Pau, Martin, 1975-
Elva linnavolikogu otsusega pidanuks omavalitsuste loodud firmast Emajõe Veevärk saama 1. juulil Elva veevärgi haldaja, kuid senine majandaja Aqua & Waste Services (AWS) keeldub võtmeid üle andmast
First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships. When the differences between Kohutian and classical theory became evident this led increasingly to disillusionment and retreat. De-emphasizing drive and ego psychology had considerable consequences for psychoanalytic technique as well as for the analyst's Menschenbild, his relationship to the patient and his critical self-reflection. In Germany, too, a circle of colleagues emerged, following and elaborating the ideas of Kohut.
According to Kohut's self psychology model, narcissistic psychopathology is a result of parental lack of empathy during development. Consequently, the individual does not develop full capacity to regulate self esteem. The narcissistic adult, according to Kohut's concepts, vacillates between an irrational overestimation of the self and irrational feelings of inferiority, and relies on others to regulate his self esteem and give him a sense of value. In treatment, Kohut recommends helping the patient develop these missing functions. Kohut proposes that the therapist should empathically experience the world from the patient's point of view (temporary indwelling) so that the patient feels understood. Interpretations are used when they can help the patient understand his sometimes intense feelings about any empathic failure on the part of the therapist, and understand why he (the patient) needs to restore solidity and comfort after being injured by any failed empathic (self object) ties. As insight develops, the patient begins to understand why he might experience these apparently small empathic failures so deeply.In this article, therapy with a narcissistic patient is approached from the point of view of Kohut's self psychology theory, and the successes and problems that were encountered with this approach are described and discussed.
Masek, Robert J.
Psychoanalysis is undergoing rapid and remarkable changes in its basic metapsychology, theoretical reflections, and concrete, clinical interventions. Through self-psychology, Heinz Kohut's alternative views on the clinical relationship have contributed to this restructuring of psychoanalysis. Traditionally, mainstream psychoanalysis has viewed the…
Throughout their academic careers Carl Rogers and Heinz Kohut developed two contrasting definitions of empathy that influenced the ways in which both men sought to help their clients cope with emotional suffering. These two different understandings of empathy are contrasted to each other and finally compared with the understanding of empathy demonstrated in the teachings and actions of Jesus. It is hoped that through studying these ancient religious narratives we might be able to recover a deeper meaning of empathy.
Cambel, B.; Bagdasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, R.K.; Dupej, J.
Rb-Sr isochrone analyses of granitoid rocks from the southern part of the Veporic zone - the so-called Kohut zone - are presented. In this region, the Sinec (Rimavica) type of granitoids formerly considered to be Late Palaeozoic to Neoide, is found. The present isochrone research determines them as equivalents of granitoids of the Sihla type (387±27 m.y.). The Sinec (Rimavica) granite reaches an age of 392±5 m.y. This extended age must partly be attributed to additional processes which took place in the stage of retrograde alterations. The conclusions are of considerable importance in clarifying the metamorphic age and stratigraphy of the crystalline complex in the region of the southern Veporic zone. (author). 9 figs., 4 tabs., 38 refs
The concept of self is connected with its counterpart in the concepts of objective, subjective and transitional reality. The potential space of the Self is shown to be restricted rather than enhanced by an overemphasis on the role of empathy. This overemphasis is then related to narcissistic problems in the analyst himself. Self-psychology turns back the clock as it splits instead of integrates its relation with psychoanalysis, reducing so-called "classical analysis" to rigid conflict psychology as opposed to self-psychology, which claims the most central functions of the ego thereby confiscating the third episode in the development of the ego concept in Freud's work. Kohut's description of the transitional process in the psychoanalytic situation predominantly in terms of only one of its constituents, the empathic immersion, is considered to be related to his position vis-à-vis the drives. Using only experiential, as opposed to observational, categories he cannot but arrive at the conclusion that drive intensity is not the cause of central pathology but its result. This creates an imbalance in the clinical view that not only narcissistic mortification indeed produces drive manifestations but on the other hand intensive drive impulses also may produce a severe narcissistic mortification. An attempt is made to find theoretical conceptualizations preserving drive psychology as well as self-psychology by differentiating between a function and its content, i.e. the product of that function, the representation. The interdependence in the "working relation" of self and ego, of subjective experiencing and objective functioning, of our sense of freedom and our conviction of determinism is clarified. The seeming contradictions and conceptual confusion might also be related to an insufficient distinction between our two basic modes of perceiving the world, diacritic and coenaesthetic perception.
M. Oktavia Vidiyanti
Full Text Available A personality structure that appears in Erika is similar to one of an important part of Carl Gustav Jung psychology. Jung states that personality is a psiko that covers consciousness and unconsciousness. This psiko will develop to be a stable unity. If every system develops in every individual absolutely, so a health and integrated personality will be achieved. That process in Jung is known as a self individualized process. The aim of individualism is a selfachievement. Individual is not only as a psiko centre but also as a representation of the whole individual that unites consciousness and unconsciousness. It is like the character "Erika Kohut" in the novel "Sang Guru Piano".
Prendergast, Claire Nicole
This paper demonstrates that Kohut's definitional system of the "bipolar self" within psychoanalytic self psychology can be modeled as a biological autopoietic system, both in terms of its structure and dynamics, in a way that accounts for the phenomenological aspects of experiential living. Based on this finding, the author argues that a nonreductionist definitional system of this type is an integral component of any pragmatic methodology, such as Kohut's "empathic-introspective" method of treatment, which aims to enable the analyst, as observer, to gain access to the phenomenological world of the analysand within the analytic setting. The dialectic approach undertaken in this preliminary exploration of the "bipolar self" as an autopoietic system has proven fruitful in excavating some of the theoretical features of psychoanalytic self psychology, the weighted importance of which can now be reevaluated in contemporary practice.
Full Text Available Le bref texte que Paul Ricœur consacre en 1986 à la psychanalyse développée par Heinz Kohut révèle une réinterprétation phénoménologique à la fois du contenu et des fonctions de l'empathie, au total considérée comme un véritable outil à l'œuvre dans l'herméneutique du soi. La vision kohutienne de la constitution du soi et du processus thérapeutique analytique produit une espèce de “dé-sentimentalisation” de l'empathie, en soulignant le rôle crucial du transfert intersubjectif, fort à distance de la théorie (freudienne solipsiste de l'ego.The short text published in 1986 by Paul Ricoeur about Heinz Kohut's psychoanalysis of the self reveals a phenomenological reinterpretation of the content and the functions of empathy, finally considered as an effective tool of the hermeneutics of the self. Kohut's model of constitution of the self and of the therapeutic analytical process produces a kind of “de-sentimentalization” of empathy, pointing to the crucial role of intersubjective transfer, far from a (Freudian solipsistic theory of the ego.
Kaas, Kaarel, 1978-
Iisrael koondas eilseks oma armee Gaza lähedale ning ähvardas Palestiinat rünnata, kui ei vabastata pühapäeval palestiinlaste poolt röövitud noort Iisraeli sõdurit. Iisrael välistab läbirääkimiste alustamise
Randviir, Ave, 1981-
14. juulist 13. augustini 2006 Espoos toimuva elamumessi ja kõigi eelnevate messide osast Soome elamuehituspoliitikas. Espoo uuest kunstimuuseumist EMMA (Espoo Museum of Modern Art) ja FMO Tapiola (Finnforesti peakorter) looduslikest materjalidest high-tech-hoonest
Olesk, Arko, 1981-
Põhja-Korea juhi Kim Yong Nami sõnul on riik nõus naasma läbirääkimistele USA-ga, kui tühistataks senised sanktsioonid Põhja-Korea vastu. ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogus alustati resolutsiooniprojekti arutamist, mis näeb ette Põhja-Koreale tuumakatsetuste eest karistusi. Lisa: Kahtlane katsetus
Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 29. aug. 2007, lk. 7. Serbiast lahku lüüa sooviva Kosovo iseseisvuse küsimuses peetavad EL-i, USA ja Venemaa kõnelused lõpevad 10. detsembril, mille järel soovib provints välja kuulutada iseseisvuse. Ekspertide hinnangul võivad Kosovo albaanlased kannustada Bosnia serblasi ja Makedoonia albaanlasi samuti iseseisvust taotlema. Eesti toetusest ÜRO erisaadiku Martti Ahtisaari ettepanekule Kosovo staatuse suhtes
Varasemalt Neue Zürcher Zeitungis ilmunud artikkel räägib sellest, kuidas toimib Euroopa Liidu sõjaline element ja millega see praegu kõige enam hõivatud on. Samuti antakse artiklis ülevaade käesolevast Darfuri konfliktistEuroopa Liidu Sõjalise Staabi planeerimismeeskonna (EUMS) tegevusest ja ettevalmistustest Darfuri operatsiooniks Sudaanis. Vt. samas: Tänu taevale Déby eest; Käesolev Darfuri konflikt
Haav, Margus, 1969-
Lõuna-Eestis Lilli külas algaval Nava lava festivalil tuuakse publiku ette Nava talu peremehe Jaak Kõdari näidend "Jukra", lavastaja Silvia Soro. Üht kandvat rolli mängib näitleja Lembit Eelmäe
Estonian Air pidi langetama piletihindu Berliini ja Londoni liinil kolmandiku võrra, kuna oktoobri lõpust hakkab Tallinna lennujaamast reise tegema uus odavlennufirma Easy-Jet. Lisa: Estonian Airi hinnad internetis
Martson, Ilona, 1970-
Alice Randalli romaan "Tuul on läinud" - samad sündmused kui Margaret Mitchelli romaanis "Tuulest viidud", ainult neegerorjade vaatevinklist. Nancy Stofferi raamatud "Larry Potter ja tema parim sõber Lilly" ja "Legend Rah'ist ja Mugudest" ilmusid 1984. a. Joanne Kathleen Rowlingi "Harry Potter" lood aga valmisid hiljem
Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…
Liiv, Ele, 1971-
Euroopa Patendiorganisatsiooni suure apellatsioonikoja sõltumatusest distsiplinaarvaidluste lahendamisel, kohtuistungi avalikkusest distsiplinaarasjade menetlemisel. Tõendite kogumisest distsiplinaarmenetluses. Sisaldab asjakohast kohtupraktikat
Seaver, Urmas, 1973-
Tallinna linnavalitsus tahab Kopli liinide arenduskonkursi tühistada ja Endel Sifi ala hoonestusõigusest ilma jätta, sest Sifi firma Primos Kinnisvara on konkursiga seoses asunud kohtuteele. Lisa: Endel Sifi ja linna tülid
Bibikova, E.V.; Grachema, T.V.; Makarov, V.A.
