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Sample records for valley nw italy

  1. Modeling groundwater/surface-water interactions in an Alpine valley (the Aosta Plain, NW Italy): the effect of groundwater abstraction on surface-water resources

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    Stefania, Gennaro A.; Rotiroti, Marco; Fumagalli, Letizia; Simonetto, Fulvio; Capodaglio, Pietro; Zanotti, Chiara; Bonomi, Tullia

    2018-02-01

    A groundwater flow model of the Alpine valley aquifer in the Aosta Plain (NW Italy) showed that well pumping can induce river streamflow depletions as a function of well location. Analysis of the water budget showed that ˜80% of the water pumped during 2 years by a selected well in the downstream area comes from the baseflow of the main river discharge. Alluvial aquifers hosted in Alpine valleys fall within a particular hydrogeological context where groundwater/surface-water relationships change from upstream to downstream as well as seasonally. A transient groundwater model using MODFLOW2005 and the Streamflow-Routing (SFR2) Package is here presented, aimed at investigating water exchanges between the main regional river (Dora Baltea River, a left-hand tributary of the Po River), its tributaries and the underlying shallow aquifer, which is affected by seasonal oscillations. The three-dimensional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer was obtained by means of a specific coding system within the database TANGRAM. Both head and flux targets were used to perform the model calibration using PEST. Results showed that the fluctuations of the water table play an important role in groundwater/surface-water interconnections. In upstream areas, groundwater is recharged by water leaking through the riverbed and the well abstraction component of the water budget changes as a function of the hydraulic conditions of the aquifer. In downstream areas, groundwater is drained by the river and most of the water pumped by wells comes from the base flow component of the river discharge.

  2. Deformation of ``Villafranchian'' lacustrine sediments in the Chisone Valley (Western Alps, Italy)

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    Collo, Giovanni; Giardino, Marco

    1997-09-01

    The Chisone Valley is located in the internal NW Alps, in the Pinerolese District, an area characterized by present low to medium seismicity. Fine-grained sediments (sand, silt and clay with interbedded gravel) crop out in the lower Chisone Valley: they were first interpreted as glaciolacustrine deposits, and then as a lacustrine infilling of the valley floor probably due to differential uplifting of the valley mouth. Review of this data, together with new field and palynological observations, lead us to refer the lacustrine deposits to approximately the Lower Pleistocene (Villafranchian). In many outcrops, the lacustrine deposits show strong soft-sediment deformation such as convolute laminations, water-escape structures and disrupted beds, some of them associated with folds and faults (cm to dm in size); only two sites show metric to decametric folds and faults trending E-W and N-S. Detailed structural analysis conducted along a recently exposed section (Rio Gran Dubbione site) shows several soft-sediment deformation features on the limbs of mesoscale folds. Because of their intimate structural association, the origin of these minor structures seems to be connected to synsedimentary activity on reverse and normal faults (m to dm in size) affecting the lacustrine deposits in the same locality. Soft-sediment deformation features can be interpreted as possible paleoseismites. If so, the present seismicity of the Pinerolese District, which is the major area of such activity in NW Italy, cannot be considered an isolated episode in the geological evolution of the region; even if there is no supporting evidence for continuous seismicity, the deformations in the lacustrine sediments of the Chisone Valley testify to Early Pleistocene seismic activity, probably related to the recent tectonic evolution of the internal side of the NW Alps.

  3. Isolated, but transnational: the glocal nature of Waldensian ethnobotany, Western Alps, NW Italy.

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    Bellia, Giada; Pieroni, Andrea

    2015-05-07

    An ethnobotanical field study on the traditional uses of wild plants for food as well as medicinal and veterinary plants was conducted in four Waldensian valleys (Chisone, Germanasca, Angrogna, and Pellice) in the Western Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy. Waldensians represent a religious Protestant Christian minority that originated in France and spread around 1,170 AD to the Italian side of Western Alps, where, although persecuted for centuries, approximately 20,000 believers still survive today, increasingly mixing with their Catholic neighbours. Interviews with a total of 47 elderly informants, belonging to both Waldensian and Catholic religious groups, were undertaken in ten Western Alpine villages, using standard ethnobotanical methods. The uses of 85 wild and semi-domesticated food folk taxa, 96 medicinal folk taxa, and 45 veterinary folk taxa were recorded. Comparison of the collected data within the two religious communities shows that Waldensians had, or have retained, a more extensive ethnobotanical knowledge, and that approximately only half of the wild food and medicinal plants are known and used by both communities. Moreover, this convergence is greater for the wild food plant domain. Comparison of the collected data with ethnobotanical surveys conducted at the end of the 19th Century and the 1980s in one of studied valleys (Germanasca) shows that the majority of the plants recorded in the present study are used in the same or similar ways as they were decades ago. Idiosyncratic plant uses among Waldensians included both archaic uses, such as the fern Botrychium lunaria for skin problems, as well as uses that may be the result of local adaptions of Central and Northern European customs, including Veronica allionii and V. officinalis as recreational teas and Cetraria islandica in infusions to treat coughs. The great resilience of plant knowledge among Waldensians may be the result of the long isolation and history of marginalisation that this group has faced

