[figure removed for brevity, see original site] This jumble of eroded ridges and mesas occurs within Ares Vallis, one of the largest catastrophic outflow channels on the planet. Floods raged through this channel, portions of which are up to 25 km wide, pouring out into the Chryse Basin to the north. Close inspection of the THEMIS image reveals polygonal shapes on the floor of the channel system. Polygonal terrain on Mars is fairly common although the variety of forms and scales of the polygons suggests multiple modes of origin. Those in Ares Vallis resemble giant desiccation polygons that form in soils on Earth when a moist layer at depth drys out. While polygons can form in icy soils (permafrost) and even lava flows, their presence in a channel thought to have been carved by flowing water is at least consistent with a mode of origin that involved liquid water.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Kirilova, N. V.; Fomenko, A. N.; Korovin, M. S.
Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5–3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds
Kirilova, N. V., E-mail: email@example.com; Fomenko, A. N., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Korovin, M. S., E-mail: email@example.com [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheskii pr., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)
Today there is a growing demand for safe and efficient antimicrobial dressings for infected wound treatment. The antimicrobial sorption material for VitaVallis dressings was produced by one-stage oxidation of aluminum nanopowder in water in the presence of fibrous acetylcellulose matrix. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the material is made up of fibers of diameter 1.5–3.0 µm with adhered agglomerated alumina nanosheets. An antimicrobial study revealed a high inhibitory effect of VitaVallis against the growth of gram-negative (E.coli, P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. aureus) strains. The antimicrobial activity of the dressing against microbial pathogens on the wound surface was demonstrated in in vivo experiments on male rats. The dressing was also tested on volunteer patients. The testing showed reduction of the wound healing period, accelerated cleaning of the infected wound and enhanced tissue regeneration in the wound. The results demonstrate that the VitaVallis dressing can be used for the treatment of deep infected wounds.
Kukkonen, S.; Kostama, V.-P.
Niger Vallis is one of the four large outflow channel systems in the eastern Hellas rim region of Mars. Niger, as well as the other nearby valles, is assumed to have been carved by water and later covered by ice-rich deposits. Thus, it plays a significant role both in the fluvial and glacial evolution of the region. This work presents the photogeological mapping and crater count dating results of the Niger Vallis system achieved based on the images of the ConTeXt (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) cameras of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The results show that Niger Vallis formed in at least two stages. The southern branch of Niger Vallis originated from Ausonia Cavus, ∼3.7-3.9 Ga ago, whereas the northern branch formed from Peraea Cavus, ∼3.3-3.4 Ga ago. Both of the time scales correspond to the volcanic activity phases of the nearby highland volcanoes of Tyrrhenus and Hadriacus Montes. The fluvial activity of Niger Vallis was not, however, as intense as the activity of the other nearby outflow channels, and it seems to have weakened soon after the formation of the northern branch. The outflow channel was resurfaced again ∼0.9-1.5 Ga ago, probably by regional fluvial activity. After that, the floor of Niger Vallis was covered by lineated valley fills and corresponding ice-rich deposits, the formation of which ended ∼220-470 Ma ago, or not later than ∼110 Ma ago. Although the origin of the deposits was probably related to contemporary climate conditions, the emplacement of some deposits, or even their formation, may have been contributed by impact events. After lineated valley fill formation, the region was resurfaced several times, probably because of changes in regional climatic or endogenic circumstances.
Borghezan, Monik; Rech, Paulo C.
We investigate a two-dimensional parameter-space of a three-parameter, three-variable, continuous-time dynamical system, namely the Vallis model for El Niño phenomenon. We report on modifications in this parameter-space, as a function of the third parameter which is varied. More specifically we report on organization of chaos and periodicity, showing the existence of periodic structures embedded in a chaotic region, which are organized in period-adding sequences.
Irwin, Rossman, P., III; Howard, Alan D.; Maxwell, Ted A.
Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys in the Martian highlands, appears to have originated by catastrophic overflow of a large paleola ke located south of the valley heads. Ma'adim Vallis debouched to Gus ev crater, 900 km to the north, the landing site for the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover. Support for the paleolake overflow hypothesis come s from the following characteristics: (I) With a channel width of 3 km at its head, Ma'adim Vallis originates at two (eastern and western) gaps incised into the divide of the approximately 1.1 M km(exp 2) enc losed Eridania head basin, which suggests a lake as the water source. (2) The sinuous course of Ma'adim Vallis is consistent with overland flow controlled by preexisting surface topography, and structural con trol is not evident or required to explain the valley course. (3) The nearly constant approximately 5 km width of the inner channel through crater rim breaches, the anastomosing course of the wide western tri butary, the migration of the inner channel to the outer margins of be nds in the valley's lower reach, a medial sedimentary bar approximate ly 200 m in height, and a step-pool" sequence are consistent with modeled flows of 1-5 x l0 (exp 6) m(exp 3)/s. Peak discharges were likely higher but are poorly constrained by the relict channel geometry. (4 ) Small direct tributary valleys to Ma'adim Vallis have convex-up lon gitudinal profiles, suggesting a hanging relationship to a valley that was incised quickly relative to the timescales of tributary developm ent. (5) The Eridania basin had adequate volume between the initial d ivide and the incised gap elevations to carve Ma'adim Vallis during a single flood. (6) The Eridania basin is composed of many overlapping , highly degraded and deeply buried impact craters. The floor materials of the six largest craters have an unusually high internal relief ( approximately 1 km) and slope (approximately 0.5-1.5 degrees) among d egraded Martian craters, which are usually
Kukkonen, S.; Kostama, V.-P.
Harmakhis Vallis is one of the four major outflow channel systems (Dao, Niger, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles) that cut the eastern rim region of the Hellas basin, the largest well-preserved impact structure on Mars. The structure of Harmakhis Vallis and the volume of its head depression, as well as earlier dating studies of the region, suggest that the outflow channel formed in the Hesperian period by collapsing when a large amount of subsurface fluid was released. Thus Harmakhis Vallis, as well as the other nearby outflow channels, represents a significant stage of the fluvial activity in the regional history. On the other hand, the outflow channel lies in the Martian mid-latitude zone, where there are several geomorphologic indicators of past and possibly also contemporary ground ice. The floor of Harmakhis also displays evidence of a later-stage ice-related activity, as the outflow channel has been covered by lineated valley fill deposits and debris apron material. The eastern rim region of the Hellas impact basin has been the subject of numerous geologic mapping studies at various scales and based on different imaging data sets. However, Harmakhis Vallis itself has received less attention and the studies on the outflow channel have focused only on limited parts of the outflow channel or on separated different geologic events. In this work, the Harmakhis Vallis floor is mapped and dated from the head depression to the beginning of the terminus based on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's ConTeXt camera images (CTX; ∼ 6 m/pixel). Our results show that Harmakhis Vallis has been modified by several processes after its formation. Age determinations on the small uncovered parts of the outflow channel, which possibly represent the original floor of Harmakhis, imply that Harmakhis may have experienced fluvial activity only 780-850 ( ± 400-600) Ma ago. The discovered terrace structure instead shows that the on-surface activity of the outflow channel has been periodic
On July 20, 1969, the first human beings landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1976, the first robotic lander touched down on Mars. This July 20th-- 29 years after Apollo 11 and 22 years since the Viking 1 Mars landing-- we take a look forward toward one possible future exploration site on the red planet.One of the advantages of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) over its predecessors on the Viking and Mariner spacecraft is resolution. The ability to see-- resolve--fine details on the martian surface is key to planning future landing sites for robotic and, perhaps, human explorers that may one day visit the planet.At present, NASA is studying potential landing sites for the Mars Surveyor landers, rovers, and sample return vehicles that are scheduled to be launched in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Among the types of sites being considered for these early 21st Century landings are those with 'exobiologic potential'--that is, locations on Mars that are in some way related to the past presence of water.For more than a decade, two of the prime candidates suggested by various Mars research scientists are Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis. Located in the martian southern cratered highlands at 14.7o S, 184.5o W, Gusev Crater is a large, ancient, meteor impact basin that--after it formed--was breached by Ma'adim Vallis.Viking Orbiter observations provided some evidence to suggest that a fluid--most likely, water--once flowed through Ma'adim Vallis and into Gusev Crater. Some scientists have suggested that there were many episodes of flow into Gusev Crater (as well as flow out of Gusev through its topographically-lower northwestern rim). Some have also indicated that there were times when Ma'adim Vallis, also, was full of water such that it formed a long, narrow lake.The possibility that water flowed into Gusev Crater and formed a lake has led to the suggestion that the materials seen on the floor of this crater--smooth-surfaced deposits, buried craters, and huge mesas near
Goudge, T. A.; Fassett, C. I.
Open-basin lake outlet valleys are incised when water breaches the basin-confining topography and overflows. Outlet valleys record this flooding event and provide insight into how the lake and surrounding terrain evolved over time. Here we present a study of the paleolake outlet Licus Vallis, a >350 km long, >2 km wide, >100 m deep valley that heads at the outlet breach of an approx.30 km diameter impact crater. Multiple geomorphic features of this valley system suggest it records a more complex evolution than formation from a single lake overflow flood. This provides unique insight into the paleohydrology of lakes on early Mars, as we can make inferences beyond the most recent phase of activity..
Wise, D. U.
Crater density age dates on more than 250 small geomorphic surfaces in the Kasei Region of Mars show clusterings indicative of times of peak geomorphic and tectonic activity. Kasei Vallis is part of a 300 km wide channel system breaching a N-S trending ancient basement high (+50,000 crater age) separating the Chryse Basin from the Tharsis Volcanic Province of Mars. The basement high was covered by a least 3 groups of probable volcanic deposits. Major regional fracturing took place at age 4,000 to 5,000 and was immediately followed by deposition of regional volcanics of the Fesenkov Plains (age 3,000 to 4,200). Younger clusterings of dates in the 900 to 1,500 and 500 to 700 range represent only minor modification of the basic tectonic geomorphic landform. The data suggest that Kasei gap is a structurally controlled breach of a buried ridge by a rather brief episode of fluvial activity.
A geomorphically defined alluvial fan extends from Peace Vallis on the NW wall of Gale Crater, Mars into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landing ellipse. Prior to landing, the MSL team mapped the ellipse and surrounding areas, including the Peace Vallis fan. Map relationships suggest that bedded rocks east of the landing site are likely associated with the fan, which led to the decision to send Curiosity east. Curiosity's mast camera (Mastcam) color images are being used to refine local map relationships. Results from regional mapping and the first 100 sols of the mission demonstrate that the area has a rich geological history. Understanding this history will be critical for assessing ancient habitability and potential organic matter preservation at Gale Crater.
Michalski, Joseph R; Jean-PierreBibring; Poulet, François; Loizeau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Bishop, Janice L; Wray, James J; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Hauber, Ernst; Altieri, Francesca; Carrozzo, F Giacomo; Niles, Paul B
The primary objective of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2011, is to characterize the habitability of a site on Mars through detailed analyses of the composition and geological context of surface materials. Within the framework of established mission goals, we have evaluated the value of a possible landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars that is targeted directly on some of the most geologically and astrobiologically enticing materials in the Solar System. The area around Mawrth Vallis contains a vast (>1 × 10⁶ km²) deposit of phyllosilicate-rich, ancient, layered rocks. A thick (>150 m) stratigraphic section that exhibits spectral evidence for nontronite, montmorillonite, amorphous silica, kaolinite, saponite, other smectite clay minerals, ferrous mica, and sulfate minerals indicates a rich geological history that may have included multiple aqueous environments. Because phyllosilicates are strong indicators of ancient aqueous activity, and the preservation potential of biosignatures within sedimentary clay deposits is high, martian phyllosilicate deposits are desirable astrobiological targets. The proposed MSL landing site at Mawrth Vallis is located directly on the largest and most phyllosilicate-rich deposit on Mars and is therefore an excellent place to explore for evidence of life or habitability.
Cassanelli, James P.; Head, James W.
The Reull Vallis outflow channel is a segmented system of fluvial valleys which originates from the volcanic plains of the Hesperia Planum region of Mars. Explanation of the formation of the Reull Vallis outflow channel by canonical catastrophic groundwater release models faces difficulties with generating sufficient hydraulic head, requiring unreasonably high aquifer permeability, and from limited recharge sources. Recent work has proposed that large-scale lava-ice interactions could serve as an alternative mechanism for outflow channel formation on the basis of predictions of regional ice sheet formation in areas that also underwent extensive contemporaneous volcanic resurfacing. Here we assess in detail the potential formation of outflow channels by large-scale lava-ice interactions through an applied case study of the Reull Vallis outflow channel system, selected for its close association with the effusive volcanic plains of the Hesperia Planum region. We first review the geomorphology of the Reull Vallis system to outline criteria that must be met by the proposed formation mechanism. We then assess local and regional lava heating and loading conditions and generate model predictions for the formation of Reull Vallis to test against the outlined geomorphic criteria. We find that successive events of large-scale lava-ice interactions that melt ice deposits, which then undergo re-deposition due to climatic mechanisms, best explains the observed geomorphic criteria, offering improvements over previously proposed formation models, particularly in the ability to supply adequate volumes of water.
Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T.D.; Rice, J. W.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Swayze, G.A.
Analysis of visible to near infrared reflectance data from the MRO CRISM hyperspectral imager has revealed the presence of an ovoid-shaped landform, approximately 3 by 5 km in size, within the layered terrains surrounding the Mawrth Vallis outflow channel. This feature has spectral absorption features consistent with the presence of the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite, specifically a K-bearing jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6). Terrestrial jarosite is formed through the oxidation of iron sulfides in acidic environments or from basaltic precursor minerals with the addition of sulfur. Previously identified phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis layered terrains include a basal sequence of layers containing Fe-Mg smectites and an upper set of layers of hydrated silica and aluminous phyllosilicates. In terms of its fine scale morphology revealed by MRO HiRISE imagery, the jarosite-bearing unit has fracture patterns very similar to that observed in Fe-Mg smectite-bearing layers, but unlike that observed in the Al-bearing phyllosilicate unit. The ovoid-shaped landform is situated in an east-west bowl-shaped depression superposed on a north sloping surface. Spectra of the ovoid-shaped jarosite-bearing landform also display an anomalously high 600 nm shoulder, which may be consistent with the presence of goethite and a 1.92 ??m absorption which could indicate the presence of ferrihydrite. Goethite, jarosite, and ferrihydrite can be co-precipitated and/or form through transformation of schwertmannite, both processes generally occurring under low pH conditions (pH 2-4). To date, this location appears to be unique in the Mawrth Vallis region and could represent precipitation of jarosite in acidic, sulfur-rich ponded water during the waning stages of drying. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Farrand, William H.; Glotch, Timothy D.; Rice, James W.; Hurowitz, Joel A.; Swayze, Gregg A.
Analysis of visible to near infrared reflectance data from the MRO CRISM hyperspectral imager has revealed the presence of an ovoid-shaped landform, approximately 3 by 5 km in size, within the layered terrains surrounding the Mawrth Vallis outflow channel. This feature has spectral absorption features consistent with the presence of the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite, specifically a K-bearing jarosite (KFe 3(SO 4) 2(OH) 6). Terrestrial jarosite is formed through the oxidation of iron sulfides in acidic environments or from basaltic precursor minerals with the addition of sulfur. Previously identified phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis layered terrains include a basal sequence of layers containing Fe-Mg smectites and an upper set of layers of hydrated silica and aluminous phyllosilicates. In terms of its fine scale morphology revealed by MRO HiRISE imagery, the jarosite-bearing unit has fracture patterns very similar to that observed in Fe-Mg smectite-bearing layers, but unlike that observed in the Al-bearing phyllosilicate unit. The ovoid-shaped landform is situated in an east-west bowl-shaped depression superposed on a north sloping surface. Spectra of the ovoid-shaped jarosite-bearing landform also display an anomalously high 600 nm shoulder, which may be consistent with the presence of goethite and a 1.92 μm absorption which could indicate the presence of ferrihydrite. Goethite, jarosite, and ferrihydrite can be co-precipitated and/or form through transformation of schwertmannite, both processes generally occurring under low pH conditions (pH 2-4). To date, this location appears to be unique in the Mawrth Vallis region and could represent precipitation of jarosite in acidic, sulfur-rich ponded water during the waning stages of drying.
McKeown, N.K.; Bishop, J.L.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Parente, M.; Mustard, J.F.; Murchie, S.L.; Swayze, G.A.; Bibring, J.-P.; Silver, E.A.
Mawrth Vallis contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates on Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and hydrated silica have been identified throughout the region using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). In addition, saponite has been identified in one observation within a crater. These individual minerals are identified and distinguished by features at 1.38-1.42, ???1.91, and 2.17-2.41 ??m. There are two main phyllosilicate units in the Mawrth Vallis region. The lowermost unit is nontronite bearing, unconformably overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate unit containing montmorillonite plus hydrated silica, with a thin layer of kaolinite plus hydrated silica at the top of the unit. These two units are draped by a spectrally unremarkable capping unit. Smectites generally form in neutral to alkaline environments, while kaolinite and hydrated silica typically form in slightly acidic conditions; thus, the observed phyllosilicates may reflect a change in aqueous chemistry. Spectra retrieved near the boundary between the nontronite and Al-phyllosilicate units exhibit a strong positive slope from 1 to 2 ??m, likely from a ferrous component within the rock. This ferrous component indicates either rapid deposition in an oxidizing environment or reducing conditions. Formation of each of the phyllosilicate minerals identified requires liquid water, thus indicating a regional wet period in the Noachian when these units formed. The two main phyllosilicate units may be extensive layers of altered volcanic ash. Other potential formational processes include sediment deposition into a marine or lacustrine basin or pedogenesis. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.
Grin, E. A.; Cabrol, N. A.
The debouche of Ma'adim Vallis in the Elysium Basin generated a transitional transported sediment structure, which planimetric shape is controlled by the enclosing topography of a deep reentrant gulf of the Basin into the highland. We defined it as an estuarine delta. The location and the importance of this estuarine delta is supported by the theoretical model of graded profile constructed for Ma'adim Vallis, and by two approaches: (i) the reconstruction of Ma'adim Vallis downstream course from Gusev to Elysium Basin, and (ii) the survey of the sediment deposit in the alleged estuary. The longitudinal graded profile of Ma'adim Vallis finds its base-level in the Elysium Basin, at a about 1000 m elevation, which is in agreement with the observed Basin shoreline. This model is supported by observational evidence of flow between the northern rim of Gusev crater, and the Elysium Basin shoreline. This downstream course of Ma'adim Vallis can be divided into three hydrogeologic regions. into three hydrogeologic regions. (a) The first region is a flooded plain (Zephiria Mensae), consisting in chaotic terrain formed by highland rocks, and disintegrated lava of the western flank of Apollinaris. Morphologic indicators of the flood process are: (1) the sediment deposit over the Gusev crater northern rim that reflects the overspilling of the crater-lake water through a 40-km wide gap provided by an ancient impact crater, (2) the tear-drop shaped feature on the northeastern flank of Apollinaris Patera, and (3) the chaotic terrain that suggest the emergence of ground water generated by the seepage of the crater lake through high-permeable broken rampart material. This underground water circulation sustained by the hydrostatic pressure of the crater-lake has likely generated a hydrothermal system in the volcanic environment of Apollinaris Patera. The stratigraphy of the flooded area is identified as Hesperian age, with occurrences of Noachian hilly individual features, and as
Kukkonen, S.; Kostama, V.-P.
The availability of very high-resolution images has made it possible to extend crater size-frequency distribution studies to small, deca/hectometer-scale craters. This has enabled the dating of small and young surface units, as well as recent, short-time and small-scale geologic processes that have occurred on the units. Usually, however, the higher the spatial resolution of space images is, the smaller area is covered by the images. Thus the use of single, very high-resolution images in crater count age determination may be debatable if the images do not cover the studied region entirely. Here we compare the crater count results for the floor of the Harmakhis Vallis outflow channel obtained from the images of the ConTeXt camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The CTX images enable crater counts for entire units on the Harmakhis Vallis main valley, whereas the coverage of the higher-resolution HiRISE images is limited and thus the images can only be used to date small parts of the units. Our case study shows that the crater count data based on small impact craters and small surface areas mainly correspond with the crater count data based on larger craters and more extensive counting areas on the same unit. If differences between the results were founded, they could usually be explained by the regional geology. Usually, these differences appeared when at least one cratering model age is missing from either of the crater datasets. On the other hand, we found only a few cases in which the cratering model ages were completely different. We conclude that the crater counts using small impact craters on small counting areas provide useful information about the geological processes which have modified the surface. However, it is important to remember that all the crater counts results obtained from a specific counting area always primarily represent the results from the counting area-not the whole
Introduction: The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) was used to predict meteorological conditions that are likely to be encountered by the Mars 2020 (NASA) Rover at several of their respective proposed landing sites during entry, descent, and landing at Ls5  and by the ExoMars (ESA) Rover at one of the final landing sites. MRAMS is ideally suited for this type of investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simu-late Mars' atmospheric circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface proper-ties [2, 3]. One of the sights studied for both rovers was Mawrth Vallis (MV), an ancient water outflow channel with light colored clay-rich rocks in the mid-latitude north hemisphere (Oxia Palus quadrangle). MV is the northernmost of the Mars2020 and ExoMars landing sites and the closest to the northern polar cap water source. The primary source of water vapor to the atmosphere is the northern polar cap during the northern summer. In order to highlight MV habitability implications, additional numerical experiments at Ls90, 140 and 180, highest column abundance of water vapor is found over MV , were performed to study how the atmospheric circulation connects MV with the polar water source. Once the winter CO2 retreats, the underlying polar water ice is exposed and begins to sublimate. The water is transported equatorward where it is manifested in the tropical aphelion cloud belt. If transport is assumed to be the result of the summer Hadley Cell, then the polar water is carried aloft in the northern high latitude rising branch before moving equatorward and eventually toward the southern high latitudes. Thus, the mean meridional summer circulation precludes a direct water vapor connection between MV and the polar source. Around the equinoxes (Ls0 and Ls180), there is a brief transition period where the rising branch quickly crosses from one hemisphere into the other as it migrates to its more typical solstitial location
Full Text Available In the background of the late-Holocene landscape of the Southern Valli Grandi Veronesi (VGVM and nearby Bonifica Padana, an area that stretches between rivers Adige and Po and which is drained by the river Tartaro, was taken into consideration the position of a long embankment that ran through the territories of the two large moated sites of the middle and recent Bronze Age, Fondo Paviani (FP to east , and Castello del Tartaro (CdT to west. The location of this particular embankment called SAM (from italian southern embanked road, more than ten km long, and arranged parallel to the Tartaro old riparian belt, since long time attracted scholars as a witness of an old territorial organization, probably related to spatial distribution of cultivated or pasture by the communities who lived in the two large villages, bounded by massive ditch and bank systems. On the basis of recent acquisitions of new DEM and LIDAR sources and aimed field investigations, then merged into geo-chronological and chrono-typological analysis in the laboratory, was developed a research addressed the chrono-stratigraphic, cultural-evolutionary and functional scan of the SAM construct. For this purpose, the archaeological, stratigraphic and chronological record have been reviewed from a series of very significant off-sites, with stratigraphic columns documenting paleo-environmental and archaeological-functional reconstructions. They allowed to established the obvious links between the infrastructure of the ditches of the SAM embankment and the network of secondary rural ditches that seemed to drain and distribute waters in the parceled fields next to the large contemporary sites. In Ponte Moro off-site we captured the chrono-stratigraphic position of SAM embankment through the dating of two peat samples undertaken immediately before and after the stratigraphic position of the embankment. The datings have yielded an earliest date for the construction (MBA-RBA and a later date
Social justice and neoliberalism - Global perspectives. Adriaan Smith, Alison Stenning, Kate Willis (Eds). Zed Books: London and New York. 2008, 253 pp. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
On a regular day, healthcare providers will be contacted by one or more health seekers presenting with cough as a symptom. Cough has been considered an important physiological reflex that protects the airways from aspiration of foreign materials. Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which people seek ...
Relevant literature is also reviewed regarding the differential impact upon component cognitive domains known to be affected in HAND, which in turn should ideally be targeted during clinical and neuropsychological assessments: psychomotor and information processing speed, learning and memory, attention and working ...
Full Text Available Within the well-structured context of Waldensian educational history, and in particular, that of education for girls, one secondary school stands out. The Pensionnat pour jeunes filles was founded in the first half of the 19th century in Torre Pellice by the English Colonel, Charles Beckwith, on the model of British boarding schools for young ladies, with the intent to provide education to the daughters of Waldensian pastors and to those of the local protestant elite. Here the young women received training considered to be appropriate for their conditions and social standing, providing the basis for a course of study which would permit them to take on roles like that of school mistress, governess, or lady’s companion for the families of the European Protestant nobility. By tracing the educational background and life stories of some of the students, in particular, those of three sisters who were daughters of a Waldensian pastor, it has been possible to reconstruct the social origins, the educational programs and the later lives of Waldensian teachers and governesses. In examining the stories of these young women, born and raised in a cultural environment conditioned by their membership in a minority group, their confessional background emerges as a key factor. Thanks to longstanding ties with the world of Protestant Europe and to the financial support that world provided, these young women were able to prepare themselves by following an international curriculum and subsequently practice their professions throughout Europe from Great Britain to Russia.
Scudiero, E.; Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.
Soil salinization is a major natural hazard to worldwide agriculture. We present a remote imagery approach that maps salinity within a range (i.e., salinities less than 20 dS m-1, when measured as the electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract), accuracy, and resolution most relevant to agriculture. A case study is presented for the western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV), California, USA (~870,000 ha of farmland) using multi-year Landsat 7 ETM+ canopy reflectance and the Canopy Response Salinity Index (CRSI). Highly detailed salinity maps for 22 fields (542 ha) established from apparent soil electrical conductivity directed sampling were used as ground-truth (sampled in 2013), totaling over 5000 pixels (30×30 m) with salinity values in the range of 0 to 35.2 dS m-1. Multi-year maximum values of CRSI were used to model soil salinity. In addition, soil type, elevation, meteorological data, and crop type were evaluated as covariates. The fitted model (R2=0.73) was validated: i) with a spatial k-folds (i.e., leave-one-field-out) cross-validation (R2=0.61), ii) versus salinity data from three independent fields (sampled in 2013 and 2014), and iii) by determining the accuracy of the qualitative classification of white crusted land as extremely-saline soils. The effect of land use change is evaluated over 2396 ha in the Broadview Water District from a comparison of salinity mapped in 1991 with salinity predicted in 2013 from the fitted model. From 1991 to 2013 salinity increased significantly over the selected study site, bringing attention to potential negative effects on soil quality of shifting from irrigated agriculture to fallow-land. This is cause for concern since over the 3 years of California's drought (2010-2013) the fallow land in the WSJV increased from 12.7% to 21.6%, due to drastic reduction in water allocations to farmers.
Leidlikke mööbliesemeid maailmast lastetuppa, mille autoriteks Ieva Araja ja Rihards Funts Lätist, Samantha Parsons Austraaliast, Peter Murdoch jt. Artiklis ka kodulehekülgede aadresse, kust leida toredaid istmeid ja laudu
Teder, Tarmo, 1958-
Populaarteaduslik film Kaali meteoriidiplahvatusest "Kaali saladus" : stsenarist ja režissöör Urmas E. Liiv : operaator Ago Ruus : produtsendid Uldis Cekulis ja Riho Västrik : OÜ Vesilind (Eesti) - Vides Filmu Studija (Läti)
Environmental parameters monitoring in Comacchio wetland; Progetto per lo studio integrato delle Valli di Comacchio : eutrofizzazione delle Valli di Comacchio. Campagne di misura sulla qualita` delle acque 1992-1993
Barilli, L.; Malaguti, A.; Mazzone, N.; Olivieri, P.; Silingardi, D.; Tesini, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `E. Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Lorenzelli, R.; Salvi, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente
From april 1992 to april 1993, a monthly monitoring of the environmental parameters has been carried out in the waters of the Comacchio wetland, in order to study the trends of their tropic level, and to evaluate the connections among the chemical physical parameters, the primary productivity, the seaweed turnover and the nutrients in the water column. The field campaigns, 12 in total, have been performed in two stations, representative of wetland; besides, 5 seasonal campaigns have been made over the whole lagoon, in 15 stations, and in the 3 sea channels. The seasonal trends show very high values of temperature and salinity, up to 50% in summer; even if the values of the chlorophyll `a` are less in comparison with the 1990-1991 values, the waters are classified as eutrophic over all the year, as confirmed by the results of primary productivity and seaweed turnover measurements. Phosphorus seems to be the limiting factor, even if in summer the nitrogen also is nearly missing. Very high productivity, with the oxygen concentration in the water higher than the saturation value, is observed in summer.
Conclusion: The mothers have low knowledge of their pain management in their children's without any considerable relationship to some contextual factors. Planning for educational programmes with respect to managing children's pain is recommended.
Full Text Available A recent historiographical approach correlates land reclamation and socio-economic culture, to understand which kind of vision and consideration of the territory featured the past ages. In this paper, we want to compare two historical hydrogeological plans, realized to solve the same problem, i.e. the continuous floodings that made a wide area among Bologna, Ravenna and Ferrara a sort of wetland. The first program of land reclamation here considered is by G.B. Aleotti, and it was drawn up in 1601. The second one, instead, is by G.A. Lecchi, and was written in 1767. This analysis highlights two different economic and environmental cultures.
Paulus, Karin, 1975-
Muljeid Läti arhitektuuriauhindade jagamiselt. Peapreemia: arhitektide Uldis Lukshevics'i ja Martins Oshans'i projekteeritud eramu. Parim avalik hoone: arhitektuuribüroo Kubs projekteeritud kontorihoone Riias. Suurim Baltikumis: arhitektuuribüroo Arhis projekteeritud Ljepaja politseihoone. Parim rekonstrueerimisprojekt: arhitektuuribüroo Arhis projekteeritud avatud kontor nõukogudeaegses tööstushoones. Parim interjöör: kohvik Vanilla (Ieva Dripe, Janis Broka) ja tekstiilipood Garage (Zaiga Gaile büroo). Uldis Lukshevics'i projekteeritud suvilad, mis paiknevad postidel
Tallinna 5. rakenduskunsti triennaali "Know How" peaväljapanek Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis 21. veebruarini 2010. Kujunduse autorid Ott Kadarik ja Tuuli Aule. Lühidalt Pavel Sidorenko ja lätlase Rihards Funtsi töödest
Extreme rainfalls are of paramount importance for the formation of river springs and, consequently, the occurrence of spills and floods. The article presents the results of a case study of the potentially dangerous 24-hour eruptions in the Provadiyska valley system from the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. Particular attention is paid to the morphometric parameters and the configuration of the river-valley supply network of the Provadiyska river. On this basis, there are defined areas in which there are favorable conditions for forming high river waves.
Läti mobiilsidevahendite ja -teenuste müüja DT Mobile saavutas turuliidri staatuse riskikapitali abiga. Lisa: Läti telekomiturg aastal 2005. Diagramm. Kommenteerivad DT Mobile'i juhatuse esimees Uldis Prieditis ja BaltCapi partner Dagnis Dreimanis
Tali, Piret, 1972-
Soomes restaureeritud eesti menufilmi "Viimne reliikvia" (1969) taas Eestis ekraanile jõudmise eel korraldatud pressikonverentsilt Coca-Cola Plazas, kus kohal filmis osalenud näitlejad Ingrida Andrina, Aleksandr Goloborodko, Eve Kivi ja Uldis Vazdik, stsenarist Arvo Valton ja kunstnik Rein Raamat
14. veebruaril esilinastub kinos "Sõprus" populaarteaduslik film Kaali meteoriidiplahvatusest "Kaali saladus" : stsenarist ja režissöör Urmas E. Liiv : operaator Ago Ruus : produtsendid Riho Västrik ja Uldis Cekulis (Läti) : OÜ Vesilind (Eesti) - Vides Filmu Studija (Läti)
Läti seimi liige Janis Reirs leiab, et Rail Baltica ehitus on Moskva ja Riia vahelise raudtee ehitusest prioriteetsem, kuna esimest võib potentsiaalselt finantseerida Euroopa Liit. Transpordiminister Uldis Augulis kohtub oma Venemaa kolleegi Igor Levitiniga 7. aprillil. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskise sõnul vajavad mõlemad projektid majandusanalüüsi
Post, Eda, 1983-
Riia Eesti suursaatkonnahoone arhitektuurikonkursist. Esikoha pälvisid Lembit-Kaur Stöör, Ülo-Tarmo Stöör ja Heidi Urb (võistlustöö "Teele"), teise koha saavutasid Emil Urbel, Andrus Mark, Ott Hirvesoo ja Peeter Veimer ("Horta"), kolmanda koha Juris Mitenbergs, Peteris Suprins, Zane Krumina, Uldis Tucs, Edgars Gribusts ja Edijs Kravalis ("White Cube.ee)
Jõerüüt, Jaak, 1947-
Eesti suursaadik Lätis, arhitektuurivõistluse žürii liige Riia Eesti saatkonnahoone arhitektuurikonkursist, võidutöödest. Lk. 56-57 Eesti saatkond Riias: I koha pälvinud Lembit-Kaur Stööri, Ülo-Tarmo Stööri ja Heidi Urbi võidutööst, premeeritud tööde plaanid, vaated. II koha said Emil Urbel, Andrus Mark, Ott Hirvesoo ja Peeter Veimer, III koha Juris Mitenbergs, Peteris Suprins, Zane Krumina, Uldis Tucs, Edgars Gribusts ja Edijs Kravalis
Full Text Available Rhododendrons are relatively new beautiful ornamental plants in Latvia forming an essential part of public and private gardens, although they were introduced in Latvian territory already during the first half of 19th century. Rhododendrons deserve their immense popularity due to the diversity of their habitat, size and type of blossoms and leaves and their flowering season. There are about 1000 rhododendron species in the wild up to now whereas breeders in various countries have created more than 30 000 cultivars. Intensive rhododendrons introduction and acclimatization in Latvia started in 1957 when Rihards Kondratovičs, at the time director of the Botanical Garden, University of Latvia, started his research on the introduction and acclimatization of rhododendrons. Winterhardiness of about 400 wild species in Latvia was tested and 76 species were found to be suitable. Following the development of an extensive collection of wild rhododendron species and cultivars, the Rhododendron Breeding and Experimental Nursery “Babīte”, University of Latvia, was established at 1980 and the active breeding of new winterhardy cultivars was started. In 2017, the collection of outdoor rhododendrons of the University of Latvia consists of 76 species and 265 cultivars, including 109 cultivars bred in Latvia by Professor Rihards Kondratovičs.
Valli Lember-Bogatkina pannoo "Lähme suurele peole" (1950) eksponeeriti uues kohas Tallinna lauluväljakul laulukaare II korrusel. Pannoo kuulub Tallinna kunstikogusse, restaureerimist teostas AS KAR-Grupp
Contemporary Electoral Processes; Political Partcipation; Public Opinion on Political Matters; Political Parties). XV. Orgaizaional Bhavio. (United...Pelaez (ed) Public Law and Comparative Politics. Trabajos en Homenaje a Ferran Vallis i Taberner, Vol XVII, Barcelona, Spain; Facultad de Derecho de
Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la relación valina:lisina digestible (Val:Lys dig en la dieta de pollos de engorda en el período de 1 a 14 días de edad sobre el comportamiento productivo, emplume, diámetro y perfil de fibras musculares. Se utilizaron 1,800 pollos de engorda Cobb de un día de edad, distribuidos en un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cinco tratamientos, seis repeticiones y 36 aves por unidad experimental. Los tratamientos consistieron de diferentes relaciones de Val:Lys dig (66, 71, 76, 81 y 86 %. La relación Val:Lys dig no afectó ( P >0.05 el comportamiento productivo de las aves. Sin embargo, hubo efecto lineal positivo ( P 0.05 por los tratamientos. Se concluye que la relación Val:Lys de 66 % es suficiente para maximizar el comportamiento productivo de pollos de engorda en la fase de 1 a 14 días, no obstante, una mayor relación de Val:Lys dig (76 % es necesaria para maximizar el crecimiento de las fibras musculares.
“Ergonomiski darba apavi un to ietekme uz nodarbināto labklājību”. Darba autors: Uldis Stepens. Darba vadītājs: Dr.sc.admin., Eur.Erg., Henrijs Kaļķis. Maģistra darbs uz 72 lpp. ietver 26 attēlus, 16 tabulas, 5 pielikumus un 27 informatīvos avotus. Darbs sastāv no 4 daļām. Pirmajā daļā ir apskatīta un analizēta pieejamā literatūra un semināru materiāli par darba apavu ergonomiku, kritēriji par apavu izvēli un ieguvumi no ergonomiskiem apaviem. Otrajā daļā ir aprakstītas izmantotās metodes:...
Noormets, Tiit, 1959-
Siiani ei ole peaaegu üldse avaldatud Nõukogude julgeoleku tööriistade - agentide töö peamist "nähtavat" jälge - nende ettekandeid. Agent "Välk" ehk kodanikunimega Adolf Lõhmus oli üks tippagente, tänu kellele lõpuks langes vendade Saalistete metsavennasalk. Lisaks agentidele sai julgeolek andmeid omaalgatuslikelt pealekaebajatelt. Võrumaa komsomolitegelase Hans Valli töö näitab sihikindlat ja põhjalikku tööd inimeste järele nuhkimises. Lisatud agendi "Välk" ja Hans Valli töö näited
Tallinna kultuuriväärtuste amet võttis Tallinna kunstikogusse Valli Lember-Bogatkina pannoo "Läheme suurele peole" (1950). Pannoo pannakse pärast restaureerimist üles Tallinna laululava ruumesse. Restaureerib KAR-Grupp Ruth Tuvikese juhtimisel
Loit Jõekalda kureeritud joonistustriennaali raames eksponeerivad oma töid Ave Avalo, Kärt Hammer, Eero Ijavoinen, Kristjan Kittus, Mari-Liis Laanemaa, Triinu Lille, Valli Lember-Bogatkina jpt. kunstnikud. Ajalehe "Eesti Ekspress" karikaturisti Aivar Juhansoni tööde näitus Tallinnas KuKu klubis
Sagadis eksponeeritakse hollandi poeedi, esseisti ja fotograafi Rommert Boonstra fotonäitust "Flowering inferno" ja maalikunstnik Tiiu Ahmani meremaale. Palmse mõisas Valli Lember-Bogatkina akvarellide näitus. Karepal Sagritsa muuseumis saab vaadata V. Lember-Bogatkina 1985. a. Kuuba reisi muljeid
An update on the measurement and management of cholesterol with specific reference to secondary prevention of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Vally, F Kathrada, N Butkow ...
van Kan - Parker, M.; Zegers, T.E.; kneissl, T.; Ivanov, B.; Neukum, G.; Foing, B.
Gusev Crater lies within the Aeolis Quadrangle of Mars at the boundary between the northern lowlands and southern highlands. The ancient valley Ma'adim Vallis dissects the highlands south of Gusev Crater and is thought to have fed the crater with sediments.High Resolution Stereo Camera data and
C Miruka, 56. Book Reviews: Social justice and neoliberalism · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Vally, 57. Book Reviews: From Revolution to Rights in South Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
In this method, reduction of keto and alkene functional groups has been achieved in a single step using low cost catalyst NiCl2/NaBH4 in methanol. ... Department of Chemistry, JNTUH College of Engineering Jagtial, Karimnagar 505 501, India; R&D Division, Aspen Bio Pharma Labs Pvt. Ltd, Genome Vally, Turkapally, ...
On the edge of the Bekaa Vally in Lebanon is the site of Hosn Niha. This was the site of a Roman sanctuary from the 1st to the 3rd century, and in the 6th century a basilica was placed here. There are many interesting monuments, and these as well as the history and cultic rituals of the site...
Rice, James W., Jr.; Parker, Timothy Jay
The first landing on Mars in over 20 years will take place July 4, 1997, near te mouth of the Ares Vallis outflow channel located in southeastern Chryse Planitia. Mars Pathfinder, unlike Viking 1, is expected to land on a surface that has a distinct and unambiguous fluvial signature.
Mägi, Riina, 1957-
Eesti 42. amatöörfilmide festivalil Tallinna Kinomajas tunnistati parimaks õppefilmiks põltsamaalase Väino Valdmanni "Valli Lember-Bogatkina meistriklass". Kolm auhinda (seejuures parima täiskasvanud autorifilm) sai"Elevanti nägema" (autorid S. Dürdoth, M. Apel, L. Shamis, K. Saar) Ka teistest auhinnasaajatest
Liivrand, Harry, 1961-
Areen tähistas Anderseni juubeliaastat erinumbri ja illustratsioonidega eesti kunstnikelt: Valli Lember-Bogatkina, Evald Okas, Jüri Arrak, Kaido Ole, Laurentsius, Ülle Meister, Regina Lukk-Toompere, Piret Raud, Marko Mäetamm. Vt. H. C. Andersen. Vankumatu tinasõdur, Eesti Ekspress, 30. juuni, lk. B1-13
Full Text Available The new Grohar’s room in the Škofja Loka Mu¬seum that is located in a more than a thousand years old town, some kilometres northwest of Ljubljana, Slove¬nia, represents one of the new possibilities to popularize old local history. Ivan Grohar (1867−1911 is one of the four well-known Slovenian painters from the beginning of the 20th century, together with Rihard Jakopič, Matija Jama and Matej Sternen. These Slovenian painters are the founders of Impressionism within the modern style. Škofja Loka became the so called Slovenian “Barbizon” (i.e. French village near Fontainebleau, once the settle-ment of painters and this art and old tradition inspired another Slovenian (music artist Oskar Dev (1868−1932, who composed some of his musical works (songs and choirs in Škofja Loka, too. His and Grohar’s period in Škofja Loka resulted in some extraordinary art works i.e. paintings and musical works. They both were inspired by the countryside that reflected on their works. This is now one of the new Slovenian’s challenges of museology and musicology in an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach so the art of painting and music could be a benefit for the visitors of this and other museums.
Morgan, Gareth A; Campbell, Bruce A; Carter, Lynn M; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Phillips, Roger J
Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates.
Schwede, Kristel, 1963-
Kärt Ojavee ja Johanna Ulfsaki "Live Streams" HOP galeriis, Juhan Kuusi "Inimlikkuse mõõt. 45 aastat dokumentaalfotograafiat Lõuna-Aafrikas" Adamson-Ericu muuseumis, Vilniuse Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuse nüüdiskunsti näitus "Südamepekslemine" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja selle galeriides, "Tunne Eesti disaini" Tartu Kunstimuuseumis, Valli Lember-Bogatkina mälestusnäitus Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus, Juta Soans-Laanpere ja Jana Soansi "Meelerahu" Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus
Rozmi Ismail; Mohammad Hesam Hafezi; Rahim Mohd Nor
The environment where a person lives has a significant impact on his or her development. The objective of the study is to determine the person's perception and satisfaction towards safety and public amenity nearby. Purposive sampling method was utilized to collect data in Selangor and Kelang Vally, Malaysia. Data were collected through interview using a set of questionnaire and analyzed using the SPSS program. The results of the study showed that in terms of public amenities and physical surr...
First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...
NASA's Curiosity rover has documented predominantly fluvial sedimentary rocks along its path from the landing site to the toe of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan (0.5 km to the east) and then along its 8 km traverse across Aeolis Palus to the base of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp). Lacustrine facies have been identified at the toe of the Peace Vallis fan and in the lowermost geological unit exposed on Aeolis Mons. These two depositional systems provide end members for martian fluvial/alluvial-lacustrine facies models. The Peace Vallis system consisted of an 80 square kilometers alluvial fan with decimeter-thick, laterally continuous fluvial sandstones with few sedimentary structures. The thin lacustrine unit associated with the fan is interpreted as deposited in a small lake associated with fan runoff. In contrast, fluvial facies exposed over most of Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons consist of sandstones with common dune-scale cross stratification (including trough cross stratification), interbedded conglomerates, and rare paleochannels. Along the southwest portion of the traverse, sandstone facies include south-dipping meter-scale clinoforms that are interbedded with finer-grained mudstone facies, interpreted as lacustrine. Sedimentary structures in these deposits are consistent with deltaic deposits. Deltaic deposition is also suggested by the scale of fluvial to lacustrine facies transitions, which occur over greater than 100 m laterally and greater than 10 m vertically. The large scale of the transitions and the predicted thickness of lacustrine deposits based on orbital mapping require deposition in a substantial river-lake system over an extended interval of time. Thus, the lowermost, and oldest, sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater suggest the presence of substantial fluvial flow into a long-lived lake. In contrast, the Peace Vallis alluvial fan onlaps these older deposits and overlies a major unconformity. It is one of the youngest deposits in the crater, and
16 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows windblown materials that have collected and been shaped into large ripples in a valley in the Auqakuh Vallis system in northeastern Arabia Terra, Mars. Location near: 29.1oN, 299.6oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter
Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.
Three major valley tapes were identified in the SW Margaritefer Sinus and Argyre regions. Two are restricted to specific geologic units while the third is independent of the geology. The first type (the small valley networks) are found within the channeled and subdued plains unit in the eastern half of the map, in the grooved and channeled plains unit north of Nirgal Vallis, and in scattered instances in the cratered plateau unit north of Argyre. The even smaller valleys just inside Argyre's rim and on the inner slopes of many large craters are not directly related to the processes which formed the small valleys but are a result, instead, of post-impact modification of the crater walls. The second type of valley network is represented by Nirgal Vallis and the similar, shorter continuation of it to the west. This type is found only in the smooth plains material west of Uzboi Vallis in the map area. The third type of valley network is that of the Uzbol-Holden-Ladon valles system. This system is related to catastrophic outflow from Argyre Basin and is topographically rather than geologically controlled.
Stefano De Pietri
Full Text Available An integrated system for reclamation consortiums operational vehicles positioning The Valli Grandi and Medio Veronese italian reclamation consortiums have been testing the use of a GPS positioning system applied to operational vehicles. The information gathered through these tests highlight the importance of a quick intervention in critical or dangerous situations related to the operation of such vehicles. This article features the results, the shortcomings and the costs of this test with the aim of being useful to organizations operating in similar fields.
Stefano De Pietri
Full Text Available An integrated system for reclamation consortiums operational vehicles positioningThe Valli Grandi and Medio Veronese italian reclamation consortiums have been testing the use of a GPS positioning system applied to operational vehicles. The information gathered through these tests highlight the importance of a quick intervention in critical or dangerous situations related to the operation of such vehicles. This article features the results, the shortcomings and the costs of this test with the aim of being useful to organizations operating in similar fields.
Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.
Geologic mapping of MTM -30247, -35247, and -40247 quadrangles is being used to characterize Reull Vallis (RV) and examine the roles and timing of volatile-driven erosional and depositional processes. This study complements earlier investigations of the eastern Hellas region, including regional analyses [1-6], mapping studies of circum-Hellas canyons [7-10], and volcanic studies of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae [11-13]. Key scientific objectives include 1) characterizing RV in its "fluvial zone," and evaluating its history of formation, 2) analyzing channels in the surrounding plains and potential connections to RV, and 3) examining young, possibly sedimentary plains along RV.
Nørgaard, J.V.; Canibe, N.; Nielsen, B.
Supplementation of crystalline amino acids is common in diets for piglets. The purpose of the present experiment was to conduct a study on an alternative amino acid provision by means of feeding piglets spores of a B. subtilis strain known to overproduce Val when cultured in vitro. Seventeen...... acid concentrations in digesta and mucosa of the small intestine. However, the Val concentration in plasma of the portal and jugular veins and the urea concentration in plasma of the jugular vein were higher when piglets were fed the +Val diet. The Val:Lys of 0.63:1 was clearly below the requirement...
Full Text Available La città di Comacchio, a trenta chilometri a nord di Ravenna, essendo sorta all’interno di una vasta zona di Valli da Pesca, è rimasta isolata dalla terraferma fino alla metà del secolo XIX. Alla devoluzione del Ducato di Ferrara alla Santa Sede (1598, la Città di Comacchio, le sue saline e le sue Valli da Pesca sono state sfruttate dalla Reverenda Camera Apostolica per circa due secoli. Nella prima metà del secolo XVII, per volontà di alcuni illuminati cardinali Legati di Ferrara, la città di Comacchio ha visto la realizzazione di importanti interventi urbani e territoriali, tra cui la costruzione di numerosi ed interessanti ponti e l’escavazione di un canale navigabile, per metterla in comunicazione diretta con il Mare Adriatico. Lo scritto tratta, brevemente, della particolare configurazione urbana del centro storico della città e della costruzione dei ponti, che sono ancora oggi la caratteristica principale della città lagunare, e in particolare delle caratteristiche di tre di essi (il Treponti, il Ponte delle Carceri e il Ponte di Piazza.
Christensen, P.R.; Kieffer, H.H.
Moderate resolution (approx.30 km) thermal inertia estimates have been made for several regions in the northern hemosphere of Mars. Examples of these maps are presented here for the region O 0 -45 0 N, O 0 -90 0 W. The thermal inertia of Kasei Vallis is found to be significantly higher than that of the surrounding terrain. The assumption of a uniform grain size surface gives maximum diameters of 1.0 mm inside and 0.05mm outside Kasei Vallis for the surface materials. high inertia regions are well correlated with low albedo (Aapprox.0.14) regions. Three large channels in the Oxia Palus quandrangle also have high inertia floors. There is some indication that the thermal inertia increases toward the mouth of one of these channels. The Chryse and Acidalia basins have uniform high inertia surfaces with no decrease in inertia as distance increases from the major channels. There are numerous craters in the region which have high inertia-low albedo features on the crater floor. This correlation has been observed for many other craters on Mars, both from Mariner 9 and Viking data. A possible explanation is the accumulation of coarse-grained, windblown material within the craters. Average grain sizes of these materials range from 0.5 to 1.1. mm, corresponding to medium to coarse sand. The Viking 1 landing site is located in the lowest inertia region within the area studied which met the latitude and elevation capabilities of that vehicle
Full Text Available Baile Herculane is a balneary resort located in Caraş-Severin County, in South-Western Romania and is located 41 km to the Northwest of the city of Drobeta Turnu Severin, Mehedinti County. Resort Baile Herculane is documentary attested since 153 a.d. and is an attraction for its healing power of water. The Romans will be arriving in Dacia were impressed with the power of exceptional quality healing waters of the Cernei Vally, therefore, have made an important point of attraction here. In those times you keep bathrooms, statues, coins, culverts, signs of gratitude to the gods that were cured with water. The aqueducts, baths and hot springs from the time of the Romans. The beauty of the places where the resort Baile Herculane cannot be described in words, you have to go to see with your eyes
Kamali Sadr, S.
Great Kavir basin is the largest inner basin in Iran that extended about 90000 km 2. This basin is situated in the centre of lran , to the south from Alborz mountain range and elongated in the sub- latitudinal trend and its construction is asymmetric. The basin cover consists generally of complicated sequence of continental - marine Oligocene - Miocene molasses. According to drainage systems - conditions, molassoid cycles, alluvial, alluvial - deltaic and lacustrine sediments, climate, morphological conditions and metallogenic and structural features, Great Kavir depression generally is favorable for exigence and surficial uranium deposits (vally - fill, flood plain, deltaic and playa). Uranium occurrences that are Known in the southern and north eastern part of the margent Great Kavir basin, are Arosan, Irekan and Mohammad Abad. Similar geological - structural conditions for uranium mineralization is possible in the margent of Great Kavir basin
Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.
In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.
Massimo Del Bubba
Full Text Available Sucrose, glucose, fructose, citric, malic, ascorbic (AA and dehydroascorbic (DHAA acids, total polyphenols (TP, radical scavenging activity (RSA, physicochemical and sensorial properties were determined on F. vesca Alpine (ALP and Regina delle Valli (RDV berries in relation to plant age and fertilisation treatment (Effective Microorganism Technology, EMT vs. traditional fertilization, TFT. ALP berries had a sum of AA and DHAA about 20% lower and TPs about 30% higher than RDV. Plant age affected most physicochemical parameters, sugars and organic acids, as well as sensorial appreciation, being them generally higher in berries produced in the second year. TPs were not affected by plant age. EMT produced an increase of 50%, 70% and 20% for TP, organic acids and RSA, respectively. Although changes in berry quality are expected with plant age, EMT cultivation of ALP should be preferred to the growth of RDV under TFT, to obtain fruits more valuable from the nutraceutical viewpoint.
3 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the margin of a lava flow on a cratered plain in the Athabasca Vallis region of Mars. Remarkably, the cratered plain in this scene is essentially free of bright, windblown ripples. Conversely, the lava flow apparently acted as a trap for windblown materials, illustrated by the presence of the light-toned, wave-like texture over much of the flow. That the lava flow surface trapped windblown sand and granules better than the cratered plain indicates that the flow surface has a rougher texture at a scale too small to resolve in this image. Location near: 10.7oN, 204.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter
Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Kelley, Michael S.
Topics covered include: Geologic Mapping of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) Region of Venus: A Progress Report; Geologic Map of the Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle (V-1): Implications for Tectonic and Volcanic History of the North Polar Region of Venus; Preliminary Geological Map of the Fortuna Tessera (V-2) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of V-19; Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle; Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schr dinger Basin; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars; Geologic Mapping Investigations of the Northwest Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars; Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007; Geologic Mapping of Holden Crater and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava Outflow System; Mapping Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabaca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along the Coprates Rise; Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: Second Year Results and Third Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done; New Geologic Map of the Scandia Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus; Volcanism on Io: Insights from Global Geologic Mapping; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recycling of sewage in our country can be one of the ways to overcome the problem of water shortage. The aim of this paper is Evaluation of Valli-e-asr hospital effluent for irrigation of the green. Materials and Methods: During the 12 months of the project since January 2009, twelve samples of the hospital water were selected. 35 samples were taken both from raw sewage and refined effluent with the average frequency of two samples every month. Various physical, chemical, and biological factors were measured on the basis of the standard method book (AWWA. The gathered data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software (version 15 and paired T test at the significant level . Results: The percentages of separating some parameters such as BOD, TSS, COD, and MPS in the exiting effluent were 63.56%, 44.9%, 42.9%, and 89.97% respectively and those of the parameters PH, Mg, SO4, and SAR were 7.52mg/l, 66.82 mg/l, 382.14 mg/l, and 0.54 mg/l respectively. The amount of parameters BOD, COD, TSS, MPN, EC, CL, TDS, and NA% were 165.14mg/l, 887.657mg/l, 784.4286mg/l, 1856857 MPN, 4137.97µs/cm, 999mg/l, 2866.57mg/l, and 75.11% respectively. Conclusion: The sewage refinery of Valli-e-asr hospital does not produce a favorable outcome and some of the parameters of the effluent such as PH, Mg, SO4, and SAR are in accord with the standards of reusing in agriculture and irrigation but many of the necessary parameters do not correspond with the necessary standards for this task.
Voelker, M.; Hauber, E.; Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.
Hellas Planitia is one of the major topographic sinks on Mars for the deposition of any kind of sediments. We report on our observations of sheet deposits in the eastern part of the basin that are apparently related to the Dao Vallis outflow channel. The deposits have lobate flow fronts and a thickness of a few decameters. Despite their generally smooth surface, some distinctive textures and patterns can be identified, such as longitudinal lineations, distributive channels, and polygons. We compared these deposits to other sheet deposits on Mars and tested three hypotheses of their origin: volcanic flows as well as water- and ice-related mass wastings. Despite some similarities to volcanic sheet flows on Mars, we found several morphological characteristics that are not known for sheet lava flows; for example conically arranged lineations and channel systems very similar to fluvial incisions. We also reject an ice-related formation similar to terrestrial rock-ice avalanches, as there is no sufficient relief energy to explain their extent and location. A water-related origin appears most consistent with our observations, and we favor an emplacement by fluvially-driven mass wasting processes, e.g., debris flows. Assuming a water-related origin, we calculated the amount of water that would be required to deposit such large sedimentary bodies for different flow types. Our calculations show a large range of possible water volumes, from 64 to 2,042 km³, depending on the specific flow mechanism. The close link to Dao Vallis makes these deposits a unique place to study the deposition of outflow channel sediments, as the deposits of other outflow channels on Mars, such as those around Chryse Planitia, are mostly buried by younger sediments and volcanic flows.
Full Text Available Dragana Protić,1 Nada Vujasinović-Stupar,2 Zoran Bukumirić,3 Slavica Pavlov-Dolijanović,4 Snežana Baltić,5 Slavica Mutavdžin,6 Ljiljana Markovic-Denić,7 Marija Zdravković,8 Zoran Todorović1 1Department of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 2Department 2, Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 3Institute for Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 4Department 5, Institute of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 5Department 5, Institute of Rheumatology, Belgrade, Serbia; 6Institute of Physiology “Rihard Burjan”, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 7Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 8Department of Cardiology, Medical Center “Bežanijska kosa”, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs have a significant impact on human health and health care costs. The aims of our study were to determine the profile of rheumatology patients willing to report ADRs and to identify bias in such a reporting system. Methods: Semi-intensive ADRs reporting system was used in our study. Patients willing to participate (N=261 completed the questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study at the hospital admission. They were subsequently classified into two groups according to their ability to identify whether they had experienced ADRs during the previous month. Group 1 included 214 out of 261 patients who were able to identify ADRs, and group 2 consisted of 43 out of 261 patients who were not able to identify ADRs in their recent medical history. Results: Group 1 patients were more significantly aware of their diagnosis than the patients from group 2. Marginal significance was found
Fergason, R. L.
The identification of phyllosilicates on Mars implies aqueous activity at the time of their formation and is important for understanding the history of Martian water and the past habitability of Mars. In addition, a significant fraction of the global water budget of Mars may be locked into clay mineral deposits within the Martian crust. As a result, six out of seven final landing sites being considered for the Mars Science Laboratory are sites where phyllosilicates have been identified in CRISM and OMEGA data. The physical characteristics of these materials, as identified using thermal inertia data, are an important component for understanding the geologic history of these deposits. Thermal inertia values provide information regarding effective particle size and help to constrain the possible presence of duricrust, rocks, and exposed bedrock at these locations. These identified physical characteristics suggest the degree of resistivity to erosion, which has implications for the post-emplacement modification of these deposits. At the aforementioned six locations (Nili Fossae Trough, Holden Crater, Mawrth Vallis, Miyamoto crater, southern Meridiani Planum, and Gale crater) the physical properties were quantified using THEMIS-derived thermal inertia data to characterize the physical properties at each site and identify the presence or absence of physical diversity among these materials. I identified a wide range of surface properties at these locations ranging from indurated surfaces intermixed with unconsolidated aeolian material (thermal inertia of 150-460 J m-2 K-1 s- 1/2) at Mawrth Vallis, to exposures of in-place bedrock and the presence of rocky material (thermal inertia exceeding 800 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2) in Gale crater. In addition, the surface texture and morphologic features observed in high-resolution visible images (such as narrow-angle MOC, HiRISE, and CTX) are dissimilar across these phyllosilicate exposures, and confirm the interpretation of thermal inertia
Full Text Available Abstract The 24 small mammals listed as living in Leinì (Piedmontese Po plain, near Turin, 245 m on sea level (only the red fox, Vulpes vulpes is not sure, are briefly analysed (Chiroptera excepted. List and analysis are the results of studies pursued for about 35 years. However, in Verona's Museum of Natural History, the housed materials are related to the last eighteen years (1966-1984 (Tab. I. For a complete analysis, this fauna is compared with the Veronese Po plain one, especially with the Busatello one (Gazzo Veronese-Ostiglia. This site is a stretch of marshes named "Valli Grandi Veronesi and Ostigliesi" (Tab. II. In this analysis, if we don't consider the not native species (Myocastor coypus and Mustela vison, the estinguished species (Lutra lutra, the Mediterranean species (living only along the border of the Po plain basin (Suncus etruscus and the hunting species (Lepus europaeus and Oryctolagus cuniculus we have 23 taxa for Lein and only 17 and 13, respectively, for Veronese Po plain and Busatello. The richer small mammal fauna of the Piedmontese Po plain is, above all, supported by different ecological conditions but the preservation of some species (e.g. Glis glis and Muscardinus avellanarius in Leinì is surely related also to historical problems and to a land anthropization pushed forward to a lesser degree. Riassunto Vengono elencate e brevemente commentate tutte le specie di micromammiferi presenti a Leinì (Torino, Chirotteri esclusi. Si tratta di un complesso di 24 specie (solo la volpe non è del tutto sicura per ognuna delle quali gli autori, sinteticamente, espongono le osservazioni raccolte in circa 35 anni. A maggior chiarimento del significato faunistico del popolamento, viene presa in esame anche la micromammalofauna della pianura padano veneta, precisamente la pianura veronese ed in particolar modo la
Battler, Melissa M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Michel, Frederick A.; Craig, Michael A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Leoni, Lisa; Slater, Gregory F.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Preston, Louisa J.; Banerjee, Neil R.
Surficial deposits of the OH-bearing iron sulfate mineral jarosite have been observed in several places on Mars, such as Meridiani Planum and Mawrth Vallis. The specific depositional conditions and mechanisms are not known, but by comparing martian sites to analogous locations on Earth, the conditions of formation and, thus, the martian depositional paleoenvironments may be postulated. Located in a cold semi-arid desert ˜100 km east of Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, Canada, the Golden Deposit (GD) is visible from the air as a brilliant golden-yellow patch of unvegetated soil, approximately 140 m × 50 m. The GD is underlain by permafrost and consists of yellow sediment, which is precipitating from seeps of acidic, iron-bearing groundwater. On the surface, the GD appears as a patchwork of raised polygons, with acidic waters flowing from seeps in troughs between polygonal islands. Although UV-Vis-NIR spectral analysis detects only jarosite, mineralogy, as determined by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, is predominantly natrojarosite and jarosite, with hydronium jarosite, goethite, quartz, clays, and small amounts of hematite. Water pH varies significantly over short distances depending on proximity to acid seeps, from 2.3 directly above seeps, to 5.7 several m downstream from seeps within the deposit, and up to 6.5 in ponds proximal to the deposit. Visual observations of microbial filament communities and phospholipid fatty acid analyses confirm that the GD is capable of supporting life for at least part of the year. Jarosite-bearing sediments extend beneath vegetation up to 70 m out from the deposit and are mixed with plant debris and minerals presumably weathered from bedrock and glacial till. This site is of particular interest because mineralogy (natrojarosite, jarosite, hematite, and goethite) and environmental conditions (permafrost and arid conditions) at the time of deposition are conceivably analogous to jarosite
Wilkinson, M. Justin; Miller, R. McG.; Allen, C. C.; Kreslavsky, M. H.; Eckardt, F.
The mesoscale sedimentary environment known as the megafan, is a low-angle, partial cone of fluvial sediment generated where a river enters an unconfined basin where it begins the process of avulsing over wide areas. In shifting to different positions, the river lays down a partial cone of sediment and establishes a characteristic radial pattern of paleo courses. The apparent paucity of sedimentary bodies obviously tied to martian outflow channels may also relate to the difficulty of recognition due to their sheer size and featurelessness. However, the existence of megafans on Mars is being examined now that their ubiquity and characteristics on Earth are better understood. Accordingly we suggest two likely candidates on Mars: Maja Valles fluvial cone and Amazonis Planitia fluvial sedimentary bodies. Two cryptic examples from Amazonis Planitia may be important for understanding subsurface hydrous accumulation. For at least some of its history, discharges from Mangala Valles likely resulted in megafans. Distances from the end of Mangala Valles to the northern (low) margin of the planitia are very large, a fact that has suggested that fluvial emplacement was unlikely. However, the megafan model shows that long megafan radii are indeed feasible. It has been suggested further that discharge from Labou Vallis (8.5S 154.5W) must have led to fluvial sedimentation in the planitia. We suggest that during locally non-lacustrine/ocean phases, this sedimentation would have occurred in the form of megafans. However, the megafan model shows that long megafan radii are indeed feasible. It has been suggested further that discharge from Labou Vallis (8.5S 154.5W) must have led to fluvial sedimentation in the planitia. We suggest that during locally non-lacustrine/ocean phases, this sedimentation would have occurred in the form of megafans. Megafans emanating from Marte, Mangala and Labou valles have probably contributed to hydrous near-subsurface environments--in their distal
Kim, Jeonghye; Kim, Saehoon
Between March and June 2017, Seoul National University Graduate School of Environment Studies and Goyang City organized a course titled ‘Environment Design and Planning’. At the beginning stage of the project, even though the Unified Korean Silicon Vally Project was initiated, our team members in the class decide to reconsider whether a large redevelopment project aimed at attracting tourists is actually a desirable goal for the residents or not. What would be truly needed for space users living in the area? How should we preserve and maintain the existing meaningful space? Meanwhile, we come up with the Gyeongui Railroad, which passes through Goyang and Ilsan. It was a railway line that shared memories of the past, the daily lives of the residents, and the joys and sorrows of them. Among the railways, ‘Baek-Ma Station’ was the place which was filled with the memories of the people who spent their youth in the city in the 1980s. The station is currently not in use, because this place is abandoned and empty. We wished to make this space more accessible for the residents and also to create a place that would give an opportunity to the resident's social comeback. The space could be activated again with the revival of local cultural activities. And we hope the residents will be able to create new memories of 2017 in this space.
Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nørgaard, Jan Værum
:Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg), 2) the Neg diet with added Bacillus subtilis-valine (1.28 × 108 cfu/g feed) (+Bac), and 3) the Neg diet with added L-Val to a Val:Lys of 0.69:1 (+Val). Eighteen gilts (6 on each treatment) with initial weights of ∼15 kg were fed the diets for 23 d before the animals were euthanized...... and samples from the small intestine were obtained. The number of B. subtilis cfu in digesta was higher in the +Bac group than in the Neg group (P subtilis cfu were detected in the Neg group, whereas numbers between 3.4 and 4.4 log cfu/g and numerically higher Val and Lys...... concentrations were measured in the +Bac group. Short-term in vitro incubations of digesta showed a decrease (P ≤ 0.03) in the number of B. subtilis cfu over time for the +Bac group and no difference in the rate of Val production compared to that in the Neg group. In conclusion, more B. subtilis cfu were present...
de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.
Water has clearly played an important part in the geological evolution of Mars. There are many features on Mars that were almost certainly formed by fluvial processes -- for example, the channels Kasei Valles and Ares Vallis in the Chryse Planitia area of Mars are almost certainly fluvial features. On the other hand, there are many channel features that are much more difficult to interpret -- and have been variously attributed to volcanic and fluvial processes. Clearly unraveling the details of the role of water on Mars is extremely important, especially in the context of the search of extinct or extant life. In this project we built on our recent work in determining the origin of one channel on the southwest rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. This project, funded by the Keck Geology Consortium and involving 4 undergraduate geology majors took advantage of the recently available datasets to map and analyze similar features on Ascraeus Mons and some other areas of Mars. A clearer understanding of how these particular channel features formed might lead to the development of better criteria to distinguish how other Martian channel features formed. Ultimately this might provide us with a better understanding of the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.
Full Text Available This article discusses the outcomes of a case study that engaged Chilean in-service teachers in systematic action research (AR as a means of improving their pedagogical practice and effecting changes in their educational context. The study involved six in-service teachers from a region of Chile and two university researchers. The findings show that knowledge of systematic AR provided the teachers with the necessary means to engage in a critical reflection and inquiry process regarding their own practice. The teacher participants also perceived the self-reflective spiral of reflection and action to be crucial in establishing new habits of inquiry and reflection about their own pedagogical actions. The findings support earlier studies (e.g., Price & Valli, 2005; Steven & Kitchen, 2005, 2011 concerning the necessity of including knowledge of systematic AR in teacher preparation programs in order to foster strong habits of inquiry and reflection among preservice teachers. Finally, the study suggests that participation in a systematic reflection and inquiry process contributes to empowering in-service teachers to become agents of pedagogical change through their own actions.
Ajeti, Nova Nexhmije; Pustina-Krasniqi, Teuta; Apostolska, Sonja
OBJECTIVES: During the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis and pulp necrosis the main role is to irrigate the root canal. AIM: The aim of this in vivo study was to irrigate with 0.9% NaCl (Natrium Chloride), 2.5 % NaOCl (Sodium Hypochlorite Solution, Sigma Aldrich - Germany) and 2% CHX (Chlorhexidine Digluconate Solution, Sigma Aldrich - Spain) combined with Gaseous Ozone (Prozone WH, Austria). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was realised in the University Dentistry Clinical Centre of Kosovo (UDCCK), respectively in the Department of Endodontic and Dental Pathology, Dental Branch, Faculty of Medicine, Prishtina, Kosovo. The 40 subjects involved in this study belonged to both genders, in age between 15 -65 years. The sample selection was randomised. The retroalveolar radiography for each patient was taken in the suspected tooth. As a therapeutic plan the authors decided to disinfect the root canal with the irrigants, as follows: 2.5 % NaOCl, 2 % CHX and gaseous ozone. RESULTS: The statistical analyses were based on Kruskal - Vallis test, X - test, DF = 3, r irrigants 0.9%, 2.5 % NaOCl and 2% CHX, it was concluded that the number of colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was reduced. PMID:29531611
Chapman, M.G.; Kargel, J.S.
After Mars Pathfinder landed at the mouth of Ares Vallis, a large channel that drains into the Chryse Planitia basin, the mission reports unanimously supported the interpretation that the lander site is the locus of catastrophic flooding by noting that all aspects of the scene are consistent with this interpretation. However, alternatives cannot be ruled out by any site observations, as all aspects of the scene are equally consistent with other interpretations of origin, namely, ice and mass-flow processes subsequently modified by wind erosion. The authors discuss alternative explanations for the geologic history of the channel based on a regional view of the circum-Chryse channels from Viking images (our best broad-scale information to date) and the local view from the recent Pathfinder landing site. Mega-indicators of channel origin, the regional geomorphology, geology, and planetary climatic conditions, taken together suggest some combination of flood, mass flow, glacial, and eolian processes. The macro-indicators of channel origin (sedimentologic) are also not indicative of one process of emplacement, either as single criteria or taken cumulatively. Finally, the micro-indicators of channel origin (geochemical and mineralogic composition) do not provide very tight constraints on the deposits' possible origins other than that water was in some way involved.
A prototype of fuel pin design for HWR by CIRENE has been realized by Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology CNFT-BATAN. The prototype will be irradiated in PRTF Power Ramp Test (PRTF). The facility has been installed inside RSG-GA Siwabessy at Serpong. The present paper reports the preparation of experimentation and prediction of irradiation test. One previous PCI test report is found in, written by Lysell G and Valli G in 1973. The CNFT fuel irradiation test parameter is adapted to both PRTF and power loop design for RSG-GAS reactor in Serpong mainly the maxima of: rod length, neutrons flux, total power of rod, and power ramp rate. The CNFT CIRENE prototype design has been reported by Futichah et al 2007 and 2010. The AEC-India HWR fuel pin is of 19/22 fuel bundle design has also been evaluated as comparison. The first PCI test prediction has experiment comparison for Cise pin. The second prediction will be used for optimizing the design of ramp test for CNFT CIRENE fuel pin prototype. (author)
Fausti, P.; Prodi, N.
Due to the large number of historical opera houses in Italy, many theatres have been renovated in the past, but still more will undergo major restoration in the near future. Unfortunately in this context, the quality and protection of acoustics is rarely considered as an issue of its own. As a consequence, the renovations are hardly ever accompanied by proper scientific and technical support. In this paper, the acoustical impact of works inside the Teatro Municipale "R.Valli" in Reggio Emilia, including the restoration of the main hall and the construction of a new acoustic shell, will be dealt with. Surveys were held in the theatre before renovation and were repeated with identical procedure and instruments after its completion. By means of a comparative analysis of the architectural project and of acoustical data, the impact of major changes in the theatre can be predicted. It is shown that this approach can help in drafting an operational scheme for safeguarding the acoustics of historical opera houses.
Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A
Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.
Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.
Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand . Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As  pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to  who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent . Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer . Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario . Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow . The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures
Abidi, Samina; Vallis, Michael; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Imran, Syed Ali; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza
delivered through a mobile patient diary via mobile phones and tablets. DWISE has been tested for its usability, functionality, usefulness, and acceptance through a series of qualitative studies. For the primary care practitioner tool, most usability problems were associated with the navigation of the tool and the presentation, formatting, understandability, and suitability of the content. For the patient tool, most issues were related to the tool's screen layout, design features, understandability of the content, clarity of the labels used, and navigation across the tool. Facilitators and barriers to DWISE use in a shared decision-making environment have also been identified. This work has provided a unique electronic health solution to translate complex health care knowledge in terms of easy-to-use, evidence-informed, point-of-care decision aids for primary care practitioners. Patients' feedback is now being used to make necessary modification to DWISE. ©Samina Abidi, Michael Vallis, Helena Piccinini-Vallis, Syed Ali Imran, Syed Sibte Raza Abidi. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 18.04.2018.
Full Text Available The tropical African monophyletic group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae is distributed in continental tropical Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarene archipelago, and Bioko Island (32 km off the coast of West Africa, in the Gulf of Guinea. The first monographic treatment of this Carex group, as well as of the tribe Cariceae, was published by Kükenthal (as sect. Elatae Kük.. Recently, the first molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA phylogeny of Carex sect. Elatae has been published, which also included the species of sect. Spirostachyae. In the resulting consensus trees, most species of sect. Elatae were embedded within core Spirostachyae and so this section was joined with sect. Spirostachyae as subsect. Elatae. Within subsect. Elatae, several groups were described, one of which was termed the “tropical African group”. Here we present a taxonomic revision of this group, based on more than 280 vouchers from 29 herbaria as well as in field trips in Tropical Africa. In the revision, we recognise 12 species (16 taxa within the tropical African group, and so have somewhat modified our previous view, in which 10 species, 12 taxa were listed. One new species from Tanzania is included in this treatment, C. uluguruensis Luceño & M. Escudero. Several combinations are made, C. cyrtosaccus is treated as a synonym of C. vallis-rosetto and, finally, the binomial C. greenwayi has been recognised.Las especies de la subsección Elatae (sección Spirostachyae del género Carex que se distribuyen por África tropical continental, Madagascar, el archipiélago de las Mascareñas y la isla de Bioko (a 32 km del litoral de África occidental, en el golfo de Guinea forman un grupo monofilético. El primer tratamiento taxonómico de este grupo de cárices, así como de la tribu Cariceae en su conjunto, fue elaborado por Kükenthal (sección Elatae Kük.; recientemente, se ha publicado el primer estudio de filogenia molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA de los táxones de este grupo
Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Lamb, Michael P.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.
Catastrophic outburst floods carved amphitheater-headed canyons on Earth and Mars, and the steep headwalls of these canyons suggest that some formed by upstream headwall propagation through waterfall erosion processes. Because topography evolves in concert with water flow during canyon erosion, we suggest that bedrock canyon morphology preserves hydraulic information about canyon-forming floods. In particular, we propose that for a canyon to form with a roughly uniform width by upstream headwall retreat, erosion must occur around the canyon head, but not along the sidewalls, such that canyon width is related to flood discharge. We develop a new theory for bedrock canyon formation by megafloods based on flow convergence of large outburst floods toward a horseshoe-shaped waterfall. The model is developed for waterfall erosion by rock toppling, a candidate erosion mechanism in well fractured rock, like columnar basalt. We apply the model to 14 terrestrial (Channeled Scablands, Washington; Snake River Plain, Idaho; and Ásbyrgi canyon, Iceland) and nine Martian (near Ares Vallis and Echus Chasma) bedrock canyons and show that predicted flood discharges are nearly 3 orders of magnitude less than previously estimated, and predicted flood durations are longer than previously estimated, from less than a day to a few months. Results also show a positive correlation between flood discharge per unit width and canyon width, which supports our hypothesis that canyon width is set in part by flood discharge. Despite lower discharges than previously estimated, the flood volumes remain large enough for individual outburst floods to have perturbed the global hydrology of Mars.
Arvidson, R.E.; Guinness, E.A.; Dale-Bannister, M.A.; Adams, J.; Smith, M.; Christensen, P.R.; Singer, R.B.
Color images of bright red dust deposits at the Mutch Memorial Station were acquired at variable incidence angles during sol 611. In blue, green, and red coordinates the vector representing the space radiance factor of the landing site extracted from Viking orbiter images acquired on sol 609 is separated by a Euclidean distance of only 0.022 units and an angle of only 1.5 degree from the vector estimated from the station data for the orbiter lighting and viewing geometries. This result implies that light reflected from dust exposures dominates the orbiter signal; multiplicative and additive atmospheric terms cancel one another and surface roughness is a second-order effect in the orbiter data. Dust radiance factors computed from station data are most like laboratory spectra for fine-grained Hawaiian palagonite and are indistinguishable from Earth-based spectra of classical bright areas. Color composites of orbiter images show that the dust is found immediately south of Acidalia Planitia and in association with topographic barriers such as craters and cliffs. Examination of Viking infrared thermal mapper data shows that the dust deposits typically do not have distinctive thermal inertia signatures, implying that the deposits are optically thick but thinner than the diurnal thermal skin depth. Dark gray material with thermal inertia values indicative of sand grain sizes (0.5-1.5 mm) dominates the Acidalia Planitia lowlands and parts of Kasei Vallis. Space radiance factors of dark gray material are similar to spectra of mafic rock mixed with a minor amount of palagonitelike material
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Combe, J.-Ph.; Wendt, L.; McCord, T. B.; Neukum, G.
at Aram Chaos or Terra Meridiani [7-9] is a candidate. Bright deposits have potentially spectral signatures different to the red dust in the visible: sulfates in Juventae Chasma or Aram Chaos [9, 10] and phyllosilicates in Mawrth Vallis  or Nili Fossae  are of interest. This abstract is focused on Marwth Vallis only. HRSC spectral data: geometry and color filters The spectral data are image mosaics of five broadband spectral channels centered respectively at 440, 530, 650 and 750 nm for covering the visible range of wavelengths and 970 nm for sensitivity to the electronic absorptions of minerals present in minerals (pyroxenes, olivine). The third channel (nadir image) has a typical pixel size of 12.5 m, 25 m or 50 m. The other channels have a usual pixel size of 50 m, 100 m or 200 m that determines the spatial sampling of the spectral dataset. These data are acquired by five individual cameras oriented with a specific angle to the normal to the surface (-3°, +3°, 0° (nadir), -16° and +16° respectively). Those tilts optimize the use of a single telescope for all cameras in the available room. Thus, a given spectrum results from different proportions of shade at each wavelength. Indeed, subpixel topographic slopes that are oriented toward the instrument represent a higher proportion in the signal. This implies that shade affects the shape of HRSC spectra on a different way from pixel to pixel. This contribution has to be considered when performing spectral analysis. Level-4 color images in Digital Numbers (DNs) are registered adequately and are available to the public through the HRSCview website (http://hrscview.fu-berlin.de). A linear function converts the DNs into radiance factor (I/F). Visual interpretation Color composites Red-Green-blue (RGB) color composites of DNs images contain usable geological information. Dark basaltic sands and bright red dust appear always obvious. Materials generated from interaction of liquid water, like sulfates and
Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen
Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Soy protein and soy peptides have attracted considerable attention because of their potentially beneficial biological properties, including antihypertensive, anticarcinogenic, and hypolipidemic effects. Although soy protein isolate contains several bioactive peptides that have distinct physiological activities in lipid metabolism, it is not clear which peptide sequences are responsible for the triglyceride (TG-lowering effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of soy protein-derived peptides on lipid metabolism, especially TG metabolism, in HepG2 cells and obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF rats. Results In the first experiment, we found that soy crude peptide (SCP-LD3, which was prepared by hydrolyze of soy protein isolate with endo-type protease, showed hypolipidemic effects in HepG2 cells and OLETF rats. In the second experiment, we found that hydrophilic fraction, separated from SCP-LD3 with hydrophobic synthetic absorbent, revealed lipid-lowering effects in HepG2 cells and OLETF rats. In the third experiment, we found that Fraction-C (Frc-C peptides, fractionated from hydrophilic peptides by gel permeation chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography, significantly reduced TG synthesis and apolipoprotein B (apoB secretion in HepG2 cells. In the fourth experiment, we found that the fraction with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid, isolated from Frc-C peptides by octadecylsilyl column chromatography, showed hypolipidemic effects in HepG2 cells. In the final experiment, we found that 3 di-peptides, Lys-Ala, Val-Lys, and Ser-Tyr, reduced TG synthesis, and Ser-Tyr additionally reduced apoB secretion in HepG2 cells. Conclusion Novel active peptides with TG-lowering effects from soy protein have been isolated.
Full Text Available Abstract Background: High intensity training can lead to lower the appetite. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of folate supplementation on ghrelin level of stomach and insulin level of serum in male wistar rats during 10 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven male Wistar rats (weight= 203.94±27.34 gr, Age: 9 weeks after one week familiarization, were randomly divided into four groups: control (n=6, folate supplementation (n=6, (HIIT (n=7 and HIIT+ folate supplement (n=8. HIIT training protocol started with 30 m/min running on treadmill for 1 min with 10 reps and 2 min active rest at the first week and reached to 75-80 m/min for 1 min with 7 reps and 3 min active rest at last 3 weeks. Acylated ghrelin level of stomach tissue and serum level of insulin were assayed by ELISA kit. Results: The results of Kruskal-vallis analysis showed that the ghrelin level of stomach was increased significantly (p=0.001 in folate+HIIT in compare with HIIT group. Also, insulin level of serum was decreased significantly (p=0.001 in folate +HIIT in compare with control and HIIT groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, folate supplementation during high intensity interval training, increased the ghrelin of stomach and decreased the insulin level of serum. So, it seems that folate supplementation can prevent from losing appetite in athletes who train with high intensity training with interval type.
Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna
Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars’ history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low. PMID:29568719
This study aims at showing the positive effects of arts therapies in individual and group sessions, with an aging, valid or dependent population, presenting symptoms of dementia or not. The improvement of cognition (including memory), well-being, as well as of certain medical problems (pain, tension...) was underlined in several studies on arts therapies, including especially the use of music therapeutic techniques. Indeed, music stimulates the emotional memory, causing the emergence of ancient memories, thus restoring narcissism. The well-being of participants is increased. Our population consists of elderly people, most of them suffering from dementia. They come to the workshops by themselves or led by their families. Music but also pictorial arts are used as a therapeutic mediation for one session per week during the time of hospitalization. This period varies depending on the condition of the subject. The scales used in T1 and T2 with patients suffering from dementia are the Echelle d'appréciation clinique en gériatrie by Bouvard & Cottraux and the Fragebogen zur Beurteilung der Behandlung durch den Therapeuten (FBB-T) by Mattejat and Remschmidt. Regarding the criteria for external validation, a semi-structured interview is proposed to the nurses in T2. The scales used with valid people are the Index of Well-being by Campbell et al, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) by Zigmond and Snaith, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), validated by Vallières and Vallerand in 1990, and the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen (SVF 78) by Janke et al. CDC: There was a positive effect for most seniors who attended the sessions: an increased well-being and a temporary appropriation of memories. However, given the small size and the heterogeneity of samples, the irregularity of attendance, the results cannot be generalized. More regular sessions of arts therapies would be favorable for a consolidation of results.
McEwen, A.S.; Banks, M.E.; Baugh, N.; Becker, K.; Boyd, A.; Bergstrom, J.W.; Beyer, R.A.; Bortolini, E.; Bridges, N.T.; Byrne, S.; Castalia, B.; Chuang, F.C.; Crumpler, L.S.; Daubar, I.; Davatzes, A.K.; Deardorff, D.G.; DeJong, A.; Alan, Delamere W.; Dobrea, E.N.; Dundas, C.M.; Eliason, E.M.; Espinoza, Y.; Fennema, A.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; Forrester, T.; Geissler, P.E.; Grant, J. A.; Griffes, J.L.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gulick, V.C.; Hansen, C.J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heyd, R.; Jaeger, W.L.; Jones, D.; Kanefsky, B.; Keszthelyi, L.; King, R.; Kirk, R.L.; Kolb, K.J.; Lasco, J.; Lefort, A.; Leis, R.; Lewis, K.W.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Mattson, S.; McArthur, G.; Mellon, M.T.; Metz, J.M.; Milazzo, M.P.; Milliken, R.E.; Motazedian, T.; Okubo, C.H.; Ortiz, A.; Philippoff, A.J.; Plassmann, J.; Polit, A.; Russell, P.S.; Schaller, C.; Searls, M.L.; Spriggs, T.; Squyres, S. W.; Tarr, S.; Thomas, N.; Thomson, B.J.; Tornabene, L.L.; Van Houten, C.; Verba, C.; Weitz, C.M.; Wray, J.J.
The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) acquired 8 terapixels of data in 9137 images of Mars between October 2006 and December 2008, covering ???0.55% of the surface. Images are typically 5-6 km wide with 3-color coverage over the central 20% of the swath, and their scales usually range from 25 to 60 cm/pixel. Nine hundred and sixty stereo pairs were acquired and more than 50 digital terrain models (DTMs) completed; these data have led to some of the most significant science results. New methods to measure and correct distortions due to pointing jitter facilitate topographic and change-detection studies at sub-meter scales. Recent results address Noachian bedrock stratigraphy, fluvially deposited fans in craters and in or near Valles Marineris, groundwater flow in fractures and porous media, quasi-periodic layering in polar and non-polar deposits, tectonic history of west Candor Chasma, geometry of clay-rich deposits near and within Mawrth Vallis, dynamics of flood lavas in the Cerberus Palus region, evidence for pyroclastic deposits, columnar jointing in lava flows, recent collapse pits, evidence for water in well-preserved impact craters, newly discovered large rayed craters, and glacial and periglacial processes. Of particular interest are ongoing processes such as those driven by the wind, impact cratering, avalanches of dust and/or frost, relatively bright deposits on steep gullied slopes, and the dynamic seasonal processes over polar regions. HiRISE has acquired hundreds of large images of past, present and potential future landing sites and has contributed to scientific and engineering studies of those sites. Warming the focal-plane electronics prior to imaging has mitigated an instrument anomaly that produces bad data under cold operating conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.
Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna
Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars' history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in university students‟ self - esteem and psychosomatic symptoms in terms of some demographic variables. A total of 660 students - 334 female and 326 male - , who were randomly chosen from the students of Sport Sciences and Theology Faculties studying in Ondokuz Mayıs University during the academic year 2013 - 2014, participated in the study voluntarily. The data was collected through a “Demographic Information Form” developed by the researcher and “Rosenberg Self - Esteem Scale” which was developed in 1963, checked for validity and reliability in 1965 in USA by Morris Rosenberg and checked for validity and reliability in Turkey by Çuhadaroğlu (1986. The data was statistically analyzed by Kolmogorov Smirnov, Ma nn Whitney U, Kruskal Vallis and Bonferronni correction test. The level of significance was taken as 0.05. The finding that there was no significant difference in the self - esteem levels of Sports Sciences Faculty students is in parallel with the findings o f Yüksekkaya (1995:48 who reported that the variable of gender did not cause a significant difference on self - esteem. In the other result, it was seen a significant difference in sport science faculty students‟ scores when students‟ self - esteem compared t o the level of the class variables but hasn‟t seen in the faculty of theology. However, as noted in studies similar to our study, students' grade level progresses, levels of self - esteem increased. These findings were discussed in the light of literature an d suggestions were made for future studies.
Le Maistre, S.; Péters, M. J.; Yseboodt, M.; Dehant, V. M. A.
estimates obtained from RISE alone.In addition, because the two candidate landing sites of ExoMars are higher in latitude (18.20°N for Oxia Planum, 22°N for Mawrth Vallis) than InSight (4°N), we could estimate for the very first time the Chandler Wobble component of the polar motion using LaRa (Le Maistre et al., 2012), which is also powerful to constrain Mars interior and atmospheric models.
Mittlefehldt, D. W.
The capability of scientific instrumentation flown on planetary orbiters and landers has made great advances since the signature Viking mission of the seventies. At some point, however, the science return from orbital remote sensing, and even in situ measurements, becomes incremental, rather than revolutionary. This is primarily caused by the low spatial resolution of such measurements, even for landed instrumentation, the incomplete mineralogical record derived from such measurements, the inability to do the detailed textural, mineralogical and compositional characterization needed to demonstrate equilibrium or reaction paths, and the lack of chronological characterization. For the foreseeable future, flight instruments will suffer from this limitation. In order to make the next revolutionary breakthrough in understanding the early geological and climatological history of Mars, samples must be available for interrogation using the full panoply of laboratory-housed analytical instrumentation. Laboratory studies of samples allow for determination of parageneses of rocks through microscopic identification of mineral assemblages, evaluation of equilibrium through electron microbeam analyses of mineral compositions and structures, determination of formation temperatures through secondary ion or thermal ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS or TIMS) analyses of stable isotope compositions. Such details are poorly constrained by orbital data (e.g. phyllosilicate formation at Mawrth Vallis), and incompletely described by in situ measurements (e.g. genesis of Burns formation sediments at Meridiani Planum). Laboratory studies can determine formation, metamorphism and/or alteration ages of samples through SIMS or TIMS of radiogenic isotope systems; a capability well-beyond flight instrumentation. Ideally, sample return should be from a location first scouted by landers such that fairly mature hypotheses have been formulated that can be tested. However, samples from clastic
The Curiosity Rover landed on the Peace Vallis alluvial fan in Gale crater on August 5, 2012. A primary mission science objective is to search for past habitable environments, and, in particular, to assess the role of past water. Identifying the minerals and mineraloids that result from aqueous alteration at Gale crater is essential for understanding past aqueous processes at the MSL landing site and hence for interpreting the site's potential habitability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the CheMin instrument and evolved gas analyses (EGA) from the SAM instrument have helped the MSL science team identify phases that resulted from aqueous processes: phyllosilicates and amorphous phases were measure in two drill samples (John Klein and Cumberland) obtained from the Sheepbed Member, Yellowknife Bay Fm., which is believed to represent a fluvial-lacustrine environment. A third set of analyses was obtained from scoop samples from the Rocknest sand shadow. Chemical data from the APXS instrument have helped constrain the chemical compositions of these secondary phases and suggest that the phyllosilicate component is Mg-enriched and the amorphous component is Fe-enriched, relatively Si-poor, and S- and H-bearing. To refine the phyllosilicate and amorphous components in the samples measured by MSL, we measured XRD and EGA data for a variety of relevant natural terrestrial phyllosilicates and synthetic mineraloids in laboratory testbeds of the CheMin and SAM instruments. Specifically, Mg-saturated smectites and vermiculites were measured with XRD at low relative humidity to understand the behavior of the 001 reflections under Mars-like conditions. Our laboratory XRD measurements suggest that interlayer cation composition affects the hydration state of swelling clays at low RH and, thus, the 001 peak positions. XRD patterns of synthetic amorphous materials, including allophane, ferrihydrite, and hisingerite were used in full-pattern fitting (FULLPAT) models to help
Full Text Available Alien invasive plants pose significant ecological, social and economic challenges for South Africa. These species threaten South Africa’s rich biodiversity, deplete our scarce water resources, reduce the agricultural potential of land, cause soil erosion and intensify flooding and fires. According to recent estimations, over eight percent of land in South Africa has been invaded by these species and at current rates of expansion their impact could double in the next fifteen years. In an attempt to curb the impending crises, the South African government has promulgated eleven national and various provincial laws which contain mechanisms for regulating the different threats posed by alien invasive plants. Certain of these laws are framework in nature while the majority are sectoral and aimed at regulating these species for one of the following four main purposes: biodiversity conservation; water conservation; agricultural management; and fire risk management. The responsibility for administering these laws spans four national departments, nine provincial environmental authorities, provincial conservation authorities, numerous local and statutory authorities. This fragmented regime, coupled with the adoption of a command and control approach to regulation, has proven inept in effectively regulating the spread of alien invasive plants in South Africa. This reality led the previous Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Mr Valli Moosa, to call for the development of a “coherent legislative framework … streamlined along the lines of the principles endorsed by the Convention on Biological Diversity”. This article critically analyses the government’s attempts to develop such a “coherent legislative framework” to regulate alien invasive plants in light of recent legislative reform. It is divided into two parts. Part one critically considers South Africa’s current laws of relevance to alien invasive plants with specific emphasis on
Hargitai, H. I.; Gulick, V. C.; Glines, N. H.
The Navua Valles are systems of paleodrainages located north of Dao Vallis, which empty into Hellas Planitia, the largest impact basin on Mars. In this study, we mapped and characterized the Navua Valles Region's individual drainage systems, including drainages along the southwestern flank of Hadriacus Mons, and one valley network from the same source as Navua Valles but flowing in the opposite direction. The major drainage systems share morphological characteristics common to both outflow channels and valley networks. The slopes in this region are dissected by two major Navua drainage systems (here Navua A* and B*) and several shorter, sub-parallel valleys formed on the highest gradient (approximately 20 m/km [1.15°]) slopes, at the lowest part of Hellas Basin's rim. The two major drainage systems originate in the highlands, and empty into the basin. Our mapping suggests that water in Navua Valles reached the basin floor in a complicated descent and included several episodes of surface ponding, surface runoff, infiltration, subsurface flow and subsequent outflow. The most prominent channel system, Navua A, forms a repetitive sequence of deep incision into bedrock, followed by a transition into broad channels in erodible materials, and then into unconfined deposits. This successive erosion-transport-deposition sequence continues to repeat along the valley's entire length forming a discontinuous pattern that is consistent with classical fluvial process models. The channels cut into volcanic plains likely emplaced from the formation of Tyrrhenus and Hadriacus Montes. The dendritic source valleys of Navua A originate from the rim of a highland crater while the rest of this subsystem consists of a single, discontinuous channel which is consistent with a single water source zone that likely supplied water for all channels downslope. These drainages may have formed as discontinuous channels, revealing the potential existence of subsurface drainage pathways located
Randomized controlled trial of a book-sharing intervention in a deprived South African community: effects on carer-infant interactions, and their relation to infant cognitive and socioemotional outcome.
Murray, Lynne; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Tomlinson, Mark; Vally, Zahir; Dadomo, Harold; MacLachlan, Brenda; Woodward, Charlotte; Cooper, Peter J
Consistent with evidence from high-income countries (HICs), we previously showed that, in an informal peri-urban settlement in a low-middle income country, training parents in book sharing with their infants benefitted infant language and attention (Vally, Murray, Tomlinson, & Cooper, ). Here, we investigated whether these benefits were explained by improvements in carer-infant interactions in both book-sharing and non-book-sharing contexts. We also explored whether infant socioemotional development benefitted from book sharing. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Carers of 14-16-month-old infants were randomized to 8 weeks' training in book sharing (n = 49) or a wait-list control group (n = 42). In addition to the cognitive measures reported previously, independent assessments were made at base line and follow-up of carer-infant interactions during book sharing and toy play. Assessments were also made, at follow-up only, of infant prosocial behaviour in a 'help task', and of infant imitation of doll characters' nonsocial actions and an interpersonal interaction. Eighty-two carer-infant pairs (90%) were assessed at follow-up. (Trial registration ISRCTN39953901). Carers who received the training showed significant improvements in book-sharing interactions (sensitivity, elaborations, reciprocity), and, to a smaller extent, in toy-play interactions (sensitivity). Infants in the intervention group showed a significantly higher rate of prosocial behaviour, and tended to show more frequent imitation of the interpersonal interaction. Improvements in carer behaviour during book sharing, but not during toy play, mediated intervention effects on all infant cognitive outcomes, and tended to mediate intervention effects on infant interpersonal imitation. Training in book sharing, a simple, inexpensive intervention that has been shown to benefit infant cognitive development in a low-middle income country, also shows promise for
Randomized controlled trial of a book-sharing intervention in a deprived South African community: effects on carer-infant interactions, and their relation to infant cognitive and socio-emotional outcome
Murray, Lynne; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Tomlinson, Mark; Vally, Zahir; Dadomo, Harold; MacLachlan, Brenda; Woodward, Charlotte; Cooper, Peter J.
Background Consistent with evidence from high income countries, we previously showed that, in an informal peri-urban settlement in a low-middle income country, training parents in book-sharing with their infants benefitted infant language and attention (Vally et al., 2015). Here, we investigated whether these benefits were explained by improvements in carer-infant interactions in both book-sharing and non-book-sharing contexts. We also explored whether infant socio-emotional development benefitted from book-sharing. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Carers of 14–16 month-old infants were randomized to 8 weeks’ training in book-sharing (n = 49) or a wait list control group (n = 42). In addition to the cognitive measures reported previously, independent assessments were made at base line and follow-up of carer-infant interactions during book-sharing and toy play. Assessments were also made, at follow-up only, of infant pro-social behaviour in a ‘help task’, and of infant imitation of doll characters’ non-social actions and an interpersonal interaction. Eighty-two carer-infant pairs (90%) were assessed at follow-up. (Trial registration ISRCTN39953901). Results Carers who received the training showed significant improvements in book-sharing interactions (sensitivity, elaborations, reciprocity), and, to a smaller extent, in toy-play interactions (sensitivity). Infants in the intervention group showed a significantly higher rate of pro-social behaviour, and tended to show more frequent imitation of the interpersonal interaction. Improvements in carer behaviour during book-sharing, but not during toy play, mediated intervention effects on all infant cognitive outcomes, and tended to mediate intervention effects on infant interpersonal imitation. Conclusions Training in book sharing, a simple, inexpensive intervention that has been shown to benefit infant cognitive development in a low-middle income country, also
Xu, Min; Kang, Shichang; Wu, Hao; Yuan, Xu
As abundant distribution of glaciers and snow, the Tianshan Mountains are highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Based on meteorological station records during 1960-2016, we detected the variations of air temperature and precipitation by using non-parametric method in the different sub-regions and different elevations of the Tianshan Mountains. The mutations of climate were investigated by Mann-Kendall abrupt change test in the sub-regions. The periodicity is examined by wavelet analysis employing a chi-square test and detecting significant time sections. The results show that the Tianshan Mountains experienced an overall rapid warming and wetting during study period, with average warming rate of 0.32 °C/10a and wet rate of 5.82 mm/10a, respectively. The annual and seasonal spatial variation of temperature showed different scales in different regions. The annual precipitation showed non-significant upward trend in 20 stations, and 6 stations showed a significant upward trend. The temperatures in the East Tianshan increased most rapidly at rates of 0.41 °C/10a. The increasing magnitudes of annual precipitation were highest in the Boertala Vally (8.07 mm/10a) and lowest in the East Tianshan (2.64 mm/10a). The greatest and weakest warming was below 500 m (0.42 °C/10a) and elevation of 1000-1500 m (0.23 °C/10a), respectively. The increasing magnitudes of annual precipitation were highest in the elevation of 1500 m-2000 m (9.22 mm/10a) and lowest in the elevation of below 500 m (3.45 mm/10a). The mutations of annual air temperature and precipitation occurred in 1995 and 1990, respectively. The large atmospheric circulation influenced on the mutations of climate. The significant periods of air temperature were 2.4-4.1 years, and annual precipitation was 2.5-7.4 years. Elevation dependency of temperature trend magnitude was not evidently in the Tianshan Mountains. The annual precipitation wetting trend was amplified with elevation in summer and autumn. The strong
Full Text Available L'articolo illustra le caratteristiche del LIPSI, il lessico di frequenza dell'italiano parlato in Svizzera. Il LIPSI, elaborato con metodi di linguistica computazionale sulla base di materiali linguistici raccolti sul campo, è il risultato di una ricerca durata quattro anni realizzata nell'ambito dei progetti dell' OLSI (Osservatorio linguistico della Svizzera italiana, istituito per la promozione della lingua e della cultura del Cantone Ticino. Il LIPSI non solo fornisce la lista di frequenza di circa 13.000 parole dell'italiano parlato nel Cantone Ticino e nelle Valli Grigioni italiane, ma la confronta con quella del LIP e di altri strumenti di statistica linguistica apparsi in Italia, e approfondisce alcuni aspetti che chiariscono meglio i contorni dell'italiano "statale" svizzero. Tale denominazione si fonda su ragioni di natura sia geografica-politica-amministrativa sia interne alla varietà e propone una considerazione dell'italiano come una lingua pluricentrica, una lingua cioè che presenta accanto al tradizionale centro metropolitano italiano, imperniato sul modello fiorentino assorbito nella lingua letteraria con apporti di altre varietà, un altro centro almeno parzialmente autonomo di irradiazione e di sviluppo, quello della Svizzera italiana. Il LIPSI si configura inoltre come strumento metodologico importante per la ricerca e la didattica nell'ambito dell'italiano L1/L2. This article illustrates the characteristics of LIPSI, the frequency lexicon of Italian spoken in Switzerland. LIPSI was compiled using computational linguistics methods based on materials collected in the field. It is the result of a four-year study carried out as part of OLSI (Osservatorio linguistico della Svizzera italiana, an institution which promotes the language and culture of Canton Ticino. LIPSI not only supplies a frequency list of about 13,000 Italian words spoken in Canton Ticino and the Italian Grigioni Valley, but it also compares this
Bristow, Thomas F.; Blake, David F.