New results of radiometric dating of Sinec (Rimavica) granites by U-Pb and K-Ar method are presented. The K-Ar method (muscovite and biotite) gives the age of 94 m.y., which can be interpreted by tectonics. The U-Pb dating of zircons gave a concordant age of 350±5 m.y., which is a more reliable age than the one obtained from the same samples by Rb-Sr isochrone. The increased age of the Sinec (Rimavica) granites determined by the Sb-Sr method could be caused by the supply of radiogenic Sr from the surrounding older metamorphic rocks to the granites during retrograde metamorphism synchronous with granite autometasomatism. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 15 refs
Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-
Hollandi kuningakoda valmistub pulmadeks. Meesteajakirjas Panorama avaldatud skandaalsed pildid kroonprintsi Willem-Alexanderi väljavalitust, argentiinlannast Maxima Zorreguietast panid kuningakoja seinad värisema
Venemaa valmistub parlamendi- ja presidendivalimisteks. Tuntud poliitik Anatoli Tshubais esines hiljuti Peterburis, põhiteemaks Venemaa ajalooline missioon XXI sajandil, poliitiline know-how - liberaalne imperialism
Anderson, Aare, 1966-
Elva endine linnapea ja aselinnapea, rahandusministeeriumi töötaja vastab küsimustele, mis on seotud tema ametikohaga, Elvaga, võimalusega siduda end tulevikus poliitikaga. Isamaa ja Res Publica Liidu loosungist "Õnn ei ole rahas"
Kekelidze, Eteri, 1944-
Tallinna muusikateater Väike Ooper jõudis tagasi Moskva külalisetendustelt, kus Eesti Saatkonnas esitati Boriss Kisseljovi lasteooper ""Printsess Alicia". Sügisel valmistub lasteteater lavale tooma helilooja uut ooperit "Julge Rikki-Tikki- Taavi"
USA valmistub nelja Afganistani sõjas osalenud Guantanamo baasis kinni hoitava Suurbritannia kodaniku üleandmiseks kodumaale. Lisa: Paarsada vangi on koju saadetud. Vt. samas: Guantanamo vangilaager asub justkui eikellegimaal
Ashilevi, Jim, 1984-
Kirjanik, kelle näidendit "Nagu poisid vihma käes" valmistub lavale tooma "Endla" teater, audiovisuaalset meediat õppiv TLÜ tudeng, kel valmimas bakalaureusetööna situatsioonikomöödiaseriaali "Sireenid" pilootseeria
Salu, Mikk, 1975-
Eesti reisikorraldamisturu liider on leedulastele kuuluv Novatours. Firma valmistub sisenema nn. vanadele turgudele, tehes uuringuid Taanis ja Soomes. Teistest suurematest reisifirmadest Eestis. Lisad: Novatours. Horizon Travel. Marhaba. Top Tours; Eestlaste maitset määrab Vahemeri
Bauer, Sofia, 1947-2001
Vt. ka Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 23. aug., lk. 1. Kohtla-Järve valmistub astuma rahvusvahelisse organisatsiooni "Euroopa linnad narkootikumide vastu", kuhu kuuluvad peaaegu kõik Euroopa pealinnad ja hulk suurlinnu
Karajev, Nikolai, 1978-
Venemaa artistid ei soovi tulla Eestisse külalisesinemistele poliitilistel põhjustel ja väidetavalt valmistub Venemaa suurejooneliseks propagandasõjaks, kaitstes pronkssõduri jäämist samale kohale
Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium valmistub Eesti Energia aktsia avalikuks pakkumiseks. Riik soovib, et aktsionäride hulgas oleks rohkelt tavakodanikke, aktsiate ostmise motiveerimiseks lubatakse, et aasta pärast kingitakse lisaaktsiaid. Rahandusministeerium peab otsima alternatiive, kuidas Eesti Energia saaks lisaraha börsile minemata
Soome kunstnikust Teemu Mäkist ja tema tööde näitusest "The Visible Darkness" Rotermanni soolalaos Tallinnas : näitus on osa kunstniku doktoritööst, mida ta valmistub kaitsma Helsingi Kujutavate Kunstide Akadeemias
Poola välisminister Radoslaw Sikorski sõitis USA-sse läbirääkimistele seoses USA sooviga paigaldada Poolas püüdurrakette ning Poola sooviga saada vastutasuks sõjalist abi. Tšehhi valmistub USA välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i saabumiseks. Lisa: Medvedev: Leedu variant lubamatu
Archdeacon, Talis Saule
Läti endised ministrid lõid poliitilise organisatsiooni, mis korraldab referendumi Läti madala vanaduspensioni tõstmise toetuseks. Samas valmistub ka valitsus pensionite tõstmiseks. Lisa: Faktid pensioni ja pensionäride kohta Lätis
Vene režissöör Georgi Jungvald-Hilkevitsh valmistub tegema järge oma menukatele A. Dumas' "Kolme musketäri" filmidele. Seekord on stsenaristiks Anton Markov. Musketäre mängib sama tiim eesotsas Mihhail Bojarskiga
Ukraina ekspeaminister Julia Timohenko valmistub oma kohta tagasi võitma. Valimisvõitlusesse asuvad 45 parteid, valitsuse moodustajateks saavad ilmselt kaks jõudu - Viktor Janukovitshi poolt juhitav partei Ukraina Regioonid ja Julia Timoshenko valimisblokk. Poliitilised jõud ja võimuvõitlus Ukrainas, poliitiline reform, suhted Venemaaga
Läti valmistub sügisel toimuvateks parlamendivalimisteks, plahvatuslikult on kasvanud poliitiliste ühenduste ja parteide loomine. Hiljuti loodi radikaalne partei Kõik - Lätile!, mis lubab taastada Lätis lätlaste võimu
Režissöör Nikita Mihhalkov alustas tööd kaheosalise projektiga ühisnimetuse all "Päikesest rammestunud 2", valmistub filmima remake'i Sidney Lumet' filmist "12 vihast meest" ja tema stuudio "Trite" ostis ekraniseerimisõigused B. Akunini romaanile "Spiooniromaan"
Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-
Valgevene ja Gazprom pole jõudnud kokkuleppele Valgevenele tarnitava maagaasi hinna tõusus. Gazprom ähvardab järsult vähendada Valgevenesse tarnitava maagaasi kogust, Valgevene ähvardab tõsta maagaasi transiiditasu. Lisa: Kaukaasia valmistub samuti külmaks talveks
Tracevskis, Rokas M.
Leedu valmistub parlamendivalimisteks 2012. a sügisel. President Grybauskaite hoiatab parlamenti sotsiaalse populismi eest, päevakorral on parteide finantseerimine, loodud kaks uut poliitilist jõudu - Drasos Kelias ja Brasauskiene poolt asutatud Leedu presidendi liit. Leedu parteide võimalustest valimistel
Hanson, Martin, 1984-
Prokuratuur süüdistab Meelis Laod McDonald'si omavolilises sulgemises rendivaidluse tõttu. Skeem: Meelis Laoga seotud firmad. Vt. samas: Omakohus kohut ei mõjutanud; Mõis: Lao tegutseb efektiivselt
Autor analüüsib USA presidendikandidaatide Barack Obama ja John McCaini valimiskampaaniat, sellel ajal esitatavat lugu minevikust ja tulevikust, kus keskseks tegelaseks on kandidaat ise ning asepresidendikandidaatide valikut. Obamal on muutuste narratiiv - soov muuta senist poliitikat, McCainil aga narratiiv kogemustest ja sõltumatusest. Vt. samas: Barack Obama; John McCain; Hendrik Vosman. Obama valmistub koostama staaride kabinetti; Evelyn Kaldoja. Michelle Obamat võrreldakse Jackie Kennedyga; Missioonitundega õlleprintsess Cindy Hensley McCain
Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Watson, P. J.; O'Leary, Brian J.; Weathington, Bart L.
In Heinz Kohut's (1977, 1984) theory of the psychology of the self, good parenting provides a child with optimal frustration and just the right amount of loving empathic concern. In the present study, the authors examined the relations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures of narcissism, self-esteem, and depression. In…
Lapsley, Daniel K.; Aalsma, Matthew C.
A two-step cluster analytic strategy was used in two studies to identify an empirically derived typology of narcissism in late adolescence. In Study 1, late adolescents (N=204) responded to the profile of narcissistic dispositions and measures of grandiosity (''superiority'') and idealization (''goal instability'') inspired by Kohut's theory,…
Animafilm "Kalapoeg Nemo" ("Finding Nemo") : režissöör Andrew Stanton : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2003. Prantsuse lastekirjanik Franck Le Calvez käib kohut filmi tegijate ja levitajatega autoriõiguste rikkumise pärast
Lääneriigid on avaldanud jõulist survet Ukraina endise peaministri Julia Tõmošenko kohtuasja lõpetamiseks. EL-i liidritele olevat jäänud mulje, et Ukraina võimud on valmis muutma seadusesätet, mille alusel Tõmošenko üle kohut peetakse
Discusses the importance (in Heinz Kohut's post-Freudian conception) of narcissism in postmodern pedagogy. Maintains that the affects (despair, depression, anger, joy) are the means by which students most fully understand the implications for their self-understanding of what they are being taught. (SR)
Olsen, Jan Brødslev
livsfasepsykologi, Winnicotts og Heinz Kohuts Selv-psykologi, Seligmans positive psykologi, kognitiv psykologi og A. H. Almaas' essenspsykologi), lærinsgteori (David Kolb), teorierne om følelsesmæssig intelligens (Daniel Goleman, David Servan-Schreiber) samt buddhisme (Dalai Lama) og kristendom. I bogen gives der...
Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-
Haagi eritribunalis mõistetakse kohut Libeeria ekspresidendi Charles Taylori üle, keda süüdistatakse naaberriigi Sierra Leone kodusõjas mässuliste võitlejate kontrollis ja inimsusevastastes kuritegudes. Vt. samas: Charles Taylor õppis Ameerika Ühendriikides majandust
Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-
USA sõjavägi hakkab mõistma kohut veebel Calvin Gibbsi üle, keda peetakse afgaani tsiviilisikuid tapnud ja ohvrite laipu rüvetanud jõugu eestvedajaks. Calvin Gibbs eitab kõiki talle esitatud süüdistusi
O'Brien, Michael T.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III Revised rubric of identity disorder is linked to career theory and research findings on vocational identity, career indecisiveness, vocational maturity, and to the theories of Erikson and Kohut. Identity disorder has been found in career counseling clients. It appears that the brief…
Baker, Andrea B.
From Facebook to Twitter, ordinary citizens' use of social media to discuss, organize, and participate in the political process continues to grow in popularity (Davis, 2005; Rainie, 2005; Kohut, Keeter, Doherty, & Dimock, 2008). Researchers interested in this area have explored the demographics, patterns of behavior and motives of participants…
Tulk, Mehis, 1967-
Taimetoodangu Inspektsiooni peadirektori kohalt vallandatud Mart Mäeker käib kohut põllumajandusministeeriumiga ja on hämmeldunud ministeeriumis valitsevast topeltmoraalist tulemustasude määramisel ja põllumajandusminister Helir-Valdor Seederi käitumisest. Vt. samas: Kaire Uusen. Ministrite suud jäid lukku
Silverstein, M L
In this article I discuss compensatory structure, a concept from Kohut's (1971, 1977) psychology of the self that is not as familiar as Kohut's other views about the self. Compensatory structures are attempts to repair selfobject failure, usually by strengthening idealization or twinship in the face of mirroring deficits. Compensatory structures, particularly their early indications, can be detected on projective tests for identifying adaptive resources and treatment potential. The clinical identification of compensatory structures on test findings is described using Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) content. Particular attention is devoted to the 2-part process of demonstrating first, an injury to the self, and second, how attempts to recover from such injuries can be detected on projective tests. Clinical examples are provided, and the differentiation between compensatory structures and defenses and sublimation is discussed.
Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-
USA sõjaväekohtunik Peter Brownback leidis, et kahe Guantanamo vangi, väidetavalt Osama bin Ladeni autojuhina tegutsenud Salim Ahmad Hamdani ning Kanada kodaniku Omar Khadri puhul ei võimalda seadused nende üle kohut mõista. Seni on Guantanamos viibinud vangidest vähemalt 340 süütuna või ohutuna vabaks lastud
Ülavere, Raimo, 1970-
Kokkuvõte USA väärtpaberijärelvalve süüdistusest Oliver Peegi, Kristjan Lepiku ja LHV vastu. Vt. samas: Kertu Ruus. LHV arutelu jätkub väljaspool kohut, Peek ja Lepik endiselt kohtus; Lepik viis pärast keelu kehtestamist kontolt välja üle 2,4 miljoni krooni; Lauri Matsulevitsh. Kristjan Lepik: 2,4 miljonit krooni on firma arvel alles
By critically reviewing Freud's views on happiness, and also those of Helene Deutsch, Bertram Lewin, Melanie Klein, and Heinz Kohut, the author evolves a complex and multilayered perspective on the phenomenon. He categorizes happiness into four related and occasionally overlapping varieties: pleasure-based happiness (elation), assertion-based happiness (joy), merger-based happiness (ecstasy), and fulfillment-based happiness (contentment). After entering some caveats and drawing from his clinical experience, the author then demonstrates the relevance of these ideas to the conduct of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.
Many psychoanalysts have offered innovative ideas on the treatment of schizophrenic patients, but none on postpsychotic depression. The author presents a psychoanalytic conceptualization of postpsychotic depression based on Kohut's ideas regarding the development of normal and pathological grandiosity. The main premise is that postpsychotic depression stems from the loss of psychotic grandiosity, and that it is the psychological reaction to the loss of omnipotent identity whose role it is to provide an alternative reality. Through near-experience connectedness, clinicians and practitioners in the psychiatric rehabilitation field can facilitate an empathic milieu in which new mental constructs can be established and new behavioral skills can be learned.
Padar, Ivari, 1965-
2008. aasta riigieelarvest. Muudatused maksumaksjale, turvalisus, haridus ja sotsiaalne kindlus, hädavajalik palgatõus. Lisatud tabelid: 2008. a. valitsemisala eelarvete kasvude pingerida; Suurimad kulud eelarves. Vt. samas: Kajar Lember. 2008. eelarve ei ole konservatiivne; Kristen Michal. Eelarve arvestab erinevate huvidega; Juhan Parts. Eelarve üle mõistab kohut käimasolev aasta; Aivar Sõerd. 2008. aasta riigieelarve kasvatab inflatsiooni; Margus Tsahkna. Eelarvega võib rahule jääda!; Rein Järvelill. Oleme 2008. aasta eelarvega rahul!; Toomas Trapido. Eelarve ei arvesta kiireneva inflatsiooni ega maailmaturu energiahindadega
Fernando Machado Vilhena Dias
Full Text Available O livro "O jogador" de Fiódor Dostoiévski narra um caso de jogo patológico bastante representativo. O percurso do personagem principal, Aleksei Ivanovitch, evidencia a dramática evolução do transtorno com três fases bem definidas: ganho, perdas e desespero. Partindo do conceito freudiano de narcisismo articulado aos conceitos da psicologia do self de Heinz Kohut, das teorias de Donald Winnicott e Wilfred Bion, serão discutidas as contribuições da psicanálise para a compreensão do jogo patológico.Dostoyevsky's book, "The gambler," describes a representative case of pathological gambling. The history of the main character, Aleksei Ivanovitch, shows the typical evolution of the disorder in three well defined phases: profits, losses and despair. Based on Freud's concept of narcissism and the concepts of the self psychology by Heinz Kohut, Donald Winnicott and Wilfred Bion, the contributions of psychoanalysis to the understanding of pathological gambling are discussed.
This paper is an experiment in conceptual integration and clinical theory testing. Its argument is that narcissism and sexual object love develop from a single source and continue to interact during childhood development and adult life (Freud) and that drives in their oedipal and other formations are not merely disintegration products of narcissism (Kohut). Material from two analyses, supplemented by material from two others, indicate that narcissistic injury was a significant factor in the neuroses of these patients but that aggressive and libidinal conflicts were also decisive such that their hypochondriac symptoms were compositions of their interacting causality. As a result these neuroses are negative instances of Kohut's theory of narcissism. The hypochondriac symptoms as they emerged could not have had the structure and dynamics they actually had nor could the analytic process these patients underwent have achieved the far-reaching and durable amelioration of these symptoms that occurred. On the positive side, these analyses are but two inductive instances that support Freud's theory. However, one major difficulty of the faddishness of psychoanalytic theorizing is that much of worth is lost from general theories that turn out not to be supportable. The clinical material from these two cases which disprove basic elements of self-psychology metapsychology also require adjustments to classical theory that integrate the contributions of self-psychology to psychoanalytic clinical theory. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Gehrie, Mark J
The concept of the selfobject was central to Heinz Kohut's psychology of the self. With an eye to studying the development of narcissism and its implications for the growth of new psychic structure, this concept is reviewed and reassessed. Post-Kohutian complexities regarding its definition and use extend our consideration of the development of narcissism beyond archaic configurations toward further evolution of the self and the nature of mature narcissism. The hypothesis is offered that developing narcissism and the growth of self-regulation impact the acquisition of new structure and new capacities through the emergence of newly potentiated aspects of the self. The implications of these emergent qualities of the self are examined in the context of our understanding of self-esteem regulation, the state of the self, and the goals of psychoanalysis. A clinical example illustrates how technique and process in an analysis may be organized around the development of such new capacities.
Stolorow, Robert D; Atwood, George E
This article elaborates a claim, first introduced by Wilhelm Dilthey, that metaphysics represents an illusory flight from the tragedy of human finitude. Metaphysics, of which psychoanalytic metapsychologies are a form, transforms the unbearable fragility and transience of all things human into an enduring, permanent, changeless reality, an illusory world of eternal truths. Three "clinical cases" illustrate this thesis in the work and lives of a philosopher and two psychoanalytic theorists: Friedrich Nietzsche and his metaphysical doctrine of the eternal return of the same, Sigmund Freud and his dual instinct theory, and Heinz Kohut and his theoretical language of the self. It is contended that the best safeguard against the pitfalls of metaphysical illusion lies in a shared commitment to reflection on the constitutive contexts of all our theoretical ideas.
Horton, Robert S; Bleau, Geoff; Drwecki, Brian
Previous theorizing by clinical psychologists suggests that adolescent narcissism may be related to parenting practices (Kernberg, 1975; Kohut, 1977). Two studies investigated the relations between parenting dimensions (i.e., warmth, monitoring, and psychological control) and narcissism both with and without removing from narcissism variance associated with trait self-esteem. Two hundred and twenty-two college students (Study 1) and 212 high school students (Study 2) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, a trait self-esteem scale, and standard measures of the three parenting dimensions. Parental warmth was associated positively and monitoring was associated negatively with both types of narcissism. Psychological control was positively associated with narcissism scores from which trait self-esteem variance had been removed. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed, limitations are addressed, and future research directions are suggested.
Polona Matjan Štuhec
Full Text Available Narcissistic pathology is connected to the pathology of the self. This article makes an overview of definitions of developmental analytic theories and stops with Kohut, Kernberg, Masterson, Auerbach and Mollon. The self is understood as a separate personality structure and has its own developmental line. Narcissism is a personality disorder that has its roots in preodipal developmental phases, mostly in the practicing and rapprochement subphase and in the oedipal phase as well. Recent research shows that the oedipal phase and the relation between the mother, the child's father (or her partner in general and the child is crucial for the maintenance of the pathological narcissism. Mothers who do not believe in a satisfying relationship with a man in general, keep the child in the dyadic position and do not support the development of the child's own identity.
Moffic, H Steven; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Silver, Stuart; Koh, Steve
As with all professional ethical principles, those in psychiatry have to evolve over time and societal changes. The current ethical challenges for psychiatric administration and leadership, especially regarding for-profit managed care, need updated solutions. One solution resides in the development by the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA) of the first set of ethical principles designed specifically for psychiatric administrators. These principles build on prior Psychological Theories of leadership, such as those of Freud, Kernberg, and Kohut. Supplementing these theories are the actual real life models of psychiatrist leadership as depicted in the memoirs of various psychiatrists. Appreciating these principles, theories, and models may help emerging leaders to better recognize the importance of ethical challenges. A conclusion is that psychiatrists should have the potential to assume more successful leadership positions once again. In such positions, making the skills and well-being of all in the organization seems now to be the foremost ethical priority.
Full Text Available O uso e o abuso de drogas pelos adolescentes é cada vez mais prevalente e traz desdobramentos sérios nos vários níveis de seu desenvolvimento e na sua família. O presente trabalho aborda as pesquisas no campo epidemiológico sobre fatores de proteção e de risco para o uso de drogas entre os jovens, que demonstram que fracassos tanto pessoais como familiares, além de eventos estressores durante a vida, estão mais associados com o uso de drogas. No entanto, a presença dos pais, a motivação pessoal e o monitoramento do adolescente, estão associados com o não uso. São descritos os principais estudos prospectivos já realizados nessa área. Em seguida, à luz do pensamento de diversos autores como H. Kohut, J. McDougall, H. Rosenfeld, C. Olievenstein, Khantzian, entre outros, apresentam-se teorias psicodinâmicas relacionadas ao problema das adições e sua evolução ao longo dos anos dentro do paradigma psicanalítico. A aplicação das técnicas baseadas nos modelos psicoterápicos de orientação analítica, em dependentes químicos, é também discutida.Drug abuse amongst adolescents is becoming increasingly prevalent placing serious consequences in their development and their relationship with family and society. The present paper discloses some epidemiological data on protectors and risk factors for drug abuse in this population demonstrating that personal and family stressors during early life are associated with drug abuse. On the other hand, engaged parents, personal motivation and constant monitoring are associated with avoidance of drugs. Major prospective studies in this field are also reviewed. Psychodynamic theories related to addiction and their evolution through the thoughts of authors such as H. Kohut, J. McDougall, H. Rosenfeld, C. Olievenstein, Khantzian, are analyzed. The application of the thecnics based on psychoanalytic psychotherapy in chemical dependents is also discussed.
Wednesday 18 March 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Funny Gmaes Directed by JMichael Haneke Austria, 1997, 108 minutes Two seemingly well-educated young men approach a family on vacation. They are, apparently, friends of the neighbours, and, at the beginning, their true intentions are not known. But soon, the family is imprisoned and tortured in its own house violently, and the viewers are forced mostly to imagine and to share a certain complicity with the criminals. It might be some kind of game with the lives of husband, wife, son and dog, but why are they doing it? Original version german; english subtitles Wednesday 25 March 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber La Pianiste Directed by Michael Haneke Austria/France/Germany, 2001, 131 minutes Erika Kohut is a pianist, teaching music. Schubert and Schumann are her forte, but she's not quite at concert level. She's approaching middle age, living with her mother who is domineering then submissive; Erika i...
Full Text Available The issue of desire of the Other and jouissance Other, that were designed in the paper Desire of the Other and jouissance Other. A psychoanalitic aspect of the novel Tito Dorčić written by Vjenceslav Novak, is a complex issue of narcissism and narcissistic self, which will be discussed in this paper in the context of Kohut's self psychology and his settings on the grandiose self and idealized parental figure. The formation of the self begins through the subject's pre-Oedipal and Oedipal relations with the people he/she was in the most direct interaction, which means the father and the mother, and in our case, especially his father because the mother is reduced to a passive and muted feminine principle. Therefore, the relationship of family Dorčić against their class and other classes as well as their position in the social movement and dynamism have a direct impact on the principles of education; and a problem of narcissism is closely associated with the family and social interaction.
Through the analysis of conversational interaction and clinical notes, this article develops conceptual linkages between the Goffmanian concept of face and the psychoanalytic and psychiatric understandings of narcissism. Self-cathexis--the investment of libidinal emotion to the image of self--is a key issue both for Goffman and in psychoanalytic studies of narcissism. For Goffman, the self and its cathexis are inherently fragile interactional achievements, whereas for psychoanalysts such as Kernberg and Kohut, they are relatively stable intrapsychic structures. An application of Goffman's theory to narcissistic personality disorders suggests that pathological narcissism involves the isolation of the person's self-image from interactional. practices and a consequent inability to benefit from face work in ordinary social encounters. Clinical experience suggests revisions to the theory of face work: there is a biographical continuity in a person's experience of face, and successful participation in face work is made possible by the psychic capacity of playful orientation to one's own and others' narcissistic illusions. Such playful orientation is manifested through the interactional practices of role distancing.
Terman, David M
Classical psychoanalytic theory has a paranoid strain. There is, in effect, an "evil other"--the id--within each individual that must be tamed in development and confronted and worked through as resistance in treatment. This last has historically endgendered an adversarial relationship between patient and analyst. This paranoid strain came from a paranoid element in Freud's personality that affected his worldview, his relationships, and his theory. Self psychology offers a different view of development and conflict. It stresses the child's need for responsiveness from and admiration of caretakers in order to develop a well-functioning self. Though severe behavioral and character problems may result from faults in the process of self-construction, the essential need is not instinctual discharge but connection. Hence the long-assumed opposition between individual needs and social institutions or between patient and analyst is no longer inevitable or universal. Rather, an understanding of the primary need for connection creates both a different interpretive stance and a more cooperative ambience. These changes in theory and technique are traced to Kohut's personal struggles to emancipate himself from his paranoid mother. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.
Joubert, C E
49 men and 120 women responded to the Narcissism Personality Inventory, the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale, and a questionnaire regarding parental practices. Men reported that their fathers used spanking more heavily than did women, while women reported more than did men that their mothers provided encouragement toward independence. As compared to mothers on these reports, fathers were less likely to be described as "fair," to use praise, money as rewards, or "grounding," and to have interest in their children's activities, but more likely to be described as "strict." Men (but not women) reported that their fathers had been more likely to administer spankings than were their mothers. Persons who were more narcissistic tended to score higher in reactance and had fathers who used monetary rewards more and encouraged independence to a greater extent. These results are contrary to those expected from Kernberg's and Kohut's views linking narcissism to less nurturance by parents. Higher psychological reactance scores correlated with less praise, more scolding, and more verbal abuse from both parents. Psychological reactance scores also correlated with more spanking by fathers and with their being described as being less fair. These results suggest that punitive disciplinary styles are not related to narcissism but are to psychological reactance.
Nurnberg, H G
The spectrum of Narcissistic Personality Disorder extends from severe impairment to high levels of success, fame, power, and wealth. Several treatment frameworks are available. The therapist must be flexible to choose and shift between libidinal and narcissistic issues to those of ambivalence or ego syntonic character defenses or to focus on ego defense mechanisms or object relationships (Esmiol, 1974). A curative process requires enduring corrective structural changes within distorted intrapsychic configurations manifesting themselves as psychopathology (Horowitz, 1976). These structural changes come about by completion of the working through process. Recurrences will occur, even with insight, but self-mastery enables the patient to take on new functions formerly avoided. In Kohut's view, more cohesive reorganized personality is characterized by (Goldberg, 1973): increased empathy within interpersonal relationships and toward the self; previous rebuffs, failures, and separations of fragmenting consequences and turmoil are experienced with minimal reversible regression; object relations improvement without evidence of extreme narcissistic sensitivity; improved sense of humor indicating a capacity for flexible detachment and distance from the self; emergence and proliferation of satisfying creative talents; increased capacity to work alone and achieve personal gratification; capacity to give without contingencies of anticipated personal gain; and capacity to genuinely recognize and mourn the loss of an important real other.
Olsen, Jan Brødslev
class can be very oppressing for a person’s creativity. The paper will therefore give some concrete examples of how the core-self and the identity of experience fit together in different areas. On the theoretical background of Self Psychology developed by Heinz Kohut, R.D Laing, D. W. Winnicott...... different ways. The word ‘Identity’ is from Latin, and the meaning is ‘the same as’. So speaking of the ‘Identity of Experience’ means to consider and investigate different areas of ‘the-same-as’. This paper puts focus on experience with regard to what is called ‘the core-self’. The core-self...... is the creative and spontaneous part of the self, which means that a person will obtain his main energy here. So investigating experience in the light of the core-self means to figure out what kind of experience is useful for the core-self. Furthermore, experience supporting the core-self also has a certain...
David S Senchina
Full Text Available David S Senchina1, Marian L Kohut21Biology Department, Drake University, Des Moines, IA, USA; 2Gerontology Program, Department of Health and Human Performance, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USAAbstract: Aging is associated with a dysregulation of the immune system known as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence involves cellular and molecular alterations that impact both innate and adaptive immunity, leading to increased incidences of infectious disease morbidity and mortality as well as heightened rates of other immune disorders such as autoimmunity, cancer, and inflammatory conditions. While current data suggests physical activity may be an effective and logistically easy strategy for counteracting immunosenescence, it is currently underutilized in clinical settings. Long-term, moderate physical activity interventions in geriatric populations appear to be associated with several benefits including reduction in infectious disease risk, increased rates of vaccine efficacy, and improvements in both physical and psychosocial aspects of daily living. Exercise may also represent a viable therapy in patients for whom pharmacological treatment is unavailable, ineffective, or inappropriate. The effects of exercise impact multiple aspects of immune response including T cell phenotype and proliferation, antibody response to vaccination, and cytokine production. However, an underlying mechanism by which exercise affects numerous cell types and responses remains to be identified. Given this evidence, an increase in the use of physical activity programs by the healthcare community may result in improved health of geriatric populations.Keywords: exercise, immunosenescence
Cuddy, Amy J C; Kohut, Matthew; Neffinger, John
In puzzling over whether it's better to be feared or loved as a leader, Machiavelli famously said that, because it's nigh impossible to do both, leaders should opt for fear. Research from Harvard Business School's Amy Cuddy and consultants Matthew Kohut and John Neffinger refutes that theory, arguing that leaders would do much better to begin with "love"--that is, to establish trust through warmth and understanding. Most leaders today approach their jobs by emphasizing competence, strength, and credentials. But without first building a foundation of trust, they run the risk of eliciting fear, resentment, or envy. Beginning with warmth allows trust to develop, facilitating both the exchange and the acceptance of ideas--people really hear your message and become open to it. Cultivating warmth and trust also boosts the quantity and quality of novel ideas that are produced. The best way to gain influence is to combine warmth and strength--as difficult as Machiavelli says that may be to do. In this article, the authors look at research from behavioral economics, social psychology, and other disciplines and offer practical tactics for leaders hoping to project a healthy amount of both qualities.
Kuchan, Karen L
This article will expand previous conceptualizations (Kuchan, Presence Int J Spiritual Dir 12(4):22-34, 2006; J Religion Health 47(2):263-275, 2008; J Pastoral Care Counsel, forthcoming) of what might be occurring during a prayer practice that creates space within a spiritual direction relationship for the creation of inner images that reveal a person's unconscious relational longings and co-created representations of God that seem to facilitate therapeutic process toward aliveness. In previous articles, I suggest one way to understand the prayer experience is through a lens of Winnicottian notions of transitional space, illusion, and co-creation of God images. This article expands on these ideas to include an understanding of God as Objective Other (Lewis, The four loves, 1960) interacting with a part of a person's self (Jung, in: The structure and dynamics of the psyche, collected works 8, 1934; Symington, Narcissism, a new theory, 1993) that has capacity for subjectivity (Benjamin, Like subjects, love objects: Essays on recognition and sexual difference, 1995) and co-creation (Winnicott, Home is where we start from: Essays by a psychoanalyst, 1990), of inner representations of God (Ulanov, Winnicott, god and psychic reality, 2001). I also expand on a notion of God as "Source of aliveness" by integrating an aspect of how Symington (Narcissism, a new theory, 1993) thinks about "the lifegiver," which he understands to be a mental object. After offering this theoretical expansion of the prayer practice/experience, one woman's inner representations of self and God are reflected upon in terms of a therapeutic process toward transforming destructiveness, utilizing ideas from Winnicott, Kohut, and Benjamin.
Chessick, R D
This paper discussed common problems in the outpatient psychotherapy of borderline patients, especially their rage, seductiveness, and abrupt negative shifts. The definition of "borderline" is not settled. Even DSM-III-R mixes it up with other personality disorders. There are no pathognomonic symptoms, no specific personality constellations, and no compelling evidence for a definitive stage in infant development when this disorder is fixed; all stages are involved, from faulty foundational to oedipal periods. It is a descriptive diagnosis and typical presentations of such patients are reviewed. In the psychotherapeutic approach, limits must be set first, but these must be flexible and reasonable. Medications are used rarely and with care. We attempt to form an alliance by (a) getting the patient to join us in a study of himself or herself, especially a study of when rage and maladaptive behavior emerges, and (b) providing a consistent and reasonable ambience. The ultimate aim is uncovering and interpreting when the patient is ready for it, more and more approximating psychoanalytic treatment as the patient's pathology permits. The special phenomena of the self-object (Kohut), transitional object (Modell), and disruptive extreme erotic or raging (Kernberg) transferences were reviewed, as well as the pitfalls of therapist anxiety and impatience in dealing with them. While archaic transferences predominate, we serve as an auxiliary microscopic ego and appeal to the rational adult part of the patient's ego in a phenomenological investigation. We interpret early only if we cannot get the patient to examine what has led to the explosions and when distortions or projection without insight continues to predominate. The dangers of early transference interpretations are discussed. Therapy is long, tedious, and requires the willingness to patiently catalyze the patient's resumed development and endure the periodic disruptions. Countertransference problems and what to do about
E. Timucin Oral
Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the
Osman, M P; Tabachnick, N D
Friedman (1978) suggested that implicit in the theories of the psychoanalytic process a classification of three separate trends can be identified. In the first instance, there is what could be called "understanding," whether it be intellectual or emotional. Second, there is "attachment," which refers to curative measures based on some "binding emotional reaction to the analyst." And third, and less explicitly, there is "integration," which refers to the development of a synthesis that has the effect of harmonizing parts of the mind or elevating psychic functioning to a higher level. Freud's writings embodied all three of these trends. The participants of the symposium at Marienbad, being strongly influenced by Strachey's emphasis on superego alteration through introjection, placed the greater stress on attachment. Loewald, emphasizing as he does the importance of the patient's identification with the analyst as a corrective reliving of the origins of identification in childhood, highlights attachment while also relating it to understanding. Stone and Gitelson also focused on the beneficial aspects of the affective link to the analyst and the important function served by this link in facilitating understanding of the analyst's interpretation. At the Edinburgh conference, however, aside from Gitelson and Nacht, who viewed attachment as an integrating or structuring aspect of the analytic process, the participants placed their confidence almost completely on "understanding" strictly through interpretation. In the latest debate between the proponents of self psychology and the object relations approach proposed by Kernberg, many aspects of these previous discussions and controversies have resurfaced (Friedman, 1978). Kohut, utilizing Freud's concept that links gratification and minimal frustration together as the developer of structure, relied on the empathic bond between patient and analyst as a basic component of the process of cure. Kernberg, however, relying
José Francisco Socarrás
Hartman, atto Kernberg y Heinz Kohut acerca de la formación del yo, del “sí mismo” y del superyo.
El ello, el yo y el superyo
Según la teoría de Freud, las instancias fundamentales de la persona son el ello, el yo y el superyo. El ello comprende lo heredado, Principalmente los instintos dependientes de la constitución somática. Contiene energías sexuales, la libido, y agresivas. Se rige, en consecuencia, por un proceso primario de impulsos contradictorios. Muchos de estos son inconscientes después de haber
sido reprimidos. La comunicación del ello con el mundo exterior se hace a través del yo. En el ello no hay distinción entre lo bueno y lo malo y provee de energía al yo y al superyo. Diversos autores han criticado el esquema instintual de Freud. Algunos lo han reducido a los instintos de vida y de muerte o tánatos. Otros han cambiado instinto por necesidad o por apetito.
El yo es la parte de la persona que actúa como agente de transacción entre el ello, el superyo, instancia represora, y el mundo exterior. Su porción preconsciente y consciente toma las decisiones y las lleva a cabo. Es catectizado por la libido y el instinto agresivo del ello con carácter narcisista secundario. Controla la motricidad voluntaria y lleva a cabo compromisos razonables entre la satisfacción de las necesidades, su represión o aplazamiento y la realidad. Adopta para el caso los llamados mecanismos de defensa.
Los principales de tales mecanismos son la represión y la negación. La represión excluye de la conciencia el deseo instintivo y sus derivados, afectos, recuerdos y fantasías asociadas. Es primaria cuando impide que derivados peligrosos del ello accedan a la conciencia, y secundaria, si no deja que reingrese a la conciencia el material que estuvo en ella. La negación o rechazo mantiene alejada de la conciencia percepciones traumáticas. Defiende pues de las exigencias de la realidad externa; caso típico el del hombre impotente que