WorldWideScience

Sample records for valley victoria land

  1. Prokaryotic Abundance and Activity in Permafrost of the Northern Victoria Land and Upper Victoria Valley (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Michaud, Luigi; Caruso, Gabriella; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Cabral, Anderson S; Conte, Antonella; Cosenza, Alessandro; Maimone, Giovanna; Papale, Maria; Rappazzo, Alessandro Ciro; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    Victoria Land permafrost harbours a potentially large pool of cold-affected microorganisms whose metabolic potential still remains underestimated. Three cores (BC-1, BC-2 and BC-3) drilled at different depths in Boulder Clay (Northern Victoria Land) and one sample (DY) collected from a core in the Dry Valleys (Upper Victoria Valley) were analysed to assess the prokaryotic abundance, viability, physiological profiles and potential metabolic rates. The cores drilled at Boulder Clay were a template of different ecological conditions (different temperature regime, ice content, exchanges with atmosphere and with liquid water) in the same small basin while the Dry Valleys site was very similar to BC-2 conditions but with a complete different geological history and ground ice type. Image analysis was adopted to determine cell abundance, size and shape as well as to quantify the potential viable and respiring cells by live/dead and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride staining, respectively. Subpopulation recognition by apparent nucleic acid contents was obtained by flow cytometry. Moreover, the physiological profiles at community level by Biolog-Ecoplate™ as well as the ectoenzymatic potential rates on proteinaceous (leucine-aminopeptidase) and glucidic (ß-glucosidase) organic matter and on organic phosphates (alkaline-phosphatase) by fluorogenic substrates were tested. The adopted methodological approach gave useful information regarding viability and metabolic performances of microbial community in permafrost. The occurrence of a multifaceted prokaryotic community in the Victoria Land permafrost and a large number of potentially viable and respiring cells (in the order of 10 4 -10 5 ) were recognised. Subpopulations with a different apparent DNA content within the different samples were observed. The physiological profiles stressed various potential metabolic pathways among the samples and intense utilisation rates of polymeric carbon compounds and carbohydrates

  2. Granitoids of the Dry Valleys area, southern Victoria Land : geochemistry and evolution along the early Paleozoic Antarctic Craton margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Cox, S.C.; Smillie, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    Field relationships and geochemistry indicate granitoid plutons of the Dry Valleys area comprise at least three petrogenetically distinct suites. The older Dry Valleys 1a (DV1a) suite, comprising the Bonney, Catspaw, Denton, Cavendish, and Wheeler Plutons and hornblende-biotite orthogneisses, and Dry Valleys 1b (DV1b) suite, comprising the Hedley, Valhalla, St Johns, Dun, Calkin, and Suess Plutons, biotite granitoid dikes and biotite orthogneisses, were emplaced before prominent swarms of Vanda mafic and felsic dikes. Both the DV1a and DV1b suites are time transgressive, with older intrusions in each suite being emplaced during the later stages of deformation of the Koettlitz Group. Younger granitoids that postdate the majority of the Vanda dikes include: the Dry Valleys 2 (DV2) suite, comprising the Pearse and Nibelungen Plutons plus several smaller, unnamed plugs; and the Harker, Swinford, Orestes, and Brownworth Plutons with identical field relationships and enclaves but distinct chemistries. Chemical characteristics and limited Rb-Sr isotopic dating indicate plutonism before c. 500 Ma was dominated by the Cordilleran I-type DV1a suite, inferred to have developed during melting above a west-dipping subduction zone along the Antarctic Craton margin. The chemical characteristics of the DV1b suite indicate large-scale melting of a quartzo-feldspathic protolith lacking residual plagioclase, but containing refractory garnet. Potential DV1b suite source rocks include metamorphosed immature sediments, possibly underplated along the subduction zone associated with DV1a magmatism, or older granitoid orthogneisses. Major DV1b plutonism at 490 Ma marks the end of subduction-related plutonism in southern Victoria Land. Younger DV2 alkali-calcic, Caledonian I-type plutonism is inferred to have formed in response to uplift and extension between 480 and 455 Ma. Lack of DV2 suite correlatives and Vanda mafic and felsic dikes in northern Victoria Land suggests significantly

  3. Granitoids of the Dry Valleys area, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica : plutons, field relationships, and isotopic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Cox, S.C.; Johnstone, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed mapping throughout much of the Dry Valleys area indicates the region is underlain by 15 major granitoid plutons and numerous smaller plugs and dikes. Intrusive relationships of these plutons and dikes indicate repeated intrusion of superficially similar granitoids at different times. Sufficient internal lithologic variation occurs within individual plutons, to allow correlation with several of the previously defined granitoid units based on lithologic character. Consequently, previous subdivision schemes based on lithology are no longer tenable and are here replaced with a subdivision scheme based on the identification of individual plutons. The elongate, concordant Bonney, Denton, Cavendish, and Wheeler Plutons, which range in composition between monzodiorite and granodiorite, are the oldest relatively undeformed plutons in the Dry Valleys area. Each pluton is characterised by flow alignment of K-feldspar megacrysts, hornblende, biotite, and mafic enclaves. Field relationships and radiometric dating indicate these are deep-level plutons, emplaced synchronous with upper amphibolite facies metamorphism of the adjacent Koettlitz Group between 589 and 490 Ma ago. Elongate, discordant plutons of equigranular homogeneous biotite granodiorite and granite (Hedley, Valhalla, St Johns, Suess) were subsequently emplaced by stoping at a relatively high crustal level at 490 Ma. These eight plutons are cut by numerous swarms of Vanda mafic and felsic porphyry dikes. The ovoid, discordant, high level Pearse, Nibelungen, Orestes, Brownworth, Swinford, and Harker Plutons, emplaced between c. 486 and 477 Ma, display mutually crosscutting relationships with the youngest of the Vanda dikes. These younger plutons range in composition between monzonite and granite. Some are characterised by K-feldspar megacrystic textures superficially similar to some of the oldest concordant plutons. (author). 57 refs.; 2 tabs.; 4 figs

  4. Isotopic character of Cambro-Ordovician plutonism, southern Victoria Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.C.; Parkinson, D.L.; Allibone, A.H.; Cooper, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Previous mapping of granitoid rocks in the Dry Valleys area of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, identified the calc-alkaline (DV1a), adakitic (DV1b), and monzonitic (DV2) suites. A fourth older suite comprising alkaline gabbro, syenite, and A-type granite occurs in the Mt Dromedary area c. 80 km to the south. U-Pb zircon dating of Bonney Pluton, the largest calc-alkaline DV1a intrusion, indicates emplacement of this regional-scale body at 505 +/- 2 Ma. Pb-loss and inherited zircon were common to Bonney Pluton analyses of this study. U-Pb dating of monazite from Valhalla Pluton, a principal DV1b suite adakitic intrusion, indicates emplacement at 488 +/- 2 Ma. The Bonney Pluton age constrains the peak of calc-alkaline plutonism at 505 Ma and the Valhalla Pluton age records the major pulse of adakitic plutonism that is inferred to mark the final stages of subduction c. 490 Ma along this section of the East Antarctic margin. Nd and Sr isotope data for the calc-alkaline DV1a suite and adakitic DV1b suite define distinct ranges for each suite, supporting their subdivision on the basis of field relationships, petrography, and whole-rock geochemistry. Calc-alkaline DV1a suite granite magmas have eNd(T) = -4.2 to -6.1 and Sri = 0.7071-0.7079, whereas the adakitic DV1b suite rocks have a wider range of eNd(T) = -1.9 to -7.2 and Sri = 0.7065-0.7097. The isotopic data suggest a significant mantle component and subordinate crustal component in the source region of both suites. Time-dependent variations in the isotopic ratios of DV1a and DV1b suites imply a progressive increase in the proportion of more radiogenic material in the source region of the granitoid rocks, either mantle- or crust-derived material. Larger adakitic DV1b plutons are more 'evolved' than equivalent, smaller plutons of the same DV1b suite. Vanda Dikes and monzonitic DV2 suite intrusions are characterised by particularly low Sri = 0.7044-0.7067 and near-constant eNd(T) = -4.8 to -5.3, which indicate a

  5. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmore, G. [Hazelwood Power Corporation, VIC (Australia); Pacific Power (International) Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled `SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy`. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs.

  7. Water and waste water management Generation Victoria - Latrobe Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmore, G.

    1995-01-01

    Water is a necessary resource for coal fired power plant and waste water is generated. The efficient management of water and waste water systems becomes an important operational environmental factor. This paper describes the development and implementation of a ten year water and waste water management strategy for the Latrobe Valley Group of brown coal fired power stations in Victoria. In early 1991, a team was put together of representatives from each power site to develop the strategy entitled 'SECV Latrobe Valley Water and Wastewater Management Strategy'. The strategy was developed with extensive public consultation, which was a factor in protracting the process such that the final document was not promulgated until late 1992. However, the final comprehensive document endorsed and agreed by management, has since attracted favourable comment as a model of its type. (author). 2 figs

  8. Sand dune movement in the Victoria Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Mary C.; Ewing, Ryan C.; Finnegan, David; McGowan, Hamish A.

    2009-08-01

    We use vertical aerial photographs and LiDAR topographic survey data to estimate dune migration rates in the Victoria Valley dunefield, Antarctica, between 1961 and 2001. Results confirm that the dunes migrated an average of 1.5 m/year. These values are consistent with other estimates of dune migration from cold climate deserts and are significantly lower than estimates from warm deserts. Dune migration rates are retarded by the presence of entrained ice, soil moisture and a reversing wind regime. Dune absorption, merging and limb extension are apparent from the time-series images and account for significant changes in dune form and the field-scale dune pattern. Dune-field pattern analysis shows an overall increase in dune-field organization with an increase in mean dune spacing and a reduction in total crest length and defect density. These data suggest that dunes in other cold desert environments on Earth, Mars or Titan, that may also have inter-bedded frozen laminae, still have the potential to migrate and organize, albeit at lower rates than dunes in warm deserts.

  9. Chemodenitrification in the cryoecosystem of Lake Vida, Victoria Valley, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, N E; Gandhi, H; Trubl, G; Murray, A E

    2016-11-01

    Lake Vida, in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica, is frozen, yet harbors liquid brine (~20% salt, >6 times seawater) intercalated in the ice below 16 m. The brine has been isolated from the surface for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, -13.4 °C, lack of O 2 , and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. For example, nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is present at a concentration among the highest reported for an aquatic environment. Only a minor 17 O anomaly was observed in N 2 O, indicating that this gas was predominantly formed in the lake. In contrast, the 17 O anomaly in nitrate (NO3-) in Lake Vida brine indicates that approximately half or more of the NO3- present is derived from atmospheric deposition. Lake Vida brine was incubated in the presence of 15 N-enriched substrates for 40 days. We did not detect microbial nitrification, dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to ammonium (NH4+), anaerobic ammonium oxidation, or denitrification of N 2 O under the conditions tested. In the presence of 15 N-enriched nitrite (NO2-), both N 2 and N 2 O exhibited substantial 15 N enrichments; however, isotopic enrichment declined with time, which is unexpected. Additions of 15 N-NO2- alone and in the presence of HgCl 2 and ZnCl 2 to aged brine at -13 °C resulted in linear increases in the δ 15 N of N 2 O with time. As HgCl 2 and ZnCl 2 are effective biocides, we interpret N 2 O production in the aged brine to be the result of chemodenitrification. With this understanding, we interpret our results from the field incubations as the result of chemodenitrification stimulated by the addition of 15 N-enriched NO2- and ZnCl 2 and determined rates of N 2 O and N 2 production of 4.11-41.18 and 0.55-1.75 nmol L -1  day -1 , respectively. If these rates are representative of natural production, the current concentration of N 2 O in Lake Vida could have been reached between 6 and 465 years. Thus, chemodenitrification alone is sufficient to explain the

  10. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  11. Monitoring geodynamic activity in the Victoria Land, East Antarctica: Evidence from GNSS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutta, A.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.; Mancini, F.; Sterzai, P.; Dubbini, M.; Galeandro, A.; Capra, A.

    2017-10-01

    GNSS networks in Antarctica are a fundamental tool to define actual crustal displacements due to geological and geophysical processes and to constrain the glacial isostatic models (GIA). A large network devoted to the detection and monitoring of crustal deformations in the Northern Victoria Land (Victoria Land Network for DEFormation control - VLNDEF), was monumented during the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 field campaigns, as part of Italian National Program for Antarctic Research and surveyed periodically during the Southern summer seasons. In this paper, GPS observations of VLNDEF collected over a more than 15-year span, together with various selected POLENET sites and more than 70 IGS stations, were processed with Bernese Software, using a classical double difference approach. A solution was obtained combining NEQs by means of ADDNEQ2/FODITS tools embedded in Bernese Software. All the Antarctic sites were kept free and a subset of 50 IGS stations were used to frame VLNDEF into ITRF2008. New evidence provided by analysis of GPS time series for the VLNDEF network is presented; also displacements along the vertical component are compared with the recently published GIA models. The absolute velocities indicate an overall displacement of the northern Victoria Land region along the south-east direction (Ve = 10.6 mm/yr, Vn = -11.5 mm/yr) and an average uplift rate of Vu = 0.5 mm/yr. Two GIA models have been analyzed: ICE-6G_C-VM5a proposed by Argus et al. (2014), Peltier et al. (2015) and W12A_v1 by Whitehouse et al. (2012a,b). Up rates, predicted over the VLNDEF sites by the mentioned GIA models, have been extracted and compared with those observed. A preliminary comparison with GPS-derived vertical rates shows that the Victoria Land ICE-6G_C-VM5 and W12A_v1 GIA models predict overestimated uplift rates of 0.7 and 0.9 mm/yr weighted mean residuals respectively. The mean horizontal relative motions within the Victoria Land (VL) area are in most cases negligible, while only

  12. The Fontaine Pluton : an early Ross Orogeny calc-alkaline gabbro from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottle, J.M.; Cooper, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    The Fontaine Pluton is a previously undescribed mafic intrusion outcropping at Fontaine Bluff on the south side of the Carlyon Glacier in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. It is the southern-most member of a laterally extensive mafic suite emplaced at mid-crustal depths during the initial stages of the Ross Orogeny. The pluton comprises recrystallised hornblende-biotite gabbro, which in places shows well-defined centimetre to metre scale primary igneous layering. Recrystallised ultramafic enclaves composed of amphibole-chlorite-talc are inferred to be remnants of a chemically and mineralogically distinct cumulate fraction. The intrusion has a 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (i) ratio of 0.70679 and a 143 Nd/ 144 Nd (i) ratio of 0.51187 (εNd (i) = -1.2). This, coupled with other geochemical data, implies that the Fontaine Pluton was formed by c. 15% partial melting of a depleted mantle source that was subsequently contaminated by continental crust. Preliminary U-Pb geochronology on zircon suggests an emplacement age for the pluton of 546 ± 10 Ma. These new data indicate that Ross Orogeny magmatism in this area of southern Victoria Land was initiated in the late Neoproterozoic along a subducting plate margin. (author). 55 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Neutron activation analysis on sediments from Victoria Land, Antarctica. Multi-elemental characterization of potential atmospheric dust sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccolo, G.; Maggi, V.; Baroni, C.; Clemenza, M.; Motta, A.; Nastasi, M.; Previtali, E.; University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan; Delmonte, B.; Salvatore, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The elemental composition of 40 samples of mineral sediments collected in Victoria Land, Antarctica, in correspondence of ice-free sites, is presented. Concentration of 36 elements was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA. The selection of 6 standard reference materials and the development of a specific analytical procedure allowed to reduce measurements uncertainties and to verify the reproducibility of the results. The decision to analyze sediment samples from Victoria Land ice-free areas is related to recent investigations regarding mineral dust content in the TALos Dome ICE core (159deg11'E; 72deg49'S, East Antarctica, Victoria Land), in which a coarse local fraction of dust was recognized. The characterization of Antarctic potential source areas of atmospheric mineral dust is the first step to identify the active sources of dust for the Talos Dome area and to reconstruct the atmospheric pathways followed by air masses in this region during different climatic periods. Principal components analysis was used to identify elements and samples correlations; attention was paid specially to rare earth elements (REE) and incompatible/compatible elements (ICE) in respect to iron, which proved to be the most discriminating elemental groups. The analysis of REE and ICE concentration profiles supported evidences of chemical weathering in ice-free areas of Victoria Land, whereas cold and dry climate conditions of the Talos Dome area and in general of East Antarctica. (author)

  14. Assessment of deep electrical conductivity features of Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica under other geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caneva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The lithospheric and crustal structure of the Victoria Land continental block (Antarctica has been studied by geological and geophysical surveys. Among them magnetovariational investigations (MV have been addressed to highlight the deep electrical conductivity patterns which contribute to the understanding of continental rifting and tectonic setting of the region. The hypothetical event map for H linearly polarized perpendicular to the coast indicates a possible broad coast parallel conductivity anomaly zone. Despite the coast effect, this feature could be related to the deep upper mantle thermal anomaly leading to Cenozoic uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank. However, both the hypothetic event map polarized parallel to the coast and the induction arrows suggest that the area of enhanced conductivity may be confined to the Deep Freeze Range crustal block along the western flank of the Mesozoic Rennick Graben. We also discuss the possible association between increased conductivity over the Southern Cross block and extensive Cenozoic alkaline plutonism.

  15. Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in Quetta Valley, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeebullah Kakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence is affecting several metropolitan cities in developing as well as developed countries around the world such as Nagoya (Japan, Shanghai (China, Venice (Italy and San Joaquin valley (United States. This phenomenon is attributed to natural as well as anthropogenic activities that include extensive groundwater withdrawals. Quetta is the largest city of Balochistan province in Pakistan. This valley is mostly dry and ground water is the major source for domestic and agricultural consumption. The unplanned use of ground water resources has led to the deterioration of water quality and quantity in the Quetta valley. Water shortage in the region was further aggravated by the drought during (1998-2004 that hit the area forcing people to migrate from rural to urban areas. Refugees from the war torn neighboring Afghanistan also contributed to rapid increase in population of Quetta valley that has increased from 0.26 million in 1975 to 3.0 million in 2016. The objective of this study was to measure the land subsidence in Quetta valley and identify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on land subsidence. To achieve this goal, data from five Global Positioning System (GPS stations were acquired and processed. Furthermore the groundwater decline data from 41 observation wells during 2010 to 2015 were calculated and compared with the land deformation. The results of this study revealed that the land of Quetta valley is subsiding from 30mm/y on the flanks to 120 mm/y in the central part. 1.5-5.0 m/y of groundwater level drop was recorded in the area where the rate of subsidence is highest. So the extensive groundwater withdrawals in Quetta valley is considered to be the driving force behind land subsidence.

  16. Reconstructed plutonium fallout in the GV7 firn core from Northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, H.; Han, Y.; Kang, J.; Lee, K.; Hong, S.; Hur, S. D.; Narcisi, B.; Frezzotti, M.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric nuclear explosions during the period from the 1940s to the 1980s are the major anthropogenic source of plutonium (Pu) in the environment. In this work, we analyzed fg g-1 levels of artificial Pu, released predominantly by atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We measured 351 samples which collected a 78 m-depth fire core at the site of GV7 (S 70°41'17.1", E 158°51'48.9", 1950 m a.s.l.), Northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica. To determine the Pu concentration in the samples, we used an inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry coupled with an Apex high-efficiency sample introduction system, which has the advantages of small sample consumption and simple sample preparation. We reconstructed the firn core Pu fallout record for the period after 1954 CE shows a significant fluctuation in agreement with past atmospheric nuclear testing. These data will contribute to ice core research by providing depth-age information.

  17. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273

  18. Some antarctic lacustrine sediments from northern Victoria Land investigation by Moessbauer spectroscopy, INNA and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievano, L.; Bertelle, M.; Leotta, G.; Calogero, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Oddone, M.

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen lacustrine sediments, sampled during the 1994-1995 Austral summer in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica), were characterised by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray diffraction. These sediments are related to the intrusive rocks from Granite Harbour, to the metamorphic rocks of the Complex of Wilson Terrane and the volcanic rocks from Mc Murdo. The samples contain quartz, alkaline feldspars, plagioclases, amphiboles, biotite, chlorite and muscovite except for the sediments of volcanic origin that contain alkaline feldspars, plagioclases and pyroxenes. The paramagnetic components of the Moessbauer spectra were assigned mainly to the iron sides in biotites except for those displayed from the sediments of volcanic origin assigned mainly to pyroxenes. Moessbauer spectra at room temperature do not display magnetic ordering except for those of the sediments of volcanic origin containing bulk magnetite, hematite and goethite. Moessbauer spectra collected at the liquid helium temperature always exhibit magnetic ordering. This spectral difference has been attributed to the different dimensions of the iron oxide particles in the sediments. The scarce weathering involves a partial transformation of magnetite in hematite and goethite in the sediment of volcanic origin. In the remaining sediments a partial hydrolysis of biotite together with a partial oxidation of iron (II) retained in silicates is present. (authors)

  19. Linking land use changes to surface water quality variability in Lake Victoria: some insights from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugo, R. M.; Limaye, A. S.; Nyaga, J. W.; Farah, H.; Wahome, A.; Flores, A.

    2016-12-01

    The water quality of inland lakes is largely influenced by land use and land cover changes within the lake's catchment. In Africa, some of the major land use changes are driven by a number of factors, which include urbanization, intensification of agricultural practices, unsustainable farm management practices, deforestation, land fragmentation and degradation. Often, the impacts of these factors are observable on changes in the land cover, and eventually in the hydrological systems. When the natural vegetation cover is reduced or changed, the surface water flow patterns, water and nutrient retention capacities are also changed. This can lead to high nutrient inputs into lakes, leading to eutrophication, siltation and infestation of floating aquatic vegetation. To assess the relationship between land use and land cover changes in part of the Lake Victoria Basin, a series of land cover maps were derived from Landsat imagery. Changes in land cover were identified through change maps and statistics. Further, the surface water chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were derived from MODIS-Aqua data for Lake Victoria. Chlrophyll-a and turbidity are good proxy indicators of nutrient inputs and siltation respectively. The trends in chlorophyll-a and turbidity concentrations were analyzed and compared to the land cover changes over time. Certain land cover changes related to agriculture and urban development were clearly identifiable. While these changes might not be solely responsible for variability in chlrophyll-a and turbidity concentrations in the lake, they are potentially contributing factors to this problem. This work illustrates the importance of addressing watershed degradation while seeking to solve water quality related problems.

  20. Regional geology mapping using satellite-based remote sensing approach in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Park, Yongcheol; Park, Tae-Yoon S.; Hong, Jong Kuk; Hashim, Mazlan; Woo, Jusun; Ayoobi, Iman

    2018-06-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is especially useful for geological investigations in Antarctica because of its remoteness and extreme environmental conditions that constrain direct geological survey. The highest percentage of exposed rocks and soils in Antarctica occurs in Northern Victoria Land (NVL). Exposed Rocks in NVL were part of the paleo-Pacific margin of East Gondwana during the Paleozoic time. This investigation provides a satellite-based remote sensing approach for regional geological mapping in the NVL, Antarctica. Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets were used to extract lithological-structural and mineralogical information. Several spectral-band ratio indices were developed using Landsat-8 and ASTER bands and proposed for Antarctic environments to map spectral signatures of snow/ice, iron oxide/hydroxide minerals, Al-OH-bearing and Fe, Mg-OH and CO3 mineral zones, and quartz-rich felsic and mafic-to-ultramafic lithological units. The spectral-band ratio indices were tested and implemented to Level 1 terrain-corrected (L1T) products of Landsat-8 and ASTER datasets covering the NVL. The surface distribution of the mineral assemblages was mapped using the spectral-band ratio indices and verified by geological expeditions and laboratory analysis. Resultant image maps derived from spectral-band ratio indices that developed in this study are fairly accurate and correspond well with existing geological maps of the NVL. The spectral-band ratio indices developed in this study are especially useful for geological investigations in inaccessible locations and poorly exposed lithological units in Antarctica environments.

  1. Dry calving processes at the ice cliff of an antarctic local glacier: the study case of Strandline Glacier (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, C.; Motta, M.; Vassena, G.; Diolaiuti, G.

    2003-04-01

    In Antartic coastal area, where the ice sheet and the large outlet glaciers do not reach the sea and where some rugged mountain chains are often present, many small glaciers can be found. They are the so called local or alpine type glaciers, which have their terminus ground-based such as the real alpine glaciers and rarely reach the main valley floors. They are practically isolated and independent from the supply flowing down from the plateau and their mass balance is mainly controlled by sublimation and aeolic erosion and accumulation. The glaciers closer to the coast are submitted to the melting as well, and when the terminus is cliff-shaped they are also affected by dry calving. The most known and studied Antarctic local glaciers are placed in the Dry Valleys region (Chinn, 1985), but this kind of glaciers is also diffused all along the Northern Victoria Land coastal region (Chinn and others, 1989). Since the first Italian Antarctic expedition (1985), many studies have been carried out on this type of glaciers, which can be usefull for detailed mass balance evaluations and for obtaining information about the effects of the present climatic dynamics on the Antarctic coastal environment (Baroni and Orombelli, 1987; Baroni and others, 1995; Meneghel, 1999; Vassena and others., 2001). The Strandline Glacier (74 41 S; 164 07 E), in particular is a small alpine glacier (0,79 kmq) on the coast of Terra Nova Bay, Northern Victoria Land; it is a cold glacier where accumulation and ablation basins are mainly controlled by wind processes. Its terminus forms in the central part a grounded ice cliff about 30 m high, about 130 m far from the sea. On that glacier mass balance, surface velocity and calving rate were measured. During the southern summer season 2000-2001 many topographycal profiles of the ice cliff were surveyed by using both classical topographical and glaciological methods (total station and stakes) and GPS technique. It was so possible to detect the short term

  2. Valley plugs, land use, and phytogeomorphic response: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of fluvial systems can disrupt functional processes that provide valuable ecosystem services. Channelization alters fluvial parameters and the connectivity of river channels to their floodplains which is critical for productivity, nutrient cycling, flood control, and biodiversity. The effects of channelization can be exacerbated by local geology and land-use activities, resulting in dramatic geomorphic readjustments including the formation of valley plugs. Considerable variation in the response of abiotic processes, including surface hydrology, subsurface hydrology, and sedimentation dynamics, to channelization and the formation of valley plugs. Altered abiotic processes associated with these geomorphic features and readjustments influence biotic processes including species composition, abundance, and successional processes. Considerable interest exists for restoring altered fluvial systems and their floodplains because of their social and ecological importance. Understanding abiotic and biotic responses of channelization and valley-plug formation within the context of the watershed is essential to successful restoration. This chapter focuses on the primary causes of valley-plug formation, resulting fluvial-geomorphic responses, vegetation responses, and restoration and research needs for these systems.

  3. Distribution and origin of authigenic smectite clays in Cape Roberts Project Core 3, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestas, A.W.; Wise, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Of some 800 m of lower Oligocene marine sediments cored continuously from the seafloor in the Victoria Land Basin of Antarctica at Cape Roberts Site CRP-3, the lower 500 m exhibit authigenic smectite clay coats on shallow-water sandstone grains. A scanning electron microscope/EDS study of 46 fracture sections confirms that the distribution of the clay coats through the unit is not uniform or evenly distributed, but rather varies with depth, original porosity, and the kinds and abundance of source materials. Our results suggest that smectite emplacement resulted from in-situ, low-temperature burial diagenesis rather than hydrothermal or fault-focused thermobaric fluids.

  4. A Record of Holocene Paleoclimate Evolution from Robertson Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesselman, C. R.; Truax, O.; Wilson, G. S.; Parker, R. L.; Yoo, K. C.; Lee, J. I.; Levy, R. H.; Mckay, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Regionally representative records of how Antarctica responded to the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum into the Holocene are an essential component of understanding the processes by which the Antarctic cryosphere responds to a changing climate. Here, we present a high-resolution record of Holocene Antarctic paleoclimate evolution from a previously unstudied section of the Victoria Land margin. In 2015 the Korea Polar Research Institute collected a 571 cm sediment core, GC57, from Robertson Bay, a protected embayment west of Cape Adare and adjacent to the outlet glaciers of the Transantarctic Mountains. Using diatom assemblages, bulk sediment geochemistry, and the magnetic properties of GC57, we aim to reconstruct the response of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to warming associated with deglaciation and the Holocene climatic optima at the interface between the Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean. Our multiproxy approach allows us to study sea ice extent, seasonality, ocean stratification and circulation, and primary productivity from the mid-Holocene (7,400 14C year BP) to the present. A sea-ice associated diatom assemblage indicative of summer sea surface temperatures below 0˚C dominates the basal section of GC57. Although diatoms are well preserved, the unit is characterized by low wt% biogenic silica (average 9%) and a high concentration of magnetic minerals, indicating that biogenic production persisted despite substantial terrigenous input into the bay. A rapid transition at 4708 14C yr BP is identified by a steep increase in wt% BSi (average 13%), a decrease in magnetic minerals, and a subtle assemblage change towards sea-ice associated diatoms with slightly warmer temperature tolerances. The novel ramped pyrolosis 14C dating methodology allows us to date the carbon fixed concurrent with deposition and generate a robust age model for GC57 with an accuracy previously difficult to achieve given the uncertainties associated with dating bulk acid insoluble

  5. The petrology, geochronology and significance of Granite Harbour Intrusive Complex xenoliths and outcrop sampled in western McMurdo Sound, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.P.; Cooper, A.F.; Price, R.C.; Turnbull, R.E.; Roberts, N.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Granite Harbour Intrusive Complex xenoliths in McMurdo Volcanic Group rocks and in situ outcrops have been studied from Mount Morning, western McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Calc-alkalic samples have whole rock signatures and normative compositions similar to the Dry Valleys 1b suite, and zircon grains in one specimen yield a 545.2 ± 4.4 Ma crystallisation age. This supports subduction-related magmatism initiating in Southern Victoria Land by 545 Ma. A second group of xenoliths is alkalic, with titanite grains in one xenolith from this group dated at 538 ± 8 Ma. Whole rock chemistry, normative compositions and geochronology of the alkalic group are comparable to the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Suite (KGAS). The position of a proposed lower crustal discontinuity that may form a significant basement suture in the McMurdo Sound region is newly constrained to the east of Mount Morning, perhaps along the trace of the Discovery Glacier. The boundary between East and West Antarctica may also pass along the trace of the Discovery Glacier if, as previously hypothesised, its location is controlled by the basement suture. A significant basement suture may also have provided the necessary egress for the (regionally) early and sustained magmatic activity observed at Mount Morning over the last 24 million years. (author).

  6. Surficial geology and land classification, Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, O L; Pilon, J; Veilette, J

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this project, continued from 1971 and 1972 is to provide an inventory of surficial geology and permafrost distribution data pertinent to pipeline construction, road building, and other land use activities that might take place in the Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor. Hughes together with N.W. Rutter devoted one month to reconnaissance examination of the area encompassed by this project and Project 710047 (see this report). A primary objective was to insure uniform usage of map-units throughout the 2 areas. Construction on the Mackenzie Highway was examined in order to evaluate terrain performance of various map-units crossed by the highway. Limited geological studies, including shallow borings and measurement of sections, were conducted to supplement field work of 1971 and 1972. J. Veillette conducted diamond drilling in permanently frozen surficial deposits during the period mid-March to mid-April.

  7. Linking Land Use Changes to Surface Water Quality Variability in Lake Victoria: Some Insights From Remote Sensing (GC41B-1101)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; Mugo, Robinson; Wanjohi, James; Farah, Hussein; Wahome, Anastasia; Flores, Africa; Irwin, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Various land use changes driven by urbanization, conversion of grasslands and woodlands into farmlands, intensification of agricultural practices, deforestation, land fragmentation and degradation are taking place in Africa. In Kenya, agriculture is the main driver of land use conversions. The impacts of these land use changes are observable in land cover maps, and eventually in the hydrological systems. Reduction or change of natural vegetation cover types increases the speed of surface runoff and reduces water and nutrient retention capacities. This can lead to high nutrient inputs into lakes, resulting in eutrophication, siltation and infestation of floating aquatic vegetation. To assess if changes in land use could be contributing to increased phytoplankton blooms and sediment loads into Lake Victoria, we analyzed land use land cover data from Landsat, as well as surface chlorophyll-a and total suspended matter from MODIS-Aqua sensor.

  8. Land Use-Land Cover dynamics of Huluka watershed, Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Gebreslassie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land Use-Land Cover (LULC dynamic has of human kind age and is one of the phenomenons which interweave the socio economic and environmental issues in Ethiopia. Huluka watershed is one of the watersheds in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia which drains to Lake Langano. Few decades ago the stated watershed was covered with dense acacia forest. But, nowadays like other part of Ethiopia, it is experiencing complex dynamics of LULC. The aim of this research was thus to evaluate the LULC dynamics seen in between 1973–2009. This was achieved through collecting qualitative and quantitative data using Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS technique. Field observations, discussion with elders were also employed to validate results from remotely sensed data. Based on the result, eight major dynamic LULC classes were identified from the watershed. Of these LULC classes, only cultivated and open lands had shown continuous and progressive expansion mainly at the expense of grass, shrub and forest lands. The 25% and 0% of cultivated and open land of the watershed in 1973 expanded to 84% and 4% in 2009 respectively while the 29%, 18% and 22% of grass, shrub and forest land of the watershed in 1973 degraded to 3.5%, 4% and 1.5% in 2009 respectively. As a result, land units which had been used for pastoralist before 1973 were identified under mixed agricultural system after 2000. In the end, this study came with a recommendation of an intervention of concerned body to stop the rapid degradation of vegetation on the watershed.

  9. Petrography, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Cenozoic Cape Crossfire, Cape King, and No Ridge igneous complexes (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, S.; Fioretti, A.M.; Cavazzini, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Meander Intrusive Group is the plutonic-subvolcanic counterpart of the McMurdo Volcanic Group, and extends along 200 km of the Ross Sea coast of Northern Victoria Land. The three largest occurrences of the Meander Intrusive Group between the Icebreaker and Borchgrevink glaciers are the Cape Crossfire, the No Ridge, and the Cape King igneous complexes. These have an area of 40-80 square km and are composed of dominant monzogabbros and monzodiorites along with minor syenites and alkali feldspar microgranites. A significant compositional gap exists between mafic and felsic facies, which show geometrical relationships varying from subhorizontal alternating layers to complex pillowing and fragmentation of the mafic into the felsic facies. Two whole rock biotite Rb-Sr internal isochrons constrain the cooling age of Cape Crossfire Igneous Complex at 31 Ma, a few million years older than No Ridge and Cape King igneous complexes. Thus, the ages of these complexes (≤ 31 Ma) are younger than the plutons and dikes (≥ 35 Ma) cropping out in the southernmost area between the Campbell and Icebreaker glaciers. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  10. 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the McMurdo Volcanic Group at The Pleiades, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, R.P.; Kyle, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifteen samples from The Pleiades volcanic centre in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, were dated using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar furnace step-heating method. Ages range from 847 to 6 ka. Eight samples are <100 ka, showing that The Pleiades are very young. Three trachyte samples suggest eruptive activity started at c. 830 ka. An apparent increase in volcanic activity began at c. 100 ka, and at c. 65 ka a significant phase of cone building occurred at Mt Atlas, the largest volcanic cone at The Pleiades. At c. 45 ka, lava flows were erupted on the western flank of Mt Pleiones adjacent to Mt Atlas and near the summit of Alcyone Cone. The youngest activity (6 ± 6 ka) occurred at Taygete Cone, an endogenous dome of trachyte. The near-zero age for Taygete Cone is consistent with evidence of recent volcanism, including fresh hydrothermal activity and compositionally similar pumice lapilli scattered over parts of The Pleiades. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Pre- and syn-Ross orogenic granitoids at Drake Head and Kartografov Island, Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Roland, N.W.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of the Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land granitoids, typified by those at Drake Head and Kartografov Island (Harald Bay), are monzogranites with lesser granodiorites and minor quartz-monzodiorite and syenogranite. All are plagioclase-K-feldspar-biotite granitoids with additional muscovite, garnet and/or hornblende, and are subalkaline and peraluminous. Berg Granite typifies the early Ordovician, Granite Harbour Instrusive (GHI) suite of the Ross Orogen at the Oates Coast. Granitoids from Kartografov Island have higher amounts of Fe+Mg+Ti and an ambiguous Rb-Sr geochronology: they could be either pre-Ross Orogeny in age, or syn-Ross Orogeny and representing a lower structural level of GHI. The Drake Head granite gneiss has a fractionated leuco-granite composition similar to Berg Granite, and is intruded by granite and granodiorite. Rb-Sr ages indicate that all are Neoproterozoic, although the granite gneiss result is probably an errorchron age, reflecting its less uniform nature (granodiorite:649 ± 30 Ma, initial ratio 0.7065 +/- 6; granite gneiss: 682 ± 140 Ma, initial ratio 0.7107 ± 50). These late Neoproterozoic granitoids provide a source for distinctive detrital zircon age components in extensive early Paleozoic turbidites of Australia-New Zealand-Antarctica. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Panorama Pluton : a composite gabbro-monzodiorite early Ross Orogeny intrusion in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellish, S.D.; Cooper, A.F.; Walker, N.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province of the Walcott Glacier to Radian Glacier area of the Transantarctic Mountains contains a diverse suite of intrusions ranging from gabbro and diorite to granite, nepheline syenite, and carbonatite. Most of the plutons are alkaline (A-type), although the Panorama Pluton is mafic, comprising both hypersthene normative gabbroic and quartz normative monzodioritic lithologies. The pluton has a composite nature, determined by whole-rock geochemical trends and Nd-Sr isotope data that reflect distinctive source regions for the different components. U-Pb geochronology of zircon and titanite indicates the Panorama Pluton was intruded during the early stages of the Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic Ross Orogeny at 535 ± 9 Ma, and that it is coeval with the geochemically similar Dromedary Mafic Complex which crops out 10 km to the southeast. The Panorama Pluton is a volumetrically minor mafic component of the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province, which predates, by at least 15 m.y., the dominant calc-alkaline suites that occur along-strike in the Dry Valleys area to the north, and the central Transantarctic Mountains to the south. The Panorama Pluton magmas, and other Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province lithologies, are interpreted to have formed in an extensional or transtensional jog that predates the onset of widespread Ross Orogeny subduction. (author). 48 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Groundwater-flow and land-subsidence model of Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Rewis, Diane L.; Martin, Peter; Phillips, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley groundwater basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, groundwater provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most groundwater pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley groundwater basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Groundwater-level declines of more than 270 feet in some parts of the groundwater basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may increase reliance on groundwater.

  14. Do religion and religiosity have anything to do with alcohol consumption patterns? Evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Atuyambe, Lynn; Kibira, Simon P S; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Tushemerirwe, Florence; Wagner, Glenn J

    2013-09-01

    Fish landing sites have high levels of harmful use of alcohol. This paper examines the role of religion and religiosity on alcohol consumption at two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda. Questionnaires were administered to randomly selected people at the sites. Dependent variables included alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days, whereas the key independent variables were religion and religiosity. Bivariate and multivariate analysis techniques were applied. People reporting low religiosity were five times more likely to have consumed alcohol (95% confidence interval: 2.45-10.04) compared with those reporting low/average religiosity. Religion and religiosity are potential channels for controlling alcohol use.

  15. Land Capability Potential Index (LCPI) and geodatabase for the Lower Missouri River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Land Capacity Potential Index (LCPI) is a coarse-scale index intended to delineate broad land-capability classes in the Lower Missouri River valley bottom from the Gavins Point Dam near Yankton, South Dakota to the mouth of the Missouri River near St. Louis, Missouri (river miles 811–0). The LCPI provides a systematic index of wetness potential and soil moisture-retention potential of the valley-bottom lands by combining the interactions among water-surface elevations, land-surface elevations, and the inherent moisture-retention capability of soils. A nine-class wetness index was generated by intersecting a digital elevation model for the valley bottom with sloping water-surface elevation planes derived from eight modeled discharges. The flow-recurrence index was then intersected with eight soil-drainage classes assigned to soils units in the digital Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database (Soil Survey Staff, 2010) to create a 72-class index of potential flow-recurrence and moisture-retention capability of Missouri River valley-bottom lands. The LCPI integrates the fundamental abiotic factors that determine long-term suitability of land for various uses, particularly those relating to vegetative communities and their associated values. Therefore, the LCPI provides a mechanism allowing planners, land managers, landowners, and other stakeholders to assess land-use capability based on the physical properties of the land, in order to guide future land-management decisions. This report documents data compilation for the LCPI in a revised and expanded, 72-class version for the Lower Missouri River valley bottom, and inclusion of additional soil attributes to allow users flexibility in exploring land capabilities.

  16. A geochemical study of lithospheric mantle beneath Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica): main evidences from volatile content in ultramafic xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Alessandra; Pelorosso, Beatrice; Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Coltorti, Massimo; Italiano, Francesco; Bonadiman, Costanza

    2017-04-01

    A geochemical study of ultramafic xenoliths from Northern Victoria Land (Green Point, GP and Handler Ridge, HR), is carried out in order to investigate the features of the lithosphere mantle beneath the Western Antarctic Ridge System (WARS). The majority of samples is spinel anhydrous lherzolite with rare presence of secondary phases (secondary cpx and glass). Geothermobarometric calculations, based on the Fe/Mg distribution among the peridotite minerals reveal that Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) beneath Handler Ridge records temperatures and redox conditions higher then Greene Point (P fixed at 15 Kbar). Moreover, geochemical models evidence that, GP mantle domain represents a residuum after ˜7 to 21 % of partial melting in the spinel stability field, which was variably affected by interaction with infiltrating melts, acting in different times, from at least Jurassic to Cenozoic (Pelorosso et al., 2016). Fluid inclusions (FI) entrapped in olivine and pyroxene crystals were investigated for elemental and isotopic contents of both, noble gases (He, Ne, Ar) and CO2. He, Ar and Ne concentrations range from 1.52×10-14 to 1.07×10-12, from 4.09×10-13 to 3.47×10-11and from 2.84×10-16 to 7.57×10-14 mol/g, respectively, while the CO2amounts are between 7.08×10-10 and 8.12×10-7 mol/g. The 3He/4He varies between 5.95 and 20.18 Ra (where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of air), being the lowest and the highest values measured in the He-poorer samples. Post-eruptive input of cosmogenic 3He and radiogenic 4He seems to influence mainly the samples associated to a lower He concentrations, increasing and decreasing respectively their primordial 3He/4He values, that for all the other samples range between 6.76 and 7.45 Ra. This range reasonably reflects the isotope signature of mantle beneath the investigated areas. The 4He/40Ar* ratio corrected for atmospheric-derived contamination ranges between 0.004 and 0.39. The lowest 4He/40Ar* values (4He/40Ar*correspondence of

  17. Late Miocene volcanic sequences in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: products of glaciovolcanic eruptions under different thermal regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smellie, J. L.; Rocchi, S.; Armienti, P.

    2011-01-01

    Late Miocene (c. 13-5 Ma) volcanic sequences of the Hallett Volcanic Province (HVP) crop out along >250 km of western Ross Sea coast in northern Victoria Land. Eight primary volcanic and six sedimentary lithofacies have been identified, and they are organised into at least five different sequence architectures as a consequence of different combinations of eruptive and/or depositional conditions. The volcanoes were erupted in association with a Miocene glacial cover and the sequences are overwhelmingly glaciovolcanic. The commonest and most representative are products of mafic aa lava-fed deltas, a type of glaciovolcanic sequence that has not been described before. It is distinguished by (1) a subaerially emplaced relatively thin caprock of aa lavas lying on and passing down-dip into (2) a thicker association of chaotic to crudely bedded hyaloclastite breccias, water-chilled lava sheets and irregular lava masses, collectively called lobe-hyaloclastite. A second distinctive sequence type present is characterised by water-cooled lavas and associated sedimentary lithofacies (diamictite (probably glacigenic) and fluvial sands and gravels) similar to some mafic glaciovolcanic sheet-like sequences (see Smellie, Earth-Science Reviews, 74, 241-268, 2008), but including (for the first time) examples of likely sheet-like sequences with felsic compositions. Other sequence types in the HVP are minor and include tuff cones, cinder cones and a single ice-marginal lacustrine sequence. The glacial thermal regime varied from polar, characterised by sequences lacking glacial erosion, glacigenic sediments or evidence for free water, to temperate or sub-polar for sequences in which all of these features are conspicuously developed.

  18. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3. The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p<0.001, and slaughtering cattle at the homestead (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-10.5, p = 0.047. A total of 553 slaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5-4.2. Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal's throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0-12.1, p = 0.047, was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further

  19. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jessie; Grossi-Soyster, Elysse Noel; de Glanville, William Anson; Thomas, Lian Francesca; Kariuki, Samuel; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Wamae, Claire Njeri; LaBeaud, Angelle Desiree; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2017-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3). The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p<0.001), and slaughtering cattle at the homestead (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-10.5, p = 0.047). A total of 553 slaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5-4.2). Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal's throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0-12.1, p = 0.047), was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further evidence for RVFV

  20. Cryogenic brines as diagenetic fluids: Reconstructing the diagenetic history of the Victoria Land Basin using clumped isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigel, Philip T.; Murray, Sean; Dunham, Daniel P.; Frank, Tracy D.; Fielding, Christopher R.; Swart, Peter K.

    2018-03-01

    The isotopic analyses (δ13C, δ18O, and Δ47) of carbonate phases recovered from a core in McMurdo Sound by ANtarctic geologic DRILLing (ANDRILL-2A) indicate that the majority of secondary carbonate mineral formation occurred at cooler temperatures than the modern burial temperature, and in the presence of fluids with δ18Owater values ranging between -11 and -6‰ VSMOW. These fluids are interpreted as being derived from a cryogenic brine formed during the freezing of seawater. The Δ47 values were converted to temperature using an in-house calibration presented in this paper. Measurements of the Δ47 values in the cements indicate increasingly warmer crystallization temperatures with depth and, while roughly parallel to the observed geothermal gradient, consistently translate to temperatures that are cooler than the current burial temperature. The difference in temperature suggests that cements formed when they were ∼260 ± 100 m shallower than at the present day. This depth range corresponds to a period of minimal sediment accumulation from 3 to 11 Myr; it is therefore interpreted that the majority of cements formed during this time. This behavior is also predicted by time-integrated modeling of cementation at this site. If this cementation had occurred in the presence of these fluids, then the cryogenic brines have been a longstanding feature in the Victoria Land Basin. Brines such as those found at this site have been described in numerous modern high-latitude settings, and analogous fluids could have played a role in the diagenetic history of other ice-proximal sediments and basins during glacial intervals throughout geologic history. The agreement between the calculated δ18Owater value and the measured values in the pore fluids shows how the Δ47 proxy can be used to identify the origin of negative δ18O values in carbonate rocks and that extremely negative values do not necessarily need to be a result of the influence of meteoric fluids or reaction at

  1. Contrasting sodic and mildly potassic magma differentiation lineages at The Pleaides volcanic complex, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Park, J. W.; Lee, J.; Kyle, P. R.; Lee, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The magma evolution of The Pleiades, a Quaternary alkaline volcanic complex in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, is investigated using major and trace elements, and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data. The volcanic rocks can be subdivided into two distinct magmatic lineages based on petrography and whole-rock compositions: (1) a sodic silica-undersaturated alkaline lineage with abundant kaersutite phenocrysts, and (2) a mildly-potassic and mildly-alkaline, nearly silica-saturated lineage containing olivine but not kaersutite. The basanite and trachybasalt of both lineages exhibit similar degrees of negative K anomalies, moderately steep rare earth element patterns, and elevated trace element ratios such as Ce/Pb (> 20) and Nb/U (> 38), suggesting their primary magmas were generated by low degree (≤3%) of partial melting of amphibole and garnet-bearing mantle sources. The sodic lineage is characterized by elevated 206Pb/204Pb (>19.5) ratios and narrow ranges of 87Sr/86Sr (0.70313-0.70327) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.51289-0.51290) ratios consistent with a significant HIMU component typical of Neogene volcanic rocks in Antarctica. The mafic rocks of the potassic lineage have isotopic compositions similar to those of the sodic lineage, however the evolved lavas in the lineage have higher 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.7035) and lower 143Nd/144Nd (< 0.51285) and 206Pb/204Pb (< 19.3) ratios than the mafic rocks, suggesting significant amounts of crustal contamination. The pressure-temperature paths estimated by clinopyroxene-liquid thermobarometry are similar in each lineage. The mafic magmas were emplaced at Moho depths ( 1.2 GPa) and the evolved magmas pooled at middle-crustal depths ( 0.7 GPa). Mass-balance calculations based on whole-rock and mineral compositions show that kaersutite fractionation has played a major role in magma differentiation of the sodic lineage whereas the compositional variations of the potassic lineage can be ascribed to fractionation of a kaersutite-free mineral

  2. Farmers' Perceptions of Land Degradation and their Investments in Land Management: a Case Study in the Cental Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, A.; Yirga, C.

    2013-01-01

    To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers’ perceptions of land degradation and

  3. Exploring co-investments in sustainable land management in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu Teferi, Z.; Kessler, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2013-01-01

    In Ethiopia, not only farmers but also the public and private sector partners are still hesitant to invest in sustainable land management (SLM). This study focuses on the Central Rift Valley and explores the potential for co-investments in SLM, where public and private sector partners support

  4. High-Precision Land-Cover-Land-Use GIS Mapping and Land Availability and Suitability Analysis for Grass Biomass Production in the Aroostook River Valley, Maine, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzeng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High-precision land-cover-land-use GIS mapping was performed in four major townships in Maine’s Aroostook River Valley, using on-screen digitization and direct interpretation of very high spatial resolution satellite multispectral imagery (15–60 cm and high spatial resolution LiDAR data (2 m and the field mapping method. The project not only provides the first-ever high-precision land-use maps for northern Maine, but it also yields accurate hectarage estimates of different land-use types, in particular grassland, defined as fallow land, pasture, and hay field. This enables analysis of potential land availability and suitability for grass biomass production and other sustainable land uses. The results show that the total area of fallow land in the four towns is 7594 hectares, which accounts for 25% of total open land, and that fallow plots equal to or over four hectares in size total 4870, or 16% of open land. Union overlay analysis, using the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS soil data, indicates that only a very small percentage of grassland (4.9% is on “poorly-drained” or “very-poorly-drained” soils, and that most grassland (85% falls into the “farmland of state importance” or “prime farmland” categories, as determined by NRCS. It is concluded that Maine’s Aroostook River Valley has an ample base of suitable, underutilized land for producing grass biomass.

  5. Interferograms showing land subsidence and uplift in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, 1992-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Michael T.; Hoffmann, Jörn; Damar, Nancy A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources-Division of Water Resources and the Las Vegas Valley Water District, compiled 44 individual interferograms and 1 stacked interferogram comprising 29 satellite synthetic aperture radar acquisitions of Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, from 1992 to 1999. The interferograms, which depict short-term, seasonal, and long-term trends in land subsidence and uplift, are viewable with an interactive map. The interferograms show that land subsidence and uplift generally occur in localized areas, are responsive to ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge, and, in part, are fault controlled. Information from these interferograms can be used by water and land managers to mitigate land subsidence and associated damage. Land subsidence attributed to ground-water pumpage has been documented in Las Vegas Valley since the 1940s. Damage to roads, buildings, and other engineered structures has been associated with this land subsidence. Land uplift attributed to artificial recharge and reduced pumping has been documented since the 1990s. Measuring these land-surface changes with traditional benchmark and Global Positioning System surveys can be costly and time consuming, and results typically are spatially and temporally sparse. Interferograms are relatively inexpensive and provide temporal and spatial resolutions previously not achievable. The interferograms are viewable with an interactive map. Landsat images from 1993 and 2000 are viewable for frames of reference to locate areas of interest and help determine land use. A stacked interferogram for 1992-99 is viewable to visualize the cumulative vertical displacement for the period represented by the individual interferograms. The interactive map enables users to identify and estimate the magnitude of vertical displacement, visually analyze deformation trends, and view interferograms and Landsat images side by side. The

  6. 471 Soil Characterization and Land Use of Arondizogu Inland Valley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-16

    Oct 16, 2010 ... Effective cation exchange capacity was low (4.60-6.39 meg/100g). Similarly, exchangeable acidity was generally ... more fragile or even marginal lands where over exploitation has led to high rate of deforestation, soil erosion and declining productivity. Also, some soil related factors have contributed to the.

  7. 77 FR 31037 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...; AZA34425] Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project in... of up to 2 years. This is for the purpose of processing one solar energy right-of-way (ROW) application submitted by Pacific Solar Investments, LLC, to construct and operate the Hyder Valley Solar...

  8. Drought Impacts on Agricultural Production and Land Fallowing in California's Central Valley in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevelt, C.; Melton, F. S.; Johnson, L.; Guzman, A.; Verdin, J. P.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Mueller, R.; Jones, J.; Willis, P.

    2015-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California substantially reduced surface water supplies for millions of acres of irrigated farmland in California's Central Valley. Rapid assessment of drought impacts on agricultural production can aid water managers in assessing mitigation options, and guide decision making with respect to mitigation of drought impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of drought impacts on agricultural production and increases in fallow acreage associated with reductions in water supply. A key advantage of satellite-based assessments is that they can provide a measure of land fallowing that is consistent across both space and time. We describe an approach for monthly and seasonal mapping of uncultivated agricultural acreage developed as part of a joint effort by USGS, USDA, NASA, and the California Department of Water Resources to provide timely assessments of land fallowing during drought events. This effort has used the Central Valley of California as a pilot region for development and testing of an operational approach. To provide quantitative measures of uncultivated agricultural acreage from satellite data early in the season, we developed a decision tree algorithm and applied it to timeseries of data from Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI, and MODIS. Our effort has been focused on development of indicators of drought impacts in the March - August timeframe based on measures of crop development patterns relative to a reference period with average or above average rainfall. To assess the accuracy of the algorithms, monthly ground validation surveys were conducted across 650 fields from March - September in 2014 and 2015. We present the algorithm along with updated results from the accuracy assessment, and data and maps of land fallowing in the Central Valley in 2015.

  9. Land subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, 2007-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid land subsidence was recently measured using multiple methods in two areas of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV): between Merced and Fresno (El Nido), and between Fresno and Bakersfield (Pixley). Recent land-use changes and diminished surface-water availability have led to increased groundwater pumping, groundwater-level declines, and land subsidence. Differential land subsidence has reduced the flow capacity of water-conveyance systems in these areas, exacerbating flood hazards and affecting the delivery of irrigation water. Vertical land-surface changes during 2007–2014 were determined by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS), and extensometer data. Results of the InSAR analysis indicate that about 7600 km2 subsided 50–540 mm during 2008–2010; CGPS and extensometer data indicate that these rates continued or accelerated through December 2014. The maximum InSAR-measured rate of 270 mm yr−1 occurred in the El Nido area, and is among the largest rates ever measured in the SJV. In the Pixley area, the maximum InSAR-measured rate during 2008–2010 was 90 mm yr−1. Groundwater was an important part of the water supply in both areas, and pumping increased when land use changed or when surface water was less available. This increased pumping caused groundwater-level declines to near or below historical lows during the drought periods 2007–2009 and 2012–present. Long-term groundwater-level and land-subsidence monitoring in the SJV is critical for understanding the interconnection of land use, groundwater levels, and subsidence, and evaluating management strategies that help mitigate subsidence hazards to infrastructure while optimizing water supplies.

  10. Succeeding criteria of community based on land transportation infrastructure for Johor innovation valley development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan, Amir A.; Aminudin, Eeydzah; Zakaria, Rozana; Ghazali, Farid Ezanee Mohamed; Baharudin, Nur Azwa Amyra; Siang, Lee Yong

    2017-10-01

    Developing countries around the world have developed innovative centre, or known as innovation hub, to meet the demand of today's changing global competitive environment. The shift of economic sector from manufacturing to services has allowed numerous regions and cities around the world to undergo major structural changes. In Malaysia, Skudai area is on its way of becoming a community-based innovation hub under the Johor State Economic Growth Strategic Plan called Johor Innovation Valley (JIV). Towards this new-city concept, land transportation infrastructure is among the most important network in being a linkage to the source of contribution in enhancing the local innovative environment. This paper highlights the requirement of land transportation infrastructure criteria that would be effective in making Skudai a community-based innovation hub. Data were collected through survey questionnaires involving stakeholders with the knowledge of land transportation infrastructure who also lives within the area. Descriptive analysis was employed with further rank breakdown using Average Index analysis. The findings distinguish the differences between each criteria of land transportation infrastructure. Change in traffic system, easier accessibility to one place to another and attraction to outside investor are among the impacts of growth of JIV. This paper concluded that selected requirement of land transportation infrastructure criteria is necessary for future contribution towards the growth of the JIV.

  11. Preliminary assessment of the potential for using cesium-137 technique to estimate rates of soil erosion on cultivated land in La Victoria I, Camaguey province of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, F.O.; Gandarilla Benitez, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a growing awareness that erosion on cultivated land in Cuba is a potential hazard to long term productivity, there is still only limited information on the rates involved, particularly long term values. The potential for using the radionuclide Caesium-137 as an environmental tracer to indicate sources of soil erosion on cultivated soils in La Victoria catchment is introduced. Use of Caesium-137 measurements to estimate rates of erosion and deposition is founded on comparison of the Caesium-137 inventories at individual sampling points with a reference inventory representing the local Caesium fallout input and thus the inventory to be expected at the site experiencing neither erosion nor deposition. Two models for converting Caesium-137 measurements to estimates of soil redistribution rates on studied site have been used, the Proportional Model and Mass Balance Model. Using the first one net soil erosion was calculated to be 17.6 t. Ha 1 - .year 1 - . Estimates of soil loss using a Mass Balance Model (Simplified Model 1 and Model 2) were found to be 30.2 and 30.6 t. Ha 1 - .year 1 - ,respectively. Preliminary results suggest that Caesium-137 technique may be of considerable value in assembling data on the rates and spatial distribution of soil loss and a reliable tool for developing of soil conservation program

  12. Stable Isotopic signatures of Adélie penguin remains provide long-term paleodietary records in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony Edward; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotopes geochemistry of carbon and nitrogen provides a powerful tools for investigating in animal dietary patterns and shifts during the past. The signature of C and N isotopes provide direct information about the diet of an individual and its dietary patterns, especially when the dietary sources consist of prey from different trophic levels (i.e. different C and N isotopic composition) (DeNiro and Epstein 1978, Minawaga and Wada 1984, Koch et al. 1994, Hobson 1995). By analyzing the isotopic composition of penguin remains, we present a new detailed Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) paleodietary record for the area of Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea). Adélie penguins primarily feed on fish (mainly the silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum) and krill (Euphausia superba, Euphausia cristallorophias) (Ainley 2002, Lorenzini et al. 2009) that belonging to two different trophic levels. Consequently, they are characterized by different isotopic signatures. Specifically, we analyzed 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of more than one thousand of modern and fossil Adélie penguin eggshell and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils (penguin guano-formed) dated back to ≈7,200 years BP (Baroni and Orombelli 1994, Lambert et al. 2002, Baroni and Hall 2004, Hall et al. 2006). The expanded database of stable isotope values obtained from Adélie penguin remains define a detailed paleodietary record with an excellent temporal continuity over all the investigated time period. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7200 yrs BP to 2000 yrs BP, δ13C and δ15N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2000 yrs BP, when the δ13C values reveal a mixed diet based on fish and krill consumption. Modern

  13. Changes in the land use in the valley of Escaba (Province of Tucuman, Argentina) and their environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, E.; Sesma, P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate changes in the land use due to the construction of a dam and reservoir in the valley of Escaba, located southwest of the province of Tucuman ( north of Argentina ) and its implications for the atmosphere. Aerial photographs and satellite images were used for the study. The results show changes in the drainage network of rivers flowing into the center of the valley, changes in base levels and the formation of wetlands of high ecological, social and economic values. The existence of archaeological sites, some of which remain under water and crop areas that have expanded into both riverbanks stands . The enclosure of the valley caused large areas of land disappear under water, altering not only the landscape but also land use and lifestyle of the population, much of which had to be relocated to higher areas

  14. Laser-controlled land grading for farmland drainage in the Red River Valley: an economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, S.; Watt, D.; Disrud, L.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted in the Red River Valley to evaluate the benefits of laser land grading for drainage. Graded fields were compared with ungraded fields to measure changes in crop yields due to better drainage on the graded fields. Cut-and-fill areas were studied in graded fields to evaluate the effect of grading on nutrient levels and crop uniformity. Potential cut-and-fill areas on an ungraded field were also studied for yield uniformity and nutrient levels and compared with the graded field. Crop maturity and yield were more uniform on graded fields (0.05 level of significance) than on ungraded fields. Aerial photographs indicated graded fields had more uniform drainage and, consequently, more uniform crop maturity at harvest. A method is presented for determining the economic feasibility of land grading based upon the percentage of land lost to drown out, the value of the crop, and the cost of grading. The economic analysis indicates that land grading on the areas studied resulted in an 8-year payback and a positive investment return for a longer period of time. (author)

  15. Behavioral assumptions of conservation policy: conserving oak habitat on family-forest land in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; John C. Bliss

    2008-01-01

    Designing policies that harness the motivations of landowners is essential for conserving threatened habitats on private lands. Our goal was to understand how to apply ethnographic information about family-forest owners to the design of conservation policy for Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) in the Willamette Valley, Oregon (U.S.A.). We examined...

  16. Virtual water flows related to land use in an intensive agriculture in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, A.; Schneider, K.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to low annual precipitation, agricultural production in Uzbekistan is depending on irrigation from the Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers to a great deal. One of the most important cash crops of the country is cotton. Current irrigation management leads to elevated groundwater levels, salinization of soils and to a degradation of soil and water resources. Through export of cotton and other crops, the problems related to water consumption and water management are transported beyond the producing country. The amount of water transported through production and export is referred to as virtual water. To distinguish between productive and unproductive partitioning of water flows, the terms green and blue water have been introduced. Information on virtual water flows due to crop production usually only exist on country level. To reduce uncertainties related to generalization, the effect of land management and environmental factors on the partitioning of water flows needs to be studied on smaller scales. The presented study analyzes water fluxes in an intensively used agricultural area in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan. The study aims to a) quantify crop specific water consumption in agricultural production under current management and b) analyze water use efficiency as subject to land use and irrigation management. Based on crop production, irrigation management and environmental conditions in the study area, virtual water flows will be calculated on the level of agricultural collectives (Water Users Associations). In a further step, the partitioning of green and blue water fluxes will be quantified. Alternative scenarios for improved water management will be analyzed in a model study.

  17. Mesoscale energetics and flows induced by sea-land and mountain-valley contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the relative importance of sea-land and mountain-valley thermal contrasts in determining the development of thermally forced mesoscale circulations (TFMCs over a mountainous peninsula. We first analyse the energetics of the problem, and using this theory, we interprete the numerical simulations over Calabria, a mountainous peninsula in southern Italy. The CSU 3-D nonlinear numerical model is utilised to simulate the dynamics and the thermodynamics of the atmospheric fields over Calabria. Results show the importance of orography in determining the pattern of the flow and the local climate in a region as complex as Calabria. Analysis of the results shows that the energetics due to the sea-land interactions are more efficient when the peninsula is flat. The importance of the energy due to the sea-land decreases as the mountain height of the peninsula increases. The energy stored over the mountain gains in importance, untill it is released by the readjustment of the warm mountain air as it prevails over the energy released by the inland penetration of the sea breeze front. For instance, our results show that over a peninsula 100 km wide the energy over the mountain and the energy in the sea-land contrast are of the same order when the height of the mountain is about 700 m, for a 1500 m convective boundary layer (CBL depth. Over the Calabrian peninsula, the energy released by the hot air in the CBL of the mountain prevails over the energy released by the inland penetration of the sea air. Calabria is about 1500 m high and about 50 km wide, and the CBL is of the order of 1500 m. The energy over the mountain is about four time larger than the energy contained in the sea-land contrast. Furthermore, the energetics increase with the patch width of the peninsula, and when its half width is much less than the Rossby radius, the MAPE of the sea breeze is negligible. When its half width is much larger than the Rossby radius, the breezes from the two

  18. Oxo-amphiboles in mantle xenoliths: evidence for H2O-rich melt interacting with the lithospheric mantle of Harrow Peaks (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, S.; Bonadiman, C.; Biagioni, C.; Comodi, P.; Coltorti, M.; Zucchini, A.; Ottolini, L.

    2015-12-01

    Amphiboles are the most widespread hydrous metasomatic phases in spinel-bearing mantle peridotites from Harrow Peaks (HP), Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica). They occur both in veinlets and disseminated in the peridotite matrix (preferentially associated with clinopyroxene and spinel grains). Four amphibole crystals were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and micro-Mössbauer spectroscopy; these crystal-chemical data allow to constrain upper mantle conditions during growth of these amphiboles and the role of volatile circulation during metasomatic processes in the Antarctic region. The HP amphiboles have low Mg# values (69.3-84.1), high TiO2 (2.74-5.30 wt%) and FeOtot contents (3.40 to 6.90 wt%). The Fe3+/Fetot ratios are significantly high (0.53-0.66). The W-site is mainly occupied by O2- (0.984-1.187 apfu) plus OH (H2O: 0.70-1.01 wt%) and minor F (0.04-0.24 wt%) and Cl (0.03-0.08 wt%). Consequently, HP amphiboles are actually characterized by a significant oxo component. The aH2O values were calculated at 1.5 GPa by dehydration equilibrium equations written as H2O-buffering equilibria among end-member components of amphibole and coexisting peridotite phases. Three out of four HP amphibole-bearing peridotites have values of aH2O ranging from 0.122 to 0.335; whereas one sample has aH2O remarkably higher (0.782) approaching an ideal H2O basalt solubility. The HP fO2 values, determined by the olivine-spinel-orthopyroxene oxygeobarometer (ΔQFM = -1.77 : +0.01), are remarkably different from those calculated on the basis of the amphibole dehydration equilibrium and the application of the dissociation reaction (ΔQFM = -2.60 : +6.8). The high aH2O and the extremely high fO2 values, determined by the oxy-amphibole equilibrium with respect to the redox conditions recorded by the co-existing anhydrous minerals (close to QFM buffer), revealed that: i) the amphibole

  19. Alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour in the fishing communities: evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Atuyambe, Lynn; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Kibira, Simon Ps; Li, Qing; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Wagner, Glenn

    2012-12-11

    The fishing communities are among population groups that are most at risk of HIV infection, with some studies putting the HIV prevalence at 5 to 10 times higher than in the general population. Alcohol consumption has been identified as one of the major drivers of the sexual risk behaviour in the fishing communities. This paper investigates the relationship between alcohol consumption patterns and risky behaviour in two fishing communities on Lake Victoria. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 303 men and 172 women at the fish landing sites; categorised into fishermen, traders of fish or fish products and other merchandise, and service providers such as casual labourers and waitresses in bars and hotels, including 12 female sexual workers. Stratified random sampling methodology was used to select study units. Multivariable analysis was conducted to assess independent relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual risky behaviour. Measures of alcohol consumption included the alcohol use disorder test score (AUDIT), having gotten drunk in previous 30 days, drinking at least 2 times a week while measures for risky behaviour included engaging in transactional sex, inconsistent condom use, having sex with non-regular partner and having multiple sexual partners. The level of harmful use of alcohol in the two fishing communities was quite high as 62% of the male and 52% of the female drinkers had got drunk in previous 30 days. The level of risky sexual behaviour was equally high as 63% of the men and 59% of the women had unprotected sex at last sexual event. Of the 3 occupations fishermen had the highest levels of harmful use of alcohol and risky sexual behaviour followed by service providers judging from values of most indicators. The kind of alcohol consumption variables correlated with risky sexual behaviour variables, varied by occupation. Frequent alcohol consumption, higher AUDIT score, having got drunk, longer drinking hours and drinking any day of

  20. Alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour in the fishing communities: evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumwesigye Nazarius M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fishing communities are among population groups that are most at risk of HIV infection, with some studies putting the HIV prevalence at 5 to 10 times higher than in the general population. Alcohol consumption has been identified as one of the major drivers of the sexual risk behaviour in the fishing communities. This paper investigates the relationship between alcohol consumption patterns and risky behaviour in two fishing communities on Lake Victoria. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 303 men and 172 women at the fish landing sites; categorised into fishermen, traders of fish or fish products and other merchandise, and service providers such as casual labourers and waitresses in bars and hotels, including 12 female sexual workers. Stratified random sampling methodology was used to select study units. Multivariable analysis was conducted to assess independent relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual risky behaviour. Measures of alcohol consumption included the alcohol use disorder test score (AUDIT, having gotten drunk in previous 30 days, drinking at least 2 times a week while measures for risky behaviour included engaging in transactional sex, inconsistent condom use, having sex with non-regular partner and having multiple sexual partners. Results The level of harmful use of alcohol in the two fishing communities was quite high as 62% of the male and 52% of the female drinkers had got drunk in previous 30 days. The level of risky sexual behaviour was equally high as 63% of the men and 59% of the women had unprotected sex at last sexual event. Of the 3 occupations fishermen had the highest levels of harmful use of alcohol and risky sexual behaviour followed by service providers judging from values of most indicators. The kind of alcohol consumption variables correlated with risky sexual behaviour variables, varied by occupation. Frequent alcohol consumption, higher AUDIT score, having

  1. Farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management: a case study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-05-01

    To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study.

  2. Vivid valleys, pallid peaks? Hypsometric variations and rural–urban land change in the Central Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    What happens to the land cover within the hinterland's altitudinal belts while Central Andean cities are undergoing globalization and urban restructuring? What conclusions can be drawn about changes in human land use? By incorporating a regional altitudinal zonation model, direct field observations and GIS analyses of remotely sensed long term data, the present study examines these questions using the example of Huancayo Metropolitano – an emerging Peruvian mountain city of 420,000 inhabitants, situated at 3260 m asl in the Mantaro Valley. The study's results indicate that rapid urban growth during the late 1980s and early 1990s was followed by the agricultural intensification and peri-urban condominization at the valley floor (quechua) – since the beginning of Peru's neoliberal era. Moreover, regarding the adjoining steep slopes (suni) and subsequent grassland ecosystems (puna), the research output presents land cover change trajectories that clearly show an expansion of human land use, such as reforestation for wood production and range burning for livestock grazing, even at high altitudes – despite rural–urban migration trends and contrary to several results of extra-Andean studies. Consequently, rural–urban planners and policy makers are challenged to focus on the manifold impacts of globalization on human land use – at all altitudinal belts of the Andean city's hinterland: toward sustainable mountain development that bridges the social and physical gaps – from the bottom up. PMID:23564987

  3. Vivid valleys, pallid peaks? Hypsometric variations and rural-urban land change in the Central Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    What happens to the land cover within the hinterland's altitudinal belts while Central Andean cities are undergoing globalization and urban restructuring? What conclusions can be drawn about changes in human land use? By incorporating a regional altitudinal zonation model, direct field observations and GIS analyses of remotely sensed long term data, the present study examines these questions using the example of Huancayo Metropolitano - an emerging Peruvian mountain city of 420,000 inhabitants, situated at 3260 m asl in the Mantaro Valley. The study's results indicate that rapid urban growth during the late 1980s and early 1990s was followed by the agricultural intensification and peri-urban condominization at the valley floor ( quechua ) - since the beginning of Peru's neoliberal era. Moreover, regarding the adjoining steep slopes ( suni ) and subsequent grassland ecosystems ( puna ), the research output presents land cover change trajectories that clearly show an expansion of human land use, such as reforestation for wood production and range burning for livestock grazing, even at high altitudes - despite rural-urban migration trends and contrary to several results of extra-Andean studies. Consequently, rural-urban planners and policy makers are challenged to focus on the manifold impacts of globalization on human land use - at all altitudinal belts of the Andean city's hinterland: toward sustainable mountain development that bridges the social and physical gaps - from the bottom up.

  4. Estimating the Effects of Conversion of Agricultural Land to Urban Land on Deep Percolation of Irrigation Water in the Grand Valley, Western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to urban residential land is associated with rapid population growth in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Information regarding the effects of this land-use conversion on deep percolation, irrigation-water application, and associated salt loading to the Colorado River is needed to support water-resource planning and conservation efforts. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) assessed deep percolation and estimated salt loading derived from irrigated agricultural lands in the Grand Valley in a 1985 to 2002 monitoring and evaluation study (NRCS M&E). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Salinity Control Forum and the Mesa Conservation District, quantified the current (2005-2006) deep percolation and irrigation-water application characteristics of 1/4-acre residential lots and 5-acre estates, urban parks, and urban orchard grass fields in the Grand Valley, and compared the results to NRCS M&E results from alfalfa-crop sites. In addition, pond seepage from three irrigation-water holding ponds was estimated. Salt loading was estimated for the urban study results and the NRCS M&E results by using standard salt-loading factors. A daily soil-moisture balance calculation technique was used at all urban study irrigated sites. Deep percolation was defined as any water infiltrating below the top 12 inches of soil. Deep percolation occurred when the soil-moisture balance in the first 12 inches of soil exceeded the field capacity for the soil type at each site. Results were reported separately for urban study bluegrass-only sites and for all-vegetation type (bluegrass, native plants, and orchard grass) sites. Deep percolation and irrigation-water application also were estimated for a complete irrigation season at three subdivisions by using mean site data from each subdivision. It was estimated that for the three subdivisions, 37 percent of the developed acreage was irrigated (the balance

  5. Variation in soil physical, chemical and microbial parameters under different land uses in bagrot valley, gilgit, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.

    2017-01-01

    Soil degradation due to unsustainable land use is a global problem and the biggest challenge for sustainability in mountain areas due to their ecological and socio-economic impacts. The study aims to evaluate the variation in the physical, chemical and microbial parameters of soil across various land uses in the Bagrot valley, Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP), Gilgit-Baltistan. Soil samples from 0-20 cm were collected from three land uses such as arable land, pasture, and adjacently located forest. The variables investigated were soil bulk density, total porosity, saturation percentage, sand, silt, clay, pH, electric conductivity, CaCO/sub 3/, organic matter, TN, available P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn and microbial parameters (16SrRNA and ITS copies number and fungi-to-bacterial ratio). A sigificant varriation in all parameters were found accross the land uses (ANOVA, p < 0.01). Similarly, the highest bulk density, sand, pH, EC, CaCO/sub 3/ were found in arable land, with the lowest values in forest. In contrast, soil under forest showed a higher total porosity, percent saturation, clay, OM, macro and micronutrients, microbial abundance and fungi-to-bacterial ratio than for other land uses. The differences in soil parameters across the land uses indicated detrimental impacts of agricultural activities on soil health. Soil pH and organic matter are the main controlling factors for microbial indicators as well as physical and chemical parameters. The results suggest that restoration of natural vegetation in degraded land and decrease in intensity of land use could improve soil properties in the study area, as well as other similar mountainous regions. (author)

  6. Comparison between land suitability and actual crop distribution in an irrigation district of the Ebro valley (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Klaasse, A.; Nogues, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2008-07-01

    The present research aims to obtain a better insight into the agreement between land evaluation results and actual crop spatial distribution by comparing biophysical land suitability with different crop frequency parameters and with crop rotations derived from multi-year crop maps. The research was carried out in the Flumen district (33,000 ha), which is located in the Ebro Valley (northeast Spain). Land evaluation was based on a 1:100,000 soil survey according to the FAO framework for the main crops in the study area (alfalfa, winter cereals, maize, rice and sunflower). Three crop frequency maps and a crop rotation map, derived from a time-series of Landsat TM and ETM+ images of the period 1993-2000 were used for comparison with land suitability maps. The relationships between the two types of variables were analyzed by means of statistical tests (Pearson chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}), Cramer Ls V, Gamma and Somers L D). The results show the existence of a significant (P=0.001) relationship between crops location and land suitability, except for opportunist crops as sunflower, which is very much influenced by subsidies in the study period. The alfalfa-based rotations show the highest distribution percentages (52%) on the land most suitable for agriculture in the area. The present multi temporal analysis approach offers a more realistic insight than the comparison between a land evaluation map and static year crop map in assessing the degree of agreement of land evaluation recommendations with crops actually cultivated by farmers. Additional key words: biophysical land suitability, crop rotation, land evaluation. (Author) 35 refs.

  7. Effects of land use changes on water and nitrogen flows at the scale of West African inland valleys: an explorative model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Stomph, T.J.; Fresco, L.O.

    1997-01-01

    Land use and cover, as influenced by agricultural practices, and the changes in these with increasing pressure on land, are among the factors determining water flows in inland valleys. Changing water flows affect nitrogen flows both at the plot level and at levels higher than plots. We present a

  8. Comparison of energy fluxes at the land surface-atmosphere interface in an Alpine valley as simulated with different models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grossi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a research project coupling meteorological and hydrological models in mountainous areas a distributed Snow-Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model was developed and applied to simulate the energy fluxes at the land surface – atmosphere interface in an Alpine valley (Toce Valley - North Italy during selected flood events in the last decade. Energy fluxes simulated by the distributed energy transfer model were compared with those simulated by a limited area meteorological model for the event of June 1997 and the differences in the spatial and temporal distribution. The Snow/Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model was also applied to simulate the energy fluxes at the land surface-atmosphere interface for a single cell, assumed to be representative of the Siberia site (Toce Valley, where a micro-meteorological station was installed and operated for 2.5 months in autumn 1999. The Siberia site is very close to the Nosere site, where a standard meteorological station was measuring precipitation, air temperature and humidity, global and net radiation and wind speed during the same special observing period. Data recorded by the standard meteorological station were used to force the energy transfer model and simulate the point energy fluxes at the Siberia site, while turbulent fluxes observed at the Siberia site were used to derive the latent heat flux from the energy balance equation. Finally, the hourly evapotranspiration flux computed by this procedure was compared to the evapotranspiration flux simulated by the energy transfer model. Keywords: energy exchange processes, land surface-atmosphere interactions, turbulent fluxes

  9. Local Climate Changes Forced by Changes in Land Use and topography in the Aburrá Valley, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata Henao, M. Z.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the challenges in the numerical weather models is the adequate representation of soil-vegetation-atmosphere interaction at different spatial scales, including scenarios with heterogeneous land cover and complex mountainous terrain. The interaction determines the energy, mass and momentum exchange at the surface and could affect different variables including precipitation, temperature and wind. In order to quantify the long-term climate impact of changes in local land use and to assess the role of topography, two numerical experiments were examined. The first experiment allows assessing the continuous growth of urban areas within the Aburrá Valley, a complex terrain region located in Colombian Andes. The Weather Research Forecast model (WRF) is used as the basis of the experiment. The basic setup involves two nested domains, one representing the continental scale (18 km) and the other the regional scale (2 km). The second experiment allows drastic topography modification, including changing the valley configuration to a plateau. The control run for both experiments corresponds to a climatological scenario. In both experiments the boundary conditions correspond to the climatological continental domain output. Surface temperature, surface winds and precipitation are used as the main variables to compare both experiments relative to the control run. The results of the first experiment show a strong relationship between land cover and the variables, specially for surface temperature and wind speed, due to the strong forcing land cover imposes on the albedo, heat capacity and surface roughness, changing temperature and wind speed magnitudes. The second experiment removes the winds spatial variability related with hill slopes, the direction and magnitude are modulated only by the trade winds and roughness of land cover.

  10. Soil properties relevant to land degradation in abandoned sloping fields in Aisa valley, Central Pyrenees (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardini, G.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-approach characterization of soil properties in abandoned fields in the Aisa valley, at mid mountain in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, demonstrated that the soil's own peculiar characteristics are concerned with conservation problems. Aggregate stability and shrinkage tests pointed to a relatively good soil performance due to the aggregating role of organic matter and calcium carbonates, although calcium ions, in some instances, may exert and additional antagonistic role for a sealed surface, increasing runoff. On the other hand, soil micromorphology suggests that the poor condition of the soils is in some contradiction to paedogenic activity. These findings, together with the presence of ashes, support the hypothesis that land degradation in these areas is mainly related to human activity thought unsuitable management after land abandonment.

    [es] La caracterización de diversas propiedades del suelo en campos abandonados del valle de Aisa, montaña media del Pirineo Central, ha mostrado que dichos suelos presentan algunos caracteres de interés desde el punto de vista de la conservación. La estabilidad de los agregados y los test de agrietamiento evidencian un comportamiento aceptable, gracias al papel agregante de la materia orgánica y carbonatos de calcio, a pesar que los iones calcio, en algunas ocasiones, pueden ejercer un papel antagonista adicional y favorecer el sellado de la superficie del suelo, aumentando la escorrentía superficial. Por otra parte, la micromorfología sugiere que el estado de degradación de los suelos contrasta con la actividad pedogénica. Estos resultados, juntamente con la presencia de cenizas, apoyan la hipótesis de que el estado de degradación en estas áreas es consecuencia principalmente de una utilización incorrecta después del abandono de los cultivos.
    [fr] Un étude des propriétés des sois dans une zone à cultures en pente abandonnées dans la vallée d'Aisa (Pyr

  11. Numerical analysis of air pollution in a combined field of land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, T.; Igarashi, K.; Owada, M.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution in the presence of two types of local flows (i.e., land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind) was studies by advection simulation of the cluster of hypothetical fluid particles, and transport/chemistry calculation employing a three-dimensional Eulerian model for 20 advected species and about 90 chemical reactions. Three-dimensional flow fields over the River Yahagi basin in Japan were estimated for 48 h using an objective method with routine wind observations. Those obtained showed characteristics of the combined local flows such that in the daytime sea breeze and valley wind tend to form one united flow with substantial wind velocity in the whole region and, in contrast, land breeze and mountain wind during the nighttime form two separated circulating flows with a clear weak-wind area between the two local flow regimes. The results of the advection simulation of fluid particles and the transport/chemistry calculation using those flows as inputs elucidated how the features found in the diurnally varying, complex local flows contribute to produce characteristic time-variations of the concentrations of both primary and secondary pollutants. Among others, dynamics of NO 2 , HNO 3 , PAN, O 3 , SO 2 , and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are discussed

  12. Geological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the Archaean Kaap Valley pluton, Barberton mountain land, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.; Barton, J.M. Jr.; Kable, E.J.D.; Wallace, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Kaap Valley pluton consists predominantly of a homogeneous weakly foliated, hornblende-bearing tonalite. It is among the oldest granitoid bodies yet recognized in the environs of the Barberton greenstone belt, yielding 207 Pb/ 206 Pb mineral ages of about 3300 Ma and a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of about 3500 Ma. The Kaap Valley pluton is distinctive in many respects. Whereas all other gneiss plutons in the area are characterized by a trondhjemitic bulk composition with mafic mineralogies dominated by biotite, the Kaap Valley pluton is tonalitic in bulk composition with hornblende (plus minus minor biotite) as its major mafic phase. In this paper, the results of a detailed geological, geochemical and Pb-isotopic study of the Kaap Valley pluton are presented. Questions relating to the origin of the body are considered, with an emphasis on the formation of a tonalitic magma which is more mafic than those typically encountered in the region. Although exposure does not permit a detailed structural study of the gneiss pluton consideration is given to its mode of emplacement

  13. Climate, hydrology, land use, and environmental degradation in the lower Rhone Valley during the Roman period

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leeuw, Sander E.; The Archaeomedes Research Team

    2005-02-01

    This paper's aims are three: firstly, to demonstrate the importance of a long-term perspective on socio-environmental dynamics; secondly, to show the relevance of archaeological data in constructing such a long-term history of such dynamics; thirdly, to illustrate with a case study how one may identify the component processes of environmental change from archaeological materials. Taking the Roman occupation of the middle and lower Rhone Valley as a point of departure, the paper identifies some of the processes of regional environmental change. Firstly, it demonstrates the existence of a regional phase of climate degradation during the 2nd century AD. It is in all probability of anthropogenic origin. This degradation seems to have been caused by widespread deforestation in preparation for intensive cultivation of cereals, wine and olives for export to other parts of the Roman Empire. Next, it isolates the principal interactions occurring between relief, soils, and water on the one hand, and the societal dynamics on the other. The location of each settlement is considered representative of an environmental choice, made by its founders at the time the settlement is initiated. These environmental choices, in turn, reflect the perception of the landscape and its resources by the settlers. The principal indicators at our disposal for this study are the relief, soil, and hydrological maps. They are used as a basis for the calculation of the altitude, slope, orientation, annual solar radiation, exposure to the prevailing winds, and fertility of the soil of all sites and their environment. Subsequently, preferences are calculated statistically based on the 1000-odd settlements concerned. The third part of the paper concerns the evolution of the sites. It turns out that the earlier ones are the most successful, in part because they occupied the best locations, but also because they structured the landscape and the territory to their advantage, determined the road network

  14. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  15. ERTS-1 imagery interpretation techniques in the Tennessee Valley. [land use and soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenheimer, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The feasibility of delineating major soil associations and land uses through computerized analyses is discussed. Useful and potential applications in detecting landscape change and land use mapping are described. Recommendations for improving the data processing effort in a multidisciplinary program are presented.

  16. Ecological niche modeling and land cover risk areas for rift valley fever vector, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Mohamed F; Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S; Abdullah, Mohamed A R

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles is a prevalent and confirmed Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) vector. This vector, in association with Aedimorphus arabiensis (Patton), was responsible for causing the outbreak of 2000 in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. Larval occurrence records and a total of 19 bioclimatic and three topographic layers imported from Worldclim Database were used to predict the larval suitable breeding habitats for this vector in Jazan Province using ArcGIS ver.10 and MaxEnt modeling program. Also, a supervised land cover classification from SPOT5 imagery was developed to assess the land cover distribution within the suitable predicted habitats. Eleven bioclimatic and slope attributes were found to be the significant predictors for this larval suitable breeding habitat. Precipitation and temperature were strong predictors of mosquito distribution. Among six land cover classes, the linear regression model (LM) indicated wet muddy substrate is significantly associated with high-very high suitable predicted habitats (R(2) = 73.7%, Presearchers.

  17. LAND USE CHANGE DYNAMICS IN THE UPPER AND MIDDLE RIVER BASIN OF THE STREI VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania MANEA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use change assessment is an interdisciplinary approach, and also, a “key factor” in environmental impact identification caused by anthropogenic activity. In this respect, cartographic materials from three distinct periods were used which allowed data base construction and a staged analysis of the land use change taking into consideration thefactors which triggered the conversions. On the maps obtained, the rates of change were calculated and the areas, where the same land use persists for more than 200 years, were identified.

  18. A Real Options Method for Estimating the Adoption Potential of Forestry and Agroforestry Systems on Private Lands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Robert C. Abt

    2010-01-01

    The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV), once was the largest forested bottom-land area in the continental United States, but has undergone widespread loss of forest through conversion to farmland. Restoration of forest functions and values has been a key conservation goal in the LMAV since the 1970s. This study utilizes a partial differential real options...

  19. Framing conservation on private lands: conserving oak in Oregon's Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; John C. Bliss

    2009-01-01

    Conserving threatened habitats on private lands requires policies that advance the interests of landowners and natural resource professionals alike. Through qualitative analysis of individual and focus-group interviews, we compared how family forest owners and natural resource professionals frame conservation of threatened habitat: the oak woodlands and savanna in...

  20. Regulatory, Land Ownership, and Water Availability Factors for a Magma Well: Long Valley Caldera and Coso Hot Springs, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackett, Robert

    1985-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently engaged in a program to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of extracting thermal energy from high-level molten magma bodies. The program is being carried out under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories where a number of individual projects support the overall program. The existing program elements include (1) high-temperature materials compatibility testing; (2) studies of properties of melts of various compositions; and (3) the investigation of the economics of a magma energy extraction system. Another element of the program is being conducted with the cooperation of the U.S. Geological Survey, and involves locating and outlining magma bodies at selected sites using various geophysical techniques. The ultimate goal here will be to define the limits of a magma body as a drilling target. During an earlier phase of the program, more than twenty candidate study sites considered were evaluated based upon: (1) the likelihood of the presence of a shallow magma chamber, (2) the accessibility of the site, and (3) physical and institutional constraints associated with each site with respect to performing long-term experiments. From these early phase activities, the number of candidate sites were eventually narrowed to just 2. The sites currently under consideration are Coso Hot Springs and the Long Valley caldera (Figure 1). This report describes certain attributes of these sites in order to help identify potential problems related to: (1) state and federal regulations pertaining to geothermal development; (2) land ownership; and (3) water resource availability. The information sources used in this study were mainly maps, publications, and informative documents gathered from the California Division of Oil and Gas and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Environmental studies completed for the entire Long Valley caldera study area, and for portions of the Coso Hot Springs study area were also used for reference.

  1. 3D DIGITAL CADASTRE JOURNEY IN VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shojaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM, as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV, has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  2. Land-Sparing Opportunities for Solar Energy Development in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study of the Great Central Valley, CA, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, Madison K; Allen, Michael F; Hernandez, Rebecca R

    2017-12-19

    Land-cover change from energy development, including solar energy, presents trade-offs for land used for the production of food and the conservation of ecosystems. Solar energy plays a critical role in contributing to the alternative energy mix to mitigate climate change and meet policy milestones; however, the extent that solar energy development on nonconventional surfaces can mitigate land scarcity is understudied. Here, we evaluate the land sparing potential of solar energy development across four nonconventional land-cover types: the built environment, salt-affected land, contaminated land, and water reservoirs (as floatovoltaics), within the Great Central Valley (CV, CA), a globally significant agricultural region where land for food production, urban development, and conservation collide. Furthermore, we calculate the technical potential (TWh year -1 ) of these land sparing sites and test the degree to which projected electricity needs for the state of California can be met therein. In total, the CV encompasses 15% of CA, 8415 km 2 of which was identified as potentially land-sparing for solar energy development. These areas comprise a capacity-based energy potential of at least 17 348 TWh year -1 for photovoltaic (PV) and 2213 TWh year -1 for concentrating solar power (CSP). Accounting for technology efficiencies, this exceeds California's 2025 projected electricity demands up to 13 and 2 times for PV and CSP, respectively. Our study underscores the potential of strategic renewable energy siting to mitigate environmental trade-offs typically coupled with energy sprawl in agricultural landscapes.

  3. Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion: Chapter 6 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion comprises numerous intermountain valleys and low-elevation foothill prairies spread across the western half of Montana, on both sides of the Continental Divide (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion, which covers approximately 64,658 km2 (24,965 mi2), includes the Flathead Valley and the valleys surrounding Helena, Missoula, Bozeman, Billings, Anaconda, Dillon, and Lewistown (fig. 1). These valleys are generally characterized by shortgrass prairie vegetation and are flanked by forested mountains (Woods and others, 1999); thus, the valleys’ biotas with regards to fish and insects are comparable. In many cases, the valleys are conduits for some of the largest rivers in the state, including Clark Fork and the Missouri, Jefferson, Madison, Flathead, Yellowstone, Gallatin, Smith, Big Hole, Bitterroot, and Blackfoot Rivers (fig. 2). The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion also includes the “Rocky Mountain front,” an area of prairies along the eastern slope of the northern Rocky Mountains. Principal land uses within the ecoregion include farming, grazing, and mining. The valleys serve as major transportation and utility corridors and also contain the majority of Montana’s human population. The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion extends into 17 mostly rural counties throughout western Montana. Only three of the counties—Carbon, Yellowstone, and Missoula—are part of a metropolitan statistical area with contiguous built-up areas tied to an employment center. Nearly two-thirds of Montana residents live in nonmetropolitan counties (Albrecht, 2008). Ten of the counties within the ecoregion had population growth rates greater than national averages (9–13 percent) between 1970 and 2000 (table 1). Ravalli and Gallatin Counties had the highest growth rates. Population growth was largely due to amenity-related inmigration and an economy dependent on tourism

  4. Validation and sensitivity tests on improved parametrizations of a land surface process model (LSPM) in the Po Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassardo, C.; Carena, E.; Longhetto, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Land Surface Process Model (LSPM) has been improved with respect to the 1. version of 1994. The modifications have involved the parametrizations of the radiation terms and of turbulent heat fluxes. A parametrization of runoff has also been developed, in order to close the hydrologic balance. This 2. version of LSPM has been validated against experimental data gathered at Mottarone (Verbania, Northern Italy) during a field experiment. The results of this validation show that this new version is able to apportionate the energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes. LSPM has also been submitted to a series of sensitivity tests in order to investigate the hydrological part of the model. The physical quantities selected in these sensitivity experiments have been the initial soil moisture content and the rainfall intensity. In each experiment, the model has been forced by using the observations carried out at the synoptic stations of San Pietro Capofiume (Po Valley, Italy). The observed characteristics of soil and vegetation (not involved in the sensitivity tests) have been used as initial and boundary conditions. The results of the simulation show that LSPM can reproduce well the energy, heat and water budgets and their behaviours with varying the selected parameters. A careful analysis of the LSPM output shows also the importance to identify the effective soil type

  5. Pancam Peek into 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 A drive of about 60 meters (about 200 feet) on the 943rd Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 18, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 50 meters (about 160 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. Opportunity reached a location from which the cameras on top of the rover's mast could begin to see into the interior of Victoria. This stereo anaglyph was made from frames taken on sol 943 by the panoramic camera (Pancam) to offer a three-dimensional view when seen through red-blue glasses. It shows the upper portion of interior crater walls facing toward Opportunity from up to about 850 meters (half a mile) away. The amount of vertical relief visible at the top of the interior walls from this angle is about 15 meters (about 50 feet). The exposures were taken through a Pancam filter selecting wavelengths centered on 750 nanometers. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  6. Associating Land Surface Temperature Retrieved From Satellite and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data With Urban Cover and Topography in Aburrá Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, G.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban heat island effect commonly refers to temperature differences between urban areas and their countrysides due to urbanization. These temperature differences are evident at surface, and within the canopy and the boundary layer. This effect is heterogeneous within the city, and responds to urban morphology, prevailing materials, amount of vegetation, among others, which are also important in the urban balance of energy. In order to study the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and urban coverage over Aburrá Valley, which is a narrow valley locate at tropical Andes in northern South America, Landsat 8 mission products of LST, density of vegetation (normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI), and a proxy of soil humidity are derived and used. The results are analyzed from the point of view of dominant urban form and settlement density at scale of neighborhoods, and also from potential downward solar radiation received at the surface. Besides, specific sites were chosen to obtain LST from thermal imaging using an unmanned aerial vehicle to characterize micro-scale patterns and to validate Landast retrievals. Direct relationships between LST, NDVI, soil humidity, and duration of insolation are found, showing the impact of the current spatial distribution of land uses on surface temperature over Aburrá Valley. In general, the highest temperatures correspond to neighborhoods with large, flat-topped buildings in commercial and industrial areas, and low-rise building in residential areas with scarce vegetation, all on the valley bottom. Landsat images are in the morning for the Aburrá Valley, for that reason the coldest temperatures are prevalent at certain orientation of the hillslope, according with the amount of radiation received from sunrise to time of data.

  7. The upper lithostratigraphic unit of ANDRILL AND-2A core (Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica): local Pleistocene volcanic sources, paleoenvironmental implications and subsidence in the southern Victoria Land Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carlo, P.; Panter, K. S.; Bassett, K. N.; Bracciali, L.; di Vincenzo, G.; Rocchi, S.

    2009-12-01

    -rich cement, along with the occurrence of shallow water diatoms, all indicate deposition in shallow waters agitated by waves. These results contrast strikingly with the present water depth, and let us infer rapid recent tectonic subsidence within this segment of the Victoria Land Basin (Terror Rift).

  8. Testing a Mars science outpost in the Antarctic dry valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D. T.; Mckay, C. P.; Wharton, R. A.; Rummel, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Field research conducted in the Antarctic has been providing insights about the nature of Mars in the science disciplines of exobiology and geology. Located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land (160 deg and 164 deg E longitude and 76 deg 30 min and 78 deg 30 min S latitude), research outposts are inhabited by teams of 4-6 scientists. It is proposed that the design of these outposts be expanded to enable meaningful tests of many of the systems that will be needed for the successful conduct of exploration activities on Mars. Although there are some important differences between the environment in the Antarctic dry valleys and on Mars, the many similarities and particularly the field science activities, make the dry valleys a useful terrestrial analog to conditions on Mars. Three areas have been identified for testing at a small science outpost in the dry valleys: (1) studying human factors and physiology in an isolated environment; (2) testing emerging technologies (e.g. innovative power management systems, advanced life support facilities including partial bioregenerative life support systems for water recycling and food growth, telerobotics, etc.); and (3) conducting basic scientific research that will enhance understanding of Mars while contributing to the planning for human exploration. It is suggested that an important early result of a Mars habitat program will be the experience gained by interfacing humans and their supporting technology in a remote and stressful environment.

  9. Distribution and abundance of fungi in the soils of Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Rodriguez, R.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of culturable fungi in Taylor Valley, Antarctica was assessed in terms of soil habitat. Soil transects throughout the valley revealed differential habitat utilization between filamentous and non-filamentous (yeast and yeast-like) fungi. In addition, there were significant differences in species distribution patterns with respect to soil pH, moisture, distance from marine coastline, carbon, chlorophyll a, salinity, elevation and solar inputs. Filamentous fungal abundance is most closely associated with habitats having higher pH, and soil moistures. These close associations were not found with yeast and yeast-like fungi demonstrating that yeast and yeast-like fungi utilize a broader range of habitat. An intensive survey of the Victoria Land is necessary to gain a better understanding of their role in soil functioning and nutrient cycling processes. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Bayesian approach to infer nitrogen loading rates from crop and land-use types surrounding private wells in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Katherine M.; Bell, Andrew M.; Barber, Quinn E.; Kourakos, George; Harter, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    This study is focused on nitrogen loading from a wide variety of crop and land-use types in the Central Valley, California, USA, an intensively farmed region with high agricultural crop diversity. Nitrogen loading rates for several crop types have been measured based on field-scale experiments, and recent research has calculated nitrogen loading rates for crops throughout the Central Valley based on a mass balance approach. However, research is lacking to infer nitrogen loading rates for the broad diversity of crop and land-use types directly from groundwater nitrate measurements. Relating groundwater nitrate measurements to specific crops must account for the uncertainty about and multiplicity in contributing crops (and other land uses) to individual well measurements, and for the variability of nitrogen loading within farms and from farm to farm for the same crop type. In this study, we developed a Bayesian regression model that allowed us to estimate land-use-specific groundwater nitrogen loading rate probability distributions for 15 crop and land-use groups based on a database of recent nitrate measurements from 2149 private wells in the Central Valley. The water and natural, rice, and alfalfa and pasture groups had the lowest median estimated nitrogen loading rates, each with a median estimate below 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Confined animal feeding operations (dairies) and citrus and subtropical crops had the greatest median estimated nitrogen loading rates at approximately 269 and 65 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. In general, our probability-based estimates compare favorably with previous direct measurements and with mass-balance-based estimates of nitrogen loading. Nitrogen mass-balance-based estimates are larger than our groundwater nitrate derived estimates for manured and nonmanured forage, nuts, cotton, tree fruit, and rice crops. These discrepancies are thought to be due to groundwater age mixing, dilution from infiltrating river water, or denitrification

  11. Willamette Valley Ecoregion: Chapter 3 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sorenson, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    The Willamette Valley Ecoregion (as defined by Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997) covers approximately 14,458 km² (5,582 mi2), making it one of the smallest ecoregions in the conterminous United States. The long, alluvial Willamette Valley, which stretches north to south more than 193 km and ranges from 32 to 64 km wide, is nestled between the sedimentary and metamorphic Coast Ranges (Coast Range Ecoregion) to the west and the basaltic Cascade Range (Cascades Ecoregion) to the east (fig. 1). The Lewis and Columbia Rivers converge at the ecoregion’s northern boundary in Washington state; however, the majority of the ecoregion falls within northwestern Oregon. Interstate 5 runs the length of the valley to its southern boundary with the Klamath Mountains Ecoregion. Topography here is relatively flat, with elevations ranging from sea level to 122 m. This even terrain, coupled with mild, wet winters, warm, dry summers, and nutrient-rich soil, makes the Willamette Valley the most important agricultural region in Oregon. Population centers are concentrated along the valley floor. According to estimates from the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (2006), over 2.3 million people lived in Willamette Valley in 2000. Portland, Oregon, is the largest city, with 529,121 residents (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Other sizable cities include Eugene, Oregon; Salem (Oregon’s state capital); and Vancouver, Washington. Despite the large urban areas dotting the length of the Willamette Valley Ecoregion, agriculture and forestry products are its economic foundation (figs. 2,3). The valley is a major producer of grass seed, ornamental plants, fruits, nuts, vegetables, and grains, as well as poultry, beef, and dairy products. The forestry and logging industries also are primary employers of the valley’s rural residents (Rooney, 2008). These activities have affected the watershed significantly, with forestry and agricultural runoff contributing to river

  12. Hydrological responses of a valley-bottom wetland to land-use/land-cover change in a South African catchment: making a case for wetland restoration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rebelo, AJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available were constructed to match 5 different decades in the last 50 years to explore the potential effects of restoring the catchment to different historic benchmarks. In the Kromme catchment, valley-bottom wetlands have declined by 84%, driven by key LULC...

  13. Band nesting, massive Dirac fermions, and valley Landé and Zeeman effects in transition metal dichalcogenides: A tight-binding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Maciej; Korkusiński, Marek; Szulakowska, Ludmiła; Potasz, Paweł; Ozfidan, Isil; Hawrylak, Paweł

    2018-02-01

    We present here the minimal tight-binding model for a single layer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) MX 2(M , metal; X , chalcogen) which illuminates the physics and captures band nesting, massive Dirac fermions, and valley Landé and Zeeman magnetic field effects. TMDCs share the hexagonal lattice with graphene but their electronic bands require much more complex atomic orbitals. Using symmetry arguments, a minimal basis consisting of three metal d orbitals and three chalcogen dimer p orbitals is constructed. The tunneling matrix elements between nearest-neighbor metal and chalcogen orbitals are explicitly derived at K ,-K , and Γ points of the Brillouin zone. The nearest-neighbor tunneling matrix elements connect specific metal and sulfur orbitals yielding an effective 6 ×6 Hamiltonian giving correct composition of metal and chalcogen orbitals but not the direct gap at K points. The direct gap at K , correct masses, and conduction band minima at Q points responsible for band nesting are obtained by inclusion of next-neighbor Mo-Mo tunneling. The parameters of the next-nearest-neighbor model are successfully fitted to MX 2(M =Mo ; X =S ) density functional ab initio calculations of the highest valence and lowest conduction band dispersion along K -Γ line in the Brillouin zone. The effective two-band massive Dirac Hamiltonian for MoS2, Landé g factors, and valley Zeeman splitting are obtained.

  14. victoria cross awards warrants concerning the victoria cross (1920)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. WARRANTS CONCERNING THE. VICTORIA CROSS (1920). In order to get a picture of the Royal Warrants promulgated from 1856 to 1920 in respect of the .... to confirmation by us. Eighthly. - It is ordained, where such an act shall not have been performed in the sight of a commanding officer as aforesaid, then the ...

  15. Soils of wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases (Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelov, N. S.

    2014-09-01

    The properties and spatial distribution of soils and soil-like bodies in valleys of the coastal Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases—poorly investigated in terms of the soil areas of East Antarctica—are discussed. In contrast to Dry Valleys—large continental oases of Western Antarctica—the studied territory is characterized by the presence of temporarily waterlogged sites in the valleys. It is argued that the deficit of water rather than the low temperature is the major limiting factor for the development of living organisms and the pedogenesis on loose substrates. The moisture gradients in the surface soil horizons explain the spatial distribution of the different soils and biotic complexes within the studied valleys. Despite the permanent water-logging of the deep suprapermafrost horizons of most of the soils in the valleys, no gley features have been identified in them. The soils of the wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills oasis do not contain carbonates. They have a slightly acid or neutral reaction. The organic carbon and nitrogen contents are mainly controlled by the amount of living and dead biomass rather than by the humic substances proper. The larger part of the biomass is concentrated inside the mineral soil matrix rather than on the soil surface. The stresses caused by surface drying, strong winds, and ultraviolet radiation prevent the development of organisms on the surface of the soil and necessitate the search for shelter within the soil fine earth material (endoedaphic niche) or under the gravelly pavement (hypolithic niche). In the absence of higher plants, humified products of their decomposition, and rainwater that can wash the soil profile and upon the low content of silt and clay particles in the soil material, "classical" soil horizons are not developed. The most distinct (and, often, the only diagnosed) products of pedogenesis in these soils are represented by organomineral films on the surface of mineral particles.

  16. Land subsidence along the Delta-Mendota Canal in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, California, 2003-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin; Solt, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Extensive groundwater withdrawal from the unconsolidated deposits in the San Joaquin Valley caused widespread aquifer-system compaction and resultant land subsidence from 1926 to 1970—locally exceeding 8.5 meters. The importation of surface water beginning in the early 1950s through the Delta-Mendota Canal and in the early 1970s through the California Aqueduct resulted in decreased pumping, initiation of water-level recovery, and a reduced rate of compaction in some areas of the San Joaquin Valley. However, drought conditions during 1976–77 and 1987–92, and drought conditions and regulatory reductions in surface-water deliveries during 2007–10, decreased surface-water availability, causing pumping to increase, water levels to decline, and renewed compaction. Land subsidence from this compaction has reduced freeboard and flow capacity of the Delta-Mendota Canal, the California Aqueduct, and other canals that deliver irrigation water and transport floodwater. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the San Luis and Delta-Mendota Water Authority, assessed land subsidence in the vicinity of the Delta-Mendota Canal as part of an effort to minimize future subsidence-related damages to the canal. The location, magnitude, and stress regime of land-surface deformation during 2003–10 were determined by using extensometer, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), spirit leveling, and groundwater-level data. Comparison of continuous GPS, shallow extensometer, and groundwater-level data, combined with results from a one-dimensional model, indicated the vast majority of the compaction took place beneath the Corcoran Clay, the primary regional confining unit. Land-surface deformation measurements indicated that much of the northern portion of the Delta-Mendota Canal (Clifton Court Forebay to Check 14) was fairly stable or minimally subsiding on an annual basis; some areas showed

  17. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-07-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on numerical weather prediction, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the type of input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that false alarms also contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at http://github.com/wthiery/VIEWS.

  18. 76 FR 5202 - Notice of Temporary Restriction of Discharge of Firearms on Public Lands at Kanaka Valley, El...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... management infrastructure (signage, fencing, parking, trails etc) and an activity plan to guide visitor use... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCACO8000.L19200000.DA0000.LRORBX003800... County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. [[Page 5203

  19. Addressing the multi-scale lapsus of landscape : multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use : a case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    "Addressing the Multi-scale Lapsus of Landscape" with the sub-title "Multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use: A case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain" focuses on the role of

  20. A dynamic simulation model of land-use, population, and rural livelihoods in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Garedew, Efrem; Sandewall, Mats; Söderberg, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic interactions between society and land resources have to be taken into account when planning and managing natural resources. A computer model, using STELLA software, was developed through active participation of purposively selected farm households from different wealth groups, age groups and gender within a rural community and some members of Kebelle council. The aim of the modeling was to study the perceived changes in land-use, population and livelihoods over the next 30 years a...

  1. Land-Use Analysis and Simulated Effects of Land-Use Change and Aggregate Mining on Groundwater Flow in the South Platte River Valley, Brighton to Fort Lupton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Langer, W.H.; Daniels, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Land use in the South Platte River valley between the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, Colo., is undergoing change as urban areas expand, and the extent of aggregate mining in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area is increasing as the demand for aggregate grows in response to urban development. To improve understanding of land-use change and the potential effects of land-use change and aggregate mining on groundwater flow, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, analyzed socioeconomic and land-use trends and constructed a numerical groundwater flow model of the South Platte alluvial aquifer in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area. The numerical groundwater flow model was used to simulate (1) steady-state hydrologic effects of predicted land-use conditions in 2020 and 2040, (2) transient cumulative hydrologic effects of the potential extent of reclaimed aggregate pits in 2020 and 2040, (3) transient hydrologic effects of actively dewatered aggregate pits, and (4) effects of different hypothetical pit spacings and configurations on groundwater levels. The SLEUTH (Slope, Land cover, Exclusion, Urbanization, Transportation, and Hillshade) urban-growth modeling program was used to predict the extent of urban area in 2020 and 2040. Wetlands in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area were mapped as part of the study, and mapped wetland locations and areas of riparian herbaceous vegetation previously mapped by the Colorado Division of Wildlife were compared to simulation results to indicate areas where wetlands or riparian herbaceous vegetation might be affected by groundwater-level changes resulting from land-use change or aggregate mining. Analysis of land-use conditions in 1957, 1977, and 2000 indicated that the general distribution of irrigated land and non-irrigated land remained similar from 1957 to 2000, but both land uses decreased as urban area increased. Urban area increased about 165 percent from 1957 to 1977 and about 56 percent from

  2. Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hunsberger (Carol); Tom P. Evans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPressure on land resources has increased during recent years despite international goals to improve their management. The fourth Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2007) highlighted the unprecedented land-use changes created by a burgeoning population, economic development and

  3. Evolution of the efficiency and agro-environmental impact of a traditional irrigation land in the middle Ebro Valley (2001-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Garizabal, I.; Causape Valenzuela, J.; Abrahao, R.

    2009-07-01

    Alternatives in irrigation management can lead to the creation of irrigation lands that are more efficient and more respectful towards the environment. The objective of this work is to analyze the evolution of the agro-environmental impact in a traditional irrigation land of the middle Ebro Valley (Spain) which has experienced changes in its management. For such, water, salt and nitrate balances were accomplished in a hydrological basin (95 ha) in 2001, 2005, 2006 and 2007. The drought of 2005 caused more intensive water use (86%), increasing in 33% the irrigation efficiency when compared to 2001 (53%), even though a high hydric deficit (24%) was caused. Changes in the flood irrigation system management (from rotation to on demand), maximum allocations of irrigation water, billing for the volume of irrigation water consumed and the expansion of crops with lower water and fertilization needs made it possible to achieve irrigation efficiencies of approximately 73% (an increase of 20%) and to halve salt (1.3 Mg ha{sup -}1 year-1) and nitrate (25 kg NO{sub 3} --N ha{sup -}1 year{sup -}1) loads exported in the drainage. The evaluated management changes have been efficient, but nevertheless, crops still suffer certain hydric stress and since 2005 a slight but worrying negative agro-environmental tendency has been observed and should be reversed. (Author)

  4. A Dynamic Simulation Model of Land-Use, Population, and Rural Livelihoods in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Efrem; Sandewall, Mats; Soderberg, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic interactions between society and land resources have to be taken into account when planning and managing natural resources. A computer model, using STELLA software, was developed through active participation of purposively selected farm households from different wealth groups, age groups and gender within a rural community and some members of Kebelle council. The aim of the modeling was to study the perceived changes in land-use, population and livelihoods over the next 30 years and to improve our understanding of the interactions among them. The modeling output is characterized by rapid population growth, declining farm size and household incomes, deteriorating woody vegetation cover and worsening land degradation if current conditions remain. However, through integrated intervention strategies (including forest increase, micro-finance, family planning, health and education) the woody vegetation cover is likely to increase in the landscape, population growth is likely to slow down and households' income is likely to improve. A validation assessment of the simulation model based on historical data on land-use and population from 1973 to 2006 showed that the model is relatively robust. We conclude that as a supporting tool, the simulation model can contribute to the decision making process.

  5. lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. O'Geen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pumping chronically exceeds natural recharge in many agricultural regions in California. A common method of recharging groundwater — when surface water is available — is to deliberately flood an open area, allowing water to percolate into an aquifer. However, open land suitable for this type of recharge is scarce. Flooding agricultural land during fallow or dormant periods has the potential to increase groundwater recharge substantially, but this approach has not been well studied. Using data on soils, topography and crop type, we developed a spatially explicit index of the suitability for groundwater recharge of land in all agricultural regions in California. We identified 3.6 million acres of agricultural land statewide as having Excellent or Good potential for groundwater recharge. The index provides preliminary guidance about the locations where groundwater recharge on agricultural land is likely to be feasible. A variety of institutional, infrastructure and other issues must also be addressed before this practice can be implemented widely.

  6. Husbandry, working practices and field performance when using draught oxen in land preparation in Shambat, Nile Valley, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Elsamawal Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Little quantitative information is available on animal power in the Nile Valley in Sudan, despite that it is being used in the area for centuries and playing an important role in agriculture in the present day. A survey was conducted to assess draught oxen management and its association with field capacity and efficiency at the farm level and to identify potential areas for intervention. A sample of 50 farmers was selected for this purpose using the systematic random sampling technique. The main management parameters discussed were animal health, feeding, housing, work strategy and care for yoke and plough. The results showed that most of the farmers poorly manage their animals, and this was reflected in low working speeds and field efficiencies. The main dimensions of poor management were in veterinary care (78 % did not take their animals to the veterinary centre), feeding (66 % feed their animals shortly before work) and care for yoke (80 % did not follow daily care measures for their yokes) and plough (74 % did not follow plough care measure before and after work). Low working speeds (0.90–2.0 km/h) were recorded by the majority of the farmers (64 %). The majority of the farmers (70 %) recorded field capacities between 0.06 and 0.10 ha/h, while all of them worked at high field efficiencies of >86 %. The only parameter that significantly affected field capacity was the yoke-related wounds (p = 0.019). Extension advice and capacity building in husbandry and working practices were identified as principal entry points for intervention.

  7. Future of Water Supply and Demand in the Middle Drâa Valley, Morocco, under Climate and Land Use Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene M. Johannsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Regions of scarce fresh water resources, such as the Middle East and North Africa, are facing great challenges already today, and even more in the future, due to climatic and socioeconomic changes. The Middle Drâa valley in Morocco is one of many semi-arid to arid mountainous areas struggling with increasing water scarcity threatening self-sufficient husbandry. In order to maintain people’s livelihoods water management needs to be adapted. The Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP software has been widely used to examine complex water systems in the water resource planning sector all around the world and proved to be a helpful asset to show the various interactions of water supply and demand. This paper presents the application of WEAP on the Middle Draâ valley’s water demand and supply, including several socioeconomic and land use scenarios under one basic climate change scenario. The climate scenario shows a significant decrease in available water resources up to 2029 while all socioeconomic scenarios show an increase in water demand. In years of droughts groundwater is used for irrigation, leading to increasingly depleted aquifers. The aquifers are recharged by percolation losses from irrigation and by river bed infiltration the latter of which is stronger in the northern oases than in the southern oases due to water withdrawal rules. A drastic reduction of irrigated agricultural area is the only solution to guarantee sustainable water use.

  8. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available the factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effect of drought. The priority issues reported on in this chapter are soil and veld degradation, and the loss of land for agricultural use....

  9. Spiraal : uus Victoria & Alberti muuseum Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Daniel Libeskindi projekt Victoria & Alberti Muuseumi laiendamiseks on põhjustanud konservatiivsete londonlaste pahameele, kuid kutsunud esile ka hulgaliselt toetusavaldusi. Muuseumi uus osa (kokkuvarisemise piiril näiva ehitisena) peaks külastajaile avatama 2004. a.

  10. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  11. Has climate change disrupted stratification patterns in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Has climate change disrupted stratification patterns in Lake Victoria, East Africa? ... Climate change may threaten the fisheries of Lake Victoria by increasing density differentials in the water column, thereby strengthening stratification and increasing the ... Keywords: deoxygenation, fisheries, global warming, thermocline

  12. Coal Corporation of Victoria annual report 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Information is presented on operations, strategic planning, brown coal production and finance. Divisional reports are presented for the following divisions of the Coal Corporation of Victoria: marketing, technical marketing and special projects, research and development, and corporate services. The activities of the technical marketing and special projects division are discussed under the following headings: the coal for industry programme, the Brown Coal Liquefaction (Victoria) Pty. Ltd. project, dried brown coal activities, and resource development planning and policy activities. The corporation is currently conducting research into the following areas: ion exchange materials, activated carbons, and horticultural and agricultural applications of brown coal.

  13. The River Valleys as Biodiversity Reservoirs for Land Snails in Highly Anthropic Areas – The Case of Cisnădie River (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheoca Voichiţa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the snail fauna of a river valley passing through two closely located settlements. Thirty six species of terrestrial gastropods were identified. Species such as Macrogastra borealis, Alinda fallax, Alinda viridana, Bulgarica vetusta, Monachoides vicinus, Drobacia banatica, are present along the river and abundant in the sampling stations downstream of Cisnădie town. The high specific diversity and the presence of typical forest species demonstrate the presence of fragments of habitat that can preserve populations of terrestrial gastropods, underlining the importance of river valleys in conservation and dispersion of these species.

  14. State Electricity Commission of Victoria annual report 1991/92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The 73rd annual report of the State Electricity Commission (SEC) of Victoria covers the financial year ended 30 June 1992. A total revenue of 3,300 million dollars and a net profit of 155.7 million dollars was recorded. There was continued improvement in employee productivity. Progress was made on the Victorian Power Pool (VicPool) pooling arrangement in anticipation of open access to the power grid. A 3-year business plan was formulated and corporate strategy revised. The Strategic Research Program on brown coal technologies, aimed at reducing costs of electricity and emissions of CO[sub 2], continued. Environmental activities continued in the areas of renewable energy source development, air quality monitoring, acid rain, water management, land rehabilitation and improvements to powerlines. The report includes statistical data on customer statistics, electricity sales, power stations, brown coal and briquette production and financial sales.

  15. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    The seabed surveys in the Victoria Harbour, Mahe, Seychelles shows that the prominent feature is the navigational channel aligned in the northeast-southwest direction with a width varying from 300 to 450m. The depth in the channel ranges from 14...

  16. A Review of the Taxation of Property: Local Government Rates in Victoria 1

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, David T.

    1993-01-01

    The paper reviews the taxation of property in Victoria and in particular the method of raising revenue for local government from rural landowners. A major contradiction between the apparent philosophical basis and its application is identified. A modification to the existing method of calculation is suggested based on the use value of rural land. The advantages and disadvantages of the use value modification are discussed and compared to the system of property taxes presently used. The use me...

  17. Hemofilie onder die nasate van koningin Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie studie bespreek die uitwerking van die sogenaamde Victoriaanse hemofilie op Europese koningshuise gedurende die negentiende en twintigste eeu. Hemofilie as molekulêre defek word verduidelik en die kliniese beeld van die siekte word aangedui. ’n Bespreking van toepaslike terapeutiese ingrepe volg. Dan word ’n historiese oorsig verskaf van die verspreiding van Victoriaanse hemofilie vanaf koningin Victoria (Britse monarg, 1837–1901 via sommige van haar dogters na ander lede van die Britse koningshuis en ook na die Duitse, Russiese en Spaanse koningshuise. Elf bevestigde gevalle van hemofilie onder lede van koningin Victoria se nageslag word vermeld, asook drie ander moontlike gevalle van die siekte. Die effek van hemofilie op die verloop van die geskiedenis word ook ondersoek.Haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria. This study discusses the impact of ‘Victorian haemophilia’ on the royal houses of Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries. Haemophilia as a molecular defect is explained and the clinical picture of the condition is indicated. Applicable therapeutic interventions also receive attention. Next, an historical review is provided of how ‘Victorian haemophilia’ spread from Queen Victoria (British monarch, 1837–1901 via some of her daughters to other members of the British royal family and also to the royal houses of Germany, Russia and Spain. Eleven confirmed cases of haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria are mentioned, as well as three other possible cases. The effect of haemophilia on the course of history is also investigated.

  18. Mathematical Problems in Biology : Victoria Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1974-01-01

    A conference on "Some Mathematical Problems in Biology" was held at the University of Victoria, Victoria, B. C. , Canada, from May 7 - 10, 1973. The participants and invited speakers were mathematicians interested in problems of a biological nature, and scientists actively engaged in developing mathematical models in biological fields. One aim of the conference was to attempt to assess what the recent rapid growth of mathematical interaction with the biosciences has accomplished and may accomplish in the near future. The conference also aimed to expose the problems of communication bet~",een mathematicians and biological scientists, and in doing so to stimulate the interchange of ideas. It was recognised that the topic spans an enormous breadth, and little attempt was made to balance the very diverse areas. Widespread active interest was shown in the conference, and just over one hundred people registered. The varied departments and institutions across North America from which the participants came made it bo...

  19. Chemistry models in the Victoria code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimley, A.J. III

    1988-01-01

    The VICTORIA Computer code consists of the fission product release and chemistry models for the MELPROG severe accident analysis code. The chemistry models in VICTORIA are used to treat multi-phase interactions in four separate physical regions: fuel grains, gap/open porosity/clad, coolant/aerosols, and structure surfaces. The physical and chemical environment of each region is very different from the others and different models are required for each. The common thread in the modelling is the use of a chemical equilibrium assumption. The validity of this assumption along with a description of the various physical constraints applicable to each region will be discussed. The models that result from the assumptions and constraints will be presented along with samples of calculations in each region

  20. Landsat sattelite multi-spectral image classification of land cover and land use changes for GIS-based urbanization analysis in irrigation districts of lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley in the south of Texas is experiencing rapid increase of population to bring up urban growth that continues influencing on the irrigation districts in the region. This study evaluated the Landsat satellite multi-spectral imagery to provide information for GIS-based urbaniz...

  1. Queen Victoria, her physicians, and her cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, J G

    1994-01-01

    Decreasing vision due to cataracts became a significant problem for Queen Victoria toward the end of the 19th century. Her personal physician, Sir James Reid, obtained consultations with two eminent British ophthalmologists, George Lawson and Edward Nettleship. The Queen was not satisfied, and requested an opinion from the German professor Hermann Pagenstecher. All the doctors agreed on the diagnosis, but the Queen never underwent surgery.

  2. Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging: Searching for Organics from the Dry Valleys of Queen Maud Land Antarctica to the Regolith and Ices of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.; Sattler, B.; Muller, J.-P.; Fisk, M.; Cousins, C.; Dartnell, L.

    2009-04-01

    Laser induced fluorescence imaging using excitation in ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths has been proposed as a nondestructive astrobiological rapid survey tool to search for amino and nucleic acids [1], microbial life [2], and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deep in the Mars regolith [3, 4]. However, the technique is easily adapted to search for complex biomolecular targets using longer wavelength sources [5]. Of particular interest is the ability of excitation at 532 nm to detect photosynthetic pigments in cyanobacteria-dominated microbial communities populating the ice of alpine, Arctic, and Antarctic lakes, glaciers, and ice sheets [6-8]. During the months of November and December 2008 we tested the technique as part of an extended international, interdisciplinary field campaign in the Dry Valleys of Schirmacher Oasis and Lake Untersee, Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. In this paper we review our recent laboratory experiments on the use of UV excitation for detection of PAHs doped on Mars analogue soils [9] and chasmo- and epilithic lichen communities within basaltic Iceland lavas. We present for the first time the results of our field experiments conducted during the Tawani 2008 International Antarctic Expedition for in situ detection and quantification of photosynthetic biomass in the ice caps of annual and perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes. We discuss the advantages of using a nondestructive rapid survey photonic tools such as laser induced fluorescence imaging that can be easily implemented from lander, rover, airborne, or orbital platforms. The techniques presented can be utilized to monitor the microbial potential of large, critical ecosystems on Earth, or to facilitate the remote or manned search for organics and photosynthetic life on any terrestrial planet. References 1. Storrie-Lombardi, M.C., Hug, W.F., McDonald, G.D., Tsapin, A.I., and Nealson, K.H. 2001. Hollow cathode ion lasers for deep ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging

  3. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by ... species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne ...

  4. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    1472G. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan and Preliminary Results © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of...19 th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium Title: VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan 5a. CONTRACT

  5. Effect of dry land transformation and quality of water use for crop irrigation on the soil bacterial community in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüneberg, Kathia; Schneider, Dominik; Daniel, Rolf; Siebe, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Soil bacteria are important determinants of soil fertility and ecosystem services as they participate in all biogeochemical cycles. Until now the comprehension of compositional and functional response that bacterial communities have to land use change and management, specifically in dry land its limited. Dry lands cover 40% of the world's land surface and its crop production supports one third of the global population. In this regions soil moisture is limited constraining farming to the rainy season or oblige to irrigate, as fresh water resources become scarce, to maintain productivity, treated or untreated wastewater for field irrigation is used. In this study the transformation of semiarid shrubland to agriculture under different land systems regarding quantity and quality of water use for crop irrigation on bacterial communities was investigated. The land systems included maize rain-fed plantations and irrigation systems with freshwater, untreated wastewater stored in a dam and untreated wastewater during dry and rainy season. Bacterial community structure and function was heavily affected by land use system and soil properties, whereas seasonality had a slighter effect. A soil moisture, nutrient and contaminant-content increasing gradient among the land use systems, going from rain fed plantation over fresh water, dam wastewater to untreated wastewater irrigated plantations was detected, this gradient diminished the abundance of Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria, but enhanced the one from Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Discernible clustering of the dry land soil communities coincides with the moisture, nutrient and contaminant gradient, being shrubland soil communities closer to the rain-fed's system and farer to the one from untreated wastewater irrigated soil. Soil moisture together with sodium content and pH were the strongest drivers of the community structure. Seasonality promoted shifts in the composition of soil bacteria under irrigation with

  6. Dam safety management in Victoria (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adem, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Victoria state government's decision to make dam owners accountable for safety and upkeep of their dams was reported. To give effect to this decision a series of guidelines have been developed which outline the required activities and skills to ensure that dams are properly managed within a framework of 'light-handed' regulation. The guidelines are also intended to ensure that dam management becomes an integral part of the business decision making process, not just a set of prescribed technical procedures. Details of the direction being taken and the proposed controls to ensure compliance with national and international standards were described. 4 refs., 2 figs

  7. Coal Corporation of Victoria strategic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The Coal Corporation has been established by the Victorian Parliament to plan for and to manage the responsible utilisation of the brown coal resource (Victoria's most abundant fossil resource) in order to underpin economic growth and job creation. For each of 5 issues, the Strategic Plan outlines the current situation, reviews recent factors which have affected or may affect the situation and outlines the goals, strategies and targets which have been set for the period 1985/1989. In each case, the achievements to date are also outlined. The issues addressed are: project development, marketing, resource planning and inter corporate relations, organisation of the Corporation, and finance.

  8. Land-cover mapping of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. LaRue; Damar, Nancy A.; Charlet, David A.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird satellite high-resolution multispectral imagery was classified by using Visual Learning Systems’ Feature Analyst feature extraction software to produce land-cover data sets for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and the Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Clark County, Nevada. Over 1,000 vegetation field samples were collected at the stand level. The field samples were classified to the National Vegetation Classification Standard, Version 2 hierarchy at the alliance level and above. Feature extraction models were developed for vegetation on the basis of the spectral and spatial characteristics of selected field samples by using the Feature Analyst hierarchical learning process. Individual model results were merged to create one data set for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and one for each of the Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. Field sample points and photographs were used to validate and update the data set after model results were merged. Non-vegetation data layers, such as roads and disturbed areas, were delineated from the imagery and added to the final data sets. The resulting land-cover data sets are significantly more detailed than previously were available, both in resolution and in vegetation classes.

  9. Requirements for VICTORIA Class Fire Control System: Contact Management Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Requirements for VICTORIA Class Fire Control System Contact Management Function Tab Lamoureux CAE Integrated Enterprise Solutions...Contract Report DRDC-RDDC-2014-C190 July 2014 © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the...i Abstract …….. The VICTORIA Class Submarines (VCS) are subject to a continuing program of technical upgrades. One such program is

  10. Causes and effects of the Lake Victoria ecological revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, Pleun Cornelis

    2006-01-01

    Nile perch was introduced in Lake Victoria in the 1950s and exploded in number during the 1980s. The process of colonization of the lake by this predatory fish is described and explained. The changes in a number of other fauna elements of Lake Victoria are described and explained. Not only Nile

  11. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  12. Youth suicide in Victoria: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, J; Tiller, J W; Burrows, G D; Hallenstein, H

    1994-02-07

    To determine the trends in youth suicide in Victoria and Australia as a whole, and their relation to youth unemployment. We used Australian Bureau of Statistics data to analyse suicide trends between 1907 and 1990 in young people aged 15-24 years and made an in-depth study of youth suicides between 1980 and 1990, for which computerised data are available. There has been a steady increase in youth suicide both in Victoria and Australia as a whole since 1960 in males but not females. There were significant differences in age, sex and area of residence in both the rate and the method of suicide. The increase in youth suicide was not associated with the rise in unemployment. Male (not female) suicide rates were higher in non-metropolitan areas and areas of high youth unemployment. The reasons for the increase in youth suicide remain obscure. There is a need for a prospective in-depth study to determine factors in the aetiology of youth suicide, with particular reference to possible areas for prevention.

  13. Paediatric doses from diagnostic radiology in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, T.J.; Cardillo, I.; Einsiedel, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines doses to paediatric patients from diagnostic radiology. Measurements were made at 29 hospitals and private radiology practices in the state of Victoria. Entrance skin doses in air were measured for the exposure factors used by hospital radiology departments and private radiology practices for a standard size 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old child, for the following procedures: chest AP/PA, lat; abdomen AP; pelvis AP; lumbar spine AP, lat; and skull AP, lat. There was a large range of doses for each particular procedure and age group. Factors contributing to the range of doses were identified. Guidance levels for paediatric radiology based on the third quartile value of the skin entrance doses have been recommended and are compared with guidance levels. Copyright (1998) Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine

  14. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an approximately true color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  15. Tipología y usos del suelo en agroecosistemas del valle del guamuez, Putumayo – Colombia / Typology and land use in agroecosystems of Guamuez Valley, Putumayo, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Espinosa-Alzate

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze different agroecosystems located in a region of the Departamento de Putumayo (Colombia and its sociocultural relationship with productive and land conservation contexts, based on the conceptual and methodological aspects of agroecology. A mixed methods study was carried out, and soil testing methodologies and assessment of cultural aspects with research tools such qualitative interview and focus groups, were designed. The analysis was based on the concept of principal ecological landscape structure (PELS and agroecology principles, guided by an ethno – agricultural analysis of the phenomenon. Three types of production systems, where indigenous groups coexist with settlers and migrant population who have developed different processes of ecosystem adaptation, were identified. This heterogeneity implies at least two different livelihoods: first, “endogenous type” in peasant – settlers linked to indigenous communities, and second, mediated by the classical view of economic development. All people, no matter what livelihoods have, are forced to overcome biophysical and ecosystem limiting of territory, indeed the processes of forest logging and poor land use, which have generated severe processes of environmental degradation including irreversible phenomena of rill and gully erosion. This deterioration is expressed in limiting subsistence possibilities and accumulation decrease of local inhabitants.

  16. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…

  17. Assessment and recommendations for two sites with active and potential aquaculture production in Rift Valley and Coast Provinces, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenya has a long history of local fish consumption. The population in the Lake Victoria area (Rift Valley Province) Northwest of Nairobi and coastal communities (Coast Province) have historically included fish in their diet. Migration from villages to urban areas and increasing commerce has created ...

  18. Land degradation trends in upper catchments and morphological developments of braided rivers in drylands: the case of a marginal graben of the Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Biadgilgn; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Braided rivers have received relatively little attention in research and development activities in drylands. However, they strongly impact agroecology and agricultural activities and thereby local livelihoods. The Raya Graben (3750 km² including the escarpment) is a marginal graben of the Ethiopian Rift Valley located in North Ethiopia. In order to study the dynamics of braided rivers and the relationship with biophysical controls, 20 representative catchments were selected, ranging between 15 and 311 km². First, the 2005 morphology (length, area) of the braided rivers was related to biophysical controls (vegetation cover, catchment area and slope gradient in the steep upper catchments and gradient in the graben bottom). Second, the changes in length of the braided rivers were related to vegetation cover changes in the upper catchments since 1972. Landsat imagery was used to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and to map vegetation cover and the total length of the braided rivers. Spot CNES imagery available from Google Earth was used to identify the total area of the braided rivers in 2005. A linear regression analysis revealed that the length of braided rivers was positively related to the catchment area (R²=0.32, p<0.01), but insignificantly related to vegetation cover in the upper catchments. However, there is an indication that it is an important factor in the relationship calculated for 2005 (R²=0.2, p=0.064). Similarly, the area occupied by the braided rivers was related to NDVI (R²=0.24, p<0.05) and upper catchment area (R²=0.447, p<0.01). Slope gradient is not an important explanatory factor. This is related to the fact that slope gradients are steep (average of 38.1%) in all upper and gentle (average of 3.4%) in graben bottom catchments. The vegetation cover in the upper catchments shows a statistically insignificant increasing trend (R²=0.73, p=0.067) over the last 40 years, whereas length of rivers in the graben bottom

  19. Aburra Valley: Quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    2008-01-01

    These paper intents a brief description of the evolution that characterised natural risk prevention in the area surrounding the city of Medellin, Colombia, called the Aburra Valley. Both the lithological and structural composition of the Valle and its topographic and climatic conditions contribute to the abundance of destructive natural phenomena as earthquakes, slope movements, flash floods and, in a lower proportion, to floods. The population increase, which reaches now 3.5 millions inhabitants and the frequent occupation of sites exposed to natural hazards have resulted in numerous disasters. At present two entities called SIMPAD and DAPARD work on risk prevention, on city and department scale respectively. The amount of knowledge about physical environment is considered to be insufficient, together with regulations which should direct land use in accordance to restrictions related to natural hazards. Several seminars on this topic have already been carried out and the organisers of the present one, destined to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Villatina disaster, should make the decision to meet each two years. Furthermore, the creation of a permanent commission dedicated to study past events, to foster information broadcasting and to seek a better knowledge of the Aburra Valley, should be considered

  20. Heat flow and radioactivity studies in the Ross Island-dry valley area, Antarctica and their tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    In conjunction with the Dry Valley Drilling Project, the University of Wyoming conducted heat flow and basement radioactivity studies in the Ross Island-dry valley area of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. This part of Antarctica is characterized by late Cenozoic alkaline basaltic volcanism and uplift. Six heat flow (q) values for the area range from 1.4 to 2.0 HFU, with a mean value of 1.7 HFU. Radioactive heat production (A) values for basement rocks from the dry valleys range from 2.2 to 4.1 HGU, with a mean value of 3.0 HGU. The combined q-A data imply that this area is a zone of high reduced heat flow, similar to the Basin and Range province in the western United States and other zones of late Cenozoic tectonof Antarctica is probably in the range of 1.2 to 1.6 HFU, which is about 50 to 100% higher than the reduced flux which characterizes stable continental areas. The results of the transient conductive models presented herein imply that the high flux in this part of Antarctica cannot be explained by the residual thermal effects of a major episode of lithospheric thinning associated with the generation of the Ferrar Dolerites. The correlation between steady conductive thermal models and the late Cenozoic, silica-undersaturated, alkaline basalts of the region is similarly obscure. For example, purely conductive steady-state temperature-depth models predict partial melting at depths of only 45 to 50 km in the mantle, whereas geochemical data for the volcanic units are consistent with the basalts being generated at depths of at least 60 to 80 km

  1. Recent plant studies using Victoria 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixler, Nathan E.; Gasser, Ronald D.

    2000-01-01

    VICTORIA 2.0 is a mechanistic computer code designed to analyze fission product behavior within the reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe nuclear reactor accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from the reactor core and transport and deposition of these materials within the RCS and secondary circuits. These predictions account for the chemical and aerosol processes that affect radionuclide behavior. VICTORIA 2.0 was released in early 1999; a new version VICTORIA 2.1, is now under development. The largest improvements in VICTORIA 2.1 are connected with the thermochemical database, which is being revised and expanded following the recommendations of a peer review. Three risk-significant severe accident sequences have recently been investigated using the VICTORIA 2.0 code. The focus here is on how various chemistry options affect the predictions. Additionally, the VICTORIA predictions are compared with ones made using the MELCOR code. The three sequences are a station blackout in a GE BWR and steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) and pump-seal LOCA sequences in a 3-loop Westinghouse PWR. These sequences cover a range of system pressures, from fully depressurized to full system pressure. The chief results of this study are the fission product fractions that are retained in the core, RCS, secondary, and containment and the fractions that are released into the environment

  2. Strategic Actions for Increasing the Submission of Digital Cadastral Data by the Surveying Industry Based on Lessons Learned from Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Olfat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ePlan, as a digital cadastral data initiative, is a collaborative program between the land authorities and the surveying industry which aims to replace paper and PDF cadastral plans and surveys with digital data. ePlan is currently operational in Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. ePlan was introduced in the State of Victoria in 2011 and has been operational in this jurisdiction for 2D plans since 2013. On average, one ePlan application is currently submitted to a digital plan lodgment portal every two weeks. The low uptake of ePlan is caused by several technical and non-technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of cadastral information transitioning from paper to digital in Victoria. The research methodology to identify the challenges in Victoria for the adoption of ePlan is then described. This is followed by a discussion on the identified challenges. The paper then proposes a generic framework of strategic actions to increase the uptake of digital cadastral data based on the lessons learned from Victoria. The initiatives suggested by this framework to address the ePlan challenges in Victoria and increase its uptake are also introduced. The paper concludes with a direction for future research.

  3. vVICTORIA Console Development: Design and Fabrication of VICTORIA Console Emulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    successful set-up and readiness to conduct experimentation on facets of new Combat System concept development including equipment capabilities, system...émulateurs, faits de bois, de plastiques et de métaux légers, ont été fabriqués selon les données matérielles et les spécifications des consoles actuelles...mise sur pied du laboratoire d’évaluation de la capacité vVictoria et assureront que celui-ci est prêt pour les essais de nouveaux concepts de système

  4. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  5. Gastropod diversity, distribution and abundance in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbances in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, C. N.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    We investigated freshwater gastropod diversity, abundance and distribution in habitats with and without anthropogenic disturbance in two localities, Ndere in the Winam Gulf and Mbita Point, Lake Victoria, Kenya, from May 2002 to January 2004. A total of 133 984 gastropod specimens belonging to 15...... species were recorded, 14 from Mbita and 12 from Ndere. Two species, Ferrissia kavirondica and Cleopatra cridlandi, which were recorded only from undisturbed habitats, could be indicators of least disturbed habitats. Water chemistry did differ between fish landing sites and undisturbed habitats at some......, while other species may not tolerate these changes. In order to protect gastropod diversity and avoid dominance of intermediate hosts, such as B. choanomphala, a management plan for the use of these fish landing sites should be developed. This could include rules on how to dispose of fish remnants...

  6. Microbial quality and safety of fresh and dried Rastrineobola argentea from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baniga, Zebedayo; Dalsgaard, Anders; Mhongole, Ofred J

    2017-01-01

    the bacteriological quality of fresh and dried sardines from Lake Victoria. Sardine samples were randomly collected from main landing sites and retail markets in the city of Mwanza. Total viable counts (TVC) in fresh sardines were in the range of 5.18–7.90 log10 cfu/g while those dried on racks contained 3.......13–4.85 log10 cfu/g which were 0.75% of those dried on sand with 4.80–7.13 log10 cfu/g (p .../g and those dried on sand contained 1.18–3.32 log10 mpn/g, however, sardines dried on racks, did not contain any E. coli. Similar findings were found in the two types of dried sardines from the retail markets. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in fresh R. argentea was 25% (n = 40), sand dried sardines at landing...

  7. Turning attention to clinician engagement in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Christine; Hudson, Robyn; Wallace, Euan

    2017-11-16

    The engagement of clinicians with employing organisations and with the broader health system results in better safer care for patients. Concerns about the adequacy of clinician engagement in the state of Victoria led the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services to commission a scoping study. During this investigation more than 100 clinicians were spoken with and 1800 responded to surveys. The result was creation of a clear picture of what engagement and disengagement looked like at all levels - from the clinical microsystem to state health policy making. Multiple interventions are possible to enhance clinician engagement and thus the care of future patients. A framework was developed to guide future Victorian work with four elements: setting the agenda, informing, involving and empowering clinicians. Concepts of work or employee engagement that are used in other industries don't directly translate to healthcare and thus the definition of engagement chosen for use centred on involvement. This was designed to encourage system managers to ensure clinicians are full participants in design, planning and evaluation and in all decisions that affect them and their patients.

