Sample records for vallis rihards uldis



    Avotiņa, Laura


    One article describes the writings of Uldis Bērziņš, one of the most prominent Latvian poets and translators (and also a dissident) who made his debut in the 1960s. It focuses on the aspect of time and space. The 20th century is a time of re-evaluation of values and of a search for new ways of self-expression. Entrenched mythical notions experience transformation and renaissance. Hystorical myths as a source of instigation for Latvian literature (also in folklore) reach their climax in the 19...

  2. Geologic Evolution of Dao Vallis, Mars (United States)

    Crown, D. A.; Bleamaster, L. F.; Mest, S. C.


    Three major outflow channel systems (Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Vallis) extend through the cratered highlands and sedimentary plains of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. These valles represent a stage in regional geologic history intermediate to formation of channels and valleys within highland terrains in the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian Epochs and debris aprons and gullies in the Amazonian Period. Dao Vallis, along with its tributary Niger Vallis, extends for ~1200 km from the eastern margin of Hadriaca Patera into Hellas Planitia, where a depositional lobe is observed on the basin floor. The Dao Vallis system (~6-50 km wide) is characterized by two steep-walled source depressions, regions of subsided plains, and prominent central canyons whose walls display gullies with associated depositional aprons covering parts of canyon floors. The present study is designed to utilize MOC images, MOLA topographic data, and THEMIS daytime and nighttime images to evaluate and refine the geologic evolution of Dao Vallis as defined in earlier Viking-based studies. Dao Vallis has previously been interpreted to have formed by collapse of volcanic and sedimentary plains, potentially triggered by volcano-ice interactions in the Martian subsurface. Small channels and lineations parallel to canyon walls provide evidence for surface flow of fluids. Evidence for subsurface flow is present in zones of subsided plains that separate the central canyons of Dao and Niger Valles from their source depressions. Later stages of the geologic history were dominated by mass-wasting from canyon walls, which may have significantly increased canyon width in places. Comparison of MOC, THEMIS, and Viking images suggests a consistency of geologic processes across a range of spatial scales, as evidence for collapse, mass-wasting, and fluvial erosion and deposition is observed in all datasets. The higher spatial resolution of MOC and THEMIS permits a more detailed understanding of Dao Vallis

  3. Geologic mapping of the Reull Vallis Region, Mars (United States)

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.


    Geologic mapping of the Reull Vallis region is being undertaken in order to determine the sequence of events that formed the Reull Vallis outflow channel system and to understand the geologic processes that modified the Martian southern highlands. The region is situated on the northeast rim of the Hellas Basin in the heavily cratered highlands and shows evidence of fluvial activity, volcanism, mass wasting, and tectonism. The western portion of the Reull Vallis region was previously mapped in a study of Hadriaca Patera.

  4. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirilova, N. V., E-mail:; Fomenko, A. N., E-mail:; Korovin, M. S., E-mail: [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheskii pr., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)


    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5–3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  5. Application of VitaVallis dressing for infected wounds (United States)

    Kirilova, N. V.; Fomenko, A. N.; Korovin, M. S.


    Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5-3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.

  6. Studying the connection between Aram Chaos and Ares Vallis (United States)

    Kraal, E.; Kleinhans, M.; Zegers, T.; Oosthoek, J.; Rossi, A.

    An unusual canyon (˜2.9° N, 341.7° E) with a complex geomorphic history connects Aram Chaos and Ares Vallis. Aram Chaos (centered on 2° N, 339° E) is a circular depression filled with irregular blocks. Ares Vallis, to the east of and slightly lower in elevation than Arem Chaos, is a long valley with a complex hydrologic history. A ˜100 km long, ˜10 km wide canyon runs radially, from Aram Chaos connecting it to Ares Vallis. Recently gathered high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System Infrared (THEMIS IR) at ˜100m/pixel, THEMIS (Visible Imaging System) VIS at ˜30 m/pixel, and High Resoluting Stereo Camera (HRSC) at ˜12.5 m/pixel images combined with stereo topography (anaglyphs) from HRSC at ˜100 m/pixel reveal that this connection between Aram Chaos and Ares Vallis is extremely complex. At the conference, we will present the preliminary results of our geologic and geomorphic mapping of this feature and analysis of the system. The origin of the canyon has not yet been determined. It originates radially from Aram Chaos. After about 100 km, it bends to the northeast as it connects with Ares Vallis. The canyon has steep walls and a flat bottom. Several observations lead us to believe that this canyon was influenced by fluid flow. One is that it has a very gentle sinuosity, possibly indicating a slight meander during formation. Second, it bends to the northeast, or the downstream direction, as it enters Ares Valles. Finally, at the intersection with Aram Chaos, there is a complex sedimentary feature. Initially, this featured appeared to be a delta within Aram Chaos, however, inspection of the higher resolution images and topography shows that the drainage pattern is actually incised into the feature and drains to the east, out of Aram Chaos. Through careful mapping and sedimentary analysis we hope to determine the origin and modification history of this sedimentary feature. The center section of the canyon is filled with ˜10 landslides. The largest

  7. Emplacement Scenarios for Vallis Schroteri, Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon (United States)

    Garry, W. Brent; Bleacher, Jacob E.


    The volcanic processes that formed Vallis Schr teri are not well understood. Vallis Schr teri, located on the Aristarchus Plateau, is the largest rille on the Moon, and it displays three key morphologic components: the Cobra Head, the 155-km-long primary rille, and the 240-km-long inner rille. Observations of terrestrial eruptions are applied here to help explain the morphologic relationships observed for Vallis Schr teri. The Cobra Head, a 10-km-wide source vent surrounded by a 35-kmdiameter and 900-m-high low shield, might have been constructed from fl ows, spatter, and pyroclastic deposits erupted during lava fountain events, similar to the early stages of the vent at Pu u O o in Hawaii and the fi nal morphology of Bandera crater, a cinder cone in New Mexico. The vent fed an initial sheet fl ow controlled by preeruption topography. A channel formed within this sheet fl ow was the foundation for the primary rille, which deepened through construction and thermomechanical erosion by lava. The inner rille is confi ned to the fl at fl oor of the primary rille and is characterized by tight gooseneck meanders. This rille crosscuts the distal scarp of the primary rille and extends toward Oceanus Procellarum. This enigmatic relationship can be explained through backup, overfl ow, and diversion of the lava into a new rille that eroded into the margin of the primary rille. Similar backup, overfl ow, and redirection of the lava fl ow were observed during the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption in Hawaii. Analysis of the fi nal morphology of lunar rilles provides key information about lunar volcanic processes and insight into the local stratigraphy.

  8. Geomorphology of (Recent?) Gullies along Dao Vallis, Mars (United States)

    Stopper, A. R.; Gilmore, M. S.


    High-resolution (geology of the units with which they are associated and the depth of the gullies below the surface. Dao Vallis is a 600 km outflow channel which empties into the Hellas Basin. Eleven MOC images were examined that include gullies along ~450 km of the Vallis, from its head SW towards Hellas. The gullies incise into two geologic units (Crown et al., Icarus 100) from NE to SW: Hadriaca Patera volcanic unit (AHh) and Channeled Plains Rim unit (Ah5) downstream. Despite the differences in geology, all channels appear to have the following morphological characteristics. All gullies emerge at some distance (variable) below the surface where exposed walls contain apparent rock units. We observe the gullies to emanate either directly from individual rock layers or from an unstratified smooth material with positive relief. When associated with rock layers, the gullies often spring from a particular continuous layer within a layered sequence. Gullies also emerge directly from the bottom of a layered unit that caps the valley wall. In other images, smooth material lies within the alcove at the tops of gullies. The gullies originate within the smooth materials. We interpret the smooth material to be rich in ground ice, thereby supporting the theory that permafrost is related to and may feed seepage gullies. In some areas, the smooth material exists without gullies. Once seepage occurs, the channels follow a semi-braided or branching network pattern. If the seepage source is concentrated to one area, sharply incised single channels are produced. Braided morphologies arise under more dispersed seepage conditions. The gullies produce depositional structures analogous to terrestrial alluvial fans. In the northern reaches of Dao Vallis, the recent depositional structures are more well-developed than their downvalley counterparts and the channels often continue out along the valley floor. Downvalley, fewer well-developed depositional structures are observed, and the

  9. Knickpoints and Hanging Valleys of Licus Vallis, Mars (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Fassett, C.


    Licus Vallis is a 350 km long valley system located along the dichotomy boundary on Mars. The main trunk of the valley is incised 200-700 m into the surrounding terrain. The valley heads at an outlet breach of a shallow, 30 km diameter impact crater, and is also fed by a system of tributaries incised into the plateau surrounding Licus Vallis. Many of the tributary valleys, as well as the main stem of the valley fed by the paleolake outlet, have profiles that are not smoothly graded, but rather have distinct reaches with concave downward topography. These sections are either knickpoints or hanging valleys that develop in response to changes in the effective local base level, changes in climate conditions during incision of the valley, or lithologic boundaries in the substrate. Here we present remote sensing observations from images and topography to test these competing hypotheses and further characterize the evolution of this large valley system. Slope-watershed area relationships for the tributaries and main trunk valley are used to distinguish between knickpoints and hanging valleys. Analysis of orbital images does not reveal any distinct layer above which knickpoints develop, and the elevation of knickpoints show no systematic trends that might be expected of a regional lithologic unit(s). Our preliminary results suggest that the distance of knickpoint retreat is correlated with the position of the tributary valley and not the watershed area. Downstream valleys have retreated the most, suggesting they have had the most time to adjust to lowering of the local base level associated with incision of the main valley. These results are most consistent with a wave of incision sweeping up the valley system as it adjusts to a low base level in the northern plains. This conclusion is also consistent with observations of the incision depth of Licus Vallis, which increases approximately linearly downstream. Understanding this signature of base level control on the incision

  10. Clay Minerals in Mawrth Vallis Region of Mars (United States)


    This map showing the location of some clay minerals in of a portion of the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars covers an area about 10 kilometers (6.2 mile) wide. The map is draped over a topographical model that exaggerates the vertical dimension tenfold. The mineral mapping information comes from an image taken on Sept. 21, 2007, by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). Iron-magnesium phyllosilicate is shown in red. Aluminum phyllosyllicate is shown in blue. Hydrated silica and a ferrous iron phase are shown in yellow/green. The topographical information comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Mawrth Vallis is an outflow channel centered near 24.7 degrees north latitude, 339.5 degrees east longitude, in northern highlands of Mars. CRISM is one of six science instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  11. The Presence of Nanophase Al-Si-Fe Components at Mawrth Vallis Indicate Varying Environmental Conditions (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.; Rampe, E. B.


    The presence of nanophase allophane, opal and Fe-rich material at Mawrth Vallis together with multiple phyllosilicates indicate varying environmental conditions over time and also suggests regionally different aqueous environments.

  12. Phyllosilicates and nanophase aluminosilicates at Mawrth Vallis and their geochemical implications (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.; Rampe, E.


    Modelling of TES data has shown the presence of allophane in several sites on Mars with the highest abundances in the Mawrth Vallis region [1]. Analyses of CRISM data at Mawrth Vallis are also consistent with the nanophase aluminosilicates allophane and imogolite in the upper Al/Si-rich phyllosilicatebearing unit [2,3]. We report here on recent lab analyses of several allophane and imogolite samples and new analyses of CRISM and TES data enabled with this larger spectral library. Clay-type components are modelled across the Mawrth Vallis region at ~50-75 vol% in bright units and ~35-55 vol% in dark units using TES data. Identification of nanophase aluminosilicates at Mawrth Vallis helps reconcile the NIR and TIR data of the region, and has important implications for understanding past pedogenic and igneous processes.

  13. Geologic mapping of Gusev Crater-Ma'adim Vallis Region, Mars (United States)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Greeley, R.; Landheim, R.; Cabrol, N.


    Geological mapping of the Gusev Crater-Ma'adim Vallis region is part of a NASA program to investigate potential landing site areas on Mars. Two photomosaics at 1:500,000-scale and individual Viking images with resolution of 63-68 m/pixel were used as the base for the geologic mapping. The area is included in the Aeolis subquadrangle of Mars and is located in the transitional zone between the lowlands of the Elysium basin to north and oldest highland plateaus to the south. The 160 km diameter Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis are located in the central part of the map area. The crater served as a long-term sedimentary basin for Ma'adim Vallis. In addition, an unnamed sedimentary basin (300 km in diameter) is located to the west of Gusev Crater. This basin accumulated sediments from both Ma'adim Vallis and other fluvial systems during Upper Noachian-Middle Amazonian periods.

  14. Allophane at Mawrth Vallis: Implications for Aqueous Alteration History (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Sharp, T. G.; Kraft, M. D.


    The detection of clay minerals and other secondary silicates in light-toned surfaces at Mawrth Vallis from near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy indicates that this surface experienced aqueous alteration. The types of alteration products can help constrain past aqueous environments to assess habitability. NIR data from OMEGA and CRISM show a Fe/Mg-smectite layer stratigraphically below a layer containing a variety of secondary silicates, including kaolinite, montmorillonite, beidellite, and amorphous silica (Bishop et al., 2010). Detections of Fe/Mg-smectites at Mawrth Vallis suggest that the lower layer experienced aqueous alteration at alkaline pH, while detections of kaolinite and amorphous silica suggest that the upper layer experienced intense acidic alteration (Bibring et al., 2006; Bishop et al., 2008). Thermal-infrared (TIR) spectroscopy is an essential tool for identifying both primary and secondary silicate minerals. Previous models of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data from Mawrth indicate clays are present in dark surfaces, while amorphous silica is present in light-toned surfaces (Michalski and Fergason, 2009). However, spectral libraries have heretofore lacked nano-crystalline weathering products, such as allophane, that are important constituents of terrestrial soils. Their identification at Mawrth can help further understand alteration environments and soil formation processes. We synthesized allophanes and gels with a range of Si/Al ratios and measured their TIR emission and NIR reflectance spectra. TES data from dark- and light-toned surfaces at Mawrth were modeled using a spectral library containing allophanes and other secondary silicates. Models of dark-toned surfaces identify 20 vol.% allophane, 10% phyllosilicates and zeolites, and 45% basaltic igneous minerals. Models of bright-toned surfaces identify up to 30% allophane, 25% montmorillonite, and 30-35% basaltic igneous minerals. The identification of allophane in bright-toned surfaces is

  15. Geomorphology of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars,and Associated Paleolake Basins (United States)

    Irwin, Rossman, P., III; Howard, Alan D.; Maxwell, Ted A.


    Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys in the Martian highlands, appears to have originated by catastrophic overflow of a large paleola ke located south of the valley heads. Ma'adim Vallis debouched to Gus ev crater, 900 km to the north, the landing site for the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. Support for the paleolake overflow hypothesis come s from the following characteristics: (I) With a channel width of 3 km at its head, Ma'adim Vallis originates at two (eastern and western) gaps incised into the divide of the approximately 1.1 M km(exp 2) enc losed Eridania head basin, which suggests a lake as the water source. (2) The sinuous course of Ma'adim Vallis is consistent with overland flow controlled by preexisting surface topography, and structural con trol is not evident or required to explain the valley course. (3) The nearly constant approximately 5 km width of the inner channel through crater rim breaches, the anastomosing course of the wide western tri butary, the migration of the inner channel to the outer margins of be nds in the valley's lower reach, a medial sedimentary bar approximate ly 200 m in height, and a step-pool" sequence are consistent with modeled flows of 1-5 x l0 (exp 6) m(exp 3)/s. Peak discharges were likely higher but are poorly constrained by the relict channel geometry. (4 ) Small direct tributary valleys to Ma'adim Vallis have convex-up lon gitudinal profiles, suggesting a hanging relationship to a valley that was incised quickly relative to the timescales of tributary developm ent. (5) The Eridania basin had adequate volume between the initial d ivide and the incised gap elevations to carve Ma'adim Vallis during a single flood. (6) The Eridania basin is composed of many overlapping , highly degraded and deeply buried impact craters. The floor materials of the six largest craters have an unusually high internal relief ( approximately 1 km) and slope (approximately 0.5-1.5 degrees) among d egraded Martian craters, which are usually

  16. Formation of Jarosite in the Marwrth Vallis Region of Mars by Weathering Within Paleo-Ice Deposits (United States)

    Michalski, J. R.; Niles, Paul B.


    Here we report new detections of jarosite in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars. These newly recognized deposits expand the known occurrences of sulfates [1-2] in the region and further expand the already considerable geologic-mineralogic diversity of the Mawrth Vallis area [3-6]. The occurrence of sulfates such as jarosite in geologic contact with thick deposits of phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis area is a relatively rare case on Mars where the enigmatic transition from an early phyllosilicateforming era to a younger sulfate-forming era [7] can be explored. We propose an ice-weathering model which can potentially explain the formation of jarosite-silicakaolinite within acidic ice deposits.

  17. Modification history of the Harmakhis Vallis outflow channel, Mars, based on CTX-scale photogeologic mapping and crater count dating (United States)

    Kukkonen, S.; Kostama, V.-P.


    Harmakhis Vallis is one of the four major outflow channel systems (Dao, Niger, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles) that cut the eastern rim region of the Hellas basin, the largest well-preserved impact structure on Mars. The structure of Harmakhis Vallis and the volume of its head depression, as well as earlier dating studies of the region, suggest that the outflow channel formed in the Hesperian period by collapsing when a large amount of subsurface fluid was released. Thus Harmakhis Vallis, as well as the other nearby outflow channels, represents a significant stage of the fluvial activity in the regional history. On the other hand, the outflow channel lies in the Martian mid-latitude zone, where there are several geomorphologic indicators of past and possibly also contemporary ground ice. The floor of Harmakhis also displays evidence of a later-stage ice-related activity, as the outflow channel has been covered by lineated valley fill deposits and debris apron material. The eastern rim region of the Hellas impact basin has been the subject of numerous geologic mapping studies at various scales and based on different imaging data sets. However, Harmakhis Vallis itself has received less attention and the studies on the outflow channel have focused only on limited parts of the outflow channel or on separated different geologic events. In this work, the Harmakhis Vallis floor is mapped and dated from the head depression to the beginning of the terminus based on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's ConTeXt camera images (CTX; ∼ 6 m/pixel). Our results show that Harmakhis Vallis has been modified by several processes after its formation. Age determinations on the small uncovered parts of the outflow channel, which possibly represent the original floor of Harmakhis, imply that Harmakhis may have experienced fluvial activity only 780-850 ( ± 400-600) Ma ago. The discovered terrace structure instead shows that the on-surface activity of the outflow channel has been periodic

  18. Potential for Biomarkers in Phyllosilicate-bearing Rocks at Mawrth Vallis, Mars (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.; McKeown, N. K.; Parente, M.; Makarewicz, H. D.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Des Marais, D. J.; Murchie, S. L.; Mustard, J. F.


    Phyllosilicate minerals have been identified on Mars in OMEGA and CRISM images using spectral absorptions at 1.38-1.42, 1.91-1.93, 2.16-2.33 and 2.39-2.41 μm [1-5]. Analyses of OMEGA and CRISM spectra in the Mawrth Vallis region have revealed large exposures of Fe/Mg-smectite as the deepest phyllosilicate unit within the ancient cratered terrain that likely formed a thick, pervasive deposit that was subsequently covered by a unit rich in Al-phyllosilicates and hydrated silica. Many CRISM spectra of these phyllosilicate-dominated regions in Mawrth Vallis contain additional absorption bands near 2.4 and 2.5 μm that we attribute to aqueously-formed phases (examples shown in plot of CRISM spectra with their dominant clay types). To interpret such data further, we have acquired lab spectra of a large collection of carbonates, nitrates, sulfates, phosphates, zeolites and amorphous materials (e.g. opal, allophane, imogolite) in addition to an extensive phyllosilicate spectral library. Current analyses of recently improved CRISM images with better spectral clarity are enabling characterization of minor components contributing to these spectral features. We believe that the phyllosilicate-bearing units at Mawrth Vallis harbor additional phases that formed due to aqueous processes and include components that could be biomarkers. Clay-bearing soils in harsh environments such as the Atacama desert contain nitrates, organics and other biosignatures [6]. Further, smectite clays are excellent binding agents [7] and preserve organics well [8]. Thus, the smectite-bearing units at Mawrth Vallis might have preserved organics and biosignature minerals if these were present there during the early aqueous period of Mars. [1] Poulet F. et al. (2005) Nature, 438, 632-627. [2] Bishop J. L. et al. (2008) Science, 321, 830-833. [3] Loizeau D. et al. (2009) Icarus, in press. [4] McKeown N. K. et al. (2009) JGR, in press. [5] Noe Dobrea E. Z. et al. (2009) JGR, in review. [6] Navarro

  19. Rapid geochemical changes at Mawrth Vallis as observed through the mineralogical record (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.


    The thick and widespread phyllosilicate outcrops observed in the Mawrth Vallis region indicate that abundant water was present here during the Noachian period. Factors shaping the formation and alteration of the observed phyllosilicates include aqueous processes, chemistry, and perhaps biology. The expansive phyllosilicate outcrops at Mawrth Vallis exhibit a consistent general trend of Al-phyllosilicates and amorphous Al/Si species at the top of the clay profile and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates on the bottom. This implies either a change in water chemistry, a change in material being altered, or an alteration profile where the upper clays were leached and altered more significantly than those below. Localized variations in Al/Si-rich species [1,2] indicate pockets of acidic and neutral environments, likely formed through changes in the geochemical environment over a geologically short time period at the end of the Noachian. A change in iron in the phyllosilicate units is also observed such that an Fe2+-bearing unit is frequently observed between the Fe3+- and Mg-rich phyllosilicates below and the Al/Si-rich materials above [2]. Changes in oxidation state are often indicative of biogeochemical activity on Earth. CRISM spectra are shown in Figure 1 across a transect from an Al/Si-rich region to an Fe2+-bearing region to an Fe3+/Mg-phyllosilicate region. Phyllosilicate-bearing rocks may have been an ideal place on Mars for pre-biotic chemistry and possibly the development of life as well. Phyllosilicates, especially smectites, can serve as reaction surfaces that bind molecules and catalyze chemical reactions. Experiments have shown excellent survival of microbes in clay environments under extreme Mars-like temperature and humidity conditions. If microbes were present on Mars, the ancient Fe-smectite-bearing rocks could have been a favorable environment for them to evolve and possibly thrive. The Mawrth Vallis phyllosilicate outcrops are colored by changes in phyllosilicate

  20. Mineral abundances and different levels of alteration around Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Gou


    Full Text Available Spectral indices from OMEGA hyperspectral data show that there are two main phyllosilicates exposed in and around Mawrth Vallis: Al phyllosilicates and Fe/Mg phyllosilicates. Detailed analysis of CRISM spectra shows that Al phyllosilicates such as montmorillonite, hydrated silica, kaolinite; Fe/Mg phyllosilicates such as nontronite, saponite, serpentine are widespread on the light-toned outcrops. Though similar stratigraphical sequences, morphologies and textures are observed on both sides of Mawrth Vallis from HiRISE images, suggesting that the geological processes that formed these units must have operated at a regional scale; the multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA derived mineral abundance indicates that there is a higher level of alteration in the western side relative to the eastern side. We suggest that the observed phyllosilicates, stratigraphical sequences and different levels of alteration might have been caused by sedimentary deposition processes in which the composition of the external source sediment or the local solution was different, or by a pedogenic process closely related to the leaching of abundant liquid water with different chemical properties.

  1. Evidence for a changing Martian climate from the mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.


    Layered outcrops in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars contain the greatest diversity of aqueous alteration products on the planet, and these materials are used to infer past aqueous environments. Orbital investigations indicate Al/Si-rich clay-bearing units overly an Fe/Mg-smectite-rich unit. Many different secondary minerals have been identified in the upper Al/Si-rich clay units, but the presence of poorly crystalline phases has not been previously investigated. Identification of ∼10-30% allophane and imogolite in the clay-bearing units resolves previous mineralogical discrepancies between TES and CRISM of clay-bearing units on Mars. We demonstrate here that the poorly crystalline aluminosilicates allophane and imogolite comprise a significant portion of the uppermost stratum of the Al/Si-clay-rich units. These phases are unique to immature soils derived from volcanic ash in well-drained, mildly acidic environments on Earth, and we hypothesize that the deposits discovered here originate from supervolcanic activity in nearby Arabia Terra. The transition through time from smectite-bearing units to the uppermost allophane/imogolite unit in Mawrth Vallis signifies a change in climate from a warm and wet environment to one where water was sporadic and likely depleted rapidly.

  2. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars (United States)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.


    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  3. Rhizobium vallis sp. nov., isolated from nodules of three leguminous species. (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, En Tao; Wu, Li Juan; Sui, Xin Hua; Li, Ying; Chen, Wen Xin


    Four bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, Mimosa pudica and Indigofera spicata plants grown in the Yunnan province of China were identified as a lineage within the genus Rhizobium according to the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, sharing most similarity with Rhizobium lusitanum P1-7(T) (99.1 % sequence similarity) and Rhizobium rhizogenes IAM 13570(T) (99.0 %). These strains also formed a distinctive group from the reference strains for defined species of the genus Rhizobium in a polyphasic approach, including the phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping genes (recA, atpD, glnII), DNA-DNA hybridization, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, phenotypic characterization, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, and cellular fatty acid profiles. All the data obtained in this study suggested that these strains represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium vallis sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content (mol%) of this species varied between 60.9 and 61.2 (T(m)). The type strain of R. vallis sp. nov. is CCBAU 65647(T) ( = LMG 25295(T) =HAMBI 3073(T)), which has a DNA G+C content of 60.9 mol% and forms effective nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris.

  4. Geologic map of MTM -45252 and-45257 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars (United States)

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.


    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) quadrangles -45252 and -45257 (latitude 42.5° S. to 47.5°S., longitude 250° W. to 260° W.) cover a portion of the highlands of Promethei Terra east of Hellas basin. The map area consists of heavily cratered ancient highland materials having moderate to high relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous material, and extensive tracts of smooth and channeled plains. Part of the ~1,500-km-long Reull Vallis outflow system is within the map area. The area also contains surficial deposits, such as the prominent large debris aprons that commonly surround highland massifs. Regional slopes are to the west, toward the Hellas basin, as indicated by topographic maps of Mars. Approximately 60 percent of the surface of Mars is covered by rugged, heavily cratered terrains believed to represent the effects of heavy bombardment in the inner solar system about 4.0 billion years ago. Much of this terrain, including that within the map area, records a long history of modification by tectonism, fluvial processes, mass wasting, and eolian activity. The presence of fluvial features to the east of Hellas basin, including Reull Vallis and other smaller channels, has significant implications for past environmental conditions. The degraded terrains surrounding Hellas basin provide constraints on the role and timing of volatile-driven activity in the evolution of the highlands. Current photogeologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale (see also Mest and Crown, 2002) from analysis of Viking Orbiter images complements previous geomorphic studies of Reull Vallis and other highland outflow systems, drainage networks, and highland debris aprons, as well as regional geologic mapping studies and geologic mapping of Hellas basin as a whole at 1:5,000,000 scale. Viking Orbiter image coverage of the map area generally ranges from 160 to 220 m/pixel; the central part of the map area is covered by higher resolution images of about 47 m/pixel. Crater size

  5. Coordinated Lab, Field, and Aerial Studies of the Painted Desert, AZ, as a Potential Analog Site for Phyllosilicates at Mawrth Vallis, Mars (United States)

    McKeown, N. K.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Bishop, J. L.; Silver, E. A.


    One hypothesis for clay formation at Mawrth Vallis is an altered ash-fall, like bentonites in the Painted Desert, AZ. We compare lab, field, and aerial data to determine if silicate spectral features are accurately captured in aerial datasets.

  6. Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region of Mars (United States)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.


    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analyses of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles are being used to characterize the Reull Vallis (RV) system and to determine the history of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. Studies of RV examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes and provide constraints on potential associated climatic changes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives for these quadrangles include 1) characterization of RV in its "fluvial zone," 2) analysis of channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to and interactions with RV, 3) examination of young (?), presumably sedimentary plains along RV that embay the surrounding highlands, and 4) determination of the nature of the connection between segments 1 and 2 of RV.

  7. Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars (United States)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.


    Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and to determine the history of the eastern Hellas region of Mars. Studies of RV examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes and provide constraints on potential associated climatic changes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," 2) analysis of channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to and interactions with RV, 3) examining young, presumably sedimentary plains along RV, and 4) determining the nature of the connection between the segments of RV.

  8. Kasei Vallis of Mars: Dating the Interplay of Tectonics and Geomorphology (United States)

    Wise, D. U.


    Crater density age dates on more than 250 small geomorphic surfaces in the Kasei Region of Mars show clusterings indicative of times of peak geomorphic and tectonic activity. Kasei Vallis is part of a 300 km wide channel system breaching a N-S trending ancient basement high (+50,000 crater age) separating the Chryse Basin from the Tharsis Volcanic Province of Mars. The basement high was covered by a least 3 groups of probable volcanic deposits. Major regional fracturing took place at age 4,000 to 5,000 and was immediately followed by deposition of regional volcanics of the Fesenkov Plains (age 3,000 to 4,200). Younger clusterings of dates in the 900 to 1,500 and 500 to 700 range represent only minor modification of the basic tectonic geomorphic landform. The data suggest that Kasei gap is a structurally controlled breach of a buried ridge by a rather brief episode of fluvial activity.

  9. The Importance of Lake Overflow Floods for Early Martian Landscape Evolution: Insights From Licus Vallis (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Fassett, C. I.


    Open-basin lake outlet valleys are incised when water breaches the basin-confining topography and overflows. Outlet valleys record this flooding event and provide insight into how the lake and surrounding terrain evolved over time. Here we present a study of the paleolake outlet Licus Vallis, a >350 km long, >2 km wide, >100 m deep valley that heads at the outlet breach of an approx.30 km diameter impact crater. Multiple geomorphic features of this valley system suggest it records a more complex evolution than formation from a single lake overflow flood. This provides unique insight into the paleohydrology of lakes on early Mars, as we can make inferences beyond the most recent phase of activity..

  10. Mineralogy of Layered Outcrops at Mawrth Vallis and Implications for Early Aqueous Geochemistry on Mars (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.; Gross, C.; Rampe, E. B.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Horgan, B.; Loizeau, D.; Viviano-Beck, C. E.; Clark, R. N.; Seelos, F. P.; hide


    Recently developed CRISM parameters and newly available DTMs are enabling refined characterization of the mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis. A stratigraphy including 5 units is mapped using HRSC DTMs across 100s of kms and using HiRISE DTMs across 100s of meters. Transitions in mineralogic units were characterized using spectral properties and surface morphology. The observations point to an ancient wet and warm geologic record that formed the thick nontronite unit, a period of wet/dry cycling to create acid alteration, followed by leaching or pedogenesis to result in Al-phyllosilicates, and finally a drier, colder climate that left the altered ash in the form of nanophase aluminosilicates, rather than crystalline clays.

  11. Geologic map of MTM -40252 and -40257 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars (United States)

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.


    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) quadrangles -40252 and -40257 cover a portion of the highlands of Promethei Terra northeast of the Hellas basin. The map area consists of heavily cratered ancient highland materials of moderate to high relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous materials, extensive tracts of smooth and channeled plains, and other surficial deposits. Reull Vallis, an approximately 1,500 km-long outflow channel system, cuts through the southeast corner of the map area. Regional slopes are to the southwest, toward the Hellas basin, as indicated by Martian topographic maps and the orientations of channels along the northeast rim of the Hellas basin. The Martian highlands cover more than 60 percent of the planet's surface and are primarily in the southern hemisphere. Most of the highlands consist of rugged, densely cratered terrains believed to represent the final phase of heavy bombardment in the inner solar system about 4.0 billion years ago. Parts of the Martian highlands show evidence of extensive degradation and modification. The map area shows landforms created by numerous geologic processes, including tectonism, fluvial activity, and mass wasting. The occurrence of fluvial features, such as outflow channels and valley networks, has significant implications for past Martian conditions. Determining the geology of the highlands northeast of the Hellas basin provides a better understanding of the role and timing of volatile-driven activity in the evolution of the highlands. Photogeologic mapping at 1:500,000 scale from analysis of Viking Orbiter images complements geomorphic studies of Reull Vallis and other highland outflow systems, of drainage networks, and of highland debris aprons and regional geologic mapping studies of the highlands at the 1:2,000,000 scale and 1:1,000,000 scale. Crater size-frequency distributions have been compiled to constrain the relative ages of geologic units and determine the timing and extents of the observed

  12. Preliminary Geological Map of the Peace Vallis Fan Integrated with In Situ Mosaics From the Curiosity Rover, Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Sumner, D. Y.; Palucis, M.; Dietrich, B.; Calef, F.; Stack, K. M.; Ehlmann, B.; Bridges, J.; Dromart, J.; Eigenbrode, J.; Farmer, J.; hide


    A geomorphically defined alluvial fan extends from Peace Vallis on the NW wall of Gale Crater, Mars into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landing ellipse. Prior to landing, the MSL team mapped the ellipse and surrounding areas, including the Peace Vallis fan. Map relationships suggest that bedded rocks east of the landing site are likely associated with the fan, which led to the decision to send Curiosity east. Curiosity's mast camera (Mastcam) color images are being used to refine local map relationships. Results from regional mapping and the first 100 sols of the mission demonstrate that the area has a rich geological history. Understanding this history will be critical for assessing ancient habitability and potential organic matter preservation at Gale Crater.

  13. Geologic Mapping of the Mawrth Vallis Region, Mars: MTM Quadrangles 25022, 25017, 25012, 20022, 20017, and 20012 (United States)

    Chuang, F. C.; Bleamaster, L. F., III


    Mawrth Vallis is a 15-25 km wide, 500 km long sinuous channel that winds through the highlands of Arabia Terra and debouches into the lowlands of Acidalia Planitia. The Mawrth Vallis region lies along the gradational zone between southern hemisphere thick crust and northern hemisphere thin crust, a topographically distinct portion of the Martian crustal dichotomy. The origin and age of the dichotomy boundary are controversial and are further complicated by the multi-stage and multi-process geologic history that has modified this approximately 6000 km section of the highland-lowland boundary (approximately 5 N, 330E to approximately 30 N, 80 E; herein referred as the Arabia Terra boundary). Furthermore, the Arabia Terra boundary has been subjected to many post-boundary processes such as outflow floods to the west, volcanism and tectonism to the east, and potential volatile deposition and glacial modification to the north. This study seeks to better understand the history of the Mawrth Vallis region by mapping six MTM quadrangles (17.5-27.5 N, 335-350 E) at 1:1M scale using traditional and modern digital geologic mapping techniques.

  14. The Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: A potential landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Jean-PierreBibring; Poulet, François; Loizeau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Bishop, Janice L; Wray, James J; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Hauber, Ernst; Altieri, Francesca; Carrozzo, F Giacomo; Niles, Paul B


    The primary objective of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2011, is to characterize the habitability of a site on Mars through detailed analyses of the composition and geological context of surface materials. Within the framework of established mission goals, we have evaluated the value of a possible landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars that is targeted directly on some of the most geologically and astrobiologically enticing materials in the Solar System. The area around Mawrth Vallis contains a vast (>1 × 10⁶ km²) deposit of phyllosilicate-rich, ancient, layered rocks. A thick (>150 m) stratigraphic section that exhibits spectral evidence for nontronite, montmorillonite, amorphous silica, kaolinite, saponite, other smectite clay minerals, ferrous mica, and sulfate minerals indicates a rich geological history that may have included multiple aqueous environments. Because phyllosilicates are strong indicators of ancient aqueous activity, and the preservation potential of biosignatures within sedimentary clay deposits is high, martian phyllosilicate deposits are desirable astrobiological targets. The proposed MSL landing site at Mawrth Vallis is located directly on the largest and most phyllosilicate-rich deposit on Mars and is therefore an excellent place to explore for evidence of life or habitability.

  15. Variability in Macrobenthos Communities in the Valli di Comacchio, Northern Italy, a Hypereutrophized Lagoonal Ecosystem (United States)

    Mistri, M.; Fano, E. A.; Rossi, G.; Caselli, K.; Rossi, R.


    The composition and the community structure of the macrobenthic assemblages in different habitats in the Valli di Comacchio (northern Italy, Adriatic Sea) was investigated. Nine stations in three major basins were selected and sampled quarterly from November 1997 to September 1998 for macrofauna and environmental parameters. Sampling stations were located along a gradient of macrophytic coverage and sediment texture. Data were subjected to ANOVA and multivariate analysis to discriminate between habitats, sites, and seasonality on their faunal attributes. Water variable values were typical of eutrophic areas. A total of 37 macrobenthic taxa were identified, and differences in the species complement were found between the various habitats within each site. Unvegetated habitats were generally found quite impoverished. Community structure of the macrobenthos at the most marine station was ruled by the cycle of Ulva rigida. Trophic guild analysis revealed a well structured community thriving in the Ruppia -vegetated habitat. The persistence, in the marginal Ruppia -vegetated habitat, of such a well structured macrobenthic community, suggests that, notwithstanding the loss of structuring capacity of the habitat exhibited by innermost areas, this lagoonal ecosystem could be resilient enough to recover to its former ecological value.

  16. Chaos on the Vallis Model for El Niño with Fractional Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Saad T. Alkahtani


    Full Text Available The Vallis model for El Niño is an important model describing a very interesting physical problem. The aim of this paper is to investigate and compare the models using both integer and non-integer order derivatives. We first studied the model with the local derivative by presenting for the first time the exact solution for equilibrium points, and then we presented the exact solutions with the numerical simulations. We further examined the model within the scope of fractional order derivatives. The fractional derivatives used here are the Caputo derivative and Caputo–Fabrizio type. Within the scope of fractional derivatives, we presented the existence and unique solutions of the model. We derive special solutions of both models with Caputo and Caputo–Fabrizio derivatives. Some numerical simulations are presented to compare the models. We obtained more chaotic behavior from the model with Caputo–Fabrizio derivative than other one with local and Caputo derivative. When compare the three models, we realized that, the Caputo derivative plays a role of low band filter when the Caputo–Fabrizio presents more information that were not revealed in the model with local derivative.

  17. Ma'adim Vallis Revisited through New Topographic Data: Evidence for an Ancient Intravalley Lake (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond A.; Dawidowicz, Gilles


    Based on a comprehensive study of the recent topographic map USGS MC-23 SE I-2119 (USGS, 1991,Topographical Map of Aeolis) plus geomorphic and digital elevation, we have constructed a geometric model of Ma'adim Vallis. The sedimentary history of the valley was determined by the damming of the valley by two impact craters, one by the southern crater over Gusev rim and the second located 120 km upstream. The presence of an intravalley lake system is inferred from independent sedimentary analysis and from geomorphic evidence for valley benches. Peripheral and parallel topographic contour intervals of the putative intravalley lake shores suggest that the lake was covered by a thick ice sheet. The longitudinal profile of the valley floor shows a peculiar reverse slope located 300 km upstream from the southern Gusev crater rim. We conclude that this is an accumulation of sedimentary deposits adjacent to the crater rampart which defined the northern boundary of the lake. When the water level reached the lowest point of the west bank, which is 0.4 km below the top of the rim of Gusev crater, it began to floor the surrounding plateau. As the intravalley lake level raised, its ice cover formed a wide lateral bench. Later, this ponded water was funneled into Gusev crater through the breaching of the southern Gusev rampart by an impact crater. The paleolacustrine sediments transported by the lake water that channeled through the rampart debris slope mantled the floor of Gusev crater. The sublacustrine sediments are promising targets for future missions and of high priority in the search for past life.

  18. History of the clay-rich unit at Mawrth Vallis, Mars: High-resolution mapping of a candidate landing site (United States)

    Loizeau, D.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bishop, J. L.; Michalski, J.; Quantin, C.


    The Mawrth Vallis region is covered by some of the largest phyllosilicate-rich outcrops on Mars, making it a unique window into the past history of Mars in terms of water alteration, potential habitability, and the search for past life. A landing ellipse had been proposed for the Curiosity rover. This area has been extensively observed by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment and the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, offering the possibility to produce geologic, structural, and topographic maps at very high resolution. These observations provide an unprecedented detailed context of the rocks at Mawrth Vallis, in terms of deposition, alteration, erosion, and mechanical constraints. Our analyses demonstrate the presence of a variety of alteration environments on the surface and readily accessible to a rover, the presence of flowing water at the surface postdating the formation of the clay-rich units, and evidence for probable circulation of fluids in the rocks at different depths. These rocks undergo continuous erosion, creating fresh outcrops where potential biomarkers may have been preserved. The diversity of aqueous environments over geological time coupled to excellent preservation properties make the area a very strong candidate for future robotic investigation on Mars, like the NASA Mars 2020 mission.

  19. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano


    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  20. Constraints on the Martian cratering rate imposed by the SNC meteorites and Vallis Marineris layered deposits (United States)

    Brandenburg, J. E.


    Following two independent lines of evidence -- estimates of the age and formation time of a portion of the Martian geologic column exposed in the layered deposits and the crystallization and ejection ages of the SNC meteorites -- it appears that the Martian cratering rate must be double the lunar rate or even higher. This means models such as NHII or NHIII (Neukum and Hiller models II and III), which estimate the Martian cratering rate as being several times lunar are probably far closer to reality on Mars than lunar rates. The effect of such a shift is profound: Mars is transformed from a rather Moon-like place into a planet with vigorous dynamics, multiple large impacts, erosion, floods, and volcanism throughout its history. A strong shift upward in cratering rates on Mars apparently solves some glaring problems; however, it creates others. The period of time during which Earth-like atmospheric conditions existed, the liquid water era on Mars, persists in NHIII up to only 0.5 b.y. ago. Scenarios of extended Earth-like conditions on Mars have been discounted in the past because they would have removed many of the craters from the early bombardment era found in the south. It does appear that some process of crater removal was quite vigorous in the north during Mars' past. Evidence exists that the northern plains may have been the home of long-lived seas or perhaps even a paleo-ocean, so models exist for highly localized destruction of craters in the north. However, the question of how the ancient crater population could be preserved in the south under a long liquid-water era found in any high-cratering-rate models is a serious question that must be addressed. It does appear to be a higher-order problem because it involves low-energy dynamics acting in localized areas, i.e., erosion of craters in the south of Mars, whereas the two problems with the low-cratering-rate models involve high-energy events acting over large areas: the formation of the Vallis Marineris

  1. Ponding, draining and tilting of the Cerberus Plains; a cryolacustrine origin for the sinuous ridge and channel networks in Rahway Vallis, Mars (United States)

    Ramsdale, J. D.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.


    Rahway Vallis sits within a shallow basin (the "Rahway basin") in the Cerberus Plains of Mars containing a branching network of channels converging on the basin floor. Using topographic cross-profiles of the channels we have found that they are set within broader, subtly-expressed, valleys. These valleys are shallow (around 15 m vertically compared to several kilometres in the horizontal) and have convex to rectilinear slope profiles that are consistent in form across the whole Rahway basin. Both channels and valleys descend and deepen consistently from west to east. The channels typically widen down-slope and increase in width at confluences. The morphology and topology of this channel system are consistent with formation by contributory fluid flow, generated from many distributed sources. The transition between the older heavily cratered terrain and the floor of the Rahway basin is bounded by near-horizontal continuous topographic terraces. Plotting the elevation of the terraces shows that they conform to a plane with a height difference of around 100 m east to west for the 300 km width of the Rahway basin. We calculate that the volume of material needed to fill the topography up to the level of the plane best fit by the terraces is ∼1500 km3. Bordering the channels are sinuous ridges, typically several kilometres long, 20 m across, with heights on the order of 10 m. They sometimes form branching networks leading into the channels, but also occur individually and parallel to the channels. The multiple tilted terraces, the channel/valley network with many fluvial-like characteristics, and the distributed source regions, suggest that the landforms within the Rahway basin are unlikely to have formed through purely volcanic processes. Rather, the channels within the Rahway basin are consistent with a genesis requiring the flow of liquid water, and the sinuous ridges with melting of a static ice body that occupied the basin. We suggest a hypothesis of rapid basin

  2. Mineralogy and stratigraphy of phyllosilicate-bearing and dark mantling units in the greater Mawrth Vallis/west Arabia Terra area: Constraints on geological origin (United States)

    Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Bishop, J.L.; McKeown, N.K.; Fu, R.; Rossi, C.M.; Michalski, J.R.; Heinlein, C.; Hanus, V.; Poulet, F.; Mustard, R.J.F.; Murchie, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Swayze, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.


    Analyses of MRO/CRISM images of the greater Mawrth Vallis region of Mars affirm the presence of two primary phyllosilicate assemblages throughout a region ∼1000 × 1000 km. These two units consist of an Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate assemblage overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate and hydrated silica assemblage. The lower unit contains Fe/Mg-smectites, sometimes combined with one or more of these other Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates: serpentine, chlorite, biotite, and/or vermiculite. It is more than 100 m thick and finely layered at meter scales. The upper unit includes Al-smectite, kaolin group minerals, and hydrated silica. It is tens of meters thick and finely layered as well. A common phyllosilicate stratigraphy and morphology is observed throughout the greater region wherever erosional windows are present. This suggests that the geologic processes forming these units must have occurred on at least a regional scale. Sinuous ridges (interpreted to be inverted channels) and narrow channels cut into the upper clay-bearing unit suggesting that aqueous processes were prevalent after, and possibly during, the deposition of the layered units. We propose that layered units may have been deposited at Mawrth Vallis and then subsequently altered to form the hydrated units. The Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate assemblage is consistent with hydrothermal alteration or pedogenesis of mafic to ultramafic rocks. The Al-phyllosilicate/hydrated silica unit may have formed through alteration of felsic material or via leaching of basaltic material through pedogenic alteration or a mildly acidic environment. These phyllosilicate-bearing units are overlain by a darker, relatively unaltered, and indurated material that has probably experienced a complex geological history.

  3. Mapping Hrad Vallis, Mars (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Hamilton, C. W.


    Our 1:175K-scale geologic map is almost done! And we've found inflated lava flows and multiple episodes of aqueous discharge interspersed with volcanic eruptions. But we should also look beyond this area, as these units extend beyond the map area.

  4. Off-site embankments to protect fields from the growth of peatlands in the Valli Grandi Veronesi Meridionali (Italy during Middle and Recent Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Balista


    Full Text Available In the background of the late-Holocene landscape of the Southern Valli Grandi Veronesi (VGVM and nearby Bonifica Padana, an area that stretches between rivers Adige and Po and which is drained by the river Tartaro, was taken into consideration the position of a long embankment that ran through the territories of the two large moated sites of the middle and recent Bronze Age, Fondo Paviani (FP to east , and Castello del Tartaro (CdT to west. The location of this particular embankment called SAM (from italian southern embanked road, more than ten km long, and arranged parallel to the Tartaro old riparian belt, since long time attracted scholars as a witness of an old territorial organization, probably related to spatial distribution of cultivated or pasture by the communities who lived in the two large villages, bounded by massive ditch and bank systems. On the basis of recent acquisitions of new DEM and LIDAR sources and aimed field investigations, then merged into geo-chronological and chrono-typological analysis in the laboratory, was developed a research addressed the chrono-stratigraphic, cultural-evolutionary and functional scan of the SAM construct. For this purpose, the archaeological, stratigraphic and chronological record have been reviewed from a series of very significant off-sites, with stratigraphic columns documenting paleo-environmental and archaeological-functional reconstructions. They allowed to established the obvious links between the infrastructure of the ditches of the SAM embankment and the network of secondary rural ditches that seemed to drain and distribute waters in the parceled fields next to the large contemporary sites. In Ponte Moro off-site we captured the chrono-stratigraphic position of SAM embankment through the dating of two peat samples undertaken immediately before and after the stratigraphic position of the embankment. The datings have yielded an earliest date for the construction (MBA-RBA and a later date

  5. Mesoscale modeling of the water vapor cycle at Mawrth Vallis: a Mars2020 and ExoMars exploration rovers high-priority landing site (United States)

    Pla-García, Jorge


    Introduction: The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) was used to predict meteorological conditions that are likely to be encountered by the Mars 2020 (NASA) Rover at several of their respective proposed landing sites during entry, descent, and landing at Ls5 [1] and by the ExoMars (ESA) Rover at one of the final landing sites. MRAMS is ideally suited for this type of investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simu-late Mars' atmospheric circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface proper-ties [2, 3]. One of the sights studied for both rovers was Mawrth Vallis (MV), an ancient water outflow channel with light colored clay-rich rocks in the mid-latitude north hemisphere (Oxia Palus quadrangle). MV is the northernmost of the Mars2020 and ExoMars landing sites and the closest to the northern polar cap water source. The primary source of water vapor to the atmosphere is the northern polar cap during the northern summer. In order to highlight MV habitability implications, additional numerical experiments at Ls90, 140 and 180, highest column abundance of water vapor is found over MV [4], were performed to study how the atmospheric circulation connects MV with the polar water source. Once the winter CO2 retreats, the underlying polar water ice is exposed and begins to sublimate. The water is transported equatorward where it is manifested in the tropical aphelion cloud belt. If transport is assumed to be the result of the summer Hadley Cell, then the polar water is carried aloft in the northern high latitude rising branch before moving equatorward and eventually toward the southern high latitudes. Thus, the mean meridional summer circulation precludes a direct water vapor connection between MV and the polar source. Around the equinoxes (Ls0 and Ls180), there is a brief transition period where the rising branch quickly crosses from one hemisphere into the other as it migrates to its more typical solstitial location

  6. Allergic Conjunctivitis | Vally | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease usually affects young adults and is associated with other allergic conditions like allergic rhinitis, and bronchial asthma for example. There are three types of allergic conjunctivitis, namely acute allergic conjunctivitis, seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC). The diagnosis ...

  7. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders | Vally | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). ... The accurate assessment and diagnosis of HAND depends on meeting the need for statistically sound neuropsychological assessment techniques that may be used confidently in assessing ...

  8. Hea saak vajab arenguks ka magneesiumi / Valli Loide

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loide, Valli, 1949-


    Magneesiumiga väetamine parandab põllukultuuride saagikust ja kvaliteeti. Eriti vajalik on see 4-5 tonnise ja kõrgema saagitaseme juures, mille puhul jääb mullas leiduvast magneesiumist taimedele väheks

  9. Management of Cough: a practical approach | Vally | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a regular day, healthcare providers will be contacted by one or more health seekers presenting with cough as a symptom. Cough has been considered an important physiological reflex that protects the airways from aspiration of foreign materials. Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which people seek ...

  10. Hemingway in the Soča vally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Mclver


    Full Text Available Hemingway is a very popular writer in Slovenia. One of my students in Ljubljana pointed out a very well known passage lin A Farewell to Arms about two refugee girls Frederic Henry and his driver, Aymo, pick up in Gorizia (Gorica during the retreat from Caporetto (Kobarid. What interested many of my students about the episode was that the two girls seem to speak a dialect that neither Aymo, who is Italian, nor Frederic, who is fluent in Italian,' understands. My students belived that these girls are speaking Slovenian. The only Italian they seem to understand are the words in Italian for sexual intercourse, which makes them very upset, and virgin and sister, which calm them down. It is very likely that two Slovenian girls would know a little Italian, particularly if they came from Gorizia, which at the time of the first world war was predominantly Slovene.

  11. Daugavpils - the city that Riga loves to forget / Aaron Eglitis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eglitis, Aaron


    Kohalikel valimistel lähtuvad valijad Daugavpilsis pigem poliitikute iseloomuomadustest kui erakondlikust kuuluvusest. Eelmist linnapead Rihards Eigims'it süüdistatakse linna raha vales kasutamises

  12. Mööbel, mis äratab meis lapse / Ele Praks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Praks, Ele


    Leidlikke mööbliesemeid maailmast lastetuppa, mille autoriteks Ieva Araja ja Rihards Funts Lätist, Samantha Parsons Austraaliast, Peter Murdoch jt. Artiklis ka kodulehekülgede aadresse, kust leida toredaid istmeid ja laudu

  13. Geologic Mapping in Southern Margaritifer Terra on Mars and the Evolution of Nirgal Vallis (United States)

    Wilson, S. A.; Grant, J. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.


    The Margaritifer Terra region on Mars preserves a long and fascinating record of aqueous activity. Geologic mapping in four quadrangles helps constrain the timing, source, duration, and relative importance of aqueous versus other geomorphic processes.

  14. Geologic map of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles, Reull Vallis region of Mars (United States)

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.


    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) –30247, –35247, and –40247 quadrangles cover a portion of southern Hesperia Planum and the highlands of eastern Promethei Terra, east of the Hellas basin. The map area (lat 27.5–42.5° S., long 110–115° E.) consists of cratered ancient highland materials of moderate relief, isolated knobs and massifs of rugged mountainous materials, extensive tracts of plains, and surficial deposits. Waikato and Reull Valles extend through plains and highland terrains. Regional slopes are generally to the southwest toward the Hellas basin, but local slopes (for example, highlands to plains) dominate the landscape.

  15. Remote Sensing Soil Salinity Map for the San Joaquin Vally, California (United States)

    Scudiero, E.; Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.


    Soil salinization is a major natural hazard to worldwide agriculture. We present a remote imagery approach that maps salinity within a range (i.e., salinities less than 20 dS m-1, when measured as the electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract), accuracy, and resolution most relevant to agriculture. A case study is presented for the western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV), California, USA (~870,000 ha of farmland) using multi-year Landsat 7 ETM+ canopy reflectance and the Canopy Response Salinity Index (CRSI). Highly detailed salinity maps for 22 fields (542 ha) established from apparent soil electrical conductivity directed sampling were used as ground-truth (sampled in 2013), totaling over 5000 pixels (30×30 m) with salinity values in the range of 0 to 35.2 dS m-1. Multi-year maximum values of CRSI were used to model soil salinity. In addition, soil type, elevation, meteorological data, and crop type were evaluated as covariates. The fitted model (R2=0.73) was validated: i) with a spatial k-folds (i.e., leave-one-field-out) cross-validation (R2=0.61), ii) versus salinity data from three independent fields (sampled in 2013 and 2014), and iii) by determining the accuracy of the qualitative classification of white crusted land as extremely-saline soils. The effect of land use change is evaluated over 2396 ha in the Broadview Water District from a comparison of salinity mapped in 1991 with salinity predicted in 2013 from the fitted model. From 1991 to 2013 salinity increased significantly over the selected study site, bringing attention to potential negative effects on soil quality of shifting from irrigated agriculture to fallow-land. This is cause for concern since over the 3 years of California's drought (2010-2013) the fallow land in the WSJV increased from 12.7% to 21.6%, due to drastic reduction in water allocations to farmers.

  16. Hydrogeological research in Comacchio valleys; Ricerche idrogeologiche nelle valli di Comacchio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilli, L.; Lenzi, G.; Mazzone, N.; Moretti, L.; Olivieri, P.; Tesini, E.; Valpreda, E.M.; Vincenzi, D. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute; Anselmi, B.; Bucci, M. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute; Paris, P.; Quercia, F. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Direzione Sicurezza Nazionale e Protezione Sanitaria


    This work deals with the analysis of seepage through the Comacchio wetland, the phreatic aquifer and the neighbouring drainage canals over an area of 400 km{sup 2}. To this aim, a monitoring network of 76 wells and 50 piezometers to measure hydraulic head, conductivity and ph of groundwater was positioned. Over this network ten field-surveys were carried out, from december 1988 to november 1990. On the basis of elaborated data and of the simulation produced by grounwater mathematical model, it was verified that: the Comacchio water body exchanges little quantities of water with the phreatic aquifer and with its neighbouring canals, with respect to its total volume; the amount of seepage between canals and phreatic aquifer in the drained area is quite relevant, as confirmed in the hydrological balance; the combined effect of the artificial drainage of the reclaimed terrains and of seepage of the saltwater from the Comacchio wetland to the near terrains leads to the growth of the groundwater salinity with damage to the crops; the calibrated model reproduced with a good approximation the observed groundwater levels; this result may represent a useful support to water quality studies that may be carried out in the future.

  17. "Nokia" pole pooltki Kaalit / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo, 1958-


    Populaarteaduslik film Kaali meteoriidiplahvatusest "Kaali saladus" : stsenarist ja režissöör Urmas E. Liiv : operaator Ago Ruus : produtsendid Uldis Cekulis ja Riho Västrik : OÜ Vesilind (Eesti) - Vides Filmu Studija (Läti)

  18. Другие о нас

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Eesti 2008.a. dokumentaalfilmist "Fritsud ja blondiinid" (režissöör Arbo Tammiksaar, peategelased Tõnu Aav, Uldis Lieldidz, Algimantas Masiulis) seoses selle linastumisega Venemaa filmifestivalil "Kinošokk"

  19. Environmental parameters monitoring in Comacchio wetland; Progetto per lo studio integrato delle Valli di Comacchio : eutrofizzazione delle Valli di Comacchio. Campagne di misura sulla qualita` delle acque 1992-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilli, L.; Malaguti, A.; Mazzone, N.; Olivieri, P.; Silingardi, D.; Tesini, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `E. Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Lorenzelli, R.; Salvi, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente


    From april 1992 to april 1993, a monthly monitoring of the environmental parameters has been carried out in the waters of the Comacchio wetland, in order to study the trends of their tropic level, and to evaluate the connections among the chemical physical parameters, the primary productivity, the seaweed turnover and the nutrients in the water column. The field campaigns, 12 in total, have been performed in two stations, representative of wetland; besides, 5 seasonal campaigns have been made over the whole lagoon, in 15 stations, and in the 3 sea channels. The seasonal trends show very high values of temperature and salinity, up to 50% in summer; even if the values of the chlorophyll `a` are less in comparison with the 1990-1991 values, the waters are classified as eutrophic over all the year, as confirmed by the results of primary productivity and seaweed turnover measurements. Phosphorus seems to be the limiting factor, even if in summer the nitrogen also is nearly missing. Very high productivity, with the oxygen concentration in the water higher than the saturation value, is observed in summer.

  20. Mothers\\\\\\' Knowledge of pediatric pain management in the pediatric ward of Valli-e-asr hospital in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Amouzeshi


    Conclusion: The mothers have low knowledge of their pain management in their children's without any considerable relationship to some contextual factors. Planning for educational programmes with respect to managing children's pain is recommended.

  1. Läti parimad majad / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-


    Muljeid Läti arhitektuuriauhindade jagamiselt. Peapreemia: arhitektide Uldis Lukshevics'i ja Martins Oshans'i projekteeritud eramu. Parim avalik hoone: arhitektuuribüroo Kubs projekteeritud kontorihoone Riias. Suurim Baltikumis: arhitektuuribüroo Arhis projekteeritud Ljepaja politseihoone. Parim rekonstrueerimisprojekt: arhitektuuribüroo Arhis projekteeritud avatud kontor nõukogudeaegses tööstushoones. Parim interjöör: kohvik Vanilla (Ieva Dripe, Janis Broka) ja tekstiilipood Garage (Zaiga Gaile büroo). Uldis Lukshevics'i projekteeritud suvilad, mis paiknevad postidel

  2. Idee ja teostuse vahel, kvaliteeti otsimas / Anneliis Aunapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aunapuu, Anneliis


    Tallinna 5. rakenduskunsti triennaali "Know How" peaväljapanek Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis 21. veebruarini 2010. Kujunduse autorid Ott Kadarik ja Tuuli Aule. Lühidalt Pavel Sidorenko ja lätlase Rihards Funtsi töödest

  3. Personal interests hinder Rail Baltica

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Läti seimi liige Janis Reirs leiab, et Rail Baltica ehitus on Moskva ja Riia vahelise raudtee ehitusest prioriteetsem, kuna esimest võib potentsiaalselt finantseerida Euroopa Liit. Transpordiminister Uldis Augulis kohtub oma Venemaa kolleegi Igor Levitiniga 7. aprillil. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskise sõnul vajavad mõlemad projektid majandusanalüüsi

  4. Kaali film esilinastub sõbrapäeval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    14. veebruaril esilinastub kinos "Sõprus" populaarteaduslik film Kaali meteoriidiplahvatusest "Kaali saladus" : stsenarist ja režissöör Urmas E. Liiv : operaator Ago Ruus : produtsendid Riho Västrik ja Uldis Cekulis (Läti) : OÜ Vesilind (Eesti) - Vides Filmu Studija (Läti)

  5. Topographic map of the western region of Dao Vallis in Hellas Planitia, Mars; MTM 500k -40/082E OMKT (United States)

    Rosiek, Mark R.; Redding, Bonnie L.; Galuszka, Donna M.


    This map, compiled photogrammetrically from Viking Orbiter stereo image pairs, is part of a series of topographic maps of areas of special scientific interest on Mars. Contours were derived from a digital terrain model (DTM) compiled on a digital photogrammetric workstation using Viking Orbiter stereo image pairs with orientation parameters derived from an analytic aerotriangulation. The image base for this map employs Viking Orbiter images from orbits 406 and 363. An orthophotomosaic was created on the digital photogrammetric workstation using the DTM compiled from stereo models.

  6. Optimization of Artificial Dispersion in Salvo Firing. (United States)


    Associate Professor of . Mathematics Operations Research .. ’ R ssel Rihards W. B. Zeleny ; Associate Professor of Associate Profesor o4 Re" 0 earch a2 - aN’ 2 2 2 - 5 (.0a/a = -zI2 + z , 2 ’ (4.10) a 3 6 3 0 Z with 22Z = (n-l)a /at In Table 6 two values of the approximate optimal ballis- tic

  7. Eesti läheb Riia saatkonna ehitusega teisele katsele / Eda Post

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Post, Eda, 1983-


    Riia Eesti suursaatkonnahoone arhitektuurikonkursist. Esikoha pälvisid Lembit-Kaur Stöör, Ülo-Tarmo Stöör ja Heidi Urb (võistlustöö "Teele"), teise koha saavutasid Emil Urbel, Andrus Mark, Ott Hirvesoo ja Peeter Veimer ("Horta"), kolmanda koha Juris Mitenbergs, Peteris Suprins, Zane Krumina, Uldis Tucs, Edgars Gribusts ja Edijs Kravalis ("White

  8. Nuove segnalazioni di Zootoca vivipara Jaquin e di Vipera berus Linnaeus, in Piemonte, Italia nord-occidentale (Novitates Herpetologicae Pedemontanae II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Ghielmi


    Full Text Available Vengono forniti nuovi dati distributivi di Zootoca vivipara e di Vipera berus in Piemonte (Italia nordoccidentale. La prima viene segnalata nelle valli Bognanco (VB, Sessera (BI, Mastallone (VC, Rimella (VC e Strona (VB. Il Marasso viene invece segnalato per le valli Sorba (VC e Strona (VB. I nuovi dati distributivi vengono commentati brevemente.

  9. Teisel katsel Riias = Second go-round in Riga / Jaak Jõerüüt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõerüüt, Jaak, 1947-


    Eesti suursaadik Lätis, arhitektuurivõistluse žürii liige Riia Eesti saatkonnahoone arhitektuurikonkursist, võidutöödest. Lk. 56-57 Eesti saatkond Riias: I koha pälvinud Lembit-Kaur Stööri, Ülo-Tarmo Stööri ja Heidi Urbi võidutööst, premeeritud tööde plaanid, vaated. II koha said Emil Urbel, Andrus Mark, Ott Hirvesoo ja Peeter Veimer, III koha Juris Mitenbergs, Peteris Suprins, Zane Krumina, Uldis Tucs, Edgars Gribusts ja Edijs Kravalis

  10. Detailed geological mapping of the fluvial deposits in Magong crater, Xanthe Terra, Mars (United States)

    Knade, J.; Hauber, E.; Platz, T.; Le Deit, L.; Kinch, K.


    We present a detailed geological map of a layered sedimentary deposit at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis in Xanthe Terra, Mars. This location shows diverse sedimentary and volcanic features which makes it an attractive place for future exploration, including rovers.

  11. Kunstisaali jõuavad ka meisterlikud akvarellid / Aate-Heli Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Aate-Heli, 1940-


    Viljandi kunstisaalis toimuvatest näitustest. 20. augustini Marko Kekishevi plakatinäitus "Make up". Järgmised väljapanekud on Valli Lember-Bogatkinalt, Vilja Prometilt sõpruskonnaga, Helle Käosaarelt oma õpilastega


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mars Pathfinder bounced down and rolled to a stop on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. It landed in an ancient floodplain in the Ares Vallis region of Chryse...

  13. 1. VII eksponeeriti...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Valli Lember-Bogatkina pannoo "Lähme suurele peole" (1950) eksponeeriti uues kohas Tallinna lauluväljakul laulukaare II korrusel. Pannoo kuulub Tallinna kunstikogusse, restaureerimist teostas AS KAR-Grupp

  14. Page 1 Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1999, 13(2), 173-177. ISSN 1011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1-5, Hamburg; Vieweg and Sohn GmbH Braunchweig; West Germany, 1966. 4. Artman, N.R.; Smith, D.E., J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 1972, 49, 318. 5. Gabriel, H.G.; Alexander, J.C.; Valli, V.E. Nutr. Rep. Inter. 1979, 20, 411. 6. Perkins, E.G. Rev. Fran. Corps Gras 1976, 23, 257. 7. Alexander, J.C.; Valli, V.E.; Chanin, B.E. J. Toxicol ...

  15. Vanni Codeluppi (Università IULM, Milano): "Il consumo come religione". : Convegno "Destini del sacro. Discorso religioso e semiotica delle culture"(23/11/2007 - 25/11/2007 - Facoltà di Scienze della Comunicazione e dell’Economia - Teatro Valli - Teatro Ariosto ; Reggio Emilia, Italia).


    Codeluppi, Vanni; Federica, Ciotti; Leonardo, Romei; de Pablo, Elisabeth; STOCKINGER, Peter; Bonnemazou, Camille


    Corpus SCC (Sémiotique - Culture - Communication); ll XXXV congresso dell' AISS (Associazione Italiana di Studi Semiotici) dal titolo “Destini del sacro. Discorso religioso e semiotica delle culture”, è organizzato in collaborazione con la Facoltà di Scienze della Comunicazione dell’Università di Reggio Emilia. I differenti studiosi, molti di fama internazionale, si sono riuniti intorno ad un tema, quello del “sacro”, che in semiotica non è riconducibile immediatamente ad un’area di indagine ...

  16. Destini del sacro. Discorso religioso e semiotica delle culture. Saluti inaugurali. : Convegno "Destini del sacro. Discorso religioso e semiotica delle culture"(23/11/2007 - 25/11/2007 - Facoltà di Scienze della Comunicazione e dell’Economia - Teatro Valli - Teatro Ariosto ; Reggio Emilia, Italia).


    Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Galli, Giovanna; Neri, Massimo; Melloni, Alberto; de Pablo, Elisabeth; Federica, Ciotti; STOCKINGER, Peter; Leonardo, Romei; Bonnemazou, Camille


    Corpus SCC (Sémiotique - Culture - Communication); ll XXXV congresso dell' AISS (Associazione Italiana di Studi Semiotici) dal titolo “Destini del sacro. Discorso religioso e semiotica delle culture”, è organizzato in collaborazione con la Facoltà di Scienze della Comunicazione dell’Università di Reggio Emilia. I differenti studiosi, molti di fama internazionale, si sono riuniti intorno ad un tema, quello del “sacro”, che in semiotica non è riconducibile immediatamente ad un’area di indagine ...

  17. Relación valina:lisina digestible en la dieta de pollos de engorda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Potença


    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la relación valina:lisina digestible (Val:Lys dig en la dieta de pollos de engorda en el período de 1 a 14 días de edad sobre el comportamiento productivo, emplume, diámetro y perfil de fibras musculares. Se utilizaron 1,800 pollos de engorda Cobb de un día de edad, distribuidos en un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cinco tratamientos, seis repeticiones y 36 aves por unidad experimental. Los tratamientos consistieron de diferentes relaciones de Val:Lys dig (66, 71, 76, 81 y 86 %. La relación Val:Lys dig no afectó ( P >0.05 el comportamiento productivo de las aves. Sin embargo, hubo efecto lineal positivo ( P 0.05 por los tratamientos. Se concluye que la relación Val:Lys de 66 % es suficiente para maximizar el comportamiento productivo de pollos de engorda en la fase de 1 a 14 días, no obstante, una mayor relación de Val:Lys dig (76 % es necesaria para maximizar el crecimiento de las fibras musculares.

  18. Resurfacing event observed in Morpheos basin (Eridania Planitia) and the implications to the formation and timing of Waikato and Reull Valles, Mars (United States)

    Kostama, V.-P.; Kukkonen, S.; Raitala, J.


    The large scale outflow channels of the Hellas impact basin are characteristic to its eastern rim region. Although the majority of the valles are located in the large-scale topographic trough connecting Hesperia Planum and Hellas basin, the most far-reaching of them, Reull Vallis is situated to the south-southeast of this trough cutting through Promethei Terra. Reull Vallis and the general geology of the region has been studied in the past, but new higher resolution image data enables us to look into the details of the features implicating the fluvial history of the region. Photogeological mapping using the available data and extensive crater counting utilizing CTX, HiRISE and HRSC provided new insights to the timing of the regional events and episodes. The study resulted in more detailed age constraints compared to the previous results from Viking images. These calculations and the geological study of the upper WMR system (Waikato Vallis - Morpheos basin - Reull Vallis) region and southern Hesperia Planum enabled us to estimate the time-frame of the (fluid) infilling of this reservoir to a model time period of 3.67-3.52 Ga which is thus also the time of the visible activity of the upper Reull Vallis and Waikato Vallis outflow channels. The results also more explicitly defined the size of previously identified Morpheos basin (confined to the 500-550 m contour lines). We also present a geological analysis of the upper parts of the WMR system, and using the observations and calculations, present an updated view of the evolution of the system and associated region.

  19. Agendid, nuhid, pealekaebajad / Tiit Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Tiit, 1959-


    Siiani ei ole peaaegu üldse avaldatud Nõukogude julgeoleku tööriistade - agentide töö peamist "nähtavat" jälge - nende ettekandeid. Agent "Välk" ehk kodanikunimega Adolf Lõhmus oli üks tippagente, tänu kellele lõpuks langes vendade Saalistete metsavennasalk. Lisaks agentidele sai julgeolek andmeid omaalgatuslikelt pealekaebajatelt. Võrumaa komsomolitegelase Hans Valli töö näitab sihikindlat ja põhjalikku tööd inimeste järele nuhkimises. Lisatud agendi "Välk" ja Hans Valli töö näited

  20. Personnel Attrition Rates in Historical Land Combat Operations: A Catalog of Attrition and Casualty Data Bases on Diskettes Usable with Personal Computers (United States)


    Pelaez (ed) Public Law and Comparative Politics. Trabajos en Homenaje a Ferran Vallis i Taberner, Vol XVII, Barcelona, Spain; Facultad de Derecho de...increase rather than decrease the likelihood of war. (7) The notion that sexual frustration increases the likelihood of war is not supported by the

  1. Eridiplom õppefilmi eest / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-


    Eesti 42. amatöörfilmide festivalil Tallinna Kinomajas tunnistati parimaks õppefilmiks põltsamaalase Väino Valdmanni "Valli Lember-Bogatkina meistriklass". Kolm auhinda (seejuures parima täiskasvanud autorifilm) sai"Elevanti nägema" (autorid S. Dürdoth, M. Apel, L. Shamis, K. Saar) Ka teistest auhinnasaajatest

  2. Identification des especes ligneuses utilises dans l'alimentation des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les espèces concernées sont les suivantes : Afzelia africana, Secamone afzelii, Nauclea latifolia, Ficus vallis-chouldae, Dichrostachys glomerata, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Khaya senegalensis, Bauhinia thonnongui, Gardiena erubescens. Il ressort de l'étude qu'il existe plusieurs espèces fourragères ligneuses qui peuvent ...

  3. Allophane Identified at Mawrth Valles in CRISM and TES Datasets and Implications for the Ancient Phyllosilicate-Rich Rocks (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.; Rampe, E. B.


    Allophane has been identified at Mawrth Vallis in the upper Al/Si-rich clay unit using CRISM data and in the region at ~10% through modeling of TES data. This implies the presence of young, well-drained soils in neutral to mildly acidic conditions.

  4. Sedimentary geomorphology of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site (United States)

    Rice, James W., Jr.; Parker, Timothy Jay


    The first landing on Mars in over 20 years will take place July 4, 1997, near te mouth of the Ares Vallis outflow channel located in southeastern Chryse Planitia. Mars Pathfinder, unlike Viking 1, is expected to land on a surface that has a distinct and unambiguous fluvial signature.

  5. Vankumatu Andersen / Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivrand, Harry, 1961-


    Areen tähistas Anderseni juubeliaastat erinumbri ja illustratsioonidega eesti kunstnikelt: Valli Lember-Bogatkina, Evald Okas, Jüri Arrak, Kaido Ole, Laurentsius, Ülle Meister, Regina Lukk-Toompere, Piret Raud, Marko Mäetamm. Vt. H. C. Andersen. Vankumatu tinasõdur, Eesti Ekspress, 30. juuni, lk. B1-13

  6. Milline valida? / Christi Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Christi


    Arvustus: Krikk, Ly. Eesti keel tirtsudele ja põnnidele. 1.-2. osa. Tallinn : 21. Sajandi Sihtasutus, 1999-2000. ; Lille, Valli. Mina tahan rääkida eesti keeles. 1.-2. osa. Tallinn : Haridusministeerium, 1998 ; Rannut, Ülle. Arno koolilood. Tallinn : Künnimees, 2000

  7. Rahvusooper Estonia pannoo anti Tallinna kunstikogusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tallinna kultuuriväärtuste amet võttis Tallinna kunstikogusse Valli Lember-Bogatkina pannoo "Läheme suurele peole" (1950). Pannoo pannakse pärast restaureerimist üles Tallinna laululava ruumesse. Restaureerib KAR-Grupp Ruth Tuvikese juhtimisel

  8. Eesti Instituut õpetab välismaiseid lektoreid / Kaisa Tillo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tillo, Kaisa


    Viljandis toimuvast eesti keele ja kultuuri lektorite suveseminarist, kus käsitletakse uuemat eesti kirjandust, pärimuskultuuri ja õigekirja. Loengutel ja töötubades osaleb 22 õpetajat, kes on pärit 11 riigist, põhiliselt Ungarist ja Soomest. Sisaldab Petseri 2. Keskkooli pedagoogi Vally Tamme arvamuse suveseminarist

  9. Clearing a path towards effective alien invasive control: the legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This reality led the previous Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Mr Valli Moosa, to call for the development of a “coherent legislative framework ... Part two provides suggestions on how the current legislative framework can be rationalised to entrench a more integrated, and hopefully successful, approach to the ...

  10. Transport of valine across the small intestinal epithelium in pigs fed different valine levels and Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, K; Nørgaard, J V; Nielsen, B


    Mutants of Bacillus subtilis overproducing valine (B. subtilis VAL) could be an approach to supply pigs dietary valine (Val). In the study, 18 gilts were fed: (i) negative diet with a standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val:Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg); (ii) Neg added B. subtilis VAL (1.28 × 1011 cfu/kg as...

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Ancient Mars Water and Landforms (United States)


    Titles in this section include: 1) Giant Lowland Polygons: Relics of an Ancient Martian Ocean? 2) Lake Shorelines: Earth Analogs for Hypothesized Martian Coastal Features; 3) Complex Evolution of Paleolacustrine Systems on Mars: An Example from the Holden Crater; 4) Geomorphology and Hydraulics of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars, During a Noachian/Hesperian Boundary Paleoflood; 5) Geologic Evolution of Dao Vallis, Mars; 6) Advances in Reconstructing the Geologic History of the Chryse Region Outflow Channels on Mars; 7) Ravi Vallis, Mars - Paleoflood Origin and Genesis of Secondary Chaos Zones; 8) Walla Walla Vallis and Wallula Crater: Two Recently Discovered Martian Features Record Aqueous History; 9) Tharsis Recharge: a Source of Groundwater for Martian Outflow Channels; 10) Factors Controlling Water Volumes and Release Rates in Martian Outflow Channels; 11) Significance of Confined Cavernous Systems for Outflow Channel Water Sources, Reactivation Mechanisms and Chaos Formation; 12) Systematic Differences in Topography of Martian and Terrestrial Drainage Basins; 13) Waves on Seas of Mars and Titan: Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Wind-Wave Generation in Extraterrestrial Atmospheres.

  12. changing perceptions of discipline and corporal punishment

    African Journals Online (AJOL) Accessed 28 March 2014. Vally S & Ramadiro B (ed.) 2006. Corporal Punishment and Bullying: The Rights of. Learners. Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand. Education Policy Unit. Available at Accessed 28.

  13. "Mir gor - mir gornii" / Ruta Pels

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pels, Ruta, 1960-


    Tallinnas elavast kunstnikust ja kunstiõpetajast Oleg Võssotskist, tema kunstistuudio-galeriist vanalinnas Valli tänav 4. Galeriis Oleg Võssotski mägedeteemaline maalinäitus ja tema õpilaste tööd. Vaata ka

  14. Lendav leedi Bogatkina esineb Valgas joonistajana / Helju Keskpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keskpalu, Helju


    Valli Lember-Bogatkina (83) joonistuste näituse avamisest - umbes 200 tööd 1941. aastast tänapäevani - Valga teatrisaali fuajee kahel korrusel. Kohal oli kunstnik koos poeg Vladimiriga, kes kujundas näituse kutse. Kunstnikust. Näituse kuraator Reet Varblane. Kommenteerib Sirpa Lappalainen

  15. Valge paberi arm / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-


    Valli Lember-Bogatkina tööde läbilõige Tallinna laululava all 30.10.-07.11.2011, näitus "Minu Tallinn" Tallinnas Vabaduse Galeriis 27.10.-15.11.2011 ja näitus "Naine ja laps" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 4. detsembrini 2011

  16. Disruptive behaviour in the Foundation Phase of schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    behaviour. This leads to the research question: What types and causes of disruptive behavior can ... Thirdly, this stage is also the appro- priate time to focus on managing disruptive behaviour as a means of assisting .... African Public Secondary Schools (Vally & Dalamba, 1999:42-56), similar examples are given. The report ...

  17. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Resilience and Perceived Readiness Among Navy Corpsmen (United States)


    J Affect Disord 2011; 135(1-3): 10– 19. 29. Booth-Kewley S, McWhorter SK: Highly realistic, immersive training for Navy corpsmen: preliminary... Violence 1987; 2(2): 166–78. 34. Bastien CH, Vallières A, Morin CM: Validation of the Insomnia Severity Index as an outcome measure for insomnia

  18. Thermal studies of Martian channels and valleys using Termoskan data: New results (United States)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.


    The Termoskan instrument onboard the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest-spatial-resolution thermal data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images are 2 km/pixel midday observations of several major channel and valley systems, including significant portions of Shalbatana Vallis, Ravi Vallis, Al-Qahira Vallis, Ma'adim Vallis, the channel connecting Valles Marineris with Hydraotes Chaos, and channel material in Eos Chasma. Termoskan also observed small portions of the southern beginnings of Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles and some channel material in Gangis Chasma. Simultaneous broad band visible data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that most of the channels and valleys have higher inertias than their surroundings, consistent with Viking IRTM-based thermal studies of Martian channels. We see for the first time that thermal inertia boundaries closely match all flat channel floor boundaries. Combining Termoskan thermal data, relative observations from Termoskan visible channel data, Viking absolute bolometric albedos, and a thermal model of the Mars surface, we have derived lower bounds on channel thermal inertias. Lower bounds on typical channel thermal inertias range from 8.4 to 12.5 (10(exp -3) cal cm(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)K(exp -1)) (352 to 523 in SI units). Lower bounds on inertia differences with the surrounding heavily cratered plains range from 1.1 to 3.5 (46 to 147 in SI units). Atmospheric and geometric effects are not sufficient to cause the inertia enhancements. We agree with previous researchers that localized, dark, high inertia areas within channels are likely eolian in nature. However, the Temloskan data show that eolian deposits do not fill the channels, nor are they responsible for the overall thermal inertia enhancement. Thermal homogeneity and strong correlation of thermal boundaries with the channel floor boundaries lead us to favor noneolian overall explanations.

  19. Ivan Grohar and Oskar Dev – An Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Fragment Comparison of Their Artistic Works in Škofja Loka/Slovenia (1905-1911

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Križnar


    Full Text Available The new Grohar’s room in the Škofja Loka Mu¬seum that is located in a more than a thousand years old town, some kilometres northwest of Ljubljana, Slove¬nia, represents one of the new possibilities to popularize old local history. Ivan Grohar (1867−1911 is one of the four well-known Slovenian painters from the beginning of the 20th century, together with Rihard Jakopič, Matija Jama and Matej Sternen. These Slovenian painters are the founders of Impressionism within the modern style. Škofja Loka became the so called Slovenian “Barbizon” (i.e. French village near Fontainebleau, once the settle-ment of painters and this art and old tradition inspired another Slovenian (music artist Oskar Dev (1868−1932, who composed some of his musical works (songs and choirs in Škofja Loka, too. His and Grohar’s period in Škofja Loka resulted in some extraordinary art works i.e. paintings and musical works. They both were inspired by the countryside that reflected on their works. This is now one of the new Slovenian’s challenges of museology and musicology in an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach so the art of painting and music could be a benefit for the visitors of this and other museums.

  20. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers. (United States)

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R


    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  1. The standardized ileal digestible valine-to-lysine requirement ratio is at least seventy percent in postweaned piglets. (United States)

    Barea, R; Brossard, L; Le Floc'h, N; Primot, Y; Melchior, D; van Milgen, J


    To reduce the impact of animal production on the environment, the CP content of the diet can be reduced by limiting the excess supply of AA. Improving the balance between AA relative to the requirement of the animal implies that we need to have accurate knowledge of the requirement of individual AA. The purpose of this study was to determine the Val requirement in postweaned piglets (12 to 25 kg) because Val is considered to be potentially limiting to performance after Lys, Met (and Cys), Thr, and Trp. The first experiment was carried out to identify a diet limiting in Lys supply. In this experiment, piglets were offered 1 of 3 diets: a low-CP diet containing low or adequate Lys concentrations [providing 1.0 and 1.2% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, respectively] or a normal-CP diet with 1.2% SID Lys. Average daily gain of piglets receiving the diet containing 1.0% SID Lys was significantly less than that of piglets receiving diets containing 1.2% SID Lys at low or normal CP (486 vs. 522 g/d, respectively; P piglets receiving diets providing 57% SID Val:Lys compared with piglets receiving 70% SID Val:Lys (P 0.10). Experiment 3 was conducted to evaluate the response of piglets to an increasing Val supply provided by 2 sources of l-Val differing in the degree of purity. Increasing the Val supply from 58 to 66% SID Val:Lys resulted in a linear increase in both feed intake and daily gain by 24 and 30%, respectively (P 0.10). Experiment 4 was a dose-response study using 5 concentrations of Val supply (ranging from 60 to 80% SID Val:Lys). The estimated SID Val:Lys requirements for maximizing ADFI, ADG, and G:F were, respectively, 74, 70, and 68% using a linear-plateau model, and 81, 75, and 72% using a curvilinear-plateau model. Plasma Val, plasma alpha-ketoisovaleric acid, Ile, and Leu concentrations after an overnight fast increased with increasing Val supply (P < 0.001). The results of these experiments indicated that the SID Val:Lys was at least 70%, which

  2. 3D reconstruction of the source and scale of buried young flood channels on Mars. (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth A; Campbell, Bruce A; Carter, Lynn M; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Phillips, Roger J


    Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates.

  3. Milline valida? / Christi Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Christi


    Rets. rmt. : Krikk, Ly. Eesti keel tirtsudele ja põnnidele. I osa : õpik-töövihik. - Tallinn, 1999; Krikk, Ly. Eesti keel tirtsudele ja põnnidele. I osa : õpik-töövihik. - Tallinn, 2000; Lille, Valli. Mina tahan rääkida eesti keeles. 1 : keelekümblusklassile. - Tallinn, 1998; Lille, Valli. Mina tahan rääkida eesti keeles. 2 : keelekümblusklassile. - Tallinn, 1998; Eesti keel kui teine keel ja eesti keele kümblus. Arno koolilood. 1 osa : 1. klassi õpilase tööraamat eesti keele õppimiseks, lugemiseks, kirjutamiseks, mängimiseks ja laulmiseks / koostas Ülle Rannut. - Tallinn : Künnimees, 2000

  4. A New Paradigm for the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer: The Use of Epigenetic Therapy to Sensitize Patients to Immunotherapy and Chemotherapy (United States)


    expenditures None anticipated at this time. Significant changes in use or care of human subjects, vertebrate animals , biohazards, and/or select...Director of the Animal Facility and administrative duties to the Oncology Center. Specific Aims: N/A Justification: This grant has no overlap...L., LaVallie, E., Tang, X.Y., Edouard, P., Howes, S., et al. (2000). Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein involved in human placental

  5. Holuhraun 2014-2015 Eruption Site on Iceland: A Flood Lava Analogue for Mars (United States)

    Voigt, J.; Hamilton, C. W.; Scheidt, S. P.; Bonnefoy, L. E.; Jónsdóttir, I.; Höskuldsson, A.; Thordarson, T.


    The Holuhraun eruption 2014-2015 is the largest flood lava flow in Iceland since the Laki eruption in 1783-1784. We here present the first facies map of the whole Holuhraun lava flow, which we linked to the chronological emplacement history. Furthermore the facies we identify at Holuhraun are common on the Martian surface, especially at Marte Vallis and Rahway Valles. It therefore provides unique insights into the emplacement of flood lavas on Earth and other planetary bodies.

  6. 6 näitust, mida sel kuul vaadata / Kristel Schwede

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schwede, Kristel, 1963-


    Kärt Ojavee ja Johanna Ulfsaki "Live Streams" HOP galeriis, Juhan Kuusi "Inimlikkuse mõõt. 45 aastat dokumentaalfotograafiat Lõuna-Aafrikas" Adamson-Ericu muuseumis, Vilniuse Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuse nüüdiskunsti näitus "Südamepekslemine" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja selle galeriides, "Tunne Eesti disaini" Tartu Kunstimuuseumis, Valli Lember-Bogatkina mälestusnäitus Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus, Juta Soans-Laanpere ja Jana Soansi "Meelerahu" Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus

  7. Sihtasutus Virumaa Muuseumid annab teada

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Kunda linna ja SA Virumaa Muuseumid koostöös avati seitsmes kohas Kundas esimese tsemenditehase rajaja J. G. de Soucantoni skulptuurid. Autorid: Ekke Väli, Eneken Maripuu, Simson von Seakyll (Aivar Simson), Marju Vaher, Bruno Kadak, Art Allmägi ja Edvins Krumins. 12. VIII esineb "Kultuuriakna" raames Karepal Kalame talumuuseumis Enn Põldroos, varem on esinenud Valli Lember-Bogatkina, Lemming Nagel, Tiit Pääsuke jt.

  8. Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales XL: sinopsis del género Prestonia (Apocynoideae, Echiteae en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J. Francisco


    Full Text Available A synopsis of the genus Prestonia (Apocynaceae, Apocynoideae, Echiteae in Ecuador is presented and 15 species are reported. A key to species, distributional data, discussion of relationships, and representative specimen citations for each province are provided. An illustration of the enigmatic P. schumanniana Woodson, known only from the type collection, is also included. Prestonia purpurissata Woodson, P. phenax Woodson, P. peregrina Woodson y P. vallis Woodson are reduced to the synonymy of P. annularis (L. f. G. Don and Echites pallidus Miers to the synonymy of P. mollis Kunth. Lectotypes are designated for Haemadictyon tomentellum Benth., Prestonia phenax Woodson, and P. plumierifolia Markgr. A neotype is designated for P. vallis Woodson.Se presenta una sinopsis del género Prestonia (Apocynaceae, Apocynoideae, Echiteae en Ecuador: en total se registran 15 especies. Se incluye una clave para las especies, datos de distribución, discusión de las afinidades con las posibles especies afines y se cita un espécimen representativo para cada provincia. Adicionalmente, se incluye una ilustración de P. schumanniana Woodson, un enigmático taxón conocido sólo por el tipo. Prestonia purpurissata Woodson, P. phenax Woodson, P. peregrina Woodson y P. vallis Woodson se reducen a la sinonimia de P. annularis (L. f. G. Don y Echites pallidus Miers bajo el sinómino P. mollis Kunth. Se designan lectótipos para Haemadictyon tomentellum Benth., Prestonia phenax Woodson y P. plumierifolia Markgr. Se designa un neótipo para P. vallis Woodson.

  9. Fluvial to Lacustrine Facies Transitions in Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Schieber, Juergen; Palucis, Marisa C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Mangold, Nicolas; Kah, Linda C.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Grotzinger, John P.; Grant, John A., III; hide


    NASA's Curiosity rover has documented predominantly fluvial sedimentary rocks along its path from the landing site to the toe of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan (0.5 km to the east) and then along its 8 km traverse across Aeolis Palus to the base of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp). Lacustrine facies have been identified at the toe of the Peace Vallis fan and in the lowermost geological unit exposed on Aeolis Mons. These two depositional systems provide end members for martian fluvial/alluvial-lacustrine facies models. The Peace Vallis system consisted of an 80 square kilometers alluvial fan with decimeter-thick, laterally continuous fluvial sandstones with few sedimentary structures. The thin lacustrine unit associated with the fan is interpreted as deposited in a small lake associated with fan runoff. In contrast, fluvial facies exposed over most of Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons consist of sandstones with common dune-scale cross stratification (including trough cross stratification), interbedded conglomerates, and rare paleochannels. Along the southwest portion of the traverse, sandstone facies include south-dipping meter-scale clinoforms that are interbedded with finer-grained mudstone facies, interpreted as lacustrine. Sedimentary structures in these deposits are consistent with deltaic deposits. Deltaic deposition is also suggested by the scale of fluvial to lacustrine facies transitions, which occur over greater than 100 m laterally and greater than 10 m vertically. The large scale of the transitions and the predicted thickness of lacustrine deposits based on orbital mapping require deposition in a substantial river-lake system over an extended interval of time. Thus, the lowermost, and oldest, sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater suggest the presence of substantial fluvial flow into a long-lived lake. In contrast, the Peace Vallis alluvial fan onlaps these older deposits and overlies a major unconformity. It is one of the youngest deposits in the crater, and

  10. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 3: Valley Types and Distribution (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.


    Three major valley tapes were identified in the SW Margaritefer Sinus and Argyre regions. Two are restricted to specific geologic units while the third is independent of the geology. The first type (the small valley networks) are found within the channeled and subdued plains unit in the eastern half of the map, in the grooved and channeled plains unit north of Nirgal Vallis, and in scattered instances in the cratered plateau unit north of Argyre. The even smaller valleys just inside Argyre's rim and on the inner slopes of many large craters are not directly related to the processes which formed the small valleys but are a result, instead, of post-impact modification of the crater walls. The second type of valley network is represented by Nirgal Vallis and the similar, shorter continuation of it to the west. This type is found only in the smooth plains material west of Uzboi Vallis in the map area. The third type of valley network is that of the Uzbol-Holden-Ladon valles system. This system is related to catastrophic outflow from Argyre Basin and is topographically rather than geologically controlled.

  11. Nature and hydrological relevance of the Shalbatana complex underground cavernous system (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose Alexis Palmero; Sasaki, Sho; Miyamoto, Hideaki


    The geomorphology of the North East trending long fractured depression between the Ganges Chasma and the Shalbatana Vallis headwater source region is examined and interpreted to be the result of collapse of part of an extensive underground cavernous system. We propose that this cavernous system undermines at least a valley, which extends from the vicinities of the Ganges Chasma and terminates in the Shalbatana Vallis headwater source region and the Aromatum Chaos. We believe that the origin of this cavernous system was related to the formation and interconnection of discrete cavernous bodies and propose a hypothesis, which involves the interaction of permafrost and intrusive magmatism to explain their formation. The Shalbatana Vallis headwater source is interpreted as produced by a Noachian impact crater and surface collapse over part of the underground cavernous system. Finally, we propose that the water sources, which were involved in the excavation of the Shalbatana and Ravis outflow channels might have included water segregated from the permafrost through interaction of intrusive magmatism and permafrost, water drained from a paleolake in the Ganges Chasma and water released from the catastrophic evacuation of confined aquifers.

  12. Channel geometry and discharge estimates for Dao and Niger Valles, Mars (United States)

    Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.


    Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand [1]. Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As [2] pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to [2] who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent [3]. Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer [4]. Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario [5]. Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow [5]. The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures

  13. Olivine and pyroxene-rich deposits in Holden Crater, Mars (United States)

    Glotch, T. D.


    Holden crater is a ~150 km diameter crater centered at 326 E, 26S breached in the south by Uzboi Vallis. Holden has been proposed as a possible landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover and has been the subject of intense scrutiny due to its potential as a paleolake basin. Near the region where Uzboi Vallis breaches the southern Holden Crater wall are layered rocks that have been suggested to be aqeously deposited. Additionally, fan-shaped deposits originate in the southern and western crater walls that have been interpreted as alluvial fans and fan deltas. New analyses of THEMIS and TES data indicate that both the basement and layered rocks - those interpreted to have been deposited in an aqueous environment - near the breach point of Holden crater are olivine and pyoxene- rich. Based on THEMIS IR imagery, these units have a higher thermal inertia than the surrounding terrain. The higher-TI units correspond with lighter-toned layered units seen in THEMIS Vis and MOC imagery that also have a distinct mafic signature in THEMIS daytime IR false-color decorrelation stretch images. The fan deposit in western Holden Crater, which has been proposed as a specific landing site for MSL may also have an elevated olivine abundance based on TES data. High olivine and pyroxene abundances in the sedimentary units of Holden crater do not preclude the presence of water in the history of the crater. However, based on analysis of TES and THEMIS data over the region, there is no evidence for extended chemical weathering present at the surface. Olivine-rich bedrock is likely to be a regional property as it is also present in chaos terrain to the northeast of Holden which is the source of the Landon Vallis outflow channel. These regions should be considered high priority targets for future investigations by OMEGA and CRISM.

  14. The discovery of columnar jointing on Mars (United States)

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.; ,


    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia–Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas.

  15. Geology of -30247, -35247, and -40247 Quadrangles, Southern Hesperia Planum, Mars (United States)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.


    Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," and evaluating its history of formation, 2) analyzing channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to RV, and 3) examining young, possibly sedimentary plains along RV.

  16. Relación valina:lisina digestible en la dieta de pollos de engorda


    Alexandra Potença; Alice Eiko Murakami; Iván Camilo Ospina-Rojas; Jovanir Inês Muller Fernandes


    El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la relación valina:lisina digestible (Val:Lys dig) en la dieta de pollos de engorda en el período de 1 a 14 días de edad sobre el comportamiento productivo, emplume, diámetro y perfil de fibras musculares. Se utilizaron 1,800 pollos de engorda Cobb de un día de edad, distribuidos en un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cinco tratamientos, seis repeticiones y 36 aves por unidad experimental. Los tratamientos consistieron de diferentes relaciones...

  17. Sand Flux Results for Aeolian Dunes at Current and Candidate Landing Sites on Mars (United States)

    Chojnacki, M.; Urso, A.; Yingling, W.


    It is now known unambiguously that wind-driven bedform activity is occurring on Mars today. It has also been demonstrated the rapid aeolian abrasion of sedimentary deposits that potentially host ancient habitable environments may provide the best mechanism for exposing samples containing relatively undegraded organics (Farley et al. 2014). Thus, current processes operating on the surface of Mars are highly relevant to our understanding of the past. Here, we discuss new sand flux results of active dune across Mars, including several current and candidate landing sites with Meridiani Planum, Gale crater, Valles Marineris, and Mawrth Vallis. For this task, we have utilized multi-temporal images acquired annually by the HiRISE camera (25 cm/pixel) along with co-located HiRISE Digital Terrain Models. Falling dunes in Coprates Chasma (Mars 2020 candidate landing site) measuring 6-10 meters in height were detected migrating on average 0.5 m per Earth year, yielding crest fluxes of 3.1 m3 m-1 yr-1 (units hereafter assumed). Barchans near the MSL rover at Gale crater have slightly lower fluxes of 1.2, while earlier work in Endeavour crater, the current site of the Opportunity Rover, showed dome dunes with fluxes as high as 13 (average of 6.8; Chojnacki et al. 2015). New results of Mawrth Vallis (Mars 2020 candidate) dunes suggest these high rates are not uncommon, as barchans there possess average fluxes of 11.5. Assuming ripple reptation rates are 1/10th that of crest fluxes, total flux (saltation plus reptation) would range 3.2 to 12.7 m3 m-1 yr-1 for all sites studied herein. Active dunes and the abrasion susceptibility (Sa) of local rocks are relevant to assess how sand fluxes modify the landscape. Using the methodology and assumptions (Sa for basalt, mean trajectory height etc.) described in Bridges et al. (2012), we estimated abrasion rates of local basaltic bedrock. For example, sand blasting at Mawrth Vallis is estimated to produce 2-8 μm/yr for flat ground and 15

  18. Discovery of columnar jointing on Mars (United States)

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.


    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia-Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles - The role of outflow channels in the degradation of the circum-Hellas highlands of Mars (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.


    Geologic deposits and landforms representative of much of the planet's history are preserved in the southern cratered highlands of Mars. The circum-Hellas highlands to the east of the basin record the effects of volcanism, tectonism, fluvial erosion and deposition, aeolian activity, and masswasting. Mapping studies and geomorphic analyses have provided a general understanding of the evolution of the Hellas region, placed constraints on the styles and timing of volcanic activity associated with Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae, and investigated Dao and Harmakhis Valles and the terminus of Reull Vallis. The present study provides a detailed comparison of Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles, and examines the role of highland outflow channels in the degradation of the region.

  20. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.


    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  1. Bãile Herculane Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin


    Full Text Available Baile Herculane is a balneary resort located in Caraş-Severin County, in South-Western Romania and is located 41 km to the Northwest of the city of Drobeta Turnu Severin, Mehedinti County. Resort Baile Herculane is documentary attested since 153 a.d. and is an attraction for its healing power of water. The Romans will be arriving in Dacia were impressed with the power of exceptional quality healing waters of the Cernei Vally, therefore, have made an important point of attraction here. In those times you keep bathrooms, statues, coins, culverts, signs of gratitude to the gods that were cured with water. The aqueducts, baths and hot springs from the time of the Romans. The beauty of the places where the resort Baile Herculane cannot be described in words, you have to go to see with your eyes

  2. Morphological, nutraceutical and sensorial properties of cultivated Fragaria vesca L. berries: influence of genotype, plant age, fertilization treatment on the overall fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Del Bubba


    Full Text Available Sucrose, glucose, fructose, citric, malic, ascorbic (AA and dehydroascorbic (DHAA acids, total polyphenols (TP, radical scavenging activity (RSA, physicochemical and sensorial properties were determined on F. vesca Alpine (ALP and Regina delle Valli (RDV berries in relation to plant age and fertilisation treatment (Effective Microorganism Technology, EMT vs. traditional fertilization, TFT. ALP berries had a sum of AA and DHAA about 20% lower and TPs about 30% higher than RDV. Plant age affected most physicochemical parameters, sugars and organic acids, as well as sensorial appreciation, being them generally higher in berries produced in the second year. TPs were not affected by plant age. EMT produced an increase of 50%, 70% and 20% for TP, organic acids and RSA, respectively. Although changes in berry quality are expected with plant age, EMT cultivation of ALP should be preferred to the growth of RDV under TFT, to obtain fruits more valuable from the nutraceutical viewpoint.

  3. Preliminary Results from the Mars Pathfinder ASI/MET Experiment (United States)

    Haberle, R. M.; Schofield, J. T.; Crisp, D.; Barnes, J. R.; Magalhaes, J. A.; Murphy, J. R.; Seiff, A.; Wilson, G.; Larsen, S.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)


    Mars Pathfinder successfully landed in the Ares Vallis flood plain (19.3 N, 33.6 W) on July 4, 1997. The spacecraft carried a suite of instruments to record the structure of the atmosphere during the entry, descent, and landing as well as for monitoring meteorological phenomenon while on the surface. Collectively, these instruments are known as the ASI/MET experiment (Atmospheric Structure Investigation/Meteorology). In this paper we present preliminary results from the ASI/MET experiment. As of this writing, the spacecraft is healthy and continues to take daily meteorological measurements. We expect this will continue for almost one more earth year. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. General geology and geomorphology of the Mars Pathfinder landing site (United States)

    Ward, A.W.; Gaddis, L.R.; Kirk, R.L.; Soderblom, L.A.; Tanaka, K.L.; Golombek, M.P.; Parker, T.J.; Greeley, Ronald; Kuzmin, R.O.


    The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) spacecraft landed on relatively young (late Hesperian-early Amazonian; 3.1-0.7 Ga) plains in Chryse Planitia near the mouth of Ares Vallis. Images returned from the spacecraft reveal a complex landscape of ridges and troughs, large hills and crater rims, rocks and boulders of various sizes and shapes, and surficial deposits, indicating a complex, multistage geologic history of the landing site. After the deposition of one or more bedrock units, depositional and erosional fluvial processes shaped much of the present landscape. Multiple erosional events are inferred on the basis of observations of numerous channels, different orientations of many streamlined tails from their associated knobs and hills, and superposition of lineations and streamlines. Medium- and small-scale features, interpreted to be related to late-stage drainage of floodwaters, are recognized in several areas at the landing site. Streamlined knobs and hills seen in Viking orbiter images support this inference, as they seem to be complex forms, partly erosional and partly depositional, and may also indicate a series of scouring and depositional events that, in some cases, further eroded or partially buried these landforms. Although features such as these are cited as evidence for catastrophic flooding at Ares Vallis, some of these features may also be ascribed to alternative primary or secondary depositional processes, such as glacial or mass-wasting processes. Close inspection of the landing site reveals rocks that are interpreted to be volcanic in origin and others that may be conglomeratic. If such sedimentary rocks are confirmed, fluvial processes have had a greater significance on Mars than previously thought. For the last several hundred million to few billion years, eolian processes have been dominant. Dunes and dune-like features, ventifacts, and deflation and exhumation features around several rocks probably are the most recent landforms. The relatively pristine

  5. Evaluation of Vali Asr (aj hospital effluent for irrigation of the green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Shahryari


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recycling of sewage in our country can be one of the ways to overcome the problem of water shortage. The aim of this paper is Evaluation of Valli-e-asr hospital effluent for irrigation of the green. Materials and Methods: During the 12 months of the project since January 2009, twelve samples of the hospital water were selected. 35 samples were taken both from raw sewage and refined effluent with the average frequency of two samples every month. Various physical, chemical, and biological factors were measured on the basis of the standard method book (AWWA. The gathered data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software (version 15 and paired T test at the significant level . Results: The percentages of separating some parameters such as BOD, TSS, COD, and MPS in the exiting effluent were 63.56%, 44.9%, 42.9%, and 89.97% respectively and those of the parameters PH, Mg, SO4, and SAR were 7.52mg/l, 66.82 mg/l, 382.14 mg/l, and 0.54 mg/l respectively. The amount of parameters BOD, COD, TSS, MPN, EC, CL, TDS, and NA% were 165.14mg/l, 887.657mg/l, 784.4286mg/l, 1856857 MPN, 4137.97µs/cm, 999mg/l, 2866.57mg/l, and 75.11% respectively. Conclusion: The sewage refinery of Valli-e-asr hospital does not produce a favorable outcome and some of the parameters of the effluent such as PH, Mg, SO4, and SAR are in accord with the standards of reusing in agriculture and irrigation but many of the necessary parameters do not correspond with the necessary standards for this task.

  6. Subpolar Atlantic cooling and North American east coast warming linked to AMOC slowdown (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan; Caesar, Levke; Feulner, Georg; Saba, Vincent


    Reconstructing the history of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is difficult due to the limited availability of data. One approach has been to use instrumental and proxy data for sea surface temperature (SST), taking multi-decadal and longer SST variations in the subpolar gyre region as indicator for AMOC changes [Rahmstorf et al., 2015]. Recent high-resolution global climate model results [Saba et al., 2016] as well as dynamical theory and conceptual modelling [Zhang and Vallis, 2007] suggest that an AMOC weakening will not only cool the subpolar Atlantic but simultaneously warm the Northwest Atlantic between Cape Hatteras and Nova Scotia, thus providing a characteristic SST pattern associated with AMOC variations. We analyse sea surface temperature (SST) observations from this region together with high-resolution climate model simulations to better understand the linkages of SST variations to AMOC variability and to provide further evidence for an ongoing AMOC slowdown. References Rahmstorf, S., J. E. Box, G. Feulner, M. E. Mann, A. Robinson, S. Rutherford, and E. J. Schaffernicht (2015), Exceptional twentieth-century slowdown in Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation, Nature Climate Change, 5(5), 475-480, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2554. Saba, V. S., et al. (2016), Enhanced warming of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean under climate change, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 121(1), 118-132, doi: 10.1002/2015JC011346. Zhang, R., and G. K. Vallis (2007), The Role of Bottom Vortex Stretching on the Path of the North Atlantic Western Boundary Current and on the Northern Recirculation Gyre, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37(8), 2053-2080, doi: 10.1175/jpo3102.1.

  7. Profile of rheumatology patients willing to report adverse drug reactions: bias from selective reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić D


    Full Text Available Dragana Protić,1 Nada Vujasinović-Stupar,2 Zoran Bukumirić,3 Slavica Pavlov-Dolijanović,4 Snežana Baltić,5 Slavica Mutavdžin,6 Ljiljana Markovic-Denić,7 Marija Zdravković,8 Zoran Todorović1 1Department of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 2Department 2, Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 3Institute for Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 4Department 5, Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 5Department 5, Institute of Rheumatology, Belgrade, Serbia; 6Institute of Physiology “Rihard Burjan”, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 7Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 8Department of Cardiology, Medical Center “Bežanijska kosa”, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs have a significant impact on human health and health care costs. The aims of our study were to determine the profile of rheumatology patients willing to report ADRs and to identify bias in such a reporting system. Methods: Semi-intensive ADRs reporting system was used in our study. Patients willing to participate (N=261 completed the questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study at the hospital admission. They were subsequently classified into two groups according to their ability to identify whether they had experienced ADRs during the previous month. Group 1 included 214 out of 261 patients who were able to identify ADRs, and group 2 consisted of 43 out of 261 patients who were not able to identify ADRs in their recent medical history. Results: Group 1 patients were more significantly aware of their diagnosis than the patients from group 2. Marginal significance was found

  8. ExoMars 2018: the four final candidate Landing Sites (United States)

    Loizeau, Damien; Flahaut, Jessica; Vago, Jorge L.; Hauber, Ernst; Bridges, John C.


    December 2014. The Aram Dorsum site comprises Noachian layered sedimentary rocks with a prominent inverted channel system (>80 km long). Potential targets include the inverted channel, the channel margins, a channel transition unit, and pits present within the floodplain. The Hypanis Vallis site lies near two fluvial fan/deltaic systems at the termination of Hypanis and Sabrina Valles. Potential targets include mainly outcrops of expected fine-grained sediments on the smooth transition unit that surrounds the delta/fan, and units around the rim of Magong crater. The Mawrth Vallis site contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates detected on the Martian surface, in Noachian terrain [8]. Potential targets include the mineralogically diverse clay-rich outcrops and ancient channels. The Oxia Planum site lies on Fe/Mg phyllosilicates-rich exposures associated to layered rocks that may be related to the Mawrth Vallis sequence. Potential targets include the clay-rich outcrops as well as channels and inverted channels and delta-fan deposits. New data are being actively acquired by the HiRISE, CRISM and HRSC teams to support the ExoMars 2018 landing site selection process. The ellipses are large and new data are important for characterizing the potential targets and evaluating the safety of the sites. The proposing teams, the ExoMars project team and the LSSWG will continue their analysis and comparison of the sites, aiming to complete the certification of at least one site by September 2016 -- in time for the start of the mission's Critical Design Review (CDR). The final selection of the landing site is expected within 2017. References: [1] [2] mars-2018-landing-site-selection/ [3] ExoMars 2018 LSSWG recommendation:

  9. The small mammals of an upper piedmontese Po plain site (Leinì, Turin prov. / La micromammalofauna di una stazione planiziaria piemontese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Osella


    Full Text Available Abstract The 24 small mammals listed as living in Leinì (Piedmontese Po plain, near Turin, 245 m on sea level (only the red fox, Vulpes vulpes is not sure, are briefly analysed (Chiroptera excepted. List and analysis are the results of studies pursued for about 35 years. However, in Verona's Museum of Natural History, the housed materials are related to the last eighteen years (1966-1984 (Tab. I. For a complete analysis, this fauna is compared with the Veronese Po plain one, especially with the Busatello one (Gazzo Veronese-Ostiglia. This site is a stretch of marshes named "Valli Grandi Veronesi and Ostigliesi" (Tab. II. In this analysis, if we don't consider the not native species (Myocastor coypus and Mustela vison, the estinguished species (Lutra lutra, the Mediterranean species (living only along the border of the Po plain basin (Suncus etruscus and the hunting species (Lepus europaeus and Oryctolagus cuniculus we have 23 taxa for Lein and only 17 and 13, respectively, for Veronese Po plain and Busatello. The richer small mammal fauna of the Piedmontese Po plain is, above all, supported by different ecological conditions but the preservation of some species (e.g. Glis glis and Muscardinus avellanarius in Leinì is surely related also to historical problems and to a land anthropization pushed forward to a lesser degree. Riassunto Vengono elencate e brevemente commentate tutte le specie di micromammiferi presenti a Leinì (Torino, Chirotteri esclusi. Si tratta di un complesso di 24 specie (solo la volpe non è del tutto sicura per ognuna delle quali gli autori, sinteticamente, espongono le osservazioni raccolte in circa 35 anni. A maggior chiarimento del significato faunistico del popolamento, viene presa in esame anche la micromammalofauna della pianura padano veneta, precisamente la pianura veronese ed in particolar modo la

  10. Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars (United States)

    Battler, Melissa M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Michel, Frederick A.; Craig, Michael A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Leoni, Lisa; Slater, Gregory F.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Preston, Louisa J.; Banerjee, Neil R.


    Surficial deposits of the OH-bearing iron sulfate mineral jarosite have been observed in several places on Mars, such as Meridiani Planum and Mawrth Vallis. The specific depositional conditions and mechanisms are not known, but by comparing martian sites to analogous locations on Earth, the conditions of formation and, thus, the martian depositional paleoenvironments may be postulated. Located in a cold semi-arid desert ˜100 km east of Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, Canada, the Golden Deposit (GD) is visible from the air as a brilliant golden-yellow patch of unvegetated soil, approximately 140 m × 50 m. The GD is underlain by permafrost and consists of yellow sediment, which is precipitating from seeps of acidic, iron-bearing groundwater. On the surface, the GD appears as a patchwork of raised polygons, with acidic waters flowing from seeps in troughs between polygonal islands. Although UV-Vis-NIR spectral analysis detects only jarosite, mineralogy, as determined by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, is predominantly natrojarosite and jarosite, with hydronium jarosite, goethite, quartz, clays, and small amounts of hematite. Water pH varies significantly over short distances depending on proximity to acid seeps, from 2.3 directly above seeps, to 5.7 several m downstream from seeps within the deposit, and up to 6.5 in ponds proximal to the deposit. Visual observations of microbial filament communities and phospholipid fatty acid analyses confirm that the GD is capable of supporting life for at least part of the year. Jarosite-bearing sediments extend beneath vegetation up to 70 m out from the deposit and are mixed with plant debris and minerals presumably weathered from bedrock and glacial till. This site is of particular interest because mineralogy (natrojarosite, jarosite, hematite, and goethite) and environmental conditions (permafrost and arid conditions) at the time of deposition are conceivably analogous to jarosite

  11. Authentic Mars Research in the High School (United States)

    Kortekaas, Katie; Leach, Dani


    As a 11th and 12th grade Astrobiology class we were charged with developing a scientific research question about the potential for life on Mars. We narrowed our big picture question to, 'Where should the next Mars rover land in order to study the volcanic and water features to find evidence of past or present extremophiles on Mars?'After a lot of searching through images on JMARS (although not extensive due to high school time constraints) we narrowed our interest to three areas of Mars we thought could be good candidates to land a rover there to do further research. We know from extremophiles on Earth that microscopic life need water and energy. It seems reasonable that Mars would be no different. We developed a research question, 'Does Kasei Valles, Dzigai Vallis and Hecate Tholus have volcanic features (lava flow, fractures, volcanoes, cryovolcanoes) and water features (layers of ice, hematite, carbonate, chaos)?'This question is important and interesting because by having a deeper understanding of whether these places have evidence of volcanic and water features, we will be able to decide where the best place to land a future rover would be. Evidence of volcanic and water features are important to help determine where to land our rover because in those areas, temperatures could have been warm and the land could be wet. In these conditions, the probability of life is higher.We individually did research through JMARS (CTX, THEMIS) in order to establish if those three areas could contain certain land features (volcanic and water features) that could possibly lead to the discovery of extremophiles. We evaluated the images to determine if the three areas have evidence of those volcanic and water features.Although we are not experts at identifying features we believe we have evidence to say that all three areas are interesting, astrobiologically, but Dzigai Vallis shows the most number of types of volcanic and water features. More importantly, through this process we

  12. Becoming Reflective and Inquiring Teachers: Collaborative Action Research for In-service Chilean Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Pellerin


    Full Text Available This article discusses the outcomes of a case study that engaged Chilean in-service teachers in systematic action research (AR as a means of improving their pedagogical practice and effecting changes in their educational context. The study involved six in-service teachers from a region of Chile and two university researchers. The findings show that knowledge of systematic AR provided the teachers with the necessary means to engage in a critical reflection and inquiry process regarding their own practice. The teacher participants also perceived the self-reflective spiral of reflection and action to be crucial in establishing new habits of inquiry and reflection about their own pedagogical actions. The findings support earlier studies (e.g., Price & Valli, 2005; Steven & Kitchen, 2005, 2011 concerning the necessity of including knowledge of systematic AR in teacher preparation programs in order to foster strong habits of inquiry and reflection among preservice teachers. Finally, the study suggests that participation in a systematic reflection and inquiry process contributes to empowering in-service teachers to become agents of pedagogical change through their own actions.

  13. Aqueous dune-like bedforms in Athabasca Valles and neighbouring locations utilized in palaeoflood reconstruction (United States)

    Durrant, L.; Balme, M. R.; Carling, P. A.; Grindrod, P. M.


    Putative fluvial dunes have been identified within the Athabasca Valles and associated network of channels on Mars. Previous published work identified and measured bedforms in Athabasca Valles using photoclinometry methods on 2-3 m/pixel resolution Mars Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle images, and argued that these were created by an aqueous megaflood that occurred between 2 and 8 million years ago. This event is likely to have occurred due to geological activity associated with the Cerberus Fossae fracture system at the source of Athabasca Vallis. The present study has used higher resolution, 25 cm/pixel images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE camera, as well as stereo-derived digital terrain models and GIS software, to re-measure and evaluate these bedforms together with data from newly discovered neighbouring fields of bedforms. The analysis indicates that the bedforms are aqueous dunes, in that they occur in channel locations where dunes would be expected to be preserved and moreover they have geometries very similar to megaflood dunes on Earth. Dune geometries are used to estimate megaflood discharge rates, including uncertainty, which results support previous flood estimates that indicate that a flood with a discharge of ∼2 × 106m3s-1 created these bedforms.

  14. Origins of Sinuous and Braided Channels on Ascraeus Mons, Mars - A Keck Geology Consortium Undergraduate Research Project (United States)

    de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.


    Water has clearly played an important part in the geological evolution of Mars. There are many features on Mars that were almost certainly formed by fluvial processes -- for example, the channels Kasei Valles and Ares Vallis in the Chryse Planitia area of Mars are almost certainly fluvial features. On the other hand, there are many channel features that are much more difficult to interpret -- and have been variously attributed to volcanic and fluvial processes. Clearly unraveling the details of the role of water on Mars is extremely important, especially in the context of the search of extinct or extant life. In this project we built on our recent work in determining the origin of one channel on the southwest rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. This project, funded by the Keck Geology Consortium and involving 4 undergraduate geology majors took advantage of the recently available datasets to map and analyze similar features on Ascraeus Mons and some other areas of Mars. A clearer understanding of how these particular channel features formed might lead to the development of better criteria to distinguish how other Martian channel features formed. Ultimately this might provide us with a better understanding of the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.

  15. The AttentionTrip: A game-like tool for measuring the networks of attention. (United States)

    Klein, Raymond M; Hassan, Tariq; Wilson, Graham; Ishigami, Yoko; Mulle, Jonathan


    Recognizing that attention is not a unitary system, the Attention Network Test (ANT) and its variants were developed to measure the efficacy of the multiple components of attention. One potential weakness of these tests (ANTs) is that they are unengaging. This poses a problem when particular groups are tested (e.g., young children), when more stable measures of performance are desirable (and can only be achieved in longer testing sessions) and when repeated testing is necessary. Here we describe the evolution of a game-like tool, which we call the AttentionTrip©, that is suitable for investigating three isolable attentional networks (alerting, orienting, and executive functions). Utilizing this tool we were able to generate reasonable network scores for alerting, executive control (from both the flanker and Simon effects), endogenous orienting and, after some motivated modifications, exogenous orienting. Split-half reliabilities of the alerting and executive (flanker) network scores were considerably higher than those reported by MacLeod et al. (2010) in their psychometric review of the ANT. Informal observations (e.g., some participants asking if they could keep doing the task when their session was over) suggesting that the AttentionTrip is considerably more engaging than the traditional ANT have been confirmed in a head-to-head comparison (Vallis & Klein, 2016). The AttentionTrip@ is available now for research purposes. A tablet version, which will have greater clinical utility, is under development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD APPLIED TO A FLOW PROBLEM Norberto C. Vera Guzmán Institute of Geophysics, UNAM (United States)

    Vera, N. C.; GMMC


    In this paper we present the results of macrohybrid mixed Darcian flow in porous media in a general three-dimensional domain. The global problem is solved as a set of local subproblems which are posed using a domain decomposition method. Unknown fields of local problems, velocity and pressure are approximated using mixed finite elements. For this application, a general three-dimensional domain is considered which is discretized using tetrahedra. The discrete domain is decomposed into subdomains and reformulated the original problem as a set of subproblems, communicated through their interfaces. To solve this set of subproblems, we use finite element mixed and parallel computing. The parallelization of a problem using this methodology can, in principle, to fully exploit a computer equipment and also provides results in less time, two very important elements in modeling. Referencias G.Alduncin and N.Vera-Guzmán Parallel proximal-point algorithms for mixed _nite element models of _ow in the subsurface, Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng 2004; 20:83-104 (DOI: 10.1002/cnm.647) Z. Chen, G.Huan and Y. Ma Computational Methods for Multiphase Flows in Porous Media, SIAM, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, 2006. A. Quarteroni and A. Valli, Numerical Approximation of Partial Differential Equations, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994. Brezzi F, Fortin M. Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element Methods. Springer: New York, 1991.

  17. Planning a new type of cultural community space in Goyang City, Korea (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghye; Kim, Saehoon


    Between March and June 2017, Seoul National University Graduate School of Environment Studies and Goyang City organized a course titled ‘Environment Design and Planning’. At the beginning stage of the project, even though the Unified Korean Silicon Vally Project was initiated, our team members in the class decide to reconsider whether a large redevelopment project aimed at attracting tourists is actually a desirable goal for the residents or not. What would be truly needed for space users living in the area? How should we preserve and maintain the existing meaningful space? Meanwhile, we come up with the Gyeongui Railroad, which passes through Goyang and Ilsan. It was a railway line that shared memories of the past, the daily lives of the residents, and the joys and sorrows of them. Among the railways, ‘Baek-Ma Station’ was the place which was filled with the memories of the people who spent their youth in the city in the 1980s. The station is currently not in use, because this place is abandoned and empty. We wished to make this space more accessible for the residents and also to create a place that would give an opportunity to the resident's social comeback. The space could be activated again with the revival of local cultural activities. And we hope the residents will be able to create new memories of 2017 in this space.

  18. Insights Into the Aqueous History of Mars from Acid-Sulfate Weathered Phyllosilicates (United States)

    Craig, P. I.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.


    Phyllosilicates on Mars are thought to have formed during Mars' earliest Noachian geologic era (approx. 4.1-3.7 Ga). Sulfate formation, on the other hand, requires more acidic conditions which are thought to have occurred later during Mars' Hesperian era (approx. 3.7-3.0 Ga). Therefore, regions on Mars where phyllosilicates and sulfates are found in close proximity to each other provide evidence for the aqueous conditions during this global transition. Both phyllosilicates and sulfates form in the presence of water and thus give clues to the aqueous history of Mars and its potential for habitability. Phyllosilicates that formed during the Noachian era would have been weathered by the prevailing acidic conditions that define the Hesperian. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to characterize the alteration products of acid-sulfate weathered phyllosilicates in laboratory experiments, focusing on the Fe/Mg-smectites commonly identified on Mars. We also compare our results to observations of phyllosilicates and sulfates on Mars in regions such as Endeavour Crater and Mawrth Vallis to understand the formation process of sulfates and constrain the aqueous history of these regions.

  19. Sulfate Formation From Acid-Weathered Phylosilicates: Implications for the Aqueous History of Mars (United States)

    Craig, P. I.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.


    Most phyllosilicates on Mars are thought to have formed during the planet's earliest Noachian era, then Mars underwent a global change making the planet's surface more acidic [e.g. 1]. Prevailing acidic conditions may have affected the already existing phyllosilicates, resulting in the formation of sulfates. Both sulfates and phyllosilicates have been identified on Mars in a variety of geologic settings [2] but only in a handful of sites are these minerals found in close spatial proximity to each other, including Mawrth Vallis [3,4] and Gale Crater [5]. While sulfate formation from the acidic weathering of basalts is well documented in the literature [6,7], few experimental studies investigate sulfate formation from acid-weathered phyllosilicates [8-10]. The purpose of this study is to characterize the al-teration products of acid-weathered phyllosilicates in laboratory experiments. We focus on three commonly identified phyllosilicates on Mars: nontronite (Fe-smectite), saponite (Mg-smectite), and montmorillonite (Al-smectite) [1, and references therein]. This information will help constrain the formation processes of sulfates observed in close association with phyllosilicates on Mars and provide a better understanding of the aqueous history of such regions as well as the planet as a whole.

  20. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control. (United States)

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A


    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.

  1. Useful Radar Data for Mars 2001 Landing Site Selection (United States)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Slade, M. A.; Jurgens, R. F.


    Radar data, of both Doppler-only and delay-Doppler varieties, played a useful role in the landing site certification process for Mars Pathfinder. Radar provides information on the elevation of the planetary surface, on its radar reflectivity and on the surface roughness. The elevation is important for proper entry, descent and landing, as is the reflectivity if a radar altimeter is to be used on the lander. Both the reflectivity and the surface roughness can measure the rockiness of the surface, important for a safe landing, as well as for rover trafficability. The spatial resolution of this Earth-based remote sensing technique is around 10 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. In the case of Pathfinder the regionally averaged properties were confirmed by ground truth at the landing site in Ares Vallis. The landing site assessment for Pathfinder relied principally on data from the 1995 Mars opposition when sub-Earth latitudes on Mars ranged from 16 to 22 degrees north. Data from earlier oppositions (1992-93, 1990, 1988-89) are available and cover latitudes from 25 south to 25 north at various longitudes. The available data will be presented at the symposium. The data are of varying quality, although ranging data is available for about 20 radar tracks per opposition, reflectivity and roughness analyses may not always be possible. Some older data are also available (1982, 1980) with range-only information.

  2. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial species and symbiovars nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran. (United States)

    Rouhrazi, Kiomars; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Velázquez, Encarna


    The phylogenetic diversity of 29 rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran was analysed on the basis of their core and symbiotic genes. These strains displayed five 16S rRNA-RFLP patterns and belong to eight ERIC-PCR clusters. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA and atpD core genes allowed the identification of several strains as Rhizobium sophoriradicis, R. leguminosarum, R. tropici and Pararhizobium giardinii, whereas other strains represented a new phylogenetic lineage related to R. vallis. These strains and those identified as R. sophoriradicis and R. leguminosarum belong to the symbiovar phaseoli carrying the γ nodC allele distributed in P. vulgaris endosymbionts in America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as R. tropici belongs to the symbiovar tropici carried by strains of R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum and R. freirei nodulating P. vulgaris in America, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as P. giardinii belongs to the symbiovar giardinii together with the type strain of this species nodulating P. vulgaris in France. It is remarkable that the recently described species R. sophoriradicis is worldwide distributed in P. vulgaris nodules carrying the γ nodC allele of symbiovar phaseoli harboured by rhizobia isolated in the American distribution centers of this legume. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Laboratory experiments on Mars-relevant clay and phosphate minerals yield insights into the aqueous history and potential for habitability on Mars. (United States)

    Hausrath, E.; Adcock, C. T.; Gainey, S.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Tu, V.


    Data from Mars landers and orbiters increasingly indicate the occurrence of aqueous geochemical processes, suggesting the presence of environments that may be habitable. These environments, however, differ from terrestrial environments in significant ways. Laboratory experiments can therefore be vital in providing further insight into environmental conditions on Mars, and the implications for habitability. Here we report the results of experiments designed to interpret observations of Mars from landers, orbiters and martian meteorites. Dissolution rates of the Mars-relevant phosphate minerals whitlockite, merrillite, and chlorapatite, as well as amorphous Al- and Fe-phosphates, suggest rapid dissolution of these phases. Phosphate release on Mars may therefore have been greater than on Earth, with important implications for habitability. Measured dissolution rates of nontronite when compared to montmorillonite dissolution rates from the literature suggest that preferential dissolution of nontronite may be able to account for enrichments of montmorillonite and kaolinite in profiles at Mawrth Vallis. Synthesis experiments of clay minerals under oxidizing and reducing conditions may help interpret transitions in clay mineral chemistry as a possible paleoredox indicator.

  4. Growth of and valine production by a Bacillus subtilis mutant in the small intestine of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nørgaard, Jan Værum


    :Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg), 2) the Neg diet with added Bacillus subtilis-valine (1.28 × 108 cfu/g feed) (+Bac), and 3) the Neg diet with added L-Val to a Val:Lys of 0.69:1 (+Val). Eighteen gilts (6 on each treatment) with initial weights of ∼15 kg were fed the diets for 23 d before the animals were euthanized...... and samples from the small intestine were obtained. The number of B. subtilis cfu in digesta was higher in the +Bac group than in the Neg group (P subtilis cfu were detected in the Neg group, whereas numbers between 3.4 and 4.4 log cfu/g and numerically higher Val and Lys...... concentrations were measured in the +Bac group. Short-term in vitro incubations of digesta showed a decrease (P ≤ 0.03) in the number of B. subtilis cfu over time for the +Bac group and no difference in the rate of Val production compared to that in the Neg group. In conclusion, more B. subtilis cfu were present...

  5. Groundwater-controlled valley networks and the decline of surface runoff on early Mars (United States)

    Harrison, Keith P.; Grimm, Robert E.


    Fluvial erosion on early Mars was dominated by valley networks created through a combination of groundwater processes and surface runoff. A reduced greenhouse effect due to CO2 loss, together with a declining geothermal heat flux, promoted the growth of a cryosphere and a Hesperian hydrologic regime dominated by outflow channel formation. We test the hypothesis that the transition from valley network to outflow channel formation was preceded by a more subtle evolution characterized by a weakening of surface runoff, leaving groundwater processes as the dominant, final source of valley network erosion. Our hypothesis, supported by a terrestrial analog in the Atacama desert of Chile, is related to the groundwater sapping reactivation hypothesis for densely dissecting highland valley networks on Mars suggested by Baker and Partridge in 1986 and focuses on the age analysis of large, sparsely dissecting valley networks such as Nanedi Valles, Nirgal Vallis, valleys in fretted terrain, and tributaries of outflow channels and Valles Marineris chasmata. We find that these features are consistently late Noachian to Hesperian in age, younger than Noachian densely dissecting dendritic valley networks in the southern highlands. In the Tharsis region the observation of dense and sparse valley network morphologies on Hesperian terrain suggests that while surface runoff gave way to groundwater processes consistent with our hypothesis, the transition may have occurred later than elsewhere on the planet. The volcanic nature of Tharsis suggests that geothermal heat and volatile production led to episodically higher volumes of surface runoff in this region during the Hesperian.

  6. Cystic fibrosis gene mutations: evaluation and assessment of disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallières E


    Full Text Available Emilie Vallières, Joseph Stuart ElbornCystic Fibrosis and Airways Microbiology Research Group, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, UKAbstract: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR gene encodes an ion channel transporter, the CFTR protein. Since its identification in 1989, more than 1,900 sequence variants have been reported, resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Cystic fibrosis (CF is associated with many CFTR mutants and there is a continuum of disease severity observed. Recent advances in fundamental research have increased our understanding of the consequent molecular defect arising from CF mutations. This knowledge has resulted in the development of CF-specific therapies, targeting either the genetic or the molecular defect. CF care, previously focused on symptom control, is therefore moving toward a "stratified" or "precision" therapeutic approach. This review outlines normal CFTR physiology, the proposed pathologic mechanism underlying CF associated-lung injury, classification of CF mutations, and the CF-specific therapies recently approved or in clinical trials.Keywords: cystic fibrosis, gene mutations, disease severity, evaluation, assessment

  7. On the Testing of Renovations Inside Historical Opera Houses (United States)

    Fausti, P.; Prodi, N.


    Due to the large number of historical opera houses in Italy, many theatres have been renovated in the past, but still more will undergo major restoration in the near future. Unfortunately in this context, the quality and protection of acoustics is rarely considered as an issue of its own. As a consequence, the renovations are hardly ever accompanied by proper scientific and technical support. In this paper, the acoustical impact of works inside the Teatro Municipale "R.Valli" in Reggio Emilia, including the restoration of the main hall and the construction of a new acoustic shell, will be dealt with. Surveys were held in the theatre before renovation and were repeated with identical procedure and instruments after its completion. By means of a comparative analysis of the architectural project and of acoustical data, the impact of major changes in the theatre can be predicted. It is shown that this approach can help in drafting an operational scheme for safeguarding the acoustics of historical opera houses.

  8. Effects of atmospheric turbulence on the return photon flux of sodium laser guide star (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyuan; Qian, Xianmei; Fan, Chuanyu; Du, Chengtao; Lu, Chengling; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Huan


    The circular-polarized laser can excite Sodium Laser Guide Star (SLGS) to obtain a large number of the return photons. Re-pumping technology can further enhance the return photon flux of SLGS. But laser propagating in the atmosphere suffers the atmospheric turbulence which causes the stochastic distributions of laser intensity in mesosphere. This leads to the fluctuations of return photon flux as the strength of atmospheric turbulence. We study effects of atmospheric turbulence on the return photon flux of SLGS under the Hufnagle-vally5/7(HV5/7), Greenwood and Mod-HV models by numerical simulation. Results show that both the return photon flux and fluctuations under the strong atmospheric turbulence are more than those under the weak one. Comparing re-pumping with no re-pumping, increment of the return photon flux under the three atmospheric turbulence models increase with the decreasing strength of atmospheric turbulence. But the fluctuations of the return photon flux greatly decrease for re-pumping.

  9. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms. (United States)

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M


    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P Fish meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P fish meal, meat and bone meal, or poultry byproduct meal). Low- and high-crystalline AA diets contained 4.5 or 1% fish meal, 6 or 1.2% meat and bone meal, and 6 or 1% poultry byproduct meal, respectively. No AA × protein source interactions were observed. From d 0 to 14, no differences in growth performance among protein sources was found, whereas

  10. Taxonomic revision of the tropical African group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae, Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, Marcial


    Full Text Available The tropical African monophyletic group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae is distributed in continental tropical Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarene archipelago, and Bioko Island (32 km off the coast of West Africa, in the Gulf of Guinea. The first monographic treatment of this Carex group, as well as of the tribe Cariceae, was published by Kükenthal (as sect. Elatae Kük.. Recently, the first molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA phylogeny of Carex sect. Elatae has been published, which also included the species of sect. Spirostachyae. In the resulting consensus trees, most species of sect. Elatae were embedded within core Spirostachyae and so this section was joined with sect. Spirostachyae as subsect. Elatae. Within subsect. Elatae, several groups were described, one of which was termed the “tropical African group”. Here we present a taxonomic revision of this group, based on more than 280 vouchers from 29 herbaria as well as in field trips in Tropical Africa. In the revision, we recognise 12 species (16 taxa within the tropical African group, and so have somewhat modified our previous view, in which 10 species, 12 taxa were listed. One new species from Tanzania is included in this treatment, C. uluguruensis Luceño & M. Escudero. Several combinations are made, C. cyrtosaccus is treated as a synonym of C. vallis-rosetto and, finally, the binomial C. greenwayi has been recognised.Las especies de la subsección Elatae (sección Spirostachyae del género Carex que se distribuyen por África tropical continental, Madagascar, el archipiélago de las Mascareñas y la isla de Bioko (a 32 km del litoral de África occidental, en el golfo de Guinea forman un grupo monofilético. El primer tratamiento taxonómico de este grupo de cárices, así como de la tribu Cariceae en su conjunto, fue elaborado por Kükenthal (sección Elatae Kük.; recientemente, se ha publicado el primer estudio de filogenia molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA de los táxones de este grupo

  11. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen


    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  12. Old Geology and New Geology (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Prospecting for Modern and Ancient Hydrothermal Systems on Mars:Implications for Astrobiology and the Exploration for Past or Present Life (United States)

    Farmer, J. D.


    Hydrothermal systems are regarded to be prime targets in the search for a fossil record on Mars because they provide 1) Localized environments for sustaining high rates of microbial productivity and 2) Co-existing high rates of mineralization (chemical precipitation) favorable for capturing and preserving microbial biosignatures. Hydrothermal environments may have been widespread on Mars early in the planet's history. Previous authors have described a number of potential hydrothermal sites on Mars which may be grouped into the following geologic associations: 1) Channels and chaos terranes associated with volcanic heat sources (e.g. Dao Vallis - Hadriaca Patera and chaos at the base of Apollonaris), 2) Channel networks and modified central uplifts associated with large impact craters, 3) Channels and alteration zones associated with rift fracture systems and dike swarms (e.g. Cerberus volcanic plains, Elysium), 4) Channel systems in periglacial environments related to potential subglacial volcanic heat sources 5) Mineral signatures (coarse-grained hematite) associated with ancient lacustrine basins and extensional geologic features (e.g. Terra Meridian basin, floor of Candor Chasma, central Aram chaos) and 6) modern seeps and runoff channels found on steep, northward facing slopes at high latitudes. In addition, some attribute a hydrothermal origin to the Fe-rich carbonates of Martian meteorite, ALH 84001. In this talk I will review examples of these and related hydrothermal environments that may have been present on Mars from the perspective of terrestrial analogs and what that implies about preservation potential for fossil biosignatures. I will also discuss possible ways to test hydrothermal hypotheses that could be implemented during the next decade of Mars exploration.

  14. Insights into Highland Patera Volcanism using Mars Express HRSC Data (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Greeley, R.; Zuschneid, W.; Werner, S.; Neukum, G.; Gwinner, K.; Hauber, E.; Crown, D. A.; Gregg, T. K.; Raitala, J.


    We have used images obtained by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the ESA Mars Express orbiter to assess geologic activity at two of Mars' highland volcanoes: Hadriaca Patera and Tyrrhena Patera. HRSC images cover wide swaths at consistent lighting conditions and resolutions, making them ideal resources for assessing surfaces ages using crater statistics. Additionally, multi-channel HRSC images are processed to produce Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) that are of greater spatial resolution than MOLA-derived DTMs, which are useful to assess regional and local topographic variations. Crater size-frequency analyses and cratering model age estimates show both Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae have complex surfaces shaped by volcanic, fluvial, and eolian processes. These ancient shields were formed early in martian history, 3.7-4.0 Ga. At Hadriaca Patera, the earliest detectable caldera activity occurred at 3.5 Ga, followed by explosive volcanic and fluvial activity on the flanks at 3.3-3.4 Ga. Later caldera activity occurred at 2.2-2.5 Ga and again at 1.1-1.6 Ga. At Tyrrhena Patera, explosive volcanic activity and emplacement of pyroclastic deposits occurred 3.5-3.6 Ga, with later fluvial erosional activity at 1.9-2.0 Ga and again at 1.2-1.5 Ga. Slopes on Tyrrhena Patera are generally shallower (0.09-0.4 degrees) than those on Hadriaca Patera (up to 0.7 degrees). Hadriaca's north flank trends uphill, suggesting that Hadriaca Patera settled due to removal of material during formation of Dao Vallis. Further study is underway to use HRSC topographic data and computer modeling to better understand pyroclastic volcanism at these two volcanoes.

  15. Motivational Factors for the Master's Degree: a Comparison between Students in Accounting And Economics in the Light of the Self-Determination Theory,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Oliveira Durso


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The general aim of this study was identifying the motivational level of students in Accounting and Economics regarding the search for a stricto sensu graduate degree. Also, it sought to determine the variables that significantly influence the motivation of these individuals. Having the Self-Determination Theory as a basis, a questionnaire was prepared resorting to the Academic Motivation Scale developed by Vallerand, Pelletier, Blais, Brière, Senécal, and Vallières (1992, and translated into Portuguese by Sobral (2003. The database contains observations of 173 university students from public institutions in Minas Gerais, Brazil, which provided courses in Accounting and Economics. The methodological procedure consisted in conducting a non-parametric test of mean values for the Motivation Self-Determination Index (MSI of students, in calculating the correlations between the MSI and individual characteristics of students, and finally in estimating multiple linear regressions. Research results indicated that students in Accounting showed no difference regarding the motivational level when compared to students in Economics. It was also possible to notice that women, older students, scientific initiation scholarship holders, those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and those whose mothers have higher educational level tend to have a rather self-determined motivation. Additionally, it was found that insertion into the labor market increases self-determined motivation to pursue a stricto sensu Master's degree only in the case of students in Accounting. The research was limited to the fact that the sample only included students of public education institutions from Minas Gerais. For future research, it is suggested that the procedures of this study be replicated in privet institution and in different states.

  16. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.


    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  17. Reconstruction of the past flow channels in the early Holocene at Lake Tonle Sap, Cambodia (United States)

    Haraguchi, T.; Yonenobu, H.; Tokunaga, T.; Shimoda, I.


    Lake Tonle Sap is located at the central part of Cambodia, South-East Asia. In rainy season, the water body swells with the water depth accordingly increasing from 1 up to 10 meters due to a pulsive intrusion from the Mekong River. The lake is therefore a vital reservoir that protects the region from flooding. It is paleolimnologically important to better understand how the lake has gained the function controlling water balance of this region. We undertook an extensive echo-sounding exploration at the lake in order to clarify the subsurface structure of Lake Tonle Sap. The survey was conducted in rainy seasons from 2009 to 2012. Sediment cores were collected at three sites at the middle part of the lake. Echo sounding was undertaken over the whole part of the lake using a single-channel sub-bottom profiling system (Stratabox, SyQwest Inc.). A prominent sound frequency of 10 KHz was selected in order to observe structure of reflectance planes up to the 40-m depth. In consequence, we discovered deposited valleys forming a complex network of past flow channels. The subsurface structure of the lake bed was mostly complacent showing a strongly reflecting plane observed at the depth of 1-2 meters; the sediments mainly consisted of mud. A number of valley-shaped reflecting planes were observed at the depth of 10-14 meters. Radiocarbon dates of carbonaceous materials collected at the vally bottom were around 10 ka calBP. A 3-D reconstruction presented a complex network of deposited flow channels.

  18. Screening of soy protein-derived hypotriglyceridemic di-peptides in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsui Toshiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soy protein and soy peptides have attracted considerable attention because of their potentially beneficial biological properties, including antihypertensive, anticarcinogenic, and hypolipidemic effects. Although soy protein isolate contains several bioactive peptides that have distinct physiological activities in lipid metabolism, it is not clear which peptide sequences are responsible for the triglyceride (TG-lowering effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of soy protein-derived peptides on lipid metabolism, especially TG metabolism, in HepG2 cells and obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF rats. Results In the first experiment, we found that soy crude peptide (SCP-LD3, which was prepared by hydrolyze of soy protein isolate with endo-type protease, showed hypolipidemic effects in HepG2 cells and OLETF rats. In the second experiment, we found that hydrophilic fraction, separated from SCP-LD3 with hydrophobic synthetic absorbent, revealed lipid-lowering effects in HepG2 cells and OLETF rats. In the third experiment, we found that Fraction-C (Frc-C peptides, fractionated from hydrophilic peptides by gel permeation chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography, significantly reduced TG synthesis and apolipoprotein B (apoB secretion in HepG2 cells. In the fourth experiment, we found that the fraction with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid, isolated from Frc-C peptides by octadecylsilyl column chromatography, showed hypolipidemic effects in HepG2 cells. In the final experiment, we found that 3 di-peptides, Lys-Ala, Val-Lys, and Ser-Tyr, reduced TG synthesis, and Ser-Tyr additionally reduced apoB secretion in HepG2 cells. Conclusion Novel active peptides with TG-lowering effects from soy protein have been isolated.

  19. [Comparative study on elderly and disabled subjects with various degrees of dementia]. (United States)

    Ciccarello, A


    This study aims at showing the positive effects of arts therapies in individual and group sessions, with an aging, valid or dependent population, presenting symptoms of dementia or not. The improvement of cognition (including memory), well-being, as well as of certain medical problems (pain, tension...) was underlined in several studies on arts therapies, including especially the use of music therapeutic techniques. Indeed, music stimulates the emotional memory, causing the emergence of ancient memories, thus restoring narcissism. The well-being of participants is increased. Our population consists of elderly people, most of them suffering from dementia. They come to the workshops by themselves or led by their families. Music but also pictorial arts are used as a therapeutic mediation for one session per week during the time of hospitalization. This period varies depending on the condition of the subject. The scales used in T1 and T2 with patients suffering from dementia are the Echelle d'appréciation clinique en gériatrie by Bouvard & Cottraux and the Fragebogen zur Beurteilung der Behandlung durch den Therapeuten (FBB-T) by Mattejat and Remschmidt. Regarding the criteria for external validation, a semi-structured interview is proposed to the nurses in T2. The scales used with valid people are the Index of Well-being by Campbell et al, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) by Zigmond and Snaith, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), validated by Vallières and Vallerand in 1990, and the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen (SVF 78) by Janke et al. CDC: There was a positive effect for most seniors who attended the sessions: an increased well-being and a temporary appropriation of memories. However, given the small size and the heterogeneity of samples, the irregularity of attendance, the results cannot be generalized. More regular sessions of arts therapies would be favorable for a consolidation of results.

  20. The Effect of Folate Supplementation on Ghrelin of Stomach and Insulin Level of Serum in Male Wistar Rats during 10 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gorzi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background: High intensity training can lead to lower the appetite. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of folate supplementation on ghrelin level of stomach and insulin level of serum in male wistar rats during 10 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven male Wistar rats (weight= 203.94±27.34 gr, Age: 9 weeks after one week familiarization, were randomly divided into four groups: control (n=6, folate supplementation (n=6, (HIIT (n=7 and HIIT+ folate supplement (n=8. HIIT training protocol started with 30 m/min running on treadmill for 1 min with 10 reps and 2 min active rest at the first week and reached to 75-80 m/min for 1 min with 7 reps and 3 min active rest at last 3 weeks. Acylated ghrelin level of stomach tissue and serum level of insulin were assayed by ELISA kit. Results: The results of Kruskal-vallis analysis showed that the ghrelin level of stomach was increased significantly (p=0.001 in folate+HIIT in compare with HIIT group. Also, insulin level of serum was decreased significantly (p=0.001 in folate +HIIT in compare with control and HIIT groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, folate supplementation during high intensity interval training, increased the ghrelin of stomach and decreased the insulin level of serum. So, it seems that folate supplementation can prevent from losing appetite in athletes who train with high intensity training with interval type.

  1. A Comparison of Self - Esteem of Sports Sciences and Theology Faculty Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şaban ÜNVER


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in university students‟ self - esteem and psychosomatic symptoms in terms of some demographic variables. A total of 660 students - 334 female and 326 male - , who were randomly chosen from the students of Sport Sciences and Theology Faculties studying in Ondokuz Mayıs University during the academic year 2013 - 2014, participated in the study voluntarily. The data was collected through a “Demographic Information Form” developed by the researcher and “Rosenberg Self - Esteem Scale” which was developed in 1963, checked for validity and reliability in 1965 in USA by Morris Rosenberg and checked for validity and reliability in Turkey by Çuhadaroğlu (1986. The data was statistically analyzed by Kolmogorov Smirnov, Ma nn Whitney U, Kruskal Vallis and Bonferronni correction test. The level of significance was taken as 0.05. The finding that there was no significant difference in the self - esteem levels of Sports Sciences Faculty students is in parallel with the findings o f Yüksekkaya (1995:48 who reported that the variable of gender did not cause a significant difference on self - esteem. In the other result, it was seen a significant difference in sport science faculty students‟ scores when students‟ self - esteem compared t o the level of the class variables but hasn‟t seen in the faculty of theology. However, as noted in studies similar to our study, students' grade level progresses, levels of self - esteem increased. These findings were discussed in the light of literature an d suggestions were made for future studies.

  2. Predictability of Sleep in Patients with Insomnia (United States)

    Vallières, Annie; Ivers, Hans; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Morin, Charles M.


    Study Objectives: To evaluate whether the night-to-night variability in insomnia follows specific predictable patterns and to characterize sleep patterns using objective sleep and clinical variables. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: University-affiliated sleep disorders center. Participants: 146 participants suffering from chronic and primary insomnia. Measurements and Results: Daily sleep diaries were completed for an average of 48 days and self-reported questionnaires once. Three nights were spent in the sleep laboratory for polysomnographic (PSG) assessment. Sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and total sleep time were derived from sleep diaries and PSG. Time-series diary data were used to compute conditional probabilities of having an insomnia night after 1, 2, or 3 consecutive insomnia night(s). Conditional probabilities were submitted to a k-means cluster analysis. A 3-cluster solution was retained. One cluster included 38 participants exhibiting an unpredictable insomnia pattern. Another included 30 participants with a low and decreasing probability to have an insomnia night. The last cluster included 49 participants exhibiting a high probability to have insomnia every night. Clusters differed on age, insomnia severity, and mental fatigue, and on subjective sleep variables, but not on PSG sleep variables. Conclusion: These findings replicate our previous study and provide additional evidence that unpredictability is a less prevalent feature of insomnia than suggested previously in the literature. The presence of the 3 clusters is discussed in term of sleep perception and sleep homeostasis dysregulation. Citation: Vallières A; Ivers H; Beaulieu-Bonneau S; Morin CM. Predictability of sleep in patients with insomnia. SLEEP 2011;34(5):609-617. PMID:21532954

  3. Indicators and Methods to Understand Past Environments from ExoMars Rover Drills (United States)

    Kereszturi, A.; Bradak, B.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Ujvari, G.


    Great advances are expected during the analysis of drilled material acquired from 2 m depth by ExoMars rover, supported by the comparison to local context, and the joint use of different instruments. Textural information might be less detailed relatively to what is usually obtained at outcrops during classical geological field work on the Earth, partly because of the lack of optical imaging of the borehole wall and also because the collected samples are crushed. However sub-mm scale layering and some other sedimentary features might be identified in the borehole wall observations, or in the collected sample prior to crushing, and also at nearby outcrops. The candidate landing sites provide different targets and focus for research: Oxia Planum requires analysis of phyllosilicates and OH content, at Mawrth Vallis the layering of various phyllosilicates and the role of shallow-subsurface leaching should be emphasized. At Aram Dorsum the particle size and fluvial sedimentary features will be interesting. Hydrated perchlorates and sulphates are ideal targets possibly at every landing sites because of OH retention, especially if they are mixed with smectites, thus could point to even ancient wet periods. Extensive use of information from the infrared wall scanning will be complemented for geological context by orbital and rover imaging of nearby outcrops. Information from the context is especially useful to infer the possible action of past H2O. Separation of the ice and liquid water effects will be supported by cation abundance and sedimentary context. Shape of grains also helps here, and composition of transported grains points to the weathering potential of the environment in general. The work on Mars during the drilling and sample analysis will provide brand new experience and knowledge for future missions.

  4. Impact And Thermal Treatment Of Clays: Implications For The Surface Properties Of Mars (United States)

    Gavin, Patricia; Chevrier, V.


    CRISM has recently confirmed OMEGA's previous detection of clays on the surface of Mars, mainly in the Nili Fossae and Mawrth Vallis regions in the Noachian terrains. It has been proposed that transformations of clays through meteoritic impacts and thermal metamorphism may be responsible for Mars’ red color. We thermally treated several samples of nontronite (Fe-rich clay) and montmorillonite (Al-rich clay) in both air and in a CO2 atmosphere to various temperatures (from 500°C to 1100°C) for various durations (4 to 24 hrs) and impacted each clay sample at 2.5 km/s. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), ESEM, TEM, and magnetic properties analyses were performed on each sample. XRD of heated samples showed the formation of hematite, sillimanite, and cristobalite in high temperature samples. The same phases with corundum and quartz formed in the medium temperature samples. ESEM and EDX analyses confirmed these results. No secondary phase was observed on the XRD spectra of the impacted samples. Magnetic analyses showed properties of hematite at high temperature, spinel only in the CO2 atmosphere at 850°C and the systematic formation of a distinct unknown magnetic phase around 900-1000°C, also observed in TEM. FT-IR analysis in the MIR range showed the loss of interlayer water and a quartz/silica-forming phase. NIR spectra of the shocked samples were of particular interest because of the formation of a pair of unidentified peaks at 3.4 and 3.5 μm. These two peaks did not appear in any other spectrum, indicating they are the result of the shock treatment only. Such result, combined with XRD results, suggests potential amorphisation of the impacted clays. Such a specific feature could help determine if clays were affected by shock on Mars.

  5. Rhizobium hidalgonense sp. nov., a nodule endophytic bacterium of Phaseolus vulgaris in acid soil. (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Yan, Hui; Liu, Li Xue; Chen, Wen Feng; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Verástegui-Valdés, Myrthala M; Wang, En Tao; Han, Xiao Zeng


    One Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as FH14 T , was isolated from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in Hidalgo State of Mexico. Results based upon 16S rRNA gene (≥99.8 % similarities to known species), concatenated sequence (recA, atpD and glnII) analysis of three housekeeping genes (≤93.4 % similarities to known species) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of genome sequence (ranged from 87.6 to 90.0 % to related species) indicated the distinct position of strain FH14 T within the genus Rhizobium. In analyses of symbiotic genes, only nitrogen fixation gene nifH was amplified that had nucleotide sequence identical to those of the bean-nodulating strains in R. phaseoli and R. vallis, while nodulation gene nodC gene was not amplified. The failure of nodulation to its original host P. vulgaris and other legumes evidenced the loss of its nodulation capability. Strain FH14 T contained summed feature 8 (C 18:1 ω6c/C 18:1 ω7c, 59.96 %), C 16:0 (10.6 %) and summed feature 2 (C 12:0 aldehyde/unknown 10.928, 10.24 %) as the major components of cellular fatty acids. Failure to utilize alaninamide, and utilizing L-alanine, L-asparagine and γ-amino butyric acid as carbon source, distinguished the strain FH14 T from the type strains for the related species. The genome size and DNA G+C content of FH14 T were 6.94 Mbp and 60.8 mol %, respectively. Based on those results, a novel specie in Rhizobium, named Rhizobium hidalgonense sp. nov., was proposed, with FH14 T (=HAMBI 3636 T  = LMG 29288 T ) as the type strain.

  6. Detailed mapping of surface units on Mars with HRSC color data (United States)

    Combe, J.-Ph.; Wendt, L.; McCord, T. B.; Neukum, G.


    at Aram Chaos or Terra Meridiani [7-9] is a candidate. Bright deposits have potentially spectral signatures different to the red dust in the visible: sulfates in Juventae Chasma or Aram Chaos [9, 10] and phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis [11] or Nili Fossae [12] are of interest. This abstract is focused on Marwth Vallis only. HRSC spectral data: geometry and color filters The spectral data are image mosaics of five broadband spectral channels centered respectively at 440, 530, 650 and 750 nm for covering the visible range of wavelengths and 970 nm for sensitivity to the electronic absorptions of minerals present in minerals (pyroxenes, olivine). The third channel (nadir image) has a typical pixel size of 12.5 m, 25 m or 50 m. The other channels have a usual pixel size of 50 m, 100 m or 200 m that determines the spatial sampling of the spectral dataset. These data are acquired by five individual cameras oriented with a specific angle to the normal to the surface (-3°, +3°, 0° (nadir), -16° and +16° respectively). Those tilts optimize the use of a single telescope for all cameras in the available room. Thus, a given spectrum results from different proportions of shade at each wavelength. Indeed, subpixel topographic slopes that are oriented toward the instrument represent a higher proportion in the signal. This implies that shade affects the shape of HRSC spectra on a different way from pixel to pixel. This contribution has to be considered when performing spectral analysis. Level-4 color images in Digital Numbers (DNs) are registered adequately and are available to the public through the HRSCview website ( A linear function converts the DNs into radiance factor (I/F). Visual interpretation Color composites Red-Green-blue (RGB) color composites of DNs images contain usable geological information. Dark basaltic sands and bright red dust appear always obvious. Materials generated from interaction of liquid water, like sulfates and

  7. An areomorphometric visualisation and evaluation tool for HRSC DTM-derived local slope histograms (United States)

    Balint, Zita; Székely, Balázs; Kovács, Gábor; Jansa, Josef; Dorninger, Peter; Podobnikar, Tomaž


    In the last years morphometric study of Martian surface has become a primary research field. The various surface processes shape the Martian landforms creating a diverse spatial relief pattern. The diversity of the surface can be captured via the quantitative analysis of local slope angle histogram parameters. Several complete HRSC orbit DTMs have been converted to a series of local slope histograms calculated for 4x4 km spatial window, including the Nanedi Valles region. Our goal is to outline the different areomorphological units based on the statistical parameters of the slope distribution. To this end, a visualization program code was developed that allows to render the parameter maps like amplitude of the mode, skewness and standard deviation of the distribution as RGB-(red, green, blue)-coloured pixels, resulting in a colour image. In this image map the different colours represent very different types of slope histograms. The individual morphological types, regions (e.g., the valleys, in some cases, valley floors and valley sides, and crater rims) can be clearly distinguished from the surrounding plateau-like, low-relief areas. This approach is also applicable for the aforementioned individual channels (colours), because the spatial changes in some cases are also visible, certain parameters have characteristic spatial trends, e.g., in the case of skewness the sides of the vallis a remarkably apparent. The detailed evaluation of these image maps may help in automated classification of the areomorphometric domains. This is a contribution of the TMIS.ascrea project, financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG).

  8. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) during MRO's Primary Science Phase (PSP) (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Banks, M.E.; Baugh, N.; Becker, K.; Boyd, A.; Bergstrom, J.W.; Beyer, R.A.; Bortolini, E.; Bridges, N.T.; Byrne, S.; Castalia, B.; Chuang, F.C.; Crumpler, L.S.; Daubar, I.; Davatzes, A.K.; Deardorff, D.G.; DeJong, A.; Alan, Delamere W.; Dobrea, E.N.; Dundas, C.M.; Eliason, E.M.; Espinoza, Y.; Fennema, A.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; Forrester, T.; Geissler, P.E.; Grant, J. A.; Griffes, J.L.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gulick, V.C.; Hansen, C.J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heyd, R.; Jaeger, W.L.; Jones, D.; Kanefsky, B.; Keszthelyi, L.; King, R.; Kirk, R.L.; Kolb, K.J.; Lasco, J.; Lefort, A.; Leis, R.; Lewis, K.W.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Mattson, S.; McArthur, G.; Mellon, M.T.; Metz, J.M.; Milazzo, M.P.; Milliken, R.E.; Motazedian, T.; Okubo, C.H.; Ortiz, A.; Philippoff, A.J.; Plassmann, J.; Polit, A.; Russell, P.S.; Schaller, C.; Searls, M.L.; Spriggs, T.; Squyres, S. W.; Tarr, S.; Thomas, N.; Thomson, B.J.; Tornabene, L.L.; Van Houten, C.; Verba, C.; Weitz, C.M.; Wray, J.J.


    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) acquired 8 terapixels of data in 9137 images of Mars between October 2006 and December 2008, covering ???0.55% of the surface. Images are typically 5-6 km wide with 3-color coverage over the central 20% of the swath, and their scales usually range from 25 to 60 cm/pixel. Nine hundred and sixty stereo pairs were acquired and more than 50 digital terrain models (DTMs) completed; these data have led to some of the most significant science results. New methods to measure and correct distortions due to pointing jitter facilitate topographic and change-detection studies at sub-meter scales. Recent results address Noachian bedrock stratigraphy, fluvially deposited fans in craters and in or near Valles Marineris, groundwater flow in fractures and porous media, quasi-periodic layering in polar and non-polar deposits, tectonic history of west Candor Chasma, geometry of clay-rich deposits near and within Mawrth Vallis, dynamics of flood lavas in the Cerberus Palus region, evidence for pyroclastic deposits, columnar jointing in lava flows, recent collapse pits, evidence for water in well-preserved impact craters, newly discovered large rayed craters, and glacial and periglacial processes. Of particular interest are ongoing processes such as those driven by the wind, impact cratering, avalanches of dust and/or frost, relatively bright deposits on steep gullied slopes, and the dynamic seasonal processes over polar regions. HiRISE has acquired hundreds of large images of past, present and potential future landing sites and has contributed to scientific and engineering studies of those sites. Warming the focal-plane electronics prior to imaging has mitigated an instrument anomaly that produces bad data under cold operating conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Identification of microcrystalline rocks using thermal emission spectroscopy (United States)

    Hardgrove, C. J.; Rogers, D.; Glotch, T. D.; Arnold, J. A.


    High-silica deposits on Mars have been discovered from orbit (Holden Crater, Mawrth Vallis) and from landed surface missions to both Gusev Crater (Spirit) and Gale Crater (Curiosity). The character of these silica deposits can be used to understand both the depositional environment (i.e. fumarole vs. sinter) and/or diagenetic process. Initial work has shown that, in the case of opaline silica, there are differences in spectral shape that may be related to surface textural features imparted during formation or post-depositional alteration. Due to the increasing importance of understanding microcrystalline deposits on Mars, here, we study the effects of crystal size and surface roughness on thermal infrared emission spectra of micro- and macro-crystalline quartz. The spectra of chert and macro-crystalline quartz have significant differences in both spectral contrast, and in the rounded doublet between ~1000-1250 cm-1, which can shift and appear less rounded in microcrystalline samples. We find that microcrystalline minerals exhibit naturally rough surfaces compared to their macrocrystalline counterparts at the 10 micron scale; and that this roughness causes distinct spectral differences within the Reststrahlen bands. We find that surface roughness, if rough on the scale of the wavelengths where the wavelength-dependent absorption coefficient (k) is large, can cause not only decreased spectral contrast, but also substantial changes in spectral shape. The spectral shape differences are small enough that the composition of the material is still recognizable, but large enough such that a roughness effect could be detected. We find that my studying the thermal infrared spectral character of the sample, it may be possible to make general inferences about microcrystallinity, and thus aid in the potential reconstruction of sedimentary rock diagenesis.

  10. Classification of Martian Volcanoes on Basis of Volcano Ground Ice Interaction (United States)

    Helgason, J.


    Most Martian volcanoes have common morphological features indicating mass wasting and erosion compatible with large scale break down of ground ice. While some features suggest the ground ice melted rapidly resulting in catastrophic erosive events, other features indicate a slow melting process (e.g sublimation) resulting in collapse structures. To determine relative volcano age and activity on Mars it is suggested that volcano interactions with an overlying ice sheet may be helpful. Examples of the various morphological features indicating volcano-ice interaction are drawn from the literature: (1) valley formation that probably formed in response to joekulhlaups and subglacial volcanism, (2) isolated thermocarst depressions probably formed by geothermal melting of ground ice, (3) large scale sublimation of distal strata, (4) small fluvial valleys, (5) large scale failure of volcano flanks through aureole development, (6) rimless craters without ash collars, (7) rampart craters on volcanoes, (8) channels, (9) mud flows or lahars. A Viking Orbiter image showing possible thermocarst landscape on the flank of the volcano Hadriaca Patera (Dao Vallis). Although various other explanations can account for some of these features they are all compatible with a ground ice-volcano interaction. These features suggests that to an extent most Martian volcanoes are covered with sheet of ground ice of variable thickness. Over a vast time interval this ground ice layer (or ice sheet) has been failing to a variable extent and in a number of ways depending on different volcano characteristics. As a result it is suggested that Martian volcanoes can be classified or assigned an evolutionary status depending on how widespread their interaction is with the ground ice layer. Thus, for example, within the Tharsis region the volcanoes Olympus Mons and Arsia Mons can be regarded as two evolutionary end points. Volcanism in the former has completely built up through and destroyed the ice sheet

  11. Characterizing the Phyllosilicates and Amorphous Phases Found by MSL Using Laboratory XRD and EGA Measurements of Natural and Synthetic Materials (United States)

    Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Morris, Richard V.; Chipera, Steve; Bish, David L.; Bristow, Thomas; Archer, Paul Douglas; Blake, David; Achilles, Cherie; Ming, Douglas W.; Vaniman, David; hide


    The Curiosity Rover landed on the Peace Vallis alluvial fan in Gale crater on August 5, 2012. A primary mission science objective is to search for past habitable environments, and, in particular, to assess the role of past water. Identifying the minerals and mineraloids that result from aqueous alteration at Gale crater is essential for understanding past aqueous processes at the MSL landing site and hence for interpreting the site's potential habitability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the CheMin instrument and evolved gas analyses (EGA) from the SAM instrument have helped the MSL science team identify phases that resulted from aqueous processes: phyllosilicates and amorphous phases were measure in two drill samples (John Klein and Cumberland) obtained from the Sheepbed Member, Yellowknife Bay Fm., which is believed to represent a fluvial-lacustrine environment. A third set of analyses was obtained from scoop samples from the Rocknest sand shadow. Chemical data from the APXS instrument have helped constrain the chemical compositions of these secondary phases and suggest that the phyllosilicate component is Mg-enriched and the amorphous component is Fe-enriched, relatively Si-poor, and S- and H-bearing. To refine the phyllosilicate and amorphous components in the samples measured by MSL, we measured XRD and EGA data for a variety of relevant natural terrestrial phyllosilicates and synthetic mineraloids in laboratory testbeds of the CheMin and SAM instruments. Specifically, Mg-saturated smectites and vermiculites were measured with XRD at low relative humidity to understand the behavior of the 001 reflections under Mars-like conditions. Our laboratory XRD measurements suggest that interlayer cation composition affects the hydration state of swelling clays at low RH and, thus, the 001 peak positions. XRD patterns of synthetic amorphous materials, including allophane, ferrihydrite, and hisingerite were used in full-pattern fitting (FULLPAT) models to help

  12. Characterizing the Phyllosilicates and Amorphous Phases Found by MSL Using Laboratory XRD and EGA Measurements of Natural and Synthetic Materials (Invited) (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Chipera, S.; Bish, D. L.; Bristow, T.; Archer, P. D.; Blake, D.; Achilles, C.; Ming, D. W.; Vaniman, D.; Crisp, J. A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Downs, R.; Farmer, J. D.; Morookian, J.; Morrison, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Spanovich, N.; Treiman, A. H.; Yen, A. S.; Team, M.