  4. Fertilization Management of Paddy Fields in Piedmont (NW Italy

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    Laura Zavattaro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A well-documented analysis of fertilization management techniques in use by farmers in a given region is the first step to improving the management standards of agronomic practices. The aim of this work was to summarize the fertilization management that farmers normally utilize for the rice crop in the Piedmont Region of Northwest Italy, and to analyze its agronomic and environmental sustainability. On average, 127 kg ha-1 of N, 67 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and 161 kg ha-1 of K2O were applied to the rice crop. Inorganic fertilizers were used on most of the surface. Calcium cyanamide was the most widely used slow-release product. Commercial organic compounds were spread on about 32% of the paddy surface, while farmyard manure was distributed over 6% of the surface. Organic-mineral products were also widely used. One fourth of the paddy surface received only inorganic products. Using organic or organic-mineral fertilizers together with inorganic products was the most common strategy (55% of the paddy surface. In most cases, N and P fertilization was balanced with crop removal. The N soil surface balance was in the ± 50 kg range for 77% of the surface, P fertilization was less than removal for 53% of the surface, whereas K fertilization was excessive (surplus >100 kg ha-1 for 53% of the surface. The nutrient balance was affected by the widespread practice of burning straw after harvest (66% of the paddy surface. The farmers modulated fertilization according to the rice variety requirements and tolerance to high N supply. The largest nutrient surplus was associated with stocking farms. Inefficient use of fertilizers that should be avoided to improve the territorial nutrient balance were then outlined, and possible specific actions were proposed.

  5. Fertilization Management of Paddy Fields in Piedmont (NW Italy

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    Laura Zavattaro

    Full Text Available A well-documented analysis of fertilization management techniques in use by farmers in a given region is the first step to improving the management standards of agronomic practices. The aim of this work was to summarize the fertilization management that farmers normally utilize for the rice crop in the Piedmont Region of Northwest Italy, and to analyze its agronomic and environmental sustainability. On average, 127 kg ha-1 of N, 67 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and 161 kg ha-1 of K2O were applied to the rice crop. Inorganic fertilizers were used on most of the surface. Calcium cyanamide was the most widely used slow-release product. Commercial organic compounds were spread on about 32% of the paddy surface, while farmyard manure was distributed over 6% of the surface. Organic-mineral products were also widely used. One fourth of the paddy surface received only inorganic products. Using organic or organic-mineral fertilizers together with inorganic products was the most common strategy (55% of the paddy surface. In most cases, N and P fertilization was balanced with crop removal. The N soil surface balance was in the ± 50 kg range for 77% of the surface, P fertilization was less than removal for 53% of the surface, whereas K fertilization was excessive (surplus >100 kg ha-1 for 53% of the surface. The nutrient balance was affected by the widespread practice of burning straw after harvest (66% of the paddy surface. The farmers modulated fertilization according to the rice variety requirements and tolerance to high N supply. The largest nutrient surplus was associated with stocking farms. Inefficient use of fertilizers that should be avoided to improve the territorial nutrient balance were then outlined, and possible specific actions were proposed.

  6. Geodiversity characterization and assessment of the Morainic Amphitheatre of Rivoli -Avigliana (NW-Italy)

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    Giordano, Enrico; Lucchesi, Stefania; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The concept of Geodiversity in its wide sense refers specifically to particular geosystems that are in themselves complex (e.g diverse) assemblages of bedrock, landform, and soil features. Therefore, geodiversity assessment is strictly related to landscape structure, whose studies are in the field of complex Physical Geography. Moreover, Geodiversity studies provide a fundamental base for geoconservation and environmental management in a holistic way. This is particularly true within complex geomorphological environments, where many intrinsic and extrinsic factors are interconnected. Various procedures has been already applied for the creation of geodiversity maps in different geomorphological context, but especially in wide areas with a large geodiversity of landforms. Pleistocene morainic amphitheatres of the Alpine piedmont regions are indeed particular and complex environments: not only for the geological and geomorphological points of view, but also for their relationships with biotic components and human life. The aim of this study is to carry out a geodiversity characterization of the Rivoli-Avigliana Morainic Amphitheatre (AMRA; NW Italy). The AMRA separates the lower Susa Valley from the middle course of the Sangone River; it is a set of low hills and depressions related to glacial pulsations aged between 750,000 and 12,000 years ago. Earth Sciences knowledge of the area has been compared to detailed field geomorphological and territorial data in order to determine qualitative and quantitative landscape parameters and to evaluate their validity for geodiversity assessment. A first qualitative characterization of the AMRA and an estimation of its geodiversity have been performed by means of geomorphological mapping and stratigraphic studies, including geomorphosites assessment for the same area. Then, geodiversity characterization and evaluation have been performed through the definition and application of quantitative parameters (landform energy, slope

  7. Landscape analysis for multi-hazard prevention in Orco and Soana valleys, North-Western Italy

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    Turconi, L.; Tropeano, D.; Savio, G.; De, S. Kumar; Mason, P. J.

    2015-04-01

    A Civil Protection Plan has been drafted for a 600 km2 mountainous region in NW Italy Consisting of Orco and Soana Valleys. It is a part of the oldest natural park in Italy and attracts several thousand tourists every year. The work is concerned with the analysis of relevant physiographic characteristics of this Alpine landscapehaving extremely variable geomorphology and possess a long history of instability. Thousands of records as well as digital maps (involving overlay and comparison of up to 90 GIS layers) have been analyzed and cross-correlated to find out the details of the events. The study area experienced different types of natural hazards, typical of the whole Alpine environment. Thus, the present area has been selected for such multi-hazard research in which several natural processes have been investigated, concerning their damaging effects over the land. Due to 36 different severe hazardous events at least 250 deaths have been recorded in the area since 18th Century, in the occasion of.

  8. P-T-t-d History of the Lahul Valley, NW Indian Himalaya

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    Nieblas, A.; Leech, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Lahul Valley of NW India is located between the Zanskar Shear zone to the northwest and the Sangla detachment to the southeast. This region contains three east-trending, laterally-continuous tectonostratigraphic units separated by two major fault zones. To the south, low-grade metasediments of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) are separated from high-grade crystalline rocks of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) by the north dipping Main Central Thrust (MCT). The northern extent of the GHS is separated from overlying low-grade sedimentary rocks of the Tethyan Himalayan Sequence (THS) along the north dipping South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS). There is controversy over the location and type of shear motion for the STDS in the ~50 km strip running through Lahul Valley where the STD is interpreted as a discrete fault, a dextral shear zone, and is unidentified in some areas along the trend of the STDS. This study focuses on understanding the pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-d) evolution of THS and GHS rocks in Lahul Valley to better understand regional Cenozoic deformation and the location and role of the STDS in the extrusion of the GHS. Deformed granitics, migmatites, and leucogranites from the GHS contain a dominant mineralogy of Qz + Kfs + Pl + Bt + Ms ± Grt ± Ky ± St. Schists and phyllites from the THS contain a dominant mineralogy of Qz + Kfs + Pl + Bt + Ms ± Grt. Isochemical phase equilibria diagrams (pseudosections) are calculated in Perple_X using whole-rock chemistry data with solution models based on these mineral assemblages. Ti-in-quartz thermometry and the Fe-Mg exchange thermometry from garnet-biotite pairs used with mineral growth relationships constrain conditions during deformation and to establish P-T paths. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon constrains peak metamorphic conditions and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of micas provide the cooling history along the valley and across the STDS. This multi-component approach to understand

  9. Nucleation and growth of new particles in Po Valley, Italy

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    A. Hamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol number distribution measurements are reported at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC station (44°39' N, 11°37' E for the time period 2002–2005. The station is located in Po Valley, the largest industrial, trading and agricultural area in Italy with a high population density. New particle formation was studied based on observations of the particle size distribution, meteorological and gas phase parameters. The nucleation events were classified according to the event clarity based on the particle number concentrations, and the particle formation and growth rates. Out of a total of 769 operational days from 2002 to 2005 clear events were detected on 36% of the days whilst 33% are clearly non-event days. The event frequency was high during spring and summer months with maximum values in May and July, whereas lower frequency was observed in winter and autumn months. The average particle formation and growth rates were estimated as ~6 cm−3 s−1 and ~7 nm h−1, respectively. Such high growth and formation rates are typical for polluted areas. Temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, SO2 and O3 concentrations were on average higher on nucleation days than on non-event days, whereas relative and absolute humidity and NO2 concentration were lower; however, seasonal differences were observed. Backtrajectory analysis suggests that during majority of nucleation event days, the air masses originate from northern to eastern directions. We also study previously developed nucleation event correlations with environmental variables and show that they predict Po Valley nucleation events with variable success.

  10. REVISION AND RE-DOCUMENTATION OF M. AIROLDI'S SPECIES OF ARCHAEOLITHOTHAMNIUM FROM THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW ITALY

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    GRAZIA VANNUCCI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, containing thirteen new species. In this paper Archaeolithothamnium praeerithraeum Airoldi 1932 and Archaeolithothamnium statiellense Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The features observable in the sporangial compartments allowed to attribute both species to the genus Sporolithon. 

  11. The changing ethnoecological cobweb of white truffle (Tuber mangnatum Pico) gatherers in South Piedmont, NW Italy.

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    Pieroni, Andrea

    2016-04-18

    Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK) related to truffles represents an under-investigated area of research in ethnobiology. Nevertheless, truffles, in a few southern European areas, and notably in South Piedmont, represent a crucial component of the local economy and cultural heritage. Thirty-four white truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico) gatherers, locally known as trifulau, aged between 35 and 75 years and living in a few villages and small towns of the Langhe and Roero areas (South Piedmont, NW Italy), were interviewed in-depth during the years 2010-2014 regarding their ecological perceptions, truffle gathering techniques, and the socio-ecological changes that have occurred during the past several decades. A very sophisticated ethnoecological knowledge of the trees, soils, and climatic conditions considered ideal for searching for and finding white truffles was recorded. Moreover, a very intimate connection between gatherers and their dogs plays a fundamental role in the success of the truffle search. However, according to the informants, this complex ethnoecological cobweb among men, truffles, dogs, and the environment has been heavily threatened in the past few decades by major changes: climate change, in which the summer has become a very hot and dry season; social changes, due to a more market-oriented attitude of younger gatherers; and especially environmental and macro-economic dynamics, which followed the remarkable expansion of viticulture in the study area. The TEK of white truffle gatherers indicates the urgent need for fostering sustainable gastronomy-centred initiatives, aimed at increasing the awareness of consumers and food entrepreneurs regarding the co-evolution that has inextricably linked locals, truffles, and their natural environment during the past three centuries.

  12. REVISION AND RE-DOCUMENTATION OF M. AIROLDI’S SPECIES OF MESOPHYLLUM FROM THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW ITALY

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    DANIELA BASSO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, including thirteen new species. In this paper Mesophyllum fructiferum Airoldi 1932 and Mesophyllum obsitum Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The presence of cell fusions, multiporate conceptacles and a ventral core of cell filaments passing from coaxial to non-coaxial confirm that both species belong to the genus Mesophyllum.   SHORT NOTES  

  13. Estimating bioerosion rate on fossil corals: a quantitative approach from Oligocene reefs (NW Italy)

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    Silvestri, Giulia

    2010-05-01

    Bioerosion of coral reefs, especially when related to the activity of macroborers, is considered to be one of the major processes influencing framework development in present-day reefs. Macroboring communities affecting both living and dead corals are widely distributed also in the fossil record and their role is supposed to be analogously important in determining flourishing vs demise of coral bioconstructions. Nevertheless, many aspects concerning environmental factors controlling the incidence of bioerosion, shifting in composition of macroboring communities and estimation of bioerosion rate in different contexts are still poorly documented and understood. This study presents an attempt to quantify bioerosion rate on reef limestones characteristic of some Oligocene outcrops of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy) and deposited under terrigenous sedimentation within prodelta and delta fan systems. Branching coral rubble-dominated facies have been recognized as prevailing in this context. Depositional patterns, textures, and the generally low incidence of taphonomic features, such as fragmentation and abrasion, suggest relatively quiet waters where coral remains were deposited almost in situ. Thus taphonomic signatures occurring on corals can be reliably used to reconstruct environmental parameters affecting these particular branching coral assemblages during their life and to compare them with those typical of classical clear-water reefs. Bioerosion is sparsely distributed within coral facies and consists of a limited suite of traces, mostly referred to clionid sponges and polychaete and sipunculid worms. The incidence of boring bivalves seems to be generally lower. Together with semi-quantitative analysis of bioerosion rate along vertical logs and horizontal levels, two quantitative methods have been assessed and compared. These consist in the elaboration of high resolution scanned thin sections through software for image analysis (Photoshop CS3) and point

  14. Electrical resistivity tomography investigations in the ufita Valley (southern Italy.

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    C. Basso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Several Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT surveys have been carried out to study the subsurface structural and sedimentary settings of the upper Ufita River valley, and to evaluate their efficiency to distinguish the geological boundary between shallow Quaternary sedimentary deposits and clayey bedrock characterized by moderate resistivity contrast. Five shallow ERTs were carried out across a morphological scarp running at the foot of the northeastern slope of the valley. This valley shoulder is characterized by a set of triangular facets, that some authors associated to the presence of a SW-dipping normal fault. The geological studies allow us to interpret the shallow ERTs results obtaining a resistivity range for each Quaternary sedimentary deposit. The tomographies showed the geometrical relationships of alluvial and slope deposits, having a maximum thickness of 30-40 m, and the morphology of the bedrock. The resistivity range obtained for each sedimentary body has been used for calibrating the tomographic results of one 3560m-long deep ERT carried out across the deeper part of the intramountain depression with an investigation depth of about 170 m. The deep resistivity result highlighted the complex alluvial setting, characterized by alternating fine grained lacustrine deposits and coarser gravelly fluvial sediments.

  15. Soil development along a glacial chronosequence (Pré de Bar glacier, NW Italy)

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    Letey, Stéphanie; Freppaz, Michele; Filippa, Gianluca; Stanchi, Silvia; Cerli, Chiara; Pogliotti, Paolo; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    After the maximum expansion phase of the Little Ice Age, soils located in proglacial areas in the Italian Alps evolved over a time span of about 190 years. In the future, as a consequence of climate change, additional areas will become ice-free and therefore subject to pedogenesis. In such conditions, ice retreat time and topography are expected to play a major role among soil formation factors. Due to extreme environmental characteristics, soil evolution will be rather slow, and heavily influenced by severe soil loss phenomena (e.g. water erosion due to extreme rainfall event and snowmelt, avalanche erosion). We investigated the soil formation along a glacial chronosequence of an Alpine glacier foreland. The Pré de Bar glacier is located in North West Italy (Aosta Valley Region), in the Mont Blanc massif, between 3750 and 2150 m a.s.l. and it covers an area of 340 ha. The glacier was chosen because of the availability of old photographs documenting the glacier retreat phases starting from 1820. At the present time, the cumulative retreat length of the Pré de Bar glacier has reached 1600 m. Along this length, sampling sites were established at 6 successional stages from 6 to 189 years since deglaciation, from 2100 to 1880 m a.s.l.. Soil profiles were opened and sampled according to diagnostic horizons, then they were characterized by means of standard chemical and physical methods. Moreover, as recently deglaciated soils, characterized by incipient pedogenesis, may be particularly vulnerable from the physical point of view, the Atterberg Limits (LL, Liquid Limit; and PL, Plastic Limit) and the WAS (Water Aggregate Stability) index were determined, as indicators of soil physical quality. Soil samples were also subjected to organic matter density fractionation to assess the role of organic C in structure development. All the analyzed soils were classified as Lythic Cryorthents (higher elevation) or Typic Cryorthents (lower elevation) (USDA - Soil Taxonomy), with

  16. Subsidence hazards connected to quarrying activities in a karst area: the case of the Moncalvo sinkhole event (Piedmont, NW Italy

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    Bonetto, Sabrina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum is an important raw material for constructions and other industrial sectors. In Piedmont (NW Italy, main gypsum bodies are located in the Monferrato area, where large open pits and underground quarries are present. The gypsum-bearing formation outcropping in this area shows typical geological, structural, and hydrogeological features, which affect the quarrying and the related interaction with natural phenomena, human activities, and land use. In particular, gypsum karst has considerable influence on mining operations, as well as mining operations can produce strong impact on gypsum karst. In Monferrato, a specific case of interaction between the quarrying activity and geological, hydrogeological, and territorial setting is represented by the event of water inrush that happened in the Moncalvo underground quarry in association with the development of a surface sinkhole phenomenon.

  17. The upper Sava valley at the three border area of Austria, Italy ans Yugoslavia - a geographic perspective

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    Vladimir Klemenčič

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis on the alpine spatial factors was carried out in the area of Kranjska gora and the Upper Sava valley, in the NW corner of Slovenia (Yugoslavia. As a part of a similar study Austrians and Italians, at their side of the border, ther research focused on future regional development. The so called "Three Border Area", in the above-mentioned countries, candidates for the winter olympics in 1998 and in general seek cross-border cooperation. The mountainous region of the Julian Alps here is separated from another mountainous and border strech of the Karawanks by the deep glacial river valley of the river Sava. The central place within the valley is Kranjska Gora — a famous winter šport center. World cup alpine skiing races and ski-jumping competitions (Planica take place here every year. The past post-war period were not very much in favour of developing tourism in general. That is why many inhabitants of the Upper Sava Valley decided to abandon agriculture and look for jobs in the governmentaly supported steel mills of the communal center of Jesenice. Daily migration accures today in both directions: man from the area migrate to the industry, woman from the above-mentioned town travel daily the same distance to work in hotels. Lately a couple of hundred inhabitants found jobs also in the nearby employment centers of Carinthia and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Future complex regional development in the area of the bordering countries of Italy, Austria and Yugoslavia can be supported in the part of Slovenia with the tradition of mountaineering and ski jumping as well as vvith an international tradition in hosting guests from distantplaces and vvith the tradition of organizing sporting events. The relatively "underdeveloped alpine landscape" here. mostly within the borders of the Triglav National Park could attract visitors too. Among other developments Mountaineering — and Ski-jumping Schools and Courses of

  18. Geomorphic investigation of the Late-Quaternary landforms in the southern Zanskar Valley, NW Himalaya

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    Sharma, Shubhra; Hussain, Aadil; Mishra, Amit K.; Lone, Aasif; Solanki, Tarun; Khan, Mohammad Khatib

    2018-02-01

    The Suru, Doda and Zanskar river valleys in the semi-arid region of Southern Zanskar Ranges (SZR) preserve a rich repository of the glacial and fluvial landforms, alluvial fans, and lacustrine deposits. Based on detailed field observations, geomorphic mapping and limited optical ages, we suggest four glaciations of decreasing magnitude in the SZR. The oldest Southern Zanskar Glaciation Stage (SZS-4) is inferred from glacially polished bedrock and tillite pinnacles. The SZS-4 is ascribed to the Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS)-4/3. The subsequent SZS-3 is represented by obliterated and dissected moraines, and is assigned to MIS-2/Last Glacial Maximum. The multiple recessional moraines of SZS-2 glaciation are assigned the early to mid Holocene age whereas, the youngest SZS-1 moraines were deposited during the Little Ice Age. We suggest that during the SZS-2 glaciation, the Drang-Drung glacier shifted its course from Suru Valley (west) to the Doda Valley (east). The study area has preserved three generations of outwash gravel terraces, which broadly correlate with the phases of deglaciation associated with SZS-3, 2, and 1. The alluvial fan aggradation, lacustrine sedimentation, and loess deposition occurred during the mid-to-late Holocene. We suggest that glaciation was driven by a combination of the mid-latitude westerlies and the Indian Summer Monsoon during periods of cooler temperature, while phases of deglaciation occurred during enhanced temperature.

  19. Automatic fault tracing of active faults in the Sutlej valley (NW-Himalayas, India)

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    Janda, C.; Faber, R.; Hager, C.; Grasemann, B.

    2003-04-01

    In the Sutlej Valley the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (LHCS) is actively extruding between the Munsiari Thrust (MT) at the base, and the Karcham Normal Fault (KNF) at the top. The clear evidences for ongoing deformation are brittle faults in Holocene lake deposits, hot springs activity near the faults and dramatically younger cooling ages within the LHCS (Vannay and Grasemann, 2001). Because these brittle fault zones obviously influence the morphology in the field we developed a new method for automatically tracing the intersections of planar fault geometries with digital elevation models (Faber, 2002). Traditional mapping techniques use structure contours (i.e. lines or curves connecting points of equal elevation on a geological structure) in order to construct intersections of geological structures with topographic maps. However, even if the geological structure is approximated by a plane and therefore structure contours are equally spaced lines, this technique is rather time consuming and inaccurate, because errors are cumulative. Drawing structure contours by hand makes it also impossible to slightly change the azimuth and dip direction of the favoured plane without redrawing everything from the beginning on. However, small variations of the fault position which are easily possible by either inaccuracies of measurement in the field or small local variations in the trend and/or dip of the fault planes can have big effects on the intersection with topography. The developed method allows to interactively view intersections in a 2D and 3D mode. Unlimited numbers of planes can be moved separately in 3 dimensions (translation and rotation) and intersections with the topography probably following morphological features can be mapped. Besides the increase of efficiency this method underlines the shortcoming of classical lineament extraction ignoring the dip of planar structures. Using this method, areas of active faulting influencing the morphology, can be

  20. Human biomonitoring for Cd, Hg and Pb in blood of inhabitants of the Sacco Valley (Italy

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    Sonia D'Ilio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The Sacco Valley (Lazio, Italy is characterized by high density population and several industrial chemical productions that during the time had led to a substantial amount of by-products. The result was a severe environmental pollution of the area and in particular of the river Sacco. In 1991, the analysis of water and soils samples of three industrial landfills revealed the presence of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals. A research project named "Health of residents living in Sacco Valley area", coordinated by the regional Department of Epidemiology, was undertaken and financed to evaluate the state of health of the population living near those polluted areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cd, Hg and Pb were quantified in 246 blood samples of potentially exposed residents of the Sacco Valley by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS. RESULTS. Individuals who agreed to be sampled did not exhibit high levels of the elements. The distance from the river does not seem to be directly connected with the elements levels in blood. The contribution of these contaminants to the total intake due to ingestion of food was difficult to evaluate. The unclear trend of data would require a characterization of the polluted site with environmental sampling of different matrices.

  1. Soil , phyto and zoocenosis characteristics along an elevational gradient in the Alps (NW Italy)

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    Caimi, Angelo; Freppaz, Michele; Filippa, Gianluca; Buffa, Giorgio; Rivella, Enrico; Griselli, Bona; Parodi, Alessandra; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    From a global point of view, the distribution of biodiversity can be associated with climate. In particular, a majority of patterns of species diversity can be explained in terms of climatic gradients. Within a given mountain range, climate may affect the distribution of soils and the abundance and richness of plant species and mesofauna composition. In this study, promoted in the framework of an INTERREG Project "Biodiversità: una ricchezza da conservare" we investigate the soil, plant characteristics and mesofauna communities along two elevational gradient in Italian North Western Alps. Mountain environments are well-suited for such studies because of pronounced climatic gradients within short distances. The study areas, named San Bernardo and Vannino, are located in North Italy, close to the border of Switzerland (San Bernardo: N 46°09' E 08°10'; Vannino: N 46°23'E 08°22'). The first one ranged form 1617 m ASL to 2595 m ASL. while the second one ranged from 1786 to 2515 m ASL , with both a prevalent south aspect. Along both elevational gradients we selected 7 sites, with a vegetation cover ranging from coniferous forest (Larix, Picea and Abies) to high-elevation prairies. In each site, soil material (0-10 cm depth) was collected and in the laboratory, samples were dried and passed through a 2-mm sieve. The pH and the particle size distribution was determined following standard methods (SISS, 1998, 2000). Total C and N contents of the soil were measured with a C/H/N analyser (Elementar Vario EL). Data on the vegetation structure were collected close to each soil sampling points, covering a surface of 16 m2; each sampling site has been further divided into 4 sub-areas of 4 m2. Soil texture ranged between sand and loamy sand, without any obvious distribution with altitude. On average, in the Vannino transect soil texture was slightly coarser than at San Bernardo. A total of 118 vascular species were found at the sampling sites. Landolt ecological spectrum

  2. Enhanced toxicity of aerosol in fog conditions in the Po Valley, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesari, Stefano; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sandrini, Silvia; Gilardoni, Stefania; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2017-06-01

    While numerous studies have demonstrated the association between outdoor exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, the actual chemical species responsible for PM toxicological properties remain a subject of investigation. We provide here reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity data for PM samples collected at a rural site in the Po Valley, Italy, during the fog season (i.e., November-March). We show that the intrinsic ROS activity of Po Valley PM, which is mainly composed of biomass burning and secondary aerosols, is comparable to that of traffic-related particles in urban areas. The airborne concentration of PM components responsible for the ROS activity decreases in fog conditions, when water-soluble species are scavenged within the droplets. Due to this partitioning effect of fog, the measured ROS activity of fog water was contributed mainly by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and secondary inorganic ions rather than by transition metals. We found that the intrinsic ROS activity of fog droplets is even greater (> 2.5 times) than that of the PM on which droplets are formed, indicating that redox-active compounds are not only scavenged from the particulate phase, but are also produced within the droplets. Therefore, even if fog formation exerts a scavenging effect on PM mass and redox-active compounds, the aqueous-phase formation of reactive secondary organic compounds can eventually enhance ROS activity of PM when fog evaporates. These findings, based on a case study during a field campaign in November 2015, indicate that a significant portion of airborne toxicity in the Po Valley is largely produced by environmental conditions (fog formation and fog processing) and not simply by the emission and transport of pollutants.

  3. Geodiversity and geohazards of the Susa Valley (W-Alps, Italy): combining scientific research and new technologies for enhanced knowledge and proactive management of geoheritage in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Bacenetti, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Palomba, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for tourism activities. As a consequence, increased human "pressure" causes impacts on geoheritage sites and higher geomorphological risks. These effects are magnified by active geomorphic processes characterizing mountains areas, highly sensitive to climate change. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by diffusion of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "ProGEO-Piemonte Project" (Progetti d'Ateneo 2011, cofunded by Universita? degli Studi di Torino and Compagnia di San Paolo Bank Foundation), we performed a systematic review of geodiversity and natural hazards information in the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). Then we focused our attention on the Susa Valley, an area of the Western Alps where the geoheritage is affected by very active morphodynamics, as well as by a growing tourism, after the 2006 winter Olympics. The Susa Valley became one of the 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, each characterized by high potential for enhancement of public understanding of science, and recreation activities supported by local communities. Then we contributed to the awareness-raising communication strategy of the "RiskNat project" (Interreg Alcotra 2007-2013, Action A.4.3) by synthesizing geoscience knowledge on the Susa Valley and information on slope instabilities and models/prevention measures/warning systems. Visual representations

  4. Relation of air mass history to nucleation events in Po Valley, Italy, using back trajectories analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sogacheva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the transport of air masses to San Pietro Capofiume (SPC in Po Valley, Italy, by means of back trajectories analysis. Our main aim is to investigate whether air masses originate over different regions on nucleation event days and on nonevent days, during three years when nucleation events have been continuously recorded at SPC. The results indicate that nucleation events occur frequently in air masses arriving from Central Europe, whereas event frequency is much lower in the air transported from southern directions and from the Atlantic Ocean. We also analyzed the behaviour of meteorological parameters during 96 h transport to SPC, and found that, on average, event trajectories undergo stronger subsidence during the last 12 h before the arrival at SPC than nonevent trajectories. This causes a reversal in the temperature and relative humidity (RH differences between event and nonevent trajectories: between 96 and 12 h back time, temperature is lower and RH is higher for event than nonevent trajectories and between 12 and 0 h vice versa. Boundary layer mixing is stronger along the event trajectories compared to nonevent trajectories. The absolute humidity (AH is similar for the event and nonevent trajectories between about 96 h and about 60 h back time, but after that, the event trajectories AH becomes lower due to stronger rain. We also studied transport of SO2 to SPC, and conclude that although sources in Po Valley most probably dominate the measured concentrations, certain Central and Eastern European sources also make a substantial contribution.

  5. A new subdivision of the central Sesia Zone (Aosta Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Engi, Martin; Manzotti, Paola; Ballèvre, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Sesia Zone in the Western Alps is a continental terrane probably derived from the NW-Adriatic margin and polydeformed at HP conditions during Alpine convergence. Subdivisions of the Sesia Zone classically have been based on the dominant lithotypes: Eclogitic Micaschist Complex, Seconda Zona Diorito-Kinzigitica, and Gneiss Minuti Complex. However, recent work (Regis et al., 2014) on what was considered a single internal unit has revealed that it comprises two or more tectonic slices that experienced substantially different PTDt-evolutions. Therefore, detailed regional petrographic and structural mapping (1:3k to 1:10k) was undertaken and combined with extensive sampling for petrochronological analysis. Results allow us to propose a first tectonic scheme for the Sesia Zone between the Aosta Valley and Val d'Ayas. A set of field criteria was developed and applied, aiming to recognize and delimit the first order tectonic units in this complex structural and metamorphic context. The approach rests on three criteria used in the field: (1) Discontinuously visible metasedimentary trails (mostly carbonates) considered to be monocyclic (Permo-Mesozoic protoliths); (2) mappable high-strain zones; and (3) visible differences in the metamorphic imprint. None of these key features used are sufficient by themselves, but in combination they allow us to propose a new map that delimits main units. We propose an Internal Complex with three eclogitic sheets, each 0.5-3 km thick. Dominant lithotypes include micaschists associated with mafic rocks and minor orthogneiss. The main foliation is of HP, dipping moderately NW. Each of these sheets is bounded by (most likely monometamorphic) sediments, <10-50 m thick. HP-relics (of eclogite facies) are widespread, but a greenschist facies overprint locally is strong close to the tectonic contact to neighbouring sheets. An Intermediate Complex lies NW of the Internal Complex and comprises two thinner, wedge-shaped units termed slices. These

  6. Geodiversity, geoheritage and cultural landscape: an example from the Messinian geosites of the Piemonte region (NW-Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Enrico; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Lozar, Francesca; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Giardino, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The Piemonte region (NW-Italy) contains a remarkable diversity of landscapes, some of them included in and protected by the World Heritage list, as well as some recently proposed geosites which testify the dramatic paleoevironmental, paleobiological and paleoclimatic event that occurred in the Mediterranean area around 6 Ma ago during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). However the link between landform, geodiversity, geoheritage, and cultural landscape has not yet fully explored. The aims of this study, promoted by the multidisciplinary research project 'PROGEO-Piemonte' (PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte region), are: 1) to analyse the link between geosites and recent landscape modification, 2) to reconstruct the landscape evolution and, through geotourism, 3) to promote geological knowledge in an area with great potential for tourism. The study area is located in the SE part of the Cuneo plain, at the foot of the Langhe hills, where heterogeneous landforms, mainly related to the Tanaro river piracy, are observed. The sediments recording the MSC event, mostly consisting of thick gypsum layers, have been recently studied by a multidisciplinary approach and the results allowed the detailed reconstruction of the MSC evolution in this region. Two maps have been produced to disseminate the geodiversity knowledge (the geological - landscape map) and to promote geotourism fruition (the geotouristic map). The geological - landscape map deals with different geological and geomorphologic issues thanks to illustrations of the main features of the Messinian deposits, their depositional environments and the exposed landforms. To underline the high geodiversity of the area, it has been divided into several geomorphologic sectors based of their characteristic landforms and evolution. In each of these sectors, geosites have been identified to clarify the comprehension of the related topics at the widest public: particularly, the geosites help

  7. Diet of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles in an agricultural riverine habitat (NW Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Badger Meles meles diet was studied throughout 2001-03 by the analysis of 199 scats collected in the River Po Park (Piedmont region, NW Italy. The study area (136 km² included a large portion of plain (129.2 km² dominated by agriculture (maize, rice and poplar plantations with scarce riparian vegetation cover, and a small sector of hill (6.8 km² mainly covered by broadleaved woods. Earthworms and maize were the staple foods in the overall badger diet and together accounted for 57% of the mean estimated volume (Vm%. Earthworm consumption varied seasonally with a marked decrease in summer, probably due to drought that reduced their availability (emergence of worms on the surface. This decline was compensated by a significant increase in the utilisation of fruits, mostly in hilly lands. Maize was consumed all year round without significant seasonal variation (percent frequency of occurrence: from 21% in summer to 44.6% in winter. Besides earthworms, the amount of protein of animal origin derived mainly from amphibians (Vm% = 9% and mammals (Vm% = 7.2%, primarily rodents and lagomorphs. Badger diet consisted mainly of maize, amphibians and mammals in agricultural lowlands, and of earthworms, fruits and insects in hilly lands. Trophic niche breadth (B varied from a minimum of 0.34 in autumn to maximum of 0.55 in summer. Our results characterize the badger as a generalist or opportunist feeder. Riassunto Dieta del Tasso (Meles meles in un'area agricola fluviale dell'Italia nord occidentale La dieta è stata studiata nel 2001-03, tramite l'analisi di 199 feci raccolte nel Parco Fluviale del Po e dell'Orba (Tratto vercellese-alessandrino, regione Piemonte. L'area di studio (136 km² è ripartita tra le due sponde orografiche del Po: un'ampia porzione (129,2 km² è pianeggiante e prevalentemente coltivata a mais, riso e pioppi, con strette fasce di vegetazione riparia, la

  8. Evidence for ambient dark aqueous SOA formation in the Po Valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Sullivan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments suggest that water-soluble products from the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds can partition into atmospheric waters where they are further oxidized to form low volatility products, providing an alternative route for oxidation in addition to further oxidation in the gas phase. These products can remain in the particle phase after water evaporation, forming what is termed as aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA. However, few studies have attempted to observe ambient aqSOA. Therefore, a suite of measurements, including near-real-time WSOC (water-soluble organic carbon, inorganic anions/cations, organic acids, and gas-phase glyoxal, were made during the PEGASOS (Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study 2012 campaign in the Po Valley, Italy, to search for evidence of aqSOA. Our analysis focused on four periods: Period A on 19–21 June, Period B on 30 June and 1–2 July, Period C on 3–5 July, and Period D on 6–7 July to represent the first (Period A and second (Periods B, C, and D halves of the study. These periods were picked to cover varying levels of WSOC and aerosol liquid water. In addition, back trajectory analysis suggested all sites sampled similar air masses on a given day. The data collected during both periods were divided into times of increasing relative humidity (RH and decreasing RH, with the aim of diminishing the influence of dilution and mixing on SOA concentrations and other measured variables. Evidence for local aqSOA formation was only observed during Period A. When this occurred, there was a correlation of WSOC with organic aerosol (R2 = 0.84, aerosol liquid water (R2 = 0.65, RH (R2 = 0.39, and aerosol nitrate (R2 = 0.66. Additionally, this was only observed during times of increasing RH, which coincided with dark conditions. Comparisons of WSOC with oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA factors, determined from application of positive matrix

  9. STRATIGRAPHY, SEDIMENTOLