Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Ashland Quadrangle, Wisconsin; Michigan; Minnesota are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 312 groundwater and 383 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising area for potential uranium mineralization occurs along the Douglas Thrust Fault in northern Douglas County, Wisconsin. The Douglas Fault brings Fond du Lac Formation sediments in contact with Chengwatana volcanics where carbonate-rich water derived from the mafic volcanics enter the arkosic Fond du Lac Formation. Another area of interest surrounds the Bad River Indian Reservation in northern Ashland and Iron Counties. The waters here are produced from red lithic sandstone and are also associated with the Douglas Fault. Water chemistry of these waters appears similar to the waters from the Douglas County area. The stream sediment data are inconclusive because of the extensive cover of glacial deposits. A moderately favorable area is present in a strip along Lake Superior in Douglas County, where sediments are derived from arkoses of the Fond du Lac Formation
The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power ampersand Light Company's (PP ampersand L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP ampersand L's Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP ampersand L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW's) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP ampersand L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them
Cleveland, Robert H.; Stamoulis, Catherine; Sawicki, Gregory; Kelliher, Emma; Wood, Christopher; Zurakowski, David; Lee, Edward [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zucker, Evan J. [Tufts Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)
Several imaging-based scoring systems have been used as outcome measures in assessing the severity of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. It has been shown that chest radiography performs equally to computed tomography (CT). There is the opinion that of the two most commonly used chest radiograph (CXR) systems, the Brasfield system is less sensitive and reliable than the Wisconsin system. This report assesses the reproducibility and reliability of the two systems. Thirty patients with CXRs during a 5-year period were randomly selected. One hundred eighty-two studies had data for all CXRs and pulmonary function tests (PFTs), Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV-1) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). PFT values closest to the date of each CXR were recorded. Four radiologists scored each image twice by both the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems. Intra- and inter-rater reliability, correlation with PFTs and direct correlation of the two systems were calculated. Intra-rater agreement: r = 0.86-0.99 Brasfield, r = 0.78-0.96 Wisconsin. Inter-rater agreement: 0.76-0.90 Brasfield, r = 0.74-0.97 Wisconsin. Brasfield vs. FEV-1: r = 0.55, vs. FVC r = 0.61. Wisconsin vs. FEV-1: r = 0.57, vs. FVC r = 0.66. Correlation of the two systems: r = 0.86 (all P < 0.001). The Brasfield and Wisconsin systems performed very similarly providing equally reproducible, robust and reliable measures. (orig.)
Daniel C. Dey; John Dwyer; Jan Wiedenbeck
Guidelines for managing sugar maple-dominated forests by the single-tree selection method are well established and widely adopted. The forests of the Menominee Tribe in Wisconsin provide an opportunity to validate current guidelines by testing tree value and size/age relationships in forests that have substantially older and larger high-quality trees than can be found...
Howard, B.; Conboy, D.; Rehmann, M.; Roberts, H.
During World War II the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) used facilities near Buffalo, N.Y. to extract natural uranium from ores. Some of the byproduct material left from the ores (MED byproduct), containing low levels of uranium, thorium, and radium, was deposited on a disposal site known as Ashland 2, located in Tonawanda, NY. On behalf of the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE, or the Corps), ICF Kaiser Engineers (ICFKE) was tasked to provide the best value clean-up results that meet all of the criteria established in the Record of Decision for the site. International Uranium (USA) Corporation (IUC), the operator of the White Mesa Uranium Mill, a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed mill near Blanding, Utah, was selected to perform uranium extraction on the excavated materials, therefore giving the best value as it provided beneficial use of the material consistent with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) intent to encourage recycling and recovery, while also providing the most cost-effective means of disposal. Challenges overcome to complete this project included (1) identifying the best-value location to accept the material; (2) meeting regulatory requirements with IUC obtaining an NRC license amendment to accept and process the material as an alternate feed; (3) excavating and preparing the material for shipment, then shipping the material to the Mill for uranium recovery; and (4) processing the material, followed by disposal of tailings from the process in the Mill's licensed uranium tailings facility. Excavation from Ashland 2 and processing of the Ashland 2 material at the White Mesa Mill resulted in a cleaner environment at Tonawanda, a cost avoidance of up to $16 million, beneficial recovery of source material, and environmentally protective disposal of byproduct material. (author)
"The objectives of this research are to establish a resilient modulus test results database and to develop : correlations for estimating the resilient modulus of Wisconsin fine-grained soils from basic soil properties. A : laboratory testing program ...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-24 OTS Nos. 04246 and H4776] Home Federal Savings and Loan Association, Ashland, KY; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby... Savings and Loan Association, Ashland, Kentucky, to convert to the stock form of organization. Copies of...
This paper reports that Ashland Petroleum Co. has spelled out $261 million in projects completed, under way, or planned to produce cleaner fuel and further reduce emissions at two U.S. refineries. The company: Started up at $13 million pollution control system at its 213,400 b/cd Catlettsburg, Ky., plant. Started construction on six projects at its 67,100 b/cd St. Paul Park, Minn., refinery that will cost about $114 million and enable the plant to produce cleaner burning diesel fuel and further reduce emissions
Yanos, Philip T.
Lack of insight in schizophrenia is a key feature of the illness and is associated with both positive and negative clinical outcomes. Previous research supports that neurocognitive dysfunction is related to lack of insight, but studies have not examined how neurocognition relates to change in insight over time. Therefore, the current study sought to understand how performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) differed between participants with varying degrees of change in insight over a 6-month period. Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the WCST and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline, and the PANSS was again administered at a 6-month follow-up assessment. Results indicated that while neurocognition was related to insight at baseline, it was not related to subsequent change in insight. The implications of findings for conceptualization and assessment of insight are discussed. PMID:24303216
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... manner that increases resiliency of the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project area ecosystem to... requirements to require. The Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project includes treatments previously proposed...
This document contains a transcript of the comments of more than 35 witnesses. These meetings were held to hear public comments regarding the selection of a site for a second high-level nuclear waste repository
This document contains a transcript of the comments of 111 witnesses. These meetings were held to hear the public's comments regarding the selection of a site for a second high-level radioactive waste repository
... Local Regulation, Cumberland River, Mile 157.0 to 159.0; Ashland City, TN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Special local regulation; Cumberland River, Miles 157.0 to 159.0, Ashland City, TN. (a) Location. The... regulation for the waters of the Cumberland River beginning at mile marker 157.0 and ending at mile marker...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... Impact Statement for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project was published in the Federal Register... Responsible Official for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project. DATES: The Final Environmental Impact...
... North: Green Bay West: W. Mason St. and Ashland Ave., along Ashland north to Matter St., west to Crocker St., north on Crocker St. to Bylsby St., then to Green Bay South: W. Mason St. and Ashland Ave., east along Mason to Irwin Ave. East: W. Mason St., and Irwin Ave., along Irwin Ave. north to Green Bay...
... Court of Appeals found it necessary to understand the type of habitat the Pacific fisher requires for... Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in CV-05-03004-PA, to conditionally authorize expansion of the Mt. Ashland... Alternative 6. The Forest Service received twenty-eight notices of appeal to the ROD. In December 2004, the...
Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman
Describes the tables derived from the 1983 Forest Survey of Wisconsin and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Wisconsin`s five Forest Survey Units and 14 forest types.
Kinnes, G.M.; Fleeger, A.K.; Baron, S.L.
In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths
Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Vern A. Everson; Ian K. Brown; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Sally E. Dahir; Edward A. Jepsen; Joe Kovach; Michael D. Labissoniere; Terry R. Mace; Eunice A. Padley; Richard B. Rideout; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Greg C. Liknes; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall
The first full, annualized inventory of Wisconsin's forests was completed in 2004 after 6,478 forested plots were visited. There are more than 16.0 million acres of forest land in the Wisconsin, nearly half of the State's land area; 15.8 million acres meet the definition of timberland. The total area of both forest land and timberland continues an upward...
Charles H. Perry
This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...
Kingsbury Stewart, Esther; Mauk, Jeffrey L.
We use core descriptions and portable X-ray fluorescence analyses to identify lithofacies and stratigraphic surfaces for the Mesoproterozoic Nonesuch Formation within the Ashland syncline, Wisconsin. We group lithofacies into facies associations and construct a sequence stratigraphic framework based on lithofacies stacking and stratigraphic surfaces. The fluvial-alluvial facies association (upper Copper Harbor Conglomerate) is overlain across a transgressive surface by the fluctuating-profundal facies association (lower Nonesuch Formation). The fluctuating-profundal facies association comprises a retrogradational sequence set overlain across a maximum flooding surface by an aggradational-progradational sequence set comprising fluctuating-profundal, fluvial-lacustrine, and fluvial-alluvial facies associations (middle Nonesuch through lower Freda Formations). Lithogeochemistry supports sedimentologic and stratigraphic interpretations. Fe/S molar ratios reflect the oxidation state of the lithofacies; values are most depleted above the maximum flooding surface where lithofacies are chemically reduced and are greatest in the chemically oxidized lithofacies. Si/Al and Zr/Al molar ratios reflect the relative abundance of detrital heavy minerals vs. clay minerals; greater values correlate with larger grain size. Vertical facies association stacking records depositional environments that evolved from fluvial and alluvial, to balanced-fill lake, to overfilled lake, and returning to fluvial and alluvial. Elsewhere in the basin, where accommodation was greatest, some volume of fluvial-lacustrine facies is likely present below the transgressive stratigraphic surface. This succession of continental and lake-basin types indicates a predominant tectonic driver of basin evolution. Lithofacies distribution and geochemistry indicate deposition within an asymmetric half-graben bounded on the east by a west-dipping growth fault. While facies assemblages are lacustrine and continental
Buchwald, Cheryl A.
in Wisconsin by source of water and category of use have been compiled at 5-year intervals since 1950. During the past 55 years (1950-2005), water withdrawn to meet demands for public supply and self-supplied irrigation, industrial, commercial, domestic, and livestock increased 333 percent (1,117 Mgal/d). The greatest increases were for public supply, industrial, and irrigation, and are reflected in the increasing total per-capita water-use values. In recent (2000 and 2005) water-use estimation years, both public-supply and self-supplied domestic per-capita-use values have been declining. This can be attributed, at least in part, to a reduction in industrial-water deliveries, increased water-efficiency standards, and the implementation of leak-detection programs and water-conservation practices. However, when making comparisons to evaluate trends among other Wisconsin water-use estimation years, it is important to be aware of changes that may have occurred in estimation methods or objectives that create differences. Some changes that have occurred are the availability of data and information about water use, changes in data sources and estimation methods, and the inclusion and exclusion of certain water-use categories. These differences may have an effect on apparent trends and make comparing trends difficult.
Daniel, Jamie Owen
Like thousands of other people from around the country and around the world, this author was heartened and inspired by the tenacity, immediacy, and creativity of the pushback by Wisconsin's public-sector unions against Governor Scott Walker's efforts to limit their collective bargaining rights. And like many others who made the trek to Madison to…
... to know how to advance an innovative tech idea I want to know more about agricultural resources available in Wisconsin I want to learn how I can get training and support for my small business I want to learn how I can get ...
This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...
Charles, H. (Hobie) Perry; Gary J. Brand
The annual forest inventory of Wisconsin continues, and this document reports 2001-05 moving averages for most variables and comparisons between 2000 and 2005 for growth, removals, and mortality. Summary resource tables can be generated through the Forest Inventory Mapmaker website at http://ncrs2.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/index. htm. Estimates from this inventory show a...
C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson
Figure 2 was revised by the author in August 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service from 2002-2006. These estimates, along with associated core tables postedon the Internet, are...
C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson
This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.
This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...
A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.
Charles H. Perry
Results of the 2000-2004 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 16.0 million acres of forest land, more than 22.1 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 593 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Populations of jack pine budworm are increasing, and it remains a significant pest in Wisconsin forests. A complete...
Walker, John F.; Peppler, Marie C.; Danz, Mari E.; Hubbard, Laura E.
Flood-frequency characteristics for 360 gaged sites on unregulated rural streams in Wisconsin are presented for percent annual exceedance probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 50 using a statewide skewness map developed for this report. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of the equations presented in this report. The State was divided into eight areas of similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, main-channel slope, and several land-use variables. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood ranges from 56 to 70 percent for Wisconsin Streams; these values are larger than results presented in previous reports. The increase in the standard error of prediction is likely due to increased variability of the annual-peak discharges, resulting in increased variability in the magnitude of flood peaks at higher frequencies. For each of the unregulated rural streamflow-gaging stations, a weighted estimate based on the at-site log Pearson type III analysis and the multiple regression results was determined. The weighted estimate generally has a lower uncertainty than either the Log Pearson type III or multiple regression estimates. For regulated streams, a graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics was developed from the relations of discharge and drainage area for selected annual exceedance probabilities. Graphs for the major regulated streams in Wisconsin are presented in the report.
John S. Jr. Spencer; W. Brad Smith; Jerold T. Hahn; Gerhard K. Raile
The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Wisconsin shows that growing-stock volume increased from 11.2 to 15.5 billion cubic feet between 1968 and 1983, and area of timberland increased from 14.5 to 14.8 million acres. Presented are analysis and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, removals, and projections.
Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Energy used by Wisconsin single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.
Wisconsin's Radioactive Waste Review Board is required by law to advocate for and educate the public on the high-level nuclear waste issue. The goal of its education program is to empower people by giving them information and skills. Environmental advocacy and public activism are part of the State's Progressive political tradition. The Board seeks and uses public input while developing education programs, and helps local areas organize committees to develop their own programs
Davis, J P; Schell, W L; Amundson, T E; Godsey, M S; Spielman, A; Burgdorfer, W; Barbour, A G; LaVenture, M; Kaslow, R A
In 1980-82, 80 individuals (71 Wisconsin residents) had confirmed Lyme disease (LD-c) reported; 39 additional patients had probable or possible LD. All cases of LD-c occurred during May-November; 73 percent occurred during June-July; 54 (68 percent) occurred in males. The mean age was 38.7 years (range, 7-77 years). Among LD-c patients, likely exposure to the presumed vector Ixodes dammini (ID) occurred in 22 different Wisconsin counties. Antibodies to the ID spirochete that causes LD occurred in 33 of 49 LD-c cases versus 0 of 18 in ill controls (p less than .001) and in 13 of 26 LD-c cases treated with penicillin or tetracycline versus 16 of 19 LD-c cases not treated. Early antibiotic therapy appears to blunt the antibody response to the ID spirochete. Regional tick surveys conducted in Wisconsin during each November in 1979-82 have demonstrated regions of greater density of ID. Utilizing comparable tick collection in these surveys, increases were noted in the percentage of deer with ID from 24 percent (31/128) in 1979 to 38 percent (58/152) in 1981, in the standardized mean value of ID/deer from 1.0 in 1979 to 2.2 in 1981, in the percentage of ID of the total ticks collected from 13 percent in 1979 to 71 percent in 1981, or in the ratio of ID to Dermacentor albipictus ticks from 0.14 in 1979 to 2.44 in 1981. However, a reduction in the density of ID/deer was noted generally throughout Wisconsin in 1982 when compared to 1981. LD is widespread in Wisconsin, with ecologic and clinical features similar to those occurring along the eastern seaboard.
Hover, Julie; Zimmer, Marie J.
Evaluation model guidelines for hospital departments of nursing to use in their nursing quality assurance programs are presented as developed in Wisconsin. Four essential components of the Wisconsin outcome evaluation system are criteria, assessment, standards, and improvement of care. Sample tests and charts are included in the article. (MF)
Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Jonathan H. Gilbert
Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer-fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills...
Giriyappa, Pradeep; Sullivan, Kandis K
Physician career satisfaction has been studied extensively, but career satisfaction as it relates to retention is less well studied. The objective was to assess the relationship between career satisfaction and retention in primary care internal medicine physicians in Wisconsin. In this descriptive quantitative study, survey data was assessed for correlations between career satisfaction, risk to retention, and demographics. The survey included 1231 primary care internal medicine physicians in the Wisconsin Medical Directory (2007). Responses were measured by career satisfaction variables, and demographics and retention variables for the purpose of correlations and regression analysis. Survey responses included 573 physicians. An additional 85 physicians were disqualified. The final survey group included 1146 physicians for a response rate of 50%. A total of 116 physicians (20.2%) reported anticipating leaving their current position, 84 (14.7%) physicians reported anticipating leaving the career of medicine. Identified at risk for retention were 144 (25.1%) physicians. The lowest career satisfaction scores were reported in the areas of compensation (3.19) and practice (3.42) on a scale of 1 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied). The highest correlations to retention were associated with practice, followed by compensation satisfaction. The level of significance for this study was identified as 0.05, and the P-value was 0.000. The study findings reveal a significant risk to the stability of continuity of care for patients, and may cost Wisconsin health care organizations more than $35 million in recruitment costs to replace departing physicians.
This research evaluates the scour potential of rocks supporting Wisconsin DOT bridge foundations. Ten highway bridges were selected for this study, of which seven are supported by shallow foundations, and five were built on sandstone in rivers/stream...
The Wisconsin Innovation Service Center at UW-Whitewater received a DOE grant to create an Inventor`s Network Database to assist independent inventors and entrepreneurs with new product development. Since 1980, the Wisconsin Innovation Service Center (WISC) at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater has assisted independent and small business inventors in estimating the marketability of their new product ideas and inventions. The purpose of the WISC as an economic development entity is to encourage inventors who appear to have commercially viable inventions, based on preliminary market research, to invest in the next stages of development, perhaps investigating prototype development, legal protection, or more in-depth market research. To address inventor`s information needs, WISC developed on electronic database with search capabilities by geographic region and by product category/industry. It targets both public and private resources capable of, and interested in, working with individual and small business inventors. At present, the project includes resources in Wisconsin only.
Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris
This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.
The Wisconsin Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Investment Management hosted : a peer exchange on June 2 -4, 2009 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Representatives from four state DOTs and : two freight railroads joined representatives f...
Asen, Robert; Gurke, Deb; Conners, Pamela; Solomon, Ryan; Gumm, Elsa
This article analyzes the use of research evidence in school-board deliberations in three school districts in Wisconsin. In these settings, the circulation, meaning, and function of research depended importantly on the interests and backgrounds of advocates, the composition of audiences, and the values and contexts of decision-making. Board…
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Heacox, H. C.; Mcnall, J. F.
The Wisconsin OAO operating system is presented which consists of two parts: a computer program called HARUSPEX, which makes possible reasonably efficient and convenient operation of the package and ground operations equipment which provides real-time status monitoring, commanding and a quick-look at the data.
W. Brad Smith; Jerold T. Hahn
The Wisconsin 1987 inventory update, derived by using tree growth models, reports 14.7 million acres of timberland, a decline of less than 1% since 1983. This bulletin presents findings from the inventory update in tables detailing timberland area, volume, and biomass.
Jerold T. Hahn; Mark H. Hansen
Data collected during the 1983 Wisconsin Statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components. Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site.
Zaniewski, Kazimierz J.; Simmons, James R.
When the Republican and Democratic presidential candidates head into the general election this fall, they will be courting votes from a statewide electorate that has dramatically shifted over time, mirroring the political polarization that is happening across the country. Over the last three decades, Wisconsin's political geography has evolved…
Melli, Marygold Shire
This report focuses on laws in the state of Wisconsin as they relate to homemakers. Four areas are discussed, each in separate sections: marriage, widowhood, divorce, and wife abuse. The section on marriage includes information on property rights, disability and death of homemaker, federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act, domicile, interspousal…
Jones, Katherine A.
In August 1999, Wisconsin school business officials and other school administrators met with police officers to discuss cooperative ventures to ensure school safety. Conference participants attended sessions on identifying troubled students, physical security measures, safety planning, dealing with bomb threats, and prevention and punishment. (MLH)
Mark G. Rickenbach; Paul H. Gobster
Parcelization, the process by which relatively large forest ownerships become subdivided into smaller ones, is often related to changes in ownership and can bring changes to the use of the land. Landowners, resource professionals, and others interested in Wisconsin's Northwoods were asked their views on parcelization in a series of stakeholder forums. We analyzed...
Merriam, Elizabeth B.
The Wisconsin Library Association Round Table of Hospitals and Institutional Librarians became concerned about adequate funding of institutional libraries; the right of institutionalized persons to read and to have educational, legal, and recreational materials; and the development of staff libraries for treatment, rehabilitation, and research…
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2016
"Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2015-16); (2) Student (2015-16); (3) Attendance & Graduation (2014-15);(4) Staff (2013-14); (5) School Funding; and (6) Student Performance (2014-15). [For the previous report…
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2014
"Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2014-15); (2) Staff (2013-14); (3) Students (2013-14);(4) Report Cards (2013-14); (5) Attendance and Graduation (2012-13); (6) Student Performance (2013-14); and (7) School Funding.
Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry
Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.
Boom, R.W.; Abdelsalam, M.K.; Eyssa, Y.; Hilal, M.; Huang, X.; McIntosh, G.E.; Pfotenhauer, J.
This paper reports on a long term SMES program in the Applied Superconductivity Center (ASC) in progress at the University of Wisconsin since 1970. The present principal interest in SMES stems from the US DNA-SDI program to build an engineering test model (ETM) for utility and government use. This paper is a review of SMES design highlights and of some small scale SMES studies
Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George
The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.
Walker, John F; Hughes, Peter E
.... Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Transportation, the Marathon County Highway Department, and the Jefferson County Highway Department, performed routine monitoring...
Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Ganatra, R.
Effluent concentration distributions from the waste water discharge of the Kraft Division Mill, Consolidated Paper Company, into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, is investigated. Effluent concentrations were determined from measurements of the temperature distribution, using temperature as a tracer. Measurements of the velocity distribution in the vicinity of the outfall were also made. Due to limitations in the extent of the field observations, the analysis and comparison of the measurements is limited to the region within about 300 feet from the outfall. Effects of outfall submergence, of buoyancy and momentum of the effluent and of the pattern and magnitude of river currents on these characteristics are considered.
Pandey, Tej N.; Cleary, T. Anne
A description is given of "The Wisconsin Test of Adult Basic Education (WITABE)" which was developed specifically to measure the achievement of the individuals enrolled in the Rural Family Development (RGD) program at the University Extension, University of Wisconsin. The test is divided into three main parts or subtests: subtests 1 and…
The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…
This report contains a study done at the request of the Wisconsin Policy Research Institute, which studies public policy issues affecting the state of Wisconsin. Environmental education texts for Grades 6 through 10 were examined for scientific and economic accuracy, objectivity, and balance in accomplishing the following: 1) stating facts that…
Lane, Jennie; And Others
Examines Wisconsin teachers' perceived competencies in, attitudes toward, and amount of class time devoted to teaching about the environment. Discusses the effects of Wisconsin environmental education mandates concerning preservice preparation in environmental education and K-12 environmental education curriculum plans. Identifies areas where the…
Full Text Available Preliminary test excavations at the Hensler Petroglyph Site in East Central Wisconsin, U.S.A. have disclosed the remains of aboriginal engravings below Aeolian sediments dated to ca. 15,000 years B.P. The stratified deposits lying adjacent to an engraved panel, containing 35 pecked images, have yielded animal-like cobbles, some covered with red ochre, apparently picked for some esoteric use. The site itself has unusual natural shapes in the rock formation, along with acoustical properties, lightning strikes, a magnetic anomaly, and geographic prominence. Collectively these factors are thought to have attracted the ancient rock artists to the site.
Bisognano, Joseph; Bosch, R.A.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.V.; Green, M.A.; Jacobs, K.; Kleman, K.J.; Kulpin, J.; Rogers, G.C.; Lawler, J.E.; Yavuz, D.; Legg, R.
The University of Wisconsin-Madison/Synchrotron Radiation Center is advancing its design for a seeded VUV/soft X-ray Free Electron Laser facility called WiFEL. To support this vision of an ultimate light source, we are pursuing a program of strategic R and D addressing several crucial elements. This includes development of a high repetition rate, VHF superconducting RF electron gun, R and D on photocathode materials by ARPES studies, and evaluation of FEL facility architectures (e.g., recirculation, compressor scenarios, CSR dechirping, undulator technologies) with the specific goal of cost containment. Studies of high harmonic generation for laser seeding are also planned.
Cunningham, Kerrie [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Hannigan, Eileen [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership
To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results-program cost and energy savings-to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.
Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.
To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.
A dynamic macroeconomic model of the Wisconsin economy is used to estimate the economic impacts of displacing a portion of future investment in fossil fuel power plants (coal and natural gas) with renewable energy resources (biomass, wind, solar and hydro). The results show that renewable energy investments produce over three times more jobs, income and economic activity than the same amount of electricity generated from coal and natural gas power plants. Between 1995 and 2020, a 75% increase in renewable energy use generates approximately 65,000 more job-years of employment, $1.6 billion in higher disposable income and a $3.1 billion increase in gross regional product than conventional power plant investments. This includes the effects of a 0.3% average annual increase in electricity prices from renewable energy investments
Tapert, A.C.; Lea, W.L.
A radiation protection survey was performed at 70 medical radium installations in the State of Wisconsin. The requirements of the State's Radiation Protection Code were used as survey criteria. Radiation measurements of radium storage containers, radium capsule leakage tests, and monitoring of work surfaces for contamination were performed. Film badge monitoring data of whole body and extremity doses are presented for 221 individuals at 17 hospitals. Whole body doses during single treatments ranged from 10 to 1360 mrems per individual. The estimate of 500 mrems per treatment was determined as the dose aggregate to hospital personnel. Whole body doses from film badges are compared with analogous TLD doses. Four physicians and six technicians at nine hospitals participated in a study for monitoring the extremities with TLD. Cumulative extremity doses ranged from 28 to 6628 mrems per participant during the study. (U.S.)
Shohet, J.L.; Anderson, D.T.; Anderson, F.S.B.; Talmadge, J.N.
This proposal documents recent activities within the University of Wisconsin-Madison Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory and presents plans for future research activities for a three year period. Research efforts have focused on fundamental stellarator physics issues through experimental investigations on the Interchangeable Module Stellarator (IMS) and the Proto-Cleo Stellarator. Theoretical activities and studies of new configurations are being undertaken to support and broaden the experimental program. Experimental research at the Torsatron Stellarator Laboratory has been primarily concerned with effects induced through electron-cyclotron resonant frequency plasma production and heating in the IMS device. Plasma electric fields have been shown to play a major role in particle transport and confinement in IMS. ECRF heating at 6 kG has produced electron tail populations in agreement with Monte-Carlo models. Electric and magnetic fields have been shown to alter the particle flows to the IMS modular divertors. 48 refs
Layde, Molly M; Remington, Patrick L
Despite recent declines in teen birth rates, teenage pregnancy remains an important public health problem in Wisconsin with significant social, economic, and health-related effects. Compare and contrast teen birth rate trends by race, ethnicity, and county in Wisconsin. Teen (ages 15-19 years) birth rates (per 1000 teenage females) in Wisconsin from 2001-2010 were compared by racelethnicity and county of residence using data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health. Teen birth rates in Wisconsin have declined by 20% over the past decade, from 35.5/1000 teens in 2001 to 28.3/1000 teens in 2010-a relative decline of 20.3%. However, trends vary by race, with declines among blacks (-33%) and whites (-26%) and increases among American Indians (+21%) and Hispanics (+30%). Minority teen birth rates continue to be 3 to 5 times greater than birth rates among whites. Rates varied even more by county, with an over 14-fold difference between Ozaukee County (7.8/1000) and Menominee County (114.2). Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in Wisconsin. Pregnancy prevention programs should be targeted toward the populations and counties with the highest rates.
Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven R.; Graczyk, David J.; Bannerman, Roger T.
Knowledge of the daily, monthly, and yearly distribution of contaminant loadings and streamflow can be critical for the successful implementation and evaluation of water-quality management practices. Loading data for solids (suspended sediment and total suspended solids) and total phosphorus and streamflow data for 23 watersheds were summarized for four ecoregions of Wisconsin: the Driftless Area Ecoregion, the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion, the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregion, and the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains Ecoregion. The Northern Lakes and Forests and the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregions were combined into one region for analysis due to a lack of sufficient data in each region. Urban watersheds, all located in the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains, were analyzed separately from rural watersheds as the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region. Results provide information on the distribution of loadings and streamflow between base flow and stormflow, the timing of loadings and streamflow throughout the year, and information regarding the number of days in which the majority of the annual loading is transported. The average contribution to annual solids loading from stormflow periods for the Driftless Area Ecoregion was 84 percent, the Northern Lakes and Forests/North Central Hardwoods region was 71 percent, the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 70 percent, and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 90 percent. The average contributions to annual total phosphorus loading from stormflow periods were 72, 49, 61, and 76 percent for each of the respective regions. The average contributions to annual streamflow from stormflow periods are 20, 23, 31, and 50 percent for each of the respective regions. In all regions, the most substantial loading contributions for solids were in the late winter (February through March), spring (April through May), and
Wiener, J.G.; Martini, R.E.; Sheffy, T.B.; Glass, G.E.
The authors examined relations between mercury concentrations in walleyes Stizostedion vitreum and the characteristics of clear-water Wisconsin lakes, which spanned a broad range of pH values (5.0-8.1) and acid- neutralizing capacities (-9 to 1,017 mu eq/L). Total concentrations of mercury in axial muscle tissue of walleyes (total length, 25-56 cm) varied from 0.12 to 1.74 mu g/g wet weight. Concentrations were greatest in fish from the eight lakes with pH less than 7.0; concentrations in these fish equaled or exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in 88% of the samples analyzed and 1.0 mu g/g in 44%. In the five lakes with pH of 7.0 and above, concentrations exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in only 1 of 21 walleyes. Multiple regression revealed that lake pH and total length of fish accounted for 69% of the variation in mercury concentration in walleyes. Regression models with total length and either waterborne calcium or acid-neutralizing capacity as independent variables accounted for 67% of the variation in concentration.
Kretschmann, A.; Drum, A.; Rubsam, J.; Watras, C. J.; Cellar-Rossler, A.
Historical data indicate that surface water levels in northern Wisconsin are fluctuating more now than they did in the recent past. In the northern highland lake district of Vilas County, Wisconsin, concern about record low lake levels in 2008 spurred local citizens and lake associations to form a lake level monitoring network comprising citizen scientists. The network is administered by the North Lakeland Discovery Center (NLDC, a local NGO) and is supported by a grant from the Citizen Science Monitoring Program of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR). With technical guidance from limnologists at neighboring UW-Madison Trout Lake Research Station, citizen scientists have installed geographic benchmarks and staff gauges on 26 area lakes. The project engages citizen and student science participants including homeowners, non-profit organization member-participants, and local schools. Each spring, staff gauges are installed and referenced to fixed benchmarks after ice off by NLDC and dedicated volunteers. Volunteers read and record staff gauges on a weekly basis during the ice-free season; and maintain log books recording lake levels to the nearest 0.5 cm. At the end of the season, before ice on, gauges are removed and log books are collected by the NLDC coordinator. Data is compiled and submitted to a database management system, coordinated within the Wisconsin Surface Water Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS), a statewide information system managed by the WDNR in Madison. Furthermore, NLDC is collaborating with the SWIMS database manager to develop data entry screens based on records collected by citizen scientists. This program is the first of its kind in Wisconsin to utilize citizen scientists to collect lake level data. The retention rate for volunteers has been 100% over the three years since inception, and the program has expanded from four lakes in 2008 to twenty-six lakes in 2011. NLDC stresses the importance of long-term monitoring and the
Keller, Dominique L; Hartup, Barry K
This paper presents veterinary management strategies and diagnostic findings in the reintroduction of the endangered whooping crane (Grus americana). Between 2005 and 2010, 63 (27 male, 36 female) hatchling whooping cranes were assigned to a reintroduction project involving autumn release of costume-reared chicks in Wisconsin. Veterinary care included preventive measures and comprehensive pre-release evaluations to improve fitness and reduce translocation of potential disease agents to native habitats. A total of 44 clinically normal birds were released (70% of assigned individuals). Cases of morbidity were classified according to primary body system affected. Musculoskeletal disorders were described in 57 birds (90%); five birds were removed from the project prior to release (8%), all for abnormalities that prevented normal function. Fourteen birds died or were euthanized prior to release (22%); pre-release mortality was attributed to developmental abnormality, predation, trauma or infectious disease. Chronic respiratory aspergillosis, diagnosed in seven birds (11%), was the most common infectious disease of concern. Predation and trauma were primary causes of post-release mortality; no evidence of infectious disease of captive origin was detected in the study population by the end of 2010. The assessment of data accumulated by this project helped to outline successful health management strategies, as well as identify and mitigate ongoing risks to captive whooping cranes that impede reintroduction efforts and achieving management goals for species recovery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
John Kha Lee
Full Text Available This study examines acculturation processes among Hmong who live in Eastern Wisconsin by using the East Asian Acculturation Measure (EAAM, which was developed by Barry (2001. The results indicated that in terms of Acculturation, Hmong ranked highest in integration, then separation, assimilation, and lastly marginalization. Questions on each dimension of integration, separation, assimilation, and marginalization were analyzed and positive correlations were found between the youngest of the generations, the length of residency in the United States, and the ability to speak, read, and write in English. In contrast, the older the age of the participant when they came to the United States had a positive correlation with separation. The ability to speak, read, and write in English had a positive correlation with assimilation, and the older the age of coming to the United States had a positive correlation with marginalization. Assimilation and separation had a positive correlation with marginalization, while integration had a negative correlation with marginalization and a positive correlation with assimilation, and separation had no correlation with marginalization. Results are discussed in regards to previous Hmong acculturation studies.
Wisconsin Electric Power Company, which recently celebrated its 100th anniversary, has actively promoted the redevelopment of its former sites as well as those of its customers. Serving Milwaukee and southeast Wisconsin, Wisconsin Electric's (WE) sites include former power plants, landfills, right-of-ways, and manufactured gas plant sites. In setting an example for others, as well as seeking to maximize the economic value of these sites, WE has either redeveloped or promoted the redevelopment of these sites by others. Examples include the East Wells Power Plant (now home of the Milwaukee Repertory Theater), the Lakeside Power Plant Site (now the home of Harnischfeger Corporation's headquarters), and the Commerce Street Power Plant located on the Milwaukee River near downtown Milwaukee. In each case the company evaluated the potential environmental liabilities against the unrealized asset value derived from facility location, site size, architectural uniqueness, or other characteristics. At the Commerce Street Power Plant, walking distance to the downtown Milwaukee business district combined with river frontage, were significant site values leveraged against a $5 million asbestos and lead-based paint removal project done to prepare the plant for marketing. More recently, WE has used its experience in promoting the redevelopment of the Menomonee River Valley, the original core of Milwaukee's industrial community, and in advancing a more practical regulatory approach to redeveloping older sites. Finally, the company is working with a non-profit community health clinic, community groups and local foundations in linking these redevelopment activities with the economic and physical health of inner city residents
Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.
Harper, L A; Flesch, T K; Powell, J M; Coblentz, W K; Jokela, W E; Martin, N P
Ammonia gas is the only significant basic gas that neutralizes atmospheric acid gases produced from combustion of fossil fuels. This reaction produces an aerosol that is a component of atmospheric haze, is implicated in nitrogen (N) deposition, and may be a potential human health hazard. Because of the potential impact of NH3 emissions, environmentally and economically, the objective of this study was to obtain representative and accurate NH3 emissions data from large dairy farms (>800 cows) in Wisconsin. Ammonia concentrations and climatic measurements were made on 3 dairy farms during winter, summer, and autumn to calculate emissions using an inverse-dispersion analysis technique. These study farms were confinement systems utilizing freestall housing with nearby sand separators and lagoons for waste management. Emissions were calculated from the whole farm including the barns and any waste management components (lagoons and sand separators), and from these components alone when possible. During winter, the lagoons' NH3 emissions were very low and not measurable. During autumn and summer, whole-farm emissions were significantly larger than during winter, with about two-thirds of the total emissions originating from the waste management systems. The mean whole-farm NH3 emissions in winter, autumn, and summer were 1.5, 7.5, and 13.7% of feed N inputs emitted as NH3-N, respectively. Average annual emission comparisons on a unit basis between the 3 farms were similar at 7.0, 7.5, and 8.4% of input feed N emitted as NH3-N, with an annual average for all 3 farms of 7.6 +/- 1.5%. These winter, summer, autumn, and average annual NH3 emissions are considerably smaller than currently used estimates for dairy farms, and smaller than emissions from other types of animal-feeding operations.
Watras, C. J.; Morrison, K. A.; Rubsam, J. L.; Rodger, B.
Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the lower atmosphere of northern Wisconsin exhibits strong annual and diurnal cycles similar to those previously reported for other rural monitoring sites across mid-latitude North America. Annually, TGM was highest in late winter and then gradually declined until late summer. During 2002-04, the average TGM concentration was 1.4 ± 0.2 (SD) ng m -3, and the amplitude of the annual cycle was 0.4 ng m -3 (˜30% of the long-term mean). The diurnal cycle was characterized by increasing TGM concentrations during the morning followed by decreases during the afternoon and night. The diurnal amplitude was variable but it was largest in spring and summer, when daily TGM oscillations of 20-40% were not uncommon. Notably, we also observed a diurnal cycle for TGM indoors in a room ventilated through an open window. Even though TGM concentrations were an order of magnitude higher indoors, (presumably due to historical practices within the building: e.g. latex paint, fluorescent lamps, thermometers), the diurnal cycle was remarkably similar to that observed outdoors. The indoor cycle was not directly attributable to human activity, the metabolic activity of vegetation or diurnal atmospheric dynamics; but it was related to changes in temperature and oxidants in outdoor air that infiltrated the room. Although there was an obvious difference in the proximal source of indoor and outdoor TGM, similarities in behavior suggest that common TGM cycles may be driven largely by adsorption/desorption reactions involving solid surfaces, such as leaves, snow, dust and walls. Such behavior would imply a short residence time for Hg in the lower atmosphere and intense recycling - consistent with the "ping-pong ball" or "multi-hop" conceptual models proposed by others.
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 1940-000 Wisconsin; Project No. 1966-000 Wisconsin] Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notice of Environmental Site Review In anticipation of the filing of Notices of Intent (NOI) and Pre- Application Documents for the Grandfather Falls Hydroelectric Project No. 1966 and...
... Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin AGENCY... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to Wisconsin? C. Why is the EPA not withdrawing Wisconsin's chronic endrin aquatic life use criterion for waters designated as Warm Water Sportfish and Warm Water...
Knowles, Jared E.
The state of Wisconsin has one of the highest four year graduation rates in the nation, but deep disparities among student subgroups remain. To address this the state has created the Wisconsin Dropout Early Warning System (DEWS), a predictive model of student dropout risk for students in grades six through nine. The Wisconsin DEWS is in use…
This report contains a study done at the request of the Wisconsin Policy Research Institute, which studies public policy issues affecting the state of Wisconsin. The purpose of this study was to examine the content of environmental education (EE) materials used in courses required for teacher certification in Wisconsin to see if the knowledge and…
This brief focused on wastes from commercial production of electricity and various industrial, medical and research applications of radioactive materials. Only traditionally solid wastes are dealt with. It was organized into five parts. Part I presented an introduction to radioactivity - what it is and the biological hazards associated with it. Federal regulation of the management of radioactive wastes was discussed in Part II. Existing state laws and bills currently before the Wisconsin Legislature were described in Part III. Part IV gave background information on specific areas of potential inquiry related to radioactive wastes in Wisconsin. Part V summarized the issues identified in the brief. 2 figures, 7 tables
Full Text Available Continuing the line established by these same architects in previous University designs, the Library and Study Hall of the University of Wisconsin is another attempt at creating an exciting atmosphere, particularly conducive to the development of university life. It is to be noted, in this case, the arrangement of the library and study areas around a central common open space, sort of an inner courtyard used as a relaxation and sitting área, where all traffic corridors and promenades from the adjacent faculties come to meet, thus becoming the main reference point for the entire campus.
The library with a current capacity for 245,000 volumes and 1,400 reading stalls is designed so it can be eventually enlarged permitting to almost double its book capacity and increasing the reading stalls to more than 2,000.
Continuando la línea marcada por estos mismos arquitectos en anteriores proyectos de universidades, la biblioteca y el centro de estudios de la Universidad de Wisconsin procura definir atractivos espacios para el desarrollo de la vida universitaria. En este caso destaca la organización de los servicios de biblioteca y estudio en torno a un espacio comunitario central, a modo de plaza interior, destinado a sala de estar y recreo, y en donde confluyen las circulaciones que provienen de los locales adyacentes, convirtiéndolo en el principal punto de referencia del campus universitario. La biblioteca, que actualmente tiene capacidad para 245.000 volúmenes y 1.400 lectores, ha previsto una ampliación que le permitirá casi doblar el número de volúmenes y proporcionar espacio para más de 2.000 lectores.
Faanes, Craig A.
continuing expansion of the nearby Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region has degraded or destroyed many woodlots, upland fields, and wetlands. In numerous instances, degradation of natural habitats has influenced the abundance and distribution of bird species. Because of these changes, both the Federal government and State Departments of Natural Resources have listed several species in various categories based on their current status. In the St. Croix River Valley, seven species are endangered, eight are threatened, and 29 are watch or priority status in either or both states. Data presented in this report are of value to land managers, land use specialists, and ornithologists, in assessing current and projected habitat alterations on the avifauna of this valley. The St. Croix River bisects a large region of western Wisconsin and east central Minnesota that exhibits a wide range of habitat types. This region supports not only birds, but many mammals, fishes, reptiles and amphibians, and several thousand species of vascular and nonvascular plants. The river itself is relatively clean through most of its course, and its natural flow is interrupted by only two small dams. Because the river lies within a 1-day drive of nearly 10 million people (Waters 1977), use of the area for recreational purposes is extremely heavy. Recreational pursuits include sunbathing, boating, and wild river kayaking in the summer, and ice fishing and cross-country skiing in the winter. The large number of unique and highly fragile habitats that exist there may never be compatible with the uses and abuses of the land that go with expanding human populations. Through the efforts of a number of citizens concerned with the quality of their environment and the foresightedness of several local, State, and Federal legislators, a portion of the upper St. Croix River Valley (hereafter termed 'the Valley') was established as a National Wild and Scenic River. Through establishment of t
Geske, Terry G.
This paper is primarily concerned with identifying and explicating the environmental forces and political factors responsible for legislative enactment of major school finance changes in Wisconsin in 1973. Easton's political systems theory serves as a conceptual framework for the study. In addition, Lindblom's leadership model, Truman's interest…
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.
This handbook for Trustees of the Wisconsin Public Library describes in detail the tasks involved in being a library trustee. The handbook comprises a number of "Trustee Essentials" that cover the basic essential information needed by Trustees, as well as sources of additional information. Contents include: The Trustee Job Description;…
Gary R. Lindell; Lewis T. Hendricks
Analyzes trends in the hardwood veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin between 1964 and 1969. In that period, red oak and hard maple replaced yellow birch as the major species used. Log supplies were adequate. Wall paneling was the major end market with doorskins next. Excess plywood producing capacity is a chronic problem.
No area within the Iron River 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin, appears to be favorable for the existence of a minimum of 100 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at a grade of 0.01 percent or better.
W. Brad Smith
The fourth inventory of the timber resource of the Northwest Wisconsin Survey Unit shows a 1.8% decline in commercial forest area and a 36% gain in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.
Jonathan H. Gilbert; Patrick A Zollner; Adam K. Green; John L. Wright
We report on FMR of free-living American martens (Martes americana) in autumn and winter in northern Wisconsin. Mean body mass was significantly higher in males (1099 ± 43 [S.E.] g) than females (737 ± 28 g), with no significant difference by season. Daily mass change rates of martens did not differ from zero, and mass change rate...
Wisconsin State Employment Service, Madison.
A yearly report on the migrant farm worker situation in Wisconsin evaluates the year 1968 in relation to past years and makes projections for the future. Comparisons are made of trends in year-round employment practices, seasonal food processing, the cherry industry, and the cucumber industry. The report includes a discussion on the social aspects…
Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff
This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Wisconsin. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…
It has been noted that, within traditional regulatory frameworks for electric utilities, factors exist which discourage demand side management (DSM) and that there is a lack of positive incentives for DSM. Regulatory agencies should therefore make it possible for DSM measures to benefit from the same treatment as supply-side measures. The Wisconsin Public Service Commission (WPSC) has recognized this need and has adopted various measures accordingly. The need for efficiency incentives is described according to the particular experience of Wisconsin Electric concerning their recourse to a DSM incentive and according to new incentive models being tested in collaboration with other electricity suppliers in Wisconsin. The WPSC has concluded that the fact of considering the costs relating to DSM as expenses or capitalizing them within the rate base does not motivate the utility to promote DSM programs. The WPSC has thus decided to experiment with energy efficiency incentives in order to evaluate their eventual impact. The choice of the type of incentive had an objective of starting the process in an area where the lack of experience has created, from the regulatory point of view, a reticence on the part of utilities to engage in DSM programs. The WPSC has designed a variety of incentive models which have been adapted to each utility's own situation. Specific incentive programs developed for three Wisconsin utilities are reviewed
Myers, Kevin S.; Klein, Sanford A.; Reindl, Douglas T.
This paper provides an assessment of the large-scale implementation of distributed solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin with regard to its interaction with the utility grid, economics of varying levels of high penetration, and displaced emissions. These assessment factors are quantified using simulations with measured hourly solar radiation and weather data from the National Solar Radiation Database as primary inputs. Hourly utility load data for each electric utility in Wisconsin for a complete year were used in combination with the simulated PV output to quantify the impacts of high penetration of distributed PV on the aggregate Wisconsin electric utility load. As the penetration rate of distributed PV systems increases, both economic and environmental benefits experience diminishing returns. At penetration rates exceeding 15-20% of the aggregate utility load peak, less of the PV-energy is utilized and the contribution of the aggregate electricity generated from PV approaches a practical limit. The limit is not affected by costs, but rather by the time-distribution of available solar radiation and mismatch with the coincidence of aggregate utility electrical loads. The unsubsidized levelized cost of electricity from PV is more than four times greater than the current market price for electricity, based on time-of-use rates, in Wisconsin. At the present time, the investment in solar PV as a cost-effective means to reduce emissions from traditional electricity generation sources is not justified. (author)
Yeado, Joe; Schmidt, Jeff; Hart, Rebecca; Henken, Rob
This summary from the "Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin: 2013-2014" full report presents the school district performance in a pull-out format. Definitions are provided for the column heading: (1) Total Operations Spending, (2) Property Tax Revenue, (3) Total Enrollment; (4) One-Year Change in Enrollment, (5) Minority Enrollment,…
This article discusses the role and experience of queer youth and allies in the Fair Wisconsin campaign that fought against the marriage amendment to that state's constitution. It illustrates how LGBT and ally youth involvement can be incorporated into other organizations. Following an explanation of the campaign, are narratives of two…
This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the ‘On Farmers’ Ground’ nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...
Outagamie County is in east-central Wisconsin. It has no serious groundwater problem at present, but the county is important as a recharge area for the principal aquifers supplying water to Brown County and industrial Green Bay to the east.
Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center on Wisconsin Strategy.
A study examined the emerging skill needs in the Wisconsin printing industry, a key industry that provided the largest increase (more than 13,000 new jobs) in manufacturing employment in the state in the past decade. Eighteen interviews were conducted with industry personnel and production managers, union representatives, technical college…
Lamb, Donald K.
This manual contains the guidelines and procedures for public librarian certification and certification renewal in Wisconsin. Certification is not required for library personnel other than administrators, but nonadministrators may apply for certification at the level for which they are eligible. Requirements for voluntary library certification are…
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.
Designed to be used as a guide for public librarians and boards of trustees in meeting the requirements of Wisconsin's public librarian certification law, this manual is divided into two major sections covering public librarian certification and certification renewal/continuing education requirements. The first section includes discussions of…
The Wisconsin Innovation Service Center at UW-Whitewater received a DOE grant to create an Inventor's Network Database to assist independent inventors and entrepreneurs with new product development. Since 1980, the Wisconsin Innovation Service Center (WISC) at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater has assisted independent and small business inventors in estimating the marketability of their new product ideas and inventions. The purpose of the WISC as an economic development entity is to encourage inventors who appear to have commercially viable inventions, based on preliminary market research, to invest in the next stages of development, perhaps investigating prototype development, legal protection, or more in-depth market research. To address inventor's information needs, WISC developed on electronic database with search capabilities by geographic region and by product category/industry. It targets both public and private resources capable of, and interested in, working with individual and small business inventors. At present, the project includes resources in Wisconsin only.
Wisconsin Univ., Green Bay.
To increase understanding of the dimensions of man's impact on his environment and the key issues involved in improving that environment through education and action was the goal of the environmental quality conference held at the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, on March 28-29, 1968. Contained in this document are the conference…
Full Text Available The early diagnosis of breast cancer is an important step in a fight against the disease. Machine learning techniques have shown promise in improving our understanding of the disease. As medical datasets consist of data points which cannot be precisely assigned to a class, fuzzy methods have been useful for studying of these datasets. Sometimes breast cancer datasets are described by categorical features. Many fuzzy clustering algorithms have been developed for categorical datasets. However, in most of these methods Hamming distance is used to define the distance between the two categorical feature values. In this paper, we use a probabilistic distance measure for the distance computation among a pair of categorical feature values. Experiments demonstrate that the distance measure performs better than Hamming distance for Wisconsin breast cancer data.
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.
The new S. 118.13, Wisconsin Statutes, bans pupil discrimination in any curricular, extracurricular, pupil services, recreational, or other program or activity in the State of Wisconsin on the basis of sex; race; national origin; ancestry; creed; pregnancy; marital or parental status; sexual orientation; or physical, mental, emotional, or learning…
Walker, John F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, Steven R.; Wierl, J.A.; Owens, D.W.
The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMPs) for controlling nonpoint-source pollution in rural and urban watersheds. This progress report provides a summary of the data collected by the U.S Geological Survey for the program and a discussion of the results from several different detailed analyses conducted within this program.
Patterson, G.L.; Zaporozec, A.
More than 60 percent of the residents of Wisconsin use ground water as their primary water source. Water supplies presently are abundant, but ground-water levels continually fluctuate in response to natural factors and human-related stresses. A better understanding of the magnitude, duration, and frequency of past fluctuations, and the factors controlling these fluctuations may help anticipate future changes in ground-water levels.
Megan E. Huber
Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection. In rural northern Wisconsin, blastomycosis cases are associated with certain environmental features including close proximity to waterways. Other studies have associated blastomycosis with particular soil chemicals. However, blastomycosis also occurs in urban and suburban regions. We explored the geodemographic associations of blastomycosis cases in the more urban/suburban landscape of eastern Wisconsin. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 193 laboratory-identified blastomycosis cases in a single eastern Wisconsin health system, 2007–2015. Controls were 250 randomly selected cases of community-diagnosed pneumonia from a similar time period. Geographic features of home addresses were explored using Google Maps. Categorical variables were analyzed with chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and continuous variables by two-sample t-tests. Stepwise regression followed by binary logistic regression was used for multivariable analysis. Results: Compared to pneumonia cases, blastomycosis cases were younger (47.7 vs. 55.3 years and more likely to be male (67.9% vs. 45.6%, nonwhite (23.2% vs. 9.7% and machinists, automobile workers/mechanics or construction workers (32.7% vs. 7.2%; P 0.5 acres (30.4% vs. 14.2%, P = 0.0002, be < 0.25 miles from an automobile repair facility or junkyard (35.9% vs. 19.4%, P = 0.0005, and be < 0.1 miles from a park, forest or farm field (54.9% vs. 39.6%, P = 0.002. Only the latter association remained on multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Eastern Wisconsin blastomycosis case subjects were younger, more often male and more likely to live near parks/forests/fields. Novel associations of blastomycosis cases with machinery- and automobile-related occupations and/or facilities should be further explored.
Kazmierczak, J J; Amundson, T E; Burgess, E C
Blood, kidney and tick samples were obtained from 18 hunter-killed black bears (Ursus americanus) from three sites in northern Wisconsin. A Borrelia sp., morphologically and antigenically similar to Borrelia burgdorferi, was isolated from the blood of two of the animals, and from the kidney of a third. Ixodes dammini and Dermacentor variabilis were found on the bears. This is the first report of borreliosis in the Ursidae, and of the primary vector of Lyme disease, I. dammini, from this host.
Erin Silva, University of Wisconsin, describes an organic no-till production technique using rye as cover crop to suppress weeds in the following production season. Using a roller-crimper, the overwintering rye is terminated at the time of cash crop planting, leaving a thick mat of plant residue on the soil surface. Soybeans are sown directly into the cover crop residue, allowing the cash crop to emerge through the terminated cover crop while suppressing weeds throughout the season. W...
LeDee, Olivia E.; Ribic, Christine
A burgeoning dialogue exists regarding how to allocate resources to maximize the likelihood of long-term biodiversity conservation within the context of climate change. To make effective decisions in natural resource management, an iterative, collaborative, and learning-based decision process may be more successful than a strictly consultative approach. One important, early step in a decision process is to identify priority species or systems. Although this promotes the conservation of select species or systems, it may inadvertently alter the future of non-target species and systems. We describe a process to screen terrestrial wildlife for potential sensitivity to climate change and then use the results to engage natural resource professionals in a process of identifying priorities for monitoring, research, and adaptation strategy implementation. We demonstrate this approach using a case study from Wisconsin. In Wisconsin, experts identified 23 out of 353 species with sufficient empirical research and management understanding to inform targeted action. Habitat management and management of hydrological conditions were the common strategies for targeted action. Although there may be an interest in adaptation strategy implementation for many species and systems, experts considered existing information inadequate to inform targeted action. According to experts, 40% of the vertebrate species in Wisconsin will require near-term intervention for climate adaptation. These results will inform state-wide conservation planning as well as regional efforts.
Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.
Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential
Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)
Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).
... Quality Control Region. 81.30 Section 81.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the Southeastern...
...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor... Administrative Code, Chapter NR 420 Control of Organic Compound Emissions from Petroleum and Gasoline Sources... FROM PETROLEUM AND GASOLINE SOURCES. NR 420.01 as published in the (Wisconsin) Register, February, 1990...
Governor's Commission on the Status of Women, Madison, WI.
This handbook is written to inform Wisconsin citizens of women's rights and responsibilities under Wisconsin and federal law. It is intended for use as general legal resource material. It is not intended to take the place of an attorney in the solution of individual legal problems. Each of the 12 chapters treats a particular subject or topic.…
... address in this notice by August 23, 2013. ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703, telephone (608) 261-2461, email Jennifer.Kolb@wisconsinhistory.org... request to Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703...
.... ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703, telephone (608) 261-2461, email Jennifer.Kolb@wisconsinhistory.org . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here... request to Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703...
... member Indian tribes (Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River... Alliance and the Wisconsin Inter-tribal Repatriation Committee indicated that the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation, Wisconsin, and Red Cliff Band of...
... with representatives of the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad... Division, is responsible for notifying the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation, Wisconsin; Forest County Potawatomi Community, Wisconsin; Lac Courte...
Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...
The Hayward State Nursery, Wisconsin grows more than 40 species from seeds. Up to 6000 bushels of raw unprocessed tree and shrub seeds are collected each year, and all seeds are collected in Wisconsin or adjacent states. All white spruce (Picea glauca) and some white pine seeds (Pinus strobus) are collected from orchards containing...
Young, Linda K; Adams, Jan L; Lundeen, Sally; May, Katharyn A; Smith, Rosemary; Wendt, L Elaine
Wisconsin, like much of the nation, is currently suffering from a growing nursing shortage. The University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire College of Nursing and Health Sciences, in partnership with the University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and University of Wisconsin Oshkosh nursing programs, took advantage of a University of Wisconsin System Incentive Grant for economic and workforce development to address this problem. With a $3.2 million award, the Nurses for Wisconsin goal is to increase the number of baccalaureate registered nurses by expanding the nursing education capacity within the University of Wisconsin System. Nurses for Wisconsin is accelerating the preparation of nursing faculty by supporting nurses to enroll in doctor of nursing practice or nursing doctor of philosophy programs with pre- and postdoctoral fellowship awards ranging from $21,500 to $90,000 and the recruitment of faculty with a loan repayment program of up to $50,000. In exchange for the financial support, fellows and faculty must make a 3-year commitment to teach in a UW System nursing program. Two conferences for program participants are also funded through the award. The first conference was held in October 2014. The second conference is scheduled for summer 2015. With the first year of the 2-year project completed, this article describes Nurses for Wisconsin from inception to implementation and midterm assessment with a focus on lessons learned. A follow-up article addressing final outcomes and next steps is planned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reed, Kurt D.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Archer, John R.; Peterson, A. Townsend
Background Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal mycosis that is acquired by inhaling infectious spores of Blastomyces dermatitidis present in the environment. The ecology of this pathogen is poorly understood, in part because it has been extremely difficult to identify the niche(s) it occupies based on culture isolation of the organism from environmental samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ecology of blastomycosis by performing maximum entropy modeling of exposure sites from 156 cases of human and canine blastomycosis to provide a regional-scale perspective of the geographic and ecologic distribution of B. dermatitidis in Wisconsin. Based on analysis with climatic, topographic, surface reflectance and other environmental variables, we predicted that ecologic conditions favorable for maintaining the fungus in nature occur predominantly within northern counties and counties along the western shoreline of Lake Michigan. Areas of highest predicted occurrence were often in proximity to waterways, especially in northcentral Wisconsin, where incidence of infection is highest. Ecologic conditions suitable for B. dermatitidis are present in urban and rural environments, and may differ at the extremes of distribution of the species in the state. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide a framework for a more informed search for specific environmental factors modulating B. dermatitidis occurrence and transmission and will be useful for improving public health awareness of relative exposure risks. PMID:18446224
Johnson, Marquell J; Stoelzle, Hannah Y; Finco, Kristi L; Foss, Sadie E; Carstens, Katie
The study expands the research on fitness facility accessibility by determining how compliant fitness facilities in rural western Wisconsin were with Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Comparisons were made with 4 other studies that were conducted in different geographical regions. The study also examined fitness professionals' disability knowledge and awareness. An ADA fitness facility compliance instrument and a fitness professional disability awareness survey were used. Direct observation and physical measurements were taken during on-site visits to 16 of 36 eligible fitness facilities in rural western Wisconsin. Ten fitness professionals from participating facilities completed an online survey. Frequencies were used to analyze the results. None of the participating facilities were in 100% compliance with ADA. Customer service desk (84%) and path of travel throughout the facility (72%) were the highest compliance areas. Telephone (6%) and locker rooms (32%) were the lowest compliance areas. No fitness professional was trained in wheelchair transfers and very few had received training in providing services to individuals with disabilities. Fitness facility accessibility remains a concern nationally. Continued efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of ADA compliance among fitness professionals across the United States, especially in rural areas where fitness facility availability is limited.
Quanbeck, Andrew; Lang, Katharine; Enami, Kohei; Brown, Richard L
A previous cost-benefit analysis found Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) to be cost-beneficial from a societal perspective. This paper develops a cost-benefit model that includes the employer's perspective by considering the costs of absenteeism and impaired presenteeism due to problem drinking. We developed a Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the costs and benefits of SBIRT implementation to an employer. We first presented the likely costs of problem drinking to a theoretical Wisconsin firm that does not currently provide SBIRT services. We then constructed a cost-benefit model in which the firm funds SBIRT for its employees. The net present value of SBIRT adoption was computed by comparing costs due to problem drinking both with and without the program. When absenteeism and impaired presenteeism costs were considered from the employer's perspective, the net present value of SBIRT adoption was $771 per employee. We concluded that implementing SBIRT is cost-beneficial from the employer's perspective and recommend that Wisconsin employers consider covering SBIRT services for their employees.
The paper reports on the Wisconsin Midwest Renewable Energy Fair. The renewable energy business is said to be based on sound technology and sustainable development and is being largely embraced with enthusiasm. However, the keynote speaker, James Kunstler, warned that the transition from fossil fuels to renewables will be complicated and messy. The report mentions the views of several speakers but not all shared Kunstler's views. There were more than 100 workshops at the fair. Although big business was well represented, there were also home-made devices on show including a motorcycle powered by electricity. The importance of the fair is probably best judged by the way in which it generates enthusiasm for preserving the planet through the sustainable development of environmentally-friendly technology. (author)
The records of 503 patients with carcinoma of the tongue diagnosed between 1958 and 1972 were reviewed. The preponderance of tongue carcinoma among men was confirmed both in The Norwegian Radium Hospital (NRH) and the University of Wisconsin Hospitals (UW), but it was relatively more frequent among women in NRH and in UW than in southern Europe. More women had on presentation less advanced tumors at NRH than at UW. The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Norway increased steadily with age for both sexes. The sex ratio did not change in Norway such as in England, Canada and the United States. Tumor of the posterior one-third of the tongue was relatively infrequent in women both in NRH and UW, in agreement with reports from other countries. The length of survival was analysed and no significant sex difference was demonstrated. The younger patients had less advanced tumors and a better prognosis. (Auth.)
Resistivity measurements parallel to the magnetic field were made on gun injected plasmas ranging in density from 10 9 cm -3 to 10 1 parallelcm -3 in the Wisconsin levitated octupole with toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields. The 10 9 cm -3 plasma was collisionless with lambda/sub mfp/ > 100 mirror lengths, had T/sub e/ = 10 eV, T/sub i/ = 30 eV and was found to have anomalous resistivity scaling like eta = √T/sub e//n/sub e/ when E/sub parallel/ > E/su c/ is the Dreicer critical field. The 10 12 cm -3 plasma was collisional with lambda/sub mfp/ < mirror length, had T/sub e/ = T/sub i/ approx. = .2 eV and was found to have Spitzer resistivity when E/sub parallel/ < E/sub c/
Koker, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Lizotte, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States)
The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility is a demonstration project that supported the first commercial-scale use in the United States of high solids, static pile technology for anaerobic digestion of organic waste to generate biogas for use in generating electricity and heat. The research adds to the understanding of startup, operation and supply chain issues for anaerobic digester technology. Issues and performance were documented for equipment installation and modifications, feedstock availability and quality, weekly loading and unloading of digestion chambers, chemical composition of biogas produced, and energy production. This facility also demonstrated an urban industrial ecology approach to siting such facilities near sewage treatment plants (to capture and use excess biogas generated by the plants) and organic yard waste collection sites (a source of feedstock).
Thompson, Christopher S.
Teachers exhibit leadership behaviors of a service nature in their collaborative work with fellow educators. When additional school staff follow the teacher's example by engaging in servant leadership behaviors, a chain-like reaction or virtuous effect may occur. The researcher hypothesized that significant levels of agreement for servant…
DeWard, L.A.; Micka, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
The University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (UW ADCL) employs procedure manuals as part of its Quality Assurance (QA) program. One of these manuals covers the QA procedures and results for all of the UW ADCL measurement equipment. The QA procedures are divided into two main areas: QA for laboratory equipment and QA for external chambers sent for calibration. All internal laboratory equipment is checked and recalibrated on an annual basis, after establishing its consistency on a 6-month basis. QA for external instruments involves checking past calibration history as well as comparing to a range of calibration values for specific instrument models. Generally, the authors find that a chamber will have a variation of less than 0.5 % from previous Co-60 calibration factors, and falls within two standard deviations of previous calibrations. If x-ray calibrations are also performed, the energy response of the chamber is plotted and compared to previous instruments of the same model. These procedures give the authors confidence in the transfer of calibration values from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
DeWard, L.A.; Micka, J.A.
The University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (UW ADCL) employs procedure manuals as part of its Quality Assurance (QA) program. One of these manuals covers the QA procedures and results for all of the UW ADCL measurement equipment. The QA procedures are divided into two main areas: QA for laboratory equipment and QA for external chambers sent for calibration. All internal laboratory equipment is checked and recalibrated on an annual basis, after establishing its consistency on a 6-month basis. QA for external instruments involves checking past calibration history as well as comparing to a range of calibration values for specific instrument models. Generally, the authors find that a chamber will have a variation of less than 0.5 % from previous Co-60 calibration factors, and falls within two standard deviations of previous calibrations. If x-ray calibrations are also performed, the energy response of the chamber is plotted and compared to previous instruments of the same model. These procedures give the authors confidence in the transfer of calibration values from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Cook, Nigel B
To determine the prevalence of lameness as a function of season (summer vs winter), housing type (free stalls vs tie stalls), and stall surface (sand vs any other surface) among lactating dairy cows in Wisconsin. Epidemiologic survey. 3,621 lactating dairy cows in 30 herds. Herds were visited once during the summer and once during the winter, and a locomotion score ranging from 1 (no gait abnormality) to 4 (severe lameness) was assigned to all lactating cows. Cows with a score of 3 or 4 were considered to be clinically lame. Mean +/- SD herd lameness prevalence was 21.1 +/- 10.5% during the summer and 23.9 +/- 10.7% during the winter; these values were significantly different. During the winter, mean prevalence of lameness in free-stall herds with non-sand stall surfaces (33.7%) was significantly higher than prevalences in free-stall herds with sand stall surfaces (21.2%), tie-stall herds with non-sand stall surfaces (21.7%), and tie-stall herds with sand stall surfaces (12.1%). Results suggest that the prevalence of lameness among dairy cattle in Wisconsin is higher than previously thought and that lameness prevalence is associated with season, housing type, and stall surface.
Evans, C. V.
The University of Wisconsin-Parkside Department of Geosciences is a small but successful department within one of the smallest comprehensive universities in the University of Wisconsin system. Formerly a more traditional "rocks and petroleum" program, the Department was on the verge of extinction in 1999. Fortunately, a farsighted Dean intervened and proposed a change of direction for the department, filling in behind retirements with new leadership and a strong environmental focus. Several strategies have been key to resuscitating the Department to its current status, increasing majors, faculty, and SCH/FTE. First, we embraced our niche as the environmental resource, specifically offering urban or other developed settings for our focus on environmental quality. Secondly we revamped our majors' curriculum to enable our students to learn to integrate practical technological skills in sampling, analysis, instrumentation use, and civic engagement to produce positive outcomes at both physical and social levels. Thirdly, our Department has become a strong and active supporter of a teacher preparation program that is undergoing important curriculum and organizational changes. Our newest faculty addition is an atmospheric chemist with significant teaching responsibility in our campus' new Liberal Arts major for elementary school teachers. Geosciences faculty also vigorously support a certificate program in Community Based Learning, direct the campus minor in Environmental Studies, and have actively participated in campus initiatives such as First Year Experience, General Education reform, the campus' Teaching and Learning Center, and collaborative course offerings that link academic skills (math, reading, writing) courses to extra support in General Education science courses. In addition, the Department has taken campus leadership in participation in the national SENCER initiative, which links science education and civic engagement. Finally, we have also amended and
The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…
The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.
The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) administers approximately 11,800 miles of state highways. It uses preservative-treated wood posts for much of the signage along these highways because wood is relatively inexpensive, easy to install...
... Historical Society of Wisconsin at the address below by September 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb... Indian tribe that believes it satisfies the criteria in 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1) should contact Jennifer Kolb...
The purpose of this research was to describe and quantify biologically labile and refractory phosphorus runoff in Eight-Mile Run, a small watershed in west-central Wisconsin that is impacted by dairy...
The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Wisconsin census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.
Andrew M. Stoltman; Richard B. Rideout
In 2002, Wisconsin was part of two pilot projects in cooperation with the US Forest Service. The first was a street tree assessment, and the second was an urban FIA project. The data generated by these pilots changed the way that Wisconsin DNRsâ Urban Forestry Program conducts its business. Although there have been several urban FIA pilot projects throughout the U.S.,...
Since October of 1988 the State of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has regulated over four hundred substances as hazardous air pollutants. The rule regulates new as well as existing sources of air pollution in Wisconsin. Consequently, all permits to operate an air pollution source in Wisconsin must address the hazardous air emissions potential of the source. While widely perceived as a clean-burning fuel, wood is often burned in a manner which clearly results in significant emissions of very hazardous air pollutants. Research conducted on a 20 million BTU per hour wood-fired spreader stoker boiler in northern Wisconsin showed that this boiler has the potential to emit 0.022 pound of benzene and 0.012 pound of formaldehyde per ton (lb/ton) of wood fired. Recent stack tests at more than a dozen other small industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin show a range of formaldehyde emissions of 0.0007--0.1950 lb/ton. Work at Birchwood Lumber ampersand Veneer showed that the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under good firing conditions are an order of magnitude lower than the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under poor firing conditions. This finding has supported Wisconsin's regulatory approach of encouraging wood-fired facilities to enhance the quality of the combustion process as a technique to minimize the hazardous air pollution potential of industrial wood combustion. The Wisconsin strategy is to define open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes through easily measurable combustion parameters rather than emission standards. This paper presents several techniques in use in Wisconsin to comply with open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes for industrial wood-fired furnaces. These techniques include fuel blending overfire air, furnace insulation, and proper grate design
Low frequency turbulence in the drift frequency range and its relation to the observed particle transport in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole has been studied with a microwave scattering apparatus. The experimental parameters were T/sub e/ approx. T/sub i/ 13 cm -3 , 200 G < B/sub p-average/ < 1.25 kG. The effect of shear on the transport was studied by the addition of a small toroidal field. By matching experimentally measured density profiles to those given by numerical solutions of the transport equations, diffusion coefficients were obtained. Time dependent density fluctuation spectra were measured with an 8 mm microwave scattering diagnostic to correlate the drift wave portion of the spectrum with the observed diffusion. The density fluctuation spectrum of low frequency (1 kHz < ω < 6 MHz) turbulence was measured for several values of perpendicular wavenumber, k/sub perpendicular to/. Electron heat transport was studied by fitting experimentally measured electron temperature profiles to those predicted by numerical solutions of electron energy transport equation
Dennis J. Baumgardner
Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is a serious fungal infection contracted by inhalation of Blastomyces spores from the environment. Case occurrence in dogs in Vilas County, Wisconsin, has been associated with antecedent weather. We aimed to explore the effects of weather on the occurrence of human pulmonary blastomycosis in this area, and update exposure factors and symptoms since last published reports. Methods: Mandatory case reports were reviewed. Chi-square test was used for categorical data of exposures, comparing 1979–1996 (n=101 versus 1997–June 2013 (n=95. Linear regression was used to model local weather data (available 1990–2013; n=126; Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI, and Wisconsin River water discharge (WRD from the adjacent county (all available for 1984–2013; n=174; and case counts of known onset by warm (April–September and cold (October–March 6-month periods. Results: Distribution of pulmonary blastomycosis cases did not vary by season. Environmental exposures for the 1997–June 2013 group (mean age 45, 59% male were: residence(76%, excavation (42% and gardening (31%, all similar to the 1979–1996 group. Fishing (23% vs. 37%; P=0.09 and hunting (15% vs. 26%; P=0.13 exposures were less common in 1997–June 2013, but not significantly different. Overall, 69% of cases recalled some prior soil-disturbing activities. Considering the 6-month warm/cold periods, 19% of variation is explained by a direct relationship with total precipitation from two periods prior (P=0.005. There was no association of case occurrence with SOI, NAOI or WRD. Estimated annual incidence of blastomycosis for 1997–June 2013 was 27/100,000 compared with 44/100,000 for 1984–1996. Several symptoms were significantly less frequent in 2002–June 2013 compared to earlier years. Conclusions: As with dogs, human pulmonary blastomycosis occurrence is partially determined by antecedent precipitation. It is unclear if
Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.
Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.
Carswell, William J.
Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Wisconsin, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, water supply and quality, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.
Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated factors driving health care costs of patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Standard costs identified in insurance claims data obtained from the Wisconsin Health Information Organization were used in a sample of 837 acute leukemia patients from April 2009 to June 2011. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization guided selection of patient and community factors expected to influence health care costs. A generalized linear model fitting gamma-distributed data with log-link technique was used to analyze cost. Results: Type of treatment received and disease severity represented significant cost drivers, and patients receiving at least some of their treatment from academic medical centers experienced higher costs. Inpatient care and pharmacy costs of patients who received treatment from providers located in areas of higher poverty experienced lower costs, raising questions of potential treatment and medical practice disparities between provider locations. Directions of study findings were not consistent between different types of services received and underscore the complexity of investigating health care cost. Conclusions: While prevalence of acute leukemia in the United States is low compared to other diseases, its extreme high cost of treatment is not well understood and potentially influences treatment decisions. Acute leukemia health care costs may not follow expected patterns; further exploration of the relationship between cost and the treatment decision, and potential treatment disparities between providers in different socioeconomic locations, is needed.
Strait, E.J.; Fortgang, C.M.; Twichell, J.C.; Dexter, R.N.; Sprott, J.C.; Barter, J.D.
Preliminary ICRH experiments have begun on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. In order to study heating, energy confinement, and high β plasmas, a 1.8 to 3 MHz oscillator and antenna have been installed. The oscillator and antenna have been installed. The oscillator is capable of delivering 2 MW of RF power for 10 msec, and to date up to 0.5 MW has been coupled into the plasma. At a density of approx. 6 x 10 12 cm -3 , T/sub e/ reaches a maximum of 30 eV as measured by Langmuir probes and VUV spectroscopy. Charge exchange measurements of T/sub i/ show Maxwellian components at 95 and 190 eV, with an energy confinement time of approx. 1 msec. Electron energy confinement is limited by impurity radiation, and several methods of impurity control are being tested. Current experiments also include direct measurement of the RF electric field, antenna loading measurements, variation of the oscillator frequency, and ohmic heating of the electrons
Remington, Patrick L; Moberg, D Paul; Booske, Bridget C; Ceraso, Marion; Friedsam, Donna; Kindig, David A
Despite significant accomplishments in basic, clinical, and population health research, a wide gap persists between research discoveries (ie, what we know) and actual practice (ie, what we do). The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute (Institute) researchers study the process and outcomes of disseminating evidence-based public health programs and policies into practice. This paper briefly describes the approach and experience of the Institute's programs in population health assessment, health policy, program evaluation, and education and training. An essential component of this dissemination research program is the active engagement of the practitioners and policymakers. Each of the Institute's programs conducts data collection, analysis, education, and dialogue with practitioners that is closely tied to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies. Our approach involves a reciprocal exchange of knowledge with non-academic partners, such that research informs practice and practice informs research. Dissemination research serves an important role along the continuum of research and is increasingly recognized as an important way to improve population health by accelerating the translation of research into practice.
Fortgang, C.M.; Sprott, J.C.; Strait, E.J.
Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two-component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with 500 kW of rf power coupled into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun-injected plasmas. Most of the theortical work presented deals with a calculation that predicts the plasma loading. A slab model is used, and the questions of accessibility, polarization, and damping of the radio-frequency electromagnetic fields are addressed. It is found that cold-plasma theory cannot account for the heating and, therefore, hot-plasma theory is invoked to explain the results. The loading measurements and theoretical predictions are found to be in reasonable agreement
parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...
Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.; Robertson, Dale M.
The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources is charged with oversight of dam operations throughout Wisconsin and is considering modifications to the operating orders for the Rest Lake Dam in Vilas County, Wisconsin. State law requires that the operation orders be tied to natural low flows at the dam. Because the presence of the dam confounds measurement of natural flows, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, installed streamflow-gaging stations and developed two statistical methods to improve estimates of natural flows at the Rest Lake Dam. Two independent methods were used to estimate daily natural flow for the Manitowish River approximately 1 mile downstream of the Rest Lake Dam. The first method was an adjusted drainage-area ratio method, which used a regression analysis that related measured water yield (flow divided by watershed area) from short-term (2009–11) gaging stations upstream of the Manitowish Chain of Lakes to the water yield from two nearby long-term gaging stations in order to extend the flow record (1991–2011). In this approach, the computed flows into the Chain of Lakes at the upstream gaging stations were multiplied by a coefficient to account for the monthly hydrologic contributions (precipitation, evaporation, groundwater, and runoff) associated with the additional watershed area between the upstream gaging stations and the dam at the outlet of the Chain of Lakes (Rest Lake Dam). The second method used to estimate daily natural flow at the Rest Lake Dam was a water-budget approach, which used lake stage and dam outflow data provided by the dam operator. A water-budget model was constructed and then calibrated with an automated parameter-estimation program by matching simulated flow-duration statistics with measured flow-duration statistics at the upstream gaging stations. After calibration of the water-budget model, the model was used to compute natural flow at the dam from 1973 to
Parsen, Michael J.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Hunt, Randall J.; Feinstein, Daniel T.
A new groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin, replaces an earlier model developed in the 1990s by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This modeling study was conducted cooperatively by the WGNHS and the USGS with funding from the Capital Area Regional Planning Commission (CARPC). Although the overall conceptual model of the groundwater system remains largely unchanged, the incorporation of newly acquired high-quality datasets, recent research findings, and improved modeling and calibration techniques have led to the development of a more detailed and sophisticated model representation of the groundwater system. The new model is three-dimensional and transient, and conceptualizes the county’s hydrogeology as a 12-layer system including all major unlithified and bedrock hydrostratigraphic units and two high-conductivity horizontal fracture zones. Beginning from the surface down, the model represents the unlithified deposits as two distinct model layers (1 and 2). A single layer (3) simulates the Ordovician sandstone and dolomite of the Sinnipee, Ancell, and Prairie du Chien Groups. Sandstone of the Jordan Formation (layer 4) and silty dolostone of the St. Lawrence Formation (layer 5) each comprise separate model layers. The underlying glauconitic sandstone of the Tunnel City Group makes up three distinct layers: an upper aquifer (layer 6), a fracture feature (layer 7), and a lower aquifer (layer 8). The fracture layer represents a network of horizontal bedding-plane fractures that serve as a preferential pathway for groundwater flow. The model simulates the sandstone of the Wonewoc Formation as an upper aquifer (layer 9) with a bedding-plane fracture feature (layer 10) at its base. The Eau Claire aquitard (layer 11) includes shale beds within the upper portion of the Eau Claire Formation. This layer, along with overlying bedrock units, is mostly absent in the preglacially eroded valleys along
Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and to dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported health outcomes, in a group of older male anglers in Wisconsin with high fish consumption. A biomonitoring study of male anglers aged 50 and older living in Wisconsin collected detailed information on fish consumption, demographics and self-reported health outcomes, along with hair and blood samples for biomarker analysis. Sixteen different PFAS were extracted from serum samples. Regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with PFAS biomarker levels in blood, as well as associations between PFAS and self-reported health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were used in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFHpS, PFHxS, PFNA, PFOA, PFOS, PFuDA). The PFAS with the highest levels were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 19.0, 2.5, 1.8 and 1.4ng/mL). In general, increasing age was associated with higher PFAS levels, while increasing BMI were associated with lower PFAS levels. Greater alcohol consumption was associated with higher levels of PFHpS, PFHxS and PFOA. Associations with smoking and employment did not show a consistent pattern. Associations between fish consumption and PFAS were generally weak, with the exception of notably higher PFDA and PFHpS with both other locally-caught fish, and restaurant-purchased fish. Regarding associations with health outcomes, PFuDA, PFNA and PFDA were all associated with increased risk of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PFHpS was associated with a
Schatz, Jason; Kucharik, Christopher J.
As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of extreme heat, cities and their urban heat island (UHI) effects are growing, as are the urban populations encountering them. These mutually reinforcing trends present a growing risk for urban populations. However, we have limited understanding of urban climates during extreme temperature episodes, when additional heat from the UHI may be most consequential. We observed a historically hot summer and historically cold winter using an array of up to 150 temperature and relative humidity sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin, an urban area of population 402 000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. In the summer of 2012 (third hottest since 1869), Madison’s urban areas experienced up to twice as many hours ⩾32.2 °C (90 °F), mean July TMAX up to 1.8 °C higher, and mean July TMIN up to 5.3 °C higher than rural areas. During a record setting heat wave, dense urban areas spent over four consecutive nights above the National Weather Service nighttime heat stress threshold of 26.7 °C (80 °F), while rural areas fell below 26.7 °C nearly every night. In the winter of 2013-14 (coldest in 35 years), Madison’s most densely built urban areas experienced up to 40% fewer hours ⩽-17.8 °C (0 °F), mean January TMAX up to 1 °C higher, and mean January TMIN up to 3 °C higher than rural areas. Spatially, the UHI tended to be most intense in areas with higher population densities. Temporally, both daytime and nighttime UHIs tended to be slightly more intense during more-extreme heat days compared to average summer days. These results help us understand the climates for which cities must prepare in a warming, urbanizing world.
Genskow, Kenneth D.
Experience with collaborative approaches to natural resource and environmental management has grown substantially over the past 20 years, and multi-interest, shared-resources initiatives have become prevalent in the United States and internationally. Although often viewed as “grass-roots” and locally initiated, governmental participants are crucial to the success of collaborative efforts, and important questions remain regarding their appropriate roles, including roles in partnership initiation. In the midst of growing governmental support for collaborative approaches in the mid-1990s, the primary natural resource and environmental management agency in Wisconsin (USA) attempted to generate a statewide system of self-sustaining, collaborative partnerships, organized around the state’s river basin boundaries. The agency expected the partnerships to enhance participation by stakeholders, leverage additional resources, and help move the agency toward more integrated and ecosystem-based resource management initiatives. Most of the basin partnerships did form and function, but ten years after this initiative, the agency has moved away from these partnerships and half have disbanded. Those that remain active have changed, but continue to work closely with agency staff. Those no longer functioning lacked clear focus, were dependent upon agency leadership, or could not overcome issues of scale. This article outlines the context for state support of collaborative initiatives and explores Wisconsin’s experience with basin partnerships by discussing their formation and reviewing governmental roles in partnerships’ emergence and change. Wisconsin’s experience suggests benefits from agency support and agency responsiveness to partnership opportunities, but cautions about expectations for initiating general-purpose partnerships.
Thorson, T.A.; Durst, R.D.; Fonck, R.J.; Foucher, B.S.; Wainwright, L.P.
The Spherically Convergent Ion Focus (SCIF) is an alternative plasma confinement scheme in which ions are electrostatically confined, accelerated, and concentrated at fusion-relevant energies. This concept has been recently promoted for various near-term applications including waste disposal, particle production, neutron radiography and tomography, plastic explosive detection, materials research, and medical isotope production. The Wisconsin SCIF experiments are designed to evaluate the practicality of the SCIF concept for given applications. In the experiment, a wire globe serves as a simple means of producing the trapping potential well and the ion source consists of a cold, uniform plasma at the edge. Hydrogen ions formed from the background neutral gas are typically accelerated to energies of 5--20 kV, and measured cathode grid currents approach the space-charge limit for concentric spheres. Core size measurements utilize spectrally-filtered CCD camera images of the visible emission from the core region, and the minimal observed core radius of 0.6 cm (HWHM) is within a factor of 2--3 of the theoretical convergence ratio for the device. Neutral particle interactions and potential asymmetries imposed by the grid lead to non-ideal convergence, as evidenced by measured potential asymmetries and core size dependence on cathode grid spacing. Floating probes with 30 kV isolation have allowed unique measurements of the density, electric potential and temperature in the converged core. The ratio of core to edge density is 10--20, which is in good agreement with scaling from radial flux conservation
Lamborg, C.H.; Fitzgerald, W.F.; Vandal, G.M.; Rolfhus, K.R.
The atmospheric chemistry, deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) in the Upper Great Lakes region is being investigated at a near-remote sampling location in northern Wisconsin. Intensive sampling over two years has been completed. A multi-phase collection strategy was used to gain insight into the processes controlling concentrations and chemical/physical speciation of atmospheric Hg. Additional chemical and physical atmospheric determinations were also made during these periods to aid in the interpretation of the Hg determinations. For example, correlations of Hg with ozone, sulfur dioxide and synopticscale meteorological features suggest a regionally discernible signal in Hg. Comparison to isosigma backward air parcel trajectories confirms this regionality and implicates the areas south, southeast and northwest of the size to be source for Hg. Particle-phase Hg (Hg p ) was found to be approximately 40% in an oxidized form, or operationally defined as reactive but was variable. Hg p and other particle constituents show significant correlation and similarity in behavior. These observations support the hypothesis that precipitation-phase Hg arises from the scavenging of atmospheric particulates bearing Hg. Observed concentrations of rain and particle-Hg fit the theoretical expectations for nucleation and below-cloud scavenging. Increases in the Hg/aerosol mass ratio appear to take place during transport. Enrichment of aerosols is taken as evidence of gas/particle conversion which could represent the step linking gas-phase Hg with rain. The refined budget indicates ca. 24% of total deposition is from summer particle dry deposition, and that this deposition also contributes ca. 24% of all reactive Hg deposition. Most deposition occurs during the summer months. 40 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs
... Wisconsin's 2008 List of Waters Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection... 303(d)(2) requires that States submit and EPA approve or disapprove lists of waters for which existing... approved Wisconsin's listing of waters, associated pollutants, and associated priority rankings. EPA...
Despite near-record unemployment rates in the region, southeast Wisconsin's healthcare sector faces a distinctive challenge: finding sufficient numbers of qualified and trained workers to fill current and future job openings. A May 2009 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee analysis found that one out of every four full-time job openings and one out…
Chris Swanston; Maria Janowiak; Louis Iverson; Linda Parker; David Mladenoff; Leslie Brandt; Patricia Butler; Matt St. Pierre; Anantha Prasad; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters; Dale Higgins; Avery Dorland
The forests of northern Wisconsin will likely experience dramatic changes over the next 100 years as a result of climate change. This assessment evaluates key forest ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change across northern Wisconsin under a range of future climate scenarios. Warmer temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns are expected to influence ecosystem...
Makholm, M.M.; Bennett, J.P.
Emissions of mercury from a chlor-alkali plant in central Wisconsin have raised concern about possible effects on biota in the area. Samples of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, which no longer grows in the area, were transplanted from a site in northeastern Wisconsin and positioned on plastic stands at varying distances up to 1250 m from the plant and sampled for Hg quarterly for one year to test the hypothesis that Hg would be taken up by the lichens and would decline with distance. Average tissue concentrations were elevated when first sampled at three months and continued to increase at the nearest sites until the study ended after one year. Average concentrations after a year of exposure ranged from 4418 ppb at 250 m from the plant to 403 ppb at 1250 m from the plant. The decrease over distance followed a negative exponential pattern. Background concentrations at a control site in northern Wisconsin averaged 155 ppb.
Sheffer, Megan A; Redmond, Lezli A; Kobinsky, Kate H; Keller, Paula A; McAfee, Tim; Fiore, Michael C
Telephone quitlines are a clinically proven and cost-effective population-wide tobacco-dependence treatment, and this option is now available in all 50 states. Yet, only 1% of the smoking population accesses these services annually. This report describes a series of policy, programmatic, and communication initiatives recently implemented in Wisconsin that resulted in a dramatic increase in consumer demand for the Wisconsin Tobacco Quitline (WTQL). In 2007, the Wisconsin legislature voted to increase the state cigarette excise tax rate by $1.00, from $0.77/pack to $1.77/pack effective January 1, 2008. In preparation for the tax increase, the Wisconsin Tobacco Prevention and Control Program, the University of Wisconsin Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, which manages the WTQL, and the state's quitline service provider, Free & Clear, Inc., collaborated to enhance quitline knowledge, availability, and services with the goal of increasing consumer demand for services. The enhancements included for the first time, a free 2-week supply of over-the-counter nicotine replacement medication for tobacco users who agreed to receive multi-session quitline counseling. A successful statewide earned media campaign intensified the impact of these activities, which were timed to coincide with temporal smoking-cessation behavioral patterns (i.e., New Year's resolutions). As a result, the WTQL fielded a record 27,000 calls during the first 3 months of 2008, reaching nearly 3% of adult Wisconsin smokers. This experience demonstrates that consumer demand for quitline services can be markedly enhanced through policy and communication initiatives to increase the population reach of this evidence-based treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.
FILES FOR COMPOUNDS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN Vol. 7 APPENDIX 0 - HUMAN HEALTH RISK CALCULATIONS Vol. 7 APPENDIX P - INVENTORY OF SITE SPECIES Vol. 7...Driing Mud 0" 0 3 am 01 99 5 .Annula space seal:- GnmuldBsuryoni 0 33 Lbs/gal mud weight ... Benuar-siid shiny 3 33 16. Driling addives used 13 yesLbs...CONSTRUCTION REPORT / 5 WISCONSIN STATE BOARD OF HEALTH WELL DRILLING DIVISION JUL 11 |W Note: Section 32 of the Wisconsin Well Drilling Sanitary Code
Hansen, Gretchen JA; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Jonathan F.; Winslow, Luke
Temperate lakes may contain both coolwater fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) and warmwater fish species such as largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Recent declining walleye and increasing largemouth bass populations have raised questions regarding the future trajectories and management actions for these species. We developed a thermodynamic model of water temperatures driven by downscaled climate data and lake-specific characteristics to estimate daily water temperature profiles for 2148 lakes in Wisconsin, US, under contemporary (1989–2014) and future (2040–2064 and 2065–2089) conditions. We correlated contemporary walleye recruitment and largemouth bass relative abundance to modeled water temperature, lake morphometry, and lake productivity, and projected lake-specific changes in each species under future climate conditions. Walleye recruitment success was negatively related and largemouth bass abundance was positively related to water temperature degree days. Both species exhibited a threshold response at the same degree day value, albeit in opposite directions. Degree days were predicted to increase in the future, although the magnitude of increase varied among lakes, time periods, and global circulation models (GCMs). Under future conditions, we predicted a loss of walleye recruitment in 33–75% of lakes where recruitment is currently supported and a 27–60% increase in the number of lakes suitable for high largemouth bass abundance. The percentage of lakes capable of supporting abundant largemouth bass but failed walleye recruitment was predicted to increase from 58% in contemporary conditions to 86% by mid-century and to 91% of lakes by late century, based on median projections across GCMs. Conversely, the percentage of lakes with successful walleye recruitment and low largemouth bass abundance was predicted to decline from 9% of lakes in contemporary conditions to only 1% of lakes in both future periods. Importantly, we identify up
Hansen, Gretchen J A; Read, Jordan S; Hansen, Jonathan F; Winslow, Luke A
Temperate lakes may contain both coolwater fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) and warmwater fish species such as largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Recent declining walleye and increasing largemouth bass populations have raised questions regarding the future trajectories and management actions for these species. We developed a thermodynamic model of water temperatures driven by downscaled climate data and lake-specific characteristics to estimate daily water temperature profiles for 2148 lakes in Wisconsin, US, under contemporary (1989-2014) and future (2040-2064 and 2065-2089) conditions. We correlated contemporary walleye recruitment and largemouth bass relative abundance to modeled water temperature, lake morphometry, and lake productivity, and projected lake-specific changes in each species under future climate conditions. Walleye recruitment success was negatively related and largemouth bass abundance was positively related to water temperature degree days. Both species exhibited a threshold response at the same degree day value, albeit in opposite directions. Degree days were predicted to increase in the future, although the magnitude of increase varied among lakes, time periods, and global circulation models (GCMs). Under future conditions, we predicted a loss of walleye recruitment in 33-75% of lakes where recruitment is currently supported and a 27-60% increase in the number of lakes suitable for high largemouth bass abundance. The percentage of lakes capable of supporting abundant largemouth bass but failed walleye recruitment was predicted to increase from 58% in contemporary conditions to 86% by mid-century and to 91% of lakes by late century, based on median projections across GCMs. Conversely, the percentage of lakes with successful walleye recruitment and low largemouth bass abundance was predicted to decline from 9% of lakes in contemporary conditions to only 1% of lakes in both future periods. Importantly, we identify up to 85
Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Gupta, Umesh; Jain, Sonal
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers found worldwide and most frequently found in women. An early detection of breast cancer provides the possibility of its cure; therefore, a large number of studies are currently going on to identify methods that can detect breast cancer in its early stages. This study was aimed to find the effects of k-means clustering algorithm with different computation measures like centroid, distance, split method, epoch, attribute, and iteration and to carefully consider and identify the combination of measures that has potential of highly accurate clustering accuracy. K-means algorithm was used to evaluate the impact of clustering using centroid initialization, distance measures, and split methods. The experiments were performed using breast cancer Wisconsin (BCW) diagnostic dataset. Foggy and random centroids were used for the centroid initialization. In foggy centroid, based on random values, the first centroid was calculated. For random centroid, the initial centroid was considered as (0, 0). The results were obtained by employing k-means algorithm and are discussed with different cases considering variable parameters. The calculations were based on the centroid (foggy/random), distance (Euclidean/Manhattan/Pearson), split (simple/variance), threshold (constant epoch/same centroid), attribute (2-9), and iteration (4-10). Approximately, 92 % average positive prediction accuracy was obtained with this approach. Better results were found for the same centroid and the highest variance. The results achieved using Euclidean and Manhattan were better than the Pearson correlation. The findings of this work provided extensive understanding of the computational parameters that can be used with k-means. The results indicated that k-means has a potential to classify BCW dataset.
Erik S. Hendrickson
Full Text Available The goals of the study were to develop a method for extracting and quantifying illicit stimulants and metabolites, methamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine, and benzoylecogonine from wastewater effluent and surface water grab samples, and evaluate Central Wisconsin wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP removal efficiency of compounds of interest. The method created used HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE cartridges to extract substances of interest and High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS for quantification and qualification. All four wastewater effluent samples and three Wisconsin River samples had quantifiable concentrations of at least one analyte. Conclusions derived from the study were: The method created is effective for separating, quantifying, and identifying amphetamine, cocaine, and benzoylecognine from wastewater effluent and surface water grab samples, and each illicit stimulant and metabolite analyzed in this study were all quantified in wastewater effluent, indicating these compounds have the ability to survive WWTP.
Rose, Laura; Matthias, Mary
The components of Wisconsin's 1991 Assembly Bill 680 that considers homelessness are discussed in this document. The Bill itself addresses: (1) surplus state lands; (2) transitional housing grants; (3) prevention of homelessness; (4) establishing a low-income housing income and franchise tax credit; (5) veterans lacking a permanent address; (6)…
... Definitions, NR 485.04 Motor vehicle emission limitations; exemptions, and NR 485.045 Repair cost limit for... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Amendments to Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance... Resources on June 7, 2012, concerning the state's vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) program in...
... of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Wisconsin's authorized hazardous waste program. EPA will incorporate... that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred...
... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor Recovery From Southeast... specifically installed at gasoline dispensing facilities (GDF) and capture the refueling fuel vapors at the gasoline pump nozzle. The system carries the vapors back to the underground storage tank at the GDF to...
Eric J. Gustafson; Patrick A. Zollner; Brian R. Sturtevant; S. He Hong; David J. Mladenoff
We used the LANDIS disturbance and succession model to study the effects of six alternative vegetation management scenarios on forest succession and the subsequent risk of canopy fire on a 2791 km2 landscape in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study area is a mix of fire-prone and fire-resistant land types. The alternatives vary the spatial...
R. A. Arango; F. III Green; G.R. Esenther; D.A. Marschalek; M.E. Berres; K.F. Raffa
Mature colonies of Reticulitermes spp. reproduce and spread mainly by secondary (rather than alate) reproductives throughout their geographical distribution, but especially near the northern boundaries of their range. Historically in Wisconsin, winged reproductives of the one established species, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar),...
Schmidt, Jeffrey K.; Lemke, Melissa
Public schools can be considered a form of workforce development, and thus it is important to measure the "work product" of the schools. The Public Policy Forum's annual analysis of public schools in the 50 districts serving southeastern Wisconsin measured absenteeism as educational opportunities lost because children were not in class.…
..., University of Wisconsin Press, 1965, page 281). The western portion of the proposed boundary line extends... grapevine growth (``General Viticulture,'' by Albert J. Winkler, University of California Press, 1974, pages... River National Wildlife Refuges. Finally, the petition adds that Horicon Ledge Park, Ledge View County...
This proposed study focuses on assessing the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in Wisconsin and its economic : impacts on the States energy market and the electric grid. PHEVs are expected to provide a range of about 40 miles per ...
... implementation of the HCP, which has become the normal way of doing business in Wisconsin. Partners and other... management that incidentally takes butterflies could not proceed. Vegetation succession would follow and the... normal business hours (8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.) at the Ecological Services Field Office in New Franken and at...
The purpose of this thesis is two-fold: first, to present floating potential structure for different plasmas and operating parameters in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Second, to show how the observed potential structure can be used, within the framework of vortex diffusion, to account for enhanced diffusion in the appropriate parameter regimes
Lewis T. Hendricks
In recent years there has been a great deal of concern about the closure of numberous hardwood face veneer and plywood mills in Michigan and Wisconsin. As part of an overall study of that industry in the northern Lake States region, the basic reasons leading to the closure of these mills were investigated. In the past 15 years, there have been eight known mill...
..., with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (Tribe), the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), the... III gaming would be conducted inside the existing clubhouse until the new casino is built. The FEIS..., environmental justice, cumulative effects, indirect effects and mitigation. The BIA has afforded other...
Potash, Jordan; Burnie, Michele; Pearson, Rosemary; Ramirez, Wayne
The Wisconsin Art Therapy Association (WATA), formally established in 1969, was the first incorporated organization of art therapists in the United States. Under the leadership of Wayne Ramirez, WATA lobbied the national association for an inclusive definition of art therapy that aimed to foster respect for psychiatric, educational, and community…
W. Brad Smith; James W. Whipple
Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1988. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.
Akhtar, Masood; Corrigan, Edward; Reitter, Thomas
The purpose of this project was to provide administrative and technical support for the completion of energy efficiency projects that reduce energy intensity and create or save Wisconsin industrial jobs. All projects have been completed. Details in the attached reports include project management, job development, and energy savings for each project.
Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.
In response to a request from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Region V of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a workshop on waste management in universities and colleges. It consisted of four sessions: (1) managing general university waste and regulatory concerns; (2) chemical waste management; (3)…
Burton, Alice; And Others
A 1994 state-wide survey examined the status of child care profession in Wisconsin. Surveyed were 326 family child care providers, 104 child care center directors, and 254 center teaching staff. Responses indicated that child care teaching staff have experienced a wage increase of just over 1 percent per year since 1988, and continue to earn low…
Bozeman, William C.; And Others
The Wisconsin System for Instructional Management (WIS-SIM) is a computer managed instruction (CMI) system designed to improve instructional decision making in order to maximize the educational progress of each child while making efficient use of the available human, material, and financial resources within an organizational structure such as the…
De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret
Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…
Banker, Margaret M.
E-Learning as it pertains to public education is in its infancy in America. There is limited research on what operational design, development, and management attributes of virtual school programs foster student achievement. The Wisconsin Department of Instruction has not developed or adopted program standards for E-Learning programs. The purpose…
Schmidt, Morgan A.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Richards, Kevin D.
Streamwater samples were collected at 19 sites in the vicinity of the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Reservation. Samples were collected during 5 sampling periods in 1997-98. Field measurements were made and samples were analyzed for nutrients, suspended sediment, major ions, and pesticides.
Whisnant, David M., Ed.
During the period extending from May 1972 through April 1973, an investigation of the overall water quality conditions of streams flowing into Lake Superior from the entire state of Wisconsin was conducted. The goal of this publication was to provide much needed regional information on water quality, drainage basins, pollution sources and loads,…
Hagen, Erika W; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Albanese, Aggie; Palta, Mari
Improvements in neonatal care over the past 3 decades have increased survival of infants at lower birthweights and gestational ages. However, outcomes and practices vary considerably between hospitals. To describe maternal and infant characteristics, neonatal intensive care units (NICU) practices, morbidity, and mortality in Wisconsin NICUs, and to compare outcomes in Wisconsin to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development network of large academic medical center NICUs. The Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort is a prospective observational study of all very low birthweight (< or =1500 grams) infants admitted during 2003 and 2004 to the 16 level III NICUs in Wisconsin. Anonymous data were collected for all admitted infants (N=1463). Major neonatal morbidities, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were evaluated. The overall incidence of BPD was 24% (8%-56% between NICUs); IVH incidence was 23% (9%-41%); the incidence of NEC was 7% (0%-21%); and the incidence of grade III or higher ROP was 10% (0%-35%). The incidence rates of major neonatal morbidities in Wisconsin were similar to those of a national network of academic NICUs.
Pandya, Dasharathrai Navnitrai
The major purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected personality characteristics and attitudes of male extension agents in Wisconsin, and their level of job performance. The relationships between selected background factors and the level of agent's job performance were also studied. Subjects were 79 male county agents…
... Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin AGENCY... aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute copper and nickel, and chronic endrin and...., Washington, DC 20460 or Francine Norling, Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality...
The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…
Because of an absence of dialogue, a tense relationship appears to exist between Wisconsin's gay men's book discussion groups and their local public libraries. Public library directors express interest in accommodating these groups if approached but face budget restrictions and local communities that may oppose these gatherings; gay men's book…
Rieckmann, Kelly Renée
The number of female superintendents in Wisconsin public schools remains disproportionately low compared to males. With research supporting a connection between female leaders and transformational leadership, the question as to why more females do not enter the realm of leadership and how they see themselves as leaders remains unanswered. This…
... of Issuance of Renewed Facility License No. R-74 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) has issued renewed Facility License No. R-74, held by the University of Wisconsin (the licensee... to 1.4% [Delta]k/k. The renewed Facility License No. R-74 will expire at midnight 20 years from its...
David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield
This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...
Cibulka, James G.
Wisconsin's guaranteed tax base equalization formula has no direct adjustment for the additional costs of educating poverty level pupils. This paper establishes the need for an adjustment and examines three measures (based on varying poverty definitions) to determine which provides the most equitable funding formula for educating poor children. (9…
Hirschorn, Michael W.
Two student newspapers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison are in fierce competition for readers and advertisers. A proposal of the Badger Herald, an 18-year-old conservative weekly, that the two merge their financial operations was rejected by the liberal Daily Cardinal and the newspaper war was on. (MLW)
Describes an index based on attributes of fish assemblages that has proven effective in assessing biotic integrity and environmental health in intermediate-sized, warmwater (i.e., too warm for salmonids) streams and rivers of Wisconsin. Provides detailed guidelines for applying this index.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin...: This notice publishes the Secretary's certification of the amended St. Croix Chippewa Indians of... Country. The St. Croix Tribal Council of the adopted this amended Liquor Ordinance on December 3, 2009...
Head, Denise; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Raz, Naftali
Aging effects on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) are fairly well established but the mechanisms of the decline are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating age-related increases in perseveration on the WCST. MRI-based volumetry and measures of selected executive functions in…
Novotny, Eric; Rimland, Emily
This article discusses a service quality study conducted in the Pennsylvania State University Libraries. The Wisconsin-Ohio Reference Evaluation Program survey was selected as a valid, standardized instrument. We present our results, highlighting the impact on reference training. A second survey a year later demonstrated that focusing on…
Gurnack, Anne M.
Summarizes a study of Wisconsin's drunk driving law and evaluates the mandated alcohol assessment for convicted offenders. Findings indicated individuals operating while intoxicated remain young, male, unmarried, with high school educations. A substantial number of these persons were assessed with serious drinking problems. The strongest predictor…
Perry, Barbara; Robyn, Linda
The Chippewas of Northern Wisconsin continue to experience a peculiarly American form of apartheid, characterized by segregation, discrimination, cultural imperialism, and everyday violence. While the blatant stigmatization, disempowerment, and violence reached its modern day zenith in the spear fishing conflict of the 1980s and 1990s, ongoing…
... July 31, 2018. Wisconsin submitted its regional haze plan on January 18, 2012, with a supplemental.... Response: In cases like this where a subject is addressed by both the general guidance in the draft... option at that time. Further, this approach does not require an election of one set of mass caps by July...
Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.
administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....
Arendt, John D; Katers, John F
The majority of states in the USA, including Wisconsin, have been affected by elevated air, soil and waterborne mercury levels. Health risks associated with mercury increase from the consumption of larger fish species, such as Walleye or Pike, which bio-accumulate mercury in muscle tissue. Federal legislation with the 2011 Mercury and Air Toxics Standards and the Wisconsin legislation on mercury, 2009 Wisconsin Act 44, continue to aim at lowering allowable levels of mercury emissions. Meanwhile, mercury-containing compact fluorescent lights (CFL) sales continue to grow as businesses and consumers move away from energy intensive incandescent light bulbs. An exchange in pollution media is occurring as airborne mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants, the largest anthropogenic source of mercury, are being reduced by lower energy demand and standards, while more universal solid waste containing mercury is generated each time a CFL is disposed. The treatment of CFLs as a 'universal waste' by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to the banning of non-household fluorescent bulbs from most municipal solid waste. Although the EPA encourages recycling of bulbs, industry currently recycles fluorescent lamps and CFLs at a rate of only 29%. Monitoring programs at the federal and state level have had only marginal success with industrial and business CFL recycling. The consumer recycling rate is even lower at only 2%. A projected increase in residential CFL use in Wisconsin owing to the ramifications of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 will lead to elevated atmospheric mercury and landfill deposition in Wisconsin.
Edwards, Lorrine D; Smith, Katherine L; Savage, Theodore
A pilot project was conducted in Dane County, Wisconsin, to evaluate the frequency of individuals driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). Evidentiary blood specimens, collected from subjects arrested for Operating While Intoxicated (OWI), were compared to oral fluid (OF) results obtained with the Alere DDS2®, a handheld screening device. The project objectives were to evaluate (i) the Alere DDS2® for use by police officers in the field, (ii) the frequency of individuals DUID and drugs combined with alcohol among OWI cases, (iii) the differences between detecting drugs in OF and in blood, and (iv) the effect of the laboratory drug testing cancellation policy (LCP) when the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeds 0.100 g/100 mL. Following the arrest and collection of blood, subjects were asked to voluntarily participate in the project and provide an OF specimen. The OF was presumptively screened with the Alere DDS2® for six drug categories including (ng/mL) amphetamine (50), benzodiazepines (temazepam, 20), cocaine (benzoylecgonine, 30), methamphetamine (50), opioids (morphine, 40) and THC (delta-9-THC, 25). Results obtained with the OF screening instrument were not confirmed. A total of 104 subjects (22 female, 82 male), ages 18-72, were included in the project. Blood specimens were tested by gas chromatography-headspace (GCHS-FID) for volatiles, enzyme immunoassay (Siemens Viva-E Drug Testing System), and an alkaline basic drug screen with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. To compensate for differences between the EIA and the Alere DDS2® drug categories, results from the enzyme immunoassay and the alkaline basic drug screen were combined for purposes of comparing OF to blood. Seventy-six of 104 (73%) subjects arrested for OWI were driving under the influence of alcohol; 71 of the 76 had a BAC exceeding 0.10 g/100 mL. Subjects with a BAC exceeding the LCP, screened positive for drugs in both OF (n = 29) and blood (n = 28). Overall, one
Graczyk, D.J.; Walker, J.F.; Greb, S.R.; Corsi, Steven R.; Owens, D.W.
This report presents the annual results of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin. The overall objective of each individual project in the program is to determine if the water chemistry in the receiving stream has changed as a result of the implementation of land-management practices in the watershed. This is accomplished through monitoring of water chemistry and ancillary variables before best-management practices (BMP's) are installed ('pre-BMP'), during installation ('transitional'), and after ('post-BMP') watershed- management plans have been completely implemented. Fecal-coliform (FC) counts ranged between 10 and 310,00/100 mL. A large range of values occurred within duplicate and triplicate samples as well as over time. The median percentage difference between duplicate and triplicate samples was 17 percent although 4 out of the total 60 duplicate and triplicate samples had differences greater than 100 percent. A decrease in FC counts generally occurred over the duration of the 4-day analyses. Linear regression models of the log-concentration values (dependent variable) with respect to time (independent variable) were calculated for all samples. Negative slopes were found for 14 of the 15 samples. Slopes varied from +0.5 to -38.4 percent gain/loss/day, with a median slope of -8.5 percent/day. A t-test was applied to the data to examine whether or not significant differences in FC counts exist with respect to holding times. Because the T-test only compares two treatments, the test was conducted 3 times (0 versus 24-hr holding time, 0 versus 48-hr holding time, and 0 versus 72-hr holding time). Setting the level of significance at p less than 0.05 and assuming equal variances, 27 percent (all from Bower and Otter Creeks) of the samples demonstrated a significant difference in colony count over the first 24 hr, 40 percent over 48 hr, and 47 percent over 72 hr. All samples that exhibited a significant
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1963 to 1972, 349 piston cores were collected from the Arctic Ocean using Ice Island T3 as a sampling platform and sent to the University of Wisconsin-Madison...
Cleveland, Robert H.; Stamoulis, Catherine [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sawicki, Gregory S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)
To assess the severity of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), scoring systems based on chest radiographs (CXRs), CT and MRI have been used extensively, although primarily in research settings rather than for clinical purposes. It has recently been shown that those based on CXRs (primarily the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems) are as sensitive and valid as those based on CT. The reproducibility and correlation of both systems to pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were recently investigated and were found to be statistically identical. However, the relative performance of these systems has not been specifically assessed in children younger than 5 years old with mild lung disease, a critical age range in which PFTs is rarely performed. To investigate and compare the performance of the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems in children 0-5 years old with predominantly mild lung disease. Fifty-five patients 0-5 years old with 105 CXRs were included in the study. Given that the goal was to compare system performance in mild disease, only the first two CXRs from each patient were included (all but five patients had two images). When only one image was available in the target age range, it only was included. Agreement between the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems was assessed using a 2X2 contingency table assuming binary classification of CF lung disease using CXR scoring systems (mild vs. non-mild). In the absence of PFTs or another external gold standard for comparison, the Wisconsin system was used as an arbitrary gold standard against which the Brasfield was compared. Correlation between the two systems was assessed via a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for repeated measures. Scores were rated as mild or non-mild based on published numerical cutoffs for each system. The systems agreed on 89/105 (85%) and disagreed on 16/105 (15%) of the CXRs. Agreement between the two systems was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Relative sensitivity and specificity of the
Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.
IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2012 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012, is called “water year 2012.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information on
Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.
IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a database for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2014 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the periodOctober 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014, is called “water year 2014.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during nonfrozen periods are included for many lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes the location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information
Full Text Available The state of Wisconsin, and in the broader context, the middle states of the United States experienced a large influx of Hmong families starting in the early 1980’s and into the 1990’s. With this influx a large number of young, Southeast Asian children entered the PK-12 classrooms, often with the support of bilingual aides. While many of the children flourished within this newer context, they were mostly guided in their classrooms by white, Anglo educators. Although theseeducators work to meet the needs of all children, there were few to no Hmong educators working with these same children in the PK-12 setting. At the same time, a number of Hmong young adults were serving as bilingual aides in these classrooms. Project Forward, a federally funded Title VII grant, has worked to create a shift in these roles, preparing Hmong college students to become educators in the PK-12 settings. In 1999, Central Wisconsin enrolled approximately3,200 Hmong children in the PK-12 schools; at the same time, Central Wisconsin employed merely seven Hmong teachers in the classrooms. The goal of the grant program described in this paper is to prepare teachers of Southeast Asian background for early childhood, elementary, secondary and K-12 classrooms. The Central Wisconsin grant has supported a total of 35 Southeast Asian students in their pursuit of teaching careers. Fulfilling the goal of preparingteachers who can serve as role models for Southeast Asian children in our schools has met with successes and struggles. This article presents consideration of the central factors affectingrecruitment, retention and preparation of Hmong pre-service teachers in Central Wisconsin. The article includes a brief historical examination of the immigration of the Hmong population intothe United States, a consideration of the Hmong culture as it affects recruitment and retention of pre-service teachers and evidence related to successes and struggles experienced by Project
that individualistic employees in individualistic organizations and collectivistic employees in collectivistic organizations show greater job...with Parsons’ causal assumption, in the nineties values were recognized on top of the cultural control –values control norms which in turn control...determines intention which may end in behavior. 7 Defining Human Values Cross- cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main
Jara, Rocio F.; Wydeven, Adrian P.; Samuel, Michael D.
World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011. A high proportion of the Wisconsin wolves were exposed to the agents that cause Lyme (65.6%) and anaplasma (47.7%), and a smaller proportion to ehrlichiosis (5.7%) and infected with heartworm (9.2%). Wolf exposure to tick borne diseases was consistently higher in older animals. Wolf exposure was markedly higher than domestic dog (Canis familiaris) exposure for all 4 disease agents during 2001–2013. We found a cluster of wolf exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi in northwestern Wisconsin, which overlaps human and domestic dog clusters for the same pathogen. In addition, wolf exposure to Lyme disease in Wisconsin has increased, corresponding with the increasing human incidence of Lyme disease in a similar time period. Despite generally high prevalence of exposure none of these diseases appear to have slowed the growth of the Wisconsin wolf population.
Rocio F Jara
Full Text Available World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011. A high proportion of the Wisconsin wolves were exposed to the agents that cause Lyme (65.6% and anaplasma (47.7%, and a smaller proportion to ehrlichiosis (5.7% and infected with heartworm (9.2%. Wolf exposure to tick borne diseases was consistently higher in older animals. Wolf exposure was markedly higher than domestic dog (Canis familiaris exposure for all 4 disease agents during 2001-2013. We found a cluster of wolf exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi in northwestern Wisconsin, which overlaps human and domestic dog clusters for the same pathogen. In addition, wolf exposure to Lyme disease in Wisconsin has increased, corresponding with the increasing human incidence of Lyme disease in a similar time period. Despite generally high prevalence of exposure none of these diseases appear to have slowed the growth of the Wisconsin wolf population.
Full Text Available The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant.
During the winter of 1985-86, a retrofit field test was performed in 66 occupied, low-income, single-family homes in Madison, Wisconsin. The primary objectives of the field test were to (1) determine the measured energy savings and the relative benefits of a combination of envelope and mechanical equipment retrofits that were selected following a new audit-directed retrofit procedure, (2) determine the energy savings and benefits due to performing infiltration reduction work following a recently developed infiltration reduction procedure, and (3) study general occupant behavior and house thermal characteristics and their possible change following retrofit installation. This report provides an overview of the project and summarizes the findings which will be presented in detail in separate reports. Major findings from the field test include: (1) The audit-directed retrofit procedure produced an average savings of 207 therms/year/house. The procedure also more than doubled the overall cost-effectiveness of the low-income weatherization assistance program as compared with the priority system formerly used in Wisconsin. Wall insulation and condensing furnaces were the major retrofits (predicted annual energy savings greater than 100 therms/year) most often selected under the procedure. The respective average energy savings of the houses receiving wall insulation and condensing furnace. s was 14.6 and 14.3 therms/year for each$100 spent on them under the program. (2) The blower-door-guided infiltration reduction procedure reduced expenditures for infiltration reduction to about one-fourth of previous program costs (from$570/house to$106/house). The procedure also reduced the average air leakage rate in the treated houses by 16%, whereas, in a previous study, no significant reduction was found following the installation of typical infiltration reduction measures. (3) Twenty to 60% of the deviation between predicted and measured savings can be attributed to incorrect
Webb, Sara L
The pollen stratigraphy of two small lakes in eastern Wisconsin (Radtke Lake, Washington county, and Gass Lake, Manitowoc County) records the Holocene (past 10 000 yr) spread of beech (Fagus grandifolia: Fagaceae). Radiocarbon dates were obtained for the oldest stratigraphic levels at which beech pollen appeared consistently in amounts > 0.5% of terrestrial pollen. A spatially continuous pattern of beech expansion from the north was ruled out, because beech trees grew in Wisconsin by 6000 BP, 2000 yr before adjacent populations were established to the north. Alternative geographic patterns of speed (from the south or east) were spatially discontinuous, requiring seed dispersal distances of perhaps 25-130 km. That beechnuts could be dispersed across such distances suggests (1) the involvement of Blue Jays, Passenger Pigeons, or other vertebrates, and (2) a capacity for reaching climatically controlled range limits, given sufficient time despite such discontinuities in habitat. A lag 1000-2000 yr between the establishment of source populations in Michigan and Indiana and the appearance of beech in Wisconsin suggests that low-probability dispersal events were involved and that dispersal constraints limited the range of beech during this time, although climatic and edaphic explanations for the lag cannot be ruled out. Pollen data from the two sites reveal other features of vegetation history in eastern Wisconsin: an open Picea-Fraxinus woodland prior to 11 000 BP; sequence of Picea, Abies, Betula, and then Pinus forests between 11 000 and 7500 BP; the establishment of a coniferous/deciduous forest ecotone ("tension zone") ° 7000 BP in this region; and the presence of Quercus-dominanted deciduous forests from 7000 BP until 110 BP (time of Euro-American settlement), a period punctuated by a gradual decrease in Ulmus populations (° 4500 and 5700 BP at the two sites) and by an increase in mesophytic tree abundance at the expense of Quercus after 3500 BP. © 1987 by the
Wisconsin's largest healthcare system has 41 clinics throughout the state and offers a variety of services, from women's health to oncology. Maintaining a consistent brand message in a large organization with so many product lines requires constant marketing to ensure consumer awareness. To that end, Marshfield Clinic recently launched an effort to revitalize its brand and spread its message, through television spots, print ads, and billboards.
Kuhn, H. A. J.
The losses (costs) due to weather phenomena as they affect the bituminous concrete industry in Wisconsin were studied. The bituminous concrete industry's response to precipitation, in the form of rain, is identified through the use of a model, albeit crude, which identifies a typical industry decision-response mechanism. Using this mechanism, historical weather data and 1969 construction activity, dollar losses resulting from rain occurrences were developed.
Jennifer Juzwik; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Kyoko Scanlon
Oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important species group in the forests of Wisconsin. The Stateâs timberland typed as oak-hickory forest was estimated at 2.9 million acres in 1996. Growing stock volume for red oak was estimated at 2.4 billion cubic feet, whereas select white oak volume was estimated to be 927 million cubic feet. Oak wilt, the oak disease...
Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S.; Rowley, P.; Crowley Conn, K.
The complexity and scale of climate change-related challenges requires more than one strategy to share meaningful information with public audiences. This presentation will discuss a few initiatives to engage the public originating from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. First, a local partnership between the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) and the Aldo Leopold Nature Center (ALNC), an informal learning center with a new climate change "classroom" which recently acquired a Science on a Sphere (SOS) exhibit. Second, an informal education project funded by the NOAA Office of Education coordinated by CIMSS in partnership with the national SOS Network with the goal of helping museum docents share meaningful interpretation of real-time weather and climate data. CIMSS staff has been conducting weather and climate discussions on a Magic Planet display for several years. This "mini-SOS" is powered by a solar panel on the roof, modeling the essential Sun-Earth connection and the first principle of climate literacy. However, the convenient proximity of CIMSS and ALNC provides a perfect opportunity to test "SOS-scale" talking points posted on a weekly docent blog to the benefit of the entire SOS Network. Two other Wisconsin projects of note include the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts, a partnership between the University and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and a pilot project between CIMSS and NOAA's National Weather Service to engage storm spotters in climate mitigation and stewardship. Ideally, the synergistic benefits and lessons learned from these collaborations can inform similar efforts in order to galvanize meaningful responses to climate change.
Operational activities for the reactor are described concerning nuclear engineering classes from the University of Wisconsin; reactor sharing program; utility personnel training; sample irradiations and neutron activation analysis; and changes in personnel, facility, and procedures. Results of surveillance tests are presented for operating statistics and fuel exposure; emergency shutdowns and inadvertent scrams; maintenance; radioactive waste disposal; radiation exposures; environmental surveys; and publications and presentations on work based on reactor use
The Zien Mechanical site is a single family residence located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The home has two separate solar energy systems: an air system for space heating and cooling; a liquid system to preheat the potable hot water. The space heating and cooling system design and operation modes are described. The space heating system is designed to apply approximately 44 percent of the space heating requirements for the 1388 square foot residence. Engineering drawings are provided and the performance evaluation instrumentation is described.
Westenbroek, Stephen M.
Turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer of a natural river system largely controls the deposition and resuspension of sediment, as well as the longevity and effectiveness of granular-material caps used to cover and isolate contaminated sediments. This report documents measurements and calculations made in order to estimate shear stress and shear velocity on the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin. Velocity profiles were generated using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on a moored vessel. This method of data collection yielded 158 velocity profiles on the Lower Fox River between June 2003 and November 2004. Of these profiles, 109 were classified as valid and were used to estimate the bottom shear stress and velocity using log-profile and turbulent kinetic energy methods. Estimated shear stress ranged from 0.09 to 10.8 dynes per centimeter squared. Estimated coefficients of friction ranged from 0.001 to 0.025. This report describes both the field and data-analysis methods used to estimate shear-stress parameters for the Lower Fox River. Summaries of the estimated values for bottom shear stress, shear velocity, and coefficient of friction are presented. Confidence intervals about the shear-stress estimates are provided.
Fienen, M. N.; Bradbury, K. R.; Kniffin, M.; Barlow, P. M.; Krause, J.; Westenbroek, S.; Leaf, A.
The well-drained sandy soil in the Wisconsin Central Sands is ideal for growing potatoes, corn, and other vegetables. A shallow sand and gravel aquifer provides abundant water for agricultural irrigation but also supplies critical base flow to cold-water trout streams. These needs compete with one another, and stakeholders from various perspectives are collaborating to seek solutions. Stakeholders were engaged in providing and verifying data to guide construction of a groundwater flow model which was used with linear and sequential linear programming to evaluate optimal tradeoffs between agricultural pumping and ecologically based minimum base flow values. The connection between individual irrigation wells as well as industrial and municipal supply and streamflow depletion can be evaluated using the model. Rather than addressing 1000s of wells individually, a variety of well management groups were established through k-means clustering. These groups are based on location, potential impact, water-use categories, depletion potential, and other factors. Through optimization, pumping rates were reduced to attain mandated minimum base flows. This formalization enables exploration of possible solutions for the stakeholders, and provides a tool which is transparent and forms a basis for discussion and negotiation.
In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values
Creswell, Paul D; Vogt, Christy M; Wozniak, Ryan J; Camponeschi, Jenny; Werner, Mark A; Meiman, Jonathan G
In December 2014, the largest carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Wisconsin's history occurred at an ice arena. Following this event, the Wisconsin Environmental Public Health Tracking (WI EPHT) Program sought to improve outreach and surveillance efforts. WI EPHT designed and distributed educational materials on CO poisoning prevention and surveyed stakeholders to gauge the effectiveness of outreach efforts. To enhance surveillance, WI EPHT utilized data from the Wisconsin Poison Center (WPC) to generate real-time alerts of anomalous numbers of CO-related calls. WI EPHT found that 42% of stakeholders reviewed the outreach materials, and 1 ice arena had installed a CO detector as a result. CO alerts were developed using WPC data and are now routinely used in statewide public health surveillance. WI EPHT staff improved CO poisoning prevention outreach and saw a positive response among stakeholders. This work demonstrates ways that health agencies can improve outreach and surveillance for CO poisoning. Improvements in these areas can bolster public health response and may prevent CO-related illness and injury.
Coleman, Michele; Dexter, Donn; Nankivil, Nancy
Physicians' dissatisfaction in their work is increasing, which is affecting the stability of health care in America. The Wisconsin Medical Society (Society) surveyed 1016 Wisconsin physicians to determine the source of their dissatisfaction. The survey results indicate Wisconsin physicians are satisfied when it comes to practice environment, work-life balance, and income. In addition, they are extremely satisfied when it comes to rating their ability to provide high quality care, and they have identified some benefits related to the adoption of electronic health records. However, they are feeling burned out, very unsatisfied with the amount of time spent in direct patient care compared to indirect patient care, and that they are spending too much time on administrative and data entry tasks. In terms of future workforce, many physicians are either unsure or would not recommend the profession to a prospective medical student. Electronic health records serve as both a satisfier and dissatisfier and as a potential driver for future physician satisfaction interventions. Changes at the institutional, organizational, and individual levels potentially could address the identified dissatisfiers and build upon the satisfiers. The Society identifies 12 strategies to improve upon the physician experience.
Garry D. Peterson
Full Text Available The Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin is in transition from a sparsely settled region to a more densely populated one. Expected changes offer benefits to northern Wisconsin residents but also threaten to degrade the ecological services they rely on. Because the future of this region is uncertain, it is difficult to make decisions that will avoid potential risks and take advantage of potential opportunities. We adopt a scenario planning approach to cope with this problem of prediction. We use an ecological assessment framework developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to determine key social and ecological driving forces in the Northern Highlands Lake District. From these, we describe three alternative scenarios to the year 2025 in which the projected use of ecological services is substantially different. The work reported in this paper demonstrates how scenarios can be developed for a region and provides a starting point for a participatory discussion of alternative futures for northern Wisconsin. Although the future is unknowable, we hope that the assessment process begun in this paper will help the people of the Northern Highlands Lake District choose the future path of their region.
Stuntebeck, Todd D.
The Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program was created in 1978 by the Wisconsin Legislature. The goal of the program is to improve and protect the water quality of lakes, streams, wetlands, and ground water within selected priority watersheds by controlling sources of nonpoint pollution. For each selected watershed, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources drafts a management plan that guides the implementation of pollution-control strategies known as Best Management Practices (BMP's). This plan summarizes resource and land-use inventories, describes the results of pollution-source modeling, and suggests pollution reduction goals. The U.S. Geological Survey, through a cooperative effort with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, is monitoring water-quality improvements that result from the implementation of BMP's. The data collected are then compared to the watershed plans to assess progress and determine whether goals are being realized. This fact sheet describes the data-collection efforts, preliminary results, and planned data-analysis techniques of monitoring projects for pre-BMP conditions at two barnyards, one each on Otter Creek and Halfway Prairie Creek.
Shiffler, Thomas; Hargarten, Stephen W; Withers, Richard L
To describe the epidemiology of violent deaths (suicides and homicides) of children and youth in Wisconsin. Linked data from death certificates, coroners or medical examiners, Uniform Crime Reports, police case reports and crime laboratories were analyzed using SPSS 11.5. Analyses from 2000 to 2002 describe suicides and homicides of children and youth under age 25. Rates are per 100,000 population per year. A total of 585 persons under age 25 in Wisconsin died from suicide or homicide during 2000--2002. Suicides outnumbered homicides 323 (55%) to 262 (45%). Firearms were involved in 59% (n=344) of cases. Fatality rates increased with advancing age, ranging from 2.0 in 0-13 year olds to 26.9 in youth age 21-24. There were over twice as many violent deaths compared to cancer and infectious disease deaths combined (n=253). Suicides and homicides are a significant burden on the children and youth of Wisconsin. An investment in reducing this burden requires comprehensive data and informed programs and policies. We recommend that physicians and public health community leaders collaborate with the criminal justice community and policy makers to develop, implement, and evaluate prevention programs and policies.
Zhao Jinhua; Lin Xiangtong; Guan Yihui; Xu Lianqin; Zhang Guangming; Xue Fangpeng
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between 99m Tc-ECD SPECT and performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in normal young and aged volunteers through the semi-quantitative analysis of the baseline and cognition activated rCBF images. Methods: 18 young and 17 aged volunteers were enrolled. The education level of the two groups was matched. All subjects were healthy and CT results of all the aged volunteers were normal. Both baseline and cognition activated 99m Tc-ECD SPECT were performed on all the subjects. The cognition activated brain SPECT: The cognitive task was WCST. 1110 MBq 99m Tc-ECD was administered by intravenous bolus injection 5 minutes after the onset of the WCST. The images were reconstructed and semiquantitatively analyzed. WCST were scored through 9 items: 1) period, 2) categories, 3) total corrects, 4) conceptual level (%), 5) perseverative responses, 6) total errors, 7) perseverative errors, 8) perseverative error (%), 9) non-perseverative errors. Results: 1) Compared with the baseline, the activated rCBF values of frontal, left temporal and left parietal lobes were higher in young subjects. 2) The activated rCBF values of right frontal lobe is slightly higher than those of baseline in aged group. 3) WCST scores: the young had significantly better scores than the aged in 7 items. 4) The baseline and activated rCBF values of the frontal lobes and anterior cingule were closely related to the scores of categories, perseverative responses, total errors and non-perseverative errors. Conclusions: 1) The distribution patterns of 99m Tc-ECD are different between young and aged volunteers. 2) The performance of WCST mainly relates to frontal lobes. The mild hypoperfusion of the frontal lobe in aged group may be the cause of poor conceptual and thinking ability. 3) First found the significant correlation between anterior cingule and performance of WCST
Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje
premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...
John H. Beuter; Ralph J. Alig
This issue of the journal of Forestry is devoted to articles about forestland values. Viewed broadly, natural resources and humans are our two basic resources. An expression of the importance of land as a foundation for forest ecosystems is forestland value. Our attitudes about land and the forest ecosystems that they support have changed considerably in recent years....
James, William F; Wright, David I; Barko, John W; Eakin, Harry L
... in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin. Mechanical macrophyte removal devices are an attractive, low-cost means of removing macrophytes in specific areas without herbicides or repeated mechanical harvesting...
Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper
The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively a...... a unique contribution to the effects of investment in shared company values, and to whether agent rationality can be fundamentally changed by committed organizational efforts....
Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves
Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...
Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania.......Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania....
Meynhardt, Timo; Gomez, Peter; Strathoff, Pepe; Hermann, Carolin
Managers might refute public criticism of their business as an attitude of taking everything for granted in a saturated society, but ignoring Public Value aspects can threaten the success of new products and even the survival of entire firms.
Madison, Allison; Ruark, Matthew; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Laura W.; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric
Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn–soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66–96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L−1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.
The history of overbank sedimentation in the vicinity of Halfway Creek Marsh near La Crosse, Wisconsin, was examined during 2005-06 by the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Wisconsin-Madison as part of a broader study of sediment and nutrient loadings to the Upper Mississi...
Leslie Brandt; Chris Swanston; Linda Parker; Maria Janowiak; Richard Birdsey; Louis Iverson; David Mladenoff; Patricia. Butler
Climate change is leading to direct and indirect impacts on forest tree species and ecosystems in northern Wisconsin. Land managers will need to prepare for and respond to these impacts, so we designed a workshop to identify forest management approaches that can enhance the ability of ecosystems in northern Wisconsin to cope with climate change and address how National...
Sprott, J.C.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Sarff, J.S.
By removing the internal rings from the Levitated Octupole vacuum vessel, a large, non-circular RFP was produced. The major radius is 1.39 m, and the cross section is about 1 m/sup 2/. The device is unconventional in that the vacuum vessel, which consists of 5-cm thick aluminum with a single poloidal and toroidal gap, serves as the vacuum liner, conducting shell, and poloidal and toroidal field coils. A toroidal field of up to about 1 kG can be produced, and the poloidal field is driven by a 600 kJ capacitor bank through a 2-volt-second iron core. Discharges are initiated with 4200 volts per turn using self-reversal of the toroidal field in order to prevent arcing of the poloidal gap which is exposed to the plasma. The gap is protected with a 20-cm wide strip of ceramic. The best RFP discharges have a peak current of ≅200 kA and a duration of ≅ 10 msec. The toroidal field reverses when the current reaches ≅100 kA, making this one of the lowest current density RFP's in existence. The current ramps up to the final value over ≅10 resistive diffusion times and terminates only because the volt-second limit of the iron core is reached. The F-θ trajectory lies slightly to the right of the λ=constant theory as do all other RFP devices. Discharges have been produced with θ up to 2.5 and F as low as -0.8. A feature of the device is that it is capable of producing discharges with plasma current of ≅100 kA and ≅10 msec duration over a wide range of safety factor from the q>1 tokamak limit to the deeply-reversed, RFP limit. The highest current discharges (≅300 kA) are obtained at q≅0.5
Nolan, Bernard T.; Green, Christopher T.; Juckem, Paul F.; Liao, Lixia; Reddy, James E.
Nitrate contamination of groundwater in agricultural areas poses a major challenge to the sustainability of water resources. Aquifer vulnerability models are useful tools that can help resource managers identify areas of concern, but quantifying nitrogen (N) inputs in such models is challenging, especially at large spatial scales. We sought to improve regional nitrate (NO3−) input functions by characterizing unsaturated zone NO3− transport to groundwater through use of surrogate, machine-learning metamodels of a process-based N flux model. The metamodels used boosted regression trees (BRTs) to relate mappable landscape variables to parameters and outputs of a previous “vertical flux method” (VFM) applied at sampled wells in the Fox, Wolf, and Peshtigo (FWP) river basins in northeastern Wisconsin. In this context, the metamodels upscaled the VFM results throughout the region, and the VFM parameters and outputs are the metamodel response variables. The study area encompassed the domain of a detailed numerical model that provided additional predictor variables, including groundwater recharge, to the metamodels. We used a statistical learning framework to test a range of model complexities to identify suitable hyperparameters of the six BRT metamodels corresponding to each response variable of interest: NO3− source concentration factor (which determines the local NO3− input concentration); unsaturated zone travel time; NO3− concentration at the water table in 1980, 2000, and 2020 (three separate metamodels); and NO3− “extinction depth”, the eventual steady state depth of the NO3−front. The final metamodels were trained to 129 wells within the active numerical flow model area, and considered 58 mappable predictor variables compiled in a geographic information system (GIS). These metamodels had training and cross-validation testing R2 values of 0.52 – 0.86 and 0.22 – 0.38, respectively, and predictions were compiled as maps of the above
Nolan, Bernard T.; Green, Christopher T.; Juckem, Paul F.; Liao, Lixia; Reddy, James E.
Nitrate contamination of groundwater in agricultural areas poses a major challenge to the sustainability of water resources. Aquifer vulnerability models are useful tools that can help resource managers identify areas of concern, but quantifying nitrogen (N) inputs in such models is challenging, especially at large spatial scales. We sought to improve regional nitrate (NO3-) input functions by characterizing unsaturated zone NO3- transport to groundwater through use of surrogate, machine-learning metamodels of a process-based N flux model. The metamodels used boosted regression trees (BRTs) to relate mappable landscape variables to parameters and outputs of a previous "vertical flux method" (VFM) applied at sampled wells in the Fox, Wolf, and Peshtigo (FWP) river basins in northeastern Wisconsin. In this context, the metamodels upscaled the VFM results throughout the region, and the VFM parameters and outputs are the metamodel response variables. The study area encompassed the domain of a detailed numerical model that provided additional predictor variables, including groundwater recharge, to the metamodels. We used a statistical learning framework to test a range of model complexities to identify suitable hyperparameters of the six BRT metamodels corresponding to each response variable of interest: NO3- source concentration factor (which determines the local NO3- input concentration); unsaturated zone travel time; NO3- concentration at the water table in 1980, 2000, and 2020 (three separate metamodels); and NO3- "extinction depth", the eventual steady state depth of the NO3- front. The final metamodels were trained to 129 wells within the active numerical flow model area, and considered 58 mappable predictor variables compiled in a geographic information system (GIS). These metamodels had training and cross-validation testing R2 values of 0.52 - 0.86 and 0.22 - 0.38, respectively, and predictions were compiled as maps of the above response variables. Testing
Data obtained from a high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of Green Bay Quadrangle in Wisconsin are presented. All data are presented as corrected profiles of all radiometric variables, magnetic data, radar and barometric altimeter data, air temperature and airborne Bismuth contributions. Radiometric data presented are corrected for Compton Scatter, altitude dependence and atmospheric Bismuth. These data are also presented on microfiche, and digital magnetic tapes. In addition, anomaly maps and interpretation maps are presented relating known geology or soil distribution to the corrected radiometric/magnetic data
Data obtained from a high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of Iron Mountain Quadrangle in Wisconsin/Michigan are presented. All data are presented as corrected profiles of all radiometric variables, magnetic data, radar and barometric altimeter data, air temperature and airborne Bismuch contributions. Radiometric data presented are corrected for Compton Scatter, altitude dependence and atmospheric Bismuth. These data are also presented on microfiche, and digital magnetic tapes. In addition, anomaly maps and interpretation maps are presented relating known geology or soil distribution to the corrected radiometric/magnetic data
Naddaf, Elie; Seeger, Susanne K; Stafstrom, Carl E
Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the brain. Endemic in many regions of the world, neurocysticercosis is now showing up in nonendemic areas such as Wisconsin. We present 3 patients that illustrate features typical for neurocysticercosis in anon-endemic area, including immigrant/travel status, presentation with focal seizures, classic magnetic resonance imaging features of single enhancing lesions, and good response to treatment with anticonvulsants, anti-inflammatory agents, and cysticidal drugs. It behooves physicians involved in the care of at-risk populations to be aware of the clinical features, radiographic signs, diagnostic tests, and general principles for treating neurocysticercosis.
Data obtained from a high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of the Rice Lake Quadrangle in Wisconsin are presented. All data are presented as corrected profiles of all radiometric variables, magnetic data, radar and barometric altimeter data, air temperature and airborne Bismuth contributions. Radiometric data presented are corrected for Compton Scatter, altitude dependence and atmospheric Bismuth. These data are also presented on microfiche, and digital magnetic tapes. In addition, anomaly maps and interpretation maps are presented relating known geology or soil distribution to the corrected radiometric/magnetic data
Data obtained from a high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of the Eau Claire Quadrangle in Wisconsin/Minnesota are presented. All data are presented as corrected profiles of all radiometric variables, magnetic data, radar and barometric altimeter data, air temperature and airborne Bismuth contributions. Radiometric data presented are corrected for Compton Scatter, altitude dependence and atmospheric Bismuth. These data are also presented on microfiche, and digital magnetic tapes. In addition, anomaly maps and interpretation maps are presented relating known geology or soil distribution to the corrected radiometric/magnetic data
Ion cyclotron resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with the application of 500 kW of rf power into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 density plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun injected plasmas
Webster, K.E.; Forbes, A.M.; Magnuson, J.L.
Effluent discharged from the coal-ash settling basin of the Columbia Generating Station (Wisconsin) modified water chemistry (increased trace metal concentrations, suspended solids and dissolved materials) and substrate quality (precipitation of chemical floc) in the receiving stream, the ash pit drain. To test the hypothesis that habitat avoidance could account for declines in macroinvertebrate density observed after discharge began, drift rates of two species were measured in laboratory streams containing combinations of reference and coal-ash-modified substrate and water. Contrary to the hypothesis, drift was uniformly lower in laboratory streams containing modified substrate and/or water compared to the reference condition for Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and Asellus racovitzai.
Kobbelgaard, Cecilie Elisabeth
"Add Value – kend din kunde" er et brætspil, som giver både offentlige og private virksomheder unikke muligheder for at forbedre deres service overfor kunderne. Spillet giver, på en alternativ og handlingsorienteret måde, mulighed for at blive skarpere på kundeoplevelsen – hvor er der værdi...... at hente, og hvor kan der spares på tid og ressourcer? Dette samtidig med, at kunderne får den oplevelse og service, de forventer. Når I spiller "Add Value – kend din kunde" sættes der fokus på Jeres kundeservice ud fra kundens perspektiv, og det er i alle Jeres kontaktflader med kunden. Lige fra kunden...
Tisdell, Clement A.
This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...
Selbig, William R.; Jopke, Peter L.; Marhshall, David W.; Sorge, Michael J.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Dane County Land Conservation Department (LCD) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR), investigated the instream effects from construction of a residential subdivision on Brewery Creek in Dane County, Wisconsin. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether a variety of storm-runoff and erosion-control best-management practices (BMPs) would effectively control the overall sediment load, as well as minimize any hydrologic, ecologic, and geomorphic stresses to Brewery Creek.
Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.
The Physics Learning Program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides small group, academic and mentoring support for students enrolled in algebra-based introductory physics courses. Those students accepted into our program are potentially at-risk academically in their physics course or for feeling isolated at the University. They include, among others, students who have not taken high school physics, returning adults, minority students, students with disabilities, and students with English as a second language. A core component of the program is the peer-lead teaching and mentoring groups that match upper level undergraduate physics majors with students potentially at-risk in introductory physics. The tutors receive ongoing training and supervision throughout the year. The program has expanded over the years to include staff tutors, the majority of whom are scientists who seek additional teaching experience. The Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program is run in collaboration with a similar chemistry program at the University of Wisconsin's Chemistry Learning Center. We will describe our Physics Learning Programs and discuss some of the challenges, successes, and strategies used to work with our tutors and students.
Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Dantoin, Eric D.; Tillison, Naomi; Watson, Kara M.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Blount, James D.
Heavy rain fell across northern Wisconsin and the Bad River Reservation on July 11, 2016, as a result of several rounds of thunderstorms. The storms caused major flooding in the Bad River Basin and nearby tributaries along the south shore of Lake Superior. Rainfall totals were 8–10 inches or more and most of the rain fell in an 8-hour period. A streamgage on the Bad River near Odanah, Wisconsin, rose from 300 cubic feet per second to a record peak streamflow of 40,000 cubic feet per second in only 15 hours. Following the storms and through September 2016, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey and Bad River Tribe Natural Resources Department recovered and documented 108 high-water marks near the Bad River Reservation. Many of these high-water marks were used to create three flood-inundation maps for the Bad River, Beartrap Creek, and Denomie Creek for the Bad River Reservation in the vicinity of the community of Odanah.
Tittman, Sarah M; Harteau, Christy; Beyer, Kirsten M M
Rural residents are less likely to receive preventive health screening, more likely to be uninsured, and more likely to report fair to poor health than urban residents. Social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are known to be negative predictors of self-rated physical health; however, the direct effects of geographic isolation and social support on overall health have not been well elucidated. A cross-sectional survey of women (n = 113) participating in Wisconsin Rural Women's initiative programming was conducted, which included measures of geographic isolation, an assessment of overall health, and social support using the validated Interpersonal Support Evaluation List with 3 subscales, including belonging support, tangible support, and appraisal support. Geographic isolation was shown to be a negative predictor of belonging support (P = .0064) and tangible support (P = .0349); however, geographic isolation was not a statistically significant predictor of appraisal support. A strong and direct relationship was observed between social support and self-perceived health status among this population of Wisconsin women, and hospital access based on geographic proximity was positively correlated (P = .028) with overall health status. The direct relationship between social support and overall health demonstrated here stresses the importance of developing and maintaining strong social support networks, which can be improved through rural support groups that have the unique ability to assist rural residents in fostering social support systems, advocating stress management techniques, and achieving a greater sense of well-being.
King, Janet C; Dubay, Shelli A; Huspeni, Todd C; VanLanen, Andrew R; Gerhold, Richard W
Red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) are threatened in Wisconsin and long-term data suggest that nest productivity is low in the state for unknown reasons. Our objective was to determine whether red-shouldered hawks in northeast Wisconsin were infected with parasites that could contribute to low nest productivity. We examined nestlings for the presence of Trichomonas gallinae, Protocalliphora avium, and blood parasites in June 2006 and 2007. We did not detect T. gallinae in throat swabs taken from 24 nestlings in 2007. Ear canals of nestlings were parasitized by P. avium larvae in 10 of 11 (91%) nests and in 22 of 24 (92%) nestlings. Larvae were found in higher intensity in 1 ear relative to the other. Leucocytozoon toddi was present in 90.5% (38/42) of the nestlings. At least 1 bird in each nest was infected. Intensity of L. toddi averaged 48.6 +/- 58.3 infected cells per 2,000 erythrocytes (2.4 +/- 2.9%). No other blood parasites were identified.
Palta, Mari; LeCaire, Tamara
The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study is a Wisconsin cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes, who were diagnosed in 1987-1992 and actively followed. The study provides patients and health care professionals with better prognostic information and helps identify aspects of diabetes management that need improvement. To describe diabetes management and acute and chronic complications from the time of diagnosis. All incident cases diagnosed at age <30 in 28 counties were eligible and 590 enrolled. A baseline interview, blood sample kits, biannual/annual questionnaires and study examinations at 4, 7, 9, 14, and 20 years duration were administered. Diabetes management indicators, general health, and acute and chronic complications. Glycemic control was poor in adolescence, but improved with age. A high percentage of individuals do not meet treatment standards for blood pressure and lipid profile. Self-reported health deteriorated with age, and body mass index was similar to that of the general US population. Chronic complications were present at 15-20 years, but tended to be relatively mild. There is room for improvement in diabetes management, especially in meeting goals for blood pressure and lipid profile. Nonetheless, individuals with type 1 diabetes can be offered a more optimistic prognosis than in the past.
Leonhardt, Kathryn Kraft; Keuler, Megan; Safdar, Nasia; Hunter, Paul
We describe the collaborative approach used by 2 health systems in Wisconsin to plan and prepare for the threat of Ebola virus disease. This was a descriptive study of the preparedness planning, infection prevention, and collaboration with public health agencies undertaken by 2 health systems in Wisconsin between September and December 2014. The preparedness approach used by the 2 health systems relied successfully on their robust infrastructure for planning and infection prevention. In the setting of rapidly evolving guidance and unprecedented fear regarding Ebola, the 2 health systems enhanced their response through collaboration and coordination with each other and government public health agencies. Key lessons learned included the importance of a rigorous planning process, robust infection prevention practices, and coalitions between public and private health sectors. The potential threat of Ebola virus disease stimulated emergency preparedness in which acute care facilities played a leading role in the public health response. Leveraging the existing expertise of health systems is essential when faced with emerging infectious diseases. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:691-697).
Reither, Eric N; Peppard, Paul E; Remington, Patrick L; Kindig, David A
Public health agencies have identified the elimination of health disparities as a major policy objective. The primary objective of this study is to assess changes in the association between education and premature adult mortality in Wisconsin, 1990-2000. Wisconsin death records (numerators) and US Census data (denominators) were compiled to estimate mortality rates among adults (25-64 years) in 1990 and 2000. Information on the educational status, sex, racial identification, and age of subjects was gathered from these sources. The effect of education on mortality rate ratios in 1990 and 2000 was assessed while adjusting for age, sex, and racial identification. Education exhibited a graded effect on mortality rates, which declined most among college graduates from 1990 to 2000. The relative rate of mortality among persons with less than a high school education compared to persons with a college degree increased from 2.4 to 3.1 from 1990-2000-an increase of 29%. Mortality disparities also increased, although to a lesser extent, among other educational groups. Despite renewed calls for the elimination of health disparities, evidence suggests that educational disparities in mortality increased from 1990 to 2000.
Mroz, Sarah; Zhang, Xiao; Williams, Mercedes; Conlon, Amy; LoConte, Noelle K
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is common and can progress to various types of cancer. HPV infection can be prevented through vaccination; however, vaccination rates among adolescents are low. The objective of this study was to assess efforts among Wisconsin stakeholders in HPV vaccination and organizational capacity for future collaborative work. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 277 stakeholders in HPV vaccination activities, from April 30, 2015, through June 30, 2015. Stakeholders were public health professionals, health care providers, educators, quality improvement professionals, researchers, and advocates identified as engaged in HPV vaccination work. Of the 277 invited stakeholders, 117 (42%) responded to the survey. Findings showed that most current HPV vaccination activities targeted 3 groups: adolescents and parents, clinical and health professionals, and communities and health systems. The main activities directed at these groups were providing printed educational materials, professional education, and media campaigns to raise awareness. Common barriers reported were lack of understanding about the link between HPV and cancer, requests to delay vaccination, difficulty completing the 3-dose vaccine series, and reluctance to discuss sexuality. HPV vaccination rates are far below those of other vaccinations administered to adolescents in Wisconsin. Our study showed that various local efforts were being made to increase HPV vaccination uptake; however, many barriers exist to initiation and completion of the vaccine series. Future interventions should address barriers and employ evidence-based strategies for increasing HPV vaccination rates.
Selbig, William R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The potential for increases in stream temperature across many spatial and temporal scales as a result of climate change can pose a difficult challenge for environmental managers, especially when addressing thermal requirements for sensitive aquatic species. This study evaluates simulated changes to the thermal regime of three northern Wisconsin streams in response to a projected changing climate using a modeling framework and considers implications of thermal stresses to the fish community. The Stream Network Temperature Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with a coupled groundwater and surface water flow model to assess forecasts in climate from six global circulation models and three emission scenarios. Model results suggest that annual average stream temperature will steadily increase approximately 1.1 to 3.2 °C (varying by stream) by the year 2100 with differences in magnitude between emission scenarios. Daily mean stream temperature during the months of July and August, a period when cold-water fish communities are most sensitive, showed excursions from optimal temperatures with increased frequency compared to current conditions. Projections of daily mean stream temperature, in some cases, were no longer in the range necessary to sustain a cold water fishery. - Highlights: • A stream temperature model was calibrated for three streams in northern Wisconsin. • The effect of climate change on stream temperature was simulated in each stream. • Annual average stream temperature was projected to rise from 1 to 3 °C by 2100. • Forecasts of stream temperature exceeded optimal ranges for brook trout.
Stewart, Jana S.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Kammel, Leah E.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.
Expected climatic changes in air temperature and precipitation patterns across the State of Wisconsin may alter future stream temperature and flow regimes. As a consequence of flow and temperature changes, the composition and distribution of fish species assemblages are expected to change. In an effort to gain a better understanding of how climatic changes may affect stream temperature, an approach was developed to predict and project daily summertime stream temperature under current and future climate conditions for 94,341 stream kilometers across Wisconsin. The approach uses a combination of static landscape characteristics and dynamic time-series climatic variables as input for an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Model integrated with a Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) Model. Future climate scenarios are based on output from downscaled General Circulation Models (GCMs). The SWB model provided a means to estimate the temporal variability in groundwater recharge and provided a mechanism to evaluate the effect of changing air temperature and precipitation on groundwater recharge and soil moisture. The Integrated Soil-Water-Balance and Artificial Neural Network version 1 (SWB-ANNv1) Model was used to simulate daily summertime stream temperature under current (1990–2008) climate and explained 76 percent of the variation in the daily mean based on validation at 67 independent sites. Results were summarized as July mean water temperature, and individual stream segments were classified by thermal class (cold, cold transition, warm transition, and warm) for comparison of current (1990–2008) with future climate conditions.
McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony
This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.