    The Curiosity Rover landed on the Peace Vallis alluvial fan in Gale crater on August 5, 2012. A primary mission science objective is to search for past habitable environments, and, in particular, to assess the role of past water. Identifying the minerals and mineraloids that result from aqueous alteration at Gale crater is essential for understanding past aqueous processes at the MSL landing site and hence for interpreting the site's potential habitability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the CheMin instrument and evolved gas analyses (EGA) from the SAM instrument have helped the MSL science team identify phases that resulted from aqueous processes: phyllosilicates and amorphous phases were measure in two drill samples (John Klein and Cumberland) obtained from the Sheepbed Member, Yellowknife Bay Fm., which is believed to represent a fluvial-lacustrine environment. A third set of analyses was obtained from scoop samples from the Rocknest sand shadow. Chemical data from the APXS instrument have helped constrain the chemical compositions of these secondary phases and suggest that the phyllosilicate component is Mg-enriched and the amorphous component is Fe-enriched, relatively Si-poor, and S- and H-bearing. To refine the phyllosilicate and amorphous components in the samples measured by MSL, we measured XRD and EGA data for a variety of relevant natural terrestrial phyllosilicates and synthetic mineraloids in laboratory testbeds of the CheMin and SAM instruments. Specifically, Mg-saturated smectites and vermiculites were measured with XRD at low relative humidity to understand the behavior of the 001 reflections under Mars-like conditions. Our laboratory XRD measurements suggest that interlayer cation composition affects the hydration state of swelling clays at low RH and, thus, the 001 peak positions. XRD patterns of synthetic amorphous materials, including allophane, ferrihydrite, and hisingerite were used in full-pattern fitting (FULLPAT) models to help


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Prada


    Full Text Available L'articolo illustra le caratteristiche del LIPSI, il lessico di frequenza dell'italiano parlato in Svizzera.  Il LIPSI, elaborato con metodi di linguistica computazionale sulla base di  materiali linguistici raccolti sul campo, è il risultato di una ricerca durata quattro anni realizzata nell'ambito dei progetti dell' OLSI (Osservatorio linguistico della Svizzera italiana, istituito per la promozione della lingua e della cultura del Cantone Ticino.  Il LIPSI non solo fornisce la lista di frequenza di circa 13.000 parole dell'italiano parlato nel Cantone Ticino e nelle Valli Grigioni italiane, ma la confronta con quella del LIP e di altri strumenti di statistica linguistica  apparsi in Italia, e approfondisce alcuni aspetti che chiariscono meglio i contorni dell'italiano "statale" svizzero. Tale denominazione  si fonda su ragioni di natura sia geografica-politica-amministrativa sia interne alla varietà e propone una considerazione dell'italiano come una lingua pluricentrica, una lingua cioè che presenta accanto al tradizionale centro metropolitano italiano, imperniato sul modello fiorentino assorbito nella lingua letteraria con apporti di altre varietà, un altro centro almeno parzialmente autonomo di irradiazione e di sviluppo, quello della Svizzera italiana. Il LIPSI si configura inoltre come strumento metodologico importante per la ricerca e la didattica nell'ambito dell'italiano L1/L2.   This article illustrates the characteristics of LIPSI, the frequency lexicon of Italian spoken in Switzerland. LIPSI was compiled using computational linguistics methods based on materials collected in the field. It is the result of a four-year study carried out as part of OLSI (Osservatorio linguistico della Svizzera italiana, an institution which promotes the language and culture of Canton Ticino. LIPSI not only supplies a frequency list of about 13,000 Italian words spoken in Canton Ticino and the Italian Grigioni Valley, but it also compares this

  14. Paleoenvironmental Implications of Clay Minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Bristow, Thomas F.; Blake, David F.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity spent approx 150 sols at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) studying a section of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks (with potential indications of volcanic influence), informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. YKB lies in a distal region of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, which extends from the northern rim of Gale Crater toward the dune field at the base of Mt Sharp. Sedimentological and stratigraphic observations are consistent with the Yellowknife Bay formation being part of a distal fan deposit, which could be as young as middle Hesperian to even early Amazonian in age (approx. 3.5 to 2.5 Ga). The Yellowknife Bay formation hosts a unit of mudstone called the Sheepbed member. Curiosity obtained powdered rock samples from two drill holes in the Sheepbed Member, named John Klein and Cumberland, and delivered them to instruments in Curiosity. Data from CheMin, a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD)/X-ray fluorescence instrument (XRF), has allowed detailed mineralogical analysis of mudstone powders revealing a clay mineral component of approx. 20 wt.% in each sample. The clay minerals are important indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions and sensitive recorders of post-depositional alteration processes. The XRD pattern of John Klein reveals a 02l band consistent with a trioctahedral phyllosilicate. A broad peak at approx. 10A with a slight inflexion at approx. 12A indicates the presence of 2:1 type clay minerals in the John Klein sample. The trioctahedral nature of the clay minerals, breadth of the basal reflection, and presence of a minor component with larger basal spacing suggests that John Klein contains a trioctahedral smectite (probably saponite), whose interlayer is largely collapsed because of the low-humidity conditions. The XRD patterns show no evidence of corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite/smectite) or chlorite, which are typical diagenetic products of trioctahedral smectites when subjected to burial and

  15. Evidence for an Ancient Periglacial Climate in Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Fairén, A. G.; Oehler, D. Z.; Mangold, N.; Hallet, B.; Le Deit, L.; Williams, A.; Sletten, R. S.; Martínez-Frías, J.


    Decameter-scale polygons occur extensively in the lower Peace Vallis Fan of Gale crater, in the Bedded Fractured (BF) Unit, north of Yellowknife Bay (YKB) that was examined and drilled by the Curiosity rover. To gain insight into the origin of these polygons, we studied image data from the Context (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) cameras on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and compared results to the geology of the fan. The polygons are 4 to 30 m across, square to rectangular, and defined by 0.5 to 4 m-wide linear troughs that probably reflect cm-wide, quasi-vertical fractures below the surface. Polygon networks are typically orthogonal systems, with occasional circularly organized patterns, hundreds of meters across. We evaluated multiple hypotheses for the origin of the polygons and concluded that thermal-contraction fracturing during cooling of ice-rich permafrost is most consistent with the sedimentary nature of the BF Unit, the morphology/geometry of the polygons, their restriction to the coarse-grained Gillespie Lake Member, and geologic context. Most of these polygons are confined to the Hesperian BF Unit and appear to be ancient, though individual polygon fractures may have been reactivated in more recent periods, perhaps due to stresses developed with exhumation or as the planet grew colder and drier. Some of the circular networks resemble ice-wedge polygons in thermokarst depressions and collapsed pingos, as seen in periglacial environments of the Arctic. An analog to collapsed pingos could be supported by modeling work of Andrews-Hanna et al. (2012, LPSC; 2012, 3rd Conf. Early Mars) suggesting that Gale was uniquely positioned for significant influx of ground water early its history. Also, results from Curiosity demonstrating limited chemical weathering and a past freshwater lake in YKB (Grotzinger et al., 2014, Science 343) would be consistent with an early periglacial setting. Our conclusions support an ancient, cold and wet

  16. Planetary size critical to the preservation of primordial anorthosite-enriched continental crust and life potential (United States)

    Dohm, J. M.; Maruyama, S.


    Primordial continental crust (PCC) of the Moon consists of anorthosite. Anorthosite has been discovered on the Martian surface as well, possibly of significant extent as on the Moon [1]. In the case of the Earth, the occurrence of anorthosite is observed to be limited in the geological record; however, lunar and Martian surface geology indicate that anorthosite may have been more universal on the Earth as PCC during the Hadean. We propose that differences in the presence of anorthosite-enriched PCC are due to planetary size. The reason why the PCC of Earth disappeared is explained by the strength and duration of mantle convection and plate tectonics, compared to the Moon and its relatively rapid cooling following the development of a magma ocean. We also theorize that Mars also retains its anorthosite-enriched PCC, which includes andesite and granite due to an early phase of plate tectonics that shut down prior to its complete destruction (roughly 3.93 Ga) as a result of its relatively small mass and rapid cooling [2]. Growing evidence of this includes anorthosite identified in Hellas rim materials [1], exposures of possible granite in more ancient terrain of Noachis Terra [3], and alluvial-fan materials of Peace Vallis in Gale crater, which have been interpreted to be representative of an ancient felsic crust [4], and in particular > 4.0 Ga Terra Cimmeria crustal basement exposed by the Gale impact [5]. Nutrient-enriched PCC is essential in determining the fate of the planet to be habitable or not. Mars has elevated habitability potential because of its PCC that was once exposed above an ocean that interacted with a relatively thick atmosphere through Sun-driven hydrological circulation, known as Habitable-Trinity conditions [6]. At this conference, we will discuss the significance of planetary size on both the preservation of anorthosite-enriched PCC on rocky planets and habitability potential, and why the Martian PCC will be a key target of exploration. [1

  17. Meteorological predictions for Mars 2020 Exploration Rover high-priority landing sites throug MRAMS Mesoscale Modeling (United States)

    Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot C. R.


    The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) is used to predict meteorological conditions that are likely to be encountered by the Mars 2020 Exploration Rover at several proposed landing sites during entry, descent, and landing (EDL). The meteorology during the EDL window at most of the sites is dynamic. The intense heating of the lower atmosphere drives intense thermals and mesoscale thermal circulations. Moderate mean winds, wind shear, turbulence, and vertical air currents associated with convection are present and potentially hazardous to EDL [1]. Nine areas with specific high-priority landing ellipses of the 2020 Rover, are investigated: NE Syrtis, Nili Fossae, Nili Fossae Carbonates, Jezero Crater Delta, Holden Crater, McLaughlin Crater, Southwest Melas Basin, Mawrth Vallis and East Margaritifer Chloride. MRAMS was applied to the landing site regions using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the innermost grid that is centered over each landing site. MRAMS is ideally suited for this investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simulate Mars' atmospheric thermal circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface properties [2, 3]. Horizontal wind speeds, both vertical profiles and vertical cross-sections wind speeds, are studied. For some landing sites simulations, two example configurations -including and not including Hellas basin in the mother domain- were generated, in order to study how the basin affects the innermost grids circulations. Afternoon circulations at all sites pose some risk entry, descent, and landing. Most of the atmospheric hazards are not evident in current observational data and general circulation model simulations and can only be ascertained through mesoscale modeling of the region. Decide where to go first and then design a system that can tolerate the environment would greatly minimize risk. References: [1] Rafkin, S. C. R., and T. I. Michaels (2003), J. Geophys. Res., 108(E12

  18. Discontinuous drainage systems formed by highland precipitation and ground-water outflow in the Navua Valles and southwest Hadriacus Mons regions, Mars (United States)

    Hargitai, H. I.; Gulick, V. C.; Glines, N. H.


    The Navua Valles are systems of paleodrainages located north of Dao Vallis, which empty into Hellas Planitia, the largest impact basin on Mars. In this study, we mapped and characterized the Navua Valles Region's individual drainage systems, including drainages along the southwestern flank of Hadriacus Mons, and one valley network from the same source as Navua Valles but flowing in the opposite direction. The major drainage systems share morphological characteristics common to both outflow channels and valley networks. The slopes in this region are dissected by two major Navua drainage systems (here Navua A* and B*) and several shorter, sub-parallel valleys formed on the highest gradient (approximately 20 m/km [1.15°]) slopes, at the lowest part of Hellas Basin's rim. The two major drainage systems originate in the highlands, and empty into the basin. Our mapping suggests that water in Navua Valles reached the basin floor in a complicated descent and included several episodes of surface ponding, surface runoff, infiltration, subsurface flow and subsequent outflow. The most prominent channel system, Navua A, forms a repetitive sequence of deep incision into bedrock, followed by a transition into broad channels in erodible materials, and then into unconfined deposits. This successive erosion-transport-deposition sequence continues to repeat along the valley's entire length forming a discontinuous pattern that is consistent with classical fluvial process models. The channels cut into volcanic plains likely emplaced from the formation of Tyrrhenus and Hadriacus Montes. The dendritic source valleys of Navua A originate from the rim of a highland crater while the rest of this subsystem consists of a single, discontinuous channel which is consistent with a single water source zone that likely supplied water for all channels downslope. These drainages may have formed as discontinuous channels, revealing the potential existence of subsurface drainage pathways located

  19. Chemical models for martian weathering profiles: Insights into formation of layered phyllosilicate and sulfate deposits (United States)

    Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.; Mironenko, Mikhail V.


    Numerical chemical models for water-basalt interaction have been used to constrain the formation of stratified mineralogical sequences of Noachian clay-bearing rocks exposed in the Mawrth Vallis region and in other places on cratered martian highlands. The numerical approaches are based on calculations of water-rock type chemical equilibria and models which include rates of mineral dissolution. Results show that the observed clay-bearing sequences could have formed through downward percolation and neutralization of acidic H2SO4-HCl solutions. A formation of weathering profiles by slightly acidic fluids equilibrated with current atmospheric CO2 requires large volumes of water and is inconsistent with observations. Weathering by solutions equilibrated with putative dense CO2 atmospheres leads to consumption of CO2 to abundant carbonates which are not observed in clay stratigraphies. Weathering by H2SO4-HCl solutions leads to formation of amorphous silica, Al-rich clays, ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides, and minor titanium oxide and alunite at the top of weathering profiles. Mg-Fe phyllosilicates, Ca sulfates, zeolites, and minor carbonates precipitate from neutral and alkaline solutions at depth. Acidic weathering causes leaching of Na, Mg, and Ca from upper layers and accumulation of Mg-Na-Ca sulfate-chloride solutions at depth. Neutral MgSO4 type solutions dominate in middle parts of weathering profiles and could occur in deeper layers owing to incomplete alteration of Ca minerals and a limited trapping of Ca to sulfates. Although salts are not abundant in the Noachian geological formations, the results suggest the formation of Noachian salty solutions and their accumulation at depth. A partial freezing and migration of alteration solutions could have separated sulfate-rich compositions from low-temperature chloride brines and contributed to the observed diversity of salt deposits. A Hesperian remobilization and release of subsurface MgSO4 type solutions into newly

  20. Classification of igneous rocks analyzed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Cousin, Agnes; Sautter, Violaine; Payré, Valérie; Forni, Olivier; Mangold, Nicolas; Gasnault, Olivier; Le Deit, Laetitia; Johnson, Jeff; Maurice, Sylvestre; Salvatore, Mark; Wiens, Roger C.; Gasda, Patrick; Rapin, William


    Several recent studies have revealed that Mars is not a simple basalt-covered planet, but has a more complex geological history. In Gale crater on Mars, the Curiosity rover discovered 59 igneous rocks. This paper focuses on their textures (acquired from the cameras such as MAHLI and MastCam) and their geochemical compositions that have been obtained using the ChemCam instrument. Light-toned crystals have been observed in most of the rocks. They correspond to feldspars ranging from andesines/oligoclases to anorthoclases and sanidines in the leucocratic vesiculated rocks. Darker crystals observed in all igneous rocks (except the leucocratic vesiculated ones) were analyzed by LIBS and mainly identified as Fe-rich pigeonites and Fe-augites. Iron oxides have been observed in all groups whereas F-bearing minerals have been detected only in few of them. From their textural analysis and their whole-rock compositions, all these 59 igneous rocks have been classified in five different groups; from primitive rocks i.e. dark aphanitic basalts/basanites, trachybasalts, tephrites and fine/coarse-grained gabbros/norites to more evolved materials i.e. porphyritic trachyandesites, leucocratic trachytes and quartz-diorites. The basalts and gabbros are found all along the traverse of the rover, whereas the felsic rocks are located before the Kimberley formation, i.e. close to the Peace Vallis alluvial fan deposits. This suggests that these alkali rocks have been transported by fluvial activity and could come from the Northern rim of the crater, and may correspond to deeper strata buried under basaltic regolith (Sautter et al., 2015). Some of the basaltic igneous rocks are surprisingly enriched in iron, presenting low Mg# similar to the nakhlite parental melt that cannot be produced by direct melting of the Dreibus and Wanke (1986) martian primitive mantle. The basaltic rocks at Gale are thus different from Gusev basalts. They could originate from different mantle reservoirs, or they

  1. Children use different anticipatory control strategies than adults to circumvent an obstacle in the travel path. (United States)

    Vallis, Lori Ann; McFadyen, Bradford J


    Carrying out the daily activities of work and play requires the ability to integrate available sensory information in order to navigate complex, potentially cluttered, environments. The expression of locomotor adjustment behaviour is still maturing during mid- to late-childhood (Grasso et al. in Neurosci Biobehav Rev 22(4): 533-539, 1998a; McFadyen et al. in Gait Posture 13:7-16, 2001), which raises the question, do children coordinate their body segments differently than adults when circumventing an obstacle in their travel path? Healthy young children (n=5; age 10.3+/-1.5 years) and adults (n=6; age 26.3+/-2.9 years) were asked to walk at their natural pace during unobstructed walking, as well as during the avoidance to the right or left of a cylindrical obstacle located in the travel path 3 m from the initial starting position. Fourteen infrared markers were fixed to participants and tracked using the Optotrak motion analysis system (60 Hz; Northern Digital Inc, Canada). Data analyses included center of mass (COM) clearance from the obstacle, gait speed, angular movement of the head and trunk (yaw, pitch and roll) and medial-lateral (M-L) COM displacement. Onset of change in these variables from unobstructed walking was also calculated as the time from OBS crossing. Although there were no differences in when adults or children altered their M-L COM trajectory, adults reoriented their head and trunk segments at the same time as their COM while children reoriented their head and trunk prior to changing COM direction. A comparison of foot placement data for this task indicated that while adults changed their gait patterns well in advance of obstacle crossing, children initiated M-L adjustments to gait patterns just prior to OBS crossing. Vallis and McFadyen (Exp Brain Res 152 (3):409-414, 2003) indicated that during circumvention of an obstacle, adults coordinate body segments for a single transient change in COM trajectory while maintaining the underlying travel

  2. Clearing a Path Towards Effective Alien Invasive Control: the Legal Conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Patterson


    Full Text Available Alien invasive plants pose significant ecological, social and economic challenges for South Africa. These species threaten South Africa’s rich biodiversity, deplete our scarce water resources, reduce the agricultural potential of land, cause soil erosion and intensify flooding and fires. According to recent estimations, over eight percent of land in South Africa has been invaded by these species and at current rates of expansion their impact could double in the next fifteen years. In an attempt to curb the impending crises, the South African government has promulgated eleven national and various provincial laws which contain mechanisms for regulating the different threats posed by alien invasive plants. Certain of these laws are framework in nature while the majority are sectoral and aimed at regulating these species for one of the following four main purposes: biodiversity conservation; water conservation; agricultural management; and fire risk management. The responsibility for administering these laws spans four national departments, nine provincial environmental authorities, provincial conservation authorities, numerous local and statutory authorities. This fragmented regime, coupled with the adoption of a command and control approach to regulation, has proven inept in effectively regulating the spread of alien invasive plants in South Africa. This reality led the previous Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Mr Valli Moosa, to call for the development of a “coherent legislative framework … streamlined along the lines of the principles endorsed by the Convention on Biological Diversity”. This article critically analyses the government’s attempts to develop such a “coherent legislative framework” to regulate alien invasive plants in light of recent legislative reform. It is divided into two parts. Part one critically considers South Africa’s current laws of relevance to alien invasive plants with specific emphasis on

  3. Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: II. Chryse-Xanthe, polar caps, and other regions (United States)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, Michael C.


    We conclude our radar imaging survey of Mars, which maps spatial variations in depolarized radar reflectivity using Arecibo S-band (λ12.6 cm) observations from 2005-2012. Whereas our earlier paper (Harmon et al., 2012, Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: the major volcanic provinces. Icarus 220, 990-1030) covered the volcanic regions of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis, this paper includes non-volcanic regions where hydrologic and impact processes can be the dominant resurfacing agents affecting radar backscatter. Many of the more prominent and interesting radar-bright features outside the major volcanic provinces are located in and around Chryse Planitia and Xanthe Terra. These features are identified with: a basin in northeast Lunae Planum containing the combined deposits from Maja Vallis and Ganges Catena outflows; channel outwash plains in western and southern Chryse basin; plateaus bordering chasma/chaos zones, where surface modification may have resulted from hydrologic action associated with incipient chaos formation; and some bright-ejecta craters in Chryse basin, of a type otherwise rare on Mars. Dark-halo craters have also been identified in Chryse and elsewhere that are similar to those seen in the volcanic provinces. Although the cratered highlands are relatively radar-bland, they do exhibit some bright depolarized features; these include eroded crater rims, several unusual ejecta flows and impact melts, and terrain-softened plains. The rims of large impact basins (Hellas, Argyre, Isidis) show a variety of radar-bright features provisionally identified with massif slopes, erosion sediments, eroded pyroclastics, impact melts, and glacial deposits. The interiors of these basins are largely radar-dark, which is consistent with coverage by rock-free sediments. Tempe Terra and Acheron Fossae show bright features possibly associated with rift volcanism or eroded tectonic structures, and northwest Tempe Terra shows one very bright feature associated with glacial or

  4. The M3 project (United States)

    Poulet, Francois; Carter, John; Riu, Lucie; Martinez, Antoine; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves


    been performed on two regions that exhibit the greatest mineral diversity of hydrated minerals on Mars: Nilo-Syrtis region and Mawrth Vallis/Oxia Planum region. Mineral maps of various hydrated and primary phases will be presented.

  5. Martian surface microtexture from orbital CRISM multi-angular observations: A new perspective for the characterization of the geological processes (United States)

    Fernando, J.; Schmidt, F.; Douté, S.


    The surface of Mars has a high morphological and mineralogical diversity due to the intricacy of external, internal processes, and exchanges with the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. In particular, liquid water played an important role in surface evolution. However, the origin, duration and intensity of those wet events have been highly debated, especially in the clay-bearing geological units. Similarly, questions still remain about magma crystallization and volatile quantity of the dominant basaltic crust. In this work, six sites having hydrated minerals, salts and basaltic signatures (i.e., Mawrth Vallis, Holden crater, Eberswalde crater, Capri mensa, Eridania basin, Terra Sirenum) are investigated in order to better characterize the geological processes responsible for their formation and evolution (e.g., fluvial, lacustrine, in situ weathering, evaporitic, volcanic and aeolian processes). For that purpose, we use orbital multi-angular measurements from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft to analyze the manner in which light is scattered by the surface materials (photometry) in the near-infrared range (at 750 nm). The surface bidirectional reflectance depends on the composition but also on the surface microtexture such as the grain size distribution, morphology, internal structure and surface roughness, tracers of the geological processes. The Hapke semi-analytical model of radiative transfer in granular medium is used to model the surface bidirectional reflectance estimated at 750 nm from the orbital measurements after an atmospheric correction. The model depends on different radiative properties (e.g., single scattering albedo, grain phase function and regolith roughness) related to the surface composition and microtexture. In particular previous laboratory works showed that the particle phase function parameters, which describe the characteristics of the

  6. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles (United States)


    . It all depends on your hypothesis. Like the streamlined islands, the current-like flutes are parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesis that catastrophic floods broke forth in this region, known as Ares Vallis. Ares Vallis is the region where Pathfinder landed to help understand the possible history of water on Mars. Geologists want to understand not only if there was a catastrophic flood, but why it happened. Both orbiters and landers can add to the information on hand, but some Earth examples might provide clues as well. On our planet, some glacial valleys have had major catastrophic floods that were caused by the sudden outburst and drainage of glacial lakes. The Channeled Scabland in Washington state is great Earthly example of a place where the sudden failure of a glacier ice dam spewed out water, leaving a system of large, dry channels with flutes similar to the ones seen in this image. Did something similar happen to cause this outburst on Mars? Hopefully, future studies of THEMIS and other images will help us understand the answer.

  7. Proposed Mars Surveyor Landing Sites in Northern Meridiani Sinus, Southern Elysium Planitia, and Argyre Planitia (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Edgett, K. S.


    materials have been attributed to unusually low-viscosity flood lavas from fissures south of the Elysium volcanic rise, or to lacustrine materials associated with a large, Amazonian lake at the source of Marte Vallis. Parker and Schenk presented evidence in support of the latter interpretation, though they attributed the putative shore morphology to an embayment of a northern plains ocean into the southern Elysium region. Detailed examination of the margin of the deposit, showing erosion, not simply burial, of small crater rims and fluidized ejecta blankets, also points to lacustrine or marine sedimentation rather than volcanic plains burial. The plains surface exhibits a "crusty" appearance that many researchers have attributed to pressure ridges in lava flows. In a lacustrine context, they also resemble pressure ridges in desiccated evaporite deposits and salt-rimmed pools (now dry) similar in scale and morphology to spectacular, hundred meter-scale pool rims in alkaline Lake Natron, East African Rift. The eroded highland margin surface adjacent to these plains appears to be fairly smooth, even at 15 m/pixel. Isolated knob inliers are scattered from a few kilometers to several tens of "kilometers apart. Heights of the knobs have not been measured yet but, based on experience with similar features in the Pathfinder landing ellipse, are probably typically on the order of several tens of meters high and smaller, though some of the largest knobs in the region are probably up to a few hundred meters high. Two craters larger than a kilometer in diameter, with fluidized deposits, lie nearby the proposed landing site. Very high-resolution images from MOC should help to determine whether a landing site navigable by the Athena rover could be placed in this region. The space between knobs and craters is large enough to enable placement of a target landing ellipse between them but still provide access to one or more of them and to the margin of the Elysium plains material. Post -2001

  8. Aspetti della fine della cultura Palafitticolo-Terramaricola (completo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Frontini


    in grado di superare la crisi e di trasmettere parte della tradizione palafitticolo-terramaricola a Frattesina. Anche nell´area in esame, come a sud del Po, il collasso della cultura palafitticolo-terramaricola è dovuto al concorso di diversi fattori negativi: di ordine climatico-ambientale, demografico, socio-economico e politico. Una struttura sociale più complessa e, come sostengono alcuni Autori, condizioni ambientali diverse devono essere alla base della stabilità dei siti delle Valli Grandi Veronesi. La presenza di ceramica micenea e di tipo egeo è l´indicatore più forte che li distingue dagli altri insediamenti dell´area palafitticolo-terramaricola. Il netto calo demografico registrato nel BR 3 e nel BF nell´area in esame porta a ritenere che parte della popolazione sia confluita nella “diaspora terramaricola”.

  9. Introduzione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Frontini


    in grado di superare la crisi e di trasmettere parte della tradizione palafitticolo-terramaricola a Frattesina. Anche nell´area in esame, come a sud del Po, il collasso della cultura palafitticolo-terramaricola è dovuto al concorso di diversi fattori negativi: di ordine climatico-ambientale, demografico, socio-economico e politico. Una struttura sociale più complessa e, come sostengono alcuni Autori, condizioni ambientali diverse devono essere alla base della stabilità dei siti delle Valli Grandi Veronesi. La presenza di ceramica micenea e di tipo egeo è l´indicatore più forte che li distingue dagli altri insediamenti dell´area palafitticolo-terramaricola. Il netto calo demografico registrato nel BR 3 e nel BF nell´area in esame porta a ritenere che parte della popolazione sia confluita nella “diaspora terramaricola”.

  10. Anoxic and Oxic Oxidation of Rocks Containing Fe(II)Mg-Silicates and Fe(II)-Monosulfides as Source of Fe(III)-Minerals and Hydrogen. Geobiotropy. (United States)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule


    ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite and also to sulfates, and at 250 °C mainly to magnetite instead of pyrite, associated to the same ferric oxides/hydroxides and sulfates. Some examples of geological terrains, such as Mawrth Vallis on Mars, the Tagish Lake meteorite and hydrothermal venting fields, where hydrolysis/oxidation of ferromagnesian silicates and iron(II)-monosulfides may occur, are discussed. Considering the evolution of rocks during their interaction with water, in the absence of oxygen and in radiolyzed water, with hydrothermal release of H2 and the plausible associated formation of components of life, geobiotropic signatures are proposed. They are mainly Fe(III)-phyllosilicates, magnetite, ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite, hematite, but not pyrite.

  11. Autonomous Science Analyses of Digital Images for Mars Sample Return and Beyond (United States)

    Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Ruzon, M.; Roush, T. L.


    program has been dubbed the "Grad Student on Mars Project". We envision, for example, an appropriately intelligent Athena-like rover at the Pathfinder landing site might be able to traverse over the ridge towards "Twin Peaks" to obtain better information on the stratigraphy of these "streamlined islands" or of the size, composition and morphology of boulders located on them. Along the traverse, the intelligent rover would collect and analyze images and obtain spectra of geologically interesting features or regions. The intelligent rover might also traverse further up Arcs Vallis, and find additional paleoflood stage indicators such as slackwater deposits. Recognizing additional regions where boulders are imbricated, noting changes in their size, distribution, morphology, composition and the associated changes in channel geometry would yield important information on the outflow channel's paleoflood history, Representative images and associated supporting data from these locations could be downlinked to Earth along with the data requested by scientists from the previous uplink opportunity. Our initial work has focused on recognizing geologically interesting portions of images. Here we summarize some of the algorithms to date.

  12. Searching for Pedogenic Phyllosilicates in Ancient Soils on Mars (United States)

    Horgan, B.; Christensen, P. R.; Bell, J. F.


    On Earth, vast deposits rich in phyllosilicates are commonly created during soil formation, or pedogenesis. When soils are preserved in the stratigraphic record as paleosols, they become valuable resources for terrestrial geologists because paleosol isotopes, mineralogy, and chemical weathering profiles can be used to reconstruct ancient surface environments and to provide quantitative constraints on regional paleo-climate. Thus, paleosol sequences developed in sedimentary settings can record millions of years of surface and climatic evolution. Ancient paleosols on Earth also have excellent organic and biosignature preservation potential, and therefore harbor some of the oldest known (2-3 Ga) non-marine organics, biosignatures, and fossils. On Mars, pedogenesis in the ancient past may be responsible for some of the phyllosilicate-bearing units observed today, especially for regionally extensive deposits and those in clear sedimentary settings (e.g., Arabia Terra/Mawrth Vallis, Gale Crater, Noctis Labyrinthus). Many of these possibly pedogenic deposits exhibit compositional layering (e.g., interbedded kaolinites, smectites, and sulfates), which may have formed due to episodic sediment deposition under changing environmental conditions. Such deposits represent excellent targets for in situ investigation, as finding and characterizing paleosols on Mars would allow us to place constraints on the extent and duration of past surface and near-surface habitability, and may even provide preserved samples of ancient martian organics. We are currently investigating a broad range of methods for identifying and characterizing paleosols on Mars from orbit and in situ with Mars Science Laboratory, based on analysis of phyllosilicate-rich (30-95 wt.%) Eocene-Oligocene paleosols in the Painted Hills of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in Eastern Oregon. These paleosols were formed under a wide range of environmental conditions, and include highly weathered soils rich in

  13. Four Types of Deposits From Wet Conditions on Early Mars (United States)


    Each of these four panels shows a close-up view of a different type of geological deposit formed with the involvement of water, based on observations by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. All four date from the earliest period of Martian history, called the Noachian Period. The upper-left panel shows carbonates overlying clays in the Nili Fossae region of Mars. The view combines color-coded information from infrared spectral observations by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) with an underlying black-and-white image from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera. Beneath a rough-textured capping rock unit (purple) lie banded olivine-bearing layers (yellow), which in some places have been partially or wholly altered to carbonate (green). The upper-right panel shows phyllosilicates and chlorides in the Terra Sirenum region, observed by CRISM and HiRISE. Medium-toned, finely fractured rocks containing chloride salts either underlie higher-standing, light-toned phyllosilicates or fill in low spots between them. Both sit on dark, eroded volcanic material. The lower-left panel shows the upper portion of canyon wall in Coprates Chasma, observed by HiRISE and CRISM. The chasm rim cuts across the middle of the image. The wall slopes down to the top of the image and continues outside the region shown, exposing multiple phyllosilicate-bearing layers in a section of rock 7 kilometers (4 miles) thick. Two of the layers shown here are finely fractured aluminum clays that dominate the lower half of the image, underlain by thin beds of iron-magnesium clays at the top of the image. The dark material is a remnant of an overlying layer of basaltic sand that has been partly eroded away by the wind. The lower-right panel shows phyllosilicates with vertically layered compositions in Mawrth Vallis, observed by HiRISE (presented in enhanced color) and CRISM. The brown-colored knob in the middle of the scene is a remnant of cap rock that

  14. Surface and groundwater Nitrate distribution in the area of Vicenza; La distribuzione dei nitrati nelle acque superficiali e sotterranee del vicentino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altissimo, L. [Centro Idrico Novoledo Srl di Villaverla, Villaverla, VI (Italy); Dal Pra, A. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Geologia


    Public aqueducts in the Province of Vicenza (Italy) are supplied entirely by various kinds of water sources: the sub river bed strata of the mountain valleys, water-bearing aquifers of the high plan, pressurized water-bearing aquifers of the middle plain, karstic reservoirs of the mountain massifs and local springs. Progressive increase in nitrate concentration has long been detected in the underground water of many parts of the Vicenza region. The nitrates originate from various sources: human waste, industrial dumping (e.g. the tanning industry) and the use of animal and chemical fertilizers. Nitrate distribution was studied in all wells used for extracting underground water including source waters which replenishing underground aquifers. During the study period ('91-'95), water courses in the recharge areas were found to have nitrate concentrations ranging between 2.0 and 42.0 mg/l. These values remained substantially stable in time. Underground aquifers showed stable nitrate concentration between 5.0 mg/l (mountain karstic aquifers; sub-river bed strata of valley bottom) and 44.0 mg/l (water bearing strata of the high plain of Astico and Brenta rivers). The pressurized flooding aquifers of the middle plain have lower concentrations (6.0-21.0 mg/l) but tend to increase by about 0.5 mg/l per year. [Italian] Nella provincia di Vicenza l'alimentazione degli acquedotti pubblici avviene interamente con acque sotterranee provenienti da strutture differenti: falde di subalveo delle valli montane, falda freatica dell'alta pianura, falde in pressione della media pianura, serbatoi carsici dei massicci montuosi, sorgenti locali. Da tempo e' stato notato nelle acque sotterranee di molte zone un progressivo aumento della concentrazione dei nitrati che, nel territorio vicentino, hanno differenti provenienze: scarichi dei liquami civili, scarichi industriali (ad es. attivita' conciaria), spargimento dei liquami zootecnici, concimazione con

  15. Aram Chaos: a Long Lived Subsurface Aqueous Environment with Strong Water Resources Potential for Human Missions on Mars (United States)

    Sibille, L.; Mueller, R.; Niles, P. B.; Glotch, T.; Archer, P. D.; Bell, M. S.


    Aram Chaos, Mars is a crater 280 kilometers in diameter with elevations circa. minus 2 to minus 3 kilometers below datum that provides a compelling landing site for future human explorers as it features multiple scientific regions of interest (ROI) paired with a rich extensible Resource ROI that features poly-hydrated sulfates [1]. The geologic history of Aram Chaos suggests several past episodes of groundwater recharge and infilling by liquid water, ice, and other materials [1-3]. The creation of the fractured region with no known terrestrial equivalent may have been caused by melting of deep ice reservoirs that triggered the collapse of terrain followed by catastrophic water outflows over the region. Aram Chaos is of particular scientific interest because it is hypothesized that the chaotic terrain may be the source of water that contributed to the creation of nearby valleys such as Ares Vallis flowing toward Chryse Planitia. The liquid water was likely sourced as groundwater and therefore represents water derived from a protected subsurface environment making it a compelling astrobiological site [2]. The past history of water is also represented by high concentrations of hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxides, mono-hydrated and poly-hydrated sulfates [1, 2]. Poly-hydrated sulfates are likely to contain abundant water that evolves at temperatures below 500 degrees Centigrade thus conferring Aram Chaos a potentially high value for early in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) [4]. The geologic history also calls for future prospecting of deep ice deposits and possibly liquid water via deep drilling. The most recent stratigraphic units in the central part of Aram Chaos are not fractured, and are part of a dome-shaped formation that features bright, poorly-consolidated material that contains both hydrated sulfates and ferric oxides according to OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) data [5]. These surface material characteristics are

  16. The First Impression of Data Sent by Two Martian Rovers (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    ]). References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (1991) Periodic system of multi-ring planetary structures as result of interference of variously oriented lithospheric waves // Astronom. Tsirkular RAS, # 1550, 35-36 (in Russian); [2] Kochemasov G.G. (1995) Possibility of highly contrasting rock types at martian highland/lowland contact // In: Golombek M.P., Edgett K.S., and Rice J.W.Jr., eds. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips to the Channeled Scabland, Washington. LPI Tech. Rpt. 95-01, Pt. 1, LPI, Houston, 63 pp.; [3] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) On a successful prediction of martian crust fractionation based on comparative wave planetology // The Fifth International Conference on Mars, July 18-23, 1999, Pasadena, California, Abstr. # 6034, (CD-ROM).

  17. The First X-ray Diffraction Patterns of Clay Minerals from Gale Crater (United States)

    Bristow, Thomas; Blake, David; Bish, David L.; Vaniman, David; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Chipera, Steve; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Farmer, Jack, D.; Treiman, Allan H; hide


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity spent approx 150 sols at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) studying a section of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks (with potential indications of volcanic influence), informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. YKB lies in a distal region of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, which extends from the northern rim of Gale Crater toward the dune field at the base of Mt Sharp. Sedimentological and stratigraphic observations are consistent with the Yellowknife Bay formation being part of a distal fan deposit, which could be as young as middle Hesperian to even early Amazonian in age (approx 3.5 to 2.5 Ga). The Yellowknife Bay formation hosts a unit of mudstone called the Sheepbed member. Curiosity obtained powdered rock samples from two drill holes in the Sheepbed Member, named John Klein and Cumberland, and delivered them to instruments in Curiosity. Data from CheMin, a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD)/X-ray fluorescence instrument (XRF), has allowed detailed mineralogical analysis of mudstone powders revealing a clay mineral component of approx 20 wt.% in each sample. The clay minerals are important indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions and sensitive recorders of post-depositional alteration processes. The XRD pattern of John Klein reveals a 021 band consistent with a trioctahedral phyllosilicate. A broad peak at approx 10A with a slight inflexion at approx 12A indicates the presence of 2:1 type clay minerals in the John Klein sample. The trioctahedral nature of the clay minerals, breadth of the basal reflection, and presence of a minor component with larger basal spacing suggests that John Klein contains a trioctahedral smectite (probably saponite), whose interlayer is largely collapsed because of the low-humidity conditions. The XRD patterns show no evidence of corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite/smectite) or chlorite, which are typical diagenetic products of trioctahedral smectites when subjected to burial and heating

  18. Jarosite in Gale Crater, Mars: The Importance of Temporal and Spatial Variability and Implications for Habitiability (United States)

    Leveille, R. J.; Oehler, D. Z.; Fairen, A. G.; Clark, B. C.; Niles, P. B.; Blank, J. G.


    The Curiosity rover has recently found evidence for small amounts of jarosite, a ferric sulfate, in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp), Gale crater. While jarosite has been described previously at other locations on Mars, including several sites at Meridiani Planum (explored by the Opportunity rover; and Mawrth Vallis (by remote MRO-CRISM observations; this is the first identification in Gale. Jarosite is interpreted to be a mineral indicator of acidic conditions (pH less than 4; on Earth, it is most commonly found in acid rock-drainage or acid sulfate soil environments. However, jarosite has also been described from a number of terrestrial environments where widespread acidic conditions are not prevalent. As a case study, we describe here an occurrence of sedimentary pyrite nodules that have been variably oxidized in situ to gypsum, schwertmannite, K-/Na-jarosite and iron oxides in a polar desert environment on Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada. Remarkably, these nodules occur in loosely consolidated carbonate sediments, which would have required a higher pH environment at their time of formation and deposition. Thus, acidic conditions may only exist at a small (sub-cm) scale or in a restricted temporal window in an otherwise well-buffered environment. On Devon Island, the jarosite occurs in the most oxidized nodules and is never associated directly with pyrite. Schwertmannite, a metastable iron oxyhydroxysulfate that can form at pH higher than that required for jarosite, occurs in association with partially oxidized pyrite. The paragenetic sequence observed here suggests initial formation of schwertmannite and late-stage precipitation of jarosite in restricted micro-environments, possibly forming via transformation of an amorphous schwertmannite-like phase. While the carbonate environment on Devon Island differs significantly from that of Gale crater, i.e., where we find predominantly basaltic sedimentary rocks, this terrestrial analog

  19. Formation and disruption of aquifers in southwestern Chryse Planitia, Mars (United States)

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Kargel, J.S.; Dohm, J.M.; Kuzmin, R.; Fairen, A.G.; Sasaki, S.; Komatsu, G.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Jianguo, Y.


    We present geologic evidence suggesting that after the development of Mars' cryolithosphere, the formation of aquifers in southwestern Chryse Planitia and their subsequent disruption led to extensive regional resurfacing during the Late Hesperian, and perhaps even during the Amazonian. In our model, these aquifers formed preferentially along thrust faults associated with wrinkle ridges, as well as along fault systems peripheral to impact craters. The characteristics of degraded wrinkle ridges and impact craters in southwestern Chryse Planitia indicate a profound role of subsurface volatiles and especially liquid water in the upper crust (the upper one hundred to a few thousands of meters). Like lunar wrinkle ridges, the martian ones are presumed to mark the surface extensions of thrust faults, but in our study area the wrinkle ridges are heavily modified. Wrinkle ridges and nearby plains have locally undergone collapse, and in other areas they are associated with domical intrusions we interpret as mud volcanoes and mud diapirs. In at least one instance, a sinuous valley emanates from a modified wrinkle ridge, further indicating hydrological influences on these thrust-fault-controlled features. A key must be the formation of volatile-rich crust. Primary crustal formation and differentiation incorporated juvenile volatiles into the global crust, but the crustal record here was then strongly modified by the giant Chryse impact. The decipherable rock record here begins with the Chryse impact and continues with the resulting basin's erosion and infilling, which includes outflow channel activity. We propose that in Simud Vallis surface flow dissection into the base of the cryolithosphere-produced zones where water infiltrated and migrated along SW-dipping strata deformed by the Chryse impact, thereby forming an extensive aquifer in southwestern Chryse Planitia. In this region, compressive stresses produced by the rise of Tharsis led to the formation of wrinkle ridges

  20. Anoxic and Oxic Oxidation of Rocks Containing Fe(II)Mg-Silicates and Fe(II)-Monosulfides as Source of Fe(III)-Minerals and Hydrogen. Geobiotropy. (United States)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule


    ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite and also to sulfates, and at 250 °C mainly to magnetite instead of pyrite, associated to the same ferric oxides/hydroxides and sulfates. Some examples of geological terrains, such as Mawrth Vallis on Mars, the Tagish Lake meteorite and hydrothermal venting fields, where hydrolysis/oxidation of ferromagnesian silicates and iron(II)-monosulfides may occur, are discussed. Considering the evolution of rocks during their interaction with water, in the absence of oxygen and in radiolyzed water, with hydrothermal release of H2 and the plausible associated formation of components of life, geobiotropic signatures are proposed. They are mainly Fe(III)-phyllosilicates, magnetite, ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite, hematite, but not pyrite.

  1. 1-hour time resolution data of PM2.5 composition and gaseous precursors in background Milan: pollution sources and atmospheric processes, and their implications for air quality. (United States)

    Bigi, Alessandro; Bianchi, Federico; De Gennaro, Gianluigi; Di Gilio, Alessia; Fermo, Paola; Ghermandi, Grazia; Prévôt, André; Urbani, Monia; Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta; Piazzalunga, Andrea


    atmospheric temperature, although it was not possible to identify any specific source. The ratio of primary-dominated organic carbon and elemental carbon on hourly PM2.5 resulted 1.7. Black carbon was highly correlated to elemental carbon and the average mass absorption coefficient resulted MAC= 13.8 ± 0.2 m2 g-1. It is noteworthy how air quality for a large metropolitan area, in a confined valley and under enduring atmospheric stability, is nonetheless influenced by sources within and outside the valley. References Bigi, A.; Bianchi, F.; Gennaro, G. D.; Gilio, A. D.; Fermo, P.; Ghermandi, G.; Prévôt, A.; Urbani, M.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R. & Piazzalunga, A. Hourly composition of gas and particle phase pollutants at a central urban background site in Milan, Italy. Atmospheric Research, 2017, 186, 83-94

  2. Possible salt tectonics in Ariadnes Colles ? (United States)

    Wendt, L.; Gasselt, S. V.; Neukum, G.


    Location Ariadnes Colles and the chaotic terrains Atlantis Chaos, Gorgonum Chaos and a further, unnamed chaotic terrain centred at 37°S, 164.4°W form individual provinces of hummocky terrain located at the deepest parts of Eridania Basin, the putative source region of Ma'adim Vallis [1,2,3,4]. The location was recently proposed as a MSL landing site [5]. Previous studies The individual knobs within Ariadnes Colles range between flat-topped mesas of up to 10 km in width and 200 m of relief down to small cone-shaped hills of only a few hundred meters in width [2] (Fig.1). Although classified as chaotic terrain, this area differs significantly from the chaotic terrains found elsewhere on Mars. The hills consist of a light-toned, indurated material [3, 5] covered by dark rock [1]. Howard and Moore [3] noted that the smaller knobs exhibit a more rounded top, are lower in elevation and are found close to the borders of the knob field, whereas the more mesa-like hills are concentrated towards its centre. They also noted that the light-toned hill tops are dissected by linear features they interpreted as joints. The mineralogy of this region is very diverse. Preliminary results based on CRISM data are consistent with the presence of phyllosilicates, sulphates and/or hydrated silica and pyroxene [5]. New obserations Our investigations using HRSC imagery confirm this overall pattern. The smaller hills consist exclusively of light-toned material and are covered only partly by a thin veneer of dust (Fig. 2). Their bases are angular or irregularly shaped and their tops are rounded to peaked, but never exhibit a mesa-like flat top. In contrast, the much larger mesas are always built up by basaltic material, which is superimposed on the bright knobs. Figure 3 shows a HiRISE image of one of the lighttoned knobs. It can be clearly seen that the light-toned material rises from beneath the inter-knob lava which covered it prior to erosion. It has been eroded and forms a scarp near

  3. Geologic map of the Ganiki Planitia quadrangle (V-14), Venus (United States)

    Grosfils, Eric B.; Long, Sylvan M.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Richards, Joseph W.; Drury, Dorothy E.; Hardin, Johanna


    The Ganiki Planitia (V-14) quadrangle on Venus, which extends from 25° N. to 50° N. and from 180° E. to 210° E., derives its name from the extensive suite of plains that dominates the geology of the northern part of the region. With a surface area of nearly 6.5 x 106 km2 (roughly two-thirds that of the United States), the quadrangle is located northwest of the Beta-Atla-Themis volcanic zone and southeast of the Atalanta Planitia lowlands, areas proposed to be the result of large scale mantle upwelling and downwelling, respectively. The region immediately south of Ganiki Planitia is dominated by Atla Regio, a major volcanic rise beneath which localized upwelling appears to be ongoing, whereas the area just to the north is dominated by the orderly system of north-trending deformation belts that characterize Vinmara Planitia. The Ganiki Planitia quadrangle thus lies at the intersection between several physiographic regions where extensive mantle flow-induced tectonic and volcanic processes are thought to have occurred. The geology of the V-14 quadrangle is characterized by a complex array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact-derived features. There are eleven impact craters with diameters from 4 to 64 km, as well as four diffuse 'splotch' features interpreted to be the product of near-surface bolide explosions. Tectonic activity has produced heavily deformed tesserae, belts of complex deformation and rifts as well as a distributed system of fractures and wrinkle ridges. Volcanic activity has produced extensive regional plains deposits, and in the northwest corner of the quadrangle these plains host the initial (or terminal) 700 km of the Baltis Vallis canali, an enigmatic volcanic feature with a net length of ~7,000 km that is the longest channel on Venus. Major volcanic centers in V-14 include eight large volcanoes and eight coronae; all but one of these sixteen features was noted during a previous global survey. The V-14 quadrangle contains an abundance of minor

  4. Exotic States of Nuclear Matter (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Baldo, Marcello; Burgio, Fiorella; Schulze, Hans-Josef


    ência et al. Quartetting in nuclear matter and [symbol] particle condensation in nuclear systems / G. Röpke & P. Schuck et al. -- pt. C. Neutron star structure and dynamics. Shear viscosity of neutron matter from realistic nuclear interactions / O. Benhar & M. Valli. Protoneutron star dynamo: theory and observations / A. Bonanno & V. Urpin. Magnetic field dissipation in neutron stars: from magnetars to isolated neutron stars / J. A. Pons. Gravitational radiation and equations of state in super-dense cores of core-collapse supernovae / K. Kotake. Joule heating in the cooling of magnetized neutron stars / D. N. Aguilera, J. A. Pons & J. A. Miralles. Exotic fermi surface of dense neutron matter / M. V. Zverev, V. A. Khodel & J. W. Clark. Coupling of nuclear and electron modes in relativistic stellar matter / A. M. S. Santos et al. Neutron stars in the relativistic Hartree-Fock theory and hadron-quark phase transition / B. Y. Sun ... [et al.] -- pt. D. Prospects of present and future observations. Measurements of neutron star masses / D. G. Yakovlev. Dense nuclear matter: constraints from neutron stars / J. M. Lattimer. Neutron star versus heavy-ion data: is the nuclear equation of state hard or soft? / J. Schaffner-Bielich ... [et al.]. Surface emission from x-ray dim isolated neutron stars / R. Turolla. High energy neutrino astronomy / E. Migneco. What gravitational waves say about the inner structure of neutron stars / V. Ferrari. Reconciling 2 M[symbol] pulsars and SN1987A: two branches of neutron stars / P. Haensel, M. Bejger & J. L. Zdunik. EOS of dense matter and fast rotation of neutron stars / J. L. Zdunik ... [et al.] -- pt. E. Quark and strange matter in neutron stars. Bulk viscosity of color-superconducting quark matter / M. Alford. Chiral symmetry restoration and quark deconfinement at large densities and temperature / A. Drago, L. Bonanno & A. Lavagno. Color superconducting quark matter in compact stars / D. B. Blaschke, T. Klähn & F. Sandin. Thermal

  5. النظام والأمن في مدينة الجزائر أثناء العهد العثماني من خلال المصادر الأجنبية.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد بوشننافي


    Full Text Available تتفق المصادر الأجنبية على أن مدينة الجزائر عرفت طيلة العهد العثماني انتشارا للأمن والاستقرار، تجسد من خلال قلة الأعمال الإجرامية وشعور السكان بالطمأنينة، وهذا ما ورد ذكره في مذكرات وملاحظات الأجانب الذين زاروا المدينة، فقد أشار إلى ذلك معاصرو القرن السادس عشر والسابع عشر مثل " هايدو Haedo " و" قراماي Gramaye "، كما ذكره كتاب القرن الثامن عشر ومطلع القرن التاسع عشر ومن هؤلاء " فاليير Vallière " الذي أشار إلى قلة أعمال السرقة واللصوصية في المدينة، ويربط ذلك بصرامة العقوبات المسلطة على كل من يقبض عليه متلبسا بجرم مهما كانت طبيعته، كما يرى أن الإنارة الجيدة للأزقة وإغلاق الأحياء ليلا لفصلها عن بعضها البعض بسياج ساهم بدوره في انتشار الأمن. ويبدي " باننتي Pananti" إعجابه الشديد بهذا التنظيم حين يقول: " أظن أن النظام الجزائري هو الأفضل والأصلح لأولئك الذين يعيشون في عالمنا المتحضر.".. أما القنصل الأمريكي " شالر Shaler" فنجده يربط بين سيادة الأمن وحسن تنظيم جهاز الشرطة عندما يقول : " وأنا أعتقد أنه لا يوجد مدينة أخرى في العالم يبدي فيها البوليس نشاطا أكبر مما تبديه الشرطة الجزائرية التي لا تكاد جريمة تفلت من رقابتها، كما أنه لا يوجد بلد آخر يتمتع فيه المواطن وممتلكاته بأمن أكبر.