondack, New York, lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Lehtinen, Michael D.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    1994-02-01

    Data from the large and diverse Adirondack Lake Survey were used to calibrate four simple organic acid analog models in an effort to quantify the influence of naturally occurring organic acids on lake water pH and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). The organic acid analog models were calibrated to observations of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and organic anion (An-) concentrations from a reduced data set representing 1128 individual lake samples, expressed as 41 observations of mean pH, in intervals of 0.1 pH units from pH 3.9 to 7.0. Of the four organic analog approaches examined, including the Oliver et al. (1983) model, as well as monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic representations, the triprotic analog model yielded the best fit (r2 = 0.92) to the observed data. Moreover, the triprotic model was qualitatively consistent with observed patterns of change in organic solute charge density as a function of pH. A low calibrated value for the first H+ dissociation constant (pKal = 2.62) and the observation that organic anion concentrations were significant even at very low pH (acidic functional groups. Inclusion of organic acidity in model calculations resulted in good agreement between measured and predicted values of lake water pH and ANC. Assessments to project the response of surface waters to future changes in atmospheric deposition, through the use of acidification models, will need to include representations of organic acids in model structure to make accurate predictions of pH and ANC.

  12. Two models for absorption by coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill N. Schwarz

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The standard exponential model for CDOM absorption has been applied to data from diverse waters. Absorption at 440 nm (ag440 ranged between close to zero and 10 m-1, and the slope of the semilogarithmic absorption spectrum over a minimum range of 400 to 440 nm (s440 ranged between < 0.01 and 0.04 nm-1. No relationship was found between ag440 or s440 and salinity. Except in the southern Baltic, s440 was found to have a broad distribution (0.0165 ± 0.0035, suggesting that it should be introduced as an additional variable in bio-optical models when ag440 is large. An alternative model for CDOM absorption was applied to available high quality UV-visible absorption spectra from the Wisla river (Poland. This model assumes that the CDOM absorption spectrum comprises distinct Gaussian absorption bands in the UV, similar to those of benzene. Five bands were fit to the data. The mean central energy of all bands was higher in early summer (E~7.2, 6.6, 6.4, 6.2 and 5.5 eV or 172, 188, 194, 200 and 226 nm than in winter. The higher energy bands were found to decay in both height and width with increasing salinity, while lower energy bands broadened with increasing salinity. s440 was found to be correlated with shape parameters of the bands centred at 6.4 and 5.5 eV. While the exponential model is convenient for optical modelling and remote sensing applications, these results suggest that the Gaussian model offers a deeper understanding of chemical interactions affecting CDOM molecular structure.

  13. Self-organized critical model for protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    The major factor that drives a protein toward collapse and folding is the hydrophobic effect. At the folding process a hydrophobic core is shielded by the solvent-accessible surface area of the protein. We study the fractal behavior of 5526 protein structures present in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. Power laws of protein mass, volume and solvent-accessible surface area are measured independently. The present findings indicate that self-organized criticality is an alternative explanation for the protein folding. Also we note that the protein packing is an independent and constant value because the self-similar behavior of the volumes and protein masses have the same fractal dimension. This power law guarantees that a protein is a complex system. From the analyzed data, q-Gaussian distributions seem to fit well this class of systems.

  14. Presenting a comprehensive market oriented model and evaluating its impact on organization performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taqi Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Like other innovative strategies, companies have paid more attention to market oriented strategies in recent years. This has been focused by organizations for improved effectiveness and the organization performance accelerated a lot in business competition. In responding to this fact, organizations are trying to formulate many of the issues familiar to large organizations, which have involved with market oriented strategy planning. This paper reviews key elements in market-oriented strategy planning with regard to competitiveness and performance in large organizations and outlines a comprehensive model for strategy planning in profit organizations. These elements include environment, top management, organization structure and market oriented strategy. Professional question of this study has a particularly important role in formulating relations of this model. These elements are well positioned to evaluate the impact of market-oriented strategy planning on organizations and their expected impacts on organization performance. A well-organized questionnaire to help organizations with their planning is proposed in this survey. Based on the proposed questionnaire, data obtained from Tehran food industry experts and analyzed by using SEM method. Results accepted eight hypotheses and rejected one.

  15. An Incremental Model for Cloud Adoption: Based on a Study of Regional Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Erturk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations that use cloud computing services intend to increase this commitment. A survey was distributed to organizations in Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand to understand their adoption of cloud solutions, in comparison with global trends and practices. The survey also included questions on the benefits and challenges, and which delivery model(s they have adopted and are planning to adopt. One aim is to contribute to the cloud computing literature and build on the existing adoption models. This study also highlights additional aspects applicable to various organizations (small, medium, large and regional. Finally, recommendations are provided for related future research projects.

  16. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on organic semiconductors : experiment and model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink, M.; Alvarado, S.F.; Müller, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Salemink, H.W.M.; Wolter, J.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Scanning-tunneling spectroscopy expts. performed on conjugated polymer films are compared with three-dimensional numerical model calcns. for charge injection and transport. It is found that if a sufficiently sharp tip is used, the field enhancement near the tip apex leads to a significant increase

  17. A Social Information Processing Model of Media Use in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a model to examine how social influence processes affect individuals' attitudes toward communication media and media use behavior, integrating two research areas: media use patterns as the outcome of objectively rational choices and social information processing theory. Asserts (in a synthesis) that media characteristics and attitudes are…

  18. Modeling charge transfer at organic donor-acceptor semiconductor interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cakir, Deniz; Bokdam, Menno; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Fahlman, M.; Brocks, G.

    2012-01-01

    We develop an integer charge transfer model for the potential steps observed at interfaces between donor and acceptor molecular semiconductors. The potential step can be expressed as the difference between the Fermi energy pinning levels of electrons on the acceptor material and holes on the donor

  19. Modeling equilibrium adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2010-05-01

    Solute hydrophobicity, polarizability, aromaticity and the presence of H-bond donor/acceptor groups have been identified as important solute properties that affect the adsorption on activated carbon. However, the adsorption mechanisms related to these properties occur in parallel, and their respective dominance depends on the solute properties as well as carbon characteristics. In this paper, a model based on multivariate linear regression is described that was developed to predict equilibrium carbon loading on a specific activated carbon (F400) for solutes reflecting a wide range of solute properties. In order to improve prediction accuracy, groups (bins) of solutes with similar solute properties were defined and solute removals were predicted for each bin separately. With these individual linear models, coefficients of determination (R2) values ranging from 0.61 to 0.84 were obtained. With the mechanistic approach used in developing this predictive model, a strong relation with adsorption mechanisms is established, improving the interpretation and, ultimately, acceptance of the model. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Mathematical modeling of blood-gas kinetics for the volatile organic compounds isoprene and acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.

    2010-01-01

    Breath gas analysis is based on the compelling concept that the exhaled breath levels of endogenously produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide a direct, non-invasive window to the blood and hence, by inference, to the body. In this sense, breath VOCs are regarded as a comprehensive repository of valuable physiological and clinical information, that might be exploited in such diverse areas as diagnostics, therapeutic monitoring or general dynamic assessments of metabolic function, pharmacodynamics (e.g., in drug testing) and environmental exposure (e.g., in occupational health). Despite this enormous potential, the lack of standardized breath sampling regimes as well as the poor mechanistic understanding of VOC exhalation kinetics could cast a cloud over the widespread use of breath gas analysis in the biomedical sciences. In this context, a primary goal of the present thesis is to provide a better quantitative insight into the breath behavior of two prototypic VOCs, isoprene and acetone. A compartmental modeling framework is developed and validated by virtue of real-time breath measurements of these trace gases during distinct physiological states. In particular, the influence of various hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters on VOC concentrations in exhaled breath is investigated. This approach also complements previous steady state investigations in toxicology. From a phenomenological point of view, both acetone and isoprene concentrations in end-tidal breath are demonstrated to exhibit a reproducible non-steady state behavior during moderate workload challenges on a stationary bicycle. However, these dynamics depart drastically from what is expected on the basis of classical pulmonary inert gas elimination theory. More specifically, the start of exercise is accompanied by an abrupt increase in breath isoprene levels, usually by a factor of 3 to 4 compared with the steady state value during rest. This phase is followed by a gradual decline and the

  1. Sleep and Development in Genetically Tractable Model Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Biron, David

    2016-05-01

    Sleep is widely recognized as essential, but without a clear singular function. Inadequate sleep impairs cognition, metabolism, immune function, and many other processes. Work in genetic model systems has greatly expanded our understanding of basic sleep neurobiology as well as introduced new concepts for why we sleep. Among these is an idea with its roots in human work nearly 50 years old: sleep in early life is crucial for normal brain maturation. Nearly all known species that sleep do so more while immature, and this increased sleep coincides with a period of exuberant synaptogenesis and massive neural circuit remodeling. Adequate sleep also appears critical for normal neurodevelopmental progression. This article describes recent findings regarding molecular and circuit mechanisms of sleep, with a focus on development and the insights garnered from models amenable to detailed genetic analyses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Phragmites australis as a model organism for studying plant invasions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyerson, L. A.; Cronin, J. T.; Pyšek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 9 (2016), s. 2421-2431 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15414S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : common reed * model species * global climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  3. Using phylogenetically-informed annotation (PIA) to search for light-interacting genes in transcriptomes from non-model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiser, Daniel I; Pankey, M Sabrina; Zaharoff, Alexander K; Battelle, Barbara A; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Breinholt, Jesse W; Bybee, Seth M; Cronin, Thomas W; Garm, Anders; Lindgren, Annie R; Patel, Nipam H; Porter, Megan L; Protas, Meredith E; Rivera, Ajna S; Serb, Jeanne M; Zigler, Kirk S; Crandall, Keith A; Oakley, Todd H

    2014-11-19

    trees for LIT genes will be a valuable resource for researchers studying the evolution of eyes or other light-interacting structures. We also introduce PIA, a high throughput method for using phylogenetic relationships to identify LIT genes in transcriptomes from non-model organisms. With simple modifications, our methods may be used to search for different sets of genes or to annotate data sets from taxa outside of Metazoa.

  4. ORCHIDEE-SOM: modeling soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics along vertical soil profiles in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Guenet, Bertrand; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Bastrikov, Vladislav; De Vos, Bruno; Gielen, Bert; Gleixner, Gerd; Jornet-Puig, Albert; Kaiser, Klaus; Kothawala, Dolly; Lauerwald, Ronny; Peñuelas, Josep; Schrumpf, Marion; Vicca, Sara; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walmsley, David; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2018-03-01

    Current land surface models (LSMs) typically represent soils in a very simplistic way, assuming soil organic carbon (SOC) as a bulk, and thus impeding a correct representation of deep soil carbon dynamics. Moreover, LSMs generally neglect the production and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from soils to rivers, leading to overestimations of the potential carbon sequestration on land. This common oversimplified processing of SOC in LSMs is partly responsible for the large uncertainty in the predictions of the soil carbon response to climate change. In this study, we present a new soil carbon module called ORCHIDEE-SOM, embedded within the land surface model ORCHIDEE, which is able to reproduce the DOC and SOC dynamics in a vertically discretized soil to 2 m. The model includes processes of biological production and consumption of SOC and DOC, DOC adsorption on and desorption from soil minerals, diffusion of SOC and DOC, and DOC transport with water through and out of the soils to rivers. We evaluated ORCHIDEE-SOM against observations of DOC concentrations and SOC stocks from four European sites with different vegetation covers: a coniferous forest, a deciduous forest, a grassland, and a cropland. The model was able to reproduce the SOC stocks along their vertical profiles at the four sites and the DOC concentrations within the range of measurements, with the exception of the DOC concentrations in the upper soil horizon at the coniferous forest. However, the model was not able to fully capture the temporal dynamics of DOC concentrations. Further model improvements should focus on a plant- and depth-dependent parameterization of the new input model parameters, such as the turnover times of DOC and the microbial carbon use efficiency. We suggest that this new soil module, when parameterized for global simulations, will improve the representation of the global carbon cycle in LSMs, thus helping to constrain the predictions of the future SOC response to global

  5. WHETHER OPEN INNOVATION IS A BETTER CHOICE AS A MODEL OF INNOVATION FOR ORGANIZATIONS?

    OpenAIRE

    KANBUR, AYSUN; A. H. MOHAMED, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This studypresents a review of innovation models and by taking consideration andexamining these models it is aimed to understand whether the model based onopen innovation is a better choice among all the other models. Fororganizations, innovation models generally demonstrate how to work in aninnovative point of view. Companies of today’s business life are striving todevelop their capabilities and their activities to become innovative companies.Many of the organizations try to find the most su...

  6. Fully coupled opto-electronic modelling of organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, Nils A.; Haeusermann, Roger; Huber, Evelyne; Moos, Michael [ZHAW, Institute of Comp. Physics (Germany); Flatz, Thomas [Fluxim AG (Switzerland); Ruhstaller, Beat [ZHAW, Institute of Comp. Physics (Germany); Fluxim AG (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    Record solar power conversion efficiencies of up to 5.5 % for single junction organic solar cells (OSC) are encouraging but still inferior to values of inorganic solar cells. For further progress, a detailed analysis of the mechanisms that limit the external quantum efficiency is crucial. It is widely believed that the device physics of OSCs can be reduced to the processes, which take place at the donor/acceptor-interface. Neglecting transport, trapping and ejection of charge carriers at the electrodes raises the question of the universality of such a simplification. In this study we present a fully coupled opto-electronic simulator, which calculates the spatial and spectral photon flux density inside the OSC, the formation of the charge transfer state and its dissociation into free charge carriers. Our simulator solves the drift- diffusion equations for the generated charge carriers as well as their ejection at the electrodes. Our results are in good agreement with both steady-state and transient OSC characteristics. We address the influence of physical quantities such as the optical properties, film-thicknesses, the recombination rate and charge carrier mobilities on performance figures. For instance the short circuit current can be enhanced by 15% to 25% when using a silver instead of an aluminium cathode. Our simulations lead to rules of thumb, which help to optimise a given OSC structure.

  7. Valuable Virality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah

    2017-01-01

    Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go “viral,” their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how

  8. Valuable Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    and blurred boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid contexts, as well as design, production and use, we might need to rethink the role of ethnography within design and business development. Perhaps the aim is less about ”getting closer” to user needs and real-life contexts, through familiarization......, mediation, advocacy and facilitation, as in conventional approaches to ethnography in user centred design, and more about creating a critical theoretically informed distance from which to perceive and reflect upon complex interconnections between people, technology, business and design, as well as our roles...

  9. Valuable Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    , as well as design, production and use, we might need to rethink the role of ethnography within user centred design and business development. Here the challenge is less about ”getting closer” to user needs and real-life contexts, through familiarization, mediation, and facilitation, and more about creating...... a critical theoretically informed distance from which to perceive and reflect upon complex interconnections between people, technology, business and design, as well as our roles as researchers and designers within these....

  10. 76 FR 29249 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model: Request for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... Affordable Care Act, to test innovative payment and service delivery models that reduce spending under.... This Model will test the effectiveness of a combination of the following: Payment arrangements that...] Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model: Request for Applications AGENCY: Centers for...

  11. An Introduction to Topic Modeling as an Unsupervised Machine Learning Way to Organize Text Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    The field of topic modeling has become increasingly important over the past few years. Topic modeling is an unsupervised machine learning way to organize text (or image or DNA, etc.) information such that related pieces of text can be identified. This paper/session will present/discuss the current state of topic modeling, why it is important, and…

  12. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. For the Arts To Have Meaning...A Model of Adult Education in Performing Arts Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitinoja, L.; Heimlich, J. E.

    A model of adult education appears to function in the outreach programs of three Columbus (Ohio) performing arts organizations. The first tier represents the arts organization's board of trustees, and the second represents the internal administration of the company. Two administrative bodies are arbitrarily labelled as education and marketing,…

  14. Basic model for the prediction of 137Cs concentration in the organisms of detritus food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1997-01-01

    In order to predict 137 Cs concentrations in marine organisms for monitoring, a basic model for the prediction of nuclide levels in marine organisms of detritus food chain was studied. The equilibrated values of ( 137 Cs level in organism)/( 137 Cs level in seawater) derived from calculation agreed with the observed data, indicating validity of modeling conditions. The result of simulation by this basic model showed the following conclusions. 1) ''Ecological half-life'' of 137 Cs in organisms of food chain were 35 and 130 days for detritus feeder and benthic teleosts, respectively, indicating that there was no difference of the ecological half lives in organisms between in detritus food chain and in other food chains. 2) The 137 Cs concentration in organisms showed a peak at 18 and 100 days in detritus and detritus feeder, respectively, after the introduction of 137 Cs into environmental seawater. Their concentration ratios to 137 Cs peak level in seawater were within a range of 2.7-3.8, indicating insignificant difference in the response to 137 Cs change in seawater between in the organisms of detritus food chain and of other food chain. 3) The basic model studies makes it available that the prediction of 137 Cs level in organisms of food chain can be simulated in coastal ecosystem. (author)

  15. Risk management in organic coffee supply chains : testing the usefulness of critical risk models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusselaers, J.F.; Benninga, J.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the findings of the analysis of the supply chain of organic coffee from Uganda to the Netherlands using a Chain Risk Model (CRM). The CRM considers contamination of organic coffee with chemicals as a threat for the supply chain, and analyses the consequences of contamination in

  16. Indonesian Private University Lecturer Performance Improvement Model to Improve a Sustainable Organization Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaman

    2018-01-01

    Lecturer performance will affect the quality and carrying capacity of the sustainability of an organization, in this case the university. There are many models developed to measure the performance of teachers, but not much to discuss the influence of faculty performance itself towards sustainability of an organization. This study was conducted in…

  17. Modelling energy level alignment at organic interfaces and density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, F.; Ortega, J.; Vazquez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    A review of our theoretical understanding of the band alignment at organic interfaces is presented with particular emphasis on the metal/organic (MO) case. The unified IDIS (induced density of interface states) and the ICT (integer charge transfer) models are reviewed and shown to describe qualit...

  18. The model selection in the process of teambuilding for the management of the organization

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Petrov

    2010-01-01

    Improving competitiveness of organizations necessary for their success in a market economy is no longer possible only due to material resources. This implies need for qualitatively new approach to human capital. The author reviews approaches to team building and suggests team management model based on situations-cases in which the organized one way or another team reaches goal.

  19. A Unifying Organ Model of Pancreatic Insulin Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Gaetano

    Full Text Available The secretion of insulin by the pancreas has been the object of much attention over the past several decades. Insulin is known to be secreted by pancreatic β-cells in response to hyperglycemia: its blood concentrations however exhibit both high-frequency (period approx. 10 minutes and low-frequency oscillations (period approx. 1.5 hours. Furthermore, characteristic insulin secretory response to challenge maneuvers have been described, such as frequency entrainment upon sinusoidal glycemic stimulation; substantial insulin peaks following minimal glucose administration; progressively strengthened insulin secretion response after repeated administration of the same amount of glucose; insulin and glucose characteristic curves after Intra-Venous administration of glucose boli in healthy and pre-diabetic subjects as well as in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Previous modeling of β-cell physiology has been mainly directed to the intracellular chain of events giving rise to single-cell or cell-cluster hormone release oscillations, but the large size, long period and complex morphology of the diverse responses to whole-body glucose stimuli has not yet been coherently explained. Starting with the seminal work of Grodsky it was hypothesized that the population of pancreatic β-cells, possibly functionally aggregated in islets of Langerhans, could be viewed as a set of independent, similar, but not identical controllers (firing units with distributed functional parameters. The present work shows how a single model based on a population of independent islet controllers can reproduce very closely a diverse array of actually observed experimental results, with the same set of working parameters. The model's success in reproducing a diverse array of experiments implies that, in order to understand the macroscopic behaviour of the endocrine pancreas in regulating glycemia, there is no need to hypothesize intrapancreatic pacemakers, influences between different

  20. Optimising the anaerobic co-digestion of urban organic waste using dynamic bioconversion mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Dorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical anaerobic bioconversion models are often used as a convenient way to simulate the conversion of organic materials to biogas. The aim of the study was to apply a mathematical model for simulating the anaerobic co-digestion of various types of urban organic waste, in order to develop...... in a continuously stirred tank reactor. The model's outputs were validated with experimental results obtained in thermophilic conditions, with mixed sludge as a single substrate and urban organic waste as a co-substrate at hydraulic retention times of 30, 20, 15 and 10 days. The predicted performance parameter...... (methane productivity and yield) and operational parameter (concentration of ammonia and volatile fatty acid) values were reasonable and displayed good correlation and accuracy. The model was later applied to identify optimal scenarios for an urban organic waste co-digestion process. The simulation...

  1. Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselev A.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with arterial hypertension based on IDEF0 methodology and corresponded with clinical guidelines is presented.

  2. Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselev A.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with chronic heart failure based on IDEF0 methodology and corresponded with clinical guidelines is presented.

  3. QSAR models for the removal of organic micropollutants in four different river water matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Calvin, James; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Ozonation is an advanced water treatment process used to remove organic micropollutants (OMPs) such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). In this study, Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models, for ozonation

  4. Modeling space-charge-limited currents in organic semiconductors: Extracting trap density and mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuñ a, Javier; Salleo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    We have developed and have applied a mobility edge model that takes drift and diffusion currents to characterize the space-charge-limited current in organic semiconductors into account. The numerical solution of the drift-diffusion equation allows

  5. Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Y.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organization-and-technological model of medical care delivered to patients with coronary heart disease based on IDEF0 methodology and corresponded with clinical guidelines is presented.

  6. Effects of Some Neurobiological Factors in a Self-organized Critical Model Based on Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liming; Zhang Yingyue; Chen Tianlun

    2005-01-01

    Based on an integrate-and-fire mechanism, we investigate the effect of changing the efficacy of the synapse, the transmitting time-delayed, and the relative refractoryperiod on the self-organized criticality in our neural network model.