Zumárraga, Mercedes; González-Torres, Miguel A; Arrue, Aurora; Dávila, Ricardo; Dávila, Wendy; Inchausti, Lucía; Pérez-Cabeza, Lucía; Fernández-Rivas, Aránzazu; Bustamante, Sonia; Basterreche, Nieves; Guimón, José
In the present study we have measured, on a monthly basis, the concentration of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) in schizophrenic patients during 13 months of their pharmacological treatment. The average pHVA values of each patient were within the range of 7.30-17.70 ng/ml and the coefficients of variation for each patient (CV %) were within the range of 13-33%. Half of the patients that showed higher pHVA CV% values also showed higher scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale at the beginning of the study, and improved more after 6 months, when compared to the remaining 50% with lower CV% values. There was no significant relationship between the scores of the Wisconsin Card Sort Test and the concentration or the CV% of the pHVA of each patient. A greater variability in the pHVA may be associated with a greater plasticity of the dopaminergic system and a better clinical response.
Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi
Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.
Horwatich, Judy A.; Bannerman, Roger T.
A hydrodynamic-settling device was installed in 2004 to treat stormwater runoff from a roof and parking lot located at the Water Utility Administration Building in Madison, Wis. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the City of Madison, cities in the Waukesha Permit Group, Hydro International, Earth Tech, Inc., National Sanitation Foundation International, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, monitored the device from November 2005 through September 2006 to evaluate it as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program. Twenty-three runoff events monitored for flow volume and water quality at the device's inlet and outlet were used to calculate the percentage of pollutant reduction for the device. The geometric mean concentrations of suspended sediment (SS), "adjusted" total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved phosphorus (DP), total recoverable zinc (TZn), and total recoverable copper (TCu) measured at the inlet were 107 mg/L (milligrams per liter), 92 mg/L, 0.17 mg/L, 0.05 mg/L, 38 μg/L (micrograms per liter), and 12 μg/L, respectively, and these concentrations are in the range of values observed in stormwater runoff from other parking lots in Wisconsin and Michigan. Efficiency of the settling device was calculated using the efficiency ratio and summation of loads (SOL) methods. Using the efficiency ratio method, the device reduced concentrations of SS, and DP, by 19, and 15, percent, respectively. Using the efficiency ratio method, the device increased "adjusted" TSS and TZn concentrations by 5 and 19, respectively. Bypass occurred for 3 of the 23 runoff events used in this assessment, and the bypass flow and water-quality concentrations were used to determine the efficiency of the bypass system. Concentrations of SS, "adjusted" TSS, and DP were reduced for the system by 18, 5, and 18, respectively; however, TZn increased by 5
Maurana, Cheryl A; Lucey, Paula A; Ahmed, Syed M; Kerschner, Joseph E; Bolton, G Allen; Raymond, John R
Health care conversion foundations, such as the Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin Endowment (the endowment) at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW), result from the conversion of nonprofit health organizations to for-profit corporations. Over the past several decades, nearly 200 of these foundations have been created, and they have had a substantial impact on the field of health philanthropy. The MCW was a recipient of funds resulting from Blue Cross & Blue Shield United of Wisconsin's conversion from a nonprofit to a for-profit status in 1999. Established in 2004, the endowment has invested approximately $185 million in 337 research, education, and public and community health initiatives that benefit Wisconsin residents. However, the transformative potential of the health care conversion foundation has extended well beyond the opportunities provided through the endowment's financial resources. As the endowment celebrates its 10th anniversary, the authors describe the transformative nature of the endowment, as well as significant accomplishments and lessons learned, in the following areas: shared power, community partnerships, translational research, and integration of medicine and public health. It is the authors' hope that these lessons will be valuable to other medical schools and the communities they serve, as they invest in improving the health of their communities, irrespective of the funding source.
Ryosuke Fujinuma; Nick J. Balster; Hyung-Kyung. Lee
Controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) typically increases nitrogen (N) fertilizer uptake and lowers N lost from the rooting zone via leaching. However, questions remain as to whether lower rates of CRF could further increase this efficiency, especially in sandy bare-root nurseries in Wisconsin. We hypothesized that: 1) a reduced CRF application at 60 percent of the...
Megan L. Buchanan; Kurt F. Kipfmueller; Anthony W. D' Amato
Throughout the deciduous forests of the eastern United States, oak (Quercus) regeneration has declined in stands historically dominated by oak species. In the Wisconsin Driftless Area, the level of decline in oak regeneration is variable and influenced by stand structural development, historical disturbance regime, abiotic site characteristics, and...
Adolescents with dyslexia exhibit well-established impairments in executive abilities. The Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) is an executive test that yields surprisingly inconsistent results with this population. The current study aimed to shed light on the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the performance levels by individuals…
... Ltd.--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-- Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway Company and Duluth, Winnipeg and Pacific Railway Company Wisconsin Central Ltd. (WCL), Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway Company (DMIR) and Duluth, Winnipeg and Pacific Railway Company (DWP) have jointly filed a...
... reporting, accounting, IT systems, and corporate filings that are required to support the separate existence... Ltd.--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-- Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway Company Wisconsin... 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(3) for an intra-corporate family transaction. WCL, a rail carrier, is a wholly owned...
Lea, Mark Keith
During this period of radical change in the field of information technology there is evidence of confusion about the role of school library media specialists in the implementation, and the administration of emerging information technologies in Wisconsin public schools. This study sought to answer the question what is the role of the school library…
Faust, Matthew D.; Hansen, Michael J.
To determine whether a consumption-oriented fishery was compatible with a trophy-oriented fishery for Muskellunge Esox masquinongy, we modeled effects of a spearing fishery and recreational angling fishery on population size structure (i.e., numbers of fish ≥ 102, 114, and 127 cm) in northern Wisconsin. An individual-based simulation model was used to quantify the effect of harvest mortality at currently observed levels of recreational angling and tribal spearing fishery exploitation, along with simulated increases in exploitation, for three typical growth potentials (i.e., low, moderate, and high) of Muskellunge in northern Wisconsin across a variety of minimum length limits (i.e., 71, 102, 114, and 127 cm). Populations with moderate to high growth potential and minimum length limits ≥ 114 cm were predicted to have lower declines in numbers of trophy Muskellunge when subjected to angling-only and mixed fisheries at observed and increased levels of exploitation, which suggested that fisheries with disparate motivations may be able to coexist under certain conditions such as restrictive length limits and low levels of exploitation. However, for most Muskellunge populations in northern Wisconsin regulated by a 102-cm minimum length limit, both angling and spearing fisheries may reduce numbers of trophy Muskellunge as larger declines were predicted across all growth potentials. Our results may be useful if Muskellunge management options in northern Wisconsin are re-examined in the future.
This document describes the 1987 Wisconsin Act 287 which concern providing family leave and medical leave to employees. The background of the law is described in the first part of the document. The second part of the document describes the family and medical leave act. These topics are covered: (1) basic provisions of family and medical leave,…
In the winter of 1883, the photographer H. H. Bennett decided to spice up his descriptive catalogue of stereo views with something new. Several years earlier, a simple listing of his photographs--mostly landscape views of the area surrounding the Wisconsin River Dells--brought the small-town studio photographer considerable renown and enhanced…
The following areas are covered: Precambrian geology of northern Michigan; mode of occurrence of uranium and thorium in the Precambrian rocks of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; selected stratigraphic relationships, Precambrian rocks of Michigan; mode of occurrence of uranium and thorium in Precambrian rocks of Wisconsin; and background data for geochemical exploration
Rachel Ann Arango; Frederick Green; Glenn R. Esenther
In termites, differentiation plasticity in undifferentiated Reticulitermes progresses with growth stages from larvae to workers, which may then differentiate into soldiers, winged nymphs, or neotenics. Although studies have been done on seasonality of the termite life cycle, data appears to vary from location to location. Reticulitermes populations in Wisconsin appear...
... Gill, Sikh Student Association--UW Madison Elana Kohn-Oren, Director, Jewish Community Relations Council Ibrahim Saeed, Ph.D., Islamic Center of Madison Steve Starkey, Executive Director, OutReach Panel 3 4:55 p.m. to 6:05 p.m. James L. Santelle, U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Wisconsin...
Galle River Basin, west-central Wisconsin (Figure 1). Livestock ( dairy ) pasture and associated barnyards represent approximately 6 percent of the...Reddy. 1998. Dairy manure influences on phosphorus retention capacity of Spodosols. J. Environ. Qual. 27:522-527. Pierzynski, G. M. 2000. Methods
We conducted a field study in Wisconsin to characterize in ovo mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer). Total Hg mass fractions ranged from 0.17 to 1.23 ìg/g wet weight (ww) in eggs collected from nests on lakes representing a wide range of pH (5.0 - 8.1) and ...
Research activities relating to neutron dosimetry at the University of Wisconsin conducted between 1961 and 1979 are comprehensively reviewed. Former principal investigators discuss the activities and accomplishments which occurred during their tenure, and the current principal investigator discusses future plans. Seven reprints of papers dealing with specific aspects of the program are included in the report, but have not been indexed separately
... promulgated by the 2008 implementation rule does not conflict with the decision. Wisconsin's submission did... accounting for the condensable fraction of PM 2.5 and PM 10 emissions in applicability determinations and... role is to approve state choices, provided that they meet the criteria of the CAA. In this context, in...
Costrell, Robert M.
District costs for teachers' health insurance are, on average, higher then employer costs for private-sector professionals. How much of this is attributable to collective bargaining? This article examines the question using data from the National Compensation Survey (NCS) of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and the state of Wisconsin. In…
Hansen, W. Lee, Ed.
The 29 papers in this collection celebrate academic freedom at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and are organized around the 1894 "trial" of Richard T. Ely, an economist who was exonerated of fomenting unrest and discussing "dangerous" ideas in a Board of Regents Statement which stressed the importance of "sifting and…
Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll
Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.
Juckem, Paul F.
Groundwater is the sole source of residential water supply in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin. A regional three-dimensional groundwater-flow model and three associated demonstration inset models were developed to simulate the groundwater-flow systems in the three-county area. The models were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the three county governments. The objectives of the regional model of Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties were to improve understanding of the groundwaterflow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential water-management programs. The regional groundwater-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, groundwater/surface-water interactions, and groundwater withdrawals from high-capacity wells. Results from the regional model indicate that about 82 percent of groundwater in the three counties is from recharge within the counties; 15 percent is from surface-water sources, consisting primarily of recirculated groundwater seepage in areas with abrupt surface-water-level changes, such as near waterfalls, dams, and the downgradient side of reservoirs and lakes; and 4 percent is from inflow across the county boundaries. Groundwater flow out of the counties is to streams (85 percent), outflow across county boundaries (14 percent), and pumping wells (1 percent). These results demonstrate that the primary source of groundwater withdrawn by pumping wells is water that recharges within the counties and would otherwise discharge to local streams and lakes. Under current conditions, the St. Croix and Mississippi Rivers are groundwater discharge locations (gaining reaches) and appear to function as 'fully penetrating' hydraulic boundaries such that groundwater does not cross between Wisconsin and Minnesota beneath them. Being hydraulic boundaries, however, they can change in response to
Cook, Gary A
This essay uses previously unpublished correspondence of George Herbert Mead to tell the story of his involvement in the aftermath of a political dispute that took place at the University of Wisconsin during the years 1914-1915. It seeks thereby to clarify the historical significance of an article he published on this controversy in late 1915. Taken together with relevant information about the educational activities of William H. Allen of the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, Mead's correspondence and article throw helpful light upon his understanding of how an educational survey of a university should proceed; they also show how he went about the task of evaluating a failed attempt at such a survey. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Choi, Sang D; Carlson, Kathryn
Residential construction is a high-risk industry in the U.S. due to the exposure to work-related safety hazards and fall injuries. This study aimed to examine the safety training and safe work practices of construction workers within the small residential construction industry. In order to achieve the study objectives, a survey was designed and sent to approximately 200 Wisconsin based residential construction contractors. About one third of the respondents stated that they did not have any form of safety programs. The study indicated that the most common types of work-related injuries in residential construction were slips/trips/falls and cuts/lacerations. The survey findings also suggested that the residential construction contractors needed to increase the utilization of fall protection safety equipment. Further education and subject matter expert training could provide benefits to improve occupational safety and health of the small business workforce in the residential construction industry.
Cosentino, B.L.; Lillesand, T.M.
Attention is given to an initial research project being performed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Environmental Remote Sensing Center in conjunction with seven local, state, and federal agencies to implement automated statewide land cover mapping using satellite remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) techniques. The basis, progress, and future research needs for this mapping program are presented. The research efforts are directed toward strategies that integrate satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques in the generation of land cover data for multiple users of land cover information. The project objectives are to investigate methodologies that integrate satellite data with other imagery and spatial data resident in emerging GISs in the state for particular program needs, and to develop techniques that can improve automated land cover mapping efficiency and accuracy. 10 refs
Greve, Kevin W; Stickle, Timothy R; Love, Jeffrey M; Bianchini, Kevin J; Stanford, Matthew S
The present study represents the first large scale confirmatory factor analysis of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The results generally support the three factor solutions reported in the exploratory factor analysis literature. However, only the first factor, which reflects general executive functioning, is statistically sound. The secondary factors, while likely reflecting meaningful cognitive abilities, are less stable except when all subjects complete all 128 cards. It is likely that having two discontinuation rules for the WCST has contributed to the varied factor analytic solutions reported in the literature and early discontinuation may result in some loss of useful information. Continued multivariate research will be necessary to better clarify the processes underlying WCST performance and their relationships to one another.
In 1928, John Van Vleck returned to his alma mater to take a position in the Physics Department. Six years later he left to join the faculty of Harvard University. While Van Vleck was at Wisconsin, he began a series of theoretical studies that helped lay the foundation for the modern theory of magnetism in solids. In 1932 Van Vleck published his celebrated monograph, The Theory of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities, in which he made use of the new theory to explain the results of experimental studies in a variety of magnetic materials. In my talk, I will review the accomplishments of Van Vleck and his students during this period and also comment briefly on his notes for a second edition of the book.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fowler Lake Management District, completed a hydrologic and water-quality study of Fowler Lake in southeastern Wisconsin during calendar year 1984. Data on temperature, pH, specific conductance, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate phosphorus, and various nitrogen species were collected from January through November 1984. The water-quality data indicate that Fowler Lake can be classified as a mildly fertile lake with excellent water clarity as indicated by Secchi depth readings generally greater than 12 feet. Although phosphorus concentrations are generally less than 0.01 milligram per liter, the lake does produce dense stands of macrophytes during the open-water period. The lake is thermally stratified during the summer months, resulting in oxygen depletion in the deepest parts of the lake.
Saad, D.A.; Thorstenson, D.C.
Water-quality and geohydrologic data were collected from 19 monitor wells and a stream in an agricultural area in southeastern Wisconsin. These sites were located along a 2,700-ft transect from a local ground-water high to the stream. The transect is approximately parallel to the horizontal direction of ground-water flow at the water table. Most of the wells were installed in unconsolidated deposits at five locations along the transect and include an upgradient well nest, a midgradient well nest, a downgradient well nest, wells in the lowland area near the stream, and wells installed in the stream bottom. The data collected from this study site were used to describe the water quality and geohydrology of the area and to explain and model the variations in water chemistry along selected ground-water flowpaths.
Ellison, Kevin S; Hofmeister, Erik K; Ribic, Christine A; Sample, David W
Globally, Avipoxvirus species affect over 230 species of wild birds and can significantly impair survival. During banding of nine grassland songbird species (n=346 individuals) in southwestern Wisconsin, USA, we noted species with a 2-6% prevalence of pox-like lesions (possible evidence of current infection) and 4-10% missing digits (potential evidence of past infection). These prevalences approach those recorded among island endemic birds (4-9% and 9-20% for the Galapagos and Hawaii, respectively) for which Avipoxvirus species have been implicated as contributing to dramatic population declines. Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii (n=165 individuals) had the highest prevalence of lesions (6.1%) and missing digits (9.7%). Among a subset of 26 Henslow's Sparrows from which blood samples were obtained, none had detectable antibody reactive to fowlpox virus antigen. However, four samples (18%) had antibody to canarypox virus antigen with test sample and negative control ratios (P/N values) ranging from 2.4 to 6.5 (median 4.3). Of four antibody-positive birds, two had lesions recorded (one was also missing a digit), one had digits missing, and one had no signs. Additionally, the birds with lesions or missing digits had higher P/N values than did the antibody-positive bird without missing digits or recorded lesions. This study represents an impetus for considering the impacts and dynamics of disease caused by Avipoxvirus among North American grassland bird species.
Ellison, Kevin S.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Ribic, Christine A.; Sample, David W.
Globally, Avipoxvirus species affect over 230 species of wild birds and can significantly impair survival. During banding of nine grassland songbird species (n = 346 individuals) in southwestern Wisconsin, USA, we noted species with a 2–6% prevalence of pox-like lesions (possible evidence of current infection) and 4–10% missing digits (potential evidence of past infection). These prevalences approach those recorded among island endemic birds (4–9% and 9–20% for the Galapagos and Hawaii, respectively) for which Avipoxvirus species have been implicated as contributing to dramatic population declines. Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii (n = 165 individuals) had the highest prevalence of lesions (6.1%) and missing digits (9.7%). Among a subset of 26 Henslow's Sparrows from which blood samples were obtained, none had detectable antibody reactive to fowlpox virus antigen. However, four samples (18%) had antibody to canarypox virus antigen with test sample and negative control ratios (P/N values) ranging from 2.4 to 6.5 (median 4.3). Of four antibody-positive birds, two had lesions recorded (one was also missing a digit), one had digits missing, and one had no signs. Additionally, the birds with lesions or missing digits had higher P/N values than did the antibody-positive bird without missing digits or recorded lesions. This study represents an impetus for considering the impacts and dynamics of disease caused by Avipoxvirus among North American grassland bird species.
Mulkerin, Daniel L; Bergsbaken, Jason J; Fischer, Jessica A; Mulkerin, Mary J; Bohler, Aaron M; Mably, Mary S
Use of oral chemotherapy is expanding and offers advantages while posing unique safety challenges. ASCO and the Oncology Nursing Society jointly published safety standards for administering chemotherapy that offer a framework for improving oral chemotherapy practice at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center. With the goal of improving safety, quality, and uniformity within our oral chemotherapy practice, we conducted a gap analysis comparing our practice against ASCO/Oncology Nursing Society guidelines. Areas for improvement were addressed by multidisciplinary workgroups that focused on education, workflows, and information technology. Recommendations and process changes included defining chemotherapy, standardizing patient and caregiver education, mandating the use of comprehensive electronic order sets, and standardizing documentation for dose modification. Revised processes allow pharmacists to review all orders for oral chemotherapy, and they support monitoring adherence and toxicity by using a library of scripted materials. Between August 2015 and January 2016, revised processes were implemented across the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center clinics. The following are key performance indicators: 92.5% of oral chemotherapy orders (n = 1,216) were initiated within comprehensive electronic order sets (N = 1,315), 89.2% compliance with informed consent was achieved, 14.7% of orders (n = 193) required an average of 4.4 minutes review time by the pharmacist, and 100% compliance with first-cycle monitoring of adherence and toxicity was achieved. We closed significant gaps between institutional practice and published standards for our oral chemotherapy practice and experienced steady improvement and sustainable performance in key metrics. We created an electronic definition of oral chemotherapies that allowed us to leverage our electronic health records. We believe our tools are broadly applicable.
Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry
On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.
Weiss, Debora; Tomasallo, Carrie D; Meiman, Jon G; Creswell, Paul D; Melstrom, Paul C; Gummin, David D; Patel, Disa J; Michaud, Nancy T; Sebero, Heather A; Anderson, Henry A
E-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine and flavorings by aerosol and have been marketed in the United States since 2007. Because e-cigarettes have increased in popularity, toxicity potential from device misuse and malfunction also has increased. National data indicate that during 2010–2014, exposure calls to US poison control centers increased only 0.3% for conventional cigarette exposures, whereas calls increased 41.7% for e-cigarette exposures. We characterized cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center January 1, 2010 through October 10, 2015. We compared cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls by exposure year, demographic characteristics, caller site, exposure site, exposure route, exposure reason, medical outcome, management site, and level of care at a health care facility. During January 2010 to October 2015, a total of 98 e-cigarette exposure calls were reported, and annual exposure calls increased approximately 17-fold, from 2 to 35. During the same period, 671 single-exposure cigarette calls with stable annual call volumes were reported. E-cigarette exposure calls were associated with children aged ≤5 years (57/98, 58.2%) and adults aged ≥20 years (30/98, 30.6%). Cigarette exposure calls predominated among children aged ≤5 years (643/671, 95.8%). The frequency of e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center has increased and is highest among children aged ≤5 years and adults. Strategies are warranted to prevent future poisonings from these devices, including nicotine warning labels and public advisories to keep e-cigarettes away from children.
Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR, and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3. We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%, IBR (7.9%, Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%, L. i. bratislava (1.0%, L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5% and L. i. hardjo (0.3%. Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119 were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens.
Watson, J C; Wolf, A T; Ascher, J S
Wild bees provide vital pollination services for many native and agricultural plant species, yet the landscape conditions needed to support wild bee populations are not well understood or appreciated. We assessed the influence of landscape composition on bee abundance and species richness in apple (Malus spp.) orchards of northeastern Wisconsin during the spring flowering period. A diverse community of bee species occurs in these apple orchards, dominated by wild bees in the families Andrenidae and Halictidae and the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Proportion of forest area in the surrounding landscape was a significant positive predictor of wild bee abundance in orchards, with strongest effects at a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) buffer distance of 1,000 m or greater. Forest area also was positively associated with species richness, showing strongest effects at a buffer distance of 2,000 m. Nonagricultural developed land (homes, lawns, etcetera) was significantly negatively associated with species richness at buffer distances >750 m and wild bee abundance in bowl traps at all distances. Other landscape variables statistically associated with species richness or abundance of wild bees included proportion area of pasture (positive) and proportion area of roads (negative). Forest area was not associated with honey bee abundance at any buffer distance. These results provide clear evidence that the landscape surrounding apple orchards, especially the proportion of forest area, affects richness and abundance of wild bees during the spring flowering period and should be a part of sustainable land management strategies in agro-ecosystems of northeastern Wisconsin and other apple growing regions.
Waterhouse, Matthew D.; Sloss, Brian L.; Isermann, Daniel A.
The maintenance of genetic integrity is an important goal of fisheries management, yet little is known regarding the effects of management actions (e.g., stocking, harvest regulations) on the genetic diversity of many important fish species. Furthermore, relationships between population characteristics and genetic diversity remain poorly understood. We examined relationships among population demographics (abundance, recruitment, sex ratio, and mean age of the breeding population), stocking intensity, and genetic characteristics (heterozygosity, effective number of alleles, allelic richness, Wright's inbreeding coefficient, effective population size [Ne], mean d2 [a measure of inbreeding], mean relatedness, and pairwise population ΦST estimates) for 15 populations of Walleye Sander vitreus in northern Wisconsin. We also tested for potential demographic and genetic influences on Walleye body condition and early growth. Combinations of demographic variables explained 47.1–79.8% of the variation in genetic diversity. Skewed sex ratios contributed to a reduction in Ne and subsequent increases in genetic drift and relatedness among individuals within populations; these factors were correlated to reductions in allelic richness and early growth rate. Levels of inbreeding were negatively related to both age-0 abundance and mean age, suggesting Ne was influenced by recruitment and generational overlap. A negative relationship between the effective number of alleles and body condition suggests stocking affected underlying genetic diversity of recipient populations and the overall productivity of the population. These relationships may result from poor performance of stocked fish, outbreeding depression, or density-dependent factors. An isolation-by-distance pattern of genetic diversity was apparent in nonstocked populations, but was disrupted in stocked populations, suggesting that stocking affected genetic structure. Overall, demographic factors were related to genetic
Sovinec, Carl R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
The University of Wisconsin-Madison component of the Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI Center) contributed to modeling capabilities and algorithmic efficiency of the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation (NIMROD) Code, which is widely used to model macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasma. It also contributed to the understanding of direct-current (DC) injection of electrical current for initiating and sustaining plasma in three spherical torus experiments: the Helicity Injected Torus-II (HIT-II), the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment, and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The effort was funded through the PSI Center's cooperative agreement with the University of Washington and Utah State University over the period of March 1, 2005 - August 31, 2016. In addition to the computational and physics accomplishments, the Wisconsin effort contributed to the professional education of four graduate students and two postdoctoral research associates. The modeling for HIT-II and Pegasus was directly supported by the cooperative agreement, and contributions to the NSTX modeling were in support of work by Dr. Bickford Hooper, who was funded through a separate grant. Our primary contribution to model development is the implementation of detailed closure relations for collisional plasma. Postdoctoral associate Adam Bayliss implemented the temperature-dependent effects of Braginskii's parallel collisional ion viscosity. As a graduate student, John O'Bryan added runtime options for Braginskii's models and Ji's K2 models of thermal conduction with magnetization effects and thermal equilibration. As a postdoctoral associate, O'Bryan added the magnetization effects for ion viscosity. Another area of model development completed through the PSI-Center is the implementation of Chodura's phenomenological resistivity model. Finally, we investigated and tested linear electron parallel viscosity, leveraged by support from
Department of the Interior — A mechanistic, biophysical water-quality model (CE–QUAL–W2) was developed and calibrated for Lake St. Croix, Wisconsin and Minnesota. The Lake St. Croix CE–QUAL–W2...
Graczyk, David J.; Lillie, Richard A.; Schlesser, Roger A.; Mason, John W.; Lyons, John D.; Kerr, Roger A.; Graczyk, David J.
Data on streamflow, water quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass (microptercus dolomieni) populations were collected from July 1987 through September 1990, in four streams in southwestern Wisconsin to determine the effect of surface-water hydrology and quality on populations of macroinvertebrates and smallmouth bass. The study was a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.
This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on a brownfield site at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin. The site currently has a PV system in place and was assessed for further PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.1333/kWh and incentives offered by the State of Wisconsin and by the serving utility, Madison Gas and Electric. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.
The pricing policies and buyback rates (those concerned with purchase of non-utility generation, NUG) of British Columbia (BC) Hydro are examined along with their effectiveness in encouraging the efficient use and development of power. Specifically, the levels of self-generation within BC's pulp mills are examined as well as mill manager attitudes to increasing energy production. BC Hydro's encouragement of self-generation is determined by examining the ratio of the industrial rate for pulp mills to the utility's long-run marginal cost of power. BC Hydro's buyback policies are also examined to determine the level of encouragement they provide for increased self-generation. Comparisons are made with similar data, wherever possible, from utilities and pulp mills in Wisconsin. The comparison reveals similarities with respect to pulp mills' attitudes toward increasing self-generation capacity. A significant difference is noted in terms of the amount of pulp mill self-generation: Wisconsin mills generate substantially more of their own energy requirements than BC mills. Wisconsin utilities provided greater markup through their industrial rates, and also provided the greater encouragement for increased self-generation through their buyback policies. BC Hydro is the only utility that offered a load displacement policy, however. In summary, the policies and regulations of both BC and Wisconsin utilities have the potential to encourage greater industrial self-sufficiency and increased levels of self-generated power. Existing levels of encouragement are not determined solely by economic considerations but also reflect utility planning objectives. 97 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs
Thomas A. Aiuppa; William E. Wehrs
This research examines whether a competitive advantage exists for insurers which provide independent agencies with rating software to generate price quotes. Data relative to the Business Owners line of insurance were collected from several Wisconsin agencies which represent several BOP insurers, some of which provide software for rating BOP applications. The results indicate that providing rating software did not increase insurers’ business volumes, but may decrease their underwriting costs. ...
Krug, W.R.; Goddard, G.L.
A 5-year, data-collection and modeling study was conducted on Pheasant Branch basin in and near Middleton, Wisconsin. The objectives of the study were to: (1) describe the streamflow characteristics, sediment transport, and stream-channel morphology in the Pheasant Branch basin; and (2) relate the above factors to changes caused by urbanization and project the effect of urbanization on the hydrology and channel morphology of the study area.
Donner, Deahn M.; Ribic, Christine; Beck, Albert J.; Higgins, Dale; Eklund, Dan; Reinecke, Susan
Woodland ponds are important landscape features that help sustain populations of amphibians that require this aquatic habitat for successful reproduction. Species abundance patterns often reflect site-specific differences in hydrology, physical characteristics, and surrounding vegetation. Large-scale processes such as changing land cover and environmental conditions are other potential drivers influencing amphibian populations in the Upper Midwest, but little information exists on the combined effects of these factors. We used Blue-spotted (Ambystoma laterale Hallowell) and Spotted Salamander (A. maculatum Shaw) monitoring data collected at the same woodland ponds thirteen years apart to determine if changing environmental conditions and vegetation cover in surrounding landscapes influenced salamander movement phenology and abundance. Four woodland ponds in northern Wisconsin were sampled for salamanders in April 1992-1994 and 2005-2007. While Blue-spotted Salamanders were more abundant than Spotted Salamanders in all ponds, there was no change in the numbers of either species over the years. However, peak numbers of Blue-spotted Salamanders occurred 11.7 days earlier (range: 9-14 days) in the 2000s compared to the 1990s; Spotted Salamanders occurred 9.5 days earlier (range: 3 - 13 days). Air and water temperatures (April 13- 24) increased, on average, 4.8°C and 3.7°C, respectively, between the decades regardless of pond. There were no discernible changes in canopy openness in surrounding forests between decades that would have warmed the water sooner (i.e., more light penetration). Our finding that salamander breeding phenology can vary by roughly 10 days in Wisconsin contributes to growing evidence that amphibian populations have responded to changing climate conditions by shifting life-cycle events. Managers can use this information to adjust monitoring programs and forest management activities in the surrounding landscape to avoid vulnerable amphibian
Schantz, Susan L., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Gardiner, Joseph C. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Aguiar, Andrea [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Sweeney, Anne M. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center USA (United States); Peck, Jennifer D. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (United States); Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J. [Toxicology Research Center, University at Buffalo (United States)
Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in
Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Aguiar, Andrea; Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J.
Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in this region.
Rasmussen, J.; Skalbeck, J.; Stewart, E.
The deep sandstone and dolomite aquifer of Wisconsin is the primary source of water in the central, southern, and western portions of the state, as well as a supplier for many high-capacity wells in the eastern portion. This prominent groundwater system is highly impacted by the underlying Precambrian basement, which includes the doubly plunging Baraboo Syncline in Columbia and Sauk Counties. This project is a continuation of previous work done in Dodge and Fond du Lac Counties by the University of Wisconsin-Parkside (UW-P) and the Wisconsin Geological & Natural History Survey (WGNHS). The goal of this project was to produce of an updated Precambrian topographic map of southern Wisconsin, by adding Gravity and Aeromagnetic data to the existing map which is based mainly on sparse outcrop and well data. Gravity and Aeromagnetic data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was processed using GM-SYS 3D modeling software in Geosoft Oasis Montaj. Grids of subsurface layers were created from the data and constrained by well and drilling records. The Columbia County basement structure is a complex network of Precambrian granites and rhyolites which is non-conformably overlain by quartzite, slate, and a layer of iron rich sedimentary material. Results from previously collected cores as well as drilling done in neighboring Dodge County, show that the iron rich layer was draped over much of the Baraboo area before being subject to the multitude of folding and faulting events that happened in the region during the late Precambrian. This layer provides telltale signatures that aided in construction of the model due to having an average density of 3.7 g/cm3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 8000 x 10-6 cgs, compared to the average density and susceptibility of the rest of the bedrock being 2.8 g/cm3 and 1500 x 10-6 cgs, respectively. The research done on the Columbia County basement is one part of a larger project aimed at improving groundwater management efforts of the
Shafie Asrul A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers.
Schauberger, Charles W; Newbury, Emily J; Colburn, Jean M; Al-Hamadani, Mohammed
We sought to measure the prevalence of illicit drug use in our obstetric population, to identify the drugs being used, and to determine whether a modified version of the 4Ps Plus screening tool could serve as an initial screen. In this prospective study, urine samples of 200 unselected patients presenting for initiation of prenatal care in a Wisconsin private practice were analyzed for evidence of the use of illicit drugs. Of 200 patients, 26 (13%) had evidence of drugs of abuse in their urine samples. Marijuana (7%) and opioids (6.5%) were the most commonly identified drugs. Adding 5 questions about drug or alcohol use to the obstetric intake questionnaire proved sensitive in identifying patients with high risks of having a positive drug screen. The rate of drug use in our low-risk population was higher than expected and may reflect increasing rates of drug use across the United States. Enhanced screening should be performed to identify patients using illicit drugs in pregnancy to improve their care. Medical centers and communities may benefit from periodic testing of their community prevalence rates to aid in appropriate care planning. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Zavitkovski, J.; Salmonson, B.J.
Effects of gamma irradiation (10,000-Ci 137 Cs source) for one growing season on biomass production of ground vegetation under northern Wisconsin aspen and maple-aspen-birch forests and on an abandoned logging road were evaluated during and 1 year after irradiation. No significant changes in production were determined during the irradiation year. One year later three distinct zones--semidevastated, herbaceous, and original forest--developed along the radiation gradient. Biomass production under forest canopies decreased significantly in the semidevastated zone, increased significantly in the herbaceous zone (primarily responding to additional light), and remained unchanged under the original forest. Logging-road vegetation responded similarly, but the changes were restricted within higher radiation doses. At comparable levels of radiation, production of species of the logging-road vegetation was affected less than that of species under forest canopies. Such a trend was predictable from the generally smaller interphase chromosome volumes of the species on the logging road and from their ability to survive in severe habitats
Peckham, S. D.; Gower, S. T.
The whole-system (biological + industrial) carbon (C) balance was estimated for the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest (CNNF), a temperate forest covering 600,000 ha in Northern Wisconsin, USA. The biological system was modeled using a spatially-explicit version of the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC. The industrial system was modeled using life cycle inventory (LCI) models for wood and paper products. Biome-BGC was used to estimate net primary production, net ecosystem production (NEP), and timber harvest (H) over the entire CNNF. The industrial carbon budget (Ci) was estimated by applying LCI models of CO2 emissions resulting from timber harvest and production of specific wood and paper products in the CNNF region. In 2009, simulated NEP of the CNNF averaged 3.0 tC/ha and H averaged 0.1 tC/ha. Despite model uncertainty, the CNNF region is likely a carbon sink (NEP - Ci > 0), even when CO2 emissions from timber harvest and production of wood and paper products are included in the calculation of the entire forest system C budget.
Hughes, T.; Irwin, P.; Hofmeister, E.; Paskewitz, S.M.
The occurrence of multiple pathogens in mosquitoes and birds could affect the dynamics of disease transmission. We collected adult Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans (Cx. pipiens/restuans hereafter) from sites in Wisconsin and tested them for West Nile virus (WNV) and for avian malaria (Plasmodium). Gravid Cx. pipiens/restuans were tested for WNV using a commercial immunoassay, the RAMP?? WNV test, and positive results were verified by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. There were 2 WNV-positive pools of Cx. pipiens/restuans in 2006 and 1 in 2007. Using a bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimation, the WNV infection rate for Cx. pipiens/restuans was 5.48/1,000 mosquitoes in 2006 and 1.08/1,000 mosquitoes in 2007. Gravid Cx. pipiens or Cx. restuans were tested individually for avian Plasmodium by a restriction enzymebased assay. Twelve mosquitoes were positive for avian Plasmodium (10.0), 2 were positive for Haemoproteus, and 3 were positive for Leucocytozoon. There were 4 mixed infections, with mosquitoes positive for >1 of the hemosporidian parasites. This work documents a high rate of hemosporidian infection in Culex spp. and illustrates the potential for co-infections with other arboviruses in bird-feeding mosquitoes and their avian hosts. In addition, hemosporidian infection rates may be a useful tool for investigating the ecological dynamics of Culex/avian interactions. ?? 2010 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.
Gebert, Warren A.; Walker, John F.; Kennedy, James L.
Average annual recharge in Wisconsin for the period 1970-99 was estimated using streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations and partial-record sites. Partial-record sites have discharge measurements collected during low-flow conditions. The average annual base flow of a stream divided by the drainage area is a good approximation of the recharge rate; therefore, once average annual base flow is determined recharge can be calculated. Estimates of recharge for nearly 72 percent of the surface area of the State are provided. The results illustrate substantial spatial variability of recharge across the State, ranging from less than 1 inch to more than 12 inches per year. The average basin size for partial-record sites (50 square miles) was less than the average basin size for the gaging stations (305 square miles). Including results for smaller basins reveals a spatial variability that otherwise would be smoothed out using only estimates for larger basins. An error analysis indicates that the techniques used provide base flow estimates with standard errors ranging from 5.4 to 14 percent.
Lowenstein, D M; Huseth, A S; Groves, R L
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is among the plants highly dependent on insect-mediated pollination, but little is known about its unmanaged pollinators. Both domestic and wild bee populations in central Wisconsin pickling cucumber fields were assessed using a combination of pan trapping and floral observations before and during bloom. Together with land cover analyses extending 2,000 m from field centers, the relationship of land cover components and bee abundance and diversity were examined. Over a 2-yr sample interval distributed among 18 experimental sites, 3,185 wild bees were collected representing >60 species. A positive association was found between both noncrop and herbaceous areas with bee abundance and diversity only during bloom. Response of bee abundance and diversity to land cover was strongest at larger buffers presumably because of the heterogeneous nature of the landscape and connectivity between crop and noncrop areas. These results are consistent with previous research that has found a weak response of wild bees to surrounding vegetation in moderately fragmented areas. A diverse community of wild bees is present within the fields of a commercial cucumber system, and there is evidence of floral visitation by unmanaged bees. This evidence emphasizes the importance of wild pollinators in fragmented landscapes and the need for additional research to investigate the effectiveness of individual species in pollen deposition.