  8. Efficient renewable energy scenarios study for Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Graham

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the possible evolution of Victorian energy markets over the 1998-2030 period from technical, economic and environmental perspectives. The focus is on the technical and economic potential over the study period for renewable energy and energy efficiency to increase their share of energy markets, through their economic competitiveness with the non-renewables of oil, gas and fossil fulled electricity. The study identifies a range of energy options that have a lower impact on carbon dioxide emissions that current projections for the Victorian energy sector, together with the savings in energy, dollars and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition the macroeconomic implications of the energy paths are estimated. Specifically it examines a scenario (R-efficient renewable) where energy efficiency and renewable energy sources realise their estimated economic potential to displace non-renewable energy over the 1988-2030 period. In addition, a scenario (T-Toronto) is examined where energy markets are pushed somewhat harder, but again on an economic basis, so that what is called the Toronto target of reducing 1988 carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 20 per cent by 2005 is attained. It is concluded that over the next forty years there is substantial economic potential in Victoria for significant gains from energy efficiency in all sectors - residential, commercial, industrial and transport - and contributions from renewable energy both in those sectors and in electricity generations. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Occupational skin disease in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Jennifer L; Williams, Jason D; Matheson, Melanie C; Palmer, Amanda M; Burgess, John A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-05-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients with occupational skin disease (OSD) in a tertiary referral clinic in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective review was conducted of records from patients seen at the Occupational Dermatology Clinic in Melbourne, Australia between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010. Of the 2894 people assessed in the clinic during the 18-year period, 44% were women and 56% were men. In all, 2177 (75%) were diagnosed with occupational skin disease (OSD). Of the patients with a work-related skin condition, 45% (n = 979) were considered to be atopic. The most common diagnosis in those with OSD was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (44%), followed by allergic contact dermatitis (33%) and endogenous eczema (11%). Women were significantly more likely to have soaps and detergents (P Occupational groups with the highest incidence of OSD were the hair and beauty professions (70 per 100 000), followed by machine and plant operators (38 per 100 000) and health-care workers (21 per 100 000). We confirm the importance of occupational contact dermatitis as the most common cause of OSD, with ICD being the most common diagnosis. There are differences in the causes of ICD between our group of male and female workers. For the first time in Australia, rates of OSD in certain industries have been calculated. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. Perceptions of prescribed burning in a local forest community in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tina; Oliveras, Immaculada

    2006-11-01

    The general perceptions of prescribed burning were elicited from forest users for an area that has been subject to this form of land management for at least 20 years. The largest group consisted of local residents living in and around the Wombat State Forest with two smaller groups of students from a nearby university campus and local professional land managers. A questionnaire was given to each participant in order to explore how the forest was used, to determine the level of knowledge of burning in the targeted forest and Victoria and the perception of the appearance, effectiveness of protection, and accessibility to the forest after prescribed burning. Generally all groups had similar responses with community members having stronger views on the effectiveness and practicalities of prescribed burning, whereas students were more neutral in their opinions. All participants claimed knowledge of prescribed burning activities within Victoria, but fewer had experience of planned fires in the Wombat State Forest. All groups agreed that areas that had not been recently burned had a better appearance than those that had, but this result may have included a range of value judgments. Land managers had a greater understanding of the ecological importance of season and timing of burning; however, some students and community members were equally knowledgeable. Prescribed burning did not impede access to the forest, nor did smoke from prescribed burns pose any great problem. The majority of the participants felt that the amount of prescribed burning done in the forest was adequate for engendering a feeling of protection to life and property, yet many were still suspicious of this management practice. These initial findings indicate several areas in which further research would be useful including the efficacy of education programs for community members and improved communication of burn plans by land managers.

  11. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... exchange Federal coal deposits for Alluvial Valley Floor (AVF) fee coal pursuant to the Federal Land Policy...; MTM-99236] Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest... Alluvial Valley Floor Environmental Assessment can be viewed on the BLM's Miles City Field Office Web page...

  12. State Electricity Commission of Victoria. Annual report 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The State Electricity Commission of Victoria is a body corporate first constituted under the Electricity Commissioner's Act 1918. It now operates under the State Electricity Commission Act 1958. It generates, transmits and distributes electricity throughout Victoria's 228,000 square kilometres and supplies directly to 1.424 million customers. In addition 277,800 customers are supplied by eleven municipal authorities which purchase electricity in bulk from the Commission. The Commission also has a regulatory responsibility to ensure the safe use of electricity. It employs 22,518 people. The installed capacity of generators in the Commission's system, plus Victoria's share of Snowy and Hume generation, totalled 6603 MW at 30 June 1985 and the main transmission system comprises 500 kV, 300 kV and 220 kV lines. Corporate objectives have been developed in seven broad areas: customers,employee, finance, ntural resources, environment, conservationand community. These areas of activity are detailed in this report.

  13. Funding Victoria's public hospitals: the casemix policy of 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Peter; Duckett, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 1993 Victoria became the first Australian state to use casemix information to set budgets for its public hospitals commencing with casemix funding for inpatient services. Victoria's casemix funding approach now embraces inpatient, outpatient and rehabilitation services.

  14. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  15. Victoria Law School Ten Years On—A Time to Pause and Reflect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clarke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On 4 November 2010, a large and distinguished audience assembled at the Queen Street Campus of Victoria University to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the founding of Victoria Law School. This Foreword records the diverse achievements of Victoria Law School over the past decade.

  16. Victoria Law School Ten Years On—A Time to Pause and Reflect

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Clarke

    2013-01-01

    On 4 November 2010, a large and distinguished audience assembled at the Queen Street Campus of Victoria University to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the founding of Victoria Law School. This Foreword records the diverse achievements of Victoria Law School over the past decade.

  17. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out in January and February 2002 for Lake Victoria and in March and April 2002 for Lake Burigi. Ten genera were recorded from four zones of Lake Victoria while only ...

  18. Geology and ground-water resources of the lower Little Bighorn River Valley, Big Horn County, Montana, with special reference to the drainage of waterlogged lands, with a section on chemical quality of the water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, E.A.; Klug, M.F.; Morris, D.A.; Swenson, F.A.; Krieger, R.A.

    1960-01-01

    The lower Little Bighorn River valley, Montana, is in the unglaciated part of the Missouri Plateau section of the Great Plains physiographic province. The river and its principal tributaries rise in the Bighorn Mountains, and the confluence of this northward-flowing stream with the Bighorn River is near the east edge of Hardin, Mont. The normal annual precipitation ranges from about 12 inches in the northern part of the area to 15 inches in the southern part. The economy of the area is founded principally on farming, much of the low-lying land adjacent to the river being irrigated. The irrigated land is within the Crow Indian Reservation, although a part is privately owned. The bedrock formations exposed in the area are of Cretaceous age and include the Parkman sandstone, Claggett shale, Eagle sandstone, Telegraph Creek shale, and Cody shale. The Cloverly formation, Tensleep sandstone, and Madison limestone, which underlie but are not exposed in the area, and the Parkman sandstone in the southern half of the area appear to be the principal bedrock aquifers. All except the Parkman lie at depths ranging from a few feet to several thousand feet, and all appear to be capable of yielding water in commercial quantities. Some of the other formations arc capable of yielding enough water for domestic and stock needs. The river alluvium of Recent age and the Pleistocene terrace deposits are the principal unconsolidated formations in the area with respect to water supply and drainage. Wells yielding as much as 100 gallons per minute may be developed in favorable areas. Pumping tests reveal that the transmissibility of the coarser unconsolidated materials probably ranges from about 15,000 to 30,000 gallons per day per foot. Two tests of the Parkman sandstone showed transmissibilities of 6,000 and 20,000 gallons per day per foot. Although a test of the Cloverly formation showed a transmissibility of only 3,000 gallons per day per foot, the high artesian pressure--80 pounds per

  19. Nutritional composition and shelflife of the lake victoria nile perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nile perch, the most important commercial fish species from the Lake Victoria fishery, contributes about 67% of Kenya's total annual fish export earnings. Despite the Nile perch being an important foreign exchange earner, little information is available on its nutritional composition and shelf life on ice, information that is ...

  20. ('fingerponds\\') in the wetlands of Lake Victoria, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential effect on ecosystem integrity of the use of natural wetlands for seasonal wetland fishponds ('fingerponds\\'), integrated with vegetable production for livelihood demands, was evaluated using experimental sites at Lake Victoria, Kenya. Soluble reactive phosphorous and total phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate and ...

  1. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  2. Transactional sex in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study describes the nature, context and implications of a unique form of transactional sexual relationships in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya. We conducted 12 focus group discussions and 17 key informant interviews among fishermen, fishmongers and fish transporters in Kisumu.

  3. Study of genetic variation in population of Bipolaris victoriae, the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Isolates of Bipolaris victoriae were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques ... According to the protocol, samples ... and fungus species. But some of the isolates of fungus with high genetic similarity have the same origin (Figure. 1). Weikert et al. (2002) reported that species of ...

  4. Lake Victoria's Water Budget and the Potential Effects of Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the Lake Victoria water budget for the period 1950-2004 and findings of a study on potential climate change impact on the lake's Hydrology through the 21st Century. The mass balance components are computed from measured and simulated data. A2 and B2 emission scenarios of the Special Report ...

  5. Aboriginal Students in Victoria. ACER Research Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Marion M.

    An estimated 80%-90% of all Aboriginal students enrolled in the primary and secondary schools of Victoria, Australia, were tested and surveyed to determine their numbers, distribution, attendance, achievement, attitudes, and school leaving patterns. Most of the 1244 Aboriginals surveyed attended state schools and 75% were schooled in rural areas.…

  6. Late-life depression and the death of Queen Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert C

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between the death of Queen Victoria and the depressive episode she experienced during the last year of her life. The last volume of Queen Victoria's personal Journal was reviewed from a geriatrician's perspective, tracing the onset and course of depressive symptoms from entries beginning on 17 August 1900 and ending on 13 January 1901, 9 days before her death. The Queen's own words are supplemented with observations from contemporaneous secondary sources. The antecedents of Queen Victoria's late-life depression, including multiple losses, disabilities, and chronic pain, taken together with the presentation of vegetative, affective, and late cognitive symptoms, suggested the presence of a distinctively geriatric major depressive disorder. The absence of any other medical condition to explain the clinical picture seemed probable but not certain. Although historians and biographers have long been aware of Queen Victoria's final depression, the emphasis has mostly been on her earlier and prolonged mourning for her husband Prince Albert. Re-examined now, the Queen's Journal suggests that a severe late-life depressive episode occurring approximately in her last 5 months contributed meaningfully to her death. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Fishing Business Arrangements and Sustainability in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article an attempt is made to analyse the existing production relations between the owners of the vessels and the crewmembers and the concern for sustainability. Our results found that the existing sharing system in Lake Victoria poses a big challenge in as far as sustainability is concerned. Some of the system such ...

  8. Total mercury concentration in common fish species of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique. Mercury concentration in all fish species was generally lower than the WHO maximum allowable ...

  9. No fixed place of birth: unplanned BBAs in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Gayle; McKenna, Lisa; Archer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    the primary objective-to present data on the incidence of unplanned births before arrival (BBAs) in Victoria between 1991 and 2008. The secondary objective-to provide an extensive literature review highlighting the issues surrounding an unplanned BBA. the incidence of BBAs in Victoria published in the relevant government reports. data were extracted from published government reports pertaining to perinatal statistics in Victoria-The Australian Institute of Health and Wellbeing and the Perinatal Data Collection Unit of Victoria. Data on place of birth for each year from both sources was identified and tabulated. Comparisons between the data sources were undertaken to provide a picture of the scope of out of hospital birth. the incidence and absolute numbers of unplanned birth before arrival (BBA) to hospital in Victoria, are low compared to the total births. However, this number is comparable to unplanned BBAs in other developed countries with similar health systems. The incidence of unplanned BBAs has slowly but steadily doubled since 1991-2008. The two data sources almost mirror each other except for 1999 when there was an unexplained difference in the reported incidence in unplanned BBAs. Maternal and neonatal outcomes are disproportionally much poorer after unplanned BBAs than either planned home births or in hospital births. Various maternal factors can increase the risk of an unplanned BBA. multiple approaches should be adopted to manage unplanned BBAs. Antenatal screening should be undertaken to identify the women most at risk. Strategies can be developed that will reduce poor neonatal and maternal outcomes, including education for women and their partners on immediate management of the newborn; ensuring paramedics have current knowledge on care during childbirth; and maternity and ambulance services should develop management plans for care of women having unplanned BBAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  11. NONMARKET VALUE OF WESTERN VALLEY RANCHLAND USING CONTINGENT VALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberger, Randall S.; Walsh, Richard G.

    1997-01-01

    With the irreversible loss of agricultural land to develop uses in certain areas, there is increased concern that land be preserved for posterity'Â’s sake. We estimate the nonmarket value of a ranchland protection program in the Yampa River Valley in Routt County, Colorado, including the Steamboat Springs resort. The case study builds on previous land preservation studies by adding several preferences indicators. We find that local residentsÂ’' willingness to pay is substantial, but insuffici...

  12. Greening Turner Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed remedial activities undertaken in the Turner Valley. Remedial action in the valley must satisfy the financial concerns of engineers and investors as well as the environmental concerns of residents and regulators. Natural gas production in the Turner Valley began in 1914. The production practices were harmful and wasteful. Soil and water pollution was not considered a problem until recently. The impacts of cumulative effects and other pollution hazards are now being considered as part of many oil and gas environmental management programs. Companies know it is cheaper and safer to prevent pollutants from being released, and more efficient to clean them up quickly. Oil and gas companies are also committed to remediating historical problems. Several factors have simplified remediation plans in the Turner Valley. Area real estate values are now among the highest in Alberta. While the valley residents are generally friendly to the petroleum industry, strong communication with all stakeholders in the region is needed. 1 fig.

  13. Investigation of a steam generator tube rupture sequence using VICTORIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixler, N.E.; Erickson, C.M.; Schaperow, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    VICTORIA-92 is a mechanistic computer code for analyzing fission product behavior within the reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe reactor accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radionuclides and nonradioactive materials from the core and transport of these materials within the RCS. The modeling accounts for the chemical and aerosol processes that affect radionuclide behavior. Coupling of detailed chemistry and aerosol packages is a unique feature of VICTORIA; it allows exploration of phenomena involving deposition, revaporization, and re-entrainment that cannot be resolved with other codes. The purpose of this work is to determine the attenuation of fission products in the RCS and on the secondary side of the steam generator in an accident initiated by a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). As a class, bypass sequences have been identified in NUREG-1150 as being risk dominant for the Surry and Sequoyah pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants

  14. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required

  15. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required.

  16. The influence of water quality on the reuse of lignite-derived waters in the Latrobe Valley, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Butler; A.M. Green; L. Chaffee [Monash University, Churchill, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, School of Applied Sciences and Engineering

    2005-03-01

    Mechanical Thermal Expression (MTE), a novel non-evaporative brown coal (lignite) dewatering process, is being developed to increase the efficiency of power stations in the Latrobe Valley (Victoria, Australia). A by-product of this process is a large volume (potentially 20 giga liters per annum) of product water stream. This paper examines water quality requirements for reuse and disposal within the Latrobe Valley and their compatibility with MTE process water. It has been established that remediation of this water will be required and that the maintenance of environmental flows in surface waters would be the most suitable use for the remediated water.

  17. Hospital capacity and management preparedness for pandemic influenza in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Ben; Barr, Ian; Robinson, Priscilla

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate acute hospital pandemic influenza preparedness in Victoria, Australia, particularly focussing on planning and management efforts. A prospective study was conducted by questionnaire and semi-structured interview of health managers across the Victorian hospital system from July to October 2011. Participants with responsibility for emergency management, planning and operations were selected from every hospital in Victoria with an emergency department to complete a questionnaire (response rate 22/43 = 51%). Each respondent was invited to participate in a phone-based semi-structured interview (response rate 11/22 = 50%). Rural/regional hospitals demonstrated higher levels of clinical (86%) and non-clinical (86%) staff contingency planning than metropolitan hospitals (60% and 40% respectively). Pandemic plans were not being sufficiently tested in exercises or drills, which is likely to undermine their effectiveness. All respondents reported hand hygiene and standard precautions programs in place, although only one-third (33%) of metropolitan respondents and no rural/regional respondents reported being able to meet patient needs with high levels of staff absenteeism. Almost half Victoria's healthcare workers were unvaccinated against influenza. Hospitals across Victoria demonstrated different levels of influenza pandemic preparedness and planning. If a more severe influenza pandemic than that of 2009 arose, Victorian hospitals would struggle with workforce and infrastructure problems, particularly in rural/regional areas. Staff absenteeism threatens to undermine hospital pandemic responses. Various strategies, including education and communication, should be included with in-service training to provide staff with confidence in their ability to work safely during a future pandemic. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Energy and Environment in the Lake Victoria basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Arungu-Olende, S.

    2006-01-01

    The local and national economies of Lake Victoria basin communities are heavily dependent on energy that fuels agriculture, industry, commerce, transportation and other economic activities; and powers our houses, offices, hospitals and buildings. Energy is therefore key to facilitating the development income generating opportunities, improving living standards, reducing poverty, and ensuring the protection of the environment. The development and use of various forms of renewable and non-renew...

  19. State Electricity Commission of Victoria annual report 1983-1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The State Electricity Commission of Victoria (SECV) generates, transmits and distributes electricity throughout Victoria's 228,000 square kilometres and supplies directly to 1.390 million customers. In addition, 278,500 customers are supplied by eleven municipal authorities which purchase electricity in bulk from the Commission. The Commission also has a responsibility to ensure the safe use of electricity. The Commission's mission statement is 'to provide cost effective energy and services and to act at all times in the best interests of the people of Victoria by being a responsible, adaptive, financially sound and efficient public utility'. The mission statement is the foundation for all activities and should provide the Commission with a sense of direction and unity of purpose. Corporate objectives have been developed in the following seven broad areas: customer, employee, finance, natural resources, environment, conservation and community. Each objective has been translated into a series of specific goals, the achievement of which will be monitored. Details relating to these areas of activity are detailed in this report.

  20. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugenyi Albert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM. Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  1. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  2. A Baseline Air Quality Assessment Onboard a Victoria Class Submarine: HMCS Windsor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severs, Y. D

    2006-01-01

    .... This trial thus represents a baseline habitability evaluation of Canada's Victoria class submarines to confirm compliance with the current maximum permissible contaminant limits stipulated in the Air...

  3. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  4. Infill of tunnel valleys associated with landward‐flowing ice sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Huuse, Mads

    2014-01-01

    The southern termination of the Middle and Late Pleistocene Scandinavian ice sheets was repeatedly located in the southern North Sea (sNS) and adjacent, north-sloping land areas. Giant meltwater-excavated valleys (tunnel valleys) formed at the southern termination of the ice sheets and contain...

  5. Increasing deaths involving oxycodone, Victoria, Australia, 2000-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintoul, Angela C; Dobbin, Malcolm D H; Drummer, Olaf H; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2011-08-01

    In light of an emerging epidemic identified in the United States and Canada, to identify trends in fatal drug toxicity involving oxycodone and the demographic characteristics and indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage of the deceased. Population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia. Decedents whose death was reported to the Victorian Coroner between 2000 and 2009 and where oxycodone was detected. Association between supply of oxycodone and deaths. Demographic characteristics of decedents. Rate ratios of the rural or metropolitan location and socioeconomic indicators of disadvantage of the deceased. Supply to Victoria has increased nine-fold from 7.5 mg per capita in 2000 to 67.5 mg per capita in 2009. Detection of oxycodone in deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner has increased from 4 (0.08/100,000 population) in 2000 to 97 (1.78/100,000 population) in 2009-a 21-fold increase in deaths. Of the 320 cases described, 53.8% (172) were the result of drug toxicity. Of these, 52.3% were unintentional and 19.8% intentional self-harm; the remaining 27.9% are either still under investigation by the coroner or intent is unknown. Drug toxicity deaths were overrepresented in both rural areas and areas indexed with high levels of disadvantage. The substantial increase in the number of deaths involving oxycodone is strongly and significantly associated with the increase in supply. Most drug toxicity deaths involving oxycodone were unintentional. This newly identified trend in fatalities in Victoria supports concerns that a pattern of increasing deaths involving oxycodone is emerging globally.

  6. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  7. A recovery-based outreach program in rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Radha; Browne, Mark Oakley

    2007-04-01

    A recovery-based outreach program for people with severe mental illness in regional Victoria is described. The paper covers a description of the program, the services provided and outcomes achieved. The program emphasized active collaboration between patients and clinicians as outlined in the collaborative recovery model and recognized that recovery from mental illness is an individual, personal process. The program provided service to 108 people over 3 years and had a positive impact on clinicians, patients and carers. The benefits of recovery orientation, multidisciplinary teams, collaborative relationships and carer involvement are discussed. The paper highlights the need for a focus on recovery and comprehensive care for people with severe mental illness.

  8. Royal Ageing: The Queen Mother and Queen Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Hepworth

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a reflection on the contribution of the image of the Queen Mother to the cultural construction of role models of positive ageing. The interest lies in the Queen Mother's performance in public of her roles as woman and royal personage particularly as she grew older. It is suggested that cultural analysis of the icon of the Queen Mother as a blend of gender and power suggests certain significant parallels with the imagery cultivated around the career of Queen Victoria in the later...

  9. Radon in an underground cave system in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedt, J.C.; Boal, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Radon levels in a cave system in Victoria have been measured. The variation of radon and radon progeny levels with time, position throughout the cave and season have been determined. The radiation exposure of tour guides were estimated. The data is being used to develop a radiation management plan for the tour guides. Radon concentration within a cave system was proven to be dependent to a large extent upon the rate of air exchange with outside. Cave ventilation is the single most important factor in determining if there is diurnal variation in the radon concentration

  10. Measuring the cost of leaving care in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Forbes; Brett Inder; Sunitha Raman

    2006-01-01

    On any given night in Victoria, around 4,000 children and young people live under the care and protection of the State. For many young people, this care extends over a long period of time, sometimes until their 18th birthday. It is well documented that young people leaving State care often lack the social and economic resources to assist them in making the transition into independent living. As a consequence, the long-term life outcomes from this group are frequently very poor. A recent repor...

  11. Post-glacial landform evolution in the middle Satluj River valley, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    incision. Climatically, the event corresponds to the post-glacial strengthened Indian summer monsoon. (ISM). ... middle Satluj valley extreme events shape the land- scape besides ...... District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA), Kinnaur,.

  12. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.; Kishimba, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers (α and β) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels

  13. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, L. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania); Kishimba, M.A. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)]. E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.tz

    2006-03-15

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers ({alpha} and {beta}) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels.

  14. Identifying Water Insecurity Hotspots in the Lake Victoria Basin of Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, N. G.; Shukla, S.; Linard, C.; Gaughan, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), one of Africa's most populated transboundary watersheds and home to more than 30 million inhabitants, is increasingly challenged by both water quality problems and water quantity shortages against a backdrop of climate variability and change; and other environmental challenges. As a result of pollution, droughts, more erratic rainfall, heightened demand for water for both consumption and agricultural needs as well as differences in water allocation among the riverine countries of Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi, many parts of this region are already experiencing water scarcity on a recurrent basis. Furthermore, given projected annual population growth rates of 2.5 to 3.5% for the next 20 years, water shortages are likely to be exacerbated in the future. Analyzing historical changes in the water resources of this region is hence important to identify "hot spots" that might be most sensitive to future changes in climate and demography. In this presentation, we report the findings of a comprehensive analysis performed to (i) examine changes in water resources of LVB in recent decades and (ii) identify overlap between regions of significant changes in water resources with land cover changes and high population centers that are also projected to grow the fastest over the coming decades. We first utilize several satellite, stations and model(s) based climatic and hydrologic datasets to assess changes in water resources in this region. We then use a quality-controlled Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product to identify areas of significant land cover changes. Simultaneously we use projections of gridded population density based on differential growth rates for rural and urban population to estimate fastest projected human population growth for 2030 and 2050 relative to 2010 data. Using the outcomes of these change analysis we identify water insecurity hotspots in the LVB.

  15. Eesti NATO Ühing juurutab demokraatlikke väärtusi / Victoria Punga ; interv. Aive Antsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Punga, Victoria, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti NATO Ühingu tegevjuht organisatsiooni eesmärkidest, projektidest, koostööst teiste riikidega ning kaitsepoliitika ja majanduse seostest. Lisa: Väljavõte Victoria CVst; Eesti kaitsepoliitika viis plussi Victoria meelest

  16. Victoria suudlus teeb maapoisist printsi, kuid mitte tulevase kuninga / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Printsess Victoria tulevasest abikaasast Daniel Westlingist, printsess Madelaine'i kihluse lõpetamisest, Bernadotte'ide dünastia asutajast Jean Bernadotte'ist. Monarhia toetajate vähenemisest Rootsis. Printsess Victoria ja Daniel Westlingi pulmatseremooniast 19. juunil

  17. 78 FR 48318 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Victoria County, 1997 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... pollution. Inclusion of Victoria County in 30 TAC Chapter 115 volatile organic compounds (VOC) rules for the... vessels, and marine vessels would be required to vent to a control device until the VOC concentration of... Victoria County in 30 TAC Chapter 114 rule for Texas Low Emission Diesel (TxLED) compliant marine diesel...

  18. Formula-Based Public School Funding System in Victoria: An Empirical Analysis of Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Bandara

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the formula-based school funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia, where state funds are directly allocated to schools based on a range of equity measures. The impact of Victoria' funding system for education in terms of alleviating inequality and disadvantage is contentious, to say the least. It is difficult to…

  19. Informal waste harvesting in Victoria Falls town, Zimbabwe: Socio-economic benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masocha, M.

    2006-01-01

    Waste harvesting, which occurs mostly but not exclusively at open waste dumps in Zimbabwe, constitutes one of the most important survival options for the urban poor. This paper analyses and discusses socio-economic benefits of informal waste harvesters in Victoria Falls town. Victoria Falls town has

  20. Genetic analyses of resistance against Leptopilina victoriae in Drosophila bipectinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigahira, Tomohiro; Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Suwito, Awit; Kimura, Masahito T

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila bipectinata from Iriomote-jima (IR) is susceptible to the endoparasitoid Leptopilina victoriae from Kota Kinabalu (L. victoriae KK), but D. bipectinata from Kota Kinabalu (KK) and Bogor (BG) is resistant. The cross experiments between the resistant (KK) and susceptible (IR) populations of D. bipectinata suggested that the resistance to this parasitoid is a dominant trait and controlled by a single locus or few linked loci on an autosome. In the AFLP analysis using the IR, KK and BG populations of D. bipectinata and the resistant and susceptible populations derived from a mixed population of these three geographic populations, a DNA fragment almost specific to susceptible flies was detected. It also revealed that genes from the IR population were more frequently maintained in the mixed population compared with those from the KK and BG populations, suggesting that at least a number of genes from the IR population are more advantageous under the laboratory conditions. This explains our previous results that the resistance was lowered in the mixed population although the resistance itself is suggested to incur only low costs; i.e., the resistance gene(s) from the KK and BG populations would have been linked with some genes that are disadvantageous under the laboratory conditions.

  1. Surviving neoliberalism, maintaining values: Community health mergers in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussy, Véronique; Livingstone, Charles

    2018-04-01

    Independent, not-for-profit community health services in the state of Victoria, Australia, provide one of that country's few models of comprehensive primary health care (PHC). Recent amalgamations among some such agencies created regional-sized community health organisations, in a departure from this sector's traditionally small local structure. This study explored the motivations, desired outcomes, and decision-making process behind these mergers. Qualitative exploratory study was based on 26 semistructured interviews with key informants associated with 2 community health mergers, which took place in 2014 in Victoria, Australia. Thematic data analysis was influenced by concepts derived from institutional theory. Becoming bigger by merging was viewed as the best way to respond to mounting external pressures, such as increasingly neoliberal funding mechanisms, perceived as threatening survival. Desired outcomes were driven by comprehensive PHC values, and related to creating organisational capacity to continue providing quality services to disadvantaged communities. This study offers insights into decision-making processes geared towards protecting the comprehensiveness of PHC service delivery for disadvantaged communities, ensuring financial viability, and surviving neoliberal economic policy whilst preserving communitarian values. These are relevant to an international audience, within a global context of rising health inequities, increasingly tight fiscal environments, and growing neoliberal influences on health policymaking and funding. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. VICTORIA PARK: A DEMOCTRATIC PUBLIC OPEN SPACE FOR INDONESIA DOMESTIC HELPERS (TKW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Park is the largest city park in Hong Kong. This city park is not only known in Hong Kong, but also very well known in Indonesia as a gathering place for Indonesia domestic helpers (TKW in Hong Kong. This research tried to find out some determinant factors that have been affected the public open spac of Victoria Park to be a gathering place for thousands of TKW in Sunday and holidays as their day off. In order to get the results of research, some methodological research had been conducted such as: observation (survey, mapping, interviews and literature studies. The results showed that Victoria Park has a number of factors capable of meeting the needs of domestic help-ers in Hong Kong, these factors consist of internal factors and external factors. Internally, the character and functions held Victoria Park became a very influential factor, while externally, the accessibility and support functions around Victoria Park also has a considerable influence.

  3. Wat kunnen we in Nederland leren van Silicon Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. P. Ester

    2016-01-01

    De aantrekkingskracht van de hightech innovatieregio Silicon Valley, in de strook van pakweg 90 kilometer tussen San Francisco en San Jose, is groot. Een regio met de meeste startups ter wereld. En ook ons land wil de borst vooruit steken. Of dat gaat lukken is geen kwestie van copy & paste, maar

  4. Stand development of trembling aspen in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Rentch; James T. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    In wetlands of Canaan Valley, West Virginia, trembling aspen occurs as a disjunct population well south of its primary natural range. Based on sample data from 15 stands, we found that aspen occurs as nearly monospecific stands or clones. Eight stands had median ages between 30 and 40 yrs, and we suggest that stand initiation was related to changes in land use after...

  5. Resource development and the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donihee, J.

    1999-01-01

    Changes to the resource management regime of the Northwest Territories based on land claim agreements with native peoples which result from the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act are the result of commitments made by Canada during the negotiation of these land claims. This statute effects important changes to the legislative framework for environmental impact assessment and land and water management. It also establishes land use planning processes for the Gwich'in and Sahtu settlement areas and will result in an environmental and cumulative effects monitoring program for the Mackenzie Valley. The Act also establishes new institutions of public government responsible for environmental impact assessment, land and water management, and land use planning. These boards will play an internal and continuing role in resource development and management in the Mackenzie Valley. A brief overview is included of some features of the new legislative scheme, specifically focussing on environmental impact assessment and water management. An understanding of the new regime will be important for oil and gas companies that are looking north with renewed interest as a result of improved oil and gas prices and also for mining companies given the continuing interest in diamond exploration and development in the Northwest Territories. 29 refs

  6. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  7. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  8. Myxomatosis in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R C; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Gocs, A

    1978-10-01

    Sharp reductions in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) population in the Mallee are associated with annual myxomatosis epizootics. The extent to which the population reductions are the direct result of the epizootics varies with time of epizootic occurrence. All grazing animals in the Mallee are under nutritional stress each summer and autumn. When the epizootic occurs during the early summer heavy losses occur in a previously healthy population. Similar losses which occur in the late summer and autumn are the result of a nutritional stress - epizootic complex. The end result in each case is a population reduction of about 80%. This reduction occurs in a population which is the most resistant to myxomatosis known in Victoria and in association with epizootics caused by field strains of myxoma virus of moderate virulence only. The earlier summer epizootics are of considerable economic importance because they sharply reduce the pressure on the limited food available for other grazing animals.

  9. The radiocarbon dating project at Aboriginal Affairs, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, M.C.S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project has been to publish a complete list of the age estimates relating to the archaeological sites in the State of Victoria from 1951 to 1995, and to assess the value and the limitations of this information for interpreting the prehistory of this region. This project has recorded 476 dates coming from 14 laboratories, and ranging in age from the time of European settlement to the limit of the technique at around 40,000 years BP. However, the available evidence indicates that large discrepancies may exist in these results, and this has lead to the recommendation that this data should not be used in research projects requiring dating accuracies of less than a few hundred years

  10. The State Electricity Commission of Victoria and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The State Electricity Commission of Victoria is examining how the greenhouse issue may affect its electricity supply system in the future. Possible generation scenarios for 2005 are presented in order to show how the Toronto goal of a 20% reduction on 1988 levels of CO 2 emissions could be achieved. The main approaches to achieving these emission reductions include energy conservation and cogeneration, new gas-fired plant, use of renewable energy, reduction of energy system losses, retirement of older brown coal plant and an extensive tree planting program. It is estimated that achieving the Toronto goal would require electricity prices to rise by 1% to 1.5%, on average, each year by more than they otherwise would have, for the next 15 years. 12 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  12. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is a red-blue stereo anaglyph generated from images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 430-nanometer filters.

  13. Productivity changes in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushdi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The study reveals that the total factor productivity in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria (GFCV) continued to increase throughout the study period except for a brief period between 1983-84 and 1984-85 which was mainly the result of the decline in the industrial demand for gas and a decelerated growth rate in residential demand. The productivity gains were found to be highly sensitive to the rates of depreciation and discount rates assumed. The estimated terms of trade suggest that the increase in gas prices was lower that the increase in the aggregate input prices the GFCV paid, particularly to capital and labour. However, while the price index of reticulated gas increased to 2.17, the purchase price declined to 0.96 over the study period. The productivity gains by GFCV seem to have been shared with its customers. (Author)

  14. Analysis, design and interventions on valley floors at the city of Alfenas [MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Cardoso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The floor of valleys are areas with important physical and environmental characteristics, interacting with diverse natural processes that occur in our planet. With the urbanization, degradation of such areas usually occurs, resulting in the physical, social and cultural withdrawing of the population from the urban river and stream lands. The purpose of this paper is to study the action of the public administration on valley floors and the management tools which may render feasable thee environmental preservation as well as environment and landscape renaturalization of such areas thus promoting echological and functional balance in the urban fluviatic lands. In order to prepare a proposal, several items were studied: the physical environmental characteristics of the valley floors, the transformations associated to urbanization. Based on this research, a plan was made for city of Alfenas [MG] as regards the management of the valley floor lands: a proposal of intervention in one of the hydrographic basins.

  15. Remediating the South Alligator Valley uranium mining legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, M.; Waggitt, P.

    2010-01-01

    In late 1950s and early 1960s 13 uranium mines operated in the South Alligator Valley of Australia's Northern Territory. Once sales contracts had been filled the mines were abandoned and no remediation took place. In the 1980s the valley was designated as part of Stage 3 of the adjacent World Heritage-listed, Kakadu National Park. Proposals for remediation were only seriously put forward when the land was returned to the traditional Aboriginal owners, the Gunlom Land Trust, in 1996. Although they leased the land back so it would remain a part of Kakadu National Park the traditional Aboriginal owners required remediation to be complete by 2015. This paper tells the story of the development and implementation of the remediation process from the start of planning in 1998 to completion in 2009; and finally it describes the development of stakeholder relationships and the initial plans for long term stewardship. (author)

  16. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Miyata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.

  17. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  18. Climatic implications of reconstructed early - Mid Pliocene equilibrium-line altitudes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusic, A.G.; Prentice, M.L.; Licciardi, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Early-mid Pliocene moraines in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, are more extensive than the present alpine glaciers in this region, indicating substantial climatic differences between the early-mid Pliocene and the present. To quantify this difference in the glacier-climate regime, we estimated the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) change since the early-mid Pliocene by calculating the modern ELA and reconstructing the ELAs of four alpine glaciers in Wright and Taylor Valleys at their early-mid Pliocene maxima. The area-altitude balance ratio method was used on modern and reconstructed early-mid Pliocene hypsometry. In Wright and Victoria Valleys, mass-balance data identify present-day ELAs of 800-1600 m a.s.l. and an average balance ratio of 1.1. The estimated ELAs of the much larger early-mid Pliocene glaciers in Wright and Taylor Valleys range from 600 to 950 ?? 170 m a.s.l., and thus are 250-600 ??170 m lower than modern ELAs in these valleys. The depressed ELAs during the early-mid-Pliocene most likely indicate a wetter and therefore warmer climate in the Dry Valleys during this period than previous studies have recognized.

  19. Total organic carbon in pond waters from the Labyrinth of southern Victoria Land in the Antarctic

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 源喜; 綿抜, 邦彦; 鳥居, 鉄也; Genki I., Matsumoto; Kunihiko, Watanuki; Tetsuya, Torii

    1987-01-01

    南極南ビクトリアランド・ライト谷上部のラビリンス(77°33′S, 165°50′E)に分布する, 10個の池の全有機炭素(TOC)を測定した。TOC値は池水間で大きく異なる(0.78-23mgC/l)が, 高濃度のTOCは塩池水のみで測定された。電気伝導度とTOC値間には, かなり高い正の相関(0.82)がみられた。このことは次のように解釈される。1)まず降雪や氷河融水に含まれていた有機物が, 池水の凍結により残液に濃縮される。2)次いで池内の生物生産による有機物が加わるとともに, 容易に微生物分解を受ける有機物が除去される。3)さらに池水の蒸発と凍結が繰り返されることにより, 長年月の間に比較的分解しにくい有機物が, 溶存無機塩類とともに池底付近に蓄積される。...

  20. Solar Energy within the Central Valley, CA: Current Practices and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Utility-scale solar energy (USSE, ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) systems are rapidly being deployed in the Central Valley of California, generating clean electricity and new job opportunities. Utility-scale solar energy systems require substantial quantities of land or space, often prompting an evaluation of environmental impacts and trade-offs when selecting their placement. Utilizing salt-contaminated agricultural land (as the sodium absorption and electrical conductivity values are unsuitably high), unsuitable for food production, and lands within the built environment (developed), can serve as a co-benefit opportunity when reclamation of these lands for USSE development is prioritized. In this study, we quantify the theoretical and generation-based solar energy potential for the Central Valley according to land-cover type, crop type, and for salt-contaminated lands. Further, we utilize the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility (CEEC) model to identify and prioritize solar energy, integrating environmental resource opportunities and constraints most relevant to the Central Valley. We use the CEEC model to generate a value-based environmental compatibility output for the Central Valley. The Central Valley extends across nearly 60,000 km2 of California with the potential of generating 21,800 - 30,300 TWh y-1 and 41,600 TWh y-1 of solar energy for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP), respectively. Pasture, hay, and cultivated crops comprise over half of the Central Valley, much of which is considered prime agriculture or of statewide or local importance for farming (28,200 km2). Together, approximately one-third of this region is salt-contaminated (16%) or developed (11%). This confers a generation-based potential of 5713 - 7891 TWh y-1 and 2770 TWh y-1 for PV and CSP, respectively. As energy, food, and land are inextricably linked, our study shows how land favorable for renewable energy systems can be used more effectively in places where land is

  1. 75 FR 70024 - Notice of Expansion of the Lisbon Valley Known Potash Leasing Area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... to the BLM. Recent advances in drilling technology have provided the capability to extract deep... information to determine that the Lisbon Valley KPLA should be expanded to include deep solution-mineable... Web site: http://www.blm.gov/ut/st/en/prog/more/Land_Records.html . The lands included in the Lisbon...

  2. Did the use of chloroform by Queen Victoria influence its acceptance in obstetric practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, H; Connor, T

    1996-10-01

    Examination of contemporaneous publications suggests that the use of chloroform by Queen Victoria in 1853 did not result in the major breakthrough in the acceptability of obstetric anaesthesia with which the event has been credited by some later writers.

  3. Conserved Receptor-Binding Domains of Lake Victoria Marburgvirus and Zaire Ebolavirus Bind a Shared Receptor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuhn, Jens H; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Guth, Alexander C; Warfield, Kelly L; Li, Wenhui; Vincent, Martin J; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Bavari, Sina; Choe, Hyeryun

    2006-01-01

    .... Both fragments specifically inhibited replication of infectious Zaire ebolavirus, as well as entry of retroviruses pseudotyped with either Lake Victoria marburgvirus or Zaire ebolavirus GP(sub 1,2...

  4. Mitigation of environmental problems in Lake Victoria, East Africa: causal chain and policy options analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odada, Eric O; Olago, Daniel O; Kulindwa, Kassim; Ntiba, Micheni; Wandiga, Shem

    2004-02-01

    Lake Victoria is an international waterbody that offers the riparian communities a large number of extremely important environmental services. Over the past three decades or so, the lake has come under increasing and considerable pressure from a variety of interlinked human activities such as overfishing, species introductions, industrial pollution, eutrophication, and sedimentation. In this paper we examine the root causes for overfishing and pollution in Lake Victoria and give possible policy options that can help remediate or mitigate the environmental degradation.

  5. Victoria Stodden: Scholarly Communication in the Era of Big Data and Big Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Stodden, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Victoria Stodden gave the keynote address for Open Access Week 2015. "Scholarly communication in the era of big data and big computation" was sponsored by the University Libraries, Computational Modeling and Data Analytics, the Department of Computer Science, the Department of Statistics, the Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Statistical Analysis (LISA), and the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. Victoria Stodden is an associate professor in the Graduate School of Library and Information Scien...

  6. Validation of New Crack Monitoring Technique for Victoria Class High-Pressure Air Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et développement pour la défense Canada Validation of new crack monitoring technique for Victoria ...Validation of new crack monitoring technique for Victoria class high-pressure air bottles Ian Thompson John R. MacKay Defence Research and Development...Canada Scientific Report DRDC-RDDC-2014-R81 June 2014 © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (Department of National Defence), 2014 © Sa Majesté

  7. Analysis of an Organisation: A University of the Third Age (U3A), Mornington, Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two fold: to look at Mornington U3A in organisational terms and then look at U3AM as a loosely coupled system. One outcome of the study would be to undertake further analyses of U3As in Victoria to determine the levels of bureaucracy under which each operates. Questions to be asked: are U3As in Victoria operating as…

  8. Las pinturas esquemáticas de la Cueva de Victoria (Rincón de la Victoria, Málaga : propuesta interpretativa del friso A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maura Mijares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se recoge en este artículo nuestra reciente revisión del conjunto pictórico postpaleolítico de la cueva de la Victoria. A partir de una documentación exhaustiva de los motivos representados y del análisis de su iconografía se proponen hipótesis de carácter interpretativo.In this article we gather the recent revision of the postpalaeolithic pictorial collection in the cave of la Victoria. Starting from an exhaustive documentation of the motifs and the analysis of its iconography, we propose some interpretative hypothesis.

  9. A once in a generation upgrade to ICT systems used for public transport in Victoria; Umfassende Modernisierung. Neue ICT-Systeme fuer den SPNV in Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerton, Richard [Funkwerk Information Technologies York Ltd., York (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Funkwerk IT is supplying a state-of-the-art timetable and fleet planning and management system to the Australian State of Victoria. Through its agency, the Department of Transport, Victoria is undertaking a once in a generation upgrade to key ICT systems that are used for operational control of the metropolitan and regional rail networks. The new system requires a tight coupling of both planning and real-time management systems. Using its products TrainPlan, ResourcePlan and ResourceManager Funkwerk IT provides an ideal platform to cover these requirements. (orig.)

  10. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley... analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238...

  11. The application of soil-gas geochemistry to precisely locate La Victoria fault near Paracotos (Venezuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Measurements of radon (total radon, Radon-222 and Radon-220) and other soil-gases (CO 2 , O 2 and H 2 ) were performed routinely during 1998 and 1999 across a narrow valley near Paracotos, Venezuela in an attempt to precisely locate the La Victoria fault. The transect was about 300 meters long with eleven sampling points. The soil-gas probes were inserted to a depth of 45 cm in the beginning and later on completely to a depth of 63 cm. The radon sampling and measurements were accomplished with a Pylon AB-5 radiation monitor and Lucas scintillation cells. The other soil-gases were directly determined with an Anagas, CD95 monitor and an Infra-red Gas Analyzer (MKIIC) both coupled with a Hydrogen pod. The radon values for more than twenty different sampling periods over a two year period resulted with anomalous values between 75 and 150 meters along the transect. There were three consecutive anomalous values each time. But strangely, the anomalies of the radon values were in the form of a doublet at 116 and 141 meters rather than a simple single peak in the middle and the gas flow was similar for the sampling points between 75 and 150 meters. The graph of the relative CO 2 values were usually similar to the radon graphs but in some cases, the anomalous values were seen as a simple single peak and corresponded to the 141 meter sampling point. While the anomalous values of Hydrogen were usually in a form of a single peak that corresponded with 141 meter sampling point. Only a few times were values for Hydrogen higher than 100 ppm and detected at most of the sampling points, usually only one or two points resulted with small values near the 141 meter sampling point. Based on the radon values alone, we would have to conclude that the fault probably lies near or between the 116 and 141 meter sampling points, but with the additional data of the CO 2 and H 2 soil-gases one could say that the fault is probably near the 141 meter sampling point. Thus, we have

  12. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  13. The bone microstructure of polar "hypsilophodontid" dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Holly N; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2018-01-18

    High-latitude (i.e., "polar") Mesozoic fauna endured months of twilight and relatively low mean annual temperatures. Yet non-avian dinosaurs flourished in this taxing environment. Fossils of basal ornithopod dinosaurs ("hypsilophodontids") are common in the Early Cretaceous high-latitude sediments of Victoria, Australia, and four taxa have been described; although their ontogenetic histories are largely unexplored. In the present study, eighteen tibiae and femora were utilized in the first multi-specimen ontogenetic histological analysis of Australian polar hypsilophodontids. The sample consists of eleven individuals from the Flat Rocks locality (Late Valanginian or Barremian), and five from the Dinosaur Cove locality (Albian). In both groups, growth was most rapid during the first three years, and skeletal maturity occurred between five and seven years. There is a weak asymptotic trend in a plot of growth mark count versus femur length, with considerable individual variation. Histology suggests two genera are present within the Dinosaur Cove sample, but bone microstructure alone could not distinguish genera within the Flat Rocks sample, or across the two geologically separate (~ 26 Ma) localities. Additional histologic sampling, combined with morphological analyses, may facilitate further differentiation between ontogenetic, individual, and species variation.

  14. The Victoria and Alfred Waterfront as playground for Capetonians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanette Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the exploration and understanding of the social geographies of public space in the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront (V&AW in Cape Town. The aim is to understand Capetonians’ (visitors and employees perceptions of the V&AW as public, leisure, shopping and working spaces. The appropriate literature on waterfront developments in providing public, working and leisure space is reviewed. Two questionnaire surveys (visitors and employees as well as eight unstructured interviews with important role players in the tourism industry of Cape Town were conducted. Findings revealed the most important reasons for Capetonians to visit or use certain spaces in the V&AW, the public open spaces they liked and how they perceived the V&AW as an inclusive space. The research also sought the respondents’ views on how the certain public spaces can be improved; what new activities and retail shops can be introduced; their opinions about the affordability of restaurants and parking; and how the V&AW can improve to cater for the needs of the Waterfront’s employees. Recommendations are made for making the V&AW more functional and accessible to Capetonians.

  15. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic Mapping and Statistical Analyses of Valley Landform and Vegetation Asymmetries Across Hydroclimatic Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, M. J.; Pierce, J. L.; McNamara, J. P.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Terrain aspect alters the spatial distribution of insolation across topography, driving eco-pedo-hydro-geomorphic feedbacks that can alter landform evolution and result in valley asymmetries for a suite of land surface characteristics (e.g. slope length and steepness, vegetation, soil properties, and drainage development). Asymmetric valleys serve as natural laboratories for studying how landscapes respond to climate perturbation. In the semi-arid montane granodioritic terrain of the Idaho batholith, Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, prior works indicate that reduced insolation on northern (pole-facing) aspects prolongs snow pack persistence, and is associated with thicker, finer-grained soils, that retain more water, prolong the growing season, support coniferous forest rather than sagebrush steppe ecosystems, stabilize slopes at steeper angles, and produce sparser drainage networks. We hypothesize that the primary drivers of valley asymmetry development are changes in the pedon-scale water-balance that coalesce to alter catchment-scale runoff and drainage development, and ultimately cause the divide between north and south-facing land surfaces to migrate northward. We explore this conceptual framework by coupling land surface analyses with statistical modeling to assess relationships and the relative importance of land surface characteristics. Throughout the Idaho batholith, we systematically mapped and tabulated various statistical measures of landforms, land cover, and hydroclimate within discrete valley segments (n=~10,000). We developed a random forest based statistical model to predict valley slope asymmetry based upon numerous measures (n>300) of landscape asymmetries. Preliminary results suggest that drainages are tightly coupled with hillslopes throughout the region, with drainage-network slope being one of the strongest predictors of land-surface-averaged slope asymmetry. When slope-related statistics are excluded, due to possible autocorrelation, valley

  17. Assessing stream bank condition using airborne LiDAR and high spatial resolution image data in temperate semirural areas in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kasper; Grove, James; Denham, Robert; Phinn, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Stream bank condition is an important physical form indicator for streams related to the environmental condition of riparian corridors. This research developed and applied an approach for mapping bank condition from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and high-spatial resolution optical image data in a temperate forest/woodland/urban environment. Field observations of bank condition were related to LiDAR and optical image-derived variables, including bank slope, plant projective cover, bank-full width, valley confinement, bank height, bank top crenulation, and ground vegetation cover. Image-based variables, showing correlation with the field measurements of stream bank condition, were used as input to a cumulative logistic regression model to estimate and map bank condition. The highest correlation was achieved between field-assessed bank condition and image-derived average bank slope (R2=0.60, n=41), ground vegetation cover (R=0.43, n=41), bank width/height ratio (R=0.41, n=41), and valley confinement (producer's accuracy=100%, n=9). Cross-validation showed an average misclassification error of 0.95 from an ordinal scale from 0 to 4 using the developed model. This approach was developed to support the remotely sensed mapping of stream bank condition for 26,000 km of streams in Victoria, Australia, from 2010 to 2012.

  18. The Development of a Customization Framework for the WRF Model over the Lake Victoria Basin, Eastern Africa on Seasonal Timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Argent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Victoria, Africa, supports millions of people. To produce reliable climate projections, it is desirable to successfully model the rainfall over the lake accurately. An initial step is taken here with customization of the Weather, Research, and Forecast (WRF model. Of particular interest is an asymmetrical rainfall pattern across the lake basin, due to a diurnal land-lake breeze. The main aim is to present a customization framework for use over the lake. This framework is developed by conducting several series of model runs to investigate aspects of the customization. The runs are analyzed using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission rainfall data and Climatic Research Unit temperature data. The study shows that the choice of parameters and lake surface temperature initialization can significantly alter the results. Also, the optimal physics combinations for the climatology may not necessarily be suitable for all circumstances, such as extreme years. The study concludes that WRF is unable to reproduce the pattern across the lake. The temperature of the lake is too cold and this prevents the diurnal land-lake breeze reversal. Overall, this study highlights the importance of customizing a model to the region of research and presents a framework through which this may be achieved.

  19. Diversity and ecological ranges of plant species from dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina

    found on steep slopes and in ravines. These areas of original dry valley vegetation preserve many wild relatives of cultivated plants on the one hand and old lineages of other wild plant groups. Dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) in Ecuador therefore makeup a biodiversity hot spot for both plants......Dry valleys in the American Andes and other mountains have provided excellent agricultural lands since millennia. Besides agriculture, wood extraction and the establishment of urban areas have diminished the native vegetation of these valleys. Consequently the original vegetation is now mostly...... and animals, but unfortunately only very few botanical studies have been carried out in these areas. This thesis intends to shed light on the vegetation of the Dry Ecuadorean Inter-Andean Valleys in four chapters, each with a different focus. 1) A review paper that summarizes all scientific knowledge...

  20. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Considering an Active Leech River Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukovica, J.; Molnar, S.; Ghofrani, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Leech River fault is situated on Vancouver Island near the city of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. The 60km transpressional reverse fault zone runs east to west along the southern tip of Vancouver Island, dividing the lithologic units of Jurassic-Cretaceous Leech River Complex schists to the north and Eocene Metchosin Formation basalts to the south. This fault system poses a considerable hazard due to its proximity to Victoria and 3 major hydroelectric dams. The Canadian seismic hazard model for the 2015 National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) considered the fault system to be inactive. However, recent paleoseismic evidence suggests there to be at least 2 surface-rupturing events to have exceeded a moment magnitude (M) of 6.5 within the last 15,000 years (Morell et al. 2017). We perform a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for the city of Victoria with consideration of the Leech River fault as an active source. A PSHA for Victoria which replicates the 2015 NBCC estimates is accomplished to calibrate our PSHA procedure. The same seismic source zones, magnitude recurrence parameters, and Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) are used. We replicate the uniform hazard spectrum for a probability of exceedance of 2% in 50 years for a 500 km radial area around Victoria. An active Leech River fault zone is then added; known length and dip. We are determining magnitude recurrence parameters based on a Gutenberg-Richter relationship for the Leech River fault from various catalogues of the recorded seismicity (M 2-3) within the fault's vicinity and the proposed paleoseismic events. We seek to understand whether inclusion of an active Leech River fault source will significantly increase the probabilistic seismic hazard for Victoria. Morell et al. 2017. Quaternary rupture of a crustal fault beneath Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. GSA Today, 27, doi: 10.1130/GSATG291A.1

  1. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  2. Ground water in Fountain and Jimmy Camp Valleys, El Paso County, Colorado with a section on Computations of drawdowns caused by the pumping of wells in Fountain Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edward D.; Glover, Robert E.

    1964-01-01

    The part of Fountain Valley considered in this report extends from Colorado Springs to the Pueblo County line. It is 23 miles long and has an area of 26 square miles. The part of Jimmy Camp Valley discussed is 11 miles long and has an area of 9 square miles. The topography is characterized by level flood plains and alluvial terraces that parallel the valley and by rather steep hills along the valley sides. The climate is semiarid, average annual precipitation being about 13 inches. Farming and stock raising are the principal occupations in the valleys; however, some of the agricultural land near Colorado Springs is being used for housing developments. The Pierre Shale and alluvium underlie most of the area, and mesa gravel caps the shale hills adjacent to Fountain Valley. The alluvium yields water to domestic, stock, irrigation, and public-supply wells and is capable of yielding large quantities of water for intermittent periods. Several springs issue along the sides of the valley at the contact of the mesa gravel and the underlying Pierre Shale. The water table ranges in depth from less than 10 feet along the bottom lands to about 80 feet along the sides of the valleys; the saturated thickness ranges from less than a foot to about 50 feet. The ground-water reservoir in Fountain Valley is recharged by precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Fountain Creek, which originates in the Pikes Peak, Monument Valley, and Rampart Range areas, and by seepage from irrigation water. This reservoir contains about 70,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The ground-water reservoir in Jimmy Camp Valley is recharged from precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Jimmy Camp Creek during periods of streamflow, and by seepage from irrigation water. The Jimmy Camp ground-water reservoir contains about 25,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Ground water is discharged from the area by movement to the south, by evaporation and transpiration in

  3. The epidemiology of hip fractures across western Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Kara L; Sajjad, Muhammad A; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Kotowicz, Mark A; Livingston, Patricia M; Khasraw, Mustafa; Hakkennes, Sharon; Dunning, Trisha L; Brumby, Susan; Page, Richard S; Pedler, Daryl; Sutherland, Alasdair; Venkatesh, Svetha; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A

    2018-03-01

    Hip fractures are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Hip fracture incidence varies across different levels of accessibility/remoteness and socioeconomic status (SES). As part of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury Study, we aimed to map the pattern of hip fractures across the western region of the Australian state of Victoria, which contains a range of remoteness levels and SES. Data on hip fractures resulting in hospital admission were extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) for men and women aged 40+years during 2010-2013 inclusive. An age-adjusted incidence rate (per 10,000population/year) was calculated for the entire region. Crude incidence rates and length of acute care hospital stay (excluding rehabilitation) were calculated for each Local Government Area (LGA). The impact of aggregated age, accessibility/remoteness index of Australia (ARIA) and SES on hip fracture rates aggregated across LGAs was determined using Poisson regression. For men, the age-standardised rate of hospitalisations for hip fracture across the whole region was 19.2 per 10,000population/year (95%CI 18.0-20.4) and for women, 40.0 (95%CI 38.3-41.7). The highest incidence rates for both sexes occurred in the less accessible LGAs of Yarriambiack and Hindmarsh, as well as the LGA with the lowest SES, Central Goldfields. In both sexes, approximately two thirds of individuals were discharged from acute hospital care within 14days. Increasing age, higher remoteness and lower SES were all associated with higher hip fracture rates. Crude incidence rates varied by location. Given that a high proportion of patients had acute hospital care of ≤14days, and accessibility and SES were associated with hip fracture rates, these results can inform policy and provide a model for other groups to conduct similar research in their local environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  5. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Corning area, Steuben County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Belli, J.L.; Allen, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Steuben County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, potentiometric-surface elevations, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt, sand, and gravel, glacial-outwash (sand and gravel), till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities, whereas the till and silt deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in unconfined sand and gravel along the valley margin. Artesian conditions are found locally in sand and gravel confined under silt and clay in the middle of the valley. Recharge occurs nearly everywhere on the valley floor, but principally along the margin of the valley, where highly permeable land surface conditions exist, and runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is a mixture of residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses. (USGS)

  6. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  7. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  8. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  9. Hydro-climatic trends and water resource management implications based on multi-scale data for the Lake Victoria region, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsouris, A J; Destouni, G; Jarsjoe, J; Lyon, S W

    2010-01-01

    Unreliable rainfall may be a main cause of poverty in rural areas, such as the Kisumu district by Lake Victoria in Kenya. Climate change may further increase the negative effects of rainfall uncertainty. These effects could be mitigated to some extent through improved and adaptive water resource management and planning, which relies on our interpretations and projections of the coupled hydro-climatic system behaviour and its development trends. In order to identify and quantify the main differences and consistencies among such hydro-climatic assessments, this study investigates trends and exemplifies their use for important water management decisions for the Lake Victoria drainage basin (LVDB), based on local scale data for the Orongo village in the Kisumu district, and regional scale data for the whole LVDB. Results show low correlation between locally and regionally observed hydro-climatic trends, and large differences, which in turn affects assessments of important water resource management parameters. However, both data scales converge in indicating that observed local and regional hydrological discharge trends are primarily driven by local and regional water use and land use changes.

  10. Analyses of CsI aerosol deposition tests in WIND project with ART and VICTORIA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuchi, Y.; Shibazaki, H.; Kudo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Deposition behavior of cesium iodide (CsI) was analyzed with ART and VICTORIA-92 codes for a test of the aerosol re-vaporization test series performed in WIND project at JAERI. In the test analyzed, CsI aerosol was injected into piping of test section where metaboric acid (HBO 2 ) was placed in advance on the floor area. It was confirmed in the present analysis that similar results on the CsI deposition were obtained between ART and VICTORIA when influences of chemical interactions were negligibly small. The analysis with VICTORIA agreed satisfactorily with the test results in analytical cases that cesium metaborate (CsBO 2 ) was injected into the test section instead of CsI to simulate the pre-existence of HBO 2 effect. (author)

  11. Understanding virtual water flows: A multiregion input-output case study of Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Manfred

    2009-09-01

    This article explains and interprets virtual water flows from the well-established perspective of input-output analysis. Using a case study of the Australian state of Victoria, it demonstrates that input-output analysis can enumerate virtual water flows without systematic and unknown truncation errors, an issue which has been largely absent from the virtual water literature. Whereas a simplified flow analysis from a producer perspective would portray Victoria as a net virtual water importer, enumerating the water embodiments across the full supply chain using input-output analysis shows Victoria as a significant net virtual water exporter. This study has succeeded in informing government policy in Australia, which is an encouraging sign that input-output analysis will be able to contribute much value to other national and international applications.

  12. Urbanization and mental health: psychiatric morbidity, suicide and violence in the State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, J

    1979-06-01

    Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world with over 85% of the population living in metropolitan and other urban areas. More important, the change from a predominantly rural society to an urbanized society has occurred within the last 100 years. To assess the effects of urbanization on mental health, rates of admissions to psychiatric institutions, suicides and violent crime in Victoria have been analysed for the last hundred years. Data on admissions to psychiatric facilities in Victoria from metropolitan, other urban and rural areas, as well as results of community health surveys carried out in metropolitan and rural areas were compared to examine for evidence of urban-rural differences in psychiatric morbidity. The findings do not support the notion that the level of psychiatric and psychosocial disorders in Victoria are related to urbanization or to urban living.

  13. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heams, T.J.; Williams, D.A.; Johns, N.A.; Mason, A.; Bixler, N.E.; Grimley, A.J.; Wheatley, C.J.; Dickson, L.W.; Osborn-Lee, I.; Domagala, P.; Zawadzki, S.; Rest, J.; Alexander, C.A.; Lee, R.Y.

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided

  14. Levels of toxic metals in multisectoral samples from Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeri, D M K; Lalah, J O; Wandiga, S O; Schramm, K W; Michalke, B

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the distribution and sources of inputs of trace metals including Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb from various sources as well as Fe which is widely used in the construction industry, into Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria were investigated. The sampling sites were located up streams and down streams of four rivers (Sio, Nyamasaria, Nyando and Sondu-Miriu), in four beaches along the lake (Port Victoria, Kisumu Car Wash, Dunga and Hippo point beaches) and in three estates (Nyamasaria, Migosi and Nyawita) in Kisumu city, covering potential agrochemical and industrial sources and drinking water points, respectively. The concentrations (in microg/L) of trace metals analysed in the lake and river waters ranged from Car Wash area. The study confirmed that the concentrations of the metals accumulate downstream in the rivers both in water and sediment and these rivers are major sources of the heavy metal load into Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria.

  15. Geohydrology of the Unconsolidated Valley-Fill Aquifer in the Meads Creek Valley, Schuyler and Steuben Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.; Reddy, James E.

    2008-01-01

    percent was from losing reaches of tributaries, 38 percent was unchanneled flow from hillsides that slope toward the valley (this estimate includes runoff and shallow ground-water inflow from till and bedrock), and the remaining 2 percent was from deep ground-water inflow from till and bedrock to the sides and bottom of the aquifer. Nearly all (94 percent) of the water discharged from the aquifer is equivalent to the streamflow gain in Meads Creek; the remaining 6 percent discharges as deep outflow to unconsolidated deposits in the Cohocton River valley. Several characteristics of the Meads Creek valley may contribute to flooding in the downstream area: (1) the southward decrease in the ground-water gradient impedes the ability of the aquifer to transmit water southward and can cause water levels to rise, (2) a high water table, typically only 5 to 10 feet below land surface, results in little storage capacity to absorb water from large storms, (3) a downstream narrowing of the valley impedes the southward flow of ground water and can cause water levels to rapidly rise during periods of prolonged or heavy precipitation, and (4) the upland slopes (till-covered bedrock) produce rapid runoff that recharges the aquifer. The combined effect of these conditions limits the ability of the aquifer to transmit sudden, large increases in recharge from precipitation and thereby provides a high potential for flooding in the southern third of the valley.

  16. Stroke Incidence in Victoria, Australia—Emerging Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Clissold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence of a decline in the incidence of stroke has emerged from population-based studies. These have included retrospective and prospective cohorts. However, in Australia and other countries, government bodies and stroke foundations predict a rise in the prevalence of stroke that is anticipated to increase the burden of stroke across the entire domain of care. This increase in prevalence must be viewed as different from the decline in incidence being observed, a measure of new stroke cases. In Victoria, all public emergency department visits and public and private hospital admissions are reported to the Department of Health and Human Services and include demographic, diagnostic, and procedural/treatment information.MethodsWe obtained data from financial years 1997/1998 to 2007/2008 inclusive, for all cases with a primary stroke diagnosis (ICD-10-AM categories with associated data fields. Incident cases were established by using a 5-year clearance period.ResultsFrom 2003/2004 to 2007/2008 inclusive, there were 53,425 patients with a primary stroke or TIA diagnosis. The crude incident stroke rate for first ever stroke was 211 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 205–217 [females—205 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 196–214 and males—217 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 210–224]. The overall stroke rates were seen to significantly decline over the period [males (per 100,000 per year 227 in 2003/2004 to 202 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0157 and females (per 100,000 per year 214 in 2003/2004 to 188 in 2007/2008 (p = 0.0482]. Ischemic stroke rates also appeared to decline; however, this change was not significant.ConclusionThese results demonstrate a significant decline in stroke incidence during the study period and may suggest evidence for effectiveness of primary and secondary prevention strategies in cerebrovascular risk factor management.

  17. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  18. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 4. Doctors as supporters of art galleries and artists in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-07-07

    The contribution of doctors to the visual arts is being discussed in a series of six articles. Doctor-artists in New South Wales and Victoria, and doctors as collectors, donors, gallery supporters and writers in New South Wales, have been discussed in earlier articles. This, the fourth article, deals with doctors as supporters of art galleries and artists in Victoria.

  19. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  20. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  1. Mulighedernes land?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark.......Kommentar om arbejde med det åbne land i forlængelse af konfencen "Mulighedernes land" og vigtigheden af at landskabsarkitekter går aktivt ind i debatten og arbejdet med landskabets forandring i Danmark....

  2. Fast food restaurant locations according to socioeconomic disadvantage, urban–regional locality, and schools within Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukar E. Thornton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Features of the built environment provide opportunities to engage in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours. Access to a high number of fast food restaurants may encourage greater consumption of fast food products. The distribution of fast food restaurants at a state-level has not previously been reported in Australia. Using the location of 537 fast food restaurants from four major chains (McDonald׳s, KFC, Hungry Jacks, and Red Rooster, this study examined fast food restaurant locations across the state of Victoria relative to area-level disadvantage, urban–regional locality (classified as Major Cities, Inner Regional, or Outer Regional, and around schools. Findings revealed greater locational access to fast food restaurants in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (compared to areas with lower levels of disadvantage, nearby to secondary schools (compared to primary schools, and nearby to primary and secondary schools within the most disadvantaged areas of the major city region (compared to primary and secondary schools in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Adjusted models showed no significant difference in location according to urban–regional locality. Knowledge of the distribution of fast food restaurants in Australia will assist local authorities to target potential policy mechanisms, such as planning regulations, where they are most needed. Keywords: Australia, Fast food, Socioeconomic inequalities, Urbanicity, Schools, Land-use planning

  3. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  4. Employment Shifts in the Technical and Further Education Workforce in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chandra

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes changes in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) work force in Victoria, Australia, that occurred during the period 1993-98. Main changes include increased participation of women, significant growth in part-time employment, decline in full-time (mainly male) employment, and an increased use of seasonal teachers. (Includes 10 figures and…

  5. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  6. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 3. Doctor-artists in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-06-09

    The contribution of doctors to the visual arts is being discussed in a series of six articles. The first two articles dealt with doctors and the visual arts in New South Wales. In this, the third, doctor-artists in Victoria are discussed.

  7. Dietary shifts in Brycinus sadleri (Pisces : Characidae) from southern Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanink, J.H.; Joordens, J.C.A.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the diet of Brycinus sadleri in Lake Victoria after extensive environmental changes during the 1980s. To check for diet expansion following these changes, as observed in some other fish species, we compared our results with data from the 1950s. Stomach contents were analysed in relation

  8. Diel vertical migration of major fish-species in Lake Victoria, East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, P.C.; Wanink, J.H.; Witte, F.; Katunzi, E.F.B.; Berger, M.R.; Postma, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of migration patterns is essential in the interpretation of hydro-acoustic stock assessment data of partly demersal partly pelagic fish stocks. In this paper we provide this kind of information for some species that were common in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria in the 1980s, before

  9. Diel vertical migration of major fish-species in Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, KPC; Wanink, JH; Witte, F; Katunzi, EFB; Berger, MR; Postma, DJ

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of migration patterns is essential in the interpretation of hydro-acoustic stock assessment data of partly demersal partly pelagic fish stocks. In this paper we provide this kind of information for some species that were common in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria in the 1980s, before

  10. Communicating Risk with Parents: Exploring the Methods and Beliefs of Outdoor Education Coordinators in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallat, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the risk communication strategies currently being employed by seven outdoor education co-ordinators in Government schools in Victoria, Australia. Of particular interest are the beliefs and assumptions held by these co-ordinators in relation to communicating risk with parents. Current policy stipulates that parents must be…

  11. medical recipients of the victoria cross during the anglo-boer war

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ofall orders ofchivalry - the most enviable order ofthe. Victoria Cross.' MEDICAL .... Major Babtie, a Scot by birth, obtained his Bachelor of Medicine in 1880 and entered the Army ..... a personality type that is given to this kind of action? Will one.

  12. Supervision and Satisfaction among School Psychologists: An Empirical Study of Professionals in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielking, Monica; Moore, Susan; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the supervision arrangements and job satisfaction among school psychologists in Victoria, Australia. Participation in professional supervision was explored in relation to the type of employment and job satisfaction. The results revealed that the frequency of participation in supervision activities was less than optimal, with…

  13. Distribution of Nile perch Lates niloticus in southern Lake Victoria is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Nile perch Lates niloticus is assumed to be sensitive to low oxygen concentrations, it was found in deep water in Lake Victoria, where oxygen depletion is common during the rainy season. Since factors determining Nile perch distribution are not well understood its spatial distribution in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake ...

  14. Water hyacinth hotspots in the Ugandan waters of Lake Victoria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth invaded Lake Victoria in the 1980s and, by 1998, had attained peak coverage of approximately 2 000 ha in the Ugandan waters of the lake. Control interventions, especially via biological means, significantly reduced the weed's coverage to non-nuisance levels (<10 ha) by 1999. Although resurgence was ...

  15. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria generate large proportions of both solid and liquid wastes. However, no thorough auditing and characterization of the waste has been done that would guide potential value addition through bioconversions and waste management.

  16. "Embodied Knowing": Exploring the Founding of the Melbourne Rudolf Steiner School in 1970S Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Education in Victoria, Australia not only underwent significant change in the 1970s, but was witness to a widespread educational reform project. Whilst exploration of the more widespread alternatives has been of some interest, the smaller progressive traditions that emerged in some ways "alongside" the broader reforms have rarely been…

  17. The Killing of the Workers' Educational Association of Victoria: A Myth Challenged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadswell, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    On 21 March 1941, the Council of the Workers' Educational Association of Victoria, Australia, (the Association) voted the organisation out of existence. The demise was in no way contemplated, and there was no practical reason why the Council acted in the way it did. This paper is the story of the destruction of a successful adult education…

  18. Existence versus extinction : Human-hippo conflicts in Lake Victoria Area, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, A.W.C.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    This PhD dissertation examines the role of different organisations and affected communities in human-wildlife governance, with a focus on human-hippo conflicts in Lake Victoria Area, Kenya. The hippo population in this area is under pressure due to human activities that impact on the wetland

  19. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa: Auditing and characterization. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  20. Collapse and reorganization of a food web of Mwanza Gulf, Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downing, A.S.; Van Nes, E.H.; Janse, J.H.; Witte, F.; Cornelissen, I.J.M.; Scheffer, M.; Mooij, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Victoria (in East Africa) is the world's second largest fresh-water system. Over the past century the ecosystem has undergone drastic changes. Some 30 years after the introduction of Nile perch and tilapia in the 1950s, the highly diverse community of native haplochromines collapsed, leaving a

  1. Chlamydia pecorum Infection in Free-ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) on French Island, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-04-28

    We detected Chlamydia pecorum in two koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) from a closed island population in Victoria, Australia, previously free of Chlamydia infection. The ompA and multilocus sequence type were most closely related to published isolates of livestock rather than koala origin, suggesting potential cross-species transmission of C. pecorum .

  2. Focus on Form and Corrective Feedback Research at the University of Victoria, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sibo; Nassaji, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    The Department of Linguistics at University of Victoria (UVic) in Canada has a long-standing tradition of empirical approaches to the study of theoretical and applied linguistics. As part of the Faculty of Humanities, the department caters to students with a wide range of backgrounds and interests, and provides crucial language teaching support in…

  3. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically

  4. Eutrophication, Nile perch and food-web interactions in south-east Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing eutrophication, the introduction of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and the increasing fishing pressure has changed Lake Victoria tremendously the last century. Since the 1960s, eutrophication increased primary production, enabling an increase in fish production. However,

  5. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Jamestown area, Chautauqua County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.R.; Stelz, W.G.; Belli, J.L.; Allen, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the sixth in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Chautauqua County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, potentiometric-surface elevations and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt and sand, glacial-outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities whereas the till, silt and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in u nconfined sand and gravel beds along the valley margin. Artesian conditions prevail in confined sand and gravel buried under silt and clay in the middle of the valley. Recharge occurs mainly along the margin of the valley, where the land surface is highly permeable and runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly agricultural and residential with lesser amounts of commercial and industrial uses. (USGS)

  6. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek...-managed public land on Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry, South Holston, Watauga, and... Proposed Land Use Alternative) identified in the final environmental impact statement (FEIS). Under the...

  7. Farmers' investments in land management practices in the CRV of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu Teferi, Z.; Kessler, A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to combat land degradation in the form of water erosion and fertility depletion in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia farmers are of crucial importance. If they perceive land degradation as a problem they will be more willing to invest in land management measures. This study

  8. Modelling land surface - atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Højmark

    representation of groundwater in the hydrological model is found to important and this imply resolving the small river valleys. Because, the important shallow groundwater is found in the river valleys. If the model does not represent the shallow groundwater then the area mean surface flux calculation......The study is investigates modelling of land surface – atmosphere interactions in context of fully coupled climatehydrological model. With a special focus of under what condition a fully coupled model system is needed. Regional climate model inter-comparison projects as ENSEMBLES have shown bias...... by the hydrological model is found to be insensitive to model resolution. Furthermore, this study highlights the effect of bias precipitation by regional climate model and it implications for hydrological modelling....

  9. The table grape 'Victoria' with a long shaped berry: a potential mutation with attractive characteristics for consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Gallotta, Alessandra; Pacucci, Carmela; Matarrese, Angela Maria Stella; Mazzeo, Andrea; Giancaspro, Angelica; Gadaleta, Agata; Piazzolla, Francesca; Colelli, Giancarlo

    2017-12-01

    Puglia is the most important region in Italy for table grape production. Since consumers look for new products, the number of table grape varieties has greatly increased in recent years. In a survey in the Puglia region, we identified several years ago a potential mutation of the cv. Victoria. We described this accession in comparison with the standard Victoria for some amphelographic traits. All the characteristics were very similar to the standard Victoria except for the berry shape, which was significantly more elongated. Moreover, the berry of the mutated Victoria showed higher firmness, lightness and chroma than the standard one, with a more intense yellow colour of the skin (appreciated by consumers). The molecular characterisation with 25 SSR markers showed that normal and mutant Victoria were genetically identical at all the analysed loci, thus suggesting that the two accessions could be considered as clones with the difference in berry shape probably due to a somatic mutation. This mutation of the cv. Victoria may have interesting perspective for the market since consumers are always attracted by different shape and colour of the fruits (consumers buy with eyes). This accession can be an alternative clone of the already known standard Victoria. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. 75 FR 77691 - Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, in Cocke, Greene, Hamblen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, in... the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). TVA has prepared the Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary... Douglas and Nolichucky tributary reservoirs has been allocated into broad use categories or ``zones...

  11. Influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the distribution of xerothermic plants in the lower San river valley (SE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Krawczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the distribution of xerothermic species of vascular plants in the lower San River valley and the relationship between their density and the intensity of selected environmental (natural and anthropogenic factors. Xerothermic species occurred more frequently in the present valley floor compared to the glacial terrace. Within the present valley, the highest density was observed in the floodplain. The examined species also occurred more often on steep slopes of the valley, at the margins of the present valley terraces, and in the area of occurrence of aeolian sands. Moreover, a positive correlation has been found between the number of xerothermic species and the area of polyhemeroby ecosystems. The distribution of xero- and thermophilous species is determined by natural edaphic and geomorphological factors as well as anthropogenic ones (land use, lowering of the groundwater level as a result of river regulation.

  12. Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley region of Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, N.J.; Flier, W.G.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Smart, C.D.; Matuszak, J.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.; Fry, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the population of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca valley region is genetically differentiated according to habitat. Isolates were sampled in three habitats from (i) wild Solanum spp. (WILD), (ii) land-race varieties in low-input production systems (RURAL), and

  13. Environment and forest regeneration in the Illinois Valley area of southwestern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Minore; Joseph N. Graham; Edward W. Murray

    1984-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses were used to relate environmental factors to forest regeneration on clearcut and partial cut areas managed by the Bureau of Land Management in the Illinois Valley area southwest of Grants Pass, Oregon. Difficulty of regenerating clearcuttings at elevations between 3,000 and 4,900 feet (914 and 1 494 m) increased with increases in soil...

  14. Carbon sequestration resulting from bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand F. Nero; Richard P. Maiers; Janet C. Dewey; Andrew J. Londo

    2010-01-01

    Increasing abandonment of marginal agricultural lands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) and rising global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels create a need for better options of achieving rapid afforestation and enhancing both below and aboveground carbon sequestration. This study examines the responses of six mixtures of bottomland hardwood species...

  15. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  16. 退耕还林工程驱动下的土地利用变化合理性研究——以云南芒市为例%The Rationality Evaluation of Land Use Changes in the Middle and Low Mountain Basin and Valley Area of Southwest Yunnan Province Driven by the National Project of Converting Farmland to Forest:A Case Study in Luxi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子生; 韩华丽; 朱玉碧; 赵乔贵

    2011-01-01

    In present study on land use/land cover change (LUCC), rationality analysis and evaluation of land use change has not been taken seriously. In particular, there is hardly any study on the theory and method system for evaluating rationality of land use change. By taking Luxi City as an example, which is located in the middle and low mountainous basin and valley area in southwest Yunnan, this paper has discussed the concept and connotation of rational degree of land use change and constructed the evaluation target, estimation method, and grading standard system for studying rational degree of land use change. Then, based on these, it has quantitatively analyzed and evaluated the rational degree of the change in every land use type and rational degree of the overall land use change driven by the nearly-eight-year Program of Converting Farmland to Forest in Luxi City. It aims to provide basic foundation for promoting the sustainable use of land resources in mountainous areas and scientific implementation of the Program of Converting Farmland to Forest. The evaluation results reveal the following facts: 1 ) During recent eight years, the whole city witnessed land use type changes in a total area of 77602.80 hm2. Rational degree ( RD value) of the change was only 48.98% while the irrational degree (ID value) was 51.02%, making the change at the "moderately rational" level. 2) Among all land use types, farmland, forest and waste grassland had the largest changes. Farmland was mainly changed into forest, garden plot and waste grassland, a result driven by the Program of Converting Farmland to Forest. During recent eight years, the whole city had 19661.07 hm2 of farmland converted to ecological uses. Of which, 18886. 09 hm2 were the farmland suitable for cultivation (farmland that "should not have been converted" ) and only 774. 98 hm2 were the farmland not suitable for cultivation ( farmland that "should be converted"). The nearly-eight-year Program of Converting

  17. Hillslope failure and paraglacial reworking of sediments in response to glacier retreat, Fox Valley, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Samuel T.; Fuller, Ian C.; Anderson, Brian; Tate, Rosie

    2017-04-01

    Climate and glacier fluctuations influence sediment supply to glacier forelands, which in turn influences down-valley hazards to infrastructure and tourism within glacier forelands. At Fox Glacier, one of New Zealand's most iconic and popular glaciers, rapid retreat has initiated a range of hillslope and valley floor responses, that present a cascade of hazards and changes that need to be carefully managed. Fox Glacier has retreated many kilometres historically, with 2.6 km of retreat since the mid-20th century, and a phase of rapid retreat of 50-340 m per year since 2009. To study the system response to past and ongoing glacial retreat at the Fox valley, morphological changes are being observed using time-lapse photography and the annual collection of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophoto mosaics. The DEMs are being produced using Structure from Motion photogrammetry from UAV/RPAS and helicopter platforms, and are being used, along with manual ground surveying, to produce ground surface change models (DoDs; DEMs of Difference) and sediment budgets for the valley. Results from time-lapse photography and DoDs show that glacial retreat has initiated destabilisation and (mostly chronic) mass movement of surficial glacial sediments on the valley slopes near the glacier terminus. Alluvial fans farther down valley are actively growing, reworking glacial and landslide sediments from tributary catchments. These paraglacial sediments being delivered to the proglacial river from the glacier terminus and alluvial fans are driving aggradation of the valley floor of decimetres to metres per year and maintaining a highly dynamic braid plain. Valley floor changes also include the melting of buried dead ice, which are causing localised subsidence at the carpark and one of the alluvial fans. The unstable slopes and active debris fans, aggrading and highly active river channel, ground subsidence, add to the spectacle but also the hazards of the Fox valley

  18. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  19. Diversity of inland valleys and opportunities for agricultural development in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Ronald Dossou-Yovo

    Full Text Available Inland valleys are becoming increasingly important agricultural production areas for rural households in sub-Saharan Africa due to their relative high and secure water availability and soil fertility. In addition, inland valleys are important as water buffer and biodiversity hot spots and they provide local communities with forest, forage, and fishing resources. As different inland-valley ecosystem functions may conflict with agricultural objectives, indiscriminate development should be avoided. This study aims to analyze the diversity of inland valleys in Sierra Leone and to develop guidelines for more precise interventions. Land use, biophysical and socio-economic data were analyzed on 257 inland valleys using spatial and multivariate techniques. Five cluster groups of inland valleys were identified: (i semi-permanently flooded with high soil organic carbon (4.2% and moderate available phosphorus (10.2 ppm, mostly under natural vegetation; (ii semi-permanently flooded with low soil organic carbon (1.5% and very low available phosphorus (3.1 ppm, abandoned by farmers; (iii seasonally flooded with moderate soil organic carbon (3.1% and low available phosphorus (8.3 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced without fertilizer application for household consumption and market; (iv well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.8% and moderate available phosphorus (10.0 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced with fertilizer application for household consumption and market; and (v well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.6% and moderate available phosphorus (11 ppm, used for household consumption without fertilizer application. Soil organic carbon, available phosphorus, hydrological regime, physical accessibility and market opportunity were the major factors affecting agricultural intensification of inland valleys. Opening up the areas in which inland valleys occur through improved roads and

  20. Spirit's West Valley Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007. After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image. This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away. This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers to produce an approximately true-color panorama.

  1. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Ramapo and Mahwah rivers area, Rockland County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard Bridge; Cadwell, D.H.; Stelz, W.G.; Belli, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Rockland County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, water-table elevations, well yields, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consists of alluvial silt and sand, glacial outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities, whereas the till, silt, and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in unconfined sand and gravel along the Ramapo River valley and much of the Mahwah River valley. Artesian conditions prevail in confined sand and gravel buried under silt and clay and till in parts of the Mahway valley. The aquifer is recharged throughout, where the land surface is most permeable and is greatest along the margin of the valley, where runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly commercial, agricultural and residential, with lesser industrial uses. (USGS)

  2. Species-specific relationships between water transparency and male coloration within and between two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; Selz, Oliver M; Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Seehausen, Ole; Maan, Martine E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid

  3. Comparing electricity distribution network revenues and costs in New South Wales, Great Britain and Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, Bruce; Littlechild, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A decade ago, electricity distribution network revenues per customer in New South Wales (NSW) were twice those in Great Britain (GB). Recent price controls imply that by 2014 they will be nearly four times as high. This paper examines possible reasons for this. The main reason does not seem to be geography, operating environment or industry structure. GB and Victoria have managed to accommodate increasing demand at broadly constant or even declining costs and revenues while delivering higher quality of service, while NSW has not. The regulatory framework and the practice of the regulatory body within that framework seem relevant. Australian regulators have not used benchmarking techniques as the GB regulator has. Perhaps the most important explanatory factor is private ownership in GB and Victoria compared to state ownership in NSW. This could also impact on the nature and effectiveness of regulation. (author)

  4. Towards understanding hydroclimatic change in Victoria, Australia – preliminary insights into the "Big Dry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kiem

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s the majority of Victoria, Australia, has experienced severe drought conditions (i.e. the "Big Dry" characterized by streamflow that is the lowest in approximately 80 years of record. While decreases in annual and seasonal rainfall totals have also been observed, this alone does not seem to explain the observed reduction in flow. In this study, we investigate the large-scale climate drivers for Victoria and demonstrate how these modulate the regional scale synoptic patterns, which in turn alter the way seasonal rainfall totals are compiled and the amount of runoff per unit rainfall that is produced. The hydrological implications are significant and illustrate the need for robust hydrological modelling, that takes into account insights into physical mechanisms that drive regional hydroclimatology, in order to properly understand and quantify the impacts of climate change (natural and/or anthropogenic on water resources.

  5. Use of regionalisation approach to develop fire frequency curves for Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khastagir, Anirban; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuyian, Muhammed A.

    2017-11-01

    It is important to perform fire frequency analysis to obtain fire frequency curves (FFC) based on fire intensity at different parts of Victoria. In this paper fire frequency curves (FFCs) were derived based on forest fire danger index (FFDI). FFDI is a measure related to fire initiation, spreading speed and containment difficulty. The mean temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and areal extent of open water (LC2) during summer months (Dec-Feb) were identified as the most important parameters for assessing the risk of occurrence of bushfire. Based on these parameters, Andrews' curve equation was applied to 40 selected meteorological stations to identify homogenous stations to form unique clusters. A methodology using peak FFDI from cluster averaged FFDIs was developed by applying Log Pearson Type III (LPIII) distribution to generate FFCs. A total of nine homogeneous clusters across Victoria were identified, and subsequently their FFC's were developed in order to estimate the regionalised fire occurrence characteristics.

  6. Integrating remote sensing approach with pollution monitoring tools for aquatic ecosystem risk assessment and management: a case study of Lake Victoria (Uganda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, Silvia; Corsi, Ilaria; Mazzuoli, Stefania; Vignoli, Leonardo; Loiselle, Steven A; Focardi, Silvano

    2006-11-01

    Aquatic ecosystems around the world, lake, estuaries and coastal areas are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic pollutants through different sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban discharges, atmospheric deposition and terrestrial drainage. Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world and the largest tropical lake. Bordered by Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya, it provides a livelihood for millions of Africans in the region. However, the lake is under threat from eutrophication, a huge decline in the number of native fish species caused by several factors including loss of biodiversity, over fishing and pollution has been recently documented. Increasing usage of pesticides and insecticides in the adjacent agricultural areas as well as mercury contamination from processing of gold ore on the southern shores are currently considered among the most emergent phenomena of chemical contamination in the lake. By the application of globally consistent and comprehensive geospatial data-sets based on remote sensing integrated with information on heavy metals accumulation and insecticides exposure in native and alien fish populations, the present study aims at assessing the environmental risk associated to the contamination of the Lake Victoria water body on fish health, land cover distribution, biodiversity and the agricultural area surrounding the lake. By the elaboration of Landsat 7 TM data of November 2002 and Landsat 7 TM 1986 we have calculated the agriculture area which borders the Lake Victoria bay, which is an upland plain. The resulting enhanced nutrient loading to the soil is subsequently transported to the lake by rain or as dry fall. The data has been inserted in a Geographical information System (ARCGIS) to be upgraded and consulted. Heavy metals in fish fillets showed concentrations rather low except for mercury being higher than others as already described in previous investigations. In the same tissue, cholinesterases activity (ChE) as an

  7. Critical influences on succession management for non-commissioned ranks within Victoria police

    OpenAIRE

    Owbridge, Lynne Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines issues affecting succession management within noncommissioned ranks (NCRs) of policing services. Using Victoria Police (VicPol) as a case study, this research explored the organisation's capacity to build individual and organisational capability through adequate recruitment of new police, professional learning, and retaining talent within NCRs. A grounded theory approach was used to explore VicPol's recruitment, foundation training, transfer, promotion, ...

  8. NAPLAN Scores as Predictors of Access to Higher Education in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Brendan Houng; Moshe Justman

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which year-9 performance on the National Assessment Program—Language Arts and Numeracy (NAPLAN) predicts access to higher education as determined by subsequent achievement on year-12 Victoria Certificate of Education (VCE) exams. VCE performance is measured via three binary indicators: achieving an Australian tertiary admission rank (ATAR) above 50 ("ATAR50"), above 70 ("ATAR70"), and above 90 ("ATAR90"); and two continuous indicators: ATAR and the Tertiary E...

  9. A Comparison of digestive Tract Morphology in muskoxen and caribou from Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Although caribou and muskoxen coexist in close proximity on southeastern Victoria Island, they appear primarily adapted to different diets and foraging strategies. Visual inspection and analysis of rumen contents for fiber and lignin from the study (unpubl. also indicate a predominantly graminoid diet in the muskoxen and a more varied diet with a substantial browse component in the caribou.This should reduce the likelihood of competition for limited food resources in winter.

  10. A Bottom-Up Understanding of Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing in Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Luomba

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing is a major concern in fisheries management around the world. Several measures have been taken to address the problem. In Lake Victoria, the alleviation of IUU fishing is implemented through the Regional Plan of Action (RPOA-IUU, which restricts use of certain fishing gear, as well as prohibits fishing in closed areas and during closed seasons. Despite the long-term efforts to monitor and control what goes on in the fisheries, IUU fishing has persisted in Lake Victoria. Inspired by interactive governance theory, this paper argues that the persistence of IUU fishing could be due to different images that stakeholders have about the situation, rather than the lack of management competency. Through structured interviews with 150 fisheries stakeholders on Ijinga Island in the southeastern part of Lake Victoria, Tanzania, using paired comparison questionnaires, the study elicits stakeholders’ perspective about the severity of different locally-pertinent fishing-related activities. The results show that while fisheries stakeholder groups agree on their judgments about certain fishing gears, some differences are also apparent. For instance, fisheries managers and scientists do not always agree with fishing people about what activities cause the most damage to fisheries resources and ecosystem. Further, they tend to consider some IUU fishing-related activities less damaging than some non-IUU fishing. Such disparity creates governability challenges, pointing to the need to revisit relevant regulatory measures and to make them consistent with the knowledge and judgments of all stakeholders. Based on these findings, we discuss governing interventions that may contribute to addressing IUU fishing in Lake Victoria and elsewhere.

  11. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  12. Hospital-treated injuries from horse riding in Victoria, Australia: time to refocus on injury prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhán; Hitchens, Peta L; Fortington, Lauren V

    2018-01-01

    The most recent report on hospital-treated horse-riding injuries in Victoria was published 20 years ago. Since then, injury countermeasures and new technology have aimed to make horse riding safer for participants. This study provides an update of horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment in Victoria and examines changes in injury patterns compared with the earlier study. Horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment (hospital admission (HA) or emergency department (ED) presentations) were extracted from routinely collected data from public and private hospitals in Victoria from 2002-2003 to 2015-2016. Injury incidence rates per 100 000 Victorian population per financial year and age-stratified and sex-stratified injury incidence rates are presented. Poisson regression was used to examine trends in injury rates over the study period. ED presentation and HA rates were 31.1 and 6.6 per 100 000 person-years, increasing by 28.8% and 47.6% from 2002 to 2016, respectively. Female riders (47.3 ED and 10.1 HA per 100 000 person-years) and those aged between 10 and 14 years (87.8 ED and 15.7 HA per 100 000 person-years) had the highest incidence rates. Fractures (ED 29.4%; HA 56.5%) and head injuries (ED 15.4%; HA 18.9%) were the most common injuries. HA had a mean stay of 2.6±4.1 days, and the mean cost per HA was $A5096±8345. Horse-riding injuries have remained similar in their pattern (eg, types of injuries) since last reported in Victoria. HA and ED incidence rates have increased over the last 14 years. Refocusing on injury prevention countermeasures is recommended along with a clear plan for implementation and evaluation of their effectiveness in reducing injury.

  13. A real-options analysis of wine grape farming in north west Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Emayenesh; Chan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a use of a real-options valuation methodology to analyse wine grape farm investment under price and yield uncertainty. Revenue levels to incentivise entry and exit were calculated for three different sizes of wine grape farms in North West Victoria. The modelling identified lower exit and higher entry triggers than indicated by conventional net present value calculation. The wide gap of estimated indeterminacy in farm investment highlights the intertwined influence of numer...

  14. ‘A token of their love’: Queen Victoria Memorials in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the four metropolitan sculptural memorials to Queen Victoria in late-colonial New Zealand, which all immediately precede the colony’s Dominion status (1907). In chronological order, they were erected in Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, and Dunedin. While the Auckland memorial was unveiled within the Queen’s lifetime, her death in 1901 catalysed the commission of more ambitious counterparts in Wellington and Dunedin, and a degree of intercity rivalry was...

  15. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Yoshida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85% in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  16. Adverse events in surgical inpatients: A comparative analysis of public hospitals in Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Hauck; Xueyan Zhao; Terri Jackson

    2010-01-01

    We compare adverse event rates for surgical inpatients across 36 public hospitals in the state of Victoria, Australia, conditioning on differences in patient complexity across hospitals. We estimate separate models for elective and emergency patients which stay at least one night in hospitals, using fixed effects complementary log-log models to estimate AEs as a function of patient and episode characteristics, and hospital effects. We use 4 years of patient level administrative hospital data ...

  17. The reduction of the intrapartum still birth rate at the Queen Victoria Memorial Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, I; Chang, A; Renou, P; Wood, C

    1977-06-18

    A significant reduction in intrapartum anoxic fetal deaths has occurred at the Queen Victoria Memorial Hospital over the last ten years. The possible explanations for this include a variety of factors, which may either improve the health of the population presenting to the hospital, or improve obstetric care. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the use of fetal diagnostic techniques has contributed to the reduction of intrapartum anoxic still births.

  18. The origins of the Frente para la Victoria in Argentina (1988-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela SOSA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reconstructs the trajectory of the Frente para la Victoria in the Argentinean province of Santa Cruz between 1988 y 2003. Period during which this political force was formed, forged its main attributes and amass the political capital that allow it to reach the presidency of the Nation in 2003, position that holds to December 2015. This organization was built outside the dominant structures and groups of the provincial politics.

  19. Potentially avoidable hospitalisation for constipation in Victoria, Australia in 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Humaira; Ansari, Zahid; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2014-07-11

    When primary care of constipation fails, the patient may need emergency hospitalisation for disimpaction. This study aimed to provide population-based data on the number of unplanned admissions and the cost to the healthcare system for constipation in Victoria, Australia in financial year 2010-11. The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was examined to find the number of emergency hospital separations coded as constipation (ICD-10-AM Code K390). An estimate of costs was determined from the number of weighted inlier equivalent separations (WIES) multiplied by the WEIS price, used by the Victorian Government for funding purposes. There were 3978 emergency separations for constipation in Victoria in 2010-2011, 92% in public hospitals. Fifty-five percent were female and 38% > 75 years old. One third stayed overnight and 1/3 more than 1 day. The emergency bed day rate was 7.1 per 10,000 of population. The estimate of cost, based on WEIS, was approximately $8.3 million. Potential savings could be made by reducing the number of separations in 6 Local Government Areas (LGAs). This study shows that the burden (in number of admissions, emergency bed days and overall direct costs) in managing emergency admissions for constipation in Victoria, Australia, is very significant and likely to be similar in other developed countries. Improved primary healthcare and alternative ways to achieve faecal disimpaction without emergency admission could save the public health system a proportion of this $8.3 million.

  20. Parameterization of the inherent optical properties of Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okullo, Willy; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Sørensen, K.; Stamnes, Jakob J.; Steigen, Andreas; Stamnes, Knut

    2007-12-01

    Lake Victoria, Africa's largest freshwater lake, suffers greatly from negative changes in biomass of species of fish and also from severe eutrophication. The continuing deterioration of Lake Victoria's ecological functions has great long-term consequences for the ecosystem benefits it provides to the countries bordering its shores. However, knowledge about temporal and spatial variations of optical properties and how they relate to lake constituents is important for a number of reasons such as remote sensing, modeling of underwater light fields, and long-term monitoring of lake waters. Based on statistical analysis of data from optical measurements taken during half a year of weekly cruises in Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria, we present a three-component model for the absorption and a two-component model for the scattering of light in the UV and the visible regions of the solar spectrum along with tests of their ranges of validity. The three-component input to the model for absorption is the chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total suspended materials concentrations, and yellow substance absorption, while the two-component input to the model for scattering is the Chl-a concentration and total suspended materials.

  1. Surface faults in the gulf coastal plain between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.

    1979-01-01

    Displacement of the land surface by faulting is widespread in the Houston-Galveston region, an area which has undergone moderate to severe land subsidence associated with fluid withdrawal (principally water, and to a lesser extent, oil and gas). A causative link between subsidence and fluid extraction has been convincingly reported in the published literature. However, the degree to which fluid withdrawal affects fault movement in the Texas Gulf Coast, and the mechanism(s) by which this occurs are as yet unclear. Faults that offset the ground surface are not confined to the large (>6000-km2) subsidence “bowl” centered on Houston, but rather are common and characteristic features of Gulf Coast geology. Current observations and conclusions concerning surface faults mapped in a 35,000-km2 area between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas (which area includes the Houston subsidence bowl) may be summarized as follows: (1) Hundreds of faults cutting the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments exposed in the coastal plain have been mapped. Many faults lie well outside the Houston-Galveston region; of these, more than 10% are active, as shown by such features as displaced, fractured, and patched road surfaces, structural failure of buildings astride faults, and deformed railroad tracks. (2) Complex patterns of surface faults are common above salt domes. Both radial patterns (for example, in High Island, Blue Ridge, Clam Lake, and Clinton domes) and crestal grabens (for example, in the South Houston and Friendswood-Webster domes) have been recognized. Elongate grabens connecting several known and suspected salt domes, such as the fault zone connecting Mykawa, Friendswood-Webster, and Clear Lake domes, suggest fault development above rising salt ridges. (3) Surface faults associated with salt domes tend to be short (10 km), occur singly or in simple grabens, have gently sinuous traces, and tend to lie roughly parallel to the ENE-NE “coastwise” trend common to regional growth

  2. Examining Dimethyl Sulfide Emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D.; Hughes, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) is a sulfur-containing compound that leads to the formation of aerosols which can lead to the formation of haze and fog. Whole air samples were collected on board the NASA C-23 Sherpa aircraft during the 2017 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) over dairies and agricultural fields in the San Joaquin Valley. Analysis of the samples indicate average DMS concentrations of 23 ± 9 pptv, with a maximum concentration of 49 pptv. When compared with DMS concentrations from previous SARP missions (2009-2016), 2017 by far had the highest frequency of elevated DMS in this region. For this study, agricultural productivity of this region was analyzed to determine whether land use could be contributing to the elevated DMS. Top down and bottom up analysis of agriculture and dairies were used to determine emission rates of DMS in the San Joaquin Valley. Correlations to methane and ethanol were used to determine that DMS emissions were strongly linked to dairies, and resulted in R2 values of 0.61 and 0.43, respectively. These values indicate a strong correlation between dairies and DMS emissions. Combined with NOAA HySPLIT back trajectory data and analysis of ground air samples, results suggest that the contribution of dairies to annual DMS emissions in the San Joaquin Valley exceeds those from corn and alfalfa production.

  3. Hydrological Modelling the Middle Magdalena Valley (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, M. C.; Duque, N.; Arboleda, P.; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.; Donado-Garzon, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological distributed modeling is key point for a comprehensive assessment of the feedback between the dynamics of the hydrological cycle, climate conditions and land use. Such modeling results are markedly relevant in the fields of water resources management, natural hazards and oil and gas industry. Here, we employ TopModel (TOPography based hydrological MODEL) for the hydrological modeling of an area in the Middle Magdalena Valley (MMV), a tropical basin located in Colombia. This study is located over the intertropical convergence zone and is characterized by special meteorological conditions, with fast water fluxes over the year. It has been subject to significant land use changes, as a result of intense economical activities, i.e., and agriculture, energy and oil & gas production. The model employees a record of 12 years of daily precipitation and evapotranspiration data as inputs. Streamflow data monitored across the same time frame are used for model calibration. The latter is performed by considering data from 2000 to 2008. Model validation then relies on observations from 2009 to 2012. The robustness of our analyses is based on the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (values of this metric being 0.62 and 0.53, respectively for model calibration and validation). Our results reveal high water storage capacity in the soil, and a marked subsurface runoff, consistent with the characteristics of the soil types in the regions. A significant influence on runoff response of the basin to topographical factors represented in the model is evidenced. Our calibrated model provides relevant indications about recharge in the region, which is important to quantify the interaction between surface water and groundwater, specially during the dry season, which is more relevant in climate-change and climate-variability scenarios.

  4. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  5. Land Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  6. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  7. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  8. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  9. Infilling and flooding of the Mekong River incised valley during deglacial sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjallingii, Rik; Stattegger, Karl; Wetzel, Andreas; Van Phach, Phung

    2010-06-01

    The abrupt transition from fluvial to marine deposition of incised-valley-fill sediments retrieved from the southeast Vietnamese shelf, accurately records the postglacial transgression after 14 ka before present (BP). Valley-filling sediments consist of fluvial mud, whereas sedimentation after the transgression is characterized by shallow-marine carbonate sands. This change in sediment composition is accurately marked in high-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning records. Rapid aggradation of fluvial sediments at the river mouth nearly completely filled the Mekong incised valley prior to flooding. However, accumulation rates strongly reduced in the valley after the river-mouth system flooded and stepped back. This also affected the sediment supply to deeper parts of the southeast Vietnamese shelf. Comparison of the Mekong valley-filling with the East Asian sea-level history of sub- and inter-tidal sediment records shows that the transgressive surface preserved in the incised-valley-fill records is a robust sea-level indicator. The valley was nearly completely filled with fluvial sediments between 13.0 and 9.5 ka BP when sea-level rose rather constantly with approximately 10 mm/yr, as indicated by the East Asian sea-level record. At shallower parts of the shelf, significant sediment reworking and the establishment of estuarine conditions at the final stage of infilling complicates accurate dating of the transgressive surface. Nevertheless, incised-valley-fill records and land-based drill sites indicate a vast and rapid flooding of the shelf from the location of the modern Vietnamese coastline to the Cambodian lowlands between 9.5 ka and 8.5 ka BP. Fast flooding of this part of the shelf is related with the low shelf gradient and a strong acceleration of the East Asian sea-level rise from 34 to 9 meter below modern sea level (mbsl) corresponding to the sea-level jump of melt water pulse (MWP) 1C.

  10. THE HUMAN OCCUPATIONS OF EL MIRÓN CAVE (RAMALES DE LA VICTORIA, CANTABRIA, SPAIN DURING THE LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM/SOLUTREAN PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Guy Straus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El Mirón Cave (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria, Spain has evidence of brief visits (by hunting parties to the montane zone of the upper Asón valley in easternmost Cantabria during the Last Glacial Maximum with 14C dates ranging between 19.2-18.4 kya uncal BP. Landscapes were largely treeless (scattered pines, with varying degrees of humidity and some amelioration at the end of the sequence of seven levels. Armed with a variety of Solutrean foliate, concave base and shouldered stone points and antler sagaies, decorated with beads of shell, tooth, bone and stone, the visitors camped repeatedly at the rear of the cave vestibule, made informal hearths, hunted red deer and ibex and caught fish, and did some stone knapping of both local and high-quality non-local raw materials. This is one of relatively few montane Solutrean sites known in the Cantabrian region, where, in fact, all major Solutrean base camps are in the coastal zone.La cueva del Mirón (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria, España conserva el testimonio de breves visitas de grupos de cazadores al alto valle del Asón, en la zona más oriental de Cantabria, durante el Último Máximo Glacial, con fechas de radiocarbono que oscilan entre los 19200 y 18400 uncal BP. Durante este tiempo, el paisaje carecía casi por completo de árboles (acaso pinos dispersos, con diversos grados de humedad y una leve mejora climática al final de la secuencia de los siete niveles solutrenses. Armados con una variedad de puntas foliáceas, puntas de base cóncava y de muesca, azagayas de asta, y adornados con cuentas de concha, diente, hueso e incluso piedra, los visitantes acamparon repetidas veces al fondo del vestíbulo de la cueva, hicieron varias hogueras ocasionales, cazaron ciervos y cabras, pescaron salmones y realizaron actividades de talla con materias primas locales y con otras no locales de alta calidad. Este yacimiento es uno de los pocos yacimientos solutrenses de la región cant

  11. About the issue of monitoring method of Ararat valley soils salinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Yeghiazaryan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The short description of the agro-ameliorative situation of the Republic of Armenia, particularly, that of Ararat valley shows that the unpredictable and unmanageable process of regime procedures at this area can cause serious consequences, pushing out the agricultural golden fund of the republic from the agricultural turnover, namely the land of Ararat valley. Numerous investigations on the soil reclaimed state in Ararat valley at the Republic of Armenia reveal that they are currently in an extremely threatening condition. The result analyses show that more than 35% of Ararat valley lands of agricultural importance are in insufficiently reclaimed state, moreover the 54% of them are weakly salinized, 11,8% are averagely and strongly salinized and 34.2% are strongly salinized. The analyses of the conducted theoretical and experimental research results show that the above mentioned negative processes are promoted by the depth of the ground water allocation, which in Ararat valley fluctuates within the depth of 1 m, 1-3 m and more than 3 m. According to the distribution area the ground waters on 6,6% land areas of Ararat valley irrigated soils are allocated at the depth of 1 m, in 27,8% land areas the ground waters are allocated at the depth of 1–3 m, and in the rest of 65,6% land area waters are allocated at the depth of more than 3 m. For the prevention of the soils salinization process at Ararat valley and for the development of measures for struggling against it, the impact of ground waters installation depth, their mineralization, calculated evapo-transpiration from the soil and plants, irrigation norm, watering regime and technique, pressure nutrition caused from underground water basin and the impact of evaporation raising from the ground water surfaces on the ground waters level change in the vegetation period is evaluated in the current work. For the evaluation of the above mentioned individual factors the integral

  12. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Clara Valley is a long, narrow trough extending about 35 miles southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay where the regional alluvial-aquifer system has been a major source of water. Intensive agricultural and urban development throughout the 20th century and related ground-water development resulted in ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet and land subsidence of as much as 12.7 feet between the early 1900s and the mid-1960s. Since the 1960s, Santa Clara Valley Water District has imported surface water to meet growing demands and reduce dependence on ground-water supplies. This importation of water has resulted in a sustained recovery of the ground-water flow system. To help support effective management of the ground-water resources, a regional ground-water/surface-water flow model was developed. This model simulates the flow of ground water and surface water, changes in ground-water storage, and related effects such as land subsidence. A numerical ground-water/surface-water flow model of the Santa Clara Valley subbasin of the Santa Clara Valley was developed as part of a cooperative investigation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The model better defines the geohydrologic framework of the regional flow system and better delineates the supply and demand components that affect the inflows to and outflows from the regional ground-water flow system. Development of the model includes revisions to the previous ground-water flow model that upgraded the temporal and spatial discretization, added source-specific inflows and outflows, simulated additional flow features such as land subsidence and multi-aquifer wellbore flow, and extended the period of simulation through September 1999. The transient-state model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water data for the period 197099 and to historical subsidence for the period 198399. The regional ground-water flow system consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped

  13. Land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Justification for large land holdings at the Hanford Reservation has centered around a need for security and also as a buffer zone in the event of accidents. In recent years the importance of these large land holdings have become nationally recognized as highly desirable locations for ecological research concerning the function and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and as places to investigate the response of terrestrial ecosystems to long-term man-imposed environmental stresses. Carefully selected and protected land areas exist on the 110 square mile Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE) at Hanford. The projects described here provide supporting research for several applied projects that deal with environmental impact and land restoration. Information gained from this research has wide use and applicability to all kinds of energy technologies centered in the semi-arid shrub-steppe region of the northwestern United States. Ecological information reported includes: biotic characterization, including description of major habitats and endangered or threatened species; performances of native plant species, including determination of growth habits, nutrient requirements, and productivity; and, mineral cycling, including particularly the estimation of availability and behavior of airborne deposits to green plants

  14. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  15. An Integrated Hydrological and Water Management Study of the Entire Nile River System - Lake Victoria to Nile Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Alo, Clement; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Policelli, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    The Nile basin River system spans 3 million km(exp 2) distributed over ten nations. The eight upstream riparian nations, Ethiopia, Eretria, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Tanzania and Kenya are the source of approximately 86% of the water inputs to the Nile, while the two downstream riparian countries Sudan and Egypt, presently rely on the river's flow for most of the their needs. Both climate and agriculture contribute to the complicated nature of Nile River management: precipitation in the headwaters regions of Ethiopia and Lake Victoria is variable on a seasonal and inter-annual basis, while demand for irrigation water in the arid downstream region is consistently high. The Nile is, perhaps, one of the most difficult trans-boundary water issue in the world, and this study would be the first initiative to combine NASA satellite observations with the hydrologic models study the overall water balance in a to comprehensive manner. The cornerstone application of NASA's Earth Science Research Results under this project are the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) and the USDA Atmosphere-land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. These two complementary research results are methodologically independent methods for using NASA observations to support water resource analysis in data poor regions. Where an LDAS uses multiple sources of satellite data to inform prognostic simulations of hydrological process, ALEXI diagnoses evapotranspiration and water stress on the basis of thermal infrared satellite imagery. Specifically, this work integrates NASA Land Data Assimilation systems into the water management decision support systems that member countries of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) and Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD, located in Nairobi, Kenya) use in water resource analysis, agricultural planning, and acute drought response to support sustainable development of Nile Basin water resources. The project is motivated by the recognition that

  16. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide

  17. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  18. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  19. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  20. Hoea Ea: Land Education and Food Sovereignty in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Manulani Aluli

    2014-01-01

    This short piece offers two literal and figurative snapshots of what land education looks like in action in Hawaii. The first snapshot depicts a contemporary example of Indigenous Hawaiian taro cultivation in the Limahuli valley on the island of Kauai. The second snapshot illustrates the food sovereignty movement in Waianae, Oahu located at the…

  1. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  2. Community Response to Concentrating Solar Power in the San Luis Valley: October 9, 2008 - March 31, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B. C.; Hunter, L. M.; Kirkland, T. M.; Tierney, K. J.

    2010-06-01

    This report is about the social acceptance of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) plants in the San Luis Valley, approximately 200 miles southwest of Denver, Colorado. The research focused on social factors that may facilitate and impede the adoption and implementation of CSP. During the winter of 2008-2009, interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 CSP-related stakeholders inside and outside the Valley. Interviews focused on the perceived advantages and disadvantages of siting a hypothetical 100-MW CSP facility in the Valley, the level of community support and opposition to CSP development, and related issues, such as transmission. State policy recommendations based on the findings include developing education programs for Valley residents, integrating Valley decision makers into an energy-water-land group, providing training for Valley decision makers, offering workforce training, evaluating models of taxation, and forming landholder energy associations. In addition, the SLV could become a laboratory for new approaches to CSP facility and transmission siting decision-making. The author recommends that outside stakeholders address community concerns and engage Valley residents in CSP decisions. Engaging the residents in CSP and transmission decisions, the author says, should take parallel significance with the investment in solar technology.

  3. Evolution of size-segregated aerosol mass concentration during the Antarctic summer at Northern Foothills, Victoria Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Silvia; Bau, Sébastien; Annibaldi, Anna; Mantini, Caterina; Libani, Giulia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the Italian National Programm for Antarctic Research (PNRA), the first direct gravimetric measurements of size-segregated aerosol fractions were carried out at Faraglione Camp, ˜3-km far from the Italian station "M. Zucchelli" (Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea), during the 2014-2015 austral summer. A six-stage high-volume cascade impactor with size classes between 10 μm and 0.49 μm, and, in parallel, for comparison purposes, a PM10 high-volume sampler (50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm) were used. A 10-day sampling strategy was adopted. Aerosol mass measurements were carried out before and after exposure by using a microbalance specifically designed for the filter weight and placed inside a glove bag in order to maintain stable temperature and humidity conditions during weighing sessions. Measured atmospheric concentrations (referred to the "actual air conditions" of mean temperature of 268 K and mean pressure of 975 hPa) of size-segregated aerosol fractions showed the following values, given as size range, means (interquartile range): Dp range 0.1-1.0 μm) and two coarse modes (CM1 in the range 1.0-3.0 μm, and CM2 in the range 3.0-10 μm). From 50% to 90% of the PM10 mass comes from particles of a size smaller than 1.0 μm. The two coarse modes represented from ˜5% to ˜35% of the PM10, showing opposite seasonal trends (CM1 decreased while CM2 increased). During summer, PM10 mass concentration increased to a maximum of ˜1.6 μg m-3 at mid-December, while in January it decreased to values that are typical of November. Both accumulation and upper super-micron fractions showed a maximum in the same period contributing to the PM10 peak of mid-summer.

  4. 75 FR 6257 - Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and Roane Counties, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and... Watts Bar Reservoir in Tennessee. On November 19, 2009, the TVA Board of Directors (TVA Board) decided... the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) for the Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan...

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  6. Potentially avoidable hospitalisation for constipation in Victoria, Australia in 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background When primary care of constipation fails, the patient may need emergency hospitalisation for disimpaction. This study aimed to provide population-based data on the number of unplanned admissions and the cost to the healthcare system for constipation in Victoria, Australia in financial year 2010–11. Methods The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was examined to find the number of emergency hospital separations coded as constipation (ICD-10-AM Code K390). An estimate of costs was determined from the number of weighted inlier equivalent separations (WIES) multiplied by the WEIS price, used by the Victorian Government for funding purposes. Results There were 3978 emergency separations for constipation in Victoria in 2010–2011, 92% in public hospitals. Fifty-five percent were female and 38% > 75 years old. One third stayed overnight and 1/3 more than 1 day. The emergency bed day rate was 7.1 per 10,000 of population. The estimate of cost, based on WEIS, was approximately $8.3 million. Potential savings could be made by reducing the number of separations in 6 Local Government Areas (LGAs). Conclusions This study shows that the burden (in number of admissions, emergency bed days and overall direct costs) in managing emergency admissions for constipation in Victoria, Australia, is very significant and likely to be similar in other developed countries. Improved primary healthcare and alternative ways to achieve faecal disimpaction without emergency admission could save the public health system a proportion of this $8.3 million. PMID:25015386

  7. Malaria vectors in Lake Victoria and adjacent habitats in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Minakawa

    Full Text Available The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control.

  8. Hydrological functioning of West-African inland valleys explored with a critical zone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Cohard, J. M.; Séguis, L.; Peugeot, C.; Galle, S.

    2017-12-01

    In west Africa, recurrent floods are still a major issue, and hydropower has been recognized as an important development pathway. Furthermore, inland valleys carry an important agronomic potential, which could meet the necessary increase of the crop production associated with the strong demographic rates of the region. This can lead to land cover and subsequent hydrologic changes. However, the hydrological role of the inland valleys in the humid, hard rock-dominated Sudanian area is not yet well understood, specifically for streamflow (Q) generation processes. We address both the questions of the hydrological functioning of inland valleys in the Sudanian area of West-Africa and the impact of land cover changes on these systems through deterministic sensitivity experiments using a physically-based critical zone model (ParFlow-CLM) applied on a synthetic catchment which comprises an inland valley. The conceptual lithological/pedological model for the catchment includes the main features of such a hydrological elementary unit derived from the literature and from a previously published model based on data from a highly instrumented elementary catchment. Model forcings and parameters are based on data from the AMMA-CATCH observation service and multiple field experiments. We found yearly water budgets were much more sensitive to vegetation distribution than lithology features of the inland valley (presence of the low permeability layer commonly found below the inland valley and the hydrodynamic properties of upstream and lateral areas). Yearly evapotranspiration budget between a fully tree-covered and an herbaceous-covered catchment increases between 6 and 21% of the precipitation of the year (depending on the tested cases) which reduces considerably the yearly streamflow budgets ( 30%). On the other hand, the lithology distribution has clear impacts on the spatial distribution of water storage dynamics.

  9. The Pocatello Valley, Idaho, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. M.; Langer, C.J.; Bucknam, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A Richter magnitude 6.3 earthquake occurred at 8:31 p.m mountain daylight time on March 27, 1975, near the Utah-Idaho border in Pocatello Valley. The epicenter of the main shock was located at 42.094° N, 112.478° W, and had a focal depth of 5.5 km. This earthquake was the largest in the continental United States since the destructive San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. The main shock was preceded by a magnitude 4.5 foreshock on March 26. 

  10. Radwaste challenge at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Duquesne Light Company met the problem of accumulating low-level radioactive waste at its Beaver Valley nuclear plant with an aggressive program to reduce the quantity of contaminated material and demonstrate that the plant was improving its radiological protection. There was also an economic incentive to reduce low-level wastes. The imaginative campaign involved workers in the reduction effort through training and the adoption of practical approaches to reducing the amount of material exposed to radiation that include sorting trash by radiation level and a compacting system. 4 figures

  11. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  12. Reconstruction of Late Pleistocene Paleoenvironments using bulk geochemistry of paleosols from the Lake Victoria Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Emily J.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Driese, Steven G.; Blegen, Nick; Faith, J. Tyler; Tryon, Christian A.; Stinchcomb, Gary E.

    2017-11-01

    The impact of changing environments on the evolution and dispersal of Homo sapiens is highly debated, but few data are available from equatorial Africa. Lake Victoria is the largest freshwater lake in the tropics and is currently a biogeographic barrier between the eastern and western branches of the East African Rift. The lake has previously desiccated at 17 ka and again at 15 ka, but little is known from this region prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. The Pleistocene terrestrial deposits on the northeast coast of Lake Victoria (94 to 36 ka) are ideal for paleoenvironmental reconstructions where volcaniclastic deposits (tuffs), fluvial deposits, tufa, and paleosols are exposed, which can be used to reconstruct Critical Zones (CZ) of the past (paleo-CZs). The paleo-CZ is a holistic concept that reconstructs the entire landscape using geologic records of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere (the focus of this study). New paleosol-based mean annual precipitation (MAP) proxies from Karungu, Rusinga Island, and Mfangano Island indicate an average MAP of 750108 mm yr-1 (CALMAG), 800182 mm yr-1 (CIA-K), and 1010228 mm yr-1 (PPM1.0) with no statistical difference throughout the 11 m thick sequence. This corresponds to between 54 and 72% of modern precipitation. Tephras bracketing these paleosols have been correlated across seven sites, and sample a regional paleo-CZ across a 55 km transect along the eastern shoreline of the modern lake. Given the sensitivity of Lake Victoria to precipitation, it is likely that the lake was significantly smaller than modern between 94 ka and 36 ka. This would have removed a major barrier for the movement of fauna (including early modern humans) and provided a dispersal corridor across the equator and between the rifts. It is also consistent with the associated fossil faunal assemblage indicative of semi-arid grasslands. During the Late Pleistocene, the combined geologic and paleontological evidence suggests a

  13. A review of mercury in Lake Victoria, East Africa: implications for human and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda; Dixon, D G; Hecky, R E

    2003-01-01

    Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the site of many recent studies measuring mercury (Hg) concentrations in water, fish, sediment, soil, and humans. Most of these studies were motivated by concerns about Hg contamination from processing of gold ore on the southern shores. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in fish were usually below permissible World Health Organization (WHO) concentrations and international marketing limits and do not threaten the lucrative export industry. Nile perch 3-10 kg and most >10 kg had THg concentrations above the WHO threshold concentrations for at-risk groups (200 ng/g). Elevated THg concentrations in large Nile perch are not of major concern because Nile perch are rarely consumed by the people living on Lake Victoria and very large Nile perch are becoming increasingly rare in catches. Water THg concentrations were below Canadian drinking water guidelines but were elevated relative to those in the northern Great Lakes. Sediment and soil THg concentrations were within inter-national guidelines and are comparable to those in northern latitudes but are lower than those in the Amazon basin. Biomass burning and soil erosion are estimated to be the major sources of THg for the lake and probably constitute a larger source of THg than gold mining in Tanzania.THg concentrations in urine and hair from human volunteers indicate that while gold miners and frequent skin-bleaching cream users are at risk of inorganic mercury poisoning, the rest of the population, including fishermen, is not. Human exposure assessments demonstrated that fish consumption and soil geophagy constitute major sources of THg for humans, but the total estimated daily intake of THg was below the Health Canada tolerable daily intake (TDI) limits. The use of beauty creams containing high inorganic Hg concentrations, however, caused the estimated THg exposure to exceed the TDI. The high THg content in the hair of regular cream users supports this assessment. The nutritional

  14. Birth centre confinement at the Queen Victoria Medical Centre. I. Obstetric and neonatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J; Hudson, H; Lumley, J; Morris, N; Rao, J; Spensley, J

    1981-10-03

    A review of hte first 175 confinements at the Queen Victoria Medical Centre Birth Centre is presented. The design, structure and function of hte Birth Centre is described and the safety of the programme demonstrated. Seventy-four pregnancies (42%) accepted for Birth Centre confinement required transfer because of antepartum or intrapartum complications. There were satisfactory obstetric and neonatal outcomes in all pregnancies. The first year's experience has allowed a reassessment of the risk factors, which will permit greater use of the Birth Centre without any increases risk to mothers or babies.

  15. Birth centre confinement at the Queen Victoria Medical Centre: four years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N; Campbell, J; Biro, M A; Lumley, J; Rao, J; Spensley, J

    1986-06-09

    A review of the first four years of the functioning of the birth centre at the Queen Victoria Medical Centre is presented. In that time, 1040 pregnant women were accepted for confinement there. Of these, 52 withdrew for non-obstetric reasons, while 470 were transferred to alternative obstetrical care--274 because of antepartum complications and 196 because of intrapartum problems. Therefore, 518 women were delivered in the birth centre. The care of the women is entrusted almost entirely to a team of midwives and this review demonstrates an enviable safety record.

  16. Gambling revenues as a public administration issue: electronic gaming machines in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickernell, David; Keast, Robyn; Brown, Kerry; Yousefpour, Nina; Miller, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Gambling activities and the revenues derived have been seen as a way to increase economic development in deprived areas. There are also, however, concerns about the effects of gambling in general and electronic gaming machines (EGMs) in particular, on the resources available to the localities in which they are situated. This paper focuses on the factors that determine the extent and spending of community benefit-related EGM-generated resources within Victoria, Australia, focusing in particular on the relationships between EGM activity and socio-economic and social capital indicators, and how this relates to the community benefit resources generated by gaming.

  17. Health (Radiation Safety) Act 1983 (Victoria) No. 9889 of 17 May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Act amends the Health Act 1958 by adding a new Section entitled ''Radiation Safety''. In addition to establishing guidelines for the registration and licensing of certain radiation apparatus and sealed radioactive sources, this new Section authorises the Governor in Council to make regulations concerning, inter alia, transport and disposal of radioactive substances and public health and safety. The Act also sets up a Radiation Advisory Committee and a Radiographers and Radiation Technologists Registration Board of Victoria and amends the Nuclear Activities (Prohibitions) Act 1983 in respect of certain licensing provisions. (NEA) [fr

  18. Reconstruction of Late Pleistocene Paleoenvironments Using Bulk Geochemistry of Paleosols from the Lake Victoria Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Beverly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of changing environments on the evolution and dispersal of Homo sapiens is highly debated, but few data are available from equatorial Africa. Lake Victoria is the largest freshwater lake in the tropics and is currently a biogeographic barrier between the eastern and western branches of the East African Rift. The lake has previously desiccated at ~17 ka and again at ~15 ka, but little is known from this region prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. The Pleistocene terrestrial deposits on the northeast coast of Lake Victoria (94–36 ka are ideal for paleoenvironmental reconstructions where volcaniclastic deposits (tuffs, fluvial deposits, tufa, and paleosols are exposed, which can be used to reconstruct Critical Zones (CZ of the past (paleo-CZs. The paleo-CZ is a holistic concept that reconstructs the entire landscape using geologic records of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere (the focus of this study. New paleosol-based mean annual precipitation (MAP proxies from Karungu, Rusinga Island, and Mfangano Island indicate an average MAP of 750 ± 108 mm year−1 (CALMAG, 800 ± 182 mm year−1 (CIA-K, and 1,010 ± 228 mm year−1 (PPM1.0 with no statistical difference throughout the 11 m thick sequence. This corresponds to between 54 and 72% of modern precipitation. Tephras bracketing these paleosols have been correlated across seven sites, and sample a regional paleo-CZ across a ~55 km transect along the eastern shoreline of the modern lake. Given the sensitivity of Lake Victoria to precipitation, it is likely that the lake was significantly smaller than modern between 94 and 36 ka. This would have removed a major barrier for the movement of fauna (including early modern humans and provided a dispersal corridor across the equator and between the rifts. It is also consistent with the associated fossil faunal assemblage indicative of semi-arid grasslands. During the Late Pleistocene, the combined geologic and

  19. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  20. Examining Spatiotemporal Urbanization Patterns in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Bahadur Thapa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization in Kathmandu Valley using remote sensing and spatial metrics techniques. The study is based on 33-years of time series data compiled from satellite images. Along with new developments within the city fringes and rural villages in the valley, shifts in the natural environment and newly developed socioeconomic strains between residents are emerging. A highly dynamic spatial pattern of urbanization is observed in the valley. Urban built-up areas had a slow trend of growth in the 1960s and 1970s but have grown rapidly since the 1980s. The urbanization process has developed fragmented and heterogeneous land use combinations in the valley. However, the refill type of development process in the city core and immediate fringe areas has shown a decreasing trend in the neighborhood distances between land use patches, and an increasing trend towards physical connectedness, which indicates a higher probability of homogenous landscape development in the upcoming decades.

  1. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  2. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  3. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  4. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cherie J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. La construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (1988-1991 Frente para la Victoria's construction of legitimacy (1988-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Sosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda la construcción de legitimidad del Frente para la Victoria (FV en el escenario político de Santa Cruz desde su nacimiento en 1988 hasta llegar a la gobernación en 1991. Se identifican tres fuentes de legitimidad construidas de manera alternativa al debilitamiento de la credibilidad de los partidos políticos tradicionales: la UCR, el PJ, el PI y el MID, entre otros. En este contexto, el Frente para la Victoria desplegó sus estrategias de legitimación apelando a la unidad de lo diverso y sumando referentes individuales de todo el arco político. Por otro lado, apeló a través de sus discursos y la conformación de los elencos y organizaciones a representar la fragmentación social propia de una sociedad compuesta por capas migratorias y, por último, construyó una novedosa oferta política a-partidaria acorde a las representaciones de la crisis estatal a mediados del '80 a partir de la reivindicación de los valores de la gestión, la eficiencia, el orden, el trabajo y la gobernabilidad. Sus estrategias de legitimación muestran cómo la primera etapa de construcción de poder político del FV fue efecto de su trayectoria en la frontera de los débiles grupos sociales y políticos.O trabalho aborda a construção de legitimidade do Frente para la Victoria (FV no cenário político de Santa Cruz desde seu nascimento em 1988 até chegar ao governo em 1991. Identificam-se três fontes de legitimidade construídas de maneira alternativa ao enfraquecimento da credibilidade dos partidos políticos tradicionais: a UCR, o PJ, o PI e o MID, entre outros. Neste contexto, o Frente para la Victoria desdobrou suas estratégias de legitimação apelando à unidade do que for diverso e somando referências individuais de todo o arco político. Por outro lado, apelou, através de seus discursos e a conformação dos elencos e organizações, a representar a fragmentação social própria de uma sociedade composta por camadas migrat

  6. Crop intensification options and trade-offs with the water balance in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debas, Mezegebu

    2016-01-01

    The Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia is a closed basin for which claims on land and water have strongly increased over the past decade resulting in over-exploitation of the resources. A clear symptom is the declining trend in the water level of the terminal Lake Abyata. The actual

  7. 78 FR 7808 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Buffalo Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Mount Lewis Field Office, Battle Mountain, Nevada, intends to... Buffalo Valley Mine Project, a proposed open pit gold mine, mill, and associated facilities, located on..._mountain_field.html . In order to be considered during the preparation of the Draft EIS, all comments must...

  8. 78 FR 43224 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Sun Valley to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ....XXX; AZA35079] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Sun... Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Sun..., operate, and maintain a 500/230-kV overhead transmission line from the Sun Valley Substation to the Morgan...

  9. Influence of the Pearl River estuary and vertical mixing in Victoria Harbor on water quality in relation to eutrophication impacts in Hong Kong waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J

    2007-06-01

    This study presents water quality parameters such as nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and dissolved oxygen based on 11 years of water quality data in Victoria Harbor and examined how the Pearl River estuary discharge in summer and year round sewage discharge influenced these parameters. Nutrients in Victoria Harbor were strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent, as indicated by the high NO(3) inputs from the Pearl River in summer and higher NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbor than both its sides. N:P ratios were low in the dry season, but increased to >16:1 in the wet season, suggesting that P is potentially the most limiting nutrient in this area during the critical period in the summer. Although there were generally high nutrients, the phytoplankton biomass was not as high as one would expect in Victoria Harbor. In fact, there were high concentrations of chl near the bottom well below the photic zone. Salinity near the bottom was lower in Victoria Harbor than at the two entrances to Victoria Harbor, suggesting strong vertical mixing within Victoria Harbor. Therefore, strong vertical mixing and horizontal advection appear to play an important role in significantly reducing eutrophication impacts in Victoria Harbor. Consequently, dissolved oxygen near the bottom was low in summer, but only occasionally dipped to 2 mgL(-1) despite the high organic loading from sewage effluent.

  10. Three Licentiates of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh who were decorated with the Victoria Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M H

    2011-08-01

    Since the Victoria Cross was introduced in January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour in the face of the enemy, initially during the Crimean War, over 1350 medals have been awarded. Of these, three were awarded to medical officers who had previously gained the Licentiate Diploma of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (LRCS Edin) - Valentine Munbee McMaster on 25 September 1857, Henry Thomas Sylvester on 20 November 1857 (although the acts of valour for which he was awarded his VC occurred on two occasions in September 1855) and Campbell Mellis (or Millis) Douglas on 7 May 1867.

  11. The spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chloe Wing-yee; Ip, Carman Ching-man; Zhang Gan; Shin, Paul K.S.; Qian Peiyuan; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    Victoria Harbour has received substantial loadings of pollutants from industrial and municipal wastewater discharged since the 1950s. Inputs of contaminants have declined dramatically during the last two decades as a result of better controls at the source and improved wastewater treatment facilities. To assess the spatial and temporal changes of metal contaminants in sediments in Victoria Harbour, core and grab sediments were collected. The central harbour areas were generally contaminated with heavy metals. The spatial distribution of trace metals can probably be attributed to the proximity of major urban and industrial discharge points, and to the effect of tidal flushing in the harbour. In the sediment cores, the highest concentrations of trace metals were observed to have accumulated during the 1950s-1980s, corresponding with the period of rapid urban and industrial development in Hong Kong. From the late 1980s, there has been a major decline in the concentrations of trace metals, due to a reduction in industrial activities and to the enactment of wastewater pollution controls in the territory. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sediments revealed the anthropogenic inputs of Pb to the harbour. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios varied from 1.154 to 1.190, which were lower than those of background geological materials in Hong Kong ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb: 1.201-1.279). The data also indicated that the Pb in the harbour sediments most likely originated from mixed sources, including the leaded gasoline used in the past and other anthropogenic sources

  12. Reconstruction of a semi-arid late Pleistocene paleocatena from the Lake Victoria region, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Emily J.; Driese, Steven G.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Arellano, L. Nicole; Blegen, Nick; Faith, J. Tyler; Tryon, Christian A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of changing environment on the evolution of Homo sapiens is heavily debated, but few data are available from equatorial Africa prior to the last glacial maximum. The Karungu deposits on the northeast coast of Lake Victoria are ideal for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and are best studied at the Kisaaka site near Karunga in Kenya (94 to > 33 ka) where paleosols, fluvial deposits, tufa, and volcaniclastic deposits (tuffs) are exposed over a 2 km transect. Three well-exposed and laterally continuous paleosols with intercalated tuffs allow for reconstruction of a succession of paleocatenas. The oldest paleosol is a smectitic paleo-Vertisol with saline and sodic properties. Higher in the section, the paleosols are tuffaceous paleo-Inceptisols with Alfisol-like soil characteristics (illuviated clay). Mean annual precipitation (MAP) proxies indicate little change through time, with an average of 764 ± 108 mm yr- 1 for Vertisols (CALMAG) and 813 ± 182 to 963 ± 182 mm yr- 1 for all paleosols (CIA-K). Field observations and MAP proxies suggest that Karungu was significantly drier than today, consistent with the associated faunal assemblage, and likely resulted in a significantly smaller Lake Victoria during the late Pleistocene. Rainfall reduction and associated grassland expansion may have facilitated human and faunal dispersals across equatorial East Africa.

  13. Out of the ashes: the new bachelor of midwifery curriculum at Victoria University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary; Kruger, Gina; Brown, Vera

    2007-09-01

    In the past decade, midwifery education has changed significantly in Australia. Previously, a nursing qualification (division 1) was required for entry into midwifery programs and on completion, graduands obtained a postgraduate diploma of midwifery. More recently, bachelor of midwifery programs have also been offered in Australia and currently, a considerable percentage of midwives are prepared for practice in this way. In Victoria, the bachelor of midwifery has been available since 2002, and at this time the third group of graduands are poised to enter the field. Implementation of the bachelor of midwifery program has given rise to many concerns about the development and applicability of this course. Concerns include: complexities of registration with a regulatory board set up primarily for nursing registration; concerns about readiness for practice among bachelor of midwifery graduands; escalating requirements within midwifery courses; and difficulties with meeting course requirements. As this course comes of age in Victoria, it is useful to reflect on some of the challenges encountered along the way. Thus, this paper reports on the journey of one university as it approaches the end of a first year of implementing an independent bachelor of midwifery program, following 5 years involvement as a consortium partner. In particular, it addresses concerns and difficulties encountered during early implementation of the program and then outlines strategies used to improve and strengthen the course. The basic premise of the paper is lessons learnt along the way.

  14. Design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to conceptually design a small, inherently safe, quasi-homogeneous nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope. This research is in its early stages. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background of the research, present results found to date, and indicate the direction of the research over the next two years. The Canadian Forces has recently acquired four U.K. built Upholder Class submarines to replace the ageing Oberon Class submarines purchased in the early 1960's. The Upholders, like the Oberons, are diesel-electric powered. The Upholders were renamed the Victoria Class upon commissioning in Canada. Submarines are strategic military weapons that have several roles including: intelligence gathering, inflicting surprise attacks, controlling shipping lanes and covert operations. For each of these roles the submarine must remain undetected. To remain undetected, it is imperative that the submarine remains submerged. To remain submerged and continue to function, a submarine requires an air-independent power generation system, such as a nuclear reactor. (author)

  15. Hidden Valley Search at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Verducci, M

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.

  16. Potential future land use threats to California's protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara Sue; Sleeter, Benjamin Michael; Davis, Adam Wilkinson

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressures from land use coupled with future changes in climate will present unique challenges for California’s protected areas. We assessed the potential for future land use conversion on land surrounding existing protected areas in California’s twelve ecoregions, utilizing annual, spatially explicit (250 m) scenario projections of land use for 2006–2100 based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios to examine future changes in development, agriculture, and logging. We calculated a conversion threat index (CTI) for each unprotected pixel, combining land use conversion potential with proximity to protected area boundaries, in order to identify ecoregions and protected areas at greatest potential risk of proximal land conversion. Our results indicate that California’s Coast Range ecoregion had the highest CTI with competition for extractive logging placing the greatest demand on land in close proximity to existing protected areas. For more permanent land use conversions into agriculture and developed uses, our CTI results indicate that protected areas in the Central California Valley and Oak Woodlands are most vulnerable. Overall, the Eastern Cascades, Central California Valley, and Oak Woodlands ecoregions had the lowest areal percent of protected lands and highest conversion threat values. With limited resources and time, rapid, landscape-level analysis of potential land use threats can help quickly identify areas with higher conversion probability of future land use and potential changes to both habitat and potential ecosystem reserves. Given the broad range of future uncertainties, LULC projections are a useful tool allowing land managers to visualize alternative landscape futures, improve planning, and optimize management practices.

  17. Distribution ozone concentration in Klang Valley using GIS approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A.; Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Latif, M. T.; Ahmad, F.; Wahid, M. A. Abdul; Ibrahim, M. A.; Halim, N. D. Abdul

    2017-05-01

    Today, ozone has become one of the main air pollutants in Malaysia. The high ozone precursor concentrations have been encouraging the ozone production. The development of the Klang Valley, Malaysia has many types of physical activities such as urban commercial, industrial area, settlement area and others, which has increased the risk of atmospheric pollution. The purpose of this paper is to determine the spatial distribution between types of land use and ozone concentration that are occurred in the year 2014. The study areas for this paper include Shah Alam, Kajang, Petaling Jaya and Port Klang. Distribution of ozone concentration will be showed via spatial analysis tools in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approached and the types of land use will be extracted using Remote Sensing technique. The result showed 97 ppb (parts-per-billion, 10-9) and 161 ppb recorded at Port Klang and Shah Alam respectively that are mainly represented by the settlement area. Therefore, the physical land use need to be monitor and controlled by the government in order to make sure the ozone production for daily per hour will not exceed the regulation allowed.

  18. Distribution ozone concentration in Klang Valley using GIS approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, A; Ab Rahman, A A; Abdul Maulud, K N; Abdul Wahid, M A; Ibrahim, M A; Latif, M T; Abdul Halim, N D; Ahmad, F

    2017-01-01

    Today, ozone has become one of the main air pollutants in Malaysia. The high ozone precursor concentrations have been encouraging the ozone production. The development of the Klang Valley, Malaysia has many types of physical activities such as urban commercial, industrial area, settlement area and others, which has increased the risk of atmospheric pollution. The purpose of this paper is to determine the spatial distribution between types of land use and ozone concentration that are occurred in the year 2014. The study areas for this paper include Shah Alam, Kajang, Petaling Jaya and Port Klang. Distribution of ozone concentration will be showed via spatial analysis tools in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approached and the types of land use will be extracted using Remote Sensing technique. The result showed 97 ppb (parts-per-billion, 10 -9 ) and 161 ppb recorded at Port Klang and Shah Alam respectively that are mainly represented by the settlement area. Therefore, the physical land use need to be monitor and controlled by the government in order to make sure the ozone production for daily per hour will not exceed the regulation allowed. (paper)

  19. Internal Migration and Land Use and Land Cover Changes in the Middle Mountains of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana KC

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The movement of rural households from remote uplands to valley floors and to semiurban and urban areas (internal migration is a common phenomenon in the middle mountain districts of Nepal. Understanding the causes and effects of internal migration is critical to the development and implementation of policies that promote land use planning and sustainable resource management. Using geospatial information technologies and social research methods, we investigated the causes and effects of internal migration on land use and land cover patterns in a western mountain district of Nepal between 1998 and 2013. The results show a decreasing number of households at high elevations (above 1400 m, where an increase in forest cover has been observed with a consequent decrease in agricultural land and shrub- or grassland. At lower elevations (below 1400 m, forest cover has remained constant over the last 25 years, and the agricultural land area has increased but has become geometrically complex to meet the diverse needs and living requirements of the growing population. Our findings indicate that internal migration plays an important role in shaping land use and land cover change in the middle mountains of Nepal and largely determines the resource management, utilization, and distribution patterns within a small geographic unit. Therefore, land use planning must take an integrated and interdisciplinary approach rather than considering social, environmental, and demographic information in isolation.

  20. Molecular records of climate variability and vegetation response since the Late Pleistocene in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berke, M.A.; Johnson, T.C.; Werne, J.P.; Grice, K.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    New molecular proxies of temperature and hydrology are helping to constrain tropical climate change and elucidate possible forcing mechanisms during the Holocene. Here, we examine a similar to 14,000 year record of climate variability from Lake Victoria, East Africa, the world's second largest

  1. Possible implications of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease for malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould in the north-west of Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandell, P.

    1999-01-01

    Parks Victoria and the Department of Natural Resources & Environment (NRE) are collaborating with agencies from the other States and the Commonwealth of Australia in a national program of detailed monitoring and surveillance of the effects of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). A component of the

  2. Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly St. Julian-Varnon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Victoria Khiterer. Jewish City or Inferno of Russian Israel? A History of the Jews in Kiev Before February 1917. Academic Studies Press, 2016. Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe and Their Legacy, series editor, Maxim D. Shrayer. xx, 474 pp. Illustrations. Tables. Maps. Appendix. Bibliography. Index. $89.00, cloth.

  3. Language in the Workplace Project and Workplace Communication for Skilled Migrants Course at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia; Holmes, Janet; Joe, Angela; Marra, Meredith; Newton, Jonathan; Riddiford Nicky; Vine, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies (LALS) at Victoria University of Wellington conducts research and teaching in Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, Writing and Deaf Studies. It incorporates a Deaf Studies Research Unit, which undertakes research on topics relating to deaf people and their language in New Zealand, and the New…

  4. The Development and Use of Individual Learning Plans for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual Learning…

  5. Marching Backwards into the Future: The Introduction of the English Creative Music Movement in State Secondary Schools in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In 1910, Victoria established an elite form of state secondary education that remained essentially unchanged until the introduction of a progressive curriculum during the late 1960s. This radical and voluntary curriculum introduced child-centred learning and personal development skills to state secondary schools. Many state secondary music…

  6. The Meaning of ‘General Paralysis of the Insane’ in Victoria, Australia; 1886 to 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts, Phillip

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conclusion to the meaning of the historical diagnosis “general paralysis of the insane” in nineteenth century Victorian Registrar General”s reports. Most studies suggest that in the past the diagnosis refers to neuro-syphilis, and while after 1906 this is not disputed, this paper will show that the diagnosis had a much broader meaning incorporating many forms of degenerative brain disease during the study period (Victoria 1886 to 1906. It is acknowledged, however, that the use of this diagnosis may have varied dramatically in the past based on a doctor’s education and/or background. This conclusion has been arrived at by analysing both government and general hospital records on the Australian, Victorian population. This paper also presents methods for determining the meaning of obsolete medical diagnoses where the definition is poorly understood.En este trabajo presenta una conclusión sobre el significado de la “parálisis general de los locos” como diagnóstico en los informes del Victorian Registrar General durante el siglo XIX. La mayoría de los estudios sugieren que en el pasado el diagnóstico se refiere a la neuro-sífilis, y aunque después de 1906 no se discute, este trabajo mostrará que el diagnóstico tiene un significado mucho más amplio e incorpora muchas formas de enfermedad degenerativa del cerebro durante el período de estudio (Victoria 1886 a 1906. Se reconoce, sin embargo, que el uso de este diagnóstico puede haber variado drásticamente en el pasado dependiendo de la formación y del ambiente médico. Se ha llegado a esta conclusión mediante el análisis de los registros hospitalarios de la población de Victoria, Australia. Este documento también presenta métodos para determinar el significado de los diagnósticos médicos obsoletos cuya definición es confusa.

  7. Poética de la autotraducción: María Victoria Atencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Martínez, María Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-translation is an ancient but poorly researched practice. This article analyses an exceptional case: the reflection on self-translation as exposed in poetry. A case in point is the poem «Voz traducida», from the poetry collection De la llama en que arde (1988. Indeed, the poem selected for examination was written by M.ª Victoria Atencia (Málaga, 1931, an expert both in writing poetry and in translating literature. Her book of poems also contains an original text, «Rosas», in Galician, and its corresponding Spanish translation. Both translation and reflection are complementary in her compositions. These poetic creations attest to the fact that artfulness works as a depiction of the next creation. Furthermore, this study will deeply explore the poet’s most important literary thoughts.La autotraducción es una práctica antigua, pero poco estudiada. El presente artículo analiza un caso excepcional: la reflexión sobre la autotraducción expuesta en la lírica. Para ello, se analiza el poema de M.ª Victoria Atencia «Voz traducida», perteneciente al libro titulado De la llama en que arde (1988. Es un ejemplo de que la tarea de traducir funciona como un motivo que origina una nueva creación. Además, permite que el lector conozca facetas importantes del pensamiento literario de la escritora. M.ª Victoria Atencia, además de poeta, es una experta traductora. El libro contiene también dos versiones del poema «Rosas», en gallego y en español, pruebas de la dimensión práctica de los planteamientos teóricos de la autora y de su coherencia estética. Ambas facetas, la traducción y la reflexión, son complementarias en la obra de la autora.

  8. A decreasing trend in fall-related hip fracture incidence in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, E; Clapperton, A

    2013-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hip fracture hospitalisations decreased significantly by 25% over the period 1998/1999-2008/2009. Significant decreases in fall-related hip fractures were observed in males and females, across all 5-year age groups, in Australian-born and overseas-born Victorians, in all socio-economic quintiles and in community-dwelling older people. The study aim was to investigate trends in the incidence of fall-related and hip fracture hospitalisations among Victorians aged 65 years and older overall and by age, gender, country of birth, socio-economic status (SES) and location of the event (home, residential care institution, etc.) over the 11-year period 1998/1999 to 2008/2009. Annual counts and age-standardised rates for fall-related hospitalisations among people aged 65 years and older were estimated using Victorian hospital admissions data. The statistical significance of changes in trends over time were analysed using a log-linear regression model of the rate data assuming a Poisson distribution of cases. Although the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hospitalisations increased significantly by 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 18%) in Victoria, the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hip fracture hospitalisations decreased from 600/100,000 in 1998/1999 to 467/100,000 in 2008/2009 - an estimated overall reduction of 25% (95% CI, -29% to -22%). By contrast, the age-standardised incidence of fall-related hospitalisations for fractures at other body sites either increased significantly or showed no significant change. Significant decreases in fall-related hip fractures were observed in both males and females, across all 5-year age groups, in both Australian-born and overseas-born Victorians, in all socio-economic quintiles and in community-dwelling older people but not in people living in residential care facilities. Despite the downward trend in the age-standardised incidence of

  9. Risk management in Aburra Valley. A long - ranch history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soc Francoise Coupe

    2011-01-01

    Risk management in Medellin and the Aburra Valley has been transformed over the past 80 years. Until the early 80s, disaster were seen as random events requiring attention and the risk that blended with the threat, was addressed to the extent that it affected the processes of urbanization. A noticeable change has been reported associated with the occurrence of major tragedies in Colombia and supported enactment of legislation to introduce new regulations and leading to land use according to planning process, especially in urban areas. This process can identify changes in the conception of risk, the importance given to environmental issues, the alternatives considering intervention, the process of participation and the interinstitution work.

  10. Sleeping sickness and its relationship with development and biodiversity conservation in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil E; Mubanga, Joseph; Machila, Noreen; Atkinson, Peter M; Dzingirai, Vupenyu; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-04-15

    The Luangwa Valley has a long historical association with Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and is a recognised geographical focus of this disease. It is also internationally acclaimed for its high biodiversity and contains many valuable habitats. Local inhabitants of the valley have developed sustainable land use systems in co-existence with wildlife over centuries, based on non-livestock keeping practices largely due to the threat from African Animal Trypanosomiasis. Historical epidemics of human sleeping sickness have influenced how and where communities have settled and have had a profound impact on development in the Valley. Historical attempts to control trypanosomiasis have also had a negative impact on conservation of biodiversity.Centralised control over wildlife utilisation has marginalised local communities from managing the wildlife resource. To some extent this has been reversed by the implementation of community based natural resource management programmes in the latter half of the 20(th) century and the Luangwa Valley provides some of the earliest examples of such programmes. More recently, there has been significant uncontrolled migration of people into the mid-Luangwa Valley driven by pressure on resources in the eastern plateau region, encouragement from local chiefs and economic development in the tourist centre of Mfuwe. This has brought changing land-use patterns, most notably agricultural development through livestock keeping and cotton production. These changes threaten to alter the endemically stable patterns of HAT transmission and could have significant impacts on ecosystem health and ecosystem services.In this paper we review the history of HAT in the context of conservation and development and consider the impacts current changes may have on this complex social-ecological system. We conclude that improved understanding is required to identify specific circumstances where win-win trade-offs can be achieved between the conservation of

  11. InSAR to support sustainable urbanization over compacting aquifers: The case of Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Garfias, Jaime; Martel, Richard; Brouard, Charles; Rivera, Alfonso

    2017-12-01

    This paper illustrates how InSAR alone can be used to delineate potential ground fractures related to aquifer system compaction. An InSAR-derived ground fracturing map of the Toluca Valley, Mexico, is produced and validated through a field campaign. The results are of great interest to support sustainable urbanization and show that InSAR processing of open-access Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the Sentinel-1 satellites can lead to reliable and cost-effective products directly usable by cities to help decision-making. The Toluca Valley Aquifer (TVA) sustains the water needs of two million inhabitants living within the valley, a growing industry, an intensively irrigated agricultural area, and 38% of the water needs of the megalopolis of Mexico City, located 40 km east of the valley. Ensuring water sustainability, infrastructure integrity, along with supporting the important economic and demographic growth of the region, is a major challenge for water managers and urban developers. This paper presents a long-term analysis of ground fracturing by interpreting 13 years of InSAR-derived ground displacement measurements. Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) techniques are applied over three SAR datasets totalling 93 acquisitions from Envisat, Radarsat-2, and Sentinel-1A satellites and covering the period from 2003 to 2016. From 2003 to 2016, groundwater level declines of up to 1.6 m/yr, land subsidence up to 77 mm/yr, and major infrastructure damages are observed. Groundwater level data show highly variable seasonal responses according to their connectivity to recharge areas. However, the trend of groundwater levels consistently range from -0.5 to -1.5 m/yr regardless of the well location and depth. By analysing the horizontal gradients of vertical land subsidence, we provide a potential ground fracture map to assist in future urban development planning in the Toluca Valley.

  12. New approaches to dust mitigation in the Antelope Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, R.J.; Kim, B.M.; Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L.; Zink, T.; Skadberg, K.; Cowherd, C.; Grelinger, M.A.; Campbell, R.; De Salvio, A.; VanCuren, T.; Bort, J.

    1999-07-01

    The arid deserts of the southwestern US experience a frequent dust problem which can lead to PM10 violations. Blowing dust is also one of the major air quality problems of the arid deserts. From 1992 through the present, a group of research scientists have been investigating new techniques for mitigating the windblown dust in the Mojave Desert and more specifically the Antelope Valley near Palmdale and Lancaster, CA. This paper summarizes the progress made toward dust suppression in the Antelope Valley during the initial research phase from 1992 through 1996. During this period, there were both successes and failures. Stabilizing disturbed desert lands in a water-starved environment is challenging. The initial attempts focused on revegetation of native plants by seedings. There were mixed results depending on both the magnitude and timing of the rainfall. Various types of windfences were also erected and their effectiveness was studied using BSNE's. In the present program, the objectives have been broadened to include mitigating dust from all types of disturbed lands, not only abandoned farmlands. Techniques include new approaches to revegetation using seedlings, varying water treatments and soil amendments. An array of chemical suppressants are also being evaluated for cost-effectiveness as a function of longevity. Various geometries of wind fences have also been erected in blow sand areas and are being evaluated for cost-effectiveness using an interesting evaluation scheme. This portion of the paper provides a progress report of these latest dust mitigation techniques. This current research program is due to conclude about 2002. The end product of this decade research program will be a cookbook of dust mitigation solutions for various users including regulatory agencies, the USDA NRCS, farmers and construction interests.

  13. Mapping Drought Impacts on Agricultural Production in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Guzman, A.; Johnson, L.; Rosevelt, C.; Verdin, J. P.; Dwyer, J. L.; Mueller, R.; Zakzeski, A.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Wallace, C.; Jones, J.; Windell, S.; Urness, J.; Teaby, A.; Hamblin, D.; Post, K. M.; Nemani, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California has substantially reduced surface water supplies for millions of acres of irrigated farmland in California's Central Valley. Rapid assessment of drought impacts on agricultural production can aid water managers in assessing mitigation options, and guide decision making with respect to requests for local water transfers, county drought disaster designations, and allocation of emergency funds to mitigate drought impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of drought impacts on agricultural production and increases in idle acreage associated with reductions in water supply. A key advantage of satellite-based assessments is that they can provide a measure of land fallowing that is consistent across both space and time. We describe an approach for monthly and seasonal mapping of uncultivated agricultural acreage developed as part of a joint effort by USGS, USDA, NASA, and the California Department of Water Resources to provide timely assessments of land fallowing during drought events. This effort has used the Central Valley of California as a pilot region for development and testing of an operational approach. To provide quantitative measures of uncultivated agricultural acreage from satellite data early in the season, we developed a decision tree algorithm and applied it to timeseries of data from Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI, and MODIS. Our effort has been focused on development of indicators of drought impacts in the March - August timeframe based on measures of crop development patterns relative to a reference period with average or above average rainfall. To assess the accuracy of the algorithms, monthly ground validation surveys were conducted across 640 fields from March - September, 2014. We present the algorithm along with updated results from the accuracy assessment, and discuss potential applications to other regions.

  14. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  15. LAKE VICTORIA AND THE COMMON PROPERTY DEBATE: IS THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS A THREAT TO ITS FUTURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Ochieng OGELLO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Victoria is the largest among the African Great Lakes in East African region that are believed to have both dynamic and fragile aquatic ecosystems. Within two decades, the lake has experienced extensive resource exploitation leading to constrained productivity and drastic decline of native biodiversity. Intensive non-selective fishing, catchment vegetation degradation, industrial and agricultural pollution, the introduction of exotic species and uneven patchwork of governmental laws are some of the reasons for the current ecological woes facing Lake Victoria. This paper intends to stimulate recognition of Lake Victoria and its catchment as a lived Com­mons, to be shared, protected, managed and enjoyed by all who live around it. The paper compares the original biodiversity status of the lake with the current status and discusses the role of unlimited access as a function of the loss of the Lake’s biological wealth. The Lake’s water resource base, fishery, wetlands and other aquatic resources have been exhaustively discussed. In this review, we uphold the Hardin’s school of thought that freedom of the commoners causes resource overuse leading to poverty. Therefore, limiting freedom could be essential. However, there is need for provision of alternative means of survival since people with no choices would continue over-exploiting ecosystems even under limited access. The Lake Victoria basin commons should be protected by strict legal and clear political frame­work based on public trust doctrine, reinforced in law that the Lake is vital for the survival of people, plants and animals living on or near it and therefore must be protected for the common good. The political jurisdictions should consider governing the Lake basin as one integrated watershed. It is our fervent hope that bordering communities will secure grass root movements to protect and nurture Lake Victoria and its environs for the benefit of the present and future

  16. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people in Victoria: a database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Trang; Day, Lesley; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people in Victoria. We analysed fall-related, person-identifying hospital discharge data and patient-level hospital treatment costs for community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years from Victoria between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2008, inclusive. Key outcomes of interest were length of stay (LOS)/episode, cumulative LOS (CLOS)/patient and inpatient costs. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years in Victoria was 284,781 hospital bed days in 2005-06, rising to 310,031 hospital bed days in 2007-08. Seventy-one per cent of episodes were multiday. One in 15 acute care episodes was a high LOS outlier and 14% of patients had ≥1 episode classified as high LOS outlier. The median CLOS/patient was nine days (interquartile range 2-27). The annual costs of inpatient care, in June 2009 prices, for fall-related injury in community-dwelling people aged 65+ years in Victoria rose from $213 million in 2005-06 to $237 million in 2007-08. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older women, people aged 85+ years and those with comorbidity was considerable. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years in Victoria is significantly more than previously projected. Importantly, this study identifies that women, patients with comorbidity and those aged 85+ years account for a considerable proportion of this burden. A corresponding increase in falls prevention effort is required to ensure that the burden is properly addressed. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  18. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.

  19. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  20. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  1. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  2. The hydrogeology of the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York: an overview of research, 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Onondaga Creek begins approximately 15 miles south of Syracuse, New York, and flows north through the Onondaga Indian Nation, then through Syracuse, and finally into Onondaga Lake in central New York. Tully Valley is in the upper part of the Onondaga Creek watershed between U.S. Route 20 and the Valley Heads end moraine near Tully, N.Y. Tully Valley has a history of several unusual hydrogeologic phenomena that affected past land use and the water quality of Onondaga Creek; the phenomena are still present and continue to affect the area today (2014). These phenomena include mud volcanoes or mudboils, landslides, and land-surface subsidence; all are considered to be naturally occurring but may also have been influenced by human activity. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Onondaga Lake Partnership, began a study of the Tully Valley mudboils beginning in October 1991 in hopes of understanding (1) what drives mudboil activity in order to remediate mudboil influence on the water quality of Onondaga Creek, and (2) land-surface subsidence issues that have caused a road bridge to collapse, a major pipeline to be rerouted, and threatened nearby homes. Two years into this study, the 1993 Tully Valley landslide occurred just over 1 mile northwest of the mudboils. This earth slump-mud flow was the largest landslide in New York in more than 70 years (Fickies, 1993); this event provided additional insight into the geology and hydrology of the valley. As the study of the Tully Valley mudboils progressed, other unusual hydrogeologic phenomena were found within the Tully Valley and provided the opportunity to perform short-term, small-scale studies, some of which became graduate student theses—Burgmeier (1998), Curran (1999), Morales-Muniz (2000), Baldauf (2003), Epp (2005), Hackett, (2007), Tamulonis (2010), and Sinclair (2013). The unusual geology and hydrology of the Tully Valley, having been investigated for

  3. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene surficial deposits and landforms of Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E. K.; Stock, G. M.; Booth, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Field studies on the surficial geology and geomorphology of Yosemite Valley since the 1870's formed an early basis for our understanding of Quaternary landscape evolution in the central Sierra Nevada. These landmark studies described the erosional origin of Yosemite's iconic scenery, but left details of the latest Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary record for later investigation. We combined mapping of deposits and landforms with geochronology to reconstruct the geomorphic evolution of Yosemite Valley since the 15 ka retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) valley glacier. We document a sustained period of relative landscape stability, characterized by valley-bottom aggradation of glacial till, fluvial sediments, and lacustrine silts, as well as valley-margin accumulation of talus and fan alluvium. Recessional moraines, episodically emplaced rock avalanches, and alluvial fans impeded surface flow and controlled the local base level. This predominantly aggradational regime then shifted to incision in the earliest Holocene, likely due to a diminishing supply of glacial sediment, and created a flight of fluvial terraces inset by up to 9 m. The volume of fringing talus and fan alluvium in comparison with fluvial terrace sequences emphasizes the importance of valley-wall erosion as a sediment source. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from rock avalanche boulders and 14C charcoal ages from deltaic sequences and inset fluvial gravels suggest variable rates of Holocene river incision. Although some incision events likely record local base level changes at the El Capitan LGM recessional moraine, the presence of perched, well-developed outwash terraces downstream indicates a more regional climatic forcing. These findings, including the depositional record of land-use disturbances over the past two centuries, help illuminate the geologic evolution of this celebrated landscape and inform ongoing river-restoration work.

  4. A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Matthew D; Borstein, Samuel R; Neches, Russell Y; Buescher, Heinz H; Seehausen, Ole; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-11-27

    Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Reality check of laboratory service effectiveness during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catton, Michael; Druce, Julian; Papadakis, Goergina; Tran, Thomas; Birch, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.

  6. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, A.; Olsen, Annette; Tukahebwa, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55......% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni...... prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short...

  7. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  8. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  9. Was Queen Victoria depressed? 1. Natural history and differential diagnosis of presenting problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powles, W E; Alexander, M G

    1987-02-01

    For some years we have speculated as to whether Queen Victoria suffered a definable psychiatric illness in her notorious and prolonged seclusion after the Prince Consort's death. We here summarize criteria for grief and depression from three authorities. Against these, we examine the natural history of the Queen's bereavement and restitution. We find that her suffering and her portrayal of the role of widow were related to her personal style and were culturally accepted. Her self-esteem, ego functions, and object relatedness were preserved. While some clinicians might favour a diagnosis of Dysthymic Disorder, we find the evidence strongly in favour of an intense, prolonged, normal human grief (Uncomplicated Bereavement of DSM III) coloured by a romantic and histrionic personal style. Intensity and duration do not, in this case, establish a diagnosis of depression.

  10. Cardboard Boxes and Invisible Fences: Homelessness and Public Space in City of Victoria v. Adams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Buhler

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the recent decision of the British Columbia Supreme Court in City of Victoria v. Adams. Specifically, the paper considers three interlocking themes that emerge from the decision: (1 the nature of “public space” in the context of homelessness; (2 the autonomy of homeless individuals; and (3 the meaning and value of the “homeless body.” With reference to each theme, the paper explores how the judgment in Adams grapples with the purportedly normative “Law and Economics”- type arguments put forth by the City of Victoria. By drawing on insights from Critical Legal Studies theory and feminist jurisprudence, the paper shows that Adams subverts and destabilizes certain “normative” perspectives about public space and homelessness. However, the paper goes on to argue that in its conflation of “cardboard box” shelters with the “invisible fences” envisioned by Justice Wilson in Morgentaler, Adams presents an ambiguous victory for anti-poverty advocates. The paper argues that the decision may serve to increase barriers for a broader and more progressive understanding of section 7 in the future. Dans cet article, on analyse le jugement récent de la Cour Suprême de la Colombie Britannique dans City of Victoria v. Adams. Plus précisément, on considère trois thèmes qui ressortent du jugement et qui s’entrecroisent : (1 la nature d’«espace public» dans le contexte de l’itinérance; (2 l’autonomie des sans-abri; et (3 la signification et la valeur du «corps sans abri». En rapport avec chaque thème, on explore comment l’arrêt Adams compose avec les arguments supposément normatifs du genre «La Loi et l’Économie» avancés par la ville de Victoria. En s’inspirant de perceptions tirées de la théorie des Critical Legal Studies et de la jurisprudence féministe, l’auteure démontre que l’arrêt Adams subvertit et déséquilibre certaines perspectives «normatives» au sujet de l

  11. Writing history: case study of the university of Victoria School of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaia, Margaret R; Young, Lynne

    2013-04-23

    A historical examination of a nursing curriculum is a bridge between past and present from which insights to guide curriculum development can be gleaned. In this paper, we use the case study method to examine how the University of Victoria School of Nursing (UVic SON), which was heavily influenced by the ideology of second wave feminism, contributed to a change in the direction of nursing education from task-orientation to a content and process orientation. This case study, informed by a feminist lens, enabled us to critically examine the introduction of a "revolutionary" caring curriculum at the UVic SON. Our research demonstrates the fault lines and current debates within which a feminist informed curriculum continues to struggle for legitimacy and cohesion. More work is needed to illuminate the historical basis of these debates and to understand more fully the complex landscape that has constructed the social and historical position of women and nursing in Canadian society today.

  12. Radium in potable waters from Central Victoria, Australia - an application of the Australian drinking water guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinker, R.A.; Smith, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Determinations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in potable mineral waters from springs located in the Daylesford-Hepburn region of Victoria, Australia are presented. Concentrations ranged from 230-810 mBq L -1 for 226 Ra and 200-800 mBq L -1 for 226 Ra. These levels approach or exceed the guideline limits recommended in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The annual committed effective dose and health risks from radium in potable water is discussed. Assuming consumption of 2 L per day the average annual committed effective dose received from 226 Ra was 0.087 mSv y -1 and from 226 Ra was 0.10 mSv y -1

  13. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A

    2013-09-01

    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Accession of non-nitrogenous ions dissolved in rainwater to soils in Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, J T; Leslie, T I

    1958-01-01

    Analyses of rainwater samples from 24 stations in Victoria have shown that with increasing distance from the coast there is a sharp decrease in the influence of the ocean on the nature of the dissolved ions. About 150 miles inland the ionic ratio of sodium to potassium falls below 10, that of sodium to chloride exceeds unity, and calcium becomes the dominant cation. This is considered to reflect the influence of terrestrial material such as the dry surface of soils. As soils also contain sodium and chloride ions, the common assumption that all the chloride in the rain is derived from the ocean is unjustified, hence calculations of the net accession of salts are unwarranted. In southern Australia, sulphate ions are present in much smaller amounts than in other countries and this may contribute to the observed deficiencies of sulphur in plant nutrition. Details are given of the method of collecting the rainwater and of its analysis.

  15. Linking trajectories of land change, land degradation processes and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Salvati, L; Perini, L

    2016-05-01

    Land Degradation (LD) is a complex phenomenon resulting in a progressive reduction in the capacity of providing ecosystem services (ES). Landscape transformations promoting an unsustainable use of land often reveal latent processes of LD. An evaluation carried out in respect to the different ecosystem services is nowadays regarded as the most appropriate approach for assessing the effects of LD. The aim of this study is to develop an evaluation framework for identifying the linkages between land changes, LD processes and ES and suggesting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options suited to reverse (or mitigate) LD impact. A SWOT analysis was carried out with the aim to identify internal and external factors that are favorable (or unfavorable) to achieve the proposed SLM actions. The study areas are the Fortore valley and the Valpadana, in Italy. The main trajectory identified for the Fortore valley is related to land abandonment due to population aging and the progressive emigration started in the 1950s. The most relevant LD processes are soil erosion and geomorphological instability, affecting regulating services such as natural hazard and erosion control. SLM options should consider interventions to contrast geomorphological instability, the promotion of climate smart agriculture and of typical products, and an efficient water resources management. The main trajectories identified for Valpadana are related to urban expansion and farmland abandonment and, as a consequence, land take due to anthropogenic pressure and woodland expansion as the main LD process. The reduction of food production was identified as the most relevant provisioning service affected. SLM should envisage best practices finalized to water saving and soil consumption reduction: efficient irrigation solutions, climate smart agriculture and zero sealing practices. This study highlights the diagnostic value of the suggested approach where LD processes are elicited from land change trajectories

  16. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    OpenAIRE

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere through sequestration and storage. This requires land use, land use change and forestry to be managed with respect to climate change goals. Carbon storage has ...

  17. Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Y/ER-301) was prepared (1) to safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently evaluate the environmental impact of solid material in the two debris areas in the context of industrial land uses (as defined in the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study) to support the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Assessment and (2) to evaluate, define, and implement the actions to mitigate these impacts. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.x.01.20.01.08

  18. A Paramedic-staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Service's Response to Winch Missions in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadley, Ben; Heschl, Stefan; Andrew, Emily; de Wit, Anthony; Bernard, Stephen A; Smith, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Winching emergency medical care providers from a helicopter to the scene enables treatment of patients in otherwise inaccessible locations, but is not without risks. The objective of this study was to define characteristics of winch missions undertaken by Intensive Care Flight Paramedics (ICFP) in Victoria, Australia with a focus on extraction methods and clinical care delivered at the scene. A retrospective data analysis was performed to identify all winch missions between November 2010 and March 2014. Demographic data, winch characteristics, physiological parameters, and interventions undertaken on scene by the ICFP were extracted. Out of 5,003 missions in the study period, 125 were identified as winch operations. Winter missions were significantly less frequent than those of any other season. Patients were predominantly male (78.4%) and had a mean age of 38 years (±17.6). A total of 109 (87.2%) patients were identified as experiencing trauma with a mean Revised Trauma Score of 7.5288, and isolated limb fractures were the most frequently encountered injury. Falls and vehicle-related trauma were the most common mechanisms of injury. The total median scene duration was 49 minutes (IQR 23-91). Sixty-three patients (50.4%) were extracted using a stretcher, 45 (36.0%) using a hypothermic strop, and 6 (4.8%) via normal rescue strop. Eleven patients (8.8%) were not winched to the helicopter. Vascular access (38.4%), analgesia (44.0%), and anti-emetic administration (28.8%) were the most frequent clinical interventions. Forty-nine patients (39.2%) did not receive any clinical intervention prior to winch extraction. Winch operations in Victoria, Australia consisted predominantly of patients with minor to moderate traumatic injuries. A significant proportion of patients did not require any clinical treatment prior to winching, and among those who did, analgesia was the most frequent intervention. Advanced medical procedures were rarely required prior to winch extraction.

  19. The job satisfaction of female sex workers working in licensed brothels in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardi, Jade E; Miller, Amanda; Hocking, Jane S; Keogh, Louise; Cummings, Rosey; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have examined sex workers' attitudes to work but not their levels of job satisfaction compared with other occupations. The job satisfaction levels and standards of living of sex workers in licensed brothels in Victoria were compared with Australian women. Responses to a questionnaire that included questions about sex work and their "most likely alternative job." Survey data was compared with identical questions from the Households, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. A structured survey was undertaken with sex workers in Victoria attending a a sexual health service. Of the 112 sex workers who agreed to participate in the study, 85 (76%) completed the survey. The median years women had been working as sex workers was three (range 0.1-18). The main reasons women started sex work was because "they needed the money" (69%), were attracted to the flexible hours (44%) or had a particular goal in mind (43%). The two biggest concerns women had about sex work were their safety (65%) and the risk of sexually transmitted infections (65%). When compared with the median job satisfaction scores of Australian women working in sex workers' "most likely alternative jobs," 50% of sex workers reported a higher median satisfaction score for sex work in relation to hours worked, 47% in relation to flexibility, 43% in relation to total pay, 26% in relation to job security, 19% in relation to the work itself, and 25% in relation to overall job satisfaction. Women reported that they primarily do sex work for financial gain although a significant minority prefer it to other work they would be likely to do. These results should be interpreted in the context that the presence of personality disorders that are common among sex workers were not measured in this study. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. The spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chloe Wing-yee; Ip, Carman Ching-man [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Shin, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Qian Peiyuan [Department of Biology and Coastal Marine Laboratory, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk

    2008-07-01

    Victoria Harbour has received substantial loadings of pollutants from industrial and municipal wastewater discharged since the 1950s. Inputs of contaminants have declined dramatically during the last two decades as a result of better controls at the source and improved wastewater treatment facilities. To assess the spatial and temporal changes of metal contaminants in sediments in Victoria Harbour, core and grab sediments were collected. The central harbour areas were generally contaminated with heavy metals. The spatial distribution of trace metals can probably be attributed to the proximity of major urban and industrial discharge points, and to the effect of tidal flushing in the harbour. In the sediment cores, the highest concentrations of trace metals were observed to have accumulated during the 1950s-1980s, corresponding with the period of rapid urban and industrial development in Hong Kong. From the late 1980s, there has been a major decline in the concentrations of trace metals, due to a reduction in industrial activities and to the enactment of wastewater pollution controls in the territory. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sediments revealed the anthropogenic inputs of Pb to the harbour. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios varied from 1.154 to 1.190, which were lower than those of background geological materials in Hong Kong ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb: 1.201-1.279). The data also indicated that the Pb in the harbour sediments most likely originated from mixed sources, including the leaded gasoline used in the past and other anthropogenic sources.

  1. The Green Dialysis Survey: Establishing a Baseline for Environmental Sustainability across Dialysis Facilities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Gleeson, Alice; Holt, Stephen G; Agar, John Wm

    2017-11-02

    The Green Dialysis Survey aimed to 1) establish a baseline for environmental sustainability (ES) across Victorian dialysis facilities, and 2) guide future initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of dialysis delivery. Nurse unit managers of all Victorian public dialysis facilities received an online link to the survey, which asked 107 questions relevant to the ES of dialysis services. Responses were received from 71/83 dialysis facilities in Victoria (86%), representing 628/660 dialysis chairs (95%). Low energy lighting was present in 13 facilities (18%), 18 (25%) recycled reverse osmosis water and 7 (10%) reported use of renewable energy. Fifty-six facilities (79%) performed comingled recycling but only 27 (38%) recycled polyvinyl chloride plastic. A minority educated staff in appropriate waste management (n=30;42%) or formally audited waste generation and segregation (n=19;27%). Forty-four (62%) provided secure bicycle parking but only 33 (46%) provided shower and changing facilities. There was limited use of tele- or video-conferencing to replace staff meetings (n=19;27%) or patient clinic visits (n=13;18%). A minority considered ES in procurement decisions (n=28;39%) and there was minimal preparedness to cope with climate change. Only 39 services (49%) confirmed an ES policy and few had ever formed a green group (n=14; 20%) or were currently undertaking a green project (n=8;11%). Only 15 facilities (21%) made formal efforts to raise awareness of ES. This survey provides a baseline for practices that potentially impact the environmental sustainability of dialysis units in Victoria, Australia. It also identifies achievable targets for attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Two new species of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnix de Zeeuw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria, Tanzania, are described and illustrated. These species closely resemble each other. Their affinities to other zooplanktivorous haplochromines from Lake Victoria are discussed. Haplochromis argens sp. n., which featured under nicknames (mainly H. “argens” in more than 50 papers, was caught both in the Mwanza Gulf and the Emin Pasha Gulf, whereas H. goldschmidti sp. n. was only found in the Emin Pasha Gulf. Of the latter species only males are available, but it seems unlikely that it represents a case of male colour polymorphism as several presumably unrelated characters differ in sympatry between the two species, suggesting that there is no gene flow. Statistical analysis revealed that the overall difference between the two species is greater than that between the populations from the two locations. Body depth of the two species in sympatry in the Emin Pasha Gulf was more similar than that of H. goldschmidti sp. n. and the allopatric population of H. argens sp. n. from the Mwanza Gulf, which may indicate an overall environmental effect. However, several measurements related to the width of snout and mouth differed more between the populations of the two species in sympatry than between the allopatric populations. In contrast to a group of zooplanktivorous species that recovered successfully after environmental changes in the lake, H. argens sp. n. is among a group that became extremely rare and probably is in danger of extinction; the conservation status of H. goldschmidti sp. n. is currently unknown.

  3. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispine Nyamweya

    Full Text Available Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May and mixing (June-August. Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  4. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Sanya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities.In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach.Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials.Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  6. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanya, Richard E; Tumwesige, Edward; Elliott, Alison M; Seeley, Janet

    2017-10-01

    Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities. In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach. Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  7. Biological Diversity and Resilience: Lessons from the Recovery of Cichlid Species in Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Awiti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental feature of the Anthropocene is the inexorable erosion of the self-repairing capacity or adaptive renewal of natural systems because of natural perturbation, exploitation, or management failure. The concept of resilience offers a systematic framework for understanding the dynamics and variables that govern response dynamics of ecosystems. Resilience of haplochromine cichlids is assessed using limnological and biodiversity changes in Lake Victoria, the world's second largest freshwater lake, over the last five decades. The review explores the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids using Holling's adaptive renewal cycle and attempts to illustrate how resilience-based management approaches might learn from an inadvertent management experiment. The introduction in the 1980s of the Nile perch (Lates niloticus, a fecund and voracious predator of the endemic phytoplankton feeding haplochromine cichlids, anthropogenic eutrophication, and deep water hypoxia have combined in a synergistic way to increase the vulnerability of the lake ecosystem to perturbations that were hitherto absorbed. However, the upsurge in commercial Nile perch fishing appears to be enabling the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids. The resurgence of haplochromine cichlids is characterized by phenotypic plasticity, ecological and life history traits and demonstrates the critical role of response diversity in the maintenance of systems resilience. Resilience of the haplochromine cichlids resides in the requisite functional response diversity and habitat diversity that provide the resources for renewal and regeneration. This paper concludes that management of Nile perch fisheries and control of nutrient loading into Lake Victoria could halt or reverse eutrophication, hence offer the best promise for a diverse, productive, and resilient social-ecological system.

  8. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamweya, Chrispine; Desjardins, Christopher; Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May) and mixing (June-August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  9. Electrical valley filtering in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of electrical valley filtering for holes in transition metal dichalcogenides. We look specifically into the scheme that utilizes a potential barrier to produce valley-dependent tunneling rates, and perform the study with both a k .p -based analytic method and a recursive Green's function-based numerical method. The study yields the transmission coefficient as a function of incident energy and transverse wave vector, for holes going through lateral quantum barriers oriented in either armchair or zigzag directions, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The main findings are the following: (1) The tunneling current valley polarization increases with increasing barrier width or height; (2) both the valley-orbit interaction and band structure warping contribute to valley-dependent tunneling, with the former contribution being manifest in structures with asymmetric potential barriers, and the latter being orientation dependent and reaching maximum for transmission in the armchair direction; and (3) for transmission ˜0.1 , a tunneling current valley polarization of the order of 10 % can be achieved.

  10. Climate Influence on Emerging Risk Areas for Rift Valley Fever Epidemics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweya, Clement N; Mboera, Leonard E G; Kimera, Sharadhuli I

    2017-07-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a climate-related arboviral infection of animals and humans. Climate is thought to represent a threat toward emerging risk areas for RVF epidemics globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate influence of climate on distribution of suitable breeding habitats for Culex pipiens complex, potential mosquito vector responsible for transmission and distribution of disease epidemics risk areas in Tanzania. We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distribution of disease risk areas based on vectors and disease co-occurrence data approach. Climatic variables for the current and future scenarios were used as model inputs. Changes in mosquito vectors' habitat suitability in relation to disease risk areas were estimated. We used partial receiver operating characteristic and the area under the curves approach to evaluate model predictive performance and significance. Habitat suitability for Cx. pipiens complex indicated broad-scale potential for change and shift in the distribution of the vectors and disease for both 2020 and 2050 climatic scenarios. Risk areas indicated more intensification in the areas surrounding Lake Victoria and northeastern part of the country through 2050 climate scenario. Models show higher probability of emerging risk areas spreading toward the western parts of Tanzania from northeastern areas and decrease in the southern part of the country. Results presented here identified sites for consideration to guide surveillance and control interventions to reduce risk of RVF disease epidemics in Tanzania. A collaborative approach is recommended to develop and adapt climate-related disease control and prevention strategies.

  11. Extracting Vegetation Coverage in Dry-hot Valley Regions Based on Alternating Angle Minimum Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Yang, M.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-07-01

    Vegetation coverage is one of the most important indicators for ecological environment change, and is also an effective index for the assessment of land degradation and desertification. The dry-hot valley regions have sparse surface vegetation, and the spectral information about the vegetation in such regions usually has a weak representation in remote sensing, so there are considerable limitations for applying the commonly-used vegetation index method to calculate the vegetation coverage in the dry-hot valley regions. Therefore, in this paper, Alternating Angle Minimum (AAM) algorithm of deterministic model is adopted for selective endmember for pixel unmixing of MODIS image in order to extract the vegetation coverage, and accuracy test is carried out by the use of the Landsat TM image over the same period. As shown by the results, in the dry-hot valley regions with sparse vegetation, AAM model has a high unmixing accuracy, and the extracted vegetation coverage is close to the actual situation, so it is promising to apply the AAM model to the extraction of vegetation coverage in the dry-hot valley regions.

  12. Spatial risk modelling for water shortage and nitrate pollution in the lower Jordan valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.; Orthofer, R.

    2002-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the spatial risk modeling activities (work package WP-4.4, 'GIS Risk Modeling') of the INCO-DC project 'Developing Sustainable Water Management in the Jordan Valley'. The project was funded by European Commission's INCO-DC research program. The main objective of the project was to develop the scientific basis for an integral management plan of water resources and their use in the Lower Jordan Valley. The outputs of the project were expected to allow a better understanding of the water management situation, and to provide a sound basis for a better future water management - not only separately in the three countries, but in the overall valley region. The risk modeling was done by the ARCS Seibersdorf research (ARCS), based on information and data provided by the regional partners from Israel (Hebrew University, Jerusalem, HUJ), Palestine (Applied Research Institute, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, ARIJ) and Jordan (EnviroConsult Office, Amman, ECO). The land use classification has been established through a cooperation between ARCS and the Yale University Center for Earth Observation (YUCEO). As a result of the work, the spatial patterns of agricultural and domestic water demand in the Lower Jordan Valley were established, and the spatial dimension of driving forces for water usage and water supply was analyzed. Furthermore, a conceptual model for nitrate leakage (established by HUJ) was translated into a GIS system, and the risks for nitrate pollution of groundwater were quantified. (author)

  13. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  14. Mars: Periglacial Morphology and Implications for Future Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Schurmeier, Lauren; McKay, Christopher; Davila, Alfonso; Stoker, Carol; Marinova, Margarita; Wilhelm, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    At the Mars Phoenix landing site and in much of the Martian northern plains, there is ice-cemented ground beneath a layer of dry permafrost. Unlike most permafrost on Earth, though, this ice is not liquid at any time of year. However, in past epochs at higher obliquity the surface conditions during summer may have resulted in warmer conditions and possible melting. This situation indicates that the ice-cemented ground in the north polar plains is likely to be a candidate for the most recently habitable place on Mars as near-surface ice likely provided adequate water activity approximately 5 Myr ago. The high elevation Dry Valleys of Antarctica provide the best analog on Earth of Martian ground ice. These locations are the only places on Earth where ice-cemented ground is found beneath dry permafrost. The Dry Valleys are a hyper-arid polar desert environment and in locations above 1500 m elevation, such as University Valley, air temperatures do not exceed 0 C. Thus, similarly to Mars, liquid water is largely absent here and instead the hydrologic cycle is dominated by frozen ice and vapor phase processes such as sublimation. These conditions make the high elevation Dry Valleys a key Mars analog location where periglacial processes and geomorphic features can be studied in situ. This talk will focus on studies of University Valley as a Mars analog for periglacial morphology and ice stability. We will review a landing site selection study encompassing this information gleaned from the Antarctic terrestrial analog studies plus Mars spacecraft data analysis to identify candidate landing sites for a future mission to search for life on Mars.

  15. Status and management of watersheds in the Upper Pokhara Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Gopal B.; Weber, Karl E.

    1995-07-01

    Contributing to the debate on the causes of Himalayan environmental degradation, the status and management of four watersheds in the Upper Pokhara Valley were studied using information available from land use analysis, household surveys conducted in 1989 and 1992, deliberations held with villagers, and field observations. Accordingly, areas under forests and grazing lands were found being depleted at relatively high rates between 1957 and 1978 due mainly to the government policy of increasing national revenue by expansion of agricultural lands, nationalization of forests, steadily growing population, and dwindling household economy. Despite the steady growth of population, this process had remarkably slackened since 1978, owing primarily to remaining forests being located in very, steep slopes and implementation of the community forestry program. Forests with relatively sparase tree density, however, and grazing lands in the vicinity of settlements have been undergoing degradation due to fuelwood and fodder collection and livestock grazing. In many instances, this is aggravated by weak resource management institutions. Being particularly aware of the economic implication of land degradation, farmers have adopted assorted land management practices. Still a substantial proportion of bari lands in the hill slopes is vulnerable to accelerating degradation, as the arable cropping system is being practiced there as well. The perpetuation of the local subsistence economy is certain to lead, to a further deterioration of the socioeconomic and environmental conditions of watersheds. To facilitate environmental conservation and ecorestructuring for sustainable development, a broad watershed management strategy is outlined with focus on alleviating pressure on natural resources.

  16. Community genetics reveal elevated levels of sympatric gene flow among morphologically similar but not among morphologically dissimilar species of Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, N.; Joyce, D.A.; Mrosso, H.D.J.; Egas, M.; Seehausen, O.

    2011-01-01

    We examined genetic structure among five species of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlids in four island communities, using a full factorial sampling design that compared genetic differentiation between pairs of species and populations of varying morphological similarity and geographical proximity.

  17. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  18. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove

  19. The near boiling reactor: design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.; Bonin, H.

    2005-01-01

    A small, inherently safe nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope, has been conceptually designed. The final reactor concept, named the Near Boiling (NB) Reactor, employs TRISO fuel particles in Zirconium cladded fuel rods. The reactor is light water moderated and cooled. The core life is specifically designed to coincide with the refit cycle of the Victoria Class Submarine. The reactor employs a simple and reliable control and shut down system that requires little intervention on the part of the submarine's crew. Also, a kinetic model is developed that demonstrates the inherent safety features of the reactor during several accident scenarios. (author)

  20. The near boiling reactor: design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.; Bonin, H. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: chris.cole@rmc.ca; bonin-h@rmc.ca

    2005-07-01

    A small, inherently safe nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope, has been conceptually designed. The final reactor concept, named the Near Boiling (NB) Reactor, employs TRISO fuel particles in Zirconium cladded fuel rods. The reactor is light water moderated and cooled. The core life is specifically designed to coincide with the refit cycle of the Victoria Class Submarine. The reactor employs a simple and reliable control and shut down system that requires little intervention on the part of the submarine's crew. Also, a kinetic model is developed that demonstrates the inherent safety features of the reactor during several accident scenarios. (author)

  1. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging koala populations in Victoria and South Australia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K N; Whiteley, P L; Woolford, L; Duignan, P J; Bacci, B; Lathe, S; Boardman, W; Scheelings, T F; Funnell, O; Underwood, G; Stevenson, M A

    2017-07-01

    To describe outbreaks of sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei in free-ranging koalas in Victoria (December 2008 to November 2015) and South Australia (October 2011 to September 2014). Koalas affected by mange-like lesions were reported by wildlife carers, veterinary practitioners or State Government personnel to the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences at The University of Melbourne and the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences at The University of Adelaide. Skin scrapings were taken from live and dead koalas and S. scabiei mites were identified. Tissues from necropsied koalas were examined histologically. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange were found to occur in koalas from both Victoria (n = 29) and South Australia (n = 29) for the first time. The gross pathological and histopathological changes are described. We present the first reported cases of sarcoptic mange outbreaks in free-ranging koalas. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  3. Hydroclimatology of Lake Victoria region using hydrologic model and satellite remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of hydro-climatology at a range of temporal scales is important in understanding and ultimately mitigating the potential severe impacts of hydrological extreme events such as floods and droughts. Using daily in-situ data over the last two decades combined with the recently available multiple-years satellite remote sensing data, we analyzed and simulated, with a distributed hydrologic model, the hydro-climatology in Nzoia, one of the major contributing sub-basins of Lake Victoria in the East African highlands. The basin, with a semi arid climate, has no sustained base flow contribution to Lake Victoria. The short spell of high discharge showed that rain is the prime cause of floods in the basin. There is only a marginal increase in annual mean discharge over the last 21 years. The 2-, 5- and 10- year peak discharges, for the entire study period showed that more years since the mid 1990's have had high peak discharges despite having relatively less annual rain. The study also presents the hydrologic model calibration and validation results over the Nzoia basin. The spatiotemporal variability of the water cycle components were quantified using a hydrologic model, with in-situ and multi-satellite remote sensing datasets. The model is calibrated using daily observed discharge data for the period between 1985 and 1999, for which model performance is estimated with a Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSCE of 0.87 and 0.23% bias. The model validation showed an error metrics with NSCE of 0.65 and 1.04% bias. Moreover, the hydrologic capability of satellite precipitation (TRMM-3B42 V6 is evaluated. In terms of reconstruction of the water cycle components the spatial distribution and time series of modeling results for precipitation and runoff showed considerable agreement with the monthly model runoff estimates and gauge observations. Runoff values responded to precipitation events that occurred across the catchment during the wet season from March to

  4. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw milk sources in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kate; Moore, Sean C; McAuley, Catherine M; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2016-07-29

    Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria. A total of 30 S. aureus isolates were collected from milk and milk filter samples from 3 bovine, 3 caprine and 1 ovine dairy farms across Victoria, Australia. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 11 distinct pulsotypes among isolates; all caprine and ovine isolates shared greater than 80 % similarity regardless of source. Conversely, bovine isolates showed higher diversity. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) identified 5 different sequence types (STs) among bovine isolates, associated with human or ruminant lineages. All caprine and ovine isolates were ST133, or a single allele variant of ST133. Two new novel STs were identified among isolates in this study (ST3183 and ST3184). With the exception of these 2 new STs, eBURST analysis predicted all other STs to be founding members of their associated clonal complexes (CCs). Analysis of genetic markers revealed a diverse range of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) among isolates, with 11 different SEs identified among bovine isolates, compared with just 2 among caprine and ovine isolates. None of the isolates contained mecA, or were resistant to oxacillin. The only antibiotic resistance identified was that of a single isolate resistant to penicillin; this isolate also contained the penicillin resistance gene blaZ. Production of SE was observed at 16 °C and/or 37 °C in milk, however no SE production was detected at 12 °C. Although this study characterized a limited number of isolates, bovine-associated isolates

  5. Modelling nitrogen transformation and removal in mara river basin wetlands upstream of lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Aloyce W.; Muraza, Marwa; Norbert, Joel

    2018-06-01

    Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa, is a resource of social-economic potential in East Africa. This lake receives water from numerous tributaries including Mara River, which contributes about 4.8% of the total Lake water inflow. Unfortunately, Mara River basin faces environmental problems because of intensive settlement, agriculture, overgrazing in the basin and mining activities, which has lead to water pollution in the river, soil erosion and degradation, decreased soil fertility, loss of vegetation cover, decreased water infiltration capacity and increased sedimentation. One of the pollutants carried by the river includes nitrogen, which has contributed to ecological degradation of the Lake Victoria. Therefore this research work was intended to determine the effectiveness of Mara River wetland for removal of nitrogen and to establish nitrogen removal mechanisms in the wetland. To predict nitrogen removal in the wetland, the dynamics of nitrogen transformation was studied using a conceptual numerical model that takes into account of various processes in the system using STELLA II version 9.0®2006 software. Samples of model input from water, plants and sediments were taken for 45 days and were analyzed for pH, temperature, and DO in situ and chemical parameters such as NH3-N, Org-N, NO2-N, and NO3-N were analyzed in the laboratory in accordance with Standard methods. For plants, the density, dominance, biomass productivity and TN were determined and for sediments TN was analyzed. Inflow into the wetland was determined using stage-discharge relationship and was found to be 734,400 m3/day and the average wetland volume was 1,113,500 m3. Data collected by this study were used for model calibration of nitrogen transformation in this wetland while data from another wetland were used for model validation. It was found that about 37.8% of total nitrogen was removed by the wetland system largely through sedimentation (26.6%), plant uptake (6.6%) and

  6. PODA DE RAMAS MIXTAS Y RALEO DE FRUTOS: PRÁCTICAS CULTURALES INDEPENDIENTES EN DURAZNO 'VICTORIA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Zegbe-Domínguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El durazno requiere de la poda (en particular, el despunte de las ramas mixtas, DRM y el raleo de frutos (RF para una producción comercial de fruta. En la estación de crecimiento del 2004-05, se estudió la interacción entre DRM y RF en durazno cultivar 'Victoria' sobre el rendimiento, distribución de la fruta por tamaños, calidad del fruto, crecimiento de fruto y brote, además del peso especifico de la hoja. El experimento se llevó a cabo en el Campo Experimental Zacatecas con árboles de 20 años e injertados en patrones francos. Los factores estudiados fueron: el DRM y el RF, ambos factores con dos niveles; sin y con DRM y sin y con RF. El análisis estadístico no detectó interacción significativa (P 5.1 cm con relación a árboles testigo (sin DRM. El crecimiento del fruto y la longitud de brote fueron significativamente (P<0.05 mayores en comparación con los árboles testigo, pero tanto el rendimiento como la eficiencia productiva fueron reducidos (P<0.05 cuando se aplicó el DRM. El peso medio del fruto, el mesocarpio y el endocarpio fue significativamente mayor en frutos con DRM. Sin embargo, la firmeza, concentración de sólidos solubles totales, concentración de materia seca del fruto y el peso específico de hoja fue estadísticamente (P<0.05 igual entre frutos sin y con DRM. Los resultados sugieren que el durazno 'Victoria' puede prescindir del raleo de frutos, y por consiguiente, esto reduciría costos de producción. Ambos factores merecen ser estudiados en otros cultivares de durazno cuyas estructuras reproductivas tengan mayor habilidad en la utilización de foto asimilados.

  7. PEARLS OF THE PČINJA VALLEY – RURAL TOURISM ATTRACTIONS OF THIS AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trajković

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available River Valley Pčinja, with its source part and tributaries that make up the Aegean Sea with its configuration, where the gorge turns between nearby mountains and flat areas, meadows, gardens and of our arable land, remains of old mills, houses and villages, which, still do not leave the inhabitants of this region, contains tourist potential. This valley is adorned with rich flora and fauna where one can see examples of the unique flora and fauna, with its diversity and natural material in the form of a "devil's stone" Witness antiquities and places of worship as well as a special value of the Monastery of St. Prohor of Pcinja. The pleasant climate and in some areas of the river gurgling disrupts primordial peace and makes the holiday for eyes, soul of every lover of nature.

  8. Neoliberal policies and urban reconfigurations. Victoria, San Fernando, province of Buenos Aires, a city understood from theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ester Donadío

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explain from a theoretical conceptual approach the particularities that exist in Victoria, San Fernando, Buenos Aires, from its urban production. Through a series of field works, semi-structured interviews and observations, it was possible to perceive that in this locality, there are three logics of city production, market, state and necessity, according to Abramo, P. (2002. The post-development cities of Latin America, a space in which constant tensions are generated that alter the harmonious development of daily life and the interaction of those who inhabit the area. On the other hand, it is also perceived that the inhabitants naturalize that way of life, their spatial disposition, the progressive privatization of public areas and the proliferation of closed housing estates. Here is a quote that we have heard repeatedly in interviews with the neighbors: "No one in Victoria gives a ball to anyone." At the moment of understanding Victoria from the theory, we take into account such concepts as the "heterotopy" of Foucault M. (1967 - understood as the juxtaposition of spaces that would be incompatible -the term "com-fusa city" (Abramo P. - as an urban structure that interweaves two traditional models (the Mediterranean compact and the Anglo-Saxon diffused, the notion of "privatopia" by I.Rodriguez Chumillas (2005 and E. Mckenzie (1994 as private spatial consolidation, and finally the concepts: informative and dual cities of R Castells (1995 terms that emerge from the process of globalization, which may be useful to think about the reality of Victoria .

  9. The population structure of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda: implications for vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Hyseni, Chaz; Kato, Agapitus B; Okedi, Loyce M; Masembe, Charles; Ouma, Johnson O; Aksoy, Serap; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the primary vector of trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock in Uganda. The Lake Victoria basin has been targeted for tsetse eradication using a rolling carpet initiative, from west to east, with four operational blocks (3 in Uganda and 1 in Kenya), under a Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). We screened tsetse flies from the three Ugandan PATTEC blocks for genetic diversity at 15 microsatellite loci from con...

  10. Factors relating to hospitalisation and economic burden of paediatric constipation in the state of Victoria, Australia, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Humaira; Ansari, Zahid; Lim, Tracy; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2014-12-01

    Constipation is common, with severe symptoms requiring hospitalisation. Constipation can be a primary (present at admission and requires treatment or investigation) or principal (first listed) diagnosis for hospitalisation. In the USA, constipation is the second most common ambulatory care digestive diagnosis with total costs >US$1.7 billion/year. Incidence of hospitalisation for constipation in children peaks at toilet-training age. This study determined the burden of paediatric constipation to hospital care in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was analysed retrospectively, examining hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of constipation in the 7-year period 2002/2003 to 2008/2009. For children, constipation was recorded as a primary diagnosis in 8688 admissions (3.6/1000 of population). In-hospital prevalence was ∼1.0%. Mean length of stay was 4.4 days (median 1.0, range 0-993, standard deviation 16.7). There were 1121 readmissions in 668 children. Average treatment cost was A$4235/admission (median A$1461, range A$0-$278 816), with annual costs of ∼A$5 505 500. Children in the highest socio-economic area had ∼50% fewer admissions (P disadvantage, public hospital, planned admission, longer length of stay and association with other medical conditions. This study identified that constipation in children is a significant cost burden in Victoria (costing public hospitals ∼A$5.5 million/year). Hospitalisation in Victoria is 10-fold higher than in the USA with 10% readmissions within a month. We conclude that strategies aimed at reducing hospitalisation for constipation could result in significant savings for the paediatric public health system in Victoria, Australia. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. The management of forensic patients in Victoria: the more things change, the more they remain the same

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffles, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The introduction, in 1997, of the Crimes (Menta/Impairment and Unfitness to be Tried) Act 1997 (Vic) (CMIA) marked dramatic legal and procedural changes to the common law system governing the post-acquittal detention of persons found not guilty by reason of insanity in Victoria which had endured for almost 200 years. The CMIA's express aim to restore the balance between community safety and the rights of persons found not guilty by reason of mental impairment (NGRMI) (as the ve...

  12. Las guerras de las mujeres en la guerra :[homenaje a la teórica deminista Victoria Sau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez González

    2011-12-01

    This paper pays tribute to the work of the feminist theorist Victoria Sau. The article relies on the three mythological or literary figures used by the author to exemplify the different stages of feminism -Cassandra, Antigone and Lysistrata- in order to review the roles played in different moments and places by women in war, understood as a defence mechanism intended to preserve the patriarchal system. As long as this mechanism is not dismantled, these roles will not disappear.

  13. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  14. A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H. C.; Yussim, S.; Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of the Michoacan earthquake (19th September, 1985, Mw 8.1) in Mexico City caused a significant change in the political, social and scientific history, as it was considered the worst seismic disaster ever lived in Mexico. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered. One of these efforts had began on 1960 with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification (1969), based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley.

  15. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  16. Temporal associations with declining Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis rates among women in the state of Victoria, Australia, 1947 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, John; Fairley, Christopher K; Saville, Marian; Bradshaw, Catriona; Bowden, Francis J; Horvath, Leonie B; Donovan, Basil; Chen, Marcus; Hocking, Jane S

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the temporal associations between Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) diagnoses in women at a large urban sexual health clinic and a major Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening laboratory in Victoria, Australia with Pap smear screening rates and the introduction of nitroimidazole treatments. An ecological analysis of TV diagnosis rates at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre and the Victorian Cytology Service, Pap smear screening rates and nitroimidazole prescription data. Diagnoses of TV at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre peaked in the 1950s at 20% to 30% and then rapidly declined through the 1960s and 1970s to below 1% in 1990. A similar pattern was observed at the Victorian Cytology Service. Metronidazole prescribing and opportunistic Pap smear screening began in Victoria in the 1960s coinciding with declining TV. The availability of tinidazole in 1976 led to further declines in TV in the late 1970s. A national cervical screening program introduced in 1991 was temporally associated with further declines in TV. Our analyses suggest that the introduction of metronidazole was associated with a large reduction in TV among Victorian women in the 1960s. The subsequent availability of tinidazole and increased Pap smear screening may have contributed to the current low TV prevalence in Victoria.

  17. Late holocene trends of phytoplankton productivity and anoxia as inferred from diatom and geochemical proxies in Lake Victoria, Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andama, M.; Lejju, J. B.; Tolo, C. U.

    2013-11-01

    Lake Victoria ecosystem has undergone major ecological changes in the recent decades. Sedimentary diatom analysis and Fe / Mn determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) have provided phytoplankton (diatom) productivity and the resultant anoxia (Fe / Mn) in Lake Victoria at Napoleon Gulf during the late Holocene (1778 cal yr BP (calibrated years before present) to 2008 AD) with radiocarbon dates determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry standard method. The results showed that increased total diatom counts in Napoleon Gulf during the late Holocene correspond with increased Fe / Mn ratio (anoxia) in some of the profiles and not in others and in most cases those that correspond correlate very well with increased eutrophication from nitrate input (Total Nitrogen, TN). Therefore slightly increased anoxia not related to increased diatom productivity was recorded in Lake Victoria at Napoleon Gulf from the period 1778 to 1135 cal yr BP. There was slightly increased diatom productivity at Napoleon Gulf from the period 857 to 758 cal yr BP but it did not increase anoxia in the lake. The period 415 cal yr BP to 2008 AD recorded increased anoxia at Napoleon Gulf related to high diatom productivity especially from 415 to 390 cal yr BP and 191 cal yr BP to 2008 AD.

  18. Sir James Reid and the Death of Queen Victoria: An Early Model for End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert C

    2015-12-01

    An appraisal of the last ten days of Queen Victoria's life, viewed primarily from the perspective of her personal physician, Sir James Reid, is presented. Sir James' clinical encounters with his patient and the Royal Family are examined to reveal his strategic and medical thinking and gauge his level of success in basic palliative aims. It was found that the lack of effective medical interventions, tensions within the Royal Family, the importance of his post to Sir James' professional career, and the political ramifications unavoidably connected with the illness of a head of state, all presented challenges to Reid's efforts to ease the physical and emotional pain of Queen Victoria's dying. Key features of Sir James' approach included reliance on physician-patient and physician-family relationships, emphasis on emotional support for the patient, and the careful selection of interventions for the family. In the first years of the 20th century, an era when the contemporary concepts of palliative care, hospice, and family dynamics did not exist, Sir James' management of the Queen's final illness suggested an early model for end-of-life care. By the end of Queen Victoria's life, Sir James was seen to have preserved his patient's comfort and dignity, at the same time advancing family and societal acceptance of the death of this matriarchal figure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Can a Skin Cancer Control Program make a Difference? A Profile of the SUNSMART Programme in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, C.; Dobbinson, S.; Montague, M.

    2000-01-01

    SunSmart is a programme of the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria. It is an evidence-based health promotion programme where decisions about the form and content of the programme are influenced by available evidence and community consultation processes. A systematic evaluation and research strategy is in place to ensure that as much information as possible is available on process, impact and outcomes. Over the past 19 years the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria has made a substantial impact in Victoria in relation to sun protection. It is one of the very few campaigns that has been able to demonstrate substantial changes not only in behaviour and attitudes but also in the downturn of skin cancer rates. Substantial sustainable changes have also occurred in the physical landscape as public authorities and commercial operators design their environment to be as sun protective as possible. This paper focuses on the key strategies that have encouraged positive change in the behaviour and attitudes of the Victorian population and the research that has documented the outcomes. (author)

  20. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai; Moody, Galan; Wu, Fengcheng; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Xu, Lixiang; Chen, Chang Hsiao; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; MacDonald, Allan H.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge

  1. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  2. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm “valleytronics” applications. - Highlights: • We explore the mechanical strain effects on the valley magnetotransport in graphene. • We analytically derive the dc collisional and Hall conductivities under strain. • The strain removes the valley degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain causes a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. • The strain leads to the well separated valley Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects.

  3. The Health Valley: Global Entrepreneurial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    In the space of a decade, the Lake Geneva region has become the Health Valley, a world-class laboratory for discovering and developing healthcare of the future. Through visionary individuals and thanks to exceptional infrastructure this region has become one of the most dynamic in the field of innovation, including leading scientific research and exceptional actors for the commercialization of academic innovation to industrial applications that will improve the lives of patients and their families. Here follows the chronicle of a spectacular expansion into the Health Valley.

  4. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  5. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  6. Urban Dynamics: Analyzing Land Use Change in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William; Richards, Lora R.; Buchanan, Janis T.; Wegener, Whitney R.

    2000-01-01

    In FY99, the Earth Resource Observation System (EROS) staff at Ames continued managing the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Urban Dynamics Research program, which has mapping and analysis activities at five USGS mapping centers. Historic land use reconstruction work continued while activities in geographic analysis and modeling were expanded. Retrospective geographic information system (GIS) development - the spatial reconstruction of a region's urban land-use history - focused on the Detroit River Corridor, California's Central Valley, and the city of Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

  7. A real options model to assess the role of flexibility in forestry and agroforestry adoption and disadoption in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Robert C. Abt

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to restore the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley’s forests have not achieved desired levels of ecosystem services production.We examined how the variability of returns and the flexibility to change or postpone decisions (option value) affects the economic potential of forestry and agroforestry systems to keep private land in production while still providing...

  8. Land use/land cover in Swisher County and Deaf Smith County locations, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Agriculture is the major land use/land cover in the Swisher and Deaf Smith County locations. Most of the agricultural land is irrigated. Furrow, center pivot, and lateral-wheel irrigation systems are in common use. Rangeland is the second most abundant land use/land cover; it is typically associated with stream valleys and playas. The rangeland supports cattle, which are an important source of income. The main urban areas in or near the locations are Tulia and Happy, in Swisher County, and Hereford and Vega, in Deaf Smith County. Most of the land within the locations is privately owned - corporate and government ownership is extremely limited - and large portions are currently under lease for oil exploration. County and regional agencies have no authority to regulate land-use patterns in the locations, although the Panhandle Regional Planning Commission can provide guidance to local jurisdictions. Land use within the corporate limits and extraterritorial jurisdictions of Tulia and Hereford is controlled by zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations. According to projections for the locations, agriculture will remain the major land use in the foreseeable future. Dryland farming and rangeland will become more prevalent as irrigation costs increase and marginal areas are taken out of production

  9. Bichromatic Scintillometer Measurements of Sensible and Latent Heat Fluxes over a Boreal Forested Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, P. E.; Nadeau, D.; Parent, A. C.; Rousseau, A. N.; Jutras, S.; Anctil, F.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal forest covers roughly 10% of the earth emerged surface, making it one of the world most common type of landscape. There is a large number of studies on the land-atmosphere exchanges of water and energy for this type of forested surfaces. However, few were located in complex terrain, and, to the best of our knowledge, none have looked at continuous regional scale fluxes. Scintillometry is a powerful tool that allows such measurements, but is usually used over flat homogeneous terrain due to its dependency on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory. However, some recent studies have applied this method over slopes, measuring fluxes comparable to those using the eddy covariance method. Still, more experiments are needed using scintillometry over sloped surfaces. This study presents bichromatic scintillometer measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a boreal-forested valley. The field site is located in the Montmorency Forest, Québec, Canada (47°17'N; 71°10'W). The instrumented valley is surrounded by ridges at 900 m elevation, with the bottom stream at 785 m, and follows a 300-120° azimuth coinciding with the two main wind direction (up and down-valley, respectively). Vegetation mostly includes balsam firs 6-10 m tall, creating a rough but homogeneous surface. Scintillometer transmitters and receivers are installed on top of the ridges enclosing the valley, making the path 1.35 km long and its effective height 70-m tall. The setup includes a large aperture and a micro-wave scintillometer with crossing paths allowing the use of the bichromatic method. Measurement are taken continuously from August to October 2017. Scintillometer fluxes are compared with those measured by a 15-m eddy covariance tower located 100 m west of the measurement path, on the southern slope of the valley. Net radiation is also measured to assess energy budget closure over the valley. The setup allows us to test the limits of applicability of scintillometer measurements, especially

  10. Preventing childhood obesity: the sentinel site for obesity prevention in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A Colin; Simmons, Anne; Sanigorski, Andrea M; Kremer, Peter J; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2008-12-01

    In spite of greater awareness of the need for action to reduce obesity, the evidence on sustainable community approaches to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity is surprisingly sparse. This paper describes the design and methodological components of the Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention, a demonstration site in the Barwon-South West region of Victoria, Australia, that aims to build the programs, skills and evidence necessary to attenuate and eventually reverse the obesity epidemic in children and adolescents. The Sentinel Site for Obesity Prevention is based on a partnership between the region's university (Deakin University) and its health, education and local government agencies. The three basic foundations of the Sentinel Site are: multi-strategy, multi-setting interventions; building community capacity; and undertaking program evaluations and population monitoring. Three intervention projects have been supported that cover different age groups (preschool: 2-5 years, primary school: 5-12 years, secondary school: 13-17 years), but that have many characteristics in common including: community participation and ownership of the project; an intervention duration of at least 3 years; and full evaluations with impact (behaviours) and outcome measures (anthropometry) compared with regionally representative comparison populations. We recommend the Sentinel Site approach to others for successfully building evidence for childhood obesity prevention and stimulating action on reducing the epidemic.

  11. Paediatric slow-speed non-traffic fatalities: Victoria, Australia, 1985-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P; Nolan, T

    1997-11-01

    An important group of fatal incidents are slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic incidents to children, which account for 14% of accidental deaths from all causes in Victorian children under 5 years of age between 1985 and 1995, and 12% of pedestrian deaths of all ages. In Victoria, Australia, the database of the state Consultative Council on Obstetric and Paediatric Morbidity and Mortality was utilised to identify paediatric slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic-accident deaths in the local population. Additional data relating to the car and its driver, the child, and the circumstances of the incident were abstracted from records kept by the State Coroner and the Victorian compulsory third party traffic injury insurance organisation. Twenty eight Victorian children were identified who had died in one of three types of incident (driverless cars, child interacting with the vehicle and driver, and drivers who were unaware of the child's proximity). These incidents were more common in rural areas compared with urban, usually occurring at the child's home. The child was with or near an adult on all occasions. The vehicle was usually being driven by a relative, and was reversing in a higher proportion of 'unaware' incidents compared with the 'interactive' type. The association of 'off-road' family vehicles and trucks with these incidents appears to be increasing, especially in recent years. These findings suggest some countermeasures, including the separation of vehicle driveways from children's play areas, and object vicinity ultrasonic warning devices for vehicles.

  12. Structuring the Environmental Experience Design Research Framework through Selected Aged Care Facility Data Analyses in Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans relate to the living environment physically and psychologically. Environmental psychology has a rich developed history while experience design emerged recently in the industrial design domain. Nonetheless, these approaches have barely been merged, understood or implemented in architectural design practices. This study explored the correlation between experience design and environmental psychology. Moreover, it conducted literature reviews on theories about emotion, user experience design, experience design and environmental psychology, followed by the analyses of spatial settings and environmental quality data of a selected aged care facility in Victoria, Australia, as a case study. Accordingly, this study led to proposing a research framework on environmental experience design (EXD. It can be defined as a deliberate attempt that affiliates experience design and environmental psychology with creation of the built environment that should accommodate user needs and demands. The EXD research framework proposed in this study was tailored for transforming related design functions into the solutions that contribute to improving the built environment for user health and wellbeing.

  13. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of V1R receptor (ora) genes in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Tomoki; Nikaido, Masato; Suzuki, Hikoyu; Hagino-Yamagishi, Kimiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2012-05-15

    Although olfaction could play a crucial role in underwater habitats by allowing fish to sense a variety of nonvolatile chemical signals, the importance of olfaction in species-rich cichlids is still controversial. In particular, examining whether cichlids rely on olfaction for reproduction is of primary interest to understand the mechanisms of speciation. In the present study, we explored the V1R (also known as ora) genes, which are believed to encode reproductive pheromone receptors in fish, in the genomes of Lake Victoria cichlids. By screening a bacterial artificial chromosome library, we identified all six intact V1R genes (V1R1 to V1R6) that have been reported in other teleost fish. Furthermore, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses showed that all of the V1R genes were expressed in the olfactory epithelium, indicating that these receptors are functional in cichlids. These observations indicate that cichlids use V1R-mediated olfaction in some ways for their social behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influenza C infections in Western Australia and Victoria from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelley, Lauren; Levy, Avram; Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Lang, Jurissa; Buettner, Iwona; Druce, Julian; Blyth, Chris; Effler, Paul; Smith, David; Barr, Ian G

    2016-11-01

    Influenza C is usually considered a minor cause of respiratory illness in humans with many infections being asymptomatic or clinically mild. Large outbreaks can occur periodically resulting in significant morbidity. This study aimed at analyzing the available influenza C clinical samples from two widely separated states of Australia, collected over a 7-year period and to compare them with influenza C viruses detected in other parts of the world in recent years. Between 2008 and 2014, 86 respiratory samples that were influenza C positive were collected from subjects with influenza-like illness living in the states of Victoria and Western Australia. A battery of other respiratory viruses were also tested for in these influenza C-positive samples. Virus isolation was attempted on all of these clinical samples, and gene sequencing was performed on all influenza C-positive cultures. Detections of influenza C in respiratory samples were sporadic in most years studied, but higher rates of infection occurred in 2012 and 2014. Many of the patients with influenza C had coinfections with other respiratory pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HE) gene found that most of the viruses grouped in the C/Sao Paulo/378/82 clade with the remainder grouping in the C/Kanagawa/1/76 clade. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. DISSOLVED OXYGEN MODELLING USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: A CASE OF RIVER NZOIA, LAKE VICTORIA BASIN, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Kimutai Kanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available River Nzoia in Kenya, due to its role in transporting industrial and municipal wastes in addition to agricultural runoff to Lake Victoria, is vulnerable to pollution. Dissolved oxygen is one of the most important indicators of water pollution. Artificial neural network (ANN has gained popularity in water quality forecasting. This study aimed at assessing the ability of ANN to predict dissolved oxygen using four input variables of temperature, turbidity, pH and electrical conductivity. Multilayer perceptron network architecture was used in this study. The data consisted of 113 monthly values for the input variables and output variable from 2009–2013 which were split into training and testing datasets. The results obtained during training and testing were satisfactory with R2 varying from 0.79 to 0.94 and RMSE values ranging from 0.34 to 0.64 mg/l which imply that ANN can be used as a monitoring tool in the prediction of dissolved oxygen for River Nzoia considering the non-correlational relationship of the input and output variables. The dissolved oxygen values follow seasonal trend with low values during dry periods.

  17. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Municipal Wastewater and the Marine Receiving Environment Near Victoria Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Krogh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP within the environment have been growing with the advent of more precise analytical methods. The discharge of municipal wastewater has been identified as a significant source of these contaminants, particularly where wastewater treatment is minimal. Here we present results from a comprehensive monitoring regime located around Victoria, BC, Canada. Samples were collected between 2009 and 2016 from a variety of sources including marine water, sediment and biota adjacent to two major untreated sewage outfalls, as well as the sewage itself. PPCP concentrations within the untreated sewage were high, and the sediment surrounding the outfalls showed corresponding contamination. However, this contamination dropped quickly with distance from the outfall such that by 800 m distance most PPCPs were below detection limits. Tissue samples of resident Northern Horse mussels (Modiolus modiolus collected adjacent to one of the major sewage outfalls showed high single sample concentrations of the antimicrobial triclosan (317 ng g−1 dry weight, the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (176 ng g−1 dry weight, as well as the antidepressant sertraline (84.1 ng g−1 dry weight. Reference stations from around the region showed very low concentrations of contamination with almost all PPCP concentrations being below detection limits. Within the sewage, concentrations were largely stable overtime, with the exception of triclosan and triclocarban which both showed declines over the study period.

  18. Liturgy and Music in Hereford Cathedral in the Time of Queen Victoria and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Murdoch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Victorian Gothic Revival and its focus on liturgical neo-medievalism inspired the 1860s restoration of the medieval Hereford Cathedral. In this restoration, the new screen played a central part. Designed by George Gilbert Scott and manufactured by the firm of Francis Skidmore in Coventry, the screen was commissioned in order to re-unite the choir with the nave. The symbolism and colours decorating the screen harmonized with the medieval and later features of the cathedral, including the high altar reredos, organ pipes, and floor tiles. Hereford Cathedral Library preserves historical accounts of the interior and original music manuscripts by Edward Elgar and Frederick Ouseley that illustrate, with the musical inserts provided, the rich tradition of choral music and liturgy which continues to this day with key liturgies and the annual Three Choirs Festival linking Gloucester, Hereford, and Worcester. Memorials and stained-glass windows dedicated to successive precentors embellish the musical vocabulary of the interior. In focusing on the musical culture connected with Hereford Cathedral, this essay seeks to enrich the interpretation of the restored Hereford Screen in its secular setting at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

  19. Comparison of stress in anaesthetic trainees between Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A C L; Irwin, M G; Lee, P W H; Lee, T H W; Man, S E

    2008-11-01

    A postal survey was sent to anaesthetic trainees in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia to compare work-related stress levels. Demographic data were collected. Anaesthetist-specific stressors, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Global Job Satisfaction scores were used for psychological testing. The response rates from Hong Kong and Melbourne were 64 of 133 (48.1%) and 108 of 196 (55.1%), respectively. Victorian respondents were older with greater family commitments, but more advanced in fulfilling training requirements. Hong Kong respondents, being faced with both the challenge of dual College requirements, exhibited consistently higher indices of stress (P stress scores observed in Hong Kong trainees related to service provision and a perceived lack of resources. Despite the complex nature of stress, its antecedents and manifestations, an inverse relationship between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction was evident in correlation analysis (P stress was present in some trainees in both areas. Hong Kong trainees may benefit from local development to address mental wellbeing as being important to fulfil this highly competitive training program.

  20. Selection of electrogenic bacteria for microbial fuel cell in removing Victoria blue R from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Wu, Pei-Ssu; Tsao, Shuo-En; Huang, Yu-Shan; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2018-01-28

    This study was conducted to select electrogenic bacteria from wastewater sludge. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) during the decomposition process of organic pollutants. Five culturable bacteria strains - namely, Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium sp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, and Stenotrophomonas sp. - have a double potential in dye removal and electricity generation. We inoculated the mixed electrogenic bacteria at a specific ratio and treated them with a triphenylmethane dye, Victoria blue R (VBR), to evaluate their electricity generation ability for the artificial and real wastewater. The results of the VBR shock-loading experiment indicated that the inoculated MFC could adapt to shock loading in 1-2 days and exhibited high removal efficiency (95-100%) for 100-800 mg L -1 VBR with a power density of 8.62 ± 0.10 to 34.81 ± 0.25 mW m -2 . The selected electrogenic bacteria in the MFC could use VBR as only electron donor for power generation. The matrix effects of the real wastewater on VBR removal and electricity generation of MFC were insignificant. VBR degradation by the electrogenic bacteria involves a stepwise demethylation process to yield partially dealkylated VBR species. In addition, these results demonstrate the feasibility of inoculating culturable bacteria strains to develop an efficient MFC for purifying wastewater.

  1. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vishal K.; Aslam, Omar; Dale, Larry; Miller, Norman; Purkey, David R.

    Urban areas in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Each model was calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios up to 2050. Our results show that water supply in all three towns is currently infrastructure limited; achieving existing design capacity could meet most projected demand until 2020s in Masaka beyond which new supply and conservation strategies would be needed. In Bukoba, reducing leakages would provide little performance improvement in the short-term, but doubling capacity would meet all demands until 2050. In Kisii, major infrastructure investment is urgently needed. In Masaka, streamflow simulations show that wetland sources could satisfy all demand until 2050, but at the cost of almost no water downstream of the intake. These models demonstrate the value of IWRM tools for developing water management plans that integrate hydroclimatology-driven supply to demand projections on a single platform.

  2. Impact of improved laboratory compliance on notification of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S C; MacEachern, A; Stevenson, E

    1997-02-01

    Although regulations in Victoria require notification of chlamydia infection by both clinician and laboratory, review found many reports that were notified only by one source (i.e., were unmatched). To identify problems with the notification system and to improve the quality of surveillance for this disease. All notified cases of chlamydia diagnosed in January or February 1995 were followed up by contacting diagnosing doctors. Identified noncompliant laboratories were asked to provide a list of all diagnoses for the period and institute ongoing reporting. Notification data were reviewed for timeliness and completeness. Clinicians never notified without laboratory confirmation. Soliciting laboratory reports increased total notifications by 30%, and there was a highly significant improvement in reporting by both clinicians and laboratories. Reasons for failure to notify by clinicians included an assumption by some clinicians that laboratories would notify and ignorance that notification was required. Notified cases generally are now accompanied by a laboratory report, and although nonnotification by clinicians continues, notification has improved. Further improvements in clinician notification may depend on doctors knowing that public health action results from reporting. An alternative to requiring doctors' time to be spent in duplicate notification would be to strengthen laboratory reporting and then check that adequate treatment and partner notification has occurred through contact with the diagnosing doctor.

  3. Economic, social and resource management factors influencing groundwater trade: Evidence from Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bruce; Webb, John; Stott, Kerry; Cheng, Xiang; Wilkinson, Roger; Cossens, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    In Victoria, Australia, most groundwater resources are now fully allocated and opportunities for new groundwater development can only occur through trading of license entitlements. Groundwater usage has rarely exceeded 50% of the available licensed volume, even in the 2008/9 drought year, and 50 to 70% of individual license holders use less than 5% of their allocation each year. However, little groundwater trading is occurring at present. Interviews were conducted with groundwater license holders and water brokers to investigate why the Victorian groundwater trade market is underdeveloped. Responses show there is a complex mix of social, economic, institutional and technical reasons. Barriers to trade are influenced by the circumstances of each groundwater user, administrative process and resource management rules. Water brokers deal with few trades at low margins and noted unrealistic selling prices and administrative difficulties. Irrigators who have successfully traded identify that there are few participants in trading, technical appraisals are expensive and administrative requirements and fees are burdensome, especially when compared to surface water trading. Opportunities to facilitate trade include groundwater management plan refinement and improved information provision. Simplifying transaction processes and costs, demonstrating good resource stewardship and preventing third party impacts from trade could address some concerns raised by market participants. There are, however, numerous individual circumstances that inhibit groundwater trading, so it is unlikely that policy and process changes alone could increase usage rates without greater demand for groundwater or more favourable farming economic circumstances.

  4. Corporatization as a means of improving water quality: the experience in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Narelle

    Factors including fragmentation, a lack of direction, poor accountability, poor water quality, and a sizable state government subsidy contributed to the rural water industry in Victoria, Australia, in 1993. In 1993 the state government set out parameters for reform to change the size, structure, performance, and culture of the water industry. The path taken was not privatization, but corporatization. Tools used included amalgamation of organizations; separating water provisions from local government; changing the composition and reporting mechanisms of the boards; establishing clear benchmarks and performance criteria; making information publicly available; and providing a commercial orientation. The outcomes of the reforms were to be a focus on water quality and effluent management. In 2001, 15 water authorities were in place. There were significant improvements in accountability, finances, and performance. The authorities provided information on performance to both the state and the public. Reductions of operating costs have been in the range of 20-35%, with savings put back into new infrastructure. Water quality has significantly improved in a number of parameters and effluent management has also improved. This paper describes the challenges faced before the reform process, the reforms initiated, and the outcomes. It argues that privatization is not the only path to improvement: Developing a corporate structure and accountability can also deliver substantial improvements.

  5. Newborn transport in South Australia, 1978-80: experience of the Queen Victoria Hospital, Adelaide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A G; Fitzgerald, A M; Dahlenburg, G W

    1982-01-23

    389 infants were transported to the Queen Victoria Hospital, Adelaide between 1978 and 1980. Twenty-three percent (99) of the infants were ventilated, and 49% (189) received intravenous or intra-arterial therapy. Fifty-six percent (217) of the infants required transport because of prematurity; 11% (46) because of perinatal asphyxia in babies weighing more than 2,500 g. Only one baby died during transport, while 14% of the babies died subsequently. A core temperature of less than 36 degrees C in either hospital is important; a cold baby is 3.5 times more likely to die (X2=25.46, P less than 0.001). The transport of babies over distances greater than 300 kilometres is peculiar to Australia. Significantly more of these babies were cold than those retrieved from hospitals near Adelaide (X2=4.7, P less than 0.05), and significantly more died. Difficulty in transferring mothers in preterm labour may be another reason these babies did relatively badly. Better education and facilities will be important if we are to improve their survival chances.

  6. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  7. Short-term droughts forecast using Markov chain model in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, Siti Nazahiyah; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuiyan, Muhammed A.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive risk management strategy for dealing with drought should include both short-term and long-term planning. The objective of this paper is to present an early warning method to forecast drought using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and a non-homogeneous Markov chain model. A model such as this is useful for short-term planning. The developed method has been used to forecast droughts at a number of meteorological monitoring stations that have been regionalised into six (6) homogenous clusters with similar drought characteristics based on SPI. The non-homogeneous Markov chain model was used to estimate drought probabilities and drought predictions up to 3 months ahead. The drought severity classes defined using the SPI were computed at a 12-month time scale. The drought probabilities and the predictions were computed for six clusters that depict similar drought characteristics in Victoria, Australia. Overall, the drought severity class predicted was quite similar for all the clusters, with the non-drought class probabilities ranging from 49 to 57 %. For all clusters, the near normal class had a probability of occurrence varying from 27 to 38 %. For the more moderate and severe classes, the probabilities ranged from 2 to 13 % and 3 to 1 %, respectively. The developed model predicted drought situations 1 month ahead reasonably well. However, 2 and 3 months ahead predictions should be used with caution until the models are developed further.

  8. Victoria Symptom Validity Test performance in children and adolescents with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L

    2012-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly more important to study, use, and promote the utility of measures that are designed to detect non-compliance with testing (i.e., poor effort, symptom non-validity, response bias) as part of neuropsychological assessments with children and adolescents. Several measures have evidence for use in pediatrics, but there is a paucity of published support for the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance on the VSVT in a sample of pediatric patients with known neurological disorders. The sample consisted of 100 consecutively referred children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 19 years (mean = 14.0, SD = 3.1) with various neurological diagnoses. On the VSVT total items, 95% of the sample had performance in the "valid" range, with 5% being deemed "questionable" and 0% deemed "invalid". On easy items, 97% were "valid", 2% were "questionable", and 1% was "invalid." For difficult items, 84% were "valid," 16% were "questionable," and 0% was "invalid." For those patients given two effort measures (i.e., VSVT and Test of Memory Malingering; n = 65), none was identified as having poor test-taking compliance on both measures. VSVT scores were significantly correlated with age, intelligence, processing speed, and functional ratings of daily abilities (attention, executive functioning, and adaptive functioning), but not objective performance on the measure of sustained attention, verbal memory, or visual memory. The VSVT has potential to be used in neuropsychological assessments with pediatric patients.

  9. Patient characteristics associated with hospitalisations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Zahid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs are those for which hospitalisation is thought to be avoidable with the application of preventive care and early disease management, usually delivered in a primary care setting. ACSCs are used extensively as indicators of accessibility and effectiveness of primary health care. We examined the association between patient characteristics and hospitalisation for ACSCs in the adult and paediatric population in Victoria, Australia, 2003/04. Methods Hospital admissions data were merged with two area-level socioeconomic indexes: Index of Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSED and Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA. Univariate and multiple logistic regressions were performed for both adult (age 18+ years and paediatric (age Results Predictors were much more strongly associated with ACSCs admissions compared to non-ACSCs admissions in the adult group than for the paediatric group with the exception of rurality. Significant adjusted ORs in the adult group were 1.06, 1.15, 1.13, 1.06 and 1.11 for sex, rurality, age, IRSED and ARIA variables, and 1.34, 1.04 and 1.09 in the paediatric group for rurality, IRSED and ARIA, respectively. Conclusions Disadvantaged paediatric and adult population experience more need of hospital care for ACSCs. Access barriers to primary care are plausible causes for the observed disparities. Understanding the characteristics of individuals experiencing access barriers to primary care will be useful for developing targeted interventions meeting the unique ambulatory needs of the population.

  10. Sensitive voltammetric detection of yeast RNA based on its interaction with Victoria Blue B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI SUN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voltammetric studies of the interaction of yeast RNA (y-RNA with Victoria Blue B (VBB are described in this paper. Furthermore, a linear sweep voltammetric method for the detection of y-RNA was established. The reaction conditions, such as acidity and amount of buffer solution, the concentration of VBB, the reaction time and temperature, etc., were carefully investigated by second order derivative linear sweep voltammetry. Under the optimal conditions, the reduction peak current of VBB at –0.75 V decreased greatly after the addition of y-RNA to the solution without any shift of the reduction peak potential. Based on the decrease of the peak current, a new quantitative method for the determination of y-RNA was developed. The effects of co-existing substances on the determination were carefully investigated and three synthetic samples were determined with satisfactory results. The stoichiometry of the VBB–y-RNA complex was calculated by linear sweep voltammetry and the interaction mechanism is discussed.

  11. The master potter and the rejected pots: eugenic legislation in Victoria, 1918-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R L

    1999-01-01

    In the period since Carol Bacchi introduced eugenics into Australian historiography in 1980, much has been written that has increased our understanding of the role eugenics played in the development of Australian society in the first half of this century. It is now generally recognised that eugenics developed after the first world war from a relatively simplistic scientific justification of racist and class-biased social Darwinism into a movement concerned with using environmental reforms to help a wide range of Australians reach their full potential. In the interwar years the reform eugenicists (as they have been named) were active in a wide range of environmental movements including health reforms, slum clearance and educational improvements. The corollary of reform eugenics was based on the belief that heredity was an impassable obstacle for some: mental deficients were not considered to be racially 'fit' or 'efficient' enough to benefit from the reforms. Whilst this side of reform eugenics is well known in other countries (sterilisation programmes in Germany, the United States and Scandinavia being examples), it is yet to receive much attention so far in the discussion about Australia in the interwar years. This article argues that the attempt of a group of influential reform eugenicists in Victoria in the interwar years to institute legislation aimed at denying a significant proportion of the population the most basic rights of citizenship (including the right to reproduce) redresses the imbalance in our understanding of reform eugenics in the interwar years.

  12. Potential immediate hypersensitivity reactions following immunization in preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C-M; Clothier, H J; Perrett, K P

    2018-04-06

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) are rare but potentially serious adverse events following immunization (AEFI). Surveillance of Adverse Events following Vaccination in the Community (SAEFVIC) is an enhanced passive surveillance system that collects, analyses and reports information about AEFI in Victoria, Australia. We describe the incidence, timing and type of potential IHR following vaccination in preschool children reported over an 8-year period. A total of 2110 AEFI were reported in 1620 children, of which 23.5% (496) were classified as potential IHR. Of these, 37.1% (184) were suspected to be IgE-mediated, (including anaphylaxis, angioedema and/or urticaria) and 83.5% (414) occurred within 15 minutes of vaccination. The incidence of potential IHR was 5.4 per 100,000 doses, with that of suspected IgE-mediated IHR being 2.0 per 100,000 doses. The incidence of anaphylaxis was extremely low (0.13 per 100,000 doses) and is consistent with other published studies. Potential IHR following immunization should be reported to appropriate local pharmacovigilance systems and patients reviewed by specialists able to evaluate, investigate and manage future vaccinations.

  13. Stakeholder Evaluation for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Completion Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Burkardt, Nina; Swann, Margaret Earlene; Stewart, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), is the largest system of public lands in the world dedicated to wildlife conservation. There are over 545 national wildlife refuges nationwide, encompassing 95 million acres. As part of the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997, each refuge is developing 15-year comprehensive conservation plans (CCPs). Each CCP describes a vision and desired future condition for the refuge and outlines goals, objectives, and management strategies for each refuge's habitat and visitor service programs. The CCP process for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in Davis, West Virginia was initiated in 2006. This planning process provides a unique opportunity for public input and involvement. Public involvement is an important part of the CCP process. Participation by parties with a stake in the resource (stakeholders) has the potential to increase understanding and support and reduce conflicts. Additionally, meaningful public participation in a decision process may increase trust and provide satisfaction in terms of both process and outcome for management and the public. Public meetings are a common way to obtain input from community members, visitors, and potential visitors. An 'Issues Workbook' is another tool the FWS uses to obtain public input and participation early in the planning process. Sometimes, however, these traditional methods do not capture the full range of perspectives that exist. A stakeholder evaluation is a way to more fully understand community preferences and opinions related to key topics in refuge planning. It can also help refuge staff understand how changes in management affect individuals in terms of their preference for services and experiences. Secondarily, a process such as this can address 'social goals' such as fostering trust in regulating agencies and reducing conflict among stakeholders. As part of the CCP planning effort at Canaan

  14. Hydrogeology and water quality of the West Valley Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    1997-01-01

    The West Valley Creek Basin drains 20.9 square miles in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of southeastern Pennsylvania and is partly underlain by carbonate rocks that are highly productive aquifers. The basin is undergoing rapid urbanization that includes changes in land use and increases in demand for public water supply and wastewater disposal. Ground water is the sole source of supply in the basin.West Valley Creek flows southwest in a 1.5-mile-wide valley that is underlain by folded and faulted carbonate rocks and trends east-northeast, parallel to regional geologic structures. The valley is flanked by hills underlain by quartzite and gneiss to the north and by phyllite and schist to the south. Surface water and ground water flow from the hills toward the center of the valley. Ground water in the valley flows west-southwest parallel to the course of the stream. Seepage investigations identified losing reaches in the headwaters area where streams are underlain by carbonate rocks and gaining reaches downstream. Tributaries contribute about 75 percent of streamflow. The ground-water and surface-water divides do not coincide in the carbonate valley. The ground-water divide is about 0.5 miles west of the surface-water divide at the eastern edge of the carbonate valley. Underflow to the east is about 1.1 inches per year. Quarry dewatering operations at the western edge of the valley may act partly as an artificial basin boundary, preventing underflow to the west. Water budgets for 1990, a year of normal precipitation (45.8 inches), and 1991, a year of sub-normal precipitation (41.5 inches), were calculated. Streamflow was 14.61 inches in 1990 and 12.08 inches in 1991. Evapotranspiration was estimated to range from 50 to 60 percent of precipitation. Base flow was about 62 percent of streamflow in both years. Exportation by sewer systems was about 3 inches from the basin and, at times, equaled base flow during the dry autumn of 1991. Recharge was estimated to be 18

  15. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  16. An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014) have been best explained by the geometry .... flows through narrow valley confined by the steep valley slopes. ... valley (figure 3b) which opens up around Srina- ... Method. 4.1 Drainage basin and stream network. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) helps in extracting ... was processed to fill the pits or sinks, and to obtain.

  17. Housing provision in the Kathmandu Valley: Public agency and private sector initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya K. Shrestha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The haphazard growth of settlements in the Kathmandu Valley is the result of rapid urbanisation, growing poverty, the high cost of land and construction, and dependence on the traditional practice of owner-built housing. This growth has resulted in huge housing deficits and poor home conditions. The government’s implementation of the site and services programme as well as land-pooling projects in the 1970s and 1980s benefitted local landowners, but private-sector developments in the 1990s and 2000s were only accessible to upper-middle and high-income groups. This has forced the urban poor and economically disadvantaged groups to live in slum and squatter developments. Planned development organisation has been weak in terms of physical layout, the creation of socialisation opportunities and a sense of community, and in achieving a desirable population density. The existing legal and institutional framework is inadequate and ineffective for addressing these issues. To fill the gap between the efforts of the public and private sectors and meet the high demands for housing in the valley, clear-cut policies and planning are required. This must be done in order to link housing supply with demand and to ensure the participation of various public and private-sector agencies in land-development and housing projects that will incorporate the urban poor. Local municipalities should also be equipped for managing local resources, coordinating the agencies involved and monitoring development.

  18. The People of Bear Hunter Speak: Oral Histories of the Cache Valley Shoshones Regarding the Bear River Massacre

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Aaron L.

    2007-01-01

    The Cache Valley Shoshone are the survivors of the Bear River Massacre, where a battle between a group of US. volunteer troops from California and a Shoshone village degenerated into the worst Indian massacre in US. history, resulting in the deaths of over 200 Shoshones. The massacre occurred due to increasing tensions over land use between the Shoshones and the Mormon settlers. Following the massacre, the Shoshones attempted settling in several different locations in Box Elder County, eventu...

  19. Potential impacts of damming the Juba Valley, western Somalia: Insights from geomorphology and alluvial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In 1988 plans were well advanced to dam the Juba River in western Somalia. The aims of the Baardheere Dam Project were to generate hydroelectric power for the capital Mogadishu, and to provide water for irrigation in the Juba Valley. A reconnaissance survey on foot along 500 km of the river upstream of the proposed dam site at Baardheere and detailed geomorphic mapping from air photos provided a basis for reconstructing the late Quaternary alluvial history of the river and for assessing the potential impact of the proposed dam. The Juba River rises in the Ethiopian Highlands and is the only river in Somalia that flows to the sea. Its history reflects climatic events in Ethiopia, where the Rift Valley lakes were very low during the LGM (21±2 ka), and high for about 5, 000 years before and after then. Cave deposits in Somalia indicate wetter conditions at 13, 10, 7.5 and 1.5 ka. Alluvial terraces in the Juba Valley range in age from late Pleistocene to late Holocene but only attain a few metres above the present floodplain. This is because the dry tributary valleys contain limestone caves and fissures that divert any high flows from the parent river underground, a process not known when the project was first approved. The oldest preserved terrace was cemented by calcrete by 40 ka. Alluvial gravels were deposited at the outlet of dry tributary valleys during times of episodic high-energy flow between 26 ka and 28 ka. Finely laminated shelly sands accumulated at 10 ka to form the 5 m terrace. The 2 m terrace was laid down 3.2 ka ago as a slackwater deposit. The lack of high-level alluvial terraces raises doubts over plans to dam the river, since rapid leakage would occur from side valleys and the reservoir would not attain the height needed to generate hydroelectric power. It would submerge all existing arable land along the river. Finally, the presence in the late Holocene alluvium of the sub-fossil gastropods Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, which are

  20. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...