  7. Predicting The Exit Time Of Employees In An Organization Using Statistical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al Kuwaiti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Employees are considered as an asset to any organization and each organization provide a better and flexible working environment to retain its best and resourceful workforce. As such continuous efforts are being taken to avoid or extend the exitwithdrawal of employees from the organization. Human resource managers are facing a challenge to predict the exit time of employees and there is no precise model existing at present in the literature. This study has been conducted to predict the probability of exit of an employee in an organization using appropriate statistical model. Accordingly authors designed a model using Additive Weibull distribution to predict the expected exit time of employee in an organization. In addition a Shock model approach is also executed to check how well the Additive Weibull distribution suits in an organization. The analytical results showed that when the inter-arrival time increases the expected time for the employees to exit also increases. This study concluded that Additive Weibull distribution can be considered as an alternative in the place of Shock model approach to predict the exit time of employee in an organization.

  8. Model of lifetime prediction - Study of the behaviour of polymers and organic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, X.

    2009-01-01

    The team 'Aging of Organic Materials' of the Process and Engineering Laboratory in Mechanics and Materials (Arts et Metiers, ParisTech) has developed the model of lifetime prediction for the prediction of the behaviour of polymers and organic composites. This model has already given evidence of a real predictive mean for various industrial applications, as for instance the prediction of a rupture under the coupled effect of a mechanical load and a chemical degradation. (O.M.)

  9. Development and evaluation of a skin organ model for the analysis of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meineke, V.; Mueller, K.; Ridi, R.; Cordes, N.; Beuningen, D. van; Koehn, F.M.; Ring, J.; Mayerhofer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: the reaction of tissues to ionizing radiation involves alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions mediated by cellular adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an artificial skin organ model for the analysis of radiation effects. Material and methods: a human co-culture system consisting of the spontaneously immortalized keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and primary HDFa fibroblasts embedded into a collagen sponge was established. This skin organ model has been characterized and evaluated for its suitability for radiobiological investigations. For that purpose, expression of β 1 -integrin following irradiation was compared in the skin organ model and in HaCaT monolayer cells (FACScan and immunohistochemistry). Furthermore, the influence of ionizing radiation on DNA fragmentation was investigated in the skin organ model (TUNEL assay). Results: the novel skin organ model showed characteristics of human skin as demonstrated by cytokeratin and Ki-67 immunoreactivity and by electron microscopy. A single dose of 5 Gy X-irradiation induced an upregulation of β 1 -integrin expression both in the skin organ model and in HaCaT cells. Following irradiation, β 1 -integrin immunoreactivity was intensified in the upper layers of the epidermis equivalent whereas it was almost absent in the deeper layers. Additionally, irradiation of the skin organ model also caused a marked increase of DNA fragmentation. Conclusion: these results demonstrate that the novel skin organ model is suitable to investigate cellular radiation effects under three-dimensional conditions. This allows to investigate radiation effects which cannot be demonstrated in monolayer cell cultures. (orig.)

  10. Lampreys as Diverse Model Organisms in the Genomics Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, David W; Docker, Margaret F; Whyard, Steve; Li, Weiming

    2015-11-01

    Lampreys, one of the two surviving groups of ancient vertebrates, have become important models for study in diverse fields of biology. Lampreys (of which there are approximately 40 species) are being studied, for example, (a) to control pest sea lamprey in the North American Great Lakes and to restore declining populations of native species elsewhere; (b) in biomedical research, focusing particularly on the regenerative capability of lampreys; and (c) by developmental biologists studying the evolution of key vertebrate characters. Although a lack of genetic resources has hindered research on the mechanisms regulating many aspects of lamprey life history and development, formerly intractable questions are now amenable to investigation following the recent publication of the sea lamprey genome. Here, we provide an overview of the ways in which genomic tools are currently being deployed to tackle diverse research questions and suggest several areas that may benefit from the availability of the sea lamprey genome.

  11. CONCEPTUAL MODELLING AND ORGANIZATION OF SECURITY MECHANISMS IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Galibus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the existing DS from the point of security and construct a two-level hierarchy of models. Such approach allows us to separate the abstraction (architecture level and the concrete (component level of ISS. The core set of methods, i. e. authentication and key exchange protocols, corresponds to the abstraction level and is defined as security infrastructure (SI. The final security parameters optimization and additional mechanisms such as authorization, routing and data auditing of the protection mechanisms are configured on the component level of the DS. In addition, we outline the systematic step-by-step ISS configuration method.

  12. Kidney Paired Donation and the "Valuable Consideration" Problem: The Experiences of Australia, Canada, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Maeghan; Giancaspro, Mark; Richards, Bernadette; Ferrari, Paolo

    2017-09-01

    As organ donation rates remain unable to meet the needs of individuals waiting for transplants, it is necessary to identify reasons for this shortage and develop solutions to address it. The introduction of kidney paired donation (KPD) programs represents one such innovation that has become a valuable tool in donation systems around the world. Although KPD has been successful in increasing kidney donation and transplantation, there are lingering questions about its legality. Donation through KPD is done in exchange for-and with the expectation of-a reciprocal kidney donation and transplantation. It is this reciprocity that has caused concern about whether KPD complies with existing law. Organ donation systems around the world are almost universally structured to legally prohibit the commercial exchange of organs. Australia, Canada, and the United States have accomplished this goal by prohibiting the exchange of an organ for "valuable consideration," which is a legal term that has not historically been limited to monetary exchange. Whether or not KPD programs violate this legislative prohibition will depend on the specific legislative provision being considered, and the legal system and case law of the particular jurisdiction in question. This article compares the experiences of Australia, Canada, and the United States in determining the legality of KPD and highlights the need for legal clarity and flexibility as donation and transplantation systems continue to evolve.

  13. Multiple organ definition in CT using a Bayesian approach for 3D model fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Jennifer L.; Weymouth, Terry E.; Meyer, Charles R.

    1995-08-01

    Organ definition in computed tomography (CT) is of interest for treatment planning and response monitoring. We present a method for organ definition using a priori information about shape encoded in a set of biometric organ models--specifically for the liver and kidney-- that accurately represents patient population shape information. Each model is generated by averaging surfaces from a learning set of organ shapes previously registered into a standard space defined by a small set of landmarks. The model is placed in a specific patient's data set by identifying these landmarks and using them as the basis for model deformation; this preliminary representation is then iteratively fit to the patient's data based on a Bayesian formulation of the model's priors and CT edge information, yielding a complete organ surface. We demonstrate this technique using a set of fifteen abdominal CT data sets for liver surface definition both before and after the addition of a kidney model to the fitting; we demonstrate the effectiveness of this tool for organ surface definition in this low-contrast domain.

  14. Plausible carrier transport model in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite resistive memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayoung Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate thermally assisted hopping (TAH as an appropriate carrier transport model for CH3NH3PbI3 resistive memories. Organic semiconductors, including organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, have been previously speculated to follow the space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC model. However, the SCLC model cannot reproduce the temperature dependence of experimental current-voltage curves. Instead, the TAH model with temperature-dependent trap densities and a constant trap level are demonstrated to well reproduce the experimental results.

  15. Relevance of the ICRP biokinetic model for dietary organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.

    1999-10-01

    Ingested dietary tritium can participate in metabolic processes, and become synthesized into organically bound tritium in the tissues and organs. The distribution and retention of the organically bound tritium throughout the body are much different than tritium in the body water. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 56 (1989) has a biokinetic model to calculate dose from the ingestion of organically bound dietary tritium. The model predicts that the dose from the ingestion of organically bound dietary tritium is about 2.3 times higher than from the ingestion of the same activity of tritiated water. Under steady-state conditions, the calculated dose rate (using the first principle approach) from the ingestion of dietary organically bound tritium can be twice that from the ingestion of tritiated water. For an adult, the upper-bound dose estimate for the ingestion of dietary organically bound tritium is estimated to be close to 2.3 times higher than that of tritiated water. Therefore, given the uncertainty in the dose calculation with respect to the actual relevant dose, the ICRP biokinetic model for organically bound tritium is sufficient for dosimetry for adults. (author)

  16. A CONSOLIDATED MODEL OF ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONS BETWEEN POLITICS AND MANAGEMENT WITHIN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Maria GEORGESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach which combines the theoretical, empirical andconceptual dimensions, the present study tries to offer a new workperspective on the assessment and modeling of the relation between themanagement of public organizations and the political environment. Thetheoretical research was centered on reviewing the literature on the relationbetween the management of public organizations and the politicalenvironment. The empirical research was materialized by modeling with theregression technique of several aspects integrated to the relations betweenthe management of human resources within public organizations in theeducation field and the external political environment.

  17. A Simulation Model of Combined Biogas, Bioethanol and Protein Fodder Co-Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate new strategies for the production of renewable energy within sustainable organic agriculture, a process-simulation model for a 100 ha organic farm was developed. Data used for the model was obtained from laboratory trials, literature data, consultancy with experts, and results...... ha organic farm with ethanol or biogas, respectively. This calculation was based on the assumption that the electrical efficiency of CHP (combined heat and power) unit was 38%. A variety of different scenarios can be simulated to mirror the farmer's needs....

  18. Laos Organization Name Using Cascaded Model Based on SVM and CRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Shaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of Laos organization name, this paper proposes a two layer model based on conditional random field (CRF and support vector machine (SVM for Laos organization name recognition. A layer of model uses CRF to recognition simple organization name, and the result is used to support the decision of the second level. Based on the driving method, the second layer uses SVM and CRF to recognition the complicated organization name. Finally, the results of the two levels are combined, And by a subsequent treatment to correct results of low confidence recognition. The results show that this approach based on SVM and CRF is efficient in recognizing organization name through open test for real linguistics, and the recalling rate achieve 80. 83%and the precision rate achieves 82. 75%.

  19. A Topographically and anatomically unified phantom model for organ dose determination in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Rannikko, S.; Ermakov, I.; Masarskyi, L.; Saltukova, L.

    1989-08-01

    The effective dose equivalent is used as a risk-related factor for assessing radiation impact on patients. In order to assess the effective dose equivalent, data on organ doses in several organs are needed. For calculation of the collective effective dose equivalent, data on the sex and size distribution of the exposed population are also needed. A realistic phantom model based on the Alderson-Rando anatomical phantom has been developed for these purposes. The phantom model includes 22 organs and takes into account the deflections due to sex, height, weight and other anatomical features. Coordinates of the outer contours of inner organs are given in different slabs of the phantom. The images of cross sections of different slabs realistically depict the distribution of the organs in the phantom. Statistics about height and weight distribution as a function of the age of the Finnish population are also given. (orig.)

  20. Simulation of Organic Matter and Pollutant Evolution during Composting: The COP-Compost Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, G; Zhang, Y; Houot, S; Steyer, J P; Patureau, D; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2013-01-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance. In this work, we proposed a model to simulate the behavior of OPs and the dynamic of organic C during composting. This model, named COP-Compost, includes two modules. An existing organic C module is based on the biochemical composition of the initial waste mixture and simulates the organic matter transformation during composting. An additional OP module simulates OP mineralization and the evolution of its bioaccessibility. Coupling hypotheses were proposed to describe the interactions between organic C and OP modules. The organic C module, evaluated using experimental data obtained from 4-L composting pilots, was independently tested. The COP-Compost model was evaluated during composting experiments containing four OPs representative of the major pollutants detected in compost and targeted by current and future regulations. These OPs included a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene), two surfactants (4--nonylphenol and a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate), and an herbicide (glyphosate). Residues of C-labeled OP with different bioaccessibility were characterized by sequential extraction and quantified as soluble, sorbed, and nonextractable fractions. The model was calibrated and coupling the organic C and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. A practical guide to build de-novo assemblies for single tissues of non-model organisms: the example of a Neotropical frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Montero-Mendieta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequencing (WGS is a very valuable resource to understand the evolutionary history of poorly known species. However, in organisms with large genomes, as most amphibians, WGS is still excessively challenging and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq represents a cost-effective tool to explore genome-wide variability. Non-model organisms do not usually have a reference genome and the transcriptome must be assembled de-novo. We used RNA-seq to obtain the transcriptomic profile for Oreobates cruralis, a poorly known South American direct-developing frog. In total, 550,871 transcripts were assembled, corresponding to 422,999 putative genes. Of those, we identified 23,500, 37,349, 38,120 and 45,885 genes present in the Pfam, EggNOG, KEGG and GO databases, respectively. Interestingly, our results suggested that genes related to immune system and defense mechanisms are abundant in the transcriptome of O. cruralis. We also present a pipeline to assist with pre-processing, assembling, evaluating and functionally annotating a de-novo transcriptome from RNA-seq data of non-model organisms. Our pipeline guides the inexperienced user in an intuitive way through all the necessary steps to build de-novo transcriptome assemblies using readily available software and is freely available at: https://github.com/biomendi/TRANSCRIPTOME-ASSEMBLY-PIPELINE/wiki.

  2. NASCENT: an automatic protein interaction network generation tool for non-model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banky, Daniel; Ordog, Rafael; Grolmusz, Vince

    2009-04-24

    Large quantity of reliable protein interaction data are available for model organisms in public depositories (e.g., MINT, DIP, HPRD, INTERACT). Most data correspond to experiments with the proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, Caenorhabditis elegans, Escherichia coli and Mus musculus. For other important organisms the data availability is poor or non-existent. Here we present NASCENT, a completely automatic web-based tool and also a downloadable Java program, capable of modeling and generating protein interaction networks even for non-model organisms. The tool performs protein interaction network modeling through gene-name mapping, and outputs the resulting network in graphical form and also in computer-readable graph-forms, directly applicable by popular network modeling software. http://nascent.pitgroup.org.

  3. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the res...

  4. Modification of SWAT model for simulation of organic matter in Korean watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Wook; Gyeong Yoon, Chun

    2012-01-01

    The focus of water quality modeling of Korean streams needs to be shifted from dissolved oxygen to algae or organic matter. In particular, the structure of water quality models should be modified to simulate the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which is a key factor in calculating total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in Korea, using 5-day BOD determined in the laboratory (Bottle BOD(5)). Considering the limitations in simulating organic matter under domestic conditions, we attempted to model total organic carbon (TOC) as well as BOD by using a watershed model. For this purpose, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was modified and extended to achieve better correspondence between the measured and simulated BOD and TOC concentrations. For simulated BOD in the period 2004-2008, the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient increased from a value of -2.54 to 0.61. Another indicator of organic matter, namely, the simulated TOC concentration showed that the modified SWAT adequately reflected the observed values. The improved model can be used to predict organic matter and hence, may be a potential decision-making tool for TMDLs. However, it needs further testing for longer simulation periods and other catchments.

  5. A model to incorporate organ deformation in the evaluation of dose/volume relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, D.; Jaffray, D.; Wong, J.; Brabbins, D.; Martinez, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Measurements of internal organ motion have demonstrated that daily organ deformation exists during the course of radiation treatment. However, a model to evaluate the resultant dose delivered to a daily deformed organ remains a difficult challenge. Current methods which model such organ deformation as rigid body motion in the dose calculation for treatment planning evaluation are incorrect and misleading. In this study, a new model for treatment planning evaluation is introduced which incorporates patient specific information of daily organ deformation and setup variation. The model was also used to retrospectively analyze the actual treatment data measured using daily CT scans for 5 patients with prostate treatment. Methods and Materials: The model assumes that for each patient, the organ of interest can be measured during the first few treatment days. First, the volume of each organ is delineated from each of the daily measurements and cumulated in a 3D bit-map. A tissue occupancy distribution is then constructed with the 50% isodensity representing the mean, or effective, organ volume. During the course of treatment, each voxel in the effective organ volume is assumed to move inside a local 3D neighborhood with a specific distribution function. The neighborhood and the distribution function are deduced from the positions and shapes of the organ in the first few measurements using the biomechanics model of viscoelastic body. For each voxel, the local distribution function is then convolved with the spatial dose distribution. The latter includes also the variation in dose due to daily setup error. As a result, the cumulative dose to the voxel incorporates the effects of daily setup variation and organ deformation. A ''variation adjusted'' dose volume histogram, aDVH, for the effective organ volume can then be constructed for the purpose of treatment evaluation and optimization. Up to 20 daily CT scans and daily portal images for 5 patients with prostate

  6. Designing clinically valuable telehealth resources: processes to develop a community-based palliative care prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, Jennifer Joy; Morgan, Deidre Diane; Swetenham, Kate; To, Timothy Hong Man; Currow, David Christopher

    2014-09-04

    Changing population demography and patterns of disease are increasing demands on the health system. Telehealth is seen as providing a mechanism to support community-based care, thus reducing pressure on hospital services and supporting consumer preferences for care in the home. This study examined the processes involved in developing a prototype telehealth intervention to support palliative care patients involved with a palliative care service living in the community. The challenges and considerations in developing the palliative care telehealth prototype were reviewed against the Center for eHealth Research (CeHRes) framework, a telehealth development model. The project activities to develop the prototype were specifically mapped against the model's first four phases: multidisciplinary project management, contextual inquiry, value specification, and design. This project has been developed as part of the Telehealth in the Home: Aged and Palliative Care in South Australia initiative. Significant issues were identified and subsequently addressed during concept and prototype development. The CeHRes approach highlighted the implicit diversity in views and opinions among participants and stakeholders and enabled issues to be considered, resolved, and incorporated during design through continuous engagement. The CeHRes model provided a mechanism that facilitated "better" solutions in the development of the palliative care prototype by addressing the inherent but potentially unrecognized differences in values and beliefs of participants. This collaboration enabled greater interaction and exchange among participants resulting in a more useful and clinically valuable telehealth prototype.

  7. INFORMATION – A VALUABLE ELEMENT IN THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF THE MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion SARBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available News. The globalization process has been accelerated by the explosion of information technologies entering into the work of social, production and education enterprises. Thus, in terms of systemic approach, the company is not a production of goods or services tailored to market requirements, but is equally an information unit producing knowledge. Purpose. The fundamental feature of these processes is applied once that the primary element of information processing is generated always in the information system, the information processed and interpreted in its final form as a resource of the management system. Methods. The article exposed the theoretical and methodological organization of information system of market relations and the role of information as a valuable element of business processes. Results. In the modern knowledge-based economy, increasing information needs at all levels of economic units that generate the emergence of new information products, enhancement of the productive resource and service information and transporting it by modern computerized channels.Information as a productive resource and service as the raw material for creating an active instrument of scientific management and virtual education in Moldova.

  8. Converting environmental risks to benefits by using spent coffee grounds (SCG) as a valuable resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Marinos; Agapiou, Agapios; Omirou, Michalis; Vyrides, Ioannis; Ioannides, Ioannis M; Maratheftis, Grivas; Fasoula, Dionysia

    2018-06-02

    Coffee is perhaps one of the most vital ingredients in humans' daily life in modern world. However, this causes the production of million tons of relevant wastes, i.e., plastic cups, aluminum capsules, coffee chaff (silver skin), and spent coffee grounds (SCG), all thrown untreated into landfills. It is estimated that 1 kg of instant coffee generates around 2 kg of wet SCG; a relatively unique organic waste stream, with little to no contamination, separated directly in the source by the coffee shops. The produced waste has been under researchers' microscope as a useful feedstock for a number of promising applications. SCG is considered a valuable, nutrients rich source of bioactive compounds (e.g., phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, lipids, chlorogenic and protocatechuic acid, melanoidins, diterpenes, xanthines, vitamin precursors, etc.) and a useful resource material in other processes (e.g., soil improver and compost, heavy metals absorbent, biochar, biodiesel, pellets, cosmetics, food, and deodorization products). This paper aims to provide a holistic approach for the SCG waste management, highlighting a series of processes and applications in environmental solutions, food industry, and agricultural sector. Thus, the latest developments and approaches of SCG waste management are reviewed and discussed.

  9. Classification of public lands valuable for geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, L.H.; Haigler, L.B.; Rioux, R.L.; White, D.E.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Wayland, R.G.

    1973-01-01

    The Organic Act of 1879 (43 USC 31) that established the US Geological Survey provided, among other things, for the classification of the public lands and for the examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain. In order to provide uniform executive action in classifying public lands, standards for determining which lands are valuable for mineral resources, for example, leasable mineral lands, or for other products are prepared by the US Geological Survey. This report presents the classification standards for determining which Federal lands are classifiable as geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources lands under the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1566). The concept of a geothermal resouces province is established for classification of lands for the purpose of retention in Federal ownership of rights to geothermal resources upon disposal of Federal lands. A geothermal resources province is defined as an area in which higher than normal temperatures are likely to occur with depth and in which there is a resonable possiblity of finding reservoir rocks that will yield steam or heated fluids to wells. The determination of a known geothermal resources area is made after careful evaluation of the available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data and any evidence derived from nearby discoveries, competitive interests, and other indicia. The initial classification required by the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 is presented.

  10. 3D-Printed specimens as a valuable tool in anatomy education: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garas, Monique; Vaccarezza, Mauro; Newland, George; McVay-Doornbusch, Kylie; Hasani, Jamila

    2018-06-06

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a modern technique of creating 3D-printed models that allows reproduction of human structures from MRI and CT scans via fusion of multiple layers of resin materials. To assess feasibility of this innovative resource as anatomy educational tool, we conducted a preliminary study on Curtin University undergraduate students to investigate the use of 3D models for anatomy learning as a main goal, to assess the effectiveness of different specimen types during the sessions and personally preferred anatomy learning tools among students as secondary aim. The study consisted of a pre-test, exposure to test (anatomical test) and post-test survey. During pre-test, all participants (both without prior experience and experienced groups) were given a brief introduction on laboratory safety and study procedure thus participants were exposed to 3D, wet and plastinated specimens of the heart, shoulder and thigh to identify the pinned structures (anatomical test). Then, participants were provided a post-test survey containing five questions. In total, 23 participants completed the anatomical test and post-test survey. A larger number of participants (85%) achieved right answers for 3D models compared to wet and plastinated materials, 74% of population selected 3D models as the most usable tool for identification of pinned structures and 45% chose 3D models as their preferred method of anatomy learning. This preliminary small-size study affirms the feasibility of 3D-printed models as a valuable asset in anatomy learning and shows their capability to be used adjacent to cadaveric materials and other widely used tools in anatomy education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Factors Determining Market Value of the Most Valuable Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Majewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The problem of identifying the most important determinants of the market value of football players is quite well described in the literature. There are many works that try to identify these factors. Some of them are focused on variables to make a set complete and others are on models and methods. The aim of this article is to present the variables influencing the valuation and to build an econometric model valuing footballers playing on the forward position, taking into consideration the assumptions of the econometric modelling. Such an approach indicates managers as other sources for obtaining information. Methodology: Econometric models were used to verify the hypothesis formulated in this research. The database was created on the basis of variables presented on the website www.transfermarkt. de that presents the values of the most valuable football players in the world playing on the forward position. The Gretl program was used in the research. Findings: The literature review showed that there are many independent variables having an impact on the value of the player. There are also many different models used to valuate footballers’ performance rights. The results of estimation of models in the research indicated that such factors as Canadian classification points adjusted the market value of the team and dummy variables describing “goodwill” (only for the best players had an impact on the market value of footballers’ performance rights. Limitations/implications: Information about different factors having an impact on football players’ market value could support the investment decision process of football managers. Originality/value: The results were part of a study concerning economics of sport, particularly processes of management of football clubs and valuation of intangible assets.

  12. MATRIX-VBS Condensing Organic Aerosols in an Aerosol Microphysics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe Y.; Tsigaridis, Konstas; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  13. Modelling atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants in the Northern Hemisphere with a 3-D dynamical model: DEHM-POP

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen , K. M.; Christensen , J. H.; Brandt , J.; Frohn , L. M.; Geels , C.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur into the Arctic. A new version of the model, DEHM-POP, developed to study the atmospheric transport and environmental fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is presented. During environmental cycling, POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of...

  14. Analisis Tingkat Motivasi Siswa Dalam Pembelajaran IPA Model Advance Organizer Berbasis Proyek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasiwan -

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available atur kemajuan (advance organizer berbasis proyek. Sampel penelitian dipilih secara acak. Pada kelas  eksperimen diterapkan model pembelajaran advance organizer berbasis proyek sedangkan pada kelas kontrol diterapkan pembelajaran langsung (direct instruction tanpa advance organizer. Sebelum pembelajaran di kelas, siswa eksperimen dikelompokkan menjadi 8 kelompok yang terdiri atas 4 – 5 siswa. Setiap kelompok ditugaskan untuk merealisasikan proyek bel listrik, rangkaian arus seri – paralel, dan tuas. Produk proyek digunakan dalam pembelajaran dikelas sebagai advance organizer. Data diperoleh melalui observasi partisipatif, penilaian produk, peta konsep, laporan eksperimen, dan angket. Instrumen motivasi menggunakan skala motivasi ARCS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelas eksperimen memiliki tingkat motivasi lebih baik dalam aspek perhatian, relevansi, kepercayaan diri, dan kepuasan pembelajaran dengan rata – rata tingkat motivasi sebesar 77,20, sedangkan tanpa advance organizer berbasis proyek sebesar 71,10. Disarankan siswa diberikan kemandirian penuh dalam proyek. This study was conducted to analyze the level of student motivation in learning science through models of advance organizer  based project . Samples were selected at random . In the experimental class advance organizer applied learning model based on a class project while learning control direct instruction without advance organizer . Prior learning in the classroom , students are grouped into 8 experimental groups consisting of 4-5 students . Each group was assigned a project to realize an electric bell , the circuit current series - parallel , and lever . Products used in a learning class project as advance organizer . The data obtained through participant observation , assessment product , concept maps , experimental reports , and questionnaires . Motivation instrument using ARCS motivation scale . Results showed that the experimental class had better motivation level

  15. ICoNOs MM: The IT-enabled Collaborative Networked Organizations Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana Tapia, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to introduce a comprehensive model for assessing and improving maturity of business-IT alignment (B-ITa) in collaborative networked organizations (CNOs): the ICoNOs MM. This two dimensional maturity model (MM) addresses five levels of maturity as well as four domains to

  16. Sorption of organic compounds to activated carbons. Evaluation of isotherm models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikaar, I.; Koelmans, A.A.; Noort, van P.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption to 'hard carbon' (black carbon, coal, kerogen) in soils and sediments is of major importance for risk assessment of organic pollutants. We argue that activated carbon (AC) may be considered a model sorbent for hard carbon. Here, we evaluate six sorption models on a literature dataset for

  17. Activating Global Operating Models: The bridge from organization design to performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Kates

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the concept of activation and discusses its use in the implementation of global operating models by large multinational companies. We argue that five particular activators help set in motion the complex strategies and organizations required by global operating models.

  18. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Ven, J. van de; Hoffman, R.R.; Moon, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a

  19. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; van de Ven, Josine; Hoffman, Robert R.; Moon, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a

  20. Using NLP meta, Milton, metaphor models, for improving the activity of the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Marian IOSIF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the improving of the three methods from the neuro- linguistic programming – metaphor, Milton model and the meta-model, so by using this in daily activities by an organization to improve the activities witch, are performed and to have a more efficient allocation of the available resources.

  1. A Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning Workshop Model as a Supplement for Organic Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Karen E. S.; Grose-Fifer, Jilliam

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe a Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning (PEIL) workshop model as a supplement for organic chemistry instruction. This workshop model differs from many others in that it includes public presentations by students and other whole-class-discussion components that have not been thoroughly investigated in the…

  2. A multigroup analysis of the job demands-resources model in four home care organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Taris, A.W. (Toon); Schaufeli, W.B.; Schreurs, Paul J.G.

    2003-01-01

    The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was tested in a study among 3,092 employees working in 1 of 4 different home care organizations. The central assumption in the model is that burnout develops when certain job demands are high and when job resources are limited because such negative working

  3. Model and Algorithm for Substantiating Solutions for Organization of High-Rise Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimov Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the models and the algorithm for the optimal plan formation for the organization of the material and logistical processes of the high-rise construction project and their financial support are developed. The model is based on the representation of the optimization procedure in the form of a non-linear problem of discrete programming, which consists in minimizing the execution time of a set of interrelated works by a limited number of partially interchangeable performers while limiting the total cost of performing the work. The proposed model and algorithm are the basis for creating specific organization management methodologies for the high-rise construction project.

  4. Model and Algorithm for Substantiating Solutions for Organization of High-Rise Construction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir; Anisimov, Evgeniy; Chernysh, Anatoliy

    2018-03-01

    In the paper the models and the algorithm for the optimal plan formation for the organization of the material and logistical processes of the high-rise construction project and their financial support are developed. The model is based on the representation of the optimization procedure in the form of a non-linear problem of discrete programming, which consists in minimizing the execution time of a set of interrelated works by a limited number of partially interchangeable performers while limiting the total cost of performing the work. The proposed model and algorithm are the basis for creating specific organization management methodologies for the high-rise construction project.

  5. Combining next-generation sequencing and online databases for microsatellite development in non-model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Ciro; Normandeau, Eric; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie; Rico, María Inés; Côté, Guillaume; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-12-03

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionising marker development and the rapidly increasing amount of transcriptomes published across a wide variety of taxa is providing valuable sequence databases for the identification of genetic markers without the need to generate new sequences. Microsatellites are still the most important source of polymorphic markers in ecology and evolution. Motivated by our long-term interest in the adaptive radiation of a non-model species complex of whitefishes (Coregonus spp.), in this study, we focus on microsatellite characterisation and multiplex optimisation using transcriptome sequences generated by Illumina® and Roche-454, as well as online databases of Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) for the study of whitefish evolution and demographic history. We identified and optimised 40 polymorphic loci in multiplex PCR reactions and validated the robustness of our analyses by testing several population genetics and phylogeographic predictions using 494 fish from five lakes and 2 distinct ecotypes.

  6. Linear and nonlinear methods in modeling the aqueous solubility of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Cornel; Gao, Hua; Orrenius, Christian; Stouten, Pieter F W

    2005-01-01

    Solubility data for 930 diverse compounds have been analyzed using linear Partial Least Square (PLS) and nonlinear PLS methods, Continuum Regression (CR), and Neural Networks (NN). 1D and 2D descriptors from MOE package in combination with E-state or ISIS keys have been used. The best model was obtained using linear PLS for a combination between 22 MOE descriptors and 65 ISIS keys. It has a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.935 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.468 log molar solubility (log S(w)). The model validated on a test set of 177 compounds not included in the training set has r2 0.911 and RMSE 0.475 log S(w). The descriptors were ranked according to their importance, and at the top of the list have been found the 22 MOE descriptors. The CR model produced results as good as PLS, and because of the way in which cross-validation has been done it is expected to be a valuable tool in prediction besides PLS model. The statistics obtained using nonlinear methods did not surpass those got with linear ones. The good statistic obtained for linear PLS and CR recommends these models to be used in prediction when it is difficult or impossible to make experimental measurements, for virtual screening, combinatorial library design, and efficient leads optimization.

  7. Model of sustainable utilization of organic solids waste in Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solanyi Castañeda Torres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article considers a proposal of a model of use of organic solids waste for the department of Cundinamarca, which responds to the need for a tool to support decision-making for the planning and management of organic solids waste. Objective: To perform an approximation of a conceptual technical and mathematician optimization model to support decision-making in order to minimize environmental impacts. Materials and methods: A descriptive study was applied due to the fact that some fundamental characteristics of the studied homogeneous phenomenon are presented and it is also considered to be quasi experimental. The calculation of the model for plants of the department is based on three axes (environmental, economic and social, that are present in the general equation of optimization. Results: A model of harnessing organic solids waste in the techniques of biological treatment of composting aerobic and worm cultivation is obtained, optimizing the system with the emissions savings of greenhouse gases spread into the atmosphere, and in the reduction of the overall cost of final disposal of organic solids waste in sanitary landfill. Based on the economic principle of utility that determines the environmental feasibility and sustainability in the plants of harnessing organic solids waste to the department, organic fertilizers such as compost and humus capture carbon and nitrogen that reduce the tons of CO2.

  8. Implementation of a Web-Based Organ Donation Educational Intervention: Development and Use of a Refined Process Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Laura; Bamps, Yvan; Flemming, Shauna St. Clair; Perryman, Jennie P; Thompson, Nancy J; Patzer, Rachel E; Williams, Nancy S DeSousa; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Background The lack of available organs is often considered to be the single greatest problem in transplantation today. Internet use is at an all-time high, creating an opportunity to increase public commitment to organ donation through the broad reach of Web-based behavioral interventions. Implementing Internet interventions, however, presents challenges including preventing fraudulent respondents and ensuring intervention uptake. Although Web-based organ donation interventions have increased in recent years, process evaluation models appropriate for Web-based interventions are lacking. Objective The aim of this study was to describe a refined process evaluation model adapted for Web-based settings and used to assess the implementation of a Web-based intervention aimed to increase organ donation among African Americans. Methods We used a randomized pretest-posttest control design to assess the effectiveness of the intervention website that addressed barriers to organ donation through corresponding videos. Eligible participants were African American adult residents of Georgia who were not registered on the state donor registry. Drawing from previously developed process evaluation constructs, we adapted reach (the extent to which individuals were found eligible, and participated in the study), recruitment (online recruitment mechanism), dose received (intervention uptake), and context (how the Web-based setting influenced study implementation) for Internet settings and used the adapted model to assess the implementation of our Web-based intervention. Results With regard to reach, 1415 individuals completed the eligibility screener; 948 (67.00%) were determined eligible, of whom 918 (96.8%) completed the study. After eliminating duplicate entries (n=17), those who did not initiate the posttest (n=21) and those with an invalid ZIP code (n=108), 772 valid entries remained. Per the Internet protocol (IP) address analysis, only 23 of the 772 valid entries (3.0%) were

  9. Implementation of a Web-Based Organ Donation Educational Intervention: Development and Use of a Refined Process Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Nakeva; Harker, Laura; Bamps, Yvan; Flemming, Shauna St Clair; Perryman, Jennie P; Thompson, Nancy J; Patzer, Rachel E; Williams, Nancy S DeSousa; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2017-11-30

    The lack of available organs is often considered to be the single greatest problem in transplantation today. Internet use is at an all-time high, creating an opportunity to increase public commitment to organ donation through the broad reach of Web-based behavioral interventions. Implementing Internet interventions, however, presents challenges including preventing fraudulent respondents and ensuring intervention uptake. Although Web-based organ donation interventions have increased in recent years, process evaluation models appropriate for Web-based interventions are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe a refined process evaluation model adapted for Web-based settings and used to assess the implementation of a Web-based intervention aimed to increase organ donation among African Americans. We used a randomized pretest-posttest control design to assess the effectiveness of the intervention website that addressed barriers to organ donation through corresponding videos. Eligible participants were African American adult residents of Georgia who were not registered on the state donor registry. Drawing from previously developed process evaluation constructs, we adapted reach (the extent to which individuals were found eligible, and participated in the study), recruitment (online recruitment mechanism), dose received (intervention uptake), and context (how the Web-based setting influenced study implementation) for Internet settings and used the adapted model to assess the implementation of our Web-based intervention. With regard to reach, 1415 individuals completed the eligibility screener; 948 (67.00%) were determined eligible, of whom 918 (96.8%) completed the study. After eliminating duplicate entries (n=17), those who did not initiate the posttest (n=21) and those with an invalid ZIP code (n=108), 772 valid entries remained. Per the Internet protocol (IP) address analysis, only 23 of the 772 valid entries (3.0%) were within Georgia, and only 17 of those

  10. Sources and characteristics of summertime organic aerosol in the Colorado Front Range: perspective from measurements and WRF-Chem modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bahreini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of organic aerosols (OAs and their precursors in the boundary layer (BL of the Colorado Front Range during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ, July–August 2014 was analyzed by in situ measurements and chemical transport modeling. Measurements indicated significant production of secondary OA (SOA, with enhancement ratio of OA with respect to carbon monoxide (CO reaching 0.085±0.003 µg m−3 ppbv−1. At background mixing ratios of CO, up to  ∼  1.8 µg m−3 background OA was observed, suggesting significant non-combustion contribution to OA in the Front Range. The mean concentration of OA in plumes with a high influence of oil and natural gas (O&G emissions was  ∼  40 % higher than in urban-influenced plumes. Positive matrix factorization (PMF confirmed a dominant contribution of secondary, oxygenated OA (OOA in the boundary layer instead of fresh, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA. Combinations of primary OA (POA volatility assumptions, aging of semi-volatile species, and different emission estimates from the O&G sector were used in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem simulation scenarios. The assumption of semi-volatile POA resulted in greater than a factor of 10 lower POA concentrations compared to PMF-resolved HOA. Including top-down modified O&G emissions resulted in substantially better agreements in modeled ethane, toluene, hydroxyl radical, and ozone compared to measurements in the high-O&G-influenced plumes. By including emissions from the O&G sector using the top-down approach, it was estimated that the O&G sector contributed to  <  5 % of total OA, but up to 38 % of anthropogenic SOA (aSOA in the region. The best agreement between the measured and simulated median OA was achieved by limiting the extent of biogenic hydrocarbon aging and consequently biogenic SOA (bSOA production. Despite a lower production of bSOA in

  11. A predictive framework for evaluating models of semantic organization in free recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Research in free recall has demonstrated that semantic associations reliably influence the organization of search through episodic memory. However, the specific structure of these associations and the mechanisms by which they influence memory search remain unclear. We introduce a likelihood-based model-comparison technique, which embeds a model of semantic structure within the context maintenance and retrieval (CMR) model of human memory search. Within this framework, model variants are evaluated in terms of their ability to predict the specific sequence in which items are recalled. We compare three models of semantic structure, latent semantic analysis (LSA), global vectors (GloVe), and word association spaces (WAS), and find that models using WAS have the greatest predictive power. Furthermore, we find evidence that semantic and temporal organization is driven by distinct item and context cues, rather than a single context cue. This finding provides important constraint for theories of memory search. PMID:28331243

  12. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eng

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4 and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite.

  13. Implementing learning organization components in Ardabil Regional Water Company based on Marquardt systematic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mirzaie Daryani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This main purpose of this study was to survey the implementation of learning organization characteristics based on Marquardt systematic model in Ardabil Regional Water Company. Two hundred and four staff (164 employees and 40 authorities participated in the study. For data collection Marquardt questionnaire was used which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. The results of the data analysis showed that learning organization characteristics were used more than average level in some subsystems of Marquardt model and there was a significant difference between current position and excellent position based on learning organization characteristic application. The results of this study can be used to improve work processes of organizations and institutions.

  14. A Behavioral Maturity Model to Establish Knowledge Management in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Fashami, C. S.; Babaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    Modern organizations need intangible assets such as organizational knowledge and human resources to gain competitive advantage in the market. Organizations can provide opportunities for behavioral maturity of managers to establish knowledge management. This study tries to develop a behavioral maturity model for managements to examine effectiveness of knowledge management. The study is conducted in Iran Insurance Company as an empirical case study. Twenty academic and organizational experts ar...

  15. Implementing learning organization components in Ardabil Regional Water Company based on Marquardt systematic model

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Mirzaie Daryani; Azadeh Zirak

    2015-01-01

    This main purpose of this study was to survey the implementation of learning organization characteristics based on Marquardt systematic model in Ardabil Regional Water Company. Two hundred and four staff (164 employees and 40 authorities) participated in the study. For data collection Marquardt questionnaire was used which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. The results of the data analysis showed that learning organization characteristics were used more than average level in som...

  16. Modeling and simulating command and control for organizations under extreme situations

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Il-Chul; Kim, Tag Gon

    2013-01-01

    Commanding and controlling organizations in extreme situations is a challenging task in military, intelligence, and disaster management. Such command and control must be quick, effective, and considerate when dealing with the changing, complex, and risky conditions of the situation. To enable optimal command and control under extremes, robust structures and efficient operations are required of organizations. This work discusses how to design and conduct virtual experiments on resilient organizational structures and operational practices using modeling and simulation. The work illustrates key a

  17. Model Stimulus-Organism-Response: Penentu Perilaku Pembelian Konsumen Secara Situasional

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena, Nonie

    2005-01-01

    Understanding about consumer purchase behavior is an essential aspect for developing organization bussiness strategic, especially in retailing. S-O-R (Stimulus-Organism-Response) model helps the practision and academics to understand which stimulus will influence consumers and the reaction that comsumer gave. One of the stimulus that explained in this article is the situation. Situation is an aspect that had change and hardly to predict. In other words, situation will determine consumer purch...

  18. A mathematical model for pressure-based organs behaving as biological pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casha, Aaron R; Camilleri, Liberato; Gauci, Marilyn; Gatt, Ruben; Sladden, David; Chetcuti, Stanley; Grima, Joseph N

    2018-04-26

    We introduce a mathematical model that describes the allometry of physical characteristics of hollow organs behaving as pressure vessels based on the physics of ideal pressure vessels. The model was validated by studying parameters such as body and organ mass, systolic and diastolic pressures, internal and external dimensions, pressurization energy and organ energy output measurements of pressure-based organs in a wide range of mammals and birds. Seven rules were derived that govern amongst others, lack of size efficiency on scaling to larger organ sizes, matching organ size in the same species, equal relative efficiency in pressurization energy across species and direct size matching between organ mass and mass of contents. The lung, heart and bladder follow these predicted theoretical relationships with a similar relative efficiency across various mammalian and avian species; an exception is cardiac output in mammals with a mass exceeding 10kg. This may limit massive body size in mammals, breaking Cope's rule that populations evolve to increase in body size over time. Such a limit was not found in large flightless birds exceeding 100kg, leading to speculation about unlimited dinosaur size should dinosaurs carry avian-like cardiac characteristics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Tomographic anthropomorphic models. Pt. 2. Organ doses from computed tomographic examinations in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.; Panzer, W.; Drexler, G.

    1993-11-01

    This report provides a catalogue of organ dose conversion factors resulting from computed tomographic (CT) examinations of children. Two radiation qualities and two exposure geometries were simulated as well as the use of asymmetrical beams. The use of further beam shaping devices was not considered. The organ dose conversion factors are applicable to babies at the age of ca. 2 months and to children between 5 and 7 years but can be used for other ages as well with the appropriate adjustments. For the calculations, the patients were represented by the GSF tomographic anthropomorphic models BABY and CHILD. The radiation transport in the body was simulated using a Monte Carlo method. The doses are presented as conversion factors of mean organ doses per air kerma free in air on the axis of rotation. Mean organ dose conversion factors are given per organ and per scanned body section of 1 cm height. The mean dose to an organ resulting from a particular CT examination can be estimated by summing up the contributions to the organ dose from all relevant sections. To facilitate the selection of the appropriate sections, a table is given which relates the tomographic models' coordinates to certain anatomical landmarks in the human body. (orig.)

  20. Model potential for the description of metal/organic interface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, Nico; Schiller, Frederik; Güdde, Jens; Höfer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    We present an analytical one-dimensional model potential for the description of electronic interface states that form at the interface between a metal surface and flat-lying adlayers of π-conjugated organic molecules. The model utilizes graphene as a universal representation of these organic adlayers. It predicts the energy position of the interface state as well as the overlap of its wave function with the bulk metal without free fitting parameters. We show that the energy of the interface state depends systematically on the bond distance between the carbon backbone of the adayers and the metal. The general applicability and robustness of the model is demonstrated by a comparison of the calculated energies with numerous experimental results for a number of flat-lying organic molecules on different closed-packed metal surfaces that cover a large range of bond distances. PMID:28425444

  1. MODELING THE PROCESS OF ASSIMILATION AND OPERATIONALIZATION OF THE CONCEPT OF MARKETING BY ROMANIAN LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Zait

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model that wants to offer some pertinent answers about the process of assimilation and operationalization of the marketing concept in the practice of local organizations in Romania. Considering the reality of organizational practice in Romania, which revealed a lack of consistency in the approach of assimilation and operationalization of the marketing concept, the model tries to capture a range of factors that determine and explain this phenomenon. Reality shows that many Romanian organizations either do not perceive the need and importance of marketing in their activity or assimilate and develop a priori, actions carried out by transnational companies that do not meet the particular context of the Romanian market and / or of internal environment. The model attempts to capture the peculiarities of the process of assimilation and operationalization of the concept of marketing in local organizations and describe the characteristics of each identified organizational structures.

  2. Chemical equilibrium modeling of organic acids, pH, aluminum, and iron in Swedish surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstedt, Carin S; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Köhler, Stephan J

    2010-11-15

    A consistent chemical equilibrium model that calculates pH from charge balance constraints and aluminum and iron speciation in the presence of natural organic matter is presented. The model requires input data for total aluminum, iron, organic carbon, fluoride, sulfate, and charge balance ANC. The model is calibrated to pH measurements (n = 322) by adjusting the fraction of active organic matter only, which results in an error of pH prediction on average below 0.2 pH units. The small systematic discrepancy between the analytical results for the monomeric aluminum fractionation and the model results is corrected for separately for two different fractionation techniques (n = 499) and validated on a large number (n = 3419) of geographically widely spread samples all over Sweden. The resulting average error for inorganic monomeric aluminum is around 1 µM. In its present form the model is the first internally consistent modeling approach for Sweden and may now be used as a tool for environmental quality management. Soil gibbsite with a log *Ks of 8.29 at 25°C together with a pH dependent loading function that uses molar Al/C ratios describes the amount of aluminum in solution in the presence of organic matter if the pH is roughly above 6.0.

  3. A case report on inVALUABLE: insect value chain in a circular bioeconomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, L.-H.; Andersen, J.L.; Eilenberg, J.

    2018-01-01

    partners span the entire value chain and include entrepreneurs, experts in biology, biotechnology, automation, processing and food tech and safety. This paper provides an overview of the goal, activities and some preliminary results obtained during the first year of the project.......The vision of inVALUABLE is to create a sustainable resource-efficient industry for animal production based on insects. inVALUABLE has focus on the R&D demand for scaling up production of insects in Denmark and assessing the application potential of particularly mealworms. The inVALUABLE consortium...

  4. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon Turnover in Four Temperate Forests Based on Radiocarbon Measurements of Heterotrophic Respiration and Soil Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, B.; Borken, W.; Muhr, J.; Schrumpf, M.; Savage, K. E.; Wutzler, T.; Trumbore, S.; Reichstein, M.

    2011-12-01

    Soils of temperate forests store significant amounts of soil organic matter and are considered to be net sinks of atmospheric CO2. Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics have been studied using the Δ14C signature of bulk SOC or different SOC fractions as observational constraints in SOC models. Further, the Δ14C signature of CO2 evolved during the incubation of soil and roots has been widely used together with Δ14C of total soil respiration to partition soil respiration into heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and root respiration. However, these data have rarely been used together as observational constraints to determine SOC turnover times. Here, we present a multiple constraints approach, where we used SOC stock and its Δ14C signature, and heterotrophic respiration and its Δ14C signature to estimate SOC turnover times of a simple serial two-pool model via Bayesian optimization. We used data from four temperate forest ecosystems in Germany and the USA with different disturbance and management histories from selective logging to afforestation in the late 19th and early 20th century. The Δ14C signature of the atmosphere with its prominent bomb peak was used as a proxy for the Δ14C signature of aboveground and belowground litterfall. The Δ14C signature of litterfall was lagged behind the atmospheric signal to account for the period between photosynthetic fixation of carbon and its addition to SOC pools. We showed that the combined use of Δ14C measurements of Rh and SOC stocks helped to better constrain turnover times of the fast pool (primarily by Δ14C of Rh) and the slow pool (primarily by Δ14C of SOC). In particular, by introducing two additional parameters that describe the deviation from steady state of the fast and slow cycling pool for both SOC and SO14C, we were able to demonstrate that we cannot maintain the often used steady-state assumption of SOC models in general. Furthermore, a new transport version of our model, including SOC transport via

  5. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN ADVANCE ORGANIZER BERVISI SETS TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PENGUASAAN KONSEP KIMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilam Pratitis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of the application of learning model with advance organizer envisions SETS to increase mastery of chemistry concepts in the high school in Semarang on buffer solution material. The design used in this research is the design of the control group non equivalent. Sampling was conducted with a purposive sampling technique, and obtained a XI 6 science grade as experimental class and class XI 5 science grade as control class. Data collection method used is the method of documentation, testing, observation, and questionnaires. The results showed that the average cognitive achievement of experimental class was 84, while the control class was 82. The result of data analysis showed that the effect of the application of learning model with advance organizer envisions SETS was able to increase the mastery of chemical concepts of 4%, with a correlation rate of 0.2. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the learning model with advance organizer envisions SETS had positive effect of increasing mastery of the concept of chemistry on buffer solution material. The advice given is learning model with organizer envisions SETS should also be applied to other chemistry materials. This is of course accompanied by a change in order to suit the needs of its effect on learning outcomes in the form of concept mastery of chemistry to be more increased.Keywords: Advance Organizer, Buffer Solution, Concept Mastery, SETS

  6. [Structural Equation Modeling on Living and Brain Death Organ Donation Intention in Nursing Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun A; Choi, So Eun

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test and validate a model to predict living and brain death organ donation intention in nursing students. The conceptual model was based on the theory planned behavior. Quota sampling methodology was used to recruit 921 nursing students from all over the country and data collection was done from October 1 to December 20, 2013. The model fit indices for the hypothetical model were suitable for the recommended level. Knowledge, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control explained 40.2% and 40.1% respectively for both living and brain death organ donation intention. Subjective norm was the most direct influential factor for organ donation intention. Knowledge had significant direct effect on attitude and indirect effect on subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. These effects were higher in brain death organ donation intention than in living donation intention. The overall findings of this study suggest the need to develop systematic education programs to increases knowledge about brain death organ donation. The development, application, and evaluation of intervention programs are required to improve subjective norm.

  7. A framework for implementation of organ effect models in TOPAS with benchmarks extended to proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Méndez, J; Faddegon, B; Perl, J; Schümann, J; Paganetti, H; Shin, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a framework for modeling organ effects within TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation), a wrapper of the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit that facilitates particle therapy simulation. The DICOM interface for TOPAS was extended to permit contour input, used to assign voxels to organs. The following dose response models were implemented: The Lyman–Kutcher–Burman model, the critical element model, the population based critical volume model, the parallel-serial model, a sigmoid-based model of Niemierko for normal tissue complication probability and tumor control probability (TCP), and a Poisson-based model for TCP. The framework allows easy manipulation of the parameters of these models and the implementation of other models.As part of the verification, results for the parallel-serial and Poisson model for x-ray irradiation of a water phantom were compared to data from the AAPM Task Group 166. When using the task group dose-volume histograms (DVHs), results were found to be sensitive to the number of points in the DVH, with differences up to 2.4%, some of which are attributable to differences between the implemented models. New results are given with the point spacing specified. When using Monte Carlo calculations with TOPAS, despite the relatively good match to the published DVH’s, differences up to 9% were found for the parallel-serial model (for a maximum DVH difference of 2%) and up to 0.5% for the Poisson model (for a maximum DVH difference of 0.5%). However, differences of 74.5% (in Rectangle1), 34.8% (in PTV) and 52.1% (in Triangle) for the critical element, critical volume and the sigmoid-based models were found respectively.We propose a new benchmark for verification of organ effect models in proton therapy. The benchmark consists of customized structures in the spread out Bragg peak plateau, normal tissue, tumor, penumbra and in the distal region. The DVH’s, DVH point spacing, and results of the organ effect models are

  8. The method for determination of parameters of the phenomenological continual model of soil organic matter transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Bartsev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A possible method for experimental determination of parameters of the previously proposed continual mathematical model of soil organic matter transformation is theoretically considered in this paper. The previously proposed by the authors continual model of soil organic matter transformation, based on using the rate of matter transformation as a continual scale of its recalcitrance, describes the transformation process phenomenologically without going into detail of microbiological mechanisms of transformation. Thereby simplicity of the model is achieved. The model is represented in form of one differential equation in first­order partial derivatives, which has an analytical solution in elementary functions. The model equation contains a small number of empirical parameters which generally characterize environmental conditions where the matter transformation process occurs and initial properties of the plant litter. Given the values of these parameters, it is possible to calculate dynamics of soil organic matter stocks and its distribution over transformation rate. In the present study, possible approaches for determination of the model parameters are considered and a simple method of their experimental measurement is proposed. An experiment of an incubation of chemically homogeneous samples in soil and multiple sequential measurement of the sample mass loss with time is proposed. An equation of time dynamics of mass loss of incubated homogeneous sample is derived from the basic assumption of the presented soil organic matter transformation model. Thus, fitting by the least squares method the parameters of sample mass loss curve calculated according the proposed mass loss dynamics equation allows to determine the parameters of the general equation of soil organic transformation model.

  9. Exploring the patterns and evolution of self-organized urban street networks through modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yikang; Ban, Yifang; Wang, Jiechen; Haas, Jan

    2013-03-01

    As one of the most important subsystems in cities, urban street networks have recently been well studied by using the approach of complex networks. This paper proposes a growing model for self-organized urban street networks. The model involves a competition among new centers with different values of attraction radius and a local optimal principle of both geometrical and topological factors. We find that with the model growth, the local optimization in the connection process and appropriate probability for the loop construction well reflect the evolution strategy in real-world cities. Moreover, different values of attraction radius in centers competition process lead to morphological change in patterns including urban network, polycentric and monocentric structures. The model succeeds in reproducing a large diversity of road network patterns by varying parameters. The similarity between the properties of our model and empirical results implies that a simple universal growth mechanism exists in self-organized cities.

  10. Publicly available models to predict normal boiling point of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprisiu, Ioana; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Brunel, Damien Bernard; Rivollet, Fabien; Varnek, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative structure–property models to predict the normal boiling point (T b ) of organic compounds were developed using non-linear ASNNs (associative neural networks) as well as multiple linear regression – ISIDA-MLR and SQS (stochastic QSAR sampler). Models were built on a diverse set of 2098 organic compounds with T b varying in the range of 185–491 K. In ISIDA-MLR and ASNN calculations, fragment descriptors were used, whereas fragment, FPTs (fuzzy pharmacophore triplets), and ChemAxon descriptors were employed in SQS models. Prediction quality of the models has been assessed in 5-fold cross validation. Obtained models were implemented in the on-line ISIDA predictor at (http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html)

  11. Gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile organics on organic aerosols using a predictive activity coefficient model: analysis of the effects of parameter choices on model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Bharadwaj; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M.

    The partitioning of a diverse set of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) on a variety of organic aerosols was studied using smog chamber experimental data. Existing data on the partitioning of SOCs on aerosols from wood combustion, diesel combustion, and the α-pinene-O 3 reaction was augmented by carrying out smog chamber partitioning experiments on aerosols from meat cooking, and catalyzed and uncatalyzed gasoline engine exhaust. Model compositions for aerosols from meat cooking and gasoline combustion emissions were used to calculate activity coefficients for the SOCs in the organic aerosols and the Pankow absorptive gas/particle partitioning model was used to calculate the partitioning coefficient Kp and quantitate the predictive improvements of using the activity coefficient. The slope of the log K p vs. log p L0 correlation for partitioning on aerosols from meat cooking improved from -0.81 to -0.94 after incorporation of activity coefficients iγ om. A stepwise regression analysis of the partitioning model revealed that for the data set used in this study, partitioning predictions on α-pinene-O 3 secondary aerosol and wood combustion aerosol showed statistically significant improvement after incorporation of iγ om, which can be attributed to their overall polarity. The partitioning model was sensitive to changes in aerosol composition when updated compositions for α-pinene-O 3 aerosol and wood combustion aerosol were used. The octanol-air partitioning coefficient's ( KOA) effectiveness as a partitioning correlator over a variety of aerosol types was evaluated. The slope of the log K p- log K OA correlation was not constant over the aerosol types and SOCs used in the study and the use of KOA for partitioning correlations can potentially lead to significant deviations, especially for polar aerosols.

  12. RSCA genotyping of MHC for high-throughput evolutionary studies in the model organism three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias L; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Becker, Sven; Reusch, Thorsten BH

    2009-01-01

    Background In all jawed vertebrates, highly polymorphic genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode antigen presenting molecules that play a key role in the adaptive immune response. Their polymorphism is composed of multiple copies of recently duplicated genes, each possessing many alleles within populations, as well as high nucleotide divergence between alleles of the same species. Experimental evidence is accumulating that MHC polymorphism is a result of balancing selection by parasites and pathogens. In order to describe MHC diversity and analyse the underlying mechanisms that maintain it, a reliable genotyping technique is required that is suitable for such highly variable genes. Results We present a genotyping protocol that uses Reference Strand-mediated Conformation Analysis (RSCA), optimised for recently duplicated MHC class IIB genes that are typical for many fish and bird species, including the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. In addition we use a comprehensive plasmid library of MHC class IIB alleles to determine the nucleotide sequence of alleles represented by RSCA allele peaks. Verification of the RSCA typing by cloning and sequencing demonstrates high congruency between both methods and provides new insight into the polymorphism of classical stickleback MHC genes. Analysis of the plasmid library additionally reveals the high resolution and reproducibility of the RSCA technique. Conclusion This new RSCA genotyping protocol offers a fast, but sensitive and reliable way to determine the MHC allele repertoire of three-spined sticklebacks. It therefore provides a valuable tool to employ this highly polymorphic and adaptive marker in future high-throughput studies of host-parasite co-evolution and ecological speciation in this emerging model organism. PMID:19291291

  13. RSCA genotyping of MHC for high-throughput evolutionary studies in the model organism three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Sven

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In all jawed vertebrates, highly polymorphic genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC encode antigen presenting molecules that play a key role in the adaptive immune response. Their polymorphism is composed of multiple copies of recently duplicated genes, each possessing many alleles within populations, as well as high nucleotide divergence between alleles of the same species. Experimental evidence is accumulating that MHC polymorphism is a result of balancing selection by parasites and pathogens. In order to describe MHC diversity and analyse the underlying mechanisms that maintain it, a reliable genotyping technique is required that is suitable for such highly variable genes. Results We present a genotyping protocol that uses Reference Strand-mediated Conformation Analysis (RSCA, optimised for recently duplicated MHC class IIB genes that are typical for many fish and bird species, including the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. In addition we use a comprehensive plasmid library of MHC class IIB alleles to determine the nucleotide sequence of alleles represented by RSCA allele peaks. Verification of the RSCA typing by cloning and sequencing demonstrates high congruency between both methods and provides new insight into the polymorphism of classical stickleback MHC genes. Analysis of the plasmid library additionally reveals the high resolution and reproducibility of the RSCA technique. Conclusion This new RSCA genotyping protocol offers a fast, but sensitive and reliable way to determine the MHC allele repertoire of three-spined sticklebacks. It therefore provides a valuable tool to employ this highly polymorphic and adaptive marker in future high-throughput studies of host-parasite co-evolution and ecological speciation in this emerging model organism.

  14. An organizing model for recent cognitive science work on the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageler, Ben

    2016-10-01

    An organizing model of 'the self' emerges from applying various kinds of brain injury to recent cognitive science and philosophical work on 'the self'. This model unifies various contents and mechanisms central to current notions of the self. The article then highlights several criteria and aspects of this notion of self. Qualities of the right type and level of psychological significance delineate 'the self' as an organizing concept useful for recent philosophical work and cognitive science research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface models of the male urogenital organs built from the Visible Korean using popular software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Byeong-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have a small file size, so they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Thus, surface models of male urogenital organs can be effectively applied to an interactive computer simulation and contribute to the clinical practice of urologists. To create high-quality surface models, the urogenital organs and other neighboring structures were outlined in 464 sectioned images of the Visible Korean male using Adobe Photoshop; the outlines were interpolated on Discreet Combustion; then an almost automatic volume reconstruction followed by surface reconstruction was performed on 3D-DOCTOR. The surface models were refined and assembled in their proper positions on Maya, and a surface model was coated with actual surface texture acquired from the volume model of the structure on specially programmed software. In total, 95 surface models were prepared, particularly complete models of the urinary and genital tracts. These surface models will be distributed to encourage other investigators to develop various kinds of medical training simulations. Increasingly automated surface reconstruction technology using commercial software will enable other researchers to produce their own surface models more effectively. PMID:21829759

  16. Mathematical model of organic substrate degradation in solid waste windrow composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Hadibarata, Tony; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2016-01-01

    Organic solid waste composting is a complex process that involves many coupled physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. To understand this complexity and to ease in planning, design and management of the composting plant, mathematical model for simulation is usually applied. The aim of this paper is to develop a mathematical model of organic substrate degradation and its performance evaluation in solid waste windrow composting system. The present model is a biomass-dependent model, considering biological growth processes under the limitation of moisture, oxygen and substrate contents, and temperature. The main output of this model is substrate content which was divided into two categories: slowly and rapidly degradable substrates. To validate the model, it was applied to a laboratory scale windrow composting of a mixture of wood chips and dog food. The wastes were filled into a cylindrical reactor of 6 cm diameter and 1 m height. The simulation program was run for 3 weeks with 1 s stepwise. The simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. The MC and temperature of model simulation were found to be matched with those of experiment, but limited for rapidly degradable substrates. Under anaerobic zone, the degradation of rapidly degradable substrate needs to be incorporated into the model to achieve full simulation of a long period static pile composting. This model is a useful tool to estimate the changes of substrate content during composting period, and acts as a basic model for further development of a sophisticated model.

  17. Snpdat: Easy and rapid annotation of results from de novo snp discovery projects for model and non-model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doran Anthony G

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most abundant genetic variant found in vertebrates and invertebrates. SNP discovery has become a highly automated, robust and relatively inexpensive process allowing the identification of many thousands of mutations for model and non-model organisms. Annotating large numbers of SNPs can be a difficult and complex process. Many tools available are optimised for use with organisms densely sampled for SNPs, such as humans. There are currently few tools available that are species non-specific or support non-model organism data. Results Here we present SNPdat, a high throughput analysis tool that can provide a comprehensive annotation of both novel and known SNPs for any organism with a draft sequence and annotation. Using a dataset of 4,566 SNPs identified in cattle using high-throughput DNA sequencing we demonstrate the annotations performed and the statistics that can be generated by SNPdat. Conclusions SNPdat provides users with a simple tool for annotation of genomes that are either not supported by other tools or have a small number of annotated SNPs available. SNPdat can also be used to analyse datasets from organisms which are densely sampled for SNPs. As a command line tool it can easily be incorporated into existing SNP discovery pipelines and fills a niche for analyses involving non-model organisms that are not supported by many available SNP annotation tools. SNPdat will be of great interest to scientists involved in SNP discovery and analysis projects, particularly those with limited bioinformatics experience.

  18. a Quadtree Organization Construction and Scheduling Method for Urban 3d Model Based on Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Peng, G.; Song, Y.; Duan, M.

    2017-09-01

    The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weights according to certain rules, perform Quadtree construction and schedule rendering according to different rendering weights. Also proposed an algorithm for extracting bounding box extraction based on model drawing primitives to generate LOD model automatically. Using the algorithm proposed in this paper, developed a 3D urban planning&management software, the practice has showed the algorithm is efficient and feasible, the render frame rate of big scene and small scene are both stable at around 25 frames.

  19. A QUADTREE ORGANIZATION CONSTRUCTION AND SCHEDULING METHOD FOR URBAN 3D MODEL BASED ON WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weights according to certain rules, perform Quadtree construction and schedule rendering according to different rendering weights. Also proposed an algorithm for extracting bounding box extraction based on model drawing primitives to generate LOD model automatically. Using the algorithm proposed in this paper, developed a 3D urban planning&management software, the practice has showed the algorithm is efficient and feasible, the render frame rate of big scene and small scene are both stable at around 25 frames.

  20. Environmental modelling of use of treated organic waste on agricultural land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Schmidt, S.

    2006-01-01

    Modelling of environmental impacts from the application of treated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) in agriculture differs widely between different models for environmental assessment of waste systems. In this comparative study five models were examined concerning quantification and impact......, Denmark). DST and IWM are life cycle inventory (LCI) models, thus not performing actual impact assessment. The DST model includes only one water emission (biological oxygen demand) from compost leaching in the results and IWM considers only air emissions from avoided production of commercial fertilizers...... the different models and investigate the origin of any difference in type or magnitude of the results. The contributions from the LCI models were limited and did not depend on waste composition or local agricultural conditions. The three LCA models use the same overall approach for quantifying the impacts...

  1. Analytical Model for Voltage-Dependent Photo and Dark Currents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbahus Saleheen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A physics-based explicit mathematical model for the external voltage-dependent forward dark current in bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells is developed by considering Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH recombination and solving the continuity equations for both electrons and holes. An analytical model for the external voltage-dependent photocurrent in BHJ organic solar cells is also proposed by incorporating exponential photon absorption, dissociation efficiency of bound electron-hole pairs (EHPs, carrier trapping, and carrier drift and diffusion in the photon absorption layer. Modified Braun’s model is used to compute the electric field-dependent dissociation efficiency of the bound EHPs. The overall net current is calculated considering the actual solar spectrum. The mathematical models are verified by comparing the model calculations with various published experimental results. We analyze the effects of the contact properties, blend compositions, charge carrier transport properties (carrier mobility and lifetime, and cell design on the current-voltage characteristics. The power conversion efficiency of BHJ organic solar cells mostly depends on electron transport properties of the acceptor layer. The results of this paper indicate that improvement of charge carrier transport (both mobility and lifetime and dissociation of bound EHPs in organic blend are critically important to increase the power conversion efficiency of the BHJ solar cells.

  2. Similarity-based search of model organism, disease and drug effect phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-02-19

    Background: Semantic similarity measures over phenotype ontologies have been demonstrated to provide a powerful approach for the analysis of model organism phenotypes, the discovery of animal models of human disease, novel pathways, gene functions, druggable therapeutic targets, and determination of pathogenicity. Results: We have developed PhenomeNET 2, a system that enables similarity-based searches over a large repository of phenotypes in real-time. It can be used to identify strains of model organisms that are phenotypically similar to human patients, diseases that are phenotypically similar to model organism phenotypes, or drug effect profiles that are similar to the phenotypes observed in a patient or model organism. PhenomeNET 2 is available at http://aber-owl.net/phenomenet. Conclusions: Phenotype-similarity searches can provide a powerful tool for the discovery and investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying an observed phenotypic manifestation. PhenomeNET 2 facilitates user-defined similarity searches and allows researchers to analyze their data within a large repository of human, mouse and rat phenotypes.

  3. Working fluid charge oriented off-design modeling of a small scale Organic Rankine Cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liuchen; Zhu, Tong; Ma, Jiacheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic Rankine Cycle model considering working fluid charge has been established. • Overall solution algorithm of system off-design performance is proposed. • Variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers can be observed. • Optimal working fluid charge volume for different output work has been estimated. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle system is one of the most widely used technique for low-grade waste heat recovery. Developing of dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle models played an increasingly important part in system performance prediction. The present paper developed a working fluid charge oriented model for an small scale Organic Rankine Cycle to calculate the theoretical value of working fluid charge level for the system under rated condition. The two heat exchangers are divided into three different zones and related heat transfer correlations are employed to estimate the length variation of each zones. Steady state models have been applied to describe the performance of pump and expander. Afterwards, an overall solution algorithm based on the established model has been proposed in order to exact simulate the system’s off-design performance. Additionally, the impact of different working fluid charge volumes has also been discussed. Simulation results clearly shows the variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers, as well as the variation trend of system operating parameters under various expander output work. Furthermore, the highest thermal efficiency can be reached 6.37% under rated conditions with a working fluid charge volume of 34.6 kg.

  4. Allometric Scaling and Cell Ratios in Multi-Organ in vitro Models of Human Metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucciferri, Nadia; Sbrana, Tommaso; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent in vitro models able to recapitulate the physiological interactions between tissues in the body have enormous potential as they enable detailed studies on specific two-way or higher order tissue communication. These models are the first step toward building an integrated picture of systemic metabolism and signaling in physiological or pathological conditions. However, the rational design of in vitro models of cell–cell or cell–tissue interaction is difficult as quite often cell culture experiments are driven by the device used, rather than by design considerations. Indeed, very little research has been carried out on in vitro models of metabolism connecting different cell or tissue types in a physiologically and metabolically relevant manner. Here, we analyze the physiological relationship between cells, cell metabolism, and exchange in the human body using allometric rules, downscaling them to an organ-on-a-plate device. In particular, in order to establish appropriate cell ratios in the system in a rational manner, two different allometric scaling models (cell number scaling model and metabolic and surface scaling model) are proposed and applied to a two compartment model of hepatic-vascular metabolic cross-talk. The theoretical scaling studies illustrate that the design and hence relevance of multi-organ models is principally determined by experimental constraints. Two experimentally feasible model configurations are then implemented in a multi-compartment organ-on-a-plate device. An analysis of the metabolic response of the two configurations demonstrates that their glucose and lipid balance is quite different, with only one of the two models recapitulating physiological-like homeostasis. In conclusion, not only do cross-talk and physical stimuli play an important role in in vitro models, but the numeric relationship between cells is also crucial to recreate in vitro interactions, which can be extrapolated to the in vivo reality.

  5. Allometric scaling and cell ratios in multi-organ in vitro models of human metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia eUcciferri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent in vitro models able to recapitulate the physiological interactions between tissues in the body have enormous potential as they enable detailed studies on specific two-way or higher order tissue communication. These models are the first step towards building an integrated picture of systemic metabolism and signalling in physiological or pathological conditions. However the rational design of in vitro models of cell-cell or cell-tissue interaction is difficult as quite often cell culture experiments are driven by the device used, rather than by design considerations. Indeed very little research has been carried out on in vitro models of metabolism connecting different cell or tissue types in a physiologically and metabolically relevant manner. Here we analyse the physiologic relationship between cells, cell metabolism and exchange in the human body using allometric rules, downscaling them to an organ-on-a plate device. In particular, in order to establish appropriate cell ratios in the system in a rational manner, two different allometric scaling models (Cell Number Scaling Model, CNSM, and Metabolic and Surface Scaling model, MSSM are proposed and applied to a two compartment model of hepatic-vascular metabolic cross-talk. The theoretical scaling studies illustrate that the design and hence relevance of multi-organ models is principally determined by experimental constraints. Two experimentally feasible model configurations are then implemented in a multi-compartment organ-on-a plate device. An analysis of the metabolic response of the two configurations demonstrates that their glucose and lipid balance is quite different, with only one of the two models recapitulating physiological-like homeostasis. In conclusion, not only do cross-talk and physical stimuli play an important role in in vitro models, but the numeric relationship between cells is also crucial to recreate in vitro interactions which can be extrapolated to the in vivo

  6. Allometric Scaling and Cell Ratios in Multi-Organ in vitro Models of Human Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucciferri, Nadia; Sbrana, Tommaso; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent in vitro models able to recapitulate the physiological interactions between tissues in the body have enormous potential as they enable detailed studies on specific two-way or higher order tissue communication. These models are the first step toward building an integrated picture of systemic metabolism and signaling in physiological or pathological conditions. However, the rational design of in vitro models of cell-cell or cell-tissue interaction is difficult as quite often cell culture experiments are driven by the device used, rather than by design considerations. Indeed, very little research has been carried out on in vitro models of metabolism connecting different cell or tissue types in a physiologically and metabolically relevant manner. Here, we analyze the physiological relationship between cells, cell metabolism, and exchange in the human body using allometric rules, downscaling them to an organ-on-a-plate device. In particular, in order to establish appropriate cell ratios in the system in a rational manner, two different allometric scaling models (cell number scaling model and metabolic and surface scaling model) are proposed and applied to a two compartment model of hepatic-vascular metabolic cross-talk. The theoretical scaling studies illustrate that the design and hence relevance of multi-organ models is principally determined by experimental constraints. Two experimentally feasible model configurations are then implemented in a multi-compartment organ-on-a-plate device. An analysis of the metabolic response of the two configurations demonstrates that their glucose and lipid balance is quite different, with only one of the two models recapitulating physiological-like homeostasis. In conclusion, not only do cross-talk and physical stimuli play an important role in in vitro models, but the numeric relationship between cells is also crucial to recreate in vitro interactions, which can be extrapolated to the in vivo reality.

  7. Allometric Scaling and Cell Ratios in Multi-Organ in vitro Models of Human Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucciferri, Nadia [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Interdepartmental Research Center “E. Piaggio”, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Sbrana, Tommaso [Interdepartmental Research Center “E. Piaggio”, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Ahluwalia, Arti, E-mail: arti.ahluwalia@unipi.it [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Interdepartmental Research Center “E. Piaggio”, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-12-17

    Intelligent in vitro models able to recapitulate the physiological interactions between tissues in the body have enormous potential as they enable detailed studies on specific two-way or higher order tissue communication. These models are the first step toward building an integrated picture of systemic metabolism and signaling in physiological or pathological conditions. However, the rational design of in vitro models of cell–cell or cell–tissue interaction is difficult as quite often cell culture experiments are driven by the device used, rather than by design considerations. Indeed, very little research has been carried out on in vitro models of metabolism connecting different cell or tissue types in a physiologically and metabolically relevant manner. Here, we analyze the physiological relationship between cells, cell metabolism, and exchange in the human body using allometric rules, downscaling them to an organ-on-a-plate device. In particular, in order to establish appropriate cell ratios in the system in a rational manner, two different allometric scaling models (cell number scaling model and metabolic and surface scaling model) are proposed and applied to a two compartment model of hepatic-vascular metabolic cross-talk. The theoretical scaling studies illustrate that the design and hence relevance of multi-organ models is principally determined by experimental constraints. Two experimentally feasible model configurations are then implemented in a multi-compartment organ-on-a-plate device. An analysis of the metabolic response of the two configurations demonstrates that their glucose and lipid balance is quite different, with only one of the two models recapitulating physiological-like homeostasis. In conclusion, not only do cross-talk and physical stimuli play an important role in in vitro models, but the numeric relationship between cells is also crucial to recreate in vitro interactions, which can be extrapolated to the in vivo reality.

  8. Ethical models in bioethics: theory and application in organ allocation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2010-12-01

    Policies for allocating organs to people awaiting a transplant constitute a major ethical challenge. First and foremost, they demand balance between the principles of beneficence and justice, but many other ethically relevant principles are also involved: autonomy, responsibility, equity, efficiency, utility, therapeutic outcome, medical urgency, and so forth. Various organ allocation models can be developed based on the hierarchical importance assigned to a given principle over the others, but none of the principles should be completely disregarded. An ethically acceptable organ allocation policy must therefore be in conformity, to a certain extent, with the requirements of all the principles. Many models for organ allocation can be derived. The utilitarian model aims to maximize benefits, which can be of various types on a social or individual level, such as the number of lives saved, prognosis, and so forth. The prioritarian model favours the neediest or those who suffer most. The egalitarian model privileges equity and justice, suggesting that all people should have an equal opportunity (casual allocation) or priority should be given to those who have been waiting longer. The personalist model focuses on each individual patient, attempting to mesh together all the various aspects affecting the person: therapeutic needs (urgency), fairness, clinical outcomes, respect for persons. In the individualistic model the main element is free choice and the system of opting-in is privileged. Contrary to the individualistic model, the communitarian model identities in the community the fundamental elements for the legitimacy of choices: therefore, the system of opting-out is privileged. This article does not aim at suggesting practical solutions. Rather, it furnishes to decision makers an overview on the possible ethical approach to this matter.

  9. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Froese

    Full Text Available Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration.

  10. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Gershenson, Carlos; Manzanilla, Linda R

    2014-01-01

    Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration.

  11. A self-organized internal models architecture for coding sensory-motor schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esaú eEscobar Juárez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive robotics research draws inspiration from theories and models on cognition, as conceived by neuroscience or cognitive psychology, to investigate biologically plausible computational models in artificial agents. In this field, the theoretical framework of Grounded Cognition provides epistemological and methodological grounds for the computational modeling of cognition. It has been stressed in the literature that textit{simulation}, textit{prediction}, and textit{multi-modal integration} are key aspects of cognition and that computational architectures capable of putting them into play in a biologically plausible way are a necessity.Research in this direction has brought extensive empirical evidencesuggesting that textit{Internal Models} are suitable mechanisms forsensory-motor integration. However, current Internal Models architectures show several drawbacks, mainly due to the lack of a unified substrate allowing for a true sensory-motor integration space, enabling flexible and scalable ways to model cognition under the embodiment hypothesis constraints.We propose the Self-Organized Internal ModelsArchitecture (SOIMA, a computational cognitive architecture coded by means of a network of self-organized maps, implementing coupled internal models that allow modeling multi-modal sensory-motor schemes. Our approach addresses integrally the issues of current implementations of Internal Models.We discuss the design and features of the architecture, and provide empirical results on a humanoid robot that demonstrate the benefits and potentialities of the SOIMA concept for studying cognition in artificial agents.

  12. A mixing-model approach to quantifying sources of organic matter to salt marsh sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, K. M.; Meile, C. D.

    2010-12-01

    Salt marshes are highly productive ecosystems, where autochthonous production controls an intricate exchange of carbon and energy among organisms. The major sources of organic carbon to these systems include 1) autochthonous production by vascular plant matter, 2) import of allochthonous plant material, and 3) phytoplankton biomass. Quantifying the relative contribution of organic matter sources to a salt marsh is important for understanding the fate and transformation of organic carbon in these systems, which also impacts the timing and magnitude of carbon export to the coastal ocean. A common approach to quantify organic matter source contributions to mixtures is the use of linear mixing models. To estimate the relative contributions of endmember materials to total organic matter in the sediment, the problem is formulated as a constrained linear least-square problem. However, the type of data that is utilized in such mixing models, the uncertainties in endmember compositions and the temporal dynamics of non-conservative entitites can have varying affects on the results. Making use of a comprehensive data set that encompasses several endmember characteristics - including a yearlong degradation experiment - we study the impact of these factors on estimates of the origin of sedimentary organic carbon in a saltmarsh located in the SE United States. We first evaluate the sensitivity of linear mixing models to the type of data employed by analyzing a series of mixing models that utilize various combinations of parameters (i.e. endmember characteristics such as δ13COC, C/N ratios or lignin content). Next, we assess the importance of using more than the minimum number of parameters required to estimate endmember contributions to the total organic matter pool. Then, we quantify the impact of data uncertainty on the outcome of the analysis using Monte Carlo simulations and accounting for the uncertainty in endmember characteristics. Finally, as biogeochemical processes

  13. A Primer on Mathematical Modeling in the Study of Organisms and Their Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montévil, Maël

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is a very powerful tool for understanding natural phenomena. Such a tool carries its own assumptions and should always be used critically. In this chapter, we highlight the key ingredients and steps of modeling and focus on their biological interpretation. In particular, we discuss the role of theoretical principles in writing models. We also highlight the meaning and interpretation of equations. The main aim of this chapter is to facilitate the interaction between biologists and mathematical modelers. We focus on the case of cell proliferation and motility in the context of multicellular organisms.

  14. A review of animal models used to evaluate potential allergenicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsteller, Nathan; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Goodman, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Food safety regulators request prediction of allergenicity for newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops and in novel foods. Some have suggested using animal models to assess potential allergenicity. A variety of animal models have been used in research to evaluate sensitisation...... of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).......Food safety regulators request prediction of allergenicity for newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops and in novel foods. Some have suggested using animal models to assess potential allergenicity. A variety of animal models have been used in research to evaluate sensitisation...

  15. Space Biology Model Organism Research on the Deep Space Gateway to Pioneer Discovery and Advance Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K. Y.; Tomko, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Quincy, C. D.; Rayl, N. A.; Sowa, M. B.; Taylor, E. M.; Sun, S. C.; Kundrot, C. E.

    2018-02-01

    Model organisms are foundational for conducting physiological and systems biology research to define how life responds to the deep space environment. The organisms, areas of research, and Deep Space Gateway capabilities needed will be presented.

  16. Variation in pH of Model Secondary Organic Aerosol during Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallemagne, Magda A; Huang, Xiau Ya; Eddingsaas, Nathan C

    2016-05-12

    The majority of atmospheric aerosols consist of both organic and inorganic components. At intermediate relative humidity (RH), atmospheric aerosol can undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in which the organic and inorganic fractions segregate from each other. We have extended the study of LLPS to the effect that phase separation has on the pH of the overall aerosols and the pH of the individual phases. Using confocal microscopy and pH sensitive dyes, the pH of internally mixed model aerosols consisting of polyethylene glycol 400 and ammonium sulfate as well as the pH of the organic fraction during LLPS have been directly measured. During LLPS, the pH of the organic fraction was observed to increase to 4.2 ± 0.2 from 3.8 ± 0.1 under high RH when the aerosol was internally mixed. In addition, the high spatial resolution of the confocal microscope allowed us to characterize the composition of each of the phases, and we have observed that during LLPS the organic shell still contains large quantities of water and should be characterized as an aqueous organic-rich phase rather than simply an organic phase.

  17. Explicit modeling of volatile organic compounds partitioning in the atmospheric aqueous phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mouchel-Vallon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gas phase oxidation of organic species is a multigenerational process involving a large number of secondary compounds. Most secondary organic species are water-soluble multifunctional oxygenated molecules. The fully explicit chemical mechanism GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere is used to describe the oxidation of organics in the gas phase and their mass transfer to the aqueous phase. The oxidation of three hydrocarbons of atmospheric interest (isoprene, octane and α-pinene is investigated for various NOx conditions. The simulated oxidative trajectories are examined in a new two dimensional space defined by the mean oxidation state and the solubility. The amount of dissolved organic matter was found to be very low (yield less than 2% on carbon atom basis under a water content typical of deliquescent aerosols. For cloud water content, 50% (isoprene oxidation to 70% (octane oxidation of the carbon atoms are found in the aqueous phase after the removal of the parent hydrocarbons for low NOx conditions. For high NOx conditions, this ratio is only 5% in the isoprene oxidation case, but remains large for α-pinene and octane oxidation cases (40% and 60%, respectively. Although the model does not yet include chemical reactions in the aqueous phase, much of this dissolved organic matter should be processed in cloud drops and modify both oxidation rates and the speciation of organic species.

  18. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process.

  19. Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to estimate the potential contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic precursors (S/IVOC in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA, their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007 ("ROB" and Grieshop et al. (2009 ("GRI" are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (2–4 times with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009, both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The predicted production from anthropogenic and biomass burning S/IVOC represents 40–60% of the total measured SOA at the surface during the day and is somewhat larger than that from commonly measured aromatic VOCs, especially at the T1 site at the edge of the city. The SOA production from the continued multi-generation S/IVOC oxidation products continues actively

  20. An empirical model describing the postnatal growth of organs in ICRP reference humans: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    An empirical model is presented for describing the postnatal mass growth of lungs in ICRP reference humans. A combined exponential and logistic function containing six parameters is fitted to ICRP 23 lung data using a weighted non-linear least squares technique. The results indicate that the model delineates the data well. Further analysis shows that reference male lungs attain a higher pubertal peak velocity (PPV) and adult mass size than female lungs, although the latter reach their PPV and adult mass size first. Furthermore, the model shows that lung growth rates in infants are two to three orders of magnitude higher than those in mature adults. This finding is important because of the possible association between higher radiation risks in infants' organs that have faster cell turnover rates compared to mature adult organs. The significance of the model for ICRP dosimetric purposes will be discussed. (author)

  1. A Model of Self-Organizing Head-Centered Visual Responses in Primate Parietal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Bedeho M. W.; Stringer, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a hypothesis for how head-centered visual representations in primate parietal areas could self-organize through visually-guided learning, and test this hypothesis using a neural network model. The model consists of a competitive output layer of neurons that receives afferent synaptic connections from a population of input neurons with eye position gain modulated retinal receptive fields. The synaptic connections in the model are trained with an associative trace learning rule which has the effect of encouraging output neurons to learn to respond to subsets of input patterns that tend to occur close together in time. This network architecture and synaptic learning rule is hypothesized to promote the development of head-centered output neurons during periods of time when the head remains fixed while the eyes move. This hypothesis is demonstrated to be feasible, and each of the core model components described is tested and found to be individually necessary for successful self-organization. PMID:24349064

  2. Optimum web environment model for e-marketing of religious organizations in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanka Dukić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although religious organizations are essentially conservative, they are not immune to the changes brought on by the information and communication technology. Thus, one can conclude that all religious organizations, be they more liberal or conservative in their position towards change, use information and communication technology, i.e. the communication channel that it creates, more or less successfully. In fact, a religious organization, as any other organization, can choose between a range of communication channels created by the global network system, i.e. the Internet. The web is probably the most widely used and most popular communication channel available to Internet users. However, the web is not only a communication channel; it has developed into a virtual space, which evolved from being a means of presentation into a global social network. Web environment building is often left to the professionals such as web designers and developers of web sites that focus their attention on the appearance and functionality of web sites, but do not address the mission and goals of the religious organization for which the web system has been developed. In particular, the importance of marketing approach is disregarded, i.e. the necessity to meet the needs of the faithful, who are users of religious organization ‘services’. To create a web environment for religious organizations with optimal form and content, especially in the Republic of Croatia, one must address the task using a systematic or a model approach. For this reason, a study was conducted and a model of optimal web environment for e-marketing of religious organizations in the Republic of Croatia was developed

  3. A Practical Model for Inbound Container Distribution Organization in Rail-Water Transhipping Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahao Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail-water transportation is a crucial component of intermodal transportation system. Effective operation of rail-water intermodal transportation requires not only railway network and advanced handling equipment, but also scientific and reasonable transportation organization. In this paper, we first briefly introduced the coordination area and related concepts. Then an inbound container distribution organization model (ICDOM was established taking into account many factors such as transhipping capacity, network capacity, and importance of containers, in order to minimize the total container-hours in the coordination area, which reflects the efficiency of inbound container distribution organization. Additionally, a genetic algorithm (GA was developed and the optimization results were evaluated, which showed that both of the model and the algorithm were effective.

  4. Modeling of Possible Conditions for Origin of First Organic Forms in hot Mineral Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat Ignatov; Oleg Mosin

    2014-01-01

    The composition of water, its temperature and pH value was analyzed in experiments with modelling of primary hydrosphere and possible conditions for origin of first organic forms in hot mineral water. For this aim the authors performed experiments with hot mineral and seawater from Bulgaria by IR-spectrometry (DNES-method). As model systems were used cactus juice of Echinopsis pachanoi and Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata. It was considered the reactions of condensation and deh...

  5. Process performance and modelling of anaerobic digestion using source-sorted organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin

    2018-01-01

    Three distinctive start-up strategies of biogas reactors fed with source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste were investigated to reveal the most reliable procedure for rapid process stabilization. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with mathematical modeling outputs....... The combination of both experimental and modelling/simulation succeeded in optimizing the start-up process for anaerobic digestion of biopulp under mesophilic conditions....

  6. Crossover to self-organized criticality in an inertial sandpile model

    OpenAIRE

    Head, DA; Rodgers, GJ

    1996-01-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional sandpile model which incorporates particle inertia. The inertial dynamics are governed by a new parameter which, as it passes through a threshold value, alters the toppling dynamics in such a way that the system no longer evolves to a self-organized critical state. A range of mean-field theories based on a kinetic equation approach is presented which confirm the numerical findings. We conclude by considering the physical applications of this model, particularly ...

  7. A Model of Sustainability for Professional Organizations: Using a Learning Management System to Offer Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    Professional membership organizations have long maintained their exposure and revenue stream through a variety of traditional avenues, most notably memberships, sponsored conferences, and professional journals. The synergy of this three-tiered model has depended on a certain enhanced status derived from membership benefits and proprietary…

  8. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from animal waste applied fields: model sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial quality of surface waters warrants attention because of associated food- and waterborne-disease outbreaks, and fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used to evaluate levels of microbial pollution. Models that predict the fate and transport of FIOs are required for designing and...

  9. Overcoming the organization-practice barrier in sports injury prevention: A nonhierarchical organizational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, Ö; Jacobsson, J; Timpka, T

    2015-08-01

    The organization of sports at the national level has seldom been included in scientific discussions of sports injury prevention. The aim of this study was to develop a model for organization of sports that supports prevention of overuse injuries. The quality function deployment technique was applied in seminars over a two-season period to develop a national organizational structure for athletics in Sweden that facilitates prevention of overuse injuries. Three central features of the resulting model for organization of sports at the national level are (a) diminishment of the organizational hierarchy: participatory safety policy design is introduced through annual meetings where actors from different sectors of the sporting community discuss training, injury prevention, and sports safety policy; (b) introduction of a safety surveillance system: a ubiquitous system for routine collection of injury and illness data; and (c) an open forum for discussion of safety issues: maintenance of a safety forum for participants from different sectors of the sport. A nonhierarchical model for organization of sports at the national level - facilitated by modern information technology - adapted for the prevention of overuse injuries has been developed. Further research is warranted to evaluate the new organizational model in prospective effectiveness studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Investigation on Self-Organization Processes in DC Generators by Synergetic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Voncilă

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is suggested a new mathematical model, based on which it can be justified the self-excitation DC generators, either shunt or series excitation, by self-organization phenomena that appear to overcome threshold values (self-excitation in these generators is an avalanche process, a positive feedback, considered at first glance uncontrollable.

  11. Investigation on Self-Organization Processes in DC Generators by Synergetic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Voncilă; Mădălin Costin; Răzvan Buhosu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is suggested a new mathematical model, based on which it can be justified the self-excitation DC generators, either shunt or series excitation, by self-organization phenomena that appear to overcome threshold values (self-excitation in these generators is an avalanche process, a positive feedback, considered at first glance uncontrollable).

  12. Bacteria, Yeast, Worms, and Flies: Exploiting Simple Model Organisms to Investigate Human Mitochondrial Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Shane L.; Graham, Brett H.; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Kar, Adwitiya; Falk, Marni J.

    2010-01-01

    The extensive conservation of mitochondrial structure, composition, and function across evolution offers a unique opportunity to expand our understanding of human mitochondrial biology and disease. By investigating the biology of much simpler model organisms, it is often possible to answer questions that are unreachable at the clinical level.…

  13. MODELING THE MARKETING COMPONENT OF THE INNOVATIVE CAPACITY OF ORGANIZATIONS ON THE BASIS OF STATISTICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Aletdinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the General scheme of the modeling process of marketing theinnovation pillar, is an attempt to summarize and systematize approaches tomodel building innovative capacity of organizations on the basis of the marketingconcept, the methods used to allocate.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Model Naphthalene-Utilizing Organism Pseudomonas putida OUS82

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tay, Martin; Roizman, Dan; Cohen, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida OUS82 was isolated from petrol- and oil-contaminated soil in 1992, and ever since, it has been used as a model organism to study the microbial assimilation of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Here, we report the 6.7-Mb draft genome sequence of P. putida OUS82 and analyze its...

  15. A Contigency Model for Predicting Institutionalization of Innovation Across Divergent Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Nancy J.

    This study was undertaken to compare the variables related to the successful institutionalization of changes across divergent organizations, and to design, through cross-validation, an interorganization model of change. Descriptive survey questionnaires and structured interviews were the instruments used. The respondent sample consisted of 1,500…

  16. [Application of zebrafish model organism in the research of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Yi; Liang, Sheng-Wang

    2012-04-01

    Zebrafish has become an important model organism in many fields of biomedical studies and been increasingly used in Chinese materia medica studies in recent years. This article summarized the achievements and prospect for zebrafish as a pharmacological and toxicological tool in the study and development of Chinese materia medica.

  17. Modelling of 137Cs concentration change in organisms of the Japanese coastal food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Y.; Nakahara, M.; Nakamura, R.

    1999-01-01

    In order to predict 137 CS concentrations in marine organisms of Japanese coastal food chains, a basic compartment model being composed of nuclide transfer both from seawater and food chain was investigated. Food chain structure of typical Japanese coastal water is established to include detritus, food chain, benthic food chain and planktonic food chain

  18. Developing and Testing a Measure for the Ethical Culture of Organizations: The Corporate Ethical Virtues Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBased on four interlocking empirical studies, this paper initially validates and refines the Corporate Ethical Virtues Model which formulates normative criteria for the ethical culture of organizations. The findings of an exploratory factor analysis provide support for the existence of

  19. Applicability of Socio-Technical Model (STM in Working System of Modern Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmaini Tasmin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has been identified as one of the most important resources in organization that contributes to competitive advantages. Organizations around the world realize and put into practice an approach that bases on technological and sociological aspects to fill-up the gaps in their workplaces. The Socio-Technical Model (STM is an established organizational model introduced by Trist since 1960s at Tavistock Institute, London. It relates two most common components exist in all organizations, namely social systems (human and technological systems (information technology, machinery and equipment in organizations over many decades. This paper reviews the socio-technical model from various perspectives of its developmental stages and ideas written by researchers. Therefore, several literature reviews on socio-technical model have been compiled and discussed to justify whether its basic argument matches with required practices in Techno-Social environments. Through a socio-technical perspective on Knowledge Management, this paper highlights the interplay between social systems and technological system. It also suggests that management and leadership play critical roles in establishing the techno-social perspective for the effective assimilation of Knowledge Management practices.

  20. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  1. Hybrid business models for ‘Organ-on-a-Chip’ technology : the best of both worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Burgwal, L.H.M.; van Dorst, P.; Viëtor, H.; Luttge, R.; Claassen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Current in vitro and in vivo preclinical models often have limited predictive value for translation to the clinical setting. The emerging ‘Organ-on-a-Chip’ (OOC) technology provides a better resemblance to the human physiology through combining 3D configuration of human-derived cells with

  2. Hybrid business models for ‘Organ-on-a-Chip’ technology: The best of both worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Burgwal, Linda H.M.; van Dorst, Pim; Viëtor, Henk; Luttge, Regina; Claassen, Eric

    Current in vitro and in vivo preclinical models often have limited predictive value for translation to the clinical setting. The emerging ‘Organ-on-a-Chip’ (OOC) technology provides a better resemblance to the human physiology through combining 3D configuration of human-derived cells with

  3. Smooth incidence maps give valuable insight into Q fever outbreaks in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim van der Hoek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available From 2007 through 2009, The Netherlands faced large outbreaks of human Q fever. Control measures focused primarily on dairy goat farms because these were implicated as the main source of infection for the surrounding population. However, in other countries, outbreaks have mainly been associated with non-dairy sheep and The Netherlands has many more sheep than goats. Therefore, a public discussion arose about the possible role of non-dairy (meat sheep in the outbreaks. To inform decision makers about the relative importance of different infection sources, we developed accurate and high-resolution incidence maps for detection of Q fever hot spots. In the high incidence area in the south of the country, full postal codes of notified Q fever patients with onset of illness in 2009, were georeferenced. Q fever cases (n = 1,740 were treated as a spatial point process. A 500 x 500 m grid was imposed over the area of interest. The number of cases and the population number were counted in each cell. The number of cases was modelled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process where the underlying incidence was estimated by 2-dimensional P-spline smoothing. Modelling of numbers of Q fever cases based on residential addresses and population size produced smooth incidence maps that clearly showed Q fever hotspots around infected dairy goat farms. No such increased incidence was noted around infected meat sheep farms. We conclude that smooth incidence maps of human notifications give valuable information about the Q fever epidemic and are a promising method to provide decision support for the control of other infectious diseases with an environmental source.

  4. Impact of a Complex Food Microbiota on Energy Metabolism in the Model Organism Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zanni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used as a model system for research on aging, development, and host-pathogen interactions. Little is currently known about the mechanisms underlying the effects exerted by foodborne microbes. We took advantage of C. elegans to evaluate the impact of foodborne microbiota on well characterized physiological features of the worms. Foodborne lactic acid bacteria (LAB consortium was used to feed nematodes and its composition was evaluated by 16S rDNA analysis and strain typing before and after colonization of the nematode gut. Lactobacillus delbrueckii, L. fermentum, and Leuconostoc lactis were identified as the main species and shown to display different worm gut colonization capacities. LAB supplementation appeared to decrease nematode lifespan compared to the animals fed with the conventional Escherichia coli nutrient source or a probiotic bacterial strain. Reduced brood size was also observed in microbiota-fed nematodes. Moreover, massive accumulation of lipid droplets was revealed by BODIPY staining. Altered expression of nhr-49, pept-1, and tub-1 genes, associated with obesity phenotypes, was demonstrated by RT-qPCR. Since several pathways are evolutionarily conserved in C. elegans, our results highlight the nematode as a valuable model system to investigate the effects of a complex microbial consortium on host energy metabolism.

  5. Process based modelling of soil organic carbon redistribution on landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Seher, Wiebke; Amorim, Amorim S. S.; Maeso, Daniel L.; Jürgen, Schmidt

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have pointed out the great importance of erosion processes in global carbon cycling. Continuous erosion leads to a massive loss of top soils including the loss of organic carbon accumulated over long time in the soil humus fraction. Lal (2003) estimates that 20% of the organic carbon eroded with top soils is emitted into atmosphere, due to aggregate breakdown and carbon mineralization during transport by surface runoff. Furthermore soil erosion causes a progressive decrease of natural soil fertility, since cation exchange capacity is associated with organic colloids. As a consequence the ability of soils to accumulate organic carbon is reduced proportionately to the drop in soil productivity. The colluvial organic carbon might be protected from further degradation depending on the depth of the colluvial cover and local decomposing conditions. Some colluvial sites can act as long-term sinks for organic carbon. The erosional transport of organic carbon may have an effect on the global carbon budget, however, it is uncertain, whether erosion is a sink or a source for carbon in the atmosphere. Another part of eroded soils and organic carbon will enter surface water bodies and might be transported over long distances. These sediments might be deposited in the riparian zones of river networks. Erosional losses of organic carbon will not pass over into atmosphere for the most part. But soil erosion limits substantially the potential of soils to sequester atmospheric CO2 by generating humus. The present study refers to lateral carbon flux modelling on landscape scale using the process based EROSION 3D soil loss simulation model, using existing parameter values. The selective nature of soil erosion results in a preferentially transport of fine particles while less carbonic larger particles remain on site. Consequently organic carbon is enriched in the eroded sediment compared to the origin soil. For this reason it is essential that EROSION 3D provides the

  6. Mathematical modeling of atmospheric fine particle-associated primary organic compound concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Hildemann, Lynn M.; Mazurek, Monica A.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    1996-08-01

    An atmospheric transport model has been used to explore the relationship between source emissions and ambient air quality for individual particle phase organic compounds present in primary aerosol source emissions. An inventory of fine particulate organic compound emissions was assembled for the Los Angeles area in the year 1982. Sources characterized included noncatalyst- and catalyst-equipped autos, diesel trucks, paved road dust, tire wear, brake lining dust, meat cooking operations, industrial oil-fired boilers, roofing tar pots, natural gas combustion in residential homes, cigarette smoke, fireplaces burning oak and pine wood, and plant leaf abrasion products. These primary fine particle source emissions were supplied to a computer-based model that simulates atmospheric transport, dispersion, and dry deposition based on the time series of hourly wind observations and mixing depths. Monthly average fine particle organic compound concentrations that would prevail if the primary organic aerosol were transported without chemical reaction were computed for more than 100 organic compounds within an 80 km × 80 km modeling area centered over Los Angeles. The monthly average compound concentrations predicted by the transport model were compared to atmospheric measurements made at monitoring sites within the study area during 1982. The predicted seasonal variation and absolute values of the concentrations of the more stable compounds are found to be in reasonable agreement with the ambient observations. While model predictions for the higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are in agreement with ambient observations, lower molecular weight PAH show much higher predicted than measured atmospheric concentrations in the particle phase, indicating atmospheric decay by chemical reactions or evaporation from the particle phase. The atmospheric concentrations of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic polycarboxylic acids greatly exceed the contributions that

  7. Comparison of receptor models for source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yu; Dai Wei; Shao Min; Liu Ying; Lu Sihua; Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Identifying the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key to reducing ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Several receptor models have been developed to apportion sources, but an intercomparison of these models had not been performed for VOCs in China. In the present study, we compared VOC sources based on chemical mass balance (CMB), UNMIX, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models. Gasoline-related sources, petrochemical production, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were identified by all three models as the major contributors, with UNMIX and PMF producing quite similar results. The contributions of gasoline-related sources and LPG estimated by the CMB model were higher, and petrochemical emissions were lower than in the UNMIX and PMF results, possibly because the VOC profiles used in the CMB model were for fresh emissions and the profiles extracted from ambient measurements by the two-factor analysis models were 'aged'. - VOCs sources were similar for three models with CMB showing a higher estimate for vehicles

  8. Comparison of receptor models for source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Yu; Dai Wei [Department of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shao Min [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: mshao@pku.edu.cn; Liu Ying; Lu Sihua [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul [Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Identifying the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key to reducing ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Several receptor models have been developed to apportion sources, but an intercomparison of these models had not been performed for VOCs in China. In the present study, we compared VOC sources based on chemical mass balance (CMB), UNMIX, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models. Gasoline-related sources, petrochemical production, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were identified by all three models as the major contributors, with UNMIX and PMF producing quite similar results. The contributions of gasoline-related sources and LPG estimated by the CMB model were higher, and petrochemical emissions were lower than in the UNMIX and PMF results, possibly because the VOC profiles used in the CMB model were for fresh emissions and the profiles extracted from ambient measurements by the two-factor analysis models were 'aged'. - VOCs sources were similar for three models with CMB showing a higher estimate for vehicles.

  9. Retention of U(VI) onto silica in presence of model organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, T.T.H.; Mercier-Bion, F.; Drot, R.; Lagarde, G.; Simoni, E.; Lambert, J.

    2008-01-01

    It is well-known that the organic matter influences the retention of ions onto mineral surfaces. However, the major part of concerned studies implies humic substances and complex solids. Another approach for identifying the sorption mechanisms is possible by studying simpler solids than those present in natural medium. So, silica is chosen as mineral surface because of its abundance in soils and of the presence of Si-O groups in clayey minerals. Uranium (VI) is selected as cation. Simple organic molecules like acetic (one carboxylic group) and oxalic (two carboxylic functions) acids are considered as models of the natural organic matter for understanding their role in the retention of U(VI) onto powders and slides of silica. Binary (organics/silica, U(VI)/silica) and ternary systems (organics/silica/U(VI)) are studied by complementary approaches. Sorption edges as function of pH are obtained by liquid scintillation methods and capillary electrophoresis. Different spectroscopic techniques are used to deduce the interactions between the organic matter and U(VI) sorbed onto the silica whose: Time-Resolved Laser induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Nuclear Microprobe Analysis (NMA). The results of the effect of these model organic molecules onto the U(VI) retention showed a good agreement between the different techniques. Concerning the acetic acid, there are not differences in the sorption percentages of uranyl (see the figure). All these results indicate that the uranyl-acetate complexes stay in the aqueous solution rather than sorbing onto the silica. On the contrary, oxalic acid influences the sorption of U(VI) onto the silica surface. The sorption percentage of U(VI) in the ternary system (oxalic acid/silica/U(VI)) is lower than the binary system (U(VI)/silica) (see the figure). So, the presence of oxalic acid decreases the sorption of U(VI) onto the silica surface. (authors)

  10. On the inference of function from structure using biomechanical modelling and simulation of extinct organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical modelling and simulation techniques offer some hope for unravelling the complex inter-relationships of structure and function perhaps even for extinct organisms, but have their limitations owing to this complexity and the many unknown parameters for fossil taxa. Validation and sensitivity analysis are two indispensable approaches for quantifying the accuracy and reliability of such models or simulations. But there are other subtleties in biomechanical modelling that include investigator judgements about the level of simplicity versus complexity in model design or how uncertainty and subjectivity are dealt with. Furthermore, investigator attitudes toward models encompass a broad spectrum between extreme credulity and nihilism, influencing how modelling is conducted and perceived. Fundamentally, more data and more testing of methodology are required for the field to mature and build confidence in its inferences. PMID:21666064

  11. IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT MODELS IN DECISION MAKING, EXPLAINING THE STRATEGIC BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano de Oliveira Maciel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the different models of decision process analyzing the organizational strategy. The article presents the strategy according to a cognitive approach. The discussion about that approach has three models of decision process: rational actor model, organizational behavior, and political model. These models, respectively, present some improvement in the decision making results, search for a good decision facing the cognitive restrictions of the administrator, and lots of talks for making a decision. According to the emphasis of each model, the possibilities for analyzing the strategy are presented. The article also shows that it is necessary to take into account the three different ways of analysis. That statement is justified once the analysis as well as the decision making become more complex, mainly those which are more important for the organizations.

  12. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting......, anaerobic digestion and combinations hereof are available in the model, but the user can change all key parameters in the biological treatment module so that specific local plants and processes can be modelled. EASEWASTE is one of the newest waste LCA models and the biological treatment module was built...... partly on features of earlier waste-LCA models, but offers additional facilities, more flexibility, transparency and user-friendliness. The paper presents the main features of the module and provides some examples illustrating the capability of the model in environmentally assessing and discriminating...

  13. Dynamic model of organic pollutant degradation in three dimensional packed bed electrode reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Tianting; Wang, Yan; Yang, Hui; Wang, Tianlei; Cai, Wangfeng

    2018-04-21

    A dynamic model of semi-batch three-dimensional electrode reactor was established based on the limiting current density, Faraday's law, mass balance and a series of assumptions. Semi-batch experiments of phenol degradation were carried out in a three-dimensional electrode reactor packed with activated carbon under different conditions to verify the model. The factors such as the current density, the electrolyte concentration, the initial pH value, the flow rate of organic and the initial organic concentration were examined to know about the pollutant degradation in the three-dimensional electrode reactor. The various concentrations and logarithm of concentration of phenol with time were compared with the dynamic model. It was shown that the calculated data were in good agreement with experimental data in most cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Terahertz double-exponential model for adsorption of volatile organic compounds in active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhan, Honglei; Miao, Xinyang; Zhao, Kun; Zhou, Qiong

    2017-01-01

    In terms of the evaluation of the diffusion-controlled adsorption and diffused rate, a mathematical model was built on the basis of the double-exponential kinetics model and terahertz amplitude in this letter. The double-exponential-THz model described the two-step mechanism controlled by diffusion. A rapid step involves external and internal diffusion, followed by a slow step controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The concentration gradient of the molecules promoted the organic molecules rapidly diffusing to the external surface of adsorbent. The solute molecules then transferred across the liquid film. Intraparticle diffusion began and was determined by the molecular sizes, as well as affinities between organics and activated carbon. (paper)

  15. Fecal indicator organism modeling and microbial source tracking in environmental waters: Chapter 3.4.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models have been widely applied to surface waters to estimate rates of settling, resuspension, flow, dispersion, and advection in order to calculate movement of particles that influence water quality. Of particular interest are the movement, survival, and persistence of microbial pathogens or their surrogates, which may contaminate recreational water, drinking water, or shellfish. Most models devoted to microbial water quality have been focused on fecal indicator organisms (FIO), which act as a surrogate for pathogens and viruses. Process-based modeling and statistical modeling have been used to track contamination events to source and to predict future events. The use of these two types of models require different levels of expertise and input; process-based models rely on theoretical physical constructs to explain present conditions and biological distribution while data-based, statistical models use extant paired data to do the same. The selection of the appropriate model and interpretation of results is critical to proper use of these tools in microbial source tracking. Integration of the modeling approaches could provide insight for tracking and predicting contamination events in real time. A review of modeling efforts reveals that process-based modeling has great promise for microbial source tracking efforts; further, combining the understanding of physical processes influencing FIO contamination developed with process-based models and molecular characterization of the population by gene-based (i.e., biological) or chemical markers may be an effective approach for locating sources and remediating contamination in order to protect human health better.

  16. Modelling organs, tissues, cells and devices using Matlab and Comsol multiphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dokos, Socrates

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a theoretical and practical overview of computational modeling in bioengineering, focusing on a range of applications including electrical stimulation of neural and cardiac tissue, implantable drug delivery, cancer therapy, biomechanics, cardiovascular dynamics, as well as fluid-structure interaction for modelling of organs, tissues, cells and devices. It covers the basic principles of modeling and simulation with ordinary and partial differential equations using MATLAB and COMSOL Multiphysics numerical software. The target audience primarily comprises postgraduate students and researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for practitioners in the medical device industry.

  17. Modification of the RothC model to simulate soil C mineralization of exogenous organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Claudio; Cayuela, Maria Luz; Sinicco, Tania; Fornasier, Flavio; Galvez, Antonia; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Angel

    2017-07-01

    The development of soil organic C (SOC) models capable of producing accurate predictions for the long-term decomposition of exogenous organic matter (EOM) in soils is important for the effective management of organic amendments. However, reliable C modeling in amended soils requires specific optimization of current C models to take into account the high variability in EOM origin and properties. The aim of this work was to improve the prediction of C mineralization rates in amended soils by modifying the RothC model to encompass a better description of EOM quality. The standard RothC model, involving C input to the soil only as decomposable (DPM) or resistant (RPM) organic material, was modified by introducing additional pools of decomposable (DEOM), resistant (REOM) and humified (HEOM) EOM. The partitioning factors and decomposition rates of the additional EOM pools were estimated by model fitting to the respiratory curves of amended soils. For this task, 30 EOMs from 8 contrasting groups (compost, anaerobic digestates, sewage sludge, agro-industrial waste, crop residues, bioenergy by-products, animal residues and meat and bone meals) were added to 10 soils and incubated under different conditions. The modified RothC model was fitted to C mineralization curves in amended soils with great accuracy (mean correlation coefficient 0.995). In contrast to the standard model, the EOM-optimized RothC was able to better accommodate the large variability in EOM source and composition, as indicated by the decrease in the root mean square error of the simulations for different EOMs (from 29.9 to 3.7 % and 20.0 to 2.5 % for soils amended with bioethanol residue and household waste compost, respectively). The average decomposition rates for DEOM and REOM pools were 89 and 0.4 yr-1, higher than the standard model coefficients for DPM (10 yr-1) and RPM (0.3 yr-1). The results indicate that the explicit treatment of EOM heterogeneity enhances the model ability to describe amendment

  18. Preparatory steps for a robust dynamic model for organically bound tritium dynamics in agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melintescu, A.; Galeriu, D. [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Diabate, S.; Strack, S. [Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    The processes involved in tritium transfer in crops are complex and regulated by many feedback mechanisms. A full mechanistic model is difficult to develop due to the complexity of the processes involved in tritium transfer and environmental conditions. First, a review of existing models (ORYZA2000, CROPTRIT and WOFOST) presenting their features and limits, is made. Secondly, the preparatory steps for a robust model are discussed, considering the role of dry matter and photosynthesis contribution to the OBT (Organically Bound Tritium) dynamics in crops.

  19. Modelling uptake into roots and subsequent translocation of neutral and ionisable organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    A study on uptake of neutral and dissociating organic compounds from soil solution into roots, and their subsequent translocation, was undertaken using model simulations. The model approach combines the processes of lipophilic sorption, electrochemical interactions, ion trap, advection in xylem...... and dilution by growth. It needs as input data, apart fromplant properties, log KOW, pKa and the valency number of the compound, and pH and chemical concentration in the soil solution. Equilibrium and dynamic (steady-state) models were tested against measured data from several authors, including non...

  20. Comparative modeling of coevolution in communities of unicellular organisms: adaptability and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashin, Sergey A; Suslov, Valentin V; Matushkin, Yuri G

    2010-06-01

    We propose an original program "Evolutionary constructor" that is capable of computationally efficient modeling of both population-genetic and ecological problems, combining these directions in one model of required detail level. We also present results of comparative modeling of stability, adaptability and biodiversity dynamics in populations of unicellular haploid organisms which form symbiotic ecosystems. The advantages and disadvantages of two evolutionary strategies of biota formation--a few generalists' taxa-based biota formation and biodiversity-based biota formation--are discussed.

  1. Topsoil organic carbon content of Europe, a new map based on a generalised additive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brogniez, Delphine; Ballabio, Cristiano; Stevens, Antoine; Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca; van Wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for up-to-date spatially continuous organic carbon (OC) data for global environment and climatic modeling. Whilst the current map of topsoil organic carbon content for Europe (Jones et al., 2005) was produced by applying expert-knowledge based pedo-transfer rules on large soil mapping units, the aim of this study was to replace it by applying digital soil mapping techniques on the first European harmonised geo-referenced topsoil (0-20 cm) database, which arises from the LUCAS (land use/cover area frame statistical survey) survey. A generalized additive model (GAM) was calibrated on 85% of the dataset (ca. 17 000 soil samples) and a backward stepwise approach selected slope, land cover, temperature, net primary productivity, latitude and longitude as environmental covariates (500 m resolution). The validation of the model (applied on 15% of the dataset), gave an R2 of 0.27. We observed that most organic soils were under-predicted by the model and that soils of Scandinavia were also poorly predicted. The model showed an RMSE of 42 g kg-1 for mineral soils and of 287 g kg-1 for organic soils. The map of predicted OC content showed the lowest values in Mediterranean countries and in croplands across Europe, whereas highest OC content were predicted in wetlands, woodlands and in mountainous areas. The map of standard error of the OC model predictions showed high values in northern latitudes, wetlands, moors and heathlands, whereas low uncertainty was mostly found in croplands. A comparison of our results with the map of Jones et al. (2005) showed a general agreement on the prediction of mineral soils' OC content, most probably because the models use some common covariates, namely land cover and temperature. Our model however failed to predict values of OC content greater than 200 g kg-1, which we explain by the imposed unimodal distribution of our model, whose mean is tilted towards the majority of soils, which are mineral. Finally, average

  2. Transparent model of temporal bone and vestibulocochlear organ made by 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Taniguchi, Naoto; Uchida, Fujio; Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Kanatsu, Yoshinori; Zhou, Ming; Funakoshi, Kodai; Akashi, Hideo; Abe, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    The vestibulocochlear organ is composed of tiny complex structures embedded in the petrous part of the temporal bone. Landmarks on the temporal bone surface provide the only orientation guide for dissection, but these need to be removed during the course of dissection, making it difficult to grasp the underlying three-dimensional structures, especially for beginners during gross anatomy classes. We report herein an attempt to produce a transparent three-dimensional-printed model of the human ear. En bloc samples of the temporal bone from donated cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning, and on the basis of the data, the surface temporal bone was reconstructed with transparent resin and the vestibulocochlear organ with white resin to create a 1:1.5 scale model. The carotid canal was stuffed with red cotton, and the sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein were filled with blue clay. In the inner ear, the internal acoustic meatus, cochlea, and semicircular canals were well reconstructed in detail with white resin. The three-dimensional relationships of the semicircular canals, spiral turns of the cochlea, and internal acoustic meatus were well recognizable from every direction through the transparent surface resin. The anterior semicircular canal was obvious immediately beneath the arcuate eminence, and the topographical relationships of the vestibulocochlear organ and adjacent great vessels were easily discernible. We consider that this transparent temporal bone model will be a very useful aid for better understanding of the gross anatomy of the vestibulocochlear organ.

  3. Evaluating analytical ionization quenching correction models for 3D liquid organic scintillator detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanea, F.; Beddar, S.

    2017-05-01

    Proton therapy offers dosimetric advantage over conventional photon therapy due to the finite range of the proton beam, which improves dose conformity. However, one of the main challenges of proton beam therapy is verification of the complex treatment plans delivered to a patient. Thus, 3D measurements are needed to verify the complex dose distribution. A 3D organic scintillator detector is capable of such measurements. However, organic scintillators exhibit a non-linear relation to the ionization density called ionization quenching. The ionization quenching phenomenon in organic scintillators must be accounted for to obtain accurate dose measurements. We investigated the energy deposition by secondary electrons (EDSE) model to explain ionization quenching in 3D liquid organic scintillator when exposed to proton beams. The EDSE model was applied to volumetric scintillation measurement of proton pencil beam with energies of 85.6, 100.9, 144.9 and 161.9 MeV. The quenching parameter in EDSE model ρq was determined by plotting the total light output vs the initial energy of the ion. The results were compared to the Birks semi-empirical formula of scintillation light emission.

  4. Financing of the site search by a public corporation (organization model)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmer, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is focussed on the development of a concept concerning the final deposit of radioactive waste in Germany in connection with the search of an appropriate site for the repository. The main features of the so called organization model are described, the financing of the site search under constitutional law and the principles of tax law is discussed in this context. Other topics are the legitimacy of a final disposal organization in the form of a public corporation with compulsory membership including unconstitutional contributions, and aspects of basic rights and constitutional legality

  5. Organ Culture as a Model System for Studies on Enterotoxin Interactions with the Intestinal Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ulver Spangsberg; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies on bacterial enterotoxin-epithelium interactions require model systems capable of mimicking the events occurring at the molecular and cellular levels during intoxication. In this chapter, we describe organ culture as an often neglected alternative to whole-animal experiments or enterocyte......-like cell lines. Like cell culture, organ culture is versatile and suitable for studying rapidly occurring events, such as enterotoxin binding and uptake. In addition, it is advantageous in offering an epithelium with more authentic permeability/barrier properties than any cell line, as well...

  6. Challenges in modelling dissolved organic matter dynamics in agricultural soil using DAISY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjettermann, Birgitte; Styczen, Merete; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

    2008-01-01

    pedotransfer functions taking into account the soil content of organic matter, Al and Fe oxides. The turnover of several organic matter pools including one DOM pool are described by first-order kinetics. The DOM module was tested at field scale for three soil treatments applied after cultivating grass....... In the subsoil, the observed concentrations of DOC were steadier and the best simulations were obtained using a high k. The model shows that DOC and DON concentrations are levelled out in the subsoils due to soil buffering. The steady concentration levels were based on the Ceq for each horizon and the kinetic...

  7. Equation of State Selection for Organic Rankine Cycle Modeling Under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; O'Connell, John; Abildskov, Jens

    In recent years there has been a great interest in the design and selection of working fluids for low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC), to efficiently produce electrical power from waste heat from chemical engineering applications, as well as from renewable energy sources such as biomass...... cycle, all influence the model output uncertainty. The procedure is highlighted for an ORC for with a low-temperature heat source from exhaust gas from a marine diesel engine.[1] Saleh B, Koglbauer G, Wendland M, Fischer J. Working fluids for lowtemperature organic Rankine cycles. Energy 2007...

  8. A thermodynamical model for stress-fiber organization in contractile cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucard, Louis; Vernerey, Franck J

    2012-01-02

    Cell mechanical adaptivity to external stimuli is vital to many of its biological functions. A critical question is therefore to understand the formation and organization of the stress fibers from which emerge the cell's mechanical properties. By accounting for the mechanical aspects and the viscoelastic behavior of stress fibers, we here propose a thermodynamic model to predict the formation and orientation of stress fibers in contractile cells subjected to constant or cyclic stretch and different substrate stiffness. Our results demonstrate that the stress fibers viscoelastic behavior plays a crucial role in their formation and organization and shows good consistency with various experiments.

  9. Use of Artificial Neural Network Models to Predict Indicator Organism Concentrations in an Urban Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, D. M.; Ahlfeld, D. P.

    2004-05-01

    Forecasting stream water quality is important for numerous aspects of resource protection and management. Fecal coliform and enteroccocus are primary indicator organisms used to assess potential pathogen contamination. Consequently, modeling the occurrence and concentration of fecal coliform and enterococcus is an important tool in watershed management. In addition, analyzing the relationship between model input and predicted indicator organisms is useful for elucidating possible sources of contamination and mechanisms of transport. While many process-based, statistical, and empirical models exist for water quality prediction, artificial neural network (ANN) models are increasingly being used for forecasting of water resources variables because ANNs are often capable of modeling complex systems for which behavioral rules are either unknown or difficult to simulate. The performance of ANNs compared to more established modeling approaches such as multiple linear regression (MLR) remains an importance research question. Data collected the U.S. Geological Survey in the lower Charles River in Massachusetts, USA in 1999-2000 was examined to determine correlation between various water quality constituents and indicator organisms and to explore the relationship between rainfall characteristics and indicator organism concentrations. Using the results of the statistical analysis to guide the selection of explanatory variables, MLR was performed to develop predictive equations for wet weather and dry weather conditions. The results show that the best-performing predictor variables are generally consistent for both indicator organisms considered. In addition, the regression equations show increasing indicator organism concentrations as a function of suspended sediment concentrations and length of time since last precipitation event, suggesting accumulation and wash off as a key mechanism of pathogen transport under wet weather conditions. This research also presents the

  10. Modeling volatile organic compounds sorption on dry building materials using double-exponential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Baoqing; Ge, Di; Li, Jiajia; Guo, Yuan; Kim, Chang Nyung

    2013-01-01

    A double-exponential surface sink model for VOCs sorption on building materials is presented. Here, the diffusion of VOCs in the material is neglected and the material is viewed as a surface sink. The VOCs concentration in the air adjacent to the material surface is introduced and assumed to always maintain equilibrium with the material-phase concentration. It is assumed that the sorption can be described by mass transfer between the room air and the air adjacent to the material surface. The mass transfer coefficient is evaluated from the empirical correlation, and the equilibrium constant can be obtained by linear fitting to the experimental data. The present model is validated through experiments in small and large test chambers. The predicted results accord well with the experimental data in both the adsorption stage and desorption stage. The model avoids the ambiguity of model constants found in other surface sink models and is easy to scale up

  11. A Data-Driven, Integrated Flare Model Based on Self-Organized Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulou, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Georgoulis, M.

    2013-09-01

    We interpret solar flares as events originating in solar active regions having reached the self-organized critical state, by alternatively using two versions of an "integrated flare model" - one static and one dynamic. In both versions the initial conditions are derived from observations aiming to investigate whether well-known scaling laws observed in the distribution functions of characteristic flare parameters are reproduced after the self-organized critical state has been reached. In the static model, we first apply a nonlinear force-free extrapolation that reconstructs the three-dimensional magnetic fields from two-dimensional vector magnetograms. We then locate magnetic discontinuities exceeding a threshold in the Laplacian of the magnetic field. These discontinuities are relaxed in local diffusion events, implemented in the form of cellular-automaton evolution rules. Subsequent loading and relaxation steps lead the system to self-organized criticality, after which the statistical properties of the simulated events are examined. In the dynamic version we deploy an enhanced driving mechanism, which utilizes the observed evolution of active regions, making use of sequential vector magnetograms. We first apply the static cellular automaton model to consecutive solar vector magnetograms until the self-organized critical state is reached. We then evolve the magnetic field inbetween these processed snapshots through spline interpolation, acting as a natural driver in the dynamic model. The identification of magnetically unstable sites as well as their relaxation follow the same rules as in the static model after each interpolation step. Subsequent interpolation/driving and relaxation steps cover all transitions until the end of the sequence. Physical requirements, such as the divergence-free condition for the magnetic field vector, are approximately satisfied in both versions of the model. We obtain robust power laws in the distribution functions of the modelled

  12. Global combustion sources of organic aerosols: model comparison with 84 AMS factor-analysis data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-07-01

    Emissions of organic compounds from biomass, biofuel, and fossil fuel combustion strongly influence the global atmospheric aerosol load. Some of the organics are directly released as primary organic aerosol (POA). Most are emitted in the gas phase and undergo chemical transformations (i.e., oxidation by hydroxyl radical) and form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this work we use the global chemistry climate model ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) with a computationally efficient module for the description of organic aerosol (OA) composition and evolution in the atmosphere (ORACLE). The tropospheric burden of open biomass and anthropogenic (fossil and biofuel) combustion particles is estimated to be 0.59 and 0.63 Tg, respectively, accounting for about 30 and 32 % of the total tropospheric OA load. About 30 % of the open biomass burning and 10 % of the anthropogenic combustion aerosols originate from direct particle emissions, whereas the rest is formed in the atmosphere. A comprehensive data set of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements along with factor-analysis results from 84 field campaigns across the Northern Hemisphere are used to evaluate the model results. Both the AMS observations and the model results suggest that over urban areas both POA (25-40 %) and SOA (60-75 %) contribute substantially to the overall OA mass, whereas further downwind and in rural areas the POA concentrations decrease substantially and SOA dominates (80-85 %). EMAC does a reasonable job in reproducing POA and SOA levels during most of the year. However, it tends to underpredict POA and SOA concentrations during winter indicating that the model misses wintertime sources of OA (e.g., residential biofuel use) and SOA formation pathways (e.g., multiphase oxidation).

  13. AMMI model in the analysis of genotype by environment interaction of conventionally and organically grown onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar-Jokanović Milka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the stability of direct yield components (bulb weight and number plot-1 and other yield contributing characteristics (bulb diameter, height and index, neck diameter and length, plant height, emergence and vegetation period in five commercial onion cultivars grown in conventional and organic environments, by employing additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI statistical model in data analysis. The two-year field trial organized in complete randomized blocks included the plots maintained in four regimes: mineral fertilization (conventional, without fertilization, fertilization with farmyard manure and with bacterial fertilizer (organic. Each treatment by year combination was considered as an environment. Analysis of variance of AMMI model calculated for the investigated traits showed that all sources of variation (genotypes, environments, genotype by environment interaction were highly significant. The largest proportions of the total sum of squares were encompassed by environments, except for emergence and bulb index with the pronounced effect of genotypes (67.26 and 52.54%, respectively and neck length with the genotype by environment interaction amounting 44.59%. Generally, the effects of the interactions were in the common range. The AMMI model with two axes was concluded as the best model for the investigated traits. Onions grown in conventional system outperformed the organic ones. However, good performance of the genotypes was accompanied with low stability across the environments and vice versa. Therefore breeding programs intended to develop cultivars adapted to alternative production systems should rely on the experiments set in the corresponding environments that include various combinations of genotypes and agro-technical procedures based on the principles of organic agriculture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31059

  14. Novel extractants with high selectivity for valuable metals in seawater. Calixarene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakoi, Takahiko; Goto, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Seawater contains various valuable metals such as uranium and lithium. Therefore, attempts are being made to develop highly selective extractants which recognize target metal ions in reclaimed seawater. In this review, we have focused our study on the application of novel cyclic compound calixarene based extractants. A novel host compound calixarene, which is a cyclic compound connecting some phenol rings, is capable of forming several different extractant ring sizes and introducing various kinds of functional groups towards targeting of metal ions in seawater. Therefore, calixarene derivatives are capable of extracting valuable metals such as uranium, alkaline metals, heavy metals, rare earth metals and noble metals selectively by varying structural ring size and functional groups. The novel host compound calixarene has given promising results which line it up as a potential extractant for the separation of valuable metal ions in seawater. (author)

  15. Effect of Acid Dissolution Conditions on Recovery of Valuable Metals from Used Plasma Display Panel Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan-Mi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this particular study was to recover valuable metals from waste plasma display panels using high energy ball milling with subsequent acid dissolution. Dissolution of milled (PDP powder was studied in HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4 acidic solutions. The effects of dissolution acid, temperature, time, and PDP scrap powder to acid ratio on the leaching process were investigated and the most favorable conditions were found: (1 valuable metals (In, Ag, Mg were recovered from PDP powder in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl:H2O = 50:50; (2 the optimal dissolution temperature and time for the valuable metals were found to be 60°C and 30 min, respectively; (3 the ideal PDP scrap powder to acid solution ratio was found to be 1:10. The proposed method was applied to the recovery of magnesium, silver, and indium with satisfactory results.

  16. Regional modeling of carbonaceous aerosols over Europe-focus on secondary organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessagnet, B.; Menut, L.; Curci, G.; Hodzic, A.; Guillaume, B.; Liousse, C.; Moukhtar, S.; Pun, B.; Seigneur, C.; Schulz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, an improved and complete secondary organic aerosols (SOA) chemistry scheme was implemented in the CHIMERE model. The implementation of isoprene chemistry for SOA significantly improves agreement between long series of simulated and observed particulate matter concentrations. While simulated organic carbon concentrations are clearly improved at elevated sites by adding the SOA scheme, time correlation are impaired at low level sites in Portugal, Italy and Slovakia. At several sites a clear underestimation by the CHIMERE model is noticed in wintertime possibly due to missing wood burning emissions as shown in previous modeling studies. In Europe, the CHIMERE model gives yearly average SOA concentrations ranging from 0.5 μg m -3 in the Northern Europe to 4 μg m -3 over forested regions in Spain, France, Germany and Italy. In addition, our work suggests that during the highest fire emission periods, fires can be the dominant source of primary organic carbon over the Mediterranean Basin, but the SOA contribution from fire emissions is low. Isoprene chemistry has a strong impact on SOA formation when using current available kinetic schemes. (authors)

  17. Modeling and Analyzing Operational Decision-Making Synchronization of C2 Organization in Complex Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve capability of operational decision-making synchronization (ODMS in command and control (C2 organization, the paper puts forward that ODMS is the negotiation process of situation cognition with three phases about “situation cognition, situation interaction and decision-making synchronization” in complex environment, and then the model and strategies of ODMS are given in quantity. Firstly, measure indexes of three steps above are given in the paper based on the time consumed in negotiation, and three patterns are proposed for negotiating timely in high quality during situation interaction. Secondly, the ODMS model with two stages in continuous changing situation is put forward in the paper, and ODMS strategies are analyzed within environment influence and time restriction. Thirdly, simulation cases are given to validate the process of ODMS under different continuous changing situations the results of this model are better than the other previous models to fulfill the actual restrictions, and the process of ODMS can be adjusted more reasonable for improving the capability of ODMS. Then we discuss the case and summarize the influence factors of ODMS in the C2 organization as organization structure, shared information resources, negotiation patterns, and allocation of decision rights.

  18. Application of retention modelling to the simulation of separation of organic anions in suppressed ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Philip; Dicinoski, Greg W; Ng, Boon Khing; Shellie, Robert A; Hanna-Brown, Melissa; Haddad, Paul R

    2009-09-18

    The ion-exchange separation of organic anions of varying molecular mass has been demonstrated using ion chromatography with isocratic, gradient and multi-step eluent profiles on commercially available columns with UV detection. A retention model derived previously for inorganic ions and based solely on electrostatic interactions between the analytes and the stationary phase was applied. This model was found to accurately describe the observed elution of all the anions under isocratic, gradient and multi-step eluent conditions. Hydrophobic interactions, although likely to be present to varying degrees, did not limit the applicability of the ion-exchange retention model. Various instrumental configurations were investigated to overcome problems associated with the use of organic modifiers in the eluent which caused compatibility issues with the electrolytically derived, and subsequently suppressed, eluent. The preferred configuration allowed the organic modifier stream to bypass the eluent generator, followed by subsequent mixing before entering the injection valve and column. Accurate elution prediction was achieved even when using 5-step eluent profiles with errors in retention time generally being less than 1% relative standard deviation (RSD) and all being less than 5% RSD. Peak widths for linear gradient separations were also modelled and showed good agreement with experimentally determined values.

  19. Regional modeling of carbonaceous aerosols over Europe-focus on secondary organic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessagnet, B. [INERIS, Inst Nat Env Indust Risques, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte, (France); Menut, L. [Ecole Poltechnique, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Lab Meteorol Dyn, F-91128 Palaiseau, (France); Curci, G. [Univ degli Studi dell' Aquila, CETEMPS, 67010 Coppito - L' Aquila, (Italy); Hodzic, A. [NCAR, Nat Center for Atmosph Research, Boulder, 80301, CO, (United States); Guillaume, B.; Liousse, C. [LA/OMP, Lab Aerol/Observ Midi-Pyrenees, F-31400 Toulouse, (France); Moukhtar, S. [York Univ, Centre Atmosph Chem, Toronto, (Italy); Pun, B.; Seigneur, C. [Atmosph and Environ Research, San Ramon, CA 94583, (United States); Schulz, M. [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, IPSL, Lab Sciences Climat et Environm, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, (France)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, an improved and complete secondary organic aerosols (SOA) chemistry scheme was implemented in the CHIMERE model. The implementation of isoprene chemistry for SOA significantly improves agreement between long series of simulated and observed particulate matter concentrations. While simulated organic carbon concentrations are clearly improved at elevated sites by adding the SOA scheme, time correlation are impaired at low level sites in Portugal, Italy and Slovakia. At several sites a clear underestimation by the CHIMERE model is noticed in wintertime possibly due to missing wood burning emissions as shown in previous modeling studies. In Europe, the CHIMERE model gives yearly average SOA concentrations ranging from 0.5 {mu}g m{sup -3} in the Northern Europe to 4 {mu}g m{sup -3} over forested regions in Spain, France, Germany and Italy. In addition, our work suggests that during the highest fire emission periods, fires can be the dominant source of primary organic carbon over the Mediterranean Basin, but the SOA contribution from fire emissions is low. Isoprene chemistry has a strong impact on SOA formation when using current available kinetic schemes. (authors)

  20. Dubinin-Astakhov model for acetylene adsorption on metal-organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Peifu; Hu, Yun Hang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It was demonstrated that Dubinin-Astakhov equation can be exploited as a general isotherm model for C2H2 adsorption on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including MOF-5, ZIF-8, HKUST-1, and MIL-53. - Highlights: • Dubinin-Astakhov equation is demonstrated to be a general model for C_2H_2 adsorption on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). • Surface areas obtained with Dubinin-Astakhov equation from C_2H_2 adsorption on MOFs are consistent with BET surface areas from N_2 adsorption. • C_2H_2 on MOF-5, ZIF-8, and MIL-53 is a physical adsorption, whereas its adsorption on HKUST-1 is due to a chemical bonding. - Abstract: Acetylene (C_2H_2) is explosive at a pressure above 29 psi, causing a safety issue for its storage and applications. C_2H_2 adsorption on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been explored to solve the issue. However, a suitable isotherm equation for C_2H_2 adsorption on various MOFs has not been found. In this paper, it was demonstrated that Dubinin-Astakhov equation can be exploited as a general isotherm model to depict C_2H_2 adsorption on MOF-5, ZIF-8, HKUST-1, and MIL-53. In contrast, commonly used Langmuir and BET models exhibited their inapplicability for C_2H_2 adsorption on those MOFs.

  1. Fuzzy model for risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguí, X.; Pujolasus, E.; Betrò, S.; Àgueda, A.; Casal, J.; Ocampo-Duque, W.; Rudolph, I.; Barra, R.; Páez, M.; Barón, E.; Eljarrat, E.; Barceló, D.; Darbra, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a model for evaluating the environmental risk of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to aquatic organisms. The model is based on fuzzy theory and uses information provided by international experts through a questionnaire. It has been tested in two case studies for a particular type of POPs: brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The first case study is related to the EU-funded AQUATERRA project, with sampling campaigns carried out in two Ebro tributaries in Spain (the Cinca and Vero Rivers). The second one, named the BROMACUA project, assessed different aquatic ecosystems in Chile (San Vicente Bay) and Colombia (Santa Marta Marsh). In both projects, the BFRs under study were polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). However, the model can be extrapolated to other POPs and to different aquatic ecosystems to provide useful results for decision-makers. -- The risk of POPs for aquatic organisms was assessed at several sites around the world, using a fuzzy-based model to provide useful results for decision-makers

  2. Toward a model of employee engagement in a public service organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Strange

    Employee engagement has long been capturing the attention of researchers and practitioners, (e.g. Bakker, Albrecht, & Leiter, 2011; Buckingham & Coffman, 1999) due to its positive impact on various measures of organizational performance (Gruman & Saks, 2011; Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002; Mone...... & London, 2010). To date, however, employee engagement has primarily been studied in private manufacturing firms leaving out a gap of research in a public service organization, such as eldercare organizations, although engagement according to Boselie (2010) is highly relevant in the specific context....... The purpose of the PhD project is to build a model explaining employee engagement in a public service organization. Research on work design theory (e.g. Hackman & Oldham, 1976) will be used, since it has often been applied to identify antecedents associated with engagement (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Kahn...

  3. Mobility Model for Self-Organizing and Cooperative MSN and MANET Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Sikora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization mechanisms are used for building scalable systems consisting of a huge number of subsystems. In computer networks, self-organizing is especially important in ad hoc networking. A self-organizing ad hoc network is a collection of wireless devices that collaborate with each other to form a network system that adapts to achieve a goal or goals. Such network is often built from mobile devices that may spontaneously create a network and dynamically adapted to changes in an unknown environment. Mobility pattern is a critical element that influences the performance characteristics of mobile sensor networks (MSN and mobile ad hoc networks (MANET. In this paper, we survey main directions to mobility modeling. We describe a novel algorithm for calculating mobility patterns for mobile devices that is based on a cluster formation and an artificial potential function. Finally, we present the simulation results of its application to a rescue mission planning.

  4. Organic Production Business Model and the Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina ARABSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR considering competitiveness and sustainability issues in contemporary globalizing world is closely linked to organic production being a production system applying holistic approaches in the overall management and production activities and assurance of the highest degree of conformability to sustainable use and preservation of resources. The paper examines the organic production as a business model corresponding to the spheres of CSR regarding society, environment, human capital and work conditions, knowledge and education. The focus in on sustainable business practices in organic production assessed in the study from the point of view of management, environment, human resources, public relations and business environment considered in five dimensions: economic, social, environmental, cultural and accountability.

  5. Designing Multidimensional Policing Strategy And Organization: Towards A Synthesis Of Professional And Community Police Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suve Priit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.

  6. Cheese whey valorisation: Production of valuable gaseous and liquid chemicals from lactose by aqueous phase reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remón, J.; Ruiz, J.; Oliva, M.; García, L.; Arauzo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous phase reforming: a promising strategy for cheese whey valorisation. • In-depth understanding of the effect of the operating conditions on the process. • Process optimisation for the selective production of valuable gas and liquid products. • High P, T, lactose concentration and spatial time favour gas production. • High T, low spatial time and the use of diluted solutions maximise liquids production. - Abstract: Cheese effluent management has become an important issue owing to its high biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values. Given this scenario, this work addresses the valorisation of lactose (the largest organic constituent of this waste) by aqueous phase reforming, analysing the influence of the most important operating variables (temperature, pressure, lactose concentration and mass of catalyst/lactose mass flow rate ratio) as well as optimising the process for the production of either gaseous or liquid value-added chemicals. The carbon converted into gas, liquid and solid products varied as follows: 5–41%, 33–97% and 0–59%, respectively. The gas phase was made up of a mixture of H_2 (8–58 vol.%), CO_2 (33–85 vol.%), CO (0–15 vol.%) and CH_4 (0–14 vol.%). The liquid phase consisted of a mixture of aldehydes: 0–11%, carboxylic acids: 0–22%, monohydric alcohols: 0–23%, polyhydric-alcohols: 0–48%, C3-ketones: 4–100%, C4-ketones: 0–18%, cyclic-ketones: 0–15% and furans: 0–85%. H_2 production is favoured at high pressure, elevated temperature, employing a high amount of catalyst and a concentrated lactose solution. Liquid production is preferential using diluted lactose solutions. At high pressure, the production of C3-ketones is preferential using a high temperature and a low amount of catalyst, while a medium temperature and a high amount of catalyst favours the production of furans. The production of alcohols is preferential using medium temperature and pressure and a low amount of

  7. An empirically based model for knowledge management in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Shannon L; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge management (KM) encompasses strategies, processes, and practices that allow an organization to capture, share, store, access, and use knowledge. Ideal KM combines different sources of knowledge to support innovation and improve performance. Despite the importance of KM in health care organizations (HCOs), there has been very little empirical research to describe KM in this context. This study explores KM in HCOs, focusing on the status of current intraorganizational KM. The intention is to provide insight for future studies and model development for effective KM implementation in HCOs. A qualitative methods approach was used to create an empirically based model of KM in HCOs. Methods included (a) qualitative interviews (n = 24) with senior leadership to identify types of knowledge important in these roles plus current information-seeking behaviors/needs and (b) in-depth case study with leaders in new executive positions (n = 2). The data were collected from 10 HCOs. Our empirically based model for KM was assessed for face and content validity. The findings highlight the paucity of formal KM in our sample HCOs. Organizational culture, leadership, and resources are instrumental in supporting KM processes. An executive's knowledge needs are extensive, but knowledge assets are often limited or difficult to acquire as much of the available information is not in a usable format. We propose an empirically based model for KM to highlight the importance of context (internal and external), and knowledge seeking, synthesis, sharing, and organization. Participants who reviewed the model supported its basic components and processes, and potential for incorporating KM into organizational processes. Our results articulate ways to improve KM, increase organizational learning, and support evidence-informed decision-making. This research has implications for how to better integrate evidence and knowledge into organizations while considering context and the role of

  8. Recovery of Palm Oil and Valuable Material from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Sub-critical Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Kurnin, Nor Azrin; Shah Ismail, Mohd Halim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izhar, Shamsul

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the solid wastes produced in huge volume by palm oil mill. Whilst it still contains valuable oil, approximately 22.6 million tons is generated annually and treated as solid waste. In this work, sub-critical water (sub-cw) was used to extract oil, sugar and tar from spikelet of EFB. The spikelet was treated with sub-cw between 180-280°C and a reaction time of 2 and 5 minutes. The highest yield of oil was 0.075 g-oil/g-dry EFB, obtained at 240°C and reaction time of 5 minutes. Astonishingly, oil that was extracted through this method was 84.5% of that obtained through Soxhlet method using hexane. Yield of oil extracted was strongly affected by the reaction temperature and time. Higher reaction temperature induces the dielectric constant of water towards the non-polar properties of solvent; thus increases the oil extraction capability. Meanwhile, the highest yield of sugar was 0.20 g-sugar/g-dry EFB obtained at 220°C. At this temperature, the ion product of water is high enough to enable maximum sub-critical water hydrolysis reaction. This study showed that oil and other valuable material can be recovered using water at sub-critical condition, and most attractive without the use of harmful organic solvent.

  9. Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

  10. Modeling the degradation of Portland cement pastes by biogenic organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Windt, Laurent; Devillers, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Reactive transport models can be used to assess the long-term performance of cement-based materials subjected to biodegradation. A bioleaching test (with Aspergillus niger fungi) applied to ordinary Portland cement pastes during 15 months is modeled with HYTEC. Modeling indicates that the biogenic organic acids (acetic, butyric, lactic and oxalic) strongly accelerate hydrate dissolution by acidic hydrolysis whilst their complexation of aluminum has an effect on the secondary gel stability only. The deepest degradation front corresponds to portlandite dissolution and decalcification of calcium silicate hydrates. A complex pattern of sulfate phases dissolution and precipitation takes place in an intermediate zone. The outermost degraded zone consists of alumina and silica gels. The modeling accurateness of calcium leaching, pH evolution and degradation thickness is consistently enhanced whilst considering increase of diffusivity in the degraded zones. Precipitation of calcium oxalate is predicted by modeling but was hindered in the bioleaching reactor.

  11. Assessment of a semiautomated pelvic floor measurement model for evaluating pelvic organ prolapse on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, S; Lai-Yuen, S; Bao, P; Weitzenfeld, A; Greene, K; Kedar, R; Hart, S

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the performance of a semiautomated pelvic floor measurement algorithmic model on dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images compared with manual pelvic floor measurements for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) evaluation. We examined 15 MRIs along the midsagittal view. Five reference points used for pelvic floor measurements were identified both manually and using our semiautomated measurement model. The two processes were compared in terms of accuracy and precision. The semiautomated pelvic floor measurement model provided highly consistent and accurate locations for all reference points on MRI. Results also showed that the model can identify the reference points faster than the manual-point identification process. The semiautomated pelvic floor measurement model can be used to facilitate and improve the process of pelvic floor measurements on MRI. This will enable high throughput analysis of MRI data to improve the correlation analysis with clinical outcomes and potentially improve POP assessment.

  12. Influence of organic matter on the solubility of ThO2 and geochemical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Luo Tian; Maes, N.; Bruggeman, C.

    2014-01-01

    Thorium (IV) is widely considered in laboratory experiments as a suitable chemical analogue for long-lived tetravalent actinides. Th (IV) is redox-insensitive, as an analogue for U (IV) to study the influence of natural organic matter on the solubility. The solubility of crystalline ThO 2 (cr) has been measured under geochemical conditions representative for the Boom Clay using Real Boom Clay Water containing organic matter to assess its influence on the ThO 2 (cr) solubility. For the purpose of comparison, Aldrich Humic Acid was also investigated. Solubility measurements of ThO 2 (cr) were approached from under-saturation in an anaerobic glove box with a controlled Ar0.4%CO 2 atmosphere. Th concentration is determined after 30000 MWCO, 300000 MWCO, and 0.45 μm filtration to distinguish solid (0.45 μm), larger colloids (300000 MWCO), and small dissolved species(30000 MWCO). X-ray diffraction was carried out to investigate the transformation of ThO 2 (cr) phase during the contact with Boom Clay Water. In Synthetic Boom Clay Water (without organic matter) the concentrations of Th (IV) are 5 × l0 -ll mol/L, 4 × lO -10 mol/L, and 8 × lO -8 mol/L after 30000 MWCO, 300000 MWCO, and 0. 45 μm filtration, respectively. It indicated the existence of inorganic colloids in solution. The increase of the total Th solution concentration with increasing organic matter concentration revealed a complexation-like interaction between Th and organic matter. All the experimental data could be modeled by Tipping humic ion-binding model VI using a combination of solubility calculations and complexation reactions between Th (IV) and organic matter functional groups. Similar to the investigation of Eu 3+ solubility, the affinity of organic matter for Th was higher for Aldrich humic acid compared to Boom Clay organic matter. However, Boom Clay organic matter with different size had the similar complexation affinity with Th (IV). (authors)

  13. Estimation of anisotropy parameters in organic-rich shale: Rock physics forward modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herawati, Ida, E-mail: ida.herawati@students.itb.ac.id; Winardhi, Sonny; Priyono, Awali [Mining and Petroleum Engineering Faculty, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Anisotropy analysis becomes an important step in processing and interpretation of seismic data. One of the most important things in anisotropy analysis is anisotropy parameter estimation which can be estimated using well data, core data or seismic data. In seismic data, anisotropy parameter calculation is generally based on velocity moveout analysis. However, the accuracy depends on data quality, available offset, and velocity moveout picking. Anisotropy estimation using seismic data is needed to obtain wide coverage of particular layer anisotropy. In anisotropic reservoir, analysis of anisotropy parameters also helps us to better understand the reservoir characteristics. Anisotropy parameters, especially ε, are related to rock property and lithology determination. Current research aims to estimate anisotropy parameter from seismic data and integrate well data with case study in potential shale gas reservoir. Due to complexity in organic-rich shale reservoir, extensive study from different disciplines is needed to understand the reservoir. Shale itself has intrinsic anisotropy caused by lamination of their formed minerals. In order to link rock physic with seismic response, it is necessary to build forward modeling in organic-rich shale. This paper focuses on studying relationship between reservoir properties such as clay content, porosity and total organic content with anisotropy. Organic content which defines prospectivity of shale gas can be considered as solid background or solid inclusion or both. From the forward modeling result, it is shown that organic matter presence increases anisotropy in shale. The relationships between total organic content and other seismic properties such as acoustic impedance and Vp/Vs are also presented.

  14. Estimation of anisotropy parameters in organic-rich shale: Rock physics forward modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herawati, Ida; Winardhi, Sonny; Priyono, Awali

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropy analysis becomes an important step in processing and interpretation of seismic data. One of the most important things in anisotropy analysis is anisotropy parameter estimation which can be estimated using well data, core data or seismic data. In seismic data, anisotropy parameter calculation is generally based on velocity moveout analysis. However, the accuracy depends on data quality, available offset, and velocity moveout picking. Anisotropy estimation using seismic data is needed to obtain wide coverage of particular layer anisotropy. In anisotropic reservoir, analysis of anisotropy parameters also helps us to better understand the reservoir characteristics. Anisotropy parameters, especially ε, are related to rock property and lithology determination. Current research aims to estimate anisotropy parameter from seismic data and integrate well data with case study in potential shale gas reservoir. Due to complexity in organic-rich shale reservoir, extensive study from different disciplines is needed to understand the reservoir. Shale itself has intrinsic anisotropy caused by lamination of their formed minerals. In order to link rock physic with seismic response, it is necessary to build forward modeling in organic-rich shale. This paper focuses on studying relationship between reservoir properties such as clay content, porosity and total organic content with anisotropy. Organic content which defines prospectivity of shale gas can be considered as solid background or solid inclusion or both. From the forward modeling result, it is shown that organic matter presence increases anisotropy in shale. The relationships between total organic content and other seismic properties such as acoustic impedance and Vp/Vs are also presented

  15. A student leadership model for promoting educational programs in organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reville, P; Zhao, C; Perez, T; Nowacki, A S; Phillips, D; Bowen, G; Starling, N; Pflaum, B; Strickland, R; Fung, J; Askar, M

    2013-05-01

    The global organ shortage is the strongest factor for the increase in transplant wait time and deaths on waitlists. Here we describe a model for involving high school students in education research around organ donation and transplantation and capitalize on the strength of a pre-existing educational program offered by the local organ procurement organization (OPO). While training in education research at Cleveland Clinic, a high school student embarked on a collaborative project with the local OPO. The project involved evaluating three educational programs, selecting the most appropriate program for administration at her school, coordinating with the student's school administration and teachers, administering an assessment tool for the effectiveness of the program, and analyzing the results. The local OPO program that was selected for implementation consisted of a video presentation entitled "Share your life, share your decision" prepared by the United States Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), lectures by invited speakers and an educational assessment (pre- and post-education). The assessment survey included 3 multiple choice and 7 true/false questions. Compared to the over 2500 programs administered in the last 5 years by the local OPO, this program had a higher volume of participation (n = 353 compared to an average of 150 students/day). Students correctly classified transplantation status of more organ and tissues post-education (P education (P ≤ .002 for all). This experience included for the first time a formal assessment of the program which will be utilized to address targeted areas for specific improvements. This student collaborative model of involving students in organ donation and transplantation related education research has the potential to promote and maximize the effectiveness of educational programs targeting their peers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards

  17. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

  18. Antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations: An empirical study based on norm activation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yixiang; Wang, Zhaohua; Zhou, Guanghui

    2013-01-01

    China is one of the major energy-consuming countries, and is under great pressure to promote energy saving and reduce domestic energy consumption. Employees constitute an important target group for energy saving. However, only a few research efforts have been paid to study what drives employee energy saving behavior in organizations. To fill this gap, drawing on norm activation model (NAM), we built a research model to study antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations. The model was empirically tested using survey data collected from office workers in Beijing, China. Results show that personal norm positively influences employee electricity saving behavior. Organizational electricity saving climate negatively moderates the effect of personal norm on electricity saving behavior. Awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, and organizational electricity saving climate positively influence personal norm. Furthermore, awareness of consequences positively influences ascription of responsibility. This paper contributes to the energy saving behavior literature by building a theoretical model of employee electricity saving behavior which is understudied in the current literature. Based on the empirical results, implications on how to promote employee electricity saving are discussed. - Highlights: • We studied employee electricity saving behavior based on norm activation model. • The model was tested using survey data collected from office workers in China. • Personal norm positively influences employee′s electricity saving behavior. • Electricity saving climate negatively moderates personal norm′s effect. • This research enhances our understanding of employee electricity saving behavior

  19. MODEL OF PROVIDING WITH DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kuzkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. The paper presents research and instructional tools for assessment of providing with the development strategy for information technologies in an organization. Method. The corresponding assessment model is developed which takes into consideration IT-processes equilibrium according to selected efficiency factors of information technologies application. Basic results. The model peculiarity resides in applying neuro-fuzzy approximators where the conclusion is drawn upon fuzzy logic, and membership functions are adjusted through the use of neural networks. For the adequacy testing of the suggested model, due diligence result analysis has been carried out for the IT-strategy executed in the “Navigator” group of companies at the stage of implementation and support of new technologies and production methods. Data visualization with a circle diagram is applied for the comparative evaluation of the analysis results. The chosen model adequacy is proved by the agreement between predictive assessments for IT-strategy performance targets derived by means of the fuzzy cognitive model over 12 months planning horizon and the real values of these targets upon the expiry of the given planning term. Practical significance. The developed model application gives the possibility to solve the problem of sustainability assessment for the process of providing the required IT-strategy realization level based upon the fuzzy cognitive map analysis and to reveal IT-objectives changing tendencies for an organization over the stated planning interval.

  20. Application of the mathematical modelling and human phantoms for calculation of the organ doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluson, J.; Cechak, T.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing power of the computers hardware and new versions of the software for the radiation transport simulation and modelling of the complex experimental setups and geometrical arrangement enable to dramatically improve calculation of organ or target volume doses ( dose distributions) in the wide field of medical physics and radiation protection applications. Increase of computers memory and new software features makes it possible to use not only analytical (mathematical) phantoms but also allow constructing the voxel models of human or phantoms with voxels fine enough (e.g. 1·1·1 mm) to represent all required details. CT data can be used for the description of such voxel model geometry .Advanced scoring methods are available in the new software versions. Contribution gives the overview of such new possibilities in the modelling and doses calculations, discusses the simulation/approximation of the dosimetric quantities ( especially dose ) and calculated data interpretation. Some examples of application and demonstrations will be shown, compared and discussed. Present computational tools enables to calculate organ or target volumes doses with new quality of large voxel models/phantoms (including CT based patient specific model ), approximating the human body with high precision. Due to these features has more and more importance and use in the fields of medical and radiological physics, radiation protection, etc. (authors)