Kidambi, Srividya; Partington, Susan; Binkley, Neil
Post-menopausal osteoporosis is seen in all racial groups. With the increasing population and longevity of minority groups, osteoporosis is becoming an important health concern. Data regarding risk factors for, and prevalence of, low bone mass and awareness of osteoporosis risk in African American (AA) women are limited. This article evaluates the risk factors for, and prevalence of, low bone mass in a population of urban AA women in Wisconsin and assesses this group's perceived risk for osteoporosis. One hundred fifty consecutive community-dwelling AA women > or = 45 years old from Milwaukee, Wis were asked to complete a questionnaire based on currently accepted osteoporosis risk factors. Additionally, their perception of osteoporosis risk was assessed using a Likert scale. All subjects underwent quantitative calcaneal ultrasound. Subject mean age was 54 +/- 7 years. Mean T- and Z-scores were 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. Applying World Health Organization criteria, osteopenia (bone mineral density T-score 2 children), postmenopausal state, and current smoking were associated with lower calcaneal bone mass. Higher education and presence of diabetes were associated with a higher bone mass. Only 25% of the women surveyed thought they were at moderate to high risk for osteoporosis. Low bone mass was present in 33% of these AA women despite their relative young age. Many AA women do not perceive osteoporosis as a health risk. It is necessary to develop strategies to educate AA women regarding osteoporosis risk.
Ahrens, David; Uebelher, Paul; Remington, Patrick L
Smoke-free restaurant ordinance campaigns were conducted in 15 Wisconsin cities during 1992 through 2002. Community and health coalition organizational characteristics varied with each campaign; nine campaigns were successful in enacting ordinances, and six campaigns failed. Data on community and coalition characteristics were analyzed. Community characteristics included adjusted gross income, percentage of Democratic voters in recent elections, and county smoking prevalence. Coalition characteristics included the number of supporters identified, leadership experience, level of print news media coverage, and editorial position of local newspaper. Successful campaigns were more likely to have leadership with high levels of political experience; eight of nine successful campaigns had leadership with high levels of experience, and two of six unsuccessful campaigns had leadership with high levels of experience. Every successful campaign had high levels of newspaper coverage and strong editorial support. None of the unsuccessful campaigns had high levels of news coverage or strong editorial support. Characteristics controlled or influenced by coalitions are associated with successful outcomes. Community characteristics were not associated with outcomes. These results should assist communities planning to implement smoke-free ordinances or other health policy campaigns.
Gillis, Michael K; Walsh, Matthew R
Invasive species have extensive negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem health. Novel species also drive contemporary evolution in many native populations, which could mitigate or amplify their impacts on ecosystems. The predatory zooplankton Bythotrephes longimanus invaded lakes in Wisconsin, USA, in 2009. This invasion caused precipitous declines in zooplankton prey ( Daphnia pulicaria ), with cascading impacts on ecosystem services (water clarity). Here, we tested the link between Bythotrephes invasion, evolution in Daphnia and post-invasion ecological dynamics using 15 years of long-term data in conjunction with comparative experiments. Invasion by Bythotrephes is associated with rapid increases in the body size of Daphnia Laboratory experiments revealed that such shifts have a genetic component; third-generation laboratory-reared Daphnia from 'invaded' lakes are significantly larger and exhibit greater reproductive effort than individuals from 'uninvaded' lakes. This trajectory of evolution should accelerate Daphnia population growth and enhance population persistence. We tested this prediction by comparing analyses of long-term data with laboratory-based simulations, and show that rapid evolution in Daphnia is associated with increased population growth in invaded lakes. © 2017 The Authors.
Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, R.K.; Gutreuter, S.; Stromborg, K.L.; Allen, P. David; Melancon, M.J.
In 1994 and 1995, nesting success of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) was measured at Cat Island, in southern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA. Sample eggs at pipping and unhatched eggs were collected and analyzed for organochlorines (including total polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and DDE), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity in embryos, and eggshell thickness. Of 1,570 eggs laid, 32% did not hatch and 0.4% had deformed embryos. Of 632 chicks monitored from hatching to 12 d of age, 9% were missing or found dead; no deformities were observed. The PCB concentrations in sample eggs from clutches with deformed embryos (mean = 10.2 μg/g wet weight) and dead embryos (11.4 μg/g) were not significantly higher than concentrations in sample eggs from nests where all eggs hatched (12.1 μg/g). A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE, dieldrin, and PCB concentrations in sibling eggs identified DDE and not dieldrin or PCBs as a significant risk factor. A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE and eggshell thickness implicated DDE and not eggshell thickness as a significant risk factor. Even though the insecticide DDT was banned in the early 1970s, we suggest that DDE concentrations in double-crested cormorant eggs in Green Bay are still having an effect on reproduction in this species.
Mathews, G.W.; Blackburn, W.H.
Based on this investigation, the Goodman-Dunbar area is considered not to be favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits of economic potential. Whether one adopts an anatectic or igneous intrusive model for the pegmatites, the area does not meet NURE favorability criteria guidelines because: (1) The apparent average grade of the alaskites will not meet or exceed the 100-ppM minimum cutoff grade; (2) Even if the grade requirements were met, the alaskite is not extensive enough to provide a sufficient volume of endowed rock. It is reasonable to assume that similar alaskites may exist west of this study area, beneath the glacial drift. If the uranium is located in interstitial sites and (or) along fractures, as postulated in this investigation, then it would be readily available for leaching into local surface- and ground-water regimes. This alaskite and other possible alaskites are probably the cause of local stream-water anomalies. The contrasting uranium contents of the alaskites and Dunbar Gneiss also are probable causes for anomalous airborne measurements. The area near Dunbar, Wisconsin, warrents no further study in terms of uranium potential. 4 figures, 2 tables
Senier, Laura; Kearney, Matthew; Orne, Jason
This mixed-methods study reports on an outreach clinics program designed to deliver genetic services to medically underserved communities in Wisconsin. We show the geographic distribution, funding patterns, and utilization trends for outreach clinics over a 20-year period. Interviews with program planners and outreach clinic staff show how external and internal constraints limited the program's capacity. We compare clinic operations to the conceptual models guiding program design. Our findings show that state health officials had to scale back financial support for outreach clinic activities while healthcare providers faced increasing pressure from administrators to reduce investments in charity care. These external and internal constraints led to a decline in the overall number of patients served. We also find that redistribution of clinics to the Milwaukee area increased utilization among Hispanics but not among African-Americans. Our interviews suggest that these patterns may be a function of shortcomings embedded in the planning models. Planning models have three shortcomings. First, they do not identify the mitigation of health disparities as a specific goal. Second, they fail to acknowledge that partners face escalating profit-seeking mandates that may limit their capacity to provide charity services. Finally, they underemphasize the importance of seeking trusted partners, especially in working with communities that have been historically marginalized. There has been little discussion about equitably leveraging genetic advances that improve healthcare quality and efficacy. The role of State Health Agencies in mitigating disparities in access to genetic services has been largely ignored in the sociological literature.
Juckem, Paul F.; Dunning, Charles P.
A regional, two-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate the groundwater-flow system and groundwater/surface-water interactions within the Menominee Indian Reservation. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin, to contribute to the fundamental understanding of the region’s hydrogeology. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the groundwater-flow system, including groundwater/surface-water interactions, and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate groundwater/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional groundwater-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate groundwater-flow patterns at multiple scales. Simulations made with the regional model reproduce groundwater levels and stream base flows representative of recent conditions (1970–2013) and illustrate groundwater-flow patterns with maps of (1) the simulated water table and groundwater-flow directions, (2) probabilistic areas contributing recharge to high-capacity pumped wells, and (3) estimation of the extent of infiltrated wastewater from treatment lagoons.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurologic disorder in humans. CJD is one of a group of conditions known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, that are believed to be caused by abnormally configured, host-encoded prion proteins that accumulate in the central nervous tissue. CJD has an annual incidence of approximately 1 case per million population in the United States and occurs in three forms: sporadic, genetically determined, and acquired by infection. In the latter form, the incubation period is measured typically in years. Recent evidence that prion infection can cross the species barrier between humans and cattle has raised increasing public health concerns about the possible transmission to humans of a TSE among deer and elk known as chronic wasting disease (CWD). During 1993-1999, three men who participated in wild game feasts in northern Wisconsin died of degenerative neurologic illnesses. This report documents the investigation of these deaths, which was initiated in August 2002 and which confirmed the death of only one person from CJD. Although no association between CWD and CJD was found, continued surveillance of both diseases remains important to assess the possible risk for CWD transmission to humans.
Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Wisconsin. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.
Abler, Melissa; UW-Madison, Physics Club of
The physics club at the University of Wisconsin - Madison is actively engaged in many peer-led activities that foster development of career-oriented skills. Peer mentoring through drop-in tutoring provides peer support to promote retention in the astronomy and physics majors, as well as developing valuable teaching and communication strategies. The physics club is also heavily involved in outreach and education through demonstrations on campus, strengthening student connections to and aiding in retention of classroom information. Public demonstrations also develop valuable communication skills which will be required as a professional. Application-oriented development of students is further enhanced by semiannual visits to research facilities in the surrounding area which provide interested students the opportunity to see non-university facilities firsthand. Close contact with faculty - a valuable resource for undergraduates - is achieved through faculty attendance at club events and presentation of faculty research to interested students. Undergraduates also have the opportunity through the physics club to speak with the weekly colloquium presenter, learning more about each presenter’s experiences with graduate school, research, and career path.
Ciruzzi, D. M.; Loheide, S. P., II
Understanding complex spatial and temporal patterns of drought-induced forest stress requires knowledge of the physiological drivers and ecosystem attributes that lead to or inhibit tree mortality. Prevailing meteorological conditions leading to drought may have lesser effect on vegetation that has evolved to avoid drought by accessing deeper soil moisture reserves or shallow groundwater to meet evapotranspiration demand. This is especially true in arid and semi-arid regions, yet groundwater use by trees is rarely explored in temperate systems and the extent to which groundwater use reduces drought vulnerability in these climates and regions is unknown. We explored responses of radial growth in temperate tress to wet and dry years across a depth to groundwater gradient from 1 to 9 meters in sandy forests in northern Wisconsin. The spatial patterns of tree growth in this watershed show areas where tree growth is influenced by depth to groundwater. Preliminary results showed trees in areas of shallower groundwater with low variability in tree growth and indicated that tree growth remains consistent during both wet and dry years. Conversely, trees in areas of deeper groundwater showed higher variability in tree growth during wet and dry years. We hypothesize that even in this humid region, the sandy soils do not retain sufficient moisture leading to potentially frequent water stress in trees and reductions in productivity. However, where and when accessible, we suspect trees use shallow groundwater to sustain evapotranspiration and maintain consistent growth during dry periods.
Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.
A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.
Haq, Cynthia; Baumann, Linda; Olsen, Christopher W; Brown, Lori DiPrete; Kraus, Connie; Bousquet, Gilles; Conway, James; Easterday, B C
Globalization, migration, and widespread health disparities call for interdisciplinary approaches to improve health care at home and abroad. Health professions students are pursuing study abroad in increasing numbers, and universities are responding with programs to address these needs. The University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison schools of medicine and public health, nursing, pharmacy, veterinary medicine, and the division of international studies have created an interdisciplinary center for global health (CGH). The CGH provides health professions and graduate students with courses, field experiences, and a new Certificate in Global Health. Educational programs have catalyzed a network of enthusiastic UW global health scholars. Partnerships with colleagues in less economically developed countries provide the foundation for education, research, and service programs. Participants have collaborated to improve the education of health professionals and nutrition in Uganda; explore the interplay between culture, community development, and health in Ecuador; improve animal health and address domestic violence in Mexico; and examine successful public health efforts in Thailand. These programs supply students with opportunities to understand the complex determinants of health and structure of health systems, develop adaptability and cross-cultural communication skills, experience learning and working in interdisciplinary teams, and promote equity and reduce health disparities at home and abroad. Based on the principles of equity, sustainability, and reciprocity, the CGH provides a strong foundation to address global health challenges through networking and collaboration among students, staff, and faculty within the UW and beyond.
Fisher; Graham; Graham
Abstract Bacterial abundance, temperature, pH, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration were compared across surface sites within and between two northern Wisconsin Sphagnum peatlands over the summer seasons in 1995 and 1996. Sites of interest were the Sphagnum mat surface, the water-filled moat (lagg) at the bog margin, and the bog lake littoral zone. Significant differences in both bacterial populations and water chemistry were observed between sites. pH was highest in the lake and lowest in the mat at both bogs; the opposite was true for DOC. Large populations of bacteria were present in surface interstitial water from the mat; abundance in this site was consistently higher than in the moat or lake. Bacterial abundance also increased across sites of increasing DOC concentration and declining pH. Bacterial activities (rates of [3H]leucine incorporation) and growth in dilution cultures (with grazers removed) were also assessed in lake, moat, and mat sites. Results using these measures generally supported the trends observed in abundance, although high rates of [3H]leucine incorporation were recorded in the moat at one of the bogs. Our results indicate that bacterial populations in Sphagnum peatlands are not adversely affected by acidity, and that DOC may be more important than pH in determining bacterial abundance in these environments.
Hawk, K.; Stieglitz, R.D.; Norman, J.C.
A statewide survey by the Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services with U.S.E.P.A. assistance reported an anomalously high percentage of homes in Door County with radon concentrations in excess of 20 pCi/L. The results were of interest because the county is underlain by marine sedimentary rocks rather than the igneous and metamorphic crystalline types usually associated with elevated radon concentrations. A voluntary population of 55 homes was tested for radon using activated charcoal canisters. This population was also asked to provide questionnaire response data on family, home, and socioeconomic aspects. The data were separated into socioeconomic, energy efficiency, radon access, and karst level categories and statistically analyzed. A subpopulation was selected from the larger population for detailed site investigation, which included additional in-home air testing and, at some sites, water supply analysis and in-ground testing for radon. The field investigations collected information on the geology, soil, topography, and home construction and use. The results of the investigation verified and characterized the radon occurrences in Door County. The presence or absence of karst features is shown to be statistically significant to radon levels. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs
Dong, Fengxia; Mitchell, Paul D; Colquhoun, Jed
Measuring farm sustainability performance is a crucial component for improving agricultural sustainability. While extensive assessments and indicators exist that reflect the different facets of agricultural sustainability, because of the relatively large number of measures and interactions among them, a composite indicator that integrates and aggregates over all variables is particularly useful. This paper describes and empirically evaluates a method for constructing a composite sustainability indicator that individually scores and ranks farm sustainability performance. The method first uses non-negative polychoric principal component analysis to reduce the number of variables, to remove correlation among variables and to transform categorical variables to continuous variables. Next the method applies common-weight data envelope analysis to these principal components to individually score each farm. The method solves weights endogenously and allows identifying important practices in sustainability evaluation. An empirical application to Wisconsin cranberry farms finds heterogeneity in sustainability practice adoption, implying that some farms could adopt relevant practices to improve the overall sustainability performance of the industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Uejio, Christopher K; Yale, Steven H; Malecki, Kristen; Borchardt, Mark A; Anderson, Henry A; Patz, Jonathan A
This study investigated if the type of drinking water source (treated municipal, untreated municipal, and private well water) modifies the effect of hydrology on childhood (aged hydrologic and weather conditions with childhood gastrointestinal illness from 1991 to 2010. The Central and Northern Wisconsin study area includes households using all 3 types of drinking water systems. Separate time series models were created for each system and half-year period (winter/spring, summer/fall). More precipitation (summer/fall) systematically increased childhood gastrointestinal illness in municipalities accessing untreated water. The relative risk of contracting gastrointestinal illness was 1.4 in weeks with 3 centimeters of precipitation and 2.4 in very wet weeks with 12 centimeters of precipitation. By contrast, gastrointestinal illness in private well and treated municipal areas was not influenced by hydrologic conditions, although warmer winter temperatures slightly increased incidence. Our study suggests that improved drinking water protection, treatment, and delivery infrastructure may improve public health by specifically identifying municipal water systems lacking water treatment that may transmit waterborne disease.
Bergen, P L; Nemec, D
In December 1997, the authors completed an in-depth collection assessment project at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Health Sciences Libraries. The purpose was to develop a framework for future collection assessment projects by completing a multifaceted evaluation of the libraries' monograph and serial collections in the subject area of drug resistance. Evaluators adapted and synthesized several traditional collection assessment tools, including shelflist measurement, bibliography and standard list checking, and citation analysis. Throughout the project, evaluators explored strategies to overcome some of the problems inherent in the application of traditional collection assessment methods to the evaluation of biomedical collections. Their efforts resulted in the identification of standard monographs and core journals for the subject area, a measurement of the collections' strength relative to the collections of benchmark libraries, and a foundation for future collection development within the subject area. The project's primary outcome was a collection assessment methodology that has potential application to both internal and cooperative collection development in medical, pharmaceutical, and other health sciences libraries.
Vegetative and reproductive phenophases were observed from 1970 to 1974 on 30 native and 8 introduced herbaceous species growing under deciduous forests and on an abandoned logging road in the Enterprise Radiation Forest in northern Wisconsin. Forest herbs started growing in the same order each year, but logging-road herbs varied. Growth initiation was more variable in the early-starting than in the late-starting species. In most years logging-road herbs started growth a few days earlier than forest herbs. Initiation of flowering of the 38 species was bimodal, culminating around mid-May for forest species and around mid-July for logging-road species. In general, the annual start of flowering varied less than the start of vegetative growth. Duration of flowering of most species was variable, however. Seed ripening times varied strikingly among species, ranging from 11 days for Taraxacum officinale to 101 days for Iris versicolor. Seeds of forest herbs took longer to ripen than those of logging-road species. On the basis of growth initiation of the 6 earliest species, spring arrival in 1970 to 1974 differed by 26 days and appeared to be related to snow disappearance. The growing season of most species paralleled cumulative current-year (May--July) and last-year (August--September) precipitation. Multiple regression analyses between precipitation and average length of growing season explained 87 percent of the total variation for forest herbs and 69 percent of that for logging-road herbs
Nossal, S. M.; Watson, L. E.; Hooper, E.; Huesmann, A.; Schenker, B.; Timbie, P.; Rzchowski, M.
The Physics Learning Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides academic support and small-group supplemental instruction to students studying introductory algebra-based and calculus-based physics. These classes are gateway courses for majors in the biological and physical sciences, pre-health fields, engineering, and secondary science education. The Physics Learning Center offers supplemental instruction groups twice weekly where students can discuss concepts and practice with problem-solving techniques. The Center also provides students with access on-line resources that stress conceptual understanding, and to exam review sessions. Participants in our program include returning adults, people from historically underrepresented racial/ethnic groups, students from families in lower-income circumstances, students in the first generation of their family to attend college, transfer students, veterans, and people with disabilities, all of whom might feel isolated in their large introductory course and thus have a more difficult time finding study partners. We also work with students potentially at-risk for having academic difficulty (due to factors academic probation, weak math background, low first exam score, or no high school physics). A second mission of the Physics Learning Center is to provide teacher training and leadership experience for undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors. These Peer Tutors lead the majority of the weekly group sessions in close supervision by PLC staff members. We will describe our work to support students in the Physics Learning Center, including our teacher-training program for our undergraduate Peer Mentor Tutors
The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of u se scarcity . The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)
Highstrom Alex D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS is an illness-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaire outcomes instrument. Objectives Research questions were: 1 How well does the WURSS-21 assess the symptoms and functional impairments associated with common cold? 2 How well can this instrument measure change over time (responsiveness? 3 What is the minimal important difference (MID that can be detected by the WURSS-21? 4 What are the descriptive statistics for area under the time severity curve (AUC? 5 What sample sizes would trials require to detect MID or AUC criteria? 6 What does factor analysis tell us about the underlying dimensional structure of the common cold? 7 How reliable are items, domains, and summary scores represented in WURSS? 8 For each of these considerations, how well does the WURSS-21 compare to the WURSS-44, Jackson, and SF-8? Study Design and Setting People with Jackson-defined colds were recruited from the community in and around Madison, Wisconsin. Participants were enrolled within 48 hours of first cold symptom and monitored for up to 14 days of illness. Half the sample filled out the WURSS-21 in the morning and the WURSS-44 in the evening, with the other half reversing the daily order. External comparators were the SF-8, a 24-hour recall general health measure yielding separate physical and mental health scores, and the eight-item Jackson cold index, which assesses symptoms, but not functional impairment or quality of life. Results In all, 230 participants were monitored for 2,457 person-days. Participants were aged 14 to 83 years (mean 34.1, SD 13.6, majority female (66.5%, mostly white (86.0%, and represented substantive education and income diversity. WURSS-21 items demonstrated similar performance when embedded within the WURSS-44 or in the stand-alone WURSS-21. Minimal important difference (MID and Guyatt's responsiveness index were 10.3, 0.71 for the WURSS-21 and 18.5, 0
Perry, C. H.; Nelson, M. D.; Stueve, K.; Gormanson, D.
The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service is charged with documenting the status and trends of forest resources of the United States. Since the 1930s, FIA has implemented an intensive field campaign that collects measurements on plots distributed across all ownerships, historically completing analyses which include estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Originally a periodic inventory, FIA has been measuring plots on an annual basis since the passage of the Agriculture Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Farm Bill). The resulting change in sampling design and intensity presents challenges to establishing baseline and measuring changes in forest area and biomass. A project jointly sponsored by the Forest Service and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) titled “Integrating Landscape-scale Forest Measurements with Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Models to Improve Carbon Management Decisions” seeks to improve estimates of landscape- and continental-scale carbon dynamics and causes of change for North American forest land, and to use this information to support land management decisions. Specifically, we are developing and applying methods to scale up intensive biomass and carbon measurements from the field campaign to larger land management areas while simultaneously estimating change in the above-ground forest carbon stocks; the State of Wisconsin is being used as the testbed for this large-scale integration remote sensing with field measurements. Once defined, the temporal and spatial patterns of forest resources by watershed for Lake Superior and Lake Michigan outputs are being integrated into water quality assessments for the Great Lakes.
Bewley, J; Palmer, R W; Jackson-Smith, D B
A primary objective of the Wisconsin Dairy Modernization Survey was to compare features of free-stall barns available to dairy producers. This study used data from a large random sample of expanding dairy farms to determine whether the theoretical benefits of particular free-stall configurations bear out under on-farm conditions. Comparisons were made among herds using free-stall barns as their primary housing for new versus remodeled facilities, barn design, bedding used, feed-delivery design, manure removal strategies, animal restraint, maternity areas, overcrowding, and cooling methods. Producers who made the transition from tie-stall housing to free-stall housing were satisfied with this decision. New free-stall barns provided a more desirable environment for the herds than remodeled free-stall barns, although initial investments were higher. When new free-stall barns were compared, herds with four-row barns had higher production, lower somatic cell count, and higher stocking rates than herds with six-row barns. Respondents were more satisfied with four- and six-row barns than with two- and three-row barns. Respondents felt sand provided some advantages for cow comfort, while satisfaction with bedding cost and manure handling was higher with mattresses. Dairy Herd Improvement data showed no difference in milk production or somatic cell count for producers who chose sand or mattress-based free stalls. Respondents were more satisfied with the use of drive-through feeding than other feed-delivery designs. Most producers chose to use tractor scrapers to remove manure; however, producers who used automated systems were more satisfied with manure management. Few differences were observed when comparing self-locking head gates to palpation rails. Overcrowding did not have any adverse affect on production or user satisfaction with feed intake or cow comfort. Using supplemental cooling appeared to facilitate higher production.
Sovinec, Carl [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)
The objective of the Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center) is to develop and deploy computational models that simulate conditions in smaller, concept-exploration plasma experiments. The PSIC group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, led by Prof. Carl Sovinec, uses and enhances the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation, Open Discussion (NIMROD) code, to simulate macroscopic plasma dynamics in a number of magnetic confinement configurations. These numerical simulations provide information on how magnetic fields and plasma flows evolve over all three spatial dimensions, which supplements the limited access of diagnostics in plasma experiments. The information gained from simulation helps explain how plasma evolves. It is also used to engineer more effective plasma confinement systems, reducing the need for building many experiments to cover the physical parameter space. The ultimate benefit is a more cost-effective approach to the development of fusion energy for peaceful power production. The supplemental funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 were used to purchase computer components that were assembled into a 48-core system with 256 Gb of shared memory. The system was engineered and constructed by the group's system administrator at the time, Anthony Hammond. It was successfully used by then graduate student, Dr. John O'Bryan, for computing magnetic relaxation dynamics that occur during experimental tests of non-inductive startup in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment (pegasus.ep.wisc.edu). Dr. O'Bryan's simulations provided the first detailed explanation of how the driven helical filament of electrical current evolves into a toroidal tokamak-like plasma configuration.
Juckem, Paul F.; Clark, Brian R.; Feinstein, Daniel T.
The U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment seeks to map estimated intrinsic susceptibility of the glacial aquifer system of the conterminous United States. Improved understanding of the hydrogeologic characteristics that explain spatial patterns of intrinsic susceptibility, commonly inferred from estimates of groundwater age distributions, is sought so that methods used for the estimation process are properly equipped. An important step beyond identifying relevant hydrogeologic datasets, such as glacial geology maps, is to evaluate how incorporation of these resources into process-based models using differing levels of detail could affect resulting simulations of groundwater age distributions and, thus, estimates of intrinsic susceptibility.This report describes the construction and calibration of three groundwater-flow models of northeastern Wisconsin that were developed with differing levels of complexity to provide a framework for subsequent evaluations of the effects of process-based model complexity on estimations of groundwater age distributions for withdrawal wells and streams. Preliminary assessments, which focused on the effects of model complexity on simulated water levels and base flows in the glacial aquifer system, illustrate that simulation of vertical gradients using multiple model layers improves simulated heads more in low-permeability units than in high-permeability units. Moreover, simulation of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields in coarse-grained and some fine-grained glacial materials produced a larger improvement in simulated water levels in the glacial aquifer system compared with simulation of uniform hydraulic conductivity within zones. The relation between base flows and model complexity was less clear; however, the relation generally seemed to follow a similar pattern as water levels. Although increased model complexity resulted in improved calibrations, future application of the models using simulated particle
Owens, D.W.; Corsi, Steven R.; Rappold, K.F.
The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP's) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in eight rural and four urban watersheds. This report, the fourth in an annual series of reports, presents a summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S. Geological Survey and the results of several detailed analyses of the data. To complement assessments of water quality, a land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track nonpoint sources of contamination in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that were designed to cause changes in the water quality of streams. Each year, updated information is gathered, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of land-use, BMP implementation, and water-quality data collected during water years 1989-95 are presented. Storm loads, snowmelt-period loads, and annual loads of suspended sediment and total phosphorus are summarized for eight rural sites. Storm-load data for suspended solids, total phosphorus, total recoverable lead, copper, zinc, and cadmium are summarized for four urban sites. Quality-assurance and quality-control (QA/QC) samples were collected at the eight rural sites to evaluate inorganic sample contamination and at one urban site to evaluate sample-collection and filtration techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAR's). Some suspended solids and fecal coliform contamination was detected at the rural sites. Corrective actions will be taken to address this contamination. Evaluation of PAR sample-collection techniques did not uncover any deficiencies, but the small amount of data collected was not sufficient to draw any definite conclusions. Evaluation of PAR filtration techniques indicate that water-sample filtration with O.7-um glass-fiber filters in an aluminum filter unit does not result in significant loss
Massada, Avi Bar; Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hawbaker, Todd J.
The rapid growth of housing in and near the wildland–urban interface (WUI) increases wildfirerisk to lives and structures. To reduce fire risk, it is necessary to identify WUI housing areas that are more susceptible to wildfire. This is challenging, because wildfire patterns depend on fire behavior and spread, which in turn depend on ignition locations, weather conditions, the spatial arrangement of fuels, and topography. The goal of our study was to assess wildfirerisk to a 60,000 ha WUI area in northwesternWisconsin while accounting for all of these factors. We conducted 6000 simulations with two dynamic fire models: Fire Area Simulator (FARSITE) and Minimum Travel Time (MTT) in order to map the spatial pattern of burn probabilities. Simulations were run under normal and extreme weather conditions to assess the effect of weather on fire spread, burn probability, and risk to structures. The resulting burn probability maps were intersected with maps of structure locations and land cover types. The simulations revealed clear hotspots of wildfire activity and a large range of wildfirerisk to structures in the study area. As expected, the extreme weather conditions yielded higher burn probabilities over the entire landscape, as well as to different land cover classes and individual structures. Moreover, the spatial pattern of risk was significantly different between extreme and normal weather conditions. The results highlight the fact that extreme weather conditions not only produce higher fire risk than normal weather conditions, but also change the fine-scale locations of high risk areas in the landscape, which is of great importance for fire management in WUI areas. In addition, the choice of weather data may limit the potential for comparisons of risk maps for different areas and for extrapolating risk maps to future scenarios where weather conditions are unknown. Our approach to modeling wildfirerisk to structures can aid fire risk reduction management
Kane, Robert L; Homyak, Patricia; Bershadsky, Boris; Lum, Yat-Sang
The Wisconsin Partnership Program (WPP) is a variation on the Program for All-inclusive Care of the Elderly (PACE) model that is designed to be more flexible by allowing frail elderly dual-eligible (for both Medicare and Medicaid) clients to use their regular primary care physicians instead of relying on the physician hired by PACE. Case management is provided by a team of nurse, social worker, and nurse practitioner. The latter is charged with communicating with the client's primary physician. We compared the functional status and satisfaction of WPP elderly enrollees with those of two sets of dually eligible controls drawn from the Medicaid waiver rosters. One set of controls came from persons in the same county who opted not to enroll in WPP. The second came from matched counties that did not have access to the WPP. Enrollees were interviewed in person. Family members were interviewed by telephone. The prevalence of activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) dependency was lower for the WPP sample than that for the controls. The pattern of unmet needs was generally comparable. About half of each sample had a written advance directive. Overall, there were few areas of significant difference in beneficiaries' satisfaction. The WPP families were more satisfied than either control group that services were provided when needed and were better coordinated. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of any aspect of care burden. The impact of WPP seems limited. There is some evidence that families perceive better coordinated care. A more complete evaluation will await the analysis of the differences in utilization patterns between WPP and the controls.
Green, Christopher T.; Liao, Lixia; Nolan, Bernard T.; Juckem, Paul F.; Shope, Christopher L.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Jurgens, Bryant
Process-based modeling of regional NO3− fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality, but the complexity of NO3− reactive transport processes make implementation a challenge. This study introduces a regional vertical flux method (VFM) for efficient estimation of reactive transport of NO3− in the vadose zone and groundwater. The regional VFM was applied to 443 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3−, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and tritiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with estimates from previous studies. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams (2) since 1945 fractions of applied N leached to groundwater have increased for manure-N, possibly due to increased injection of liquid manure, and decreased for fertilizer-N, and (3) under current practices and conditions, approximately 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by downward migration of NO3−, with denitrification protecting the remaining 40%. Recharge variability strongly affected the unsaturated zone lag times and the eventual depth of the NO3− front. Principal components regression demonstrated that VFM parameters and predictions were significantly correlated with hydrogeochemical landscape features. The diverse and sometimes conflicting aspects of N management (e.g. limiting N volatilization versus limiting N losses to groundwater) warrant continued development of large-scale holistic strategies to manage water quality and quantity.
Green, Christopher T.; Liao, Lixia; Nolan, Bernard T.; Juckem, Paul F.; Shope, Christopher L.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Jurgens, Bryant C.
Process-based modeling of regional NO3- fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality, but the complexity of NO3- reactive transport processes makes implementation a challenge. This study introduces a regional vertical flux method (VFM) for efficient estimation of reactive transport of NO3- in the vadose zone and groundwater. The regional VFM was applied to 443 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and tritiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with estimates from previous studies. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams, (2) since 1945 fractions of applied N leached to groundwater have increased for manure-N, possibly due to increased injection of liquid manure, and decreased for fertilizer-N, and (3) under current practices and conditions, approximately 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by downward migration of NO3-, with denitrification protecting the remaining 40%. Recharge variability strongly affected the unsaturated zone lag times and the eventual depth of the NO3- front. Principal components regression demonstrated that VFM parameters and predictions were significantly correlated with hydrogeochemical landscape features. The diverse and sometimes conflicting aspects of N management (e.g., limiting N volatilization versus limiting N losses to groundwater) warrant continued development of large-scale holistic strategies to manage water quality and quantity.
Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.
In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.
Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.
High arsenic concentrations (up to 12,000μg/L) have been measured in groundwater from a confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. The main arsenic source is a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon (SCH) that has variable thickness, morphology, and arsenic concentrations. Arsenic occurs in pyrite and marcasite as well as in iron oxyhydroxides but not as a separate arsenopyrite phase. Nearly identical sulfur isotopic signatures in pyrite and dissolved sulfate and the correlation between dissolved sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations suggest that sulfide oxidation is the dominant process controlling arsenic release to groundwater. However, arsenic-bearing oxyhydroxides can potentially provide another arsenic source if reducing conditions develop or if they are transported as colloids in the aquifer. Analysis of well data indicates that the intersection of the SCH with static water levels measured in residential wells is strongly correlated with high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. Field and laboratory data suggest that the most severe arsenic contamination is caused by localized borehole interactions of air, water, and sulfides. Although arsenic contamination is caused by oxidation of naturally occurring sulfides, it is influenced by water-level fluctuations caused by municipal well pumping or climate changes, which can shift geographic areas in which contamination occurs. Résumé De fortes concentrations en arsenic, jusqu'à 12000μg/L, ont été mesurées dans l'eau souterraine d'un aquifère gréseux captif, dans l'est du Wisconsin. La principale source d'arsenic est un horizon à cimentation secondaire (SCH) comportant des sulfures, dont l'épaisseur, la morphologie et les concentrations en arsenic sont variables. L'arsenic est présent dans la pyrite et dans la marcassite, de même que dans des oxy-hydroxydes de fer, mais non pas dans une phase séparée d'arsénopyrite. Les signatures isotopiques du soufre presque identiques dans la
Knutson, M.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Olsen, D.A.; Mossman, M.J.; Hemesath, L.M.; Lannoo, M.J.
Management of amphibian populations to reverse recent declines will require defining high-quality habitat for individual species or groups of species, followed by efforts to retain or restore these habitats on the landscape. We examined landscape-level habitat relationships for frogs and toads by measuring associations between relative abundance and species richness based on survey data derived from anuran calls and features of land-cover maps for Iowa and Wisconsin. The most consistent result across all anuran guilds was a negative association with the presence of urban land. Upland and wetland forests and emergent wetlands tended to be positively associated with anurans. Landscape metrics that represent edges and patch diversity also had generally positive associations, indicating that anurans benefit from a complex of habitats that include wetlands. In Iowa the most significant associations with relative abundance were the length of the edge between wetland and forest (positive) and the presence of urban land (negative). In Wisconsin the two most significant associations with relative abundance were forest area and agricultural area (both positive). Anurans had positive associations with agriculture in Wisconsin but not in Iowa. Remnant forest patches in agricultural landscapes may be providing refuges for some anuran species. Differences in anuran associations with deep water and permanent wetlands between the two states suggest opportunities for management action. Large-scale maps can contribute to predictive models of amphibian habitat use, but water quality and vegetation information collected from individual wetlands will likely be needed to strengthen those predictions. Landscape habitat analyses provide a framework for future experimental and intensive research on specific factors affecting the health of anurans.
McManus, Beth Marie; Robert, Stephanie; Albanese, Aggie; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Part C) authorizes states to establish systems to provide early intervention services (e.g., therapy) for children at risk, with the incentive of federal financial support. This study examines family and neighborhood characteristics associated with currently utilizing physical, occupational, or speech therapy among very low birthweight (VLBW) 2-year-old children who meet Wisconsin eligibility requirements for early intervention services (EI) due to developmental delay. This cross-sectional analysis used data from the Newborn Lung Project, a regional cohort study of VLBW infants hospitalized in Wisconsin's newborn intensive care units during 2003-2004. We included the 176 children who were age two at follow-up, and met Wisconsin state eligibility requirements for EI based on developmental delay. Exact logistic regression was used to describe child and neighborhood socio-demographic correlates of parent-reported receipt of therapy. Among VLBW children with developmental delay, currently utilizing therapy was higher among children with Medicaid (aOR = 5.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 28.3) and concomitant developmental disability (aOR = 5.2, 95% CI: 2.1, 13.3) and lower for those living in a socially more disadvantaged neighborhood (aOR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.98, per tertile). Among a sample of VLBW 2-year olds with developmental delays who are EI-eligible in WI, 4 out of 5 were currently receiving therapy, per parent report. Participation in Medicaid positively influences therapy utilization. Children with developmental difficulties who live in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods are at highest risk for not receiving therapy.
Creating value has been outlined as very central to projects applying the organizational perspective to projects. It has been suggested that value is created in value constellations or project networks, where actors work together to create value. However, research on the value creation process...... in value constellations is scarce, and through an exploratory study of two project networks in a cultural setting we investigate how value is created in value constellations. We outline how each project may be a distinct type of value constellation, one project creates value for the partners of the network...... as a consortium, and the project creates value primarily for others as a facilitator....
Full Text Available Introduction: A proper assessment of gait pattern is a significant aspect in planning the process of teaching gait in hemiparetic post-stroke patients. The Wisconsin Gait Scale (WGS is an observational tool for assessing post-stroke patients’ gait. The aim of the study was to assess test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the WGS and examine correlations between gait assessment made with the WGS and gait speed, Brunnström scale, Ashworth’s scale and the Barthel Index.
Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Saad, David A.; Pratt, Dennis M.; Lenz, Bernard N.
In 2002–03, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geomorphic, flood, and groundwater-flow characteristics of five Bayfield Peninsula streams, Wisconsin (Cranberry River, Bark River, Raspberry River, Sioux River, and Whittlesey Creek) to determine the physical limitations for brook-trout habitat. The goals of the study were threefold: (1) to describe geomorphic characteristics and processes, (2) to determine how land-cover characteristics affect flood peaks, and (3) to determine how regional groundwater flow patterns affect base flow.
The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .
Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.
Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.
There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n = 105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.
Michalski, Michelle L; Bain, Odile; Fischer, Kerstin; Fischer, Peter U; Kumar, Sanjay; Foster, Jeremy M
Dirofilaria ursi is a filarial nematode of American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) that is vectored by black flies (Simuliidae) in many parts of the United States. In northwestern Wisconsin, the prevalence of microfilaremic bears during the fall hunting season was 21% (n = 47). Unsheathed blood microfilariae from Wisconsin bears possess characters consistent with the original description of D. ursi, as do adult worms observed histologically and grossly. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the Wolbachia endosymbiont in the hypodermis and lateral cords of an adult female D. ursi. Amplification of wsp, gatB, coxA, fbpA, and ftsZ bacterial sequences from parasite DNA confirmed the presence of Wolbachia, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene groups the endosymbiont with Wolbachia from D. immitis and D. repens. Phylogenetic analysis of D. ursi 5s rDNA sequence confirms the morphological observations grouping this parasite as a member of Dirofilaria, and within the Dirofilaria - Onchocerca clade of filarial nematodes. This is the first report of Wolbachia characterization and molecular phylogeny information for D. ursi.
Garcia Espinosa, Arlety; Andrade Machado, René; Borges González, Susana; García González, María Eugenia; Pérez Montoto, Ariadna; Toledo Sotomayor, Guillermo
The goal of the study described here was to determine if executive dysfunction and impulsivity are related to risk for suicide and suicide attempts in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Forty-two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were recruited. A detailed medical history, neurological examination, serial EEGs, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, executive function, and MRI were assessed. Multiple regression analysis was carried out to examine predictive associations between clinical variables and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test measures. Patients' scores on the Risk for Suicide Scale (n=24) were greater than 7, which means they had the highest relative risk for suicide attempts. Family history of psychiatric disease, current major depressive episode, left temporal lobe epilepsy, and perseverative responses and total errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test increased by 6.3 and 7.5 suicide risk and suicide attempts, respectively. Executive dysfunction (specifically perseverative responses and more total errors) contributed greatly to suicide risk. Executive performance has a major impact on suicide risk and suicide attempts in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Gratton, Claudio
The expansion of modern agriculture has led to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, resulting in a global decline in biodiversity, including bees. In many countries, farmers can participate in cost-share programs to create natural habitat on their farms for the conservation of beneficial insects, such as bees. Despite their dependence on bee pollinators and the demonstrated commitment to environmental stewardship, participation in such programs by Wisconsin cranberry growers has been low. The objective of this study was to understand the barriers that prevent participation by Wisconsin cranberry growers in cost-share programs for on-farm conservation of native bees. We conducted a survey of cranberry growers (n = 250) regarding farming practices, pollinators, and conservation. Although only 10% of growers were aware of federal pollinator cost-share programs, one third of them were managing habitat for pollinators without federal aid. Once informed of the programs, 50% of growers expressed interest in participating. Fifty-seven percent of growers manage habitat for other wildlife, although none receive cost-share funding to do so. Participation in cost-share programs could benefit from outreach activities that promote the programs, a reduction of bureaucratic hurdles to participate, and technical support for growers on how to manage habitat for wild bees.
Hannah R. Gaines-Day
Full Text Available The expansion of modern agriculture has led to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, resulting in a global decline in biodiversity, including bees. In many countries, farmers can participate in cost-share programs to create natural habitat on their farms for the conservation of beneficial insects, such as bees. Despite their dependence on bee pollinators and the demonstrated commitment to environmental stewardship, participation in such programs by Wisconsin cranberry growers has been low. The objective of this study was to understand the barriers that prevent participation by Wisconsin cranberry growers in cost-share programs for on-farm conservation of native bees. We conducted a survey of cranberry growers (n = 250 regarding farming practices, pollinators, and conservation. Although only 10% of growers were aware of federal pollinator cost-share programs, one third of them were managing habitat for pollinators without federal aid. Once informed of the programs, 50% of growers expressed interest in participating. Fifty-seven percent of growers manage habitat for other wildlife, although none receive cost-share funding to do so. Participation in cost-share programs could benefit from outreach activities that promote the programs, a reduction of bureaucratic hurdles to participate, and technical support for growers on how to manage habitat for wild bees.
Hale, Lauren; Hill, Terrence D; Friedman, Elliot; Nieto, F Javier; Galvao, Loren W; Engelman, Corinne D; Malecki, Kristen M C; Peppard, Paul E
Why does living in a disadvantaged neighborhood predict poorer mental and physical health? Recent research focusing on the Southwestern United States suggests that disadvantaged neighborhoods favor poor health, in part, because they undermine sleep quality. Building on previous research, we test whether this process extends to the Midwestern United States. Specifically, we use cross-sectional data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a statewide probability sample of Wisconsin adults, to examine whether associations among perceived neighborhood quality (e.g., perceptions of crime, litter, and pleasantness in the neighborhood) and health status (overall self-rated health and depression) are mediated by overall sleep quality (measured as self-rated sleep quality and physician diagnosis of sleep apnea). We find that perceptions of low neighborhood quality are associated with poorer self-rated sleep quality, poorer self-rated health, and more depressive symptoms. We also observe that poorer self-rated sleep quality is associated with poorer self-rated health and more depressive symptoms. Our mediation analyses indicate that self-rated sleep quality partially mediates the link between perceived neighborhood quality and health status. Specifically, self-rated sleep quality explains approximately 20% of the association between neighborhood quality and self-rated health and nearly 19% of the association between neighborhood quality and depression. Taken together, these results confirm previous research and extend the generalizability of the indirect effect of perceived neighborhood context on health status through sleep quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amy E. Schlotthauer
Full Text Available ObjectiveFalls are a leading cause of injury death. Stepping On is a fall prevention program developed in Australia and shown to reduce falls by up to 31%. The original program was implemented in a community setting, by an occupational therapist, and included a home visit. The purpose of this study was to examine aspects of the translation and implementation of Stepping On in three community settings in Wisconsin.MethodsThe investigative team identified four research questions to understand the spread and use of the program, as well as to determine whether critical components of the program could be modified to maximize use in community practice. The team evaluated program uptake, participant reach, program feasibility, program acceptability, and program fidelity by varying the implementation setting and components of Stepping On. Implementation setting included type of host organization, rural versus urban location, health versus non-health background of leaders, and whether a phone call could replace the home visit. A mixed methodology of surveys and interviews completed by site managers, leaders, guest experts, participants, and content expert observations for program fidelity during classes was used.ResultsThe study identified implementation challenges that varied by setting, including securing a physical therapist for the class and needing more time to recruit participants. There were no implementation differences between rural and urban locations. Potential differences emerged in program fidelity between health and non-health professional leaders, although fidelity was high overall with both. Home visits identified more home hazards than did phone calls and were perceived as of greater benefit to participants, but at 1 year no differences were apparent in uptake of strategies discussed in home versus phone visits.ConclusionAdaptations to the program to increase implementation include using a leader who is a non-health professional, and
Thomas, David L; Berger, Yves M; McKusick, Brett C; Mikolayunas, Claire M
Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased
Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased
Jessica J. F. Kram
Full Text Available Purpose: Maternal group B Streptococcus (GBS can be transmitted from a colonized mother to newborn during vaginal delivery and may or may not contribute to infant death. This study aimed to explore the geographic distribution and risk factors of maternal GBS colonization and infant death during birth hospitalization. Methods: We retrospectively studied mothers with live birth(s in a large eastern Wisconsin hospital system from 2007 through 2013. Associations between maternal and neonatal variables, GBS colonization and infant death were examined using chi-squared, Mann-Whitney U and t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression models also were developed. Results: Study population (N = 99,305 had a mean age of 28.1 years and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI of 26.7 kg/m2; 64.0% were white, 59.2% married, 39.3% nulliparous and 25.7% cesarean delivery. Mean gestational age was 39.0 weeks. Rate of maternal GBS colonization (22.3% overall was greater in blacks (34.1% vs. 20.1% in whites, P < 0.0001, unmarried women (25.5% vs. 20.0% married, P < 0.0001, women with sexually transmitted or other genital infections (P < 0.0001 and residents of ZIP code group 532XX (P < 0.0001, and was associated with increasing BMI (P < 0.0001. All predictors of colonization were significant on multivariable analysis. Rate of infant death was 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (n = 558 excluding lethal anomalies and stillbirths and was negatively associated with maternal GBS colonization (P < 0.0001. On multivariable analysis, 532XX ZIP code group, lower gestational age, preterm labor, hyaline membrane disease, normal spontaneous vaginal delivery, hydramnios, oligohydramnios and absence of maternal GBS were associated with infant death. Conclusions: Geographic characteristics were associated with infant death and maternal GBS colonization. Further research is needed to determine if increased surveillance or treatment of mothers colonized with GBS decreases the risk of infant
Gebert, Warren A.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.
Streamflow characteristics were determined for 15 longterm streamflow-gaging stations for the periods 1915–2008, 1915–68, and 1969–2008 to identify trends. Stations selected represent flow characteristics for the major river basins in Wisconsin. Trends were statistically significant at the 95 percent confidence level at 13 of the 15 streamflow-gaging stations for various streamflow characteristics for 1915–2008. Most trends indicated increases in low flows for streams with agriculture as the dominant land use. The three most important findings are: increases in low flows and average flows in agricultural watersheds, decreases in flood peak discharge for many streams in both agricultural and forested watersheds, and climatic change occurred with increasing annual precipitation and changes in monthly occurrence of precipitation. When the 1915–68 period is compared to the 1969–2008 period, the annual 7-day low flow increased an average of 60 percent for nine streams in agricultural areas as compared to a 15 percent increase for the five forested streams. Average annual flow for the same periods increased 23 percent for the agriculture streams and 0.6 percent for the forested streams. The annual flood peak discharge for the same periods decreased 15 percent for agriculture streams and 8 percent for forested streams. The largest increase in the annual 7-day low flow was 117 percent, the largest increase in annual average flow was 41 percent, and the largest decrease in annual peak discharge was 51 percent. The trends in streamflow characteristics affect frequency characteristics, which are used for a variety of design and compliance purposes. The frequencies for the 1969–2008 period were compared to frequencies for the 1915–68 period. The 7-day, 10-year (Q7, 10) low flow increased 91 percent for nine agricultural streams, while the five forested streams had an increase of 18 percent. The 100-year flood peak discharge decreased an average of 15 percent
Byers, Carolyn M.; Ribic, Christine; Sample, David W.; Dadisman, John D.; Guttery, Michael
Surrogate grasslands established through federal set-aside programs, such as U.S. Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), provide important habitat for grassland birds. Warm season grass CRP fields as a group have the potential for providing a continuum of habitat structure for breeding birds, depending on how the fields are managed and their floristic composition. We studied the nesting activity of four obligate grassland bird species, Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), and Henslow's Sparrow (A. henslowii), in relation to vegetative composition and fire management in warm season CRP fields in southwest Wisconsin during 2009–2011. Intraspecific variation in apparent nest density was related to the number of years since the field was burned. Apparent Grasshopper Sparrow nest density was highest in the breeding season immediately following spring burns, apparent Henslow's Sparrow nest density was highest 1 y post burn, and apparent Bobolink and Eastern Meadowlark nest densities were higher in post fire years one to three. Grasshopper Sparrow nest density was highest on sites with more diverse vegetation, specifically prairie forbs, and on sites with shorter less dense vegetation. Bobolink, Eastern Meadowlark, and Henslow's Sparrow apparent nest densities were higher on sites with deeper litter; litter was the vegetative component that was most affected by spring burns. Overall nest success was 0.487 for Bobolink (22 d nesting period), 0.478 for Eastern Meadowlark (25 d nesting period), 0.507 for Grasshopper Sparrow (22 d nesting period), and 0.151 for Henslow's Sparrow (21 d nesting period). The major nest predators were grassland-associated species: thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), American badger (Taxidea taxus), and western fox snake (Elaphe vulpina). Overall
Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Samanta, S.; Ahl, D. E.; Burrows, S. S.; Gower, S. T.
Land use changes over the last century in northern Wisconsin have resulted in a heterogeneous landscape composed of the following four main forest types: northern hardwoods, northern conifer, aspen/fir, and forested wetland. Based on sap flux measurements, aspen/fir has twice the canopy transpiration of northern hardwoods. In addition, daily transpiration was only explained by daily average vapor pressure deficit across the cover types. The objective of this study was to determine if canopy average stomatal conductance could be used to explain the species effects on tree transpiration. Our first hypothesis is that across all of the species, stomatal conductance will respond to vapor pressure deficit so as to maintain a minimum leaf water potential to prevent catostrophic cavitiation. The consequence of this hypothesis is that among species and individuals there is a proportionality between high stomatal conductance and the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. Our second hypothesis is that species that do not follow the proportionality deviate because the canopies are decoupled from the atmosphere. To test our two hypotheses we calculated canopy average stomatal conductance from sap flux measurements using an inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation. We estimated the canopy coupling using a leaf energy budget model that requires leaf transpiration and canopy aerodynamic conductance. We optimized the parameters of the aerodynamic conductance model using a Monte Carlo technique across six parameters. We determined the optimal model for each species by selecting parameter sets that resulted in the proportionality of our first hypothesis. We then tested the optimal energy budget models of each species by comparing leaf temperature and leaf width predicted by the models to measurements of each tree species. In red pine, sugar maple, and trembling aspen trees under high canopy coupling conditions, we found the hypothesized proportionality
Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…
Weaver, T.L.; Neff, B.P.; Ellis, J.M.
Lac Vieux Desert is a prominent 6.6 square-mile lake that straddles the Michigan-Wisconsin border and forms the headwaters of the Wisconsin River. For generations, the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians have used Lac Vieux Desert and the surrounding area for growing and harvesting wild rice, and hunting and fishing. The Lac Vieux Desert Band is concerned about the impact of lake-stage regulation on hydrology and ecology, and the impact on water quality of development along and near the shore, and recreational watercraft use and sport fishing. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a water-resources investigation of the Lac Vieux Desert watershed in cooperation with the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians.Water quality of Lac Vieux Desert is typical of many lakes in the northern United States. Trophic State Index calculations classify Lac Vieux Desert as a highly productive eutrophic lake. The pH of water in Lac Vieux Desert ranged from 6.5 to 9.5, and specific conductance ranged from 62 to 114 µs/cm. Chloride concentration was less than 1.5 mg/L, indicating little effect from septic-tank or road-salt input. Results indicate that the water can be classified as soft, with hardness concentrations reported as calcium carbonate ranging from 29 to 49 mg/L. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, chloride, and other dissolved solids ranged from 47 to 77 mg/L. Alkalinity of Lac Vieux Desert ranged from 27 to 38 mg/L.Pervasive aquatic blooms, including a bloom noted during the September 2003 sampling, are apparently common in late summer. Biological productivity at Lac Vieux Desert does not appear to have changed appreciably between 1973 and 2004. In the current study, total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.064 mg/L and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen concentrations ranged from at, or below detection limit to 0.052 mg/L. Overabundance of nutrients in Lac Vieux Desert, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus
Weeks, E.P.; Stangland, H.G.
Development of ground water for irrigation affects streamflow and water levels in the sand-plain area of central Wisconsin. Additional irrigation development may reduce opportunities for water-based recreation by degrading the streams as trout habitat and by lowering lake levels. This study was made to inventory present development of irrigation in the sand-plain area, assess potential future development, and estimate the effects of irrigation on streamflow and ground-water levels. The suitability of land and the availability of ground water for irrigation are dependent, to a large extent, upon the geology of the area. Rocks making up the ground-water reservoir include outwash, morainal deposits, and glacial lake deposits. These deposits are underlain by crystalline rocks and by sandstone, which act as the floor of the ground-water reservoir. Outwash, the main aquifer, supplies water to about 300 irrigation wells and maintains relatively stable flow in the streams draining the area. The saturated thickness of these deposits is more than 100 feet over much of the area and is as much as 180 feet in bedrock valleys. The saturated thickness of the outwash generally is great enough to provide sufficient water for large-scale irrigation in all but two areas --one near the town of Wisconsin Rapids and one near Dorro Couche Mound. Aquifer tests indicate that the permeability of the outwash is quite high, ranging from about 1,000 gpd per square foot to about 3,800 gpd per square foot, Specific capacities of irrigation wells in the area range from 14 to 157 gpm per foot of drawdown. Water use in the sand-plain area is mainly for irrigation and waterbased recreation. Irrigation development began in the area in the late 1940's, and by 1967 about 19,500 acre-feet of water were pumped to irrigate 34,000 acres of potatoes, snap beans, corn, cucumbers, and other crops. About 70 percent of the applied water was lost to evapotranspiration, and about 30 percent was returned to the
Sørensen, Olav Jull
The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...
Feinstein, D.T.; Dunning, C.P.; Juckem, P.F.; Hunt, R.J.
Groundwater use from shallow, high-capacity wells is expected to increase across southeastern Wisconsin in the next decade (2010-2020), owing to residential and business growth and the need for shallow water to be blended with deeper water of lesser quality, containing, for example, excessive levels of radium. However, this increased pumping has the potential to affect surface-water features. A previously developed regional groundwater-flow model for southeastern Wisconsin was used as the starting point for a new model to characterize the hydrology of part of northwestern Waukesha County, with a particular focus on the relation between the shallow aquifer and several area lakes. An inset MODFLOW model was embedded in an updated version of the original regional model. Modifications made within the inset model domain include finer grid resolution; representation of Beaver, Pine, and North Lakes by use of the LAK3 package in MODFLOW; and representation of selected stream reaches with the SFR package. Additionally, the inset model is actively linked to the regional model by use of the recently released Local Grid Refinement package for MODFLOW-2005, which allows changes at the regional scale to propagate to the local scale and vice versa. The calibrated inset model was used to simulate the hydrologic system in the Chenequa area under various weather and pumping conditions. The simulated model results for base conditions show that groundwater is the largest inflow component for Beaver Lake (equal to 59 percent of total inflow). For Pine and North Lakes, it is still an important component (equal, respectively, to 16 and 5 percent of total inflow), but for both lakes it is less than the contribution from precipitation and surface water. Severe drought conditions (simulated in a rough way by reducing both precipitation and recharge rates for 5 years to two-thirds of base values) cause correspondingly severe reductions in lake stage and flows. The addition of a test well
Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .
Valuing present citizen's values regarding the risks they face is an important aspect of risk assessment and risk acceptability. Conferences like VALDOR are held for this reason. Governments like Sweden have national referendums on various risk-prone enterprises. The results of these referendums can determine the future of these programs. In the United States, when guidelines are set for determining acceptable levels of risk, the relevant federal agencies are often required to provide a comment period regarding proposed guidelines in order to ascertain the judgments, including the weights place on certain values, of individual members of society as well as stakeholder groups. After the comment period ends, the agency decides on the acceptable level of risk, taking into account the comments from present citizens. Do we also have a duty to value the not-yet-existing values of future citizens, especially if the risks created by the activities of present citizens extend into the future to citizens not yet living? If so, are there any circumstances which entitle us to de-value those not-yet-existing values. In this paper, I ground my discussion of the question of valuing future citizens' values in one of the areas of focus of the VALDOR conference: nuclear waste management and specifically the question facing the United States' program regarding an acceptable dose standard associated with the release of radioactivity into the biosphere from an underground repository. The underlying conference theme to which this discussion may be attached is community environmental justice as it applies to future citizens. I focus on the role that uncertainty plays is providing justice between present and future citizens
Fleming, Patricia [Creighton Univ., Omaha (United States). College of Arts and Sciences/Philosophy
Valuing present citizen's values regarding the risks they face is an important aspect of risk assessment and risk acceptability. Conferences like VALDOR are held for this reason. Governments like Sweden have national referendums on various risk-prone enterprises. The results of these referendums can determine the future of these programs. In the United States, when guidelines are set for determining acceptable levels of risk, the relevant federal agencies are often required to provide a comment period regarding proposed guidelines in order to ascertain the judgments, including the weights place on certain values, of individual members of society as well as stakeholder groups. After the comment period ends, the agency decides on the acceptable level of risk, taking into account the comments from present citizens. Do we also have a duty to value the not-yet-existing values of future citizens, especially if the risks created by the activities of present citizens extend into the future to citizens not yet living? If so, are there any circumstances which entitle us to de-value those not-yet-existing values. In this paper, I ground my discussion of the question of valuing future citizens' values in one of the areas of focus of the VALDOR conference: nuclear waste management and specifically the question facing the United States' program regarding an acceptable dose standard associated with the release of radioactivity into the biosphere from an underground repository. The underlying conference theme to which this discussion may be attached is community environmental justice as it applies to future citizens. I focus on the role that uncertainty plays is providing justice between present and future citizens.
Olmsted, Jodi L.
The academic performance of students enrolled in a distance education dental hygiene program at Northcentral Technical College (NTC) in Wausau, Wisconsin, was analyzed in a comparative, quasi-experimental study. The study sample consisted of five cohorts of program graduates (students graduating in 1997-2001). The experiment groups were divided…
Richard Birdsey; Yude Pan; Maria Janowiak; Susan Stewart; Sarah Hines; Linda Parker; Stith Gower; Jeremy Lichstein; Kevin McCullough; Fangmin Zhang; Jing Chen; David Mladenoff; Craig Wayson; Chris. Swanston
This report assesses past and prospective carbon stocks for 4.5 million ha of forest land in northern Wisconsin, including a baseline assessment and analysis of the impacts of disturbance and management on carbon stocks. Carbon density (amount of carbon stock per unit area) averages 237 megagrams (Mg) per ha, with the National Forest lands having slightly higher carbon...
This document contains a collection of official comments on a draft report characterizing the subsurface geology of an area of Wisconsin proposed for a high-level radioactive waste disposal site. Most comments identify passages requiring correction or question the interpretation of the data
Sveum, Evan Charles
A study comparing University of Wisconsin-Stout freshmen and senior education majors' computing and Internet technology skills/knowledge and associated learning experiences was conducted. Instruments used in this study included the IC[superscript 3][R] Exam by Certiport, Inc. and the investigator's Computing and Internet Skills Learning…
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...
Clune, Bill; Knowles, Jared
Since 2012, the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI) has maintained a statewide predictive analytics system providing schools with an early warning in middle grades of students at risk for not completing high school. DPI is considering extending and enhancing this system, known as the Dropout Early Warning System (DEWS). The proposed…
Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group
Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work
Clements, Margaret; Pazzaglia, Angela M.; Stafford, Erin
This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The purpose of the study conducted by REL Midwest in partnership with the Midwest Virtual Education Research Alliance was to develop and administer a survey to describe online course use in Iowa and Wisconsin brick-and-mortar…
Chinchanachokchai, Sydney; Jamelske, Eric M.
Purpose/Objectives: Existing research has investigated the effects of using individual incentives and positive reinforcements to influence children to eat more fruits and vegetables for lunch and snack during school. This study explored using group-level incentives to motivate children in a Wisconsin elementary school to eat more fruits and…
Maria K. Janowiak; Louis R. Iverson; David J. Mladenoff; Emily Peters; Kirk R. Wythers; Weimin Xi; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Stephen D. Handler; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Linda R. Parker; Amy J. Amman; Brian Bogaczyk; Christine Handler; Ellen Lesch; Peter B. Reich; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Sami Khanal; Feng Liu; Tara Bal; Dustin Bronson; Andrew Burton; Jim Ferris; Jon Fosgitt; Shawn Hagan; Erin Johnston; Evan Kane; Colleen Matula; Ryan O' Connor; Dale Higgins; Matt St. Pierre; Jad Daley; Mae Davenport; Marla R. Emery; David Fehringer; Christopher L. Hoving; Gary Johnson; David Neitzel; Michael Notaro; Adena Rissman; Chadwick Rittenhouse; Robert Ziel
Forest ecosystems across the Northwoods will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in the Laurentian Mixed Forest Province of northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan under a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate...
Petersen, Marianne Graves; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard
Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...
We argue that positive discipline in multicultural school environments needs to be based in part on human rights values that are neither solely universally interpreted nor particularistically interpreted. We report on the data generated at a research workshop held as the final dissemination process of a four-year international ...
Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino
This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal value...
Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.
This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…
Liang, D; Sun, F; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Hedtcke, J L; Silva, E M
Organic agriculture continues to expand in the United States, both in total hectares and market share. However, management practices used by dairy organic producers, and their resulting environmental impacts, vary across farms. This study used a partial life cycle assessment approach to estimate the effect of different feeding strategies and associated crop production on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. Field and livestock-driven emissions were calculated using 2 data sets. One was a 20-yr data set from the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping System Trial documenting management inputs, crop and pasture yields, and soil characteristics, used to estimate field-level emissions from land associated with feed production (row crop and pasture), including N 2 O and soil carbon sequestration. The other was a data set summarizing organic farm management in Wisconsin, which was used to estimate replacement heifer emission (CO 2 equivalents), enteric methane (CH 4 ), and manure management (N 2 O and CH 4 ). Three combinations of corn grain (CG) and soybean (SB) as concentrate (all corn = 100% CG; baseline = 75% CG + 25% SB; half corn = 50% CG + 50% SB) were assigned to each of 4 representative management strategies as determined by survey data. Overall, GHG emissions associated with crop production was 1,297 ± 136 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM without accounting for soil carbon changes (ΔSC), and GHG emission with ΔSC was 1,457 ± 111 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM, with greater reliance on pasture resulting in less ΔSC. Higher levels of milk production were a major driver associated with reduction in GHG emission per metric tonne of ECM. Emissions per metric tonne of ECM increased with increasing proportion of SB in the ration; however, including SB in the crop rotation decreased N 2 O emission per metric tonne of ECM from cropland due to lower applications of organically approved N fertility inputs. More SB at the expense of CG
Sass, Laura L.; Bozek, Michael A.; Hauxwell, Jennifer A.; Wagner, Kelly; Knight, Susan
Aquatic macrophyte communities were assessed in 53 lakes in Wisconsin, U.S.A. along environmental and land use development gradients to determine effects human land use perturbations have on aquatic macrophytes at the watershed and riparian development scales. Species richness and relative frequency were surveyed in lakes from two ecoregions: the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion and the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plain Ecoregion. Lakes were selected along a gradient of watershed development ranging from undeveloped (i.e., forested), to agricultural to urban development. Land uses occurring in the watershed and in perimeters of different width (0–100, 0–200, 0–500, and 0–1000 m from shore, in the watershed) were used to assess effects on macrophyte communities. Snorkel and SCUBA were used to survey aquatic macrophyte species in 18 quadrats of 0.25 m2 along 14 transects placed perpendicular to shore in each lake. Effects of watershed development (e.g., agriculture and/or urban) were tested at whole-lake (entire littoral zone) and near-shore (within 7 m of shore) scales using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and linear regression. Overall, species richness was negatively related to watershed development, while frequencies of individual species and groups differed in level of response to different land use perturbations. Effects of land use in the perimeters on macrophytes, with a few exceptions, did not provide higher correlations compared to land use at the watershed scale. In lakes with higher total watershed development levels, introduced species, particularly Myriophyllumspicatum, increased in abundance and native species, especially potamids, isoetids, and floating-leaved plants, declined in abundance. Correlations within the northern and southeastern ecoregions separately were not significant. Multivariate analyses suggested species composition is driven by environmental responses as well as human development pressures. Both water
Deriving value in Capital Marx uses three commensurability arguments (CA1-3). CA1 establishes equivalence in exchange as exchangeability with the same third commodity. CA2 establishes value as common denominator in commodities: embodied abstract labour. CA3 establishes value substance...... as commonality of labour: physiological labour. Tensions between these logics have permeated Marxist interpretations of value. Some have supported value as embodied labour (CA2, 3), others a monetary theory of value and value as ‘pure’ societal abstraction (ultimately CA1). They all are grounded in Marx....
Nickles, Robert Jerome [Univ of Wisconsin
small scale metallurgy with greater control. This alloy feedstock was then used to electroplate cyclotron targets with elevated melting temperatures capable of withstanding higher beam currents. 6. Finished the beam-line developments needed for the irradiation of low-melting target materials (Se and Ga) now being used for the production of Br-76, and radioactive germanium (68, 69, 71Ge). Our planned development of I-124 production has been deferred, given the wide access from commercial suppliers. The passing of these milestones has been the subject of the previous quarterly reports. These signature accomplishments were made possible by the DOE support, and have strengthened the infrastructure at the University of Wisconsin, provided the training ground for a very talented graduate research assistant (Mr. Valdovinos) and more than doubled our out-shipments of Cu-64 and Zr-89.
Collection methods, data compilation, and lessons learned from a study of stream geomorphology associated with riparian cattle grazing along the Fever River, University of Wisconsin- Platteville Pioneer Farm, Wisconsin, 2004–11
Peppler, Marie C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.
Stream geomorphic characteristics were monitored along a 0.8-mile reach of the Fever River in the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin from 2004 to 2011 where cattle grazed in paddocks along the riverbank at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville’s Pioneer Farm. The study reach encompassed seven paddocks that covered a total of 30 acres on both sides of the river. Monitoring data included channel crosssection surveys, eroding bank measurements and photograph points, erosion-pin measurements, longitudinal profile surveys, measurements of the volume of soft sediment in the channel, and repeated time-lapse photographs. Characteristics were summarized into subreaches by use of a geographic information system. From 2004 to 2007, baseline monitoring was done to identify geomorphic conditions prior to evaluating the effects of management alternatives for riparian grazing. Subsequent to the full-scale baseline monitoring, additional data were collected from 2007 to 2011. Samples of eroding bank and in-channel soft sediment were collected and analyzed for dry bulk density in 2008 for use in a sediment budget. One of the pastures was excluded from cattle grazing in the fall of 2007; in 2009 channel cross sections, longitudinal profiles, erosion-pin measurements, photographs, and a soft sediment survey were again collected along the full 0.8-mile reach for a comparison to baseline monitoring data. Channel cross sections were surveyed a final time in 2011. Lessons learned from bank monitoring with erosion pins were most numerous and included the need for consistent tracking of each pin and whether there was deposition or erosion, timing of measurements and bank conditions during measurements (frozen, postflood), and awareness of pins loosening in place. Repeated freezing and thawing of banks and consequential mass wasting and jointing enhance fluvial erosion. Monitoring equipment in the paddocks was kept flush to the ground or located high on posts to avoid injuring the
Benbow, Ross J.; Hora, Matthew T.
The narrative of the "skills gap," or the notion that the United States economy suffers because employers are not able to find job applicants with workplace-ready skills (e.g., American Society for Training and Development 2012), has become an influential rallying cry in higher education funding circles in recent years. It is with these…
Mills, Patrick C.
Exploratory studies were conducted at sites bordering the Fox River in Waukesha, Wisconsin, during 2010 and McHenry, Illinois, during 2011–13. The objectives of the studies were to assess strategies for the study of and insights into the potential for directly connected groundwater and surface-water systems with natural groundwater discharge to streams diverted and (or) streamflow induced (captured) by nearby production-well withdrawals. Several collection efforts of about 2 weeks or less provided information and data on site geology, groundwater and surface-water levels, hydraulic gradients, water-temperature and stream-seepage patterns, and water chemistry including stables isotopes. Overview information is presented for the Waukesha study, and selected data and preliminary findings are presented for the McHenry study.
Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Koscik, Rebecca L; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Peppard, Paul E; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Engelman, Corinne D
Social activity is associated with healthy aging and preserved cognition. Such activity includes a confluence of social support and verbal interaction, each influencing cognition through rarely parsed, mechanistically distinct pathways. We created a novel verbal interaction measure for the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) and assessed reliability of resultant data, a first step toward mechanism-driven examination of social activity as a modifiable predictor of cognitive health. Two WRAP subsamples completed a test-retest study to determine 8-week stability ( n = 107) and 2-year stability ( n = 136) of verbal interaction, and 2-year stability of perceived social support. Reliability was determined using quadratic-weighted kappa, percent agreement, or correlation coefficients. Reliability was fair to almost perfect. The association between social support and interaction quantity decreased with age. Social activity data demonstrate moderate to excellent temporal stability. Moreover, in older individuals, social support and verbal interaction represent two distinct dimensions of social activity.
Sánchez, Juan Luis; Martín, Javier; López, Carolina
The classic version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) consists of correctly sorting 128 cards according to changing sorting criteria. Its application is costly in terms of the time employed, with all the negative consequences this entails (decrease in motivation, frustration, and fatigue). The main objective of this study was to test the usefulness of the shortened version of the WCST as compared to the full test by analyzing the equivalence between the two decks comprising the full 128-card version on a sample of patients diagnosed with sporadic late onset Alzheimer disease (SLOAD) and to check its clinical usefulness. The variables showed equivalence between the two decks and their ability to differentiate between the control group (CG) and the Alzheimer disease (AD) group. The scores obtained suggest equivalence between decks and that the application of only the first deck is sufficient.
Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.
Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.
Long term changes in public values are not easily detected. One important reason is the limited availability of reliable empirical data. Job advertisements allow us to go back in history for some decades and job ads may present us with the values that are supposed to guide civil servant behaviour...... in several directions; b) job ads develop into platforms for organizational branding with an emphasis on HR-related values although national logos enter the scene (the Danish royal crown, the Dutch national emblem); c) New Public Management values do not crowd out other values, rather value intensity...
Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated the association between radon and thyroid cancer despite the sensitivity of the thyroid gland to radiation. Our goal is to investigate the association between county-level radon and incidence of female thyroid cancer in the US States of Iowa, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Methods: Thyroid cancer incidence data were provided by individual state cancer registries and span 1990–2013. Radon data come from a publicly available third-party database, AirChek, accessed in 2017. We tabulated the percent of radon above four picocuries per liter and the female thyroid cancer incidence rate in each county. Quantile maps were constructed, and an ordinary least-squares regression model was run using Geoda 126.96.36.199 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: No association was observed between county-level radon and incidence of female thyroid cancer in any of the States: New Jersey (β = 0.06, p = 0.23; Iowa (β = −0.07, p = 0.07; or Wisconsin (β = −0.01, p = 0.78. A spatial regression model was considered, but the Moran’s I of the residuals from each of the models was not significant, so no spatial term was required. Discussion: In this county-level ecological study across three different States in the US, we did not find an association between elevated radon and thyroid cancer incidence in women. While this ecologic study reports null findings, due to the ecologic fallacy, individual-level studies of this association may still be warranted.
Fienen, Michael N.; Saad, David A.; Juckem, Paul F.
The shallow groundwater system in the Forest County Potawatomi Comminity, Forest County, Wisconsin, was simulated by expanding and recalibrating a previously calibrated regional model. The existing model was updated using newly collected water-level measurements, inclusion of surface-water features beyond the previous near-field boundary, and refinements to surface-water features. The updated model then was used to calculate the area contributing recharge for seven existing and three proposed pumping locations on lands of the Forest County Potawatomi Community. The existing wells were the subject of a 2004 source-water evaluation in which areas contributing recharge were calculated using the fixed-radius method. The motivation for the present (2012) project was to improve the level of detail of areas contributing recharge for the existing wells and to provide similar analysis for the proposed wells. Delineated 5- and 10-year areas contributing recharge for existing and proposed wells extend from the areas of pumping to delineate the area at the surface contributing recharge to the wells. Steady-state pumping was simulated for two scenarios: a base-pumping scenario using pumping rates that reflect what the Community currently (2012) pumps (or plans to in the case of proposed wells), and a high-pumping scenario in which the rate was set to the maximum expected from wells installed in this area, according to the Forest County Potawatomi Community Natural Resources Department. In general, the 10-year areas contributing recharge did not intersect surface-water bodies. The 5- and 10-year areas contributing recharge simulated at the maximum pumping rate at Bug Lake Road may intersect Bug Lake. At the casino near the Town of Carter, Wisconsin, the 10-year areas contributing recharge intersect infiltration ponds. At the Devils Lake and Lois Crow Drive wells, areas contributing recharge are near cultural features, including residences.
Peltier, Wendy L; Gani, Faiz; Blissitt, Jennifer; Walczak, Katherine; Opper, Kristi; Derse, Arthur R; Johnston, Fabian M
Although previous research on advance care planning (ACP) has associated ACP with improved quality of care at the end of life, the appropriate use of ACP remains limited. To evaluate the impact of a pilot program using the "Honoring Choices Wisconsin" (HCW) model for ACP in a tertiary care setting, and to understand barriers to system-wide implementation. Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Patients who received medical or surgical oncology care at Froedtert and the Medical College of Wisconsin. Patient demographics, disease characteristics, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. Data from 69 patients who died following the implementation of the HCW program were reviewed; 24 patients were enrolled in the HCW program while 45 were not. Patients enrolled in HCW were proportionally less likely to be admitted to the ICU (12.5% vs. 17.8%) and were more likely to be "do not resuscitate" (87.5% vs. 80.0%), as well as have a completed ACP (83.3% vs. 79.1%). Furthermore, admission to a hospice was also higher among patients who were enrolled in the HCW program (79.2% vs. 25.6%), with patients enrolled in HCW more likely to die in hospice (70.8% vs. 53.3%). The HCW program was favorably viewed by patients, patient caregivers, and healthcare providers. Implementation of a facilitator-based ACP care model was associated with fewer ICU admissions, and a higher use of hospice care. System-level changes are required to overcome barriers to ACP that limit patients from receiving end-of-life care in accordance with their preferences.
Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.
Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.
Barron, Mace G.; Anderson, Michael J.; Cacela, Dave; Lipton, Joshua; Teh, Swee J.; Hinton, David E.; Zelikoff, Judith T.; Dikkeboom, Audrey L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Holey, Mark; Denslow, Nancy
Adult walleye were collected from several locations in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin (the assessment area) and two relatively uncontaminated reference locations (Lake Winnebago and Patten Lake, Wisconsin) between July and October in 1996 and 1997. Whole body and liver samples collected in 1996 were analyzed for total PCBs, PCB congeners, and liver histological lesions. Follow-up sampling in 1997 included examination of liver histopathology, PCBs in liver samples, measurement of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, immunological evaluation of kidney and blood samples, measurement of plasma vitellogenin, and examination of tissues for parasites as well as bacterial and viral infections. Mean PCB concentrations in whole body and liver samples were elevated in assessment area walleye (4.6 to 8.6 and 3.6 to 6.4 mg/kg wet weight, respectively) compared to PCB concentrations in reference areas (0.04 mg/kg in walleye fillets from Lake Winnebago). A significant (p blood monocyte counts were 40% lower than those of reference area fish. The data did not show any clear distinctions in the prevalence of disease between reference and assessment area walleye. EROD activity was similar in assessment area and reference area walleye. Plasma vitellogenin was elevated in female walleye from eastern Green Bay, but was not detected in male fish from this location. The results of this investigation demonstrate significant elevation in hepatic preneoplastic lesions and hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in assessment area walleye exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs. These histopathological lesions are consistent with long-term exposure to tumor promoters such as PCBs, although quantitative association between tumors and PCBs was not observed at the level of the individual fish. Additional research would be needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis.
J. M. Bowker; H. K. Cordell; N. C. Poudyal
Prior to the U.S. Wilderness Act of 1964, economics as a science was hardly considered applicable to the types of human values set forth in this pathbreaking legislation. Economics was largely confined to the purchasing and labor decisions of households and firms as well the functioning of markets and economies. However, around this time, John Krutilla (1967) in his...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Value of care displays – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the value of care displays associated with an episode of care for heart...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The VSAC provides downloadable access to all official versions of vocabulary value sets contained in the 2014 Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Each value set...
This paper presents an examination of fair market value concepts as they pertain to producing petroleum properties. conventional petroleum economic theories of fair market value are examined in light of recent work on the market value of long-life reserves. Their work is expanded to show that sellers rely on comparable sales data for estimating FMV. Both results are used to suggest that current practices over-emphasize the discounted cash flow approach to estimating fair market value
textabstractFair value estimates of debt and equity securities play an increasingly important role in the economy. For example, International Financial Reporting Standards require companies to report many of their investments at fair value on the balance sheet or to use fair values in goodwill impairment tests. Further, the funding status of pension plans is typically assessed as the difference between the fair values of pension plan assets and pension plan commitments. In many of these situa...
Juckem, Paul F.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.
The Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa and Indian Health Service are interested in improving the understanding of groundwater flow and groundwater/surface-water interaction on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation (Reservation) in southwest Vilas County and southeast Iron County, Wisconsin, with particular interest in an understanding of the potential for contamination of groundwater supply wells and the fate of wastewater that is infiltrated from treatment lagoons on the Reservation. This report describes the construction, calibration, and application of a regional groundwater flow model used to simulate the shallow groundwater flow system of the Reservation and water-quality results for groundwater and surface-water samples collected near a system of waste-water-treatment lagoons. Groundwater flows through a permeable glacial aquifer that ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 200 feet (ft). Seepage and drainage lakes are common in the area and influence groundwater flow patterns on the Reservation. A two-dimensional, steady-state analytic element groundwater flow model was constructed using the program GFLOW. The model was calibrated by matching target water levels and stream base flows through the use of the parameter-estimation program, PEST. Simulated results illustrate that groundwater flow within most of the Reservation is toward the Bear River and the chain of lakes that feed the Bear River. Results of analyses of groundwater and surface-water samples collected downgradient from the wastewater infiltration lagoons show elevated levels of ammonia and dissolved phosphorus. In addition, wastewater indicator chemicals detected in three downgradient wells and a small downgradient stream indicate that infiltrated wastewater is moving southwest of the lagoons toward Moss Lake. Potential effects of extended wet and dry periods (within historical ranges) were evaluated by adjusting precipitation and groundwater recharge in the model and comparing the
M Ed Uwe Krause
Uwe Krause: Atlas of Eurpean Values De Atlas of European Values is een samenwerkingsproject met bijbehorende website van de Universiteit van Tilburg en Fontys Lerarenopleiding in Tilburg, waarbij de wetenschappelijke data van de European Values Study (EVS) voor het onderwijs toegankelijk worden
M M Yusupov
Full Text Available The article considers theoretical approaches to the study of values and identity, and reveals the role of values in the formation of the ethnic, regional and Russian identity on the example of Chechnya and the North Caucasus, with the sociological indicators characterizing value orientations and self-identification.
Core Values Core Values NREL's core values are rooted in a safe and supportive work environment guide our everyday actions and efforts: Safe and supportive work environment Respect for the rights physical and social environment Integrity Maintain the highest standard of ethics, honesty, and integrity
Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…
E. Peek (Erik)
textabstractFair value estimates of debt and equity securities play an increasingly important role in the economy. For example, International Financial Reporting Standards require companies to report many of their investments at fair value on the balance sheet or to use fair values in goodwill
de Alencar Silva, P.
Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only
Besjes, K.M.; de Ruyter, D.J.
This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and
Recent controversy regarding the meaning and usefulness of weak values is reviewed. It is argued that in spite of recent statistical arguments by Ferrie and Combes, experiments with anomalous weak values provide useful amplification techniques for precision measurements of small effects in many realistic situations. The statistical nature of weak values is questioned. Although measuring weak values requires an ensemble, it is argued that the weak value, similarly to an eigenvalue, is a property of a single pre- and post-selected quantum system. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.
The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.
William B. Dodds
This paper builds the framework for linking the established work of competitive advantage with the emerging discipline of value marketing. The outcome of this linkage is the concept of strategic value management. Strategic value management focuses on the right combinations of product quality, customer service and fair prices as the key to selling to todayÕs value conscious consumers. The core of the strategy stresses the firmÕs ability to combine and manage these dimensions of value in a way ...
Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette
Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....
Fire and EMS Districts, These layers show the geographic area of each Fire and EMS responder contained in the County of Polk, Wisconsin., Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County Government.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Fire and EMS Districts dataset current as of 2006. These layers show the geographic area of each Fire and EMS responder contained in the County of Polk, Wisconsin..
Horwitz, E.P.; Delphin, W.H.; Mason, G.W.
A process is described for partitioning and recovering actinide values from acidic waste solutions resulting from reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels by adding hydroxylammonium nitrate and hydrazine to the waste solution to adjust the valence of the neptunium and plutonium values in the solution to the +4 oxidation state, thus forming a feed solution and contacting the feed solution with an extractant of di-hexoxyethyl phosphoric acid in an organic diluent whereby the actinide values, most of the rare earth values and some fission product values are taken up by the extractant. Separation is achieved by contacting the loaded extractant with two aqueous strip solutions, a nitric acid solution to selectively strip the americium, curium and rare earth values and an oxalate solution of tetramethylammonium hydrogen oxalate and oxalic acid or trimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate to selectively strip the neptunium, plutonium and fission product values. Uranium values remain in the extractant and may be recovered with a phosphoric acid strip. The neptunium and plutonium values are recovered from the oxalate by adding sufficient nitric acid to destroy the complexing ability of the oxalate, forming a second feed, and contacting the second feed with a second extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert diluent whereby the neptunium and plutonium values are selectively extracted. The values are recovered from the extractant with formic acid. (author)
It's a predicament. For the most part, investor-owned electric utilities trade at a deep discount to the actual (that is, replacement-cost) value to their assets. That's because most utilities fail to earn real returns large enough to justify raising and investing capital. The result is a value gap, where overall market value is significantly lower than the replacement costs of the assets. This gap is wider for utilities than for virtually any other industry in our economy. In addition to providing education and awareness, senior management must determine which businesses and activities create value and which diminish it. Then, management must allocate capital and human resources appropriately, holding down investments in value-diminishing areas until they can improve their profitability, and aggressively investing in value-enhancing businesses while preserving their profitability. But value management must not stop with resource-allocation decisions. To create a lasting transition to a value management philosophy, the utility's compensation system must also change: executives will have motivation to create value when compensation stems from this goal, not from such misleading accounting measures as earnings-per-share growth or ROE. That requires clear value-creation goals, and the organization must continuously evaluate top management's performance in light of the progress made toward those goals
Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Owens, David W.; Hall, David W.
The University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison Discovery Farms (Discovery Farms) and UW-Platteville Pioneer Farm (Pioneer Farm) programs were created in 2000 to help Wisconsin farmers meet environmental and economic challenges. As a partner with each program, and in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the Sand County Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wisconsin Water Science Center (WWSC) installed, maintained, and operated equipment to collect water-quantity and water-quality data from 25 edge-offield, 6 streamgaging, and 5 subsurface-tile stations at 7 Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm. The farms are located in the southern half of Wisconsin and represent a variety of landscape settings and crop- and animal-production enterprises common to Wisconsin agriculture. Meteorological stations were established at most farms to measure precipitation, wind speed and direction, air and soil temperature (in profile), relative humidity, solar radiation, and soil moisture (in profile). Data collection began in September 2001 and is continuing through the present (2008). This report describes methods used by USGS WWSC personnel to collect, process, and analyze water-quantity, water-quality, and meteorological data for edge-of-field, streamgaging, subsurface-tile, and meteorological stations at Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm from September 2001 through October 2007. Information presented includes equipment used; event-monitoring and samplecollection procedures; station maintenance; sample handling and processing procedures; water-quantity, waterquality, and precipitation data analyses; and procedures for determining estimated constituent concentrations for unsampled runoff events.
Horowitz, Mardi J
As psychoanalysts, we sometimes seem to regard values as radioactive materials that must be handled with heavy lead gloves. But the gloves should not be so thick that they interfere with the goal of sorting out values. Reasons for our hesitation to deal with issues related to values may include real disagreements with the morals of a patient, a fear of evoking unproductive and negative emotional states, and our own unresolved conflicts about value dilemmas. Psychoanalytic technique should at times include clear verbal statements of values. By being explicit about what is often implicit, we can help our patients in their work of ameliorating harsh, primitive, and critical attitudes and to self-own rules, principles, and codes of conduct. A patient with reprioritized personal values may then function with heightened interpersonal compassion, kindness, and cooperation, gaining in return love, intimacy, respect, and self-esteem.
Zander, Pär Ola
theory. The paper concludes that Baudrillard's arguments for abandoning Marxism altogether are problematic and led him away from developing a more finished theory of value. This is unfortunate because it remains a project that may yield interesting insights even in contemporary social theory, not least......Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly......) postmodernism, with specific focus on his value theory, in order to understand his own reasons for abandoning his previous position. I then follow the marginal stream of scholars who are making use of the early Baudrillard. I find his value theory promising but still a mere sketch rather than an actual general...
Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.
O’Doherty, John P.
Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573
Recent studies reveal that consumers respond favourably to “organic plus” products with additional ethical attributes. The aim of the current study is to explore whether consumers would notice and value further improvements in the animal welfare standards than those imposed by the organic...... regulation. The results of a qualitative concept test reveal positive attitudes towards the proposed production process. The discussions about fewer standards being sufficient or about options “in-between” conventional and organic standards indicate that the difference in production processes is noticed, yet...
Impact of chosen behavioural factors on imprecision of present value is discussed here. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. Behavioural present value is described here by fuzzy set. These considerations were illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study. Finally there are shown that in proposed model the return rate is given, as a fuzzy probabilistic set.
Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt
In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....
The introduction of a new accounting standard for financial instruments, has raised a number of issues related to the application of fair value principles. This paper discusses some of these issues which are generally related to the fact that "fair values" are not always easily defined or readily available. It concludes that the application of fair value for financial liabilities might present fewer complications if it is matched by similar valuation principles for financial assets. The issue...
Bethe, H.A.; Long, F.A.
This paper reports on the rapid increase in public support for a nuclear-freeze agreement---that is, a mutual freeze on the testing, production and further deployment of nuclear weapons---which has been a remarkable political phenomenon. In less than a year, support has grown from a few volunteers collecting signatures on petitions to a congressional vote in which supporters of a freeze very nearly prevailed. This fall, eight states and the District of Columbia will vote on freeze referendums. Already Wisconsin voters have overwhelmingly voted yes in such a referendum. There are many reasons for this strong support for a freeze, including fear of nuclear war, resistance to high levels of military spending and opposition to particular military policies of the Reagan administration. But to most supporters, the chief purpose of a freeze is simple: it is to help stop an immense, continuing, dangerous and incredibly costly arms race between the two superpowers
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, tentamos identificar índices de simulação na avaliação neuropsicológica forense, através da avaliação dos padrões de resposta em provas neuropsicológicas. A amostra foi constituída por 56 sujeitos com traumatismo crânioencefálico. Todos se encontravam numa situação de possível recompensa monetária por incapacidade. Utilizamos os instrumentos Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Trail Making Test (TMT, Inventário de Sintomas Psicopatológicos (BSI, e a grelha de análise dos autos do processo. Cerca de 30% da amostra enquadrou-se no grupo de prováveis simuladores. Essa porcentagem é congruente com a literatura. Verificou-se uma grande homogeneidade entre os indivíduos com e sem indicadores de simulação, a nível sintomatológico e características sócio-demográficas, o que reforça a necessidade de desenvolvimento de métodos eficazes na detecção da simulação.The objective of this study was to identify indicators of malingering in forensic neuropsychological assessment by identifying response patterns in neuropsychological tests. The sample was composed by 56 subjects diagnosed with a cranioencephalic trauma. All subjects were in a situation of monetary reward if incapacity was proven. The instruments used were the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, the Trail Making Test (TMT, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, and a legal process data file. Approximately 30% of the studied sample was identified as probable malingerers. This percentage is consistent with the literature. We identified a high level of homogeneity of psychological symptoms and socio-demographic features in the group of subjects with indicators of malingering and in the group without such indicators. These results reinforce the necessity to develop efficient methods to detect malingering.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the importance of values in business development. The authors remind M. Weber and his study about the impact of Protestantism on business development. After defining the concept of value, attention is focused on the theory of R.K. Merton, T. Parsons, R. Inglehart. Using the critical sociological approach the authors reflect on the research strategies in the area of values. In this context is mentioned for example the issue of ideal and real cultures – ideal cultures consist of norms and values to which people officially claim, e.g. values of Christian civilization, values of Central Europe; so-called universal values are very often (or should be a base for legal norms. Real cultures represent a pattern according to which people act and regard it socially acceptable. In this context is also discussed the question of individualism without responsibility that is typical for current western society as well as for the Czech society of last decades. Value orientations are patterns for expected roles, culturally defined types of human relations, expressing the basic attitudes in social interaction. The level of prevailing business values is visible also in many multinational corporations espousing the concept of corporate social responsibility within their promotion but violating it in reality.
Baldwin, Austin K.; Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Magruder, Christopher
The Menomonee River drainage basin in southeast Wisconsin is undergoing changes that may affect water quality. Several rehabilitation and flood-management projects are underway, including removal of concrete channels and the construction of floodwater retention basins. The city of Waukesha may begin discharging treated wastewater into Underwood Creek, thus approximately doubling the current base-flow discharge. In addition, the headwater basins, historically dominated by agriculture and natural areas, are becoming increasingly urbanized.
The Northview Elementary School in Howard's Grove, Wisconsin is provided space heating by a system consisting of an array of flat plate air collectors and a rock bed. Auxiliary heat is supplied by a fuel oil boiler. The system and its operation are briefly described, and its performance is analyzed using a system energy balance technique. The performance of major subsystems is also presented. (LEW)
Sveum, Evan Charles
A study comparing University of Wisconsin-Stout freshmen and senior education majors’ computing and Internet technology skills/knowledge and associated learning experiences was conducted. Instruments used in this study included the IC³® Exam by Certiport, Inc. and the investigator’s Computing and Internet Skills Learning Experiences survey. UW-Stout freshmen education majors participating in the study demonstrated poor computing and Internet technology skills/knowledge. UW-Stout senior educat...
Ann B. Swengel
Full Text Available The regal fritillary (“regal” (Speyeria idalia is endangered in Wisconsin, USA, and declining and at risk range-wide. During 1988–2015, we surveyed 24 known regal sites and >100 areas of potential habitat in Wisconsin. We recorded 9037 individuals in 742.7 km on the peak survey per year at occupied sites. At six sites surveyed over 5–25 years, we found regal fritillaries in only one year, mostly in the latter half of the study. The three populations in the state with more favorable trends than the median had a never-burned refugium and/or infrequent fire management. They also all had substantial amounts of grazing, haying, and/or mowing managements. Sites with trends below the regional median trend had frequent or moderate fire management, and either a diminishing never-burned refugium or none at all. Regal populations at sites with ≤15 ha of grassland have become undetectable. Nonetheless, Hogback, a slightly larger than 15 ha site, had the most favorable trend, a significant increase. Nearly all Wisconsin Regal populations known before 1990 declined to consistent non-findability, even though these were conserved sites. More favorable trends at more recently discovered populations may be attributable to species-specific habitat management protocols implemented in the 1990s. Two sites with better than median long-term trends represent the longest consistent land ownership of known Regal populations in the state. This wide range of population outcomes illustrates both the need for long-term monitoring and the challenges of explaining the outcomes. Despite evidence of increasing Regal dispersal, this species remains very localized, indicating the unsuitability of the wider landscape as regal habitat. The number of significantly declining or no longer detectable populations in Wisconsin indicates an ever more adverse landscape for this species. Sites will need to have habitat characteristics that are ever more optimal in a wide range of
Koster, M.; Kurz, S.; Lindner, I.; Napel, S.
We introduce the prediction value (PV) as a measure of players’ informational importance in probabilistic TU games. The latter combine a standard TU game and a probability distribution over the set of coalitions. Player i’s prediction value equals the difference between the conditional expectations
Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.
The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…
Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij
This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management t...
Full Text Available In November 2014 on the Dialogic Pedagogy Journal Facebook page, there was an interesting discussion of the issue of values in dialogic pedagogy. The main issue can be characterized as the following. Should dialogic pedagogy teach values? Should it avoid teaching values? Is there some kind of a third approach? The participants of the Facebook discussions were focusing on teaching values in dialogic pedagogy and not about teaching aboutvalues. On the one hand, it seems to be impossible to avoid teaching values. However, on the other hand, shaping students in some preset molding is apparently non-dialogic and uncritical (Matusov, 2009. In the former case, successful teaching is defined by how well and deeply the students accept and commit to the taught values. In the latter case, successful dialogic teaching may be defined by students’ critical examination of their own values against alternative values in a critical dialogue. Below, Eugene Matusov and Jay Lemke, active participants of this Facebook dialogue, provide their reflection on this important issue and encourage readers to join their reflective dialogue. See in a public Facebook domain: https://www.facebook.com/DialogicPedagogyJournal/posts/894734337204533, https://www.facebook.com/DialogicPedagogyJournal/posts/896916850319615
Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard
This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...
Knowingly or not, people generally place economic value on their time. Wage workers are paid a rate per hour, and service providers may charge per hour of their time. In the transportation realm, travelers place a value on their travel time and have ...
Duffy, Barbara; Payne, Ron
Describes results of a survey conducted to compare values of members of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) with managers in business and industry. Issues discussed include job satisfaction, opportunities for advancement, attitudes toward management, and salary; a summary of each value system is provided. (LRW)
Weissbourd, Richard; Anderson, Trisha Ross
When asked about their child-rearing priorities, parents in the United States are likely to say it's more important to raise children who are caring than to raise high achievers. Schools, too, typically trumpet values such as caring, honesty, and fairness. These values are posted on walls, reiterated in assemblies, and included in mission…
Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.
Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…
Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.
A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.
Dalton, R F
Metal values (especially uranium values) are extracted from aqueous solutions of metal oxyions in the absence of halogen ion using an imidazole of defined formula. Especially preferred extractants are 1-alkyl imidazoles and benzimidazoles having from 7 to 25 carbon atoms in the alkyl group.
S.J. Magala (Slawomir)
textabstractThe case of the Danish “cartoon war” was a premonition of things to come: accelerated social construction of inequalities and their accelerated symbolic communication, translation and negotiation. New uses of values in organizing and managing inequalities emerge. Values lead active
P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)
textabstractThis paper investigates how underwriters set the IPO firm’s fair value, an ex-ante estimate of the market value, using a unique dataset of 228 reports from French underwriters. These reports are issued before the IPO shares start trading on the stock market and detail how underwriters
Wisk, Lauren E.; Walsh, Matthew; McWilliams, Christine; Eggers, Shoshannah; Olson, Melissa
Objectives. We used objective oral health screening and survey data to explore individual-, psychosocial-, and community-level predictors of oral health status in a statewide population of adults. Methods. We examined oral health status in a sample of 1453 adult Wisconsin residents who participated in the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin Oral Health Screening project, conducted with the Wisconsin Department of Health Services during 2010. Results. We found significant disparities in oral health status across all individual-, psychosocial-, and community-level predictors. More than 15% of participants had untreated cavities, and 20% did not receive needed oral health care. Individuals who self-reported unmet need for dental care were 4 times as likely to have untreated cavities as were those who did not report such a need, after controlling for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Conclusions. Our results suggested that costs were a primary predictor of access to care and poor oral health status. The results underscored the role that primary care, in conjunction with dental health care providers, could play in promoting oral health care, particularly in reducing barriers (e.g., the costs associated with unmet dental care) and promoting preventive health behaviors (e.g., teeth brushing). PMID:25905843
Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Ghaffaripour, Sina; Bahreini, Amin; Shafiee, Mohammad; Rashidi, Mohammad; Rajabnejad, Yaser
One of the main concerns in liver transplant is the prolonged ischemia time, which may lead to primary graft nonfunction or delayed function. N-acetylcysteine is known as a hepato-protective agent in different studies, which may improve human hepatocyte viability in steatotic donor livers. This study investigated whether N-acetylcysteine can decrease the rate of ischemia-reperfusion syndrome and improve short-term outcome in liver transplant recipients. This was a double-blind, randomized, control clinical trial of 115 patients. Between April 2012 and January 2013, patients with orthotopic liver transplant were randomly divided into 2 groups; in 49 cases N-acetylcysteine was added to University of Wisconsin solution as the preservative liquid (experimental group), and in 66 cases standard University of Wisconsin solution was used (control group). We compared postreperfusion hypotension, inotrope requirement before and after portal reperfusion, intermittent arterial blood gas analysis and potassium measurement, pathological review of transplanted liver, in-hospital complications, morbidity, and mortality. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding time to hepatic artery reperfusion, hospital stay, vascular complications, inotrope requirement before and after portal declamping, and blood gas analysis. Hypotension after portal reperfusion was significantly more common in experimental group compared with control group (P = .005). Retransplant and in-hospital mortality were comparable between the groups. Preservation of the liver inside Univer-sity of Wisconsin solution plus N-acetylcysteine did not change the rate of ischemia reperfusion injury and short-term outcome in liver transplant recipients.
... information. The Regional Office official hours of business are Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m... the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other... design values were then analyzed using a bootstrapping statistical method, intended to assess the 2010...
Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...
the triad value function. Next, the applicability and validity of the concept is examined in a case study of four closed vertical supply chain triads. Findings - The case study demonstrates that the triad value function facilitates the analysis and understanding of an apparent paradox; that distributors...... are not dis-intermediated in spite of their limited contribution to activities in the triads. The results indicate practical adequacy of the triad value function. Research limitations/implications - The triad value function is difficult to apply in the study of expanded networks as the number of connections...... expands exponentially with the number of ties in the network. Moreover, it must be applied in the study of service triads and open vertical supply chain triads to further verify the practical adequacy of the concept. Practical implications - The triad value function cannot be used normatively...
Valenzuela, J R; Sethi, A K; Aulik, N A; Poulsen, K P
Salmonellosis on the dairy continues to have a significant effect on animal health and productivity and in the United States. Additionally, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica causes an estimated 1.2 million cases of human illness annually. Contributing to the morbidity and mortality in both human and domestic animal species is emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Salmonella species and increased incidence of multidrug-resistant isolates. This study describes serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns for various Salmonella serotypes isolated from bovine samples submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) over the past 10 yr. Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing data were obtained from the laboratory information management system at WVDL. Data from accessions were limited to bovine samples submitted to the WVDL between January 2006 and June 2015 and those that had both a definitive serotype and complete results for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 4,976 isolates were identified. Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin was the most prevalent serotype identified among bovine samples submitted to the WVDL, accounting for a total of 1,153 isolates (23% of total isolates) over the study period. Along with Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Cerro (795, 16%), Newport (720, 14%), Montevideo (421, 8%), Kentucky (419, 8%), and Typhimurium (202, 4%) comprised the top 6 most commonly isolated serotypes during that time. Overall, resistance of bovine Salmonella isolates in the study population remained stable, although decreases in resistance were noted for gentamicin, neomycin, and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole during the study period. All isolates remained susceptible to enrofloxacin. These data show that antimicrobial susceptibility for bovine Salmonella has changed in the population served by WVDL in the past 10 yr. This information is important for understanding Salmonella disease ecology in
Horwatich, Judy A.; Bannerman, Roger T.
To evaluate the treatment efficiency of a stormwater-filtration device (SFD) for potential use at Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) park-and-ride facilities, a SFD was installed at an employee parking lot in downtown Madison, Wisconsin. This type of parking lot was chosen for the test site because the constituent concentrations and particle-size distributions (PSDs) were expected to be similar to those of a typical park-and-ride lot operated by WisDOT. The objective of this particular installation was to reduce loads of total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater runoff to Lake Monona. This study also was designed to provide a range of treatment efficiencies expected for a SFD. Samples from the inlet and outlet were analyzed for 33 organic and inorganic constituents, including 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples were also analyzed for physical properties, including PSD. Water-quality samples were collected for 51 runoff events from November 2005 to August 2007. Samples from all runoff events were analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment (SS). Samples from 31 runoff events were analyzed for 15 constituents, samples from 15 runoff events were analyzed for PAHs, and samples from 36 events were analyzed for PSD. The treatment efficiency of the SFD was calculated using the summation of loads (SOL) and the efficiency ratio methods. Constituents for which the concentrations and (or) loads were decreased by the SFD include TSS, SS, volatile suspended solids, total phosphorous (TP), total copper, total zinc, and PAHs. The efficiency ratios for these constituents are 45, 37, 38, 55, 22, 5, and 46 percent, respectively. The SOLs for these constituents are 32, 37, 28, 36, 23, 8, and 48 percent, respectively. The SOL for chloride was -21 and the efficiency ratio was -18. Six chemical constituents or properties-dissolved phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved zinc, total dissolved solids, dissolved chemical oxygen demand, and
Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E
The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457 kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632 kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417 kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day
Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L
The objective of this study was to identify associations of bedding type and selected management practices with bulk milk quality and productivity of larger Wisconsin dairy farms. Dairy herds (n=325) producing ≥11,340 kg of milk daily were surveyed during a single farm visit. Monthly bulk milk SCC and total bacteria counts were obtained from milk buyers for 255 farms for a 2-yr period. Of farms with the same type of bedding in all pens during the study period, most used inorganic bedding (IB), followed by organic nonmanure bedding (OB) and manure products (MB). Almost all bulk milk total bacterial counts were bedding type. Bulk milk somatic cell score (BMSCS) was least for farms using IB, varied seasonally, and was greatest in the summer. The BMSCS was reduced when new bedding was added to stalls at intervals greater than 1 wk and when teats were dried before attaching the milking unit. The BMSCS for farms using OB was reduced when bedding in the backs of stalls was removed and replaced regularly and when fewer cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters were present. The BMSCS for farms using MB was reduced when the proportion of cows with milk discarded was less. The rolling herd average (RHA) of herds using IB was 761 and 1,153 kg greater than the RHA of herds using OB and MB, respectively. The RHA was 353 kg greater on farms where farmers understood subclinical mastitis and 965 kg greater on farms milking 3 times daily. Each 1% increase of cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters was associated with a decrease of 57 kg of RHA. The BMSCS, proportions of cows with milk discarded and proportion of cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters were least for herds using IB and were associated with increased productivity. Large Wisconsin dairy farms that used inorganic bedding had greater productivity and better milk quality compared with herds using other bedding types. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Panduro, Toke Emil
The thesis consists of four papers which address the potential and challenges of the hedonic house price method. The aim of the thesis has been to estimate consistent and efficient parameter estimates of spatial varying regressors in the hedonic house price model. In particular, the articles are ...... and provide reliable estimates of the value of different types of green space....... are concerned with the value of different types of green space and how these values can be applied in urban planning policies related to climate adaption. The results presented in this thesis, ensure a “level playing field” in the assessment of the cost and benefits of different climate adaptation strategies...
of Europe’s architectural heritage. This resulted in a greater emphasis on building conservation and led to the development of the Survey of Architectural Values in the Environment (SAVE) by the Danish heritage authorities. The value assessment was initially meant for evaluating building heritage...... and authorities in efforts to evaluate the cultural value of the built environment. The National Trust of Norway is a voluntary association, a trust, and a property owner. Since 1845, it has developed expertise in restoration and maintenance of historical monuments. It is based on personal memberships...
Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin
Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....
Kyhnau, Jan Glæsner
Alexander Osterwalders Value Proposition Canvas hjælper virksomheder med at udvikle produkter og services, som kunderne rent faktisk vil have. Modellen zoomer ind på de to grundlæggende byggesten i Business Model Canvas Customer Segments og Value Propositions og kortlægger, hvilket match der er...... mellem kundernes behov og virksomhedens evne til at opfylde disse. Modellen afslører gaps og dermed hvilke forbedringer eller innovationer der er brug for. "Value Proposition Canvas" er et kapitel i bogen "Marketingmodeller" - en kort og overskuelig håndbog, værktøjskasse og brugervejledning med de...
Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel
Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87
This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) WCV describes the value of the Wildlife Habitat Suitability as it approaches the state highway system. This analysis was designed to use the...
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the GHS value chain training subactivity wwas designed to measure the extent, if any, to which the training activities improved the productivity...
US Agency for International Development — EVMS is a system for measuring project performance and progress in an objective manner by supporting earned value management. EVMS has the ability to combine...
Full Text Available The paper discusses the nature of values in general and the nature and utility of the values of librarianship. Delineates the changes that have occurred and are occurring in the wider world and the nature of change; also the importance of values in providing a framework for dealing with present and future change. Stresses the centrality of the human record to societal progress, the place of the human record in cultural heritage, and the central purpose of libraries in facilitating interaction with the human record and furthering the transmission of cultural heritage. Urges a turning away from the alien value systems of information technology, consumerism, materialism, and corporate management, and a consequent set of alliances between libraries and a wide range of cultural institutions and associations.
Krch, Denise; Lequerica, Anthony; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Rogers, Heather L; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relative contribution of acculturation to two tests of nonverbal test performance in Hispanics. This study compared 40 Hispanic and 20 non-Hispanic whites on Digit Symbol-Coding (DSC) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and evaluated the relative contribution of the various acculturation components to cognitive test performance in the Hispanic group. Hispanics performed significantly worse on DSC and WCST relative to non-Hispanic whites. Multiple regressions conducted within the Hispanic group revealed that language use uniquely accounted for 11.0% of the variance on the DSC, 18.8% of the variance on WCST categories completed, and 13.0% of the variance in perseverative errors on the WCST. Additionally, years of education in the United States uniquely accounted for 14.9% of the variance in DSC. The significant impact of acculturation on DSC and WCST lends support that nonverbal cognitive tests are not necessarily culture free. The differential contribution of acculturation proxies highlights the importance of considering these separate components when interpreting performance on neuropsychological tests in clinical and research settings. Factors, such as the country where education was received, may in fact be more meaningful information than the years of education of education attained. Thus, acculturation should be considered an important factor in any cognitive evaluation of culturally diverse individuals.
Pezzuti, Lina; Mastrantonio, Elisa; Orsini, Arturo
The goal of this project was to construct and validate an ecological version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) aimed at the elderly. This was accomplished by replacing the geometric stimuli of the traditional version with stimuli belonging to the semantic category of transport vehicles, and by elimination of the color yellow. The results showed the ecological WCST version was preferred over the traditional version and older people felt less tired during test performance. In the two independent normal elderly groups, all pairs of scores that can be derived from the WCST correlated significantly with each other. Six of 11 outcome measures of the traditional WCST-128 (long) version were significantly influenced by age. By contrast, in the WCST-64 (short) version and in the ecological WCST-54 version only one measure was affected by the age variable. No significant effect of education level or gender emerged from the results in any WCST version. Again, the subjects with cognitive deterioration had lower performance in the ecological WCST-54 version than in the two traditional WCST versions. It seems reasonable to assume that the ecological version of WCST is more discriminating and has more advantages than the traditional versions. Further research on individual differences in the performance on this task will increase understanding of the components of the test, and of the variety of factors and possible deficits that could lead to an impaired performance of the test.
Adolescents with dyslexia exhibit well-established impairments in executive abilities. The Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) is an executive test that yields surprisingly inconsistent results with this population. The current study aimed to shed light on the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the performance levels by individuals with dyslexia in WCST. We used a computerized-WCST (named the 'Madrid-Card Sorting Test') assessing executive functions using the Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) methodology. Adolescents with dyslexia exhibited a higher error rate and slower reaction times. This was most evident in the later trials of the series. However, differences in ERPs between the two groups were found only in the "target-locked" conditions, where individuals with dyslexia displayed decreased ERP components (N100, P300) compared to skilled readers. The changes between the groups in the "shift" compared to the "stay" conditions suggest the central role of working memory both in basic (e.g., shifting) and higher order (e.g., reading) processes in individuals with dyslexia. These findings suggest the central role of working memory both in basic (e.g., shifting) and higher order (e.g., reading) processes in individuals with dyslexia. The intact shifting mechanism and the working memory deficit may guide the building of more efficient intervention programs for individuals with dyslexia in the future.
Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Batalla, Iolanda; Bosque, Javier; Kosson, David; Pifarré, Josep; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Goldberg, Ximena; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Menchón, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcís
Neuropsychological deficits in executive functions (EF) have been linked to antisocial behavior and considered to be cardinal to the onset and persistence of severe antisocial and aggressive behavior. However, when psychopathy is present, prior evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is unaffected leading to intact EF. Ninety-one male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and 24 controls completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). ASPD individuals were grouped in three categories according to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores (low, medium and high). We hypothesized that ASPD offenders with high PCL-R scores will not differ from healthy controls in EF and will show better EF performance in comparison with subjects with low PCL-R scores. Results showed that ASPD offenders with low PCL-R scores committed more perseverative errors and responses than controls and offenders with high PCL-R scores, which did not differ from healthy controls. Moreover, scores on Factor 1 and the interpersonal facet of the PCL-R were predictors of better WCST performance. Our results suggest a modulatory role of psychopathy in the cognitive performance of ASPD offenders, and provide further evidence supporting that offenders with ASPD and psychopathy are characterized by a cognitive profile different from those with ASPD without psychopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
McElroy, Jane A; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hampton, John M; Bersch, Andrew J; Kanarek, Marty S; Newcomb, Polly A
One unintentional result of widespread adoption of nitrogen application to croplands over the past 50 years has been nitrate contamination of drinking water with few studies evaluating the risk of colorectal cancer. In our population-based case-control study of 475 women age 20-74 years with colorectal cancer and 1447 community controls living in rural Wisconsin, drinking water nitrate exposure were interpolated to subjects residences based on measurements which had been taken as part of a separate water quality survey in 1994. Individual level risk factor data was gathered in 1990-1992 and 1999-2001. Logistic regression models estimated the risk of colorectal cancer for the study period, separately and pooled. In the pooled analyses, an overall colorectal cancer risk was not observed for exposure to nitrate-nitrogen in the highest category (> or =10 ppm) compared to the lowest category (cancer cases in the highest compared to the lowest category. Statistically significant increased distal colon or rectal cancer risk was not observed. These results suggest that if an association exists with nitrate-nitrogen exposure from residential drinking water consumption, it may be limited to proximal colon cancer.
Oliveira Junior, Boanerges Lopes de; Jardim, José Roberto; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Souza, George Márcio da Costa e; Baker, Timothy B; Santoro, Ilka Lopes
To cross-culturally adapt the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) for use in Brazil and evaluate the reproducibility of the new (Brazilian Portuguese-language) version. The original English version of the WSWS was translated into Brazilian Portuguese. For cross-cultural adaptation, the Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was administered to eight volunteers, all of whom were smokers. After adjustments had been made, the WSWS version was back-translated into English. The Brazilian Portuguese-language version was thereby found to be accurate. The final Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was applied to 75 smokers at three distinct times. For the assessment of interobserver reproducibility, it was applied twice within a 30-min interval by two different interviewers. For the assessment of intraobserver reproducibility, it was applied again 15 days later by one of the interviewers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used in order to test the concordance of the answers. The significance level was set at p Portuguese-language version of the WSWS is reproducible, fast, and simple. It can therefore be used as a tool for assessing the severity of the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal syndrome.