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity spent approx 150 sols at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) studying a section of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks (with potential indications of volcanic influence), informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. YKB lies in a distal region of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, which extends from the northern rim of Gale Crater toward the dune field at the base of Mt Sharp. Sedimentological and stratigraphic observations are consistent with the Yellowknife Bay formation being part of a distal fan deposit, which could be as young as middle Hesperian to even early Amazonian in age (approx. 3.5 to 2.5 Ga). The Yellowknife Bay formation hosts a unit of mudstone called the Sheepbed member. Curiosity obtained powdered rock samples from two drill holes in the Sheepbed Member, named John Klein and Cumberland, and delivered them to instruments in Curiosity. Data from CheMin, a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD)/X-ray fluorescence instrument (XRF), has allowed detailed mineralogical analysis of mudstone powders revealing a clay mineral component of approx. 20 wt.% in each sample. The clay minerals are important indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions and sensitive recorders of post-depositional alteration processes. The XRD pattern of John Klein reveals a 02l band consistent with a trioctahedral phyllosilicate. A broad peak at approx. 10A with a slight inflexion at approx. 12A indicates the presence of 2:1 type clay minerals in the John Klein sample. The trioctahedral nature of the clay minerals, breadth of the basal reflection, and presence of a minor component with larger basal spacing suggests that John Klein contains a trioctahedral smectite (probably saponite), whose interlayer is largely collapsed because of the low-humidity conditions. The XRD patterns show no evidence of corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite/smectite) or chlorite, which are typical diagenetic products of trioctahedral smectites when subjected to burial and
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity spent approx 150 sols at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) studying a section of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks (with potential indications of volcanic influence), informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. YKB lies in a distal region of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, which extends from the northern rim of Gale Crater toward the dune field at the base of Mt Sharp. Sedimentological and stratigraphic observations are consistent with the Yellowknife Bay formation being part of a distal fan deposit, which could be as young as middle Hesperian to even early Amazonian in age (approx 3.5 to 2.5 Ga). The Yellowknife Bay formation hosts a unit of mudstone called the Sheepbed member. Curiosity obtained powdered rock samples from two drill holes in the Sheepbed Member, named John Klein and Cumberland, and delivered them to instruments in Curiosity. Data from CheMin, a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD)/X-ray fluorescence instrument (XRF), has allowed detailed mineralogical analysis of mudstone powders revealing a clay mineral component of approx 20 wt.% in each sample. The clay minerals are important indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions and sensitive recorders of post-depositional alteration processes. The XRD pattern of John Klein reveals a 021 band consistent with a trioctahedral phyllosilicate. A broad peak at approx 10A with a slight inflexion at approx 12A indicates the presence of 2:1 type clay minerals in the John Klein sample. The trioctahedral nature of the clay minerals, breadth of the basal reflection, and presence of a minor component with larger basal spacing suggests that John Klein contains a trioctahedral smectite (probably saponite), whose interlayer is largely collapsed because of the low-humidity conditions. The XRD patterns show no evidence of corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite/smectite) or chlorite, which are typical diagenetic products of trioctahedral smectites when subjected to burial and heating
Balme, Matt; Robson, Ellen; Barnes, Rob; Butcher, Frances; Fawdon, Peter; Huber, Ben; Ortner, Thomas; Paar, Gerhard; Traxler, Christoph; Bridges, John; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vago, Jorge L.
Recent aeolian bedforms comprising loose sand are common on the martian surface and provide a mobility hazard to Mars rovers. The ExoMars rover will launch in 2020 to one of two candidate sites: Mawrth Vallis or Oxia Planum. Both sites contain numerous aeolian bedforms with simple ripple-like morphologies. The larger examples are 'Transverse Aeolian Ridges' (TARs), which stereo imaging analyses have shown to be a few metres high and up to a few tens of metres across. Where they occur, TARs therefore present a serious, but recognized and avoidable, rover mobility hazard. There also exists a population of smaller bedforms of similar morphology, but it is unknown whether these bedforms will be traversable by the ExoMars rover. We informally refer to these bedforms as "mini-TARs", as they are about an order of magnitude smaller than most TARs observed to date. They are more abundant than TARs in the Oxia Planum site, and can be pervasive in areas. The aim of this paper is to estimate the heights of these features, which are too small to measured using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), from orbital data alone. Thereby, we aim to increase our knowledge of the hazards in the proposed ExoMars landing sites. We propose a methodology to infer the height of these mini-TARs based on comparisons with similar features observed by previous Mars rovers. We use rover-based stereo imaging from the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and PRo3D software, a 3D visualisation and analysis tool, to measure the size and height of mini-TARs in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. These are good analogues for the smaller bedforms at the ExoMars rover candidate landing sites. We show that bedform height scales linearly with length (as measured across the bedform, perpendicular to the crest ridge) with a ratio of about 1:15. We also measured the lengths of many of the smaller aeolian bedforms in the ExoMars rover Oxia Planum
ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite and also to sulfates, and at 250 °C mainly to magnetite instead of pyrite, associated to the same ferric oxides/hydroxides and sulfates. Some examples of geological terrains, such as Mawrth Vallis on Mars, the Tagish Lake meteorite and hydrothermal venting fields, where hydrolysis/oxidation of ferromagnesian silicates and iron(II)-monosulfides may occur, are discussed. Considering the evolution of rocks during their interaction with water, in the absence of oxygen and in radiolyzed water, with hydrothermal release of H2 and the plausible associated formation of components of life, geobiotropic signatures are proposed. They are mainly Fe(III)-phyllosilicates, magnetite, ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite, hematite, but not pyrite.
Sibille, L.; Mueller, R.; Niles, P. B.; Glotch, T.; Archer, P. D.; Bell, M. S.
Aram Chaos, Mars is a crater 280 kilometers in diameter with elevations circa. minus 2 to minus 3 kilometers below datum that provides a compelling landing site for future human explorers as it features multiple scientific regions of interest (ROI) paired with a rich extensible Resource ROI that features poly-hydrated sulfates . The geologic history of Aram Chaos suggests several past episodes of groundwater recharge and infilling by liquid water, ice, and other materials [1-3]. The creation of the fractured region with no known terrestrial equivalent may have been caused by melting of deep ice reservoirs that triggered the collapse of terrain followed by catastrophic water outflows over the region. Aram Chaos is of particular scientific interest because it is hypothesized that the chaotic terrain may be the source of water that contributed to the creation of nearby valleys such as Ares Vallis flowing toward Chryse Planitia. The liquid water was likely sourced as groundwater and therefore represents water derived from a protected subsurface environment making it a compelling astrobiological site . The past history of water is also represented by high concentrations of hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxides, mono-hydrated and poly-hydrated sulfates [1, 2]. Poly-hydrated sulfates are likely to contain abundant water that evolves at temperatures below 500 degrees Centigrade thus conferring Aram Chaos a potentially high value for early in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) . The geologic history also calls for future prospecting of deep ice deposits and possibly liquid water via deep drilling. The most recent stratigraphic units in the central part of Aram Chaos are not fractured, and are part of a dome-shaped formation that features bright, poorly-consolidated material that contains both hydrated sulfates and ferric oxides according to OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) data . These surface material characteristics are
(Released 17 May 2002) The Science Although the largest volcanoes on Mars (and the solar system) are located in the geologically young Tharsis region, there are many other martian volcanoes that display equally interesting features, such as Hadriaca Patera, shown in this image. Hadriaca Patera is located to the northeast of the Hellas Planitia impact basin in the southern hemisphere. Unlike the Tharsis volcanoes, Hadriaca Patera has very low relief, standing only about 1-2 km above the surrounding plains. Many scientists believe that Hadriaca Patera and other patera volcanoes (e.g., Tyrrhena) had significant interaction with subsurface water that produced mostly explosive ash deposits (pyroclastic flows), rather than just lava flows. Nearby sources of water might have included Dao Vallis on the southern flank of the volcano. The upper portion of this image shows relatively smooth terrain located in the central caldera, which has been nearly filled in with late-stage lava flows. The lower half of the image shows lobate flows as well as furrows in the ash deposits that make up the volcano's southern flank; these erosional furrows may have formed by surface runoff or sapping by groundwater. Just below the center of the image, a few small sinuous troughs are visible, and may be collapsed lava tubes or collapse features related to subsurface water. The number of impact craters on a planetary surface is commonly used as a proxy for the age of the surface -- an old surface has had time to accumulate more craters than a young surface. The relatively small number of large craters in the image indicates that the surface in this area is younger than the nearby heavily cratered ancient terrains outside the Hellas basin, but there are more craters on this surface than would be found on the average volcanic surface in Tharsis (there are some very large old craters on the volcano's flank to the southeast of this image). Paterae in general are older than the Tharsis volcanoes. At
(Released 7 June 2002) The Science This ancient sinuous river channel, located near 30o N, 299o W (61o E), was likely carved by water early in Mars history. Auqakuh Valles cuts through a remarkable series of rock layers that were deposited and then subsequently eroded. This change from conditions favoring deposition to those favoring erosion indicates that the environment of this region has changed significantly over time. In addition, the different rock layers seen in this image vary in hardness, with some being relatively soft and easily eroded, whereas others are harder and resistant. These differences imply that these layers vary in their composition, physical properties, and/or degree of cementation, and again suggest that major changes have occurred during the history of this region. Similar differences occur throughout the southwest U.S., where hard rock layers, such as the limestones and sandstones in the Grand Canyon, form resistant cliffs, whereas softer mudstones are easily eroded to form broad slopes. The Martian layers, such as the smooth, dark-toned mesas visible in numerous places to the right (east) of the channel, were once continuous across the region. As these layers have eroded, they have produced a wide array of textures, from smooth surfaces, to knobby terrains, to the unusual lobate patterns seen in the upper right of the image. The most recent activity in the region appears to be the formation of mega-ripples by the wind. These ripples, spaced approximately 75 m apart, form perpendicular to the wind direction, and can be seen following the pattern of the channel floor as it curves through this region. This pattern shows that even this relatively small channel, which varies in width from about 500 to 750 m throughout this image, acts to funnel the wind down the channel. The Story Auqakuh Vallis, an ancient river channel that winds its way down the center of this image, is the 'fossil' remains of an earlier, probably more watery time in
Grosfils, Eric B.; Long, Sylvan M.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Richards, Joseph W.; Drury, Dorothy E.; Hardin, Johanna
The Ganiki Planitia (V-14) quadrangle on Venus, which extends from 25° N. to 50° N. and from 180° E. to 210° E., derives its name from the extensive suite of plains that dominates the geology of the northern part of the region. With a surface area of nearly 6.5 x 106 km2 (roughly two-thirds that of the United States), the quadrangle is located northwest of the Beta-Atla-Themis volcanic zone and southeast of the Atalanta Planitia lowlands, areas proposed to be the result of large scale mantle upwelling and downwelling, respectively. The region immediately south of Ganiki Planitia is dominated by Atla Regio, a major volcanic rise beneath which localized upwelling appears to be ongoing, whereas the area just to the north is dominated by the orderly system of north-trending deformation belts that characterize Vinmara Planitia. The Ganiki Planitia quadrangle thus lies at the intersection between several physiographic regions where extensive mantle flow-induced tectonic and volcanic processes are thought to have occurred. The geology of the V-14 quadrangle is characterized by a complex array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact-derived features. There are eleven impact craters with diameters from 4 to 64 km, as well as four diffuse 'splotch' features interpreted to be the product of near-surface bolide explosions. Tectonic activity has produced heavily deformed tesserae, belts of complex deformation and rifts as well as a distributed system of fractures and wrinkle ridges. Volcanic activity has produced extensive regional plains deposits, and in the northwest corner of the quadrangle these plains host the initial (or terminal) 700 km of the Baltis Vallis canali, an enigmatic volcanic feature with a net length of ~7,000 km that is the longest channel on Venus. Major volcanic centers in V-14 include eight large volcanoes and eight coronae; all but one of these sixteen features was noted during a previous global survey. The V-14 quadrangle contains an abundance of minor
Full Text Available تتفق المصادر الأجنبية على أن مدينة الجزائر عرفت طيلة العهد العثماني انتشارا للأمن والاستقرار، تجسد من خلال قلة الأعمال الإجرامية وشعور السكان بالطمأنينة، وهذا ما ورد ذكره في مذكرات وملاحظات الأجانب الذين زاروا المدينة، فقد أشار إلى ذلك معاصرو القرن السادس عشر والسابع عشر مثل " هايدو Haedo " و" قراماي Gramaye "، كما ذكره كتاب القرن الثامن عشر ومطلع القرن التاسع عشر ومن هؤلاء " فاليير Vallière " الذي أشار إلى قلة أعمال السرقة واللصوصية في المدينة، ويربط ذلك بصرامة العقوبات المسلطة على كل من يقبض عليه متلبسا بجرم مهما كانت طبيعته، كما يرى أن الإنارة الجيدة للأزقة وإغلاق الأحياء ليلا لفصلها عن بعضها البعض بسياج ساهم بدوره في انتشار الأمن. ويبدي " باننتي Pananti" إعجابه الشديد بهذا التنظيم حين يقول: " أظن أن النظام الجزائري هو الأفضل والأصلح لأولئك الذين يعيشون في عالمنا المتحضر.".. أما القنصل الأمريكي " شالر Shaler" فنجده يربط بين سيادة الأمن وحسن تنظيم جهاز الشرطة عندما يقول : " وأنا أعتقد أنه لا يوجد مدينة أخرى في العالم يبدي فيها البوليس نشاطا أكبر مما تبديه الشرطة الجزائرية التي لا تكاد جريمة تفلت من رقابتها، كما أنه لا يوجد بلد آخر يتمتع فيه المواطن وممتلكاته بأمن أكبر.
) can be seen near the crater in the lower left corner. The texture that runs diagonally across the scene from upper left toward lower right consists of ridges created by the giant floods that washed through the Pathfinder site from Ares and/or Tiu Vallis many hundreds of millions of years ago. These ridges and the troughs between them were also seen by the Pathfinder lander; their crests often covered with boulders and cobbles (which cannot be seen at the resolution of the MOC image). The 100 m scale bar is equal to 109 yards (which can be compared with a 100 yard U.S. football field). The Mars Pathfinder landing site is located near the center of this view.The fourth picture, Figure D (above), shows a feature that was initially thought to be the Mars Pathfinder lander by MOC investigators. This and the following figures point out just how difficult it is to find a lander on the martian surface using the MGS MOC. Figure D was prepared early in the week following receipt of the new MOC image on January 17, 2000, and for several days it was believed that the lander had been found. As the subsequent two figures will show (E, and F, below), this location appears to be in error. How the features were misidentified is discussed below. Both Figure D and Figure F, showing possible locations of the Pathfinder lander in the MOC image, are enlarged by a factor of three over the intrinsic resolution of that image (that is, to a scale of 0.5 meters or about 1 ft, 7 inch per pixel). The right picture in Figure D shows sight-lines to the large horizon features--Big Crater, Twin Peaks, and North Peak--that were derived by the MOC team by looking at the images taken by the lander in 1997. After placing these lines on the overall image, there appeared to be two features close to the intersection of the sight-lines. Based upon the consistency of the size and shape of the lander as illuminated by sunlight in this image, the northern of the two candidate features (the small 'hump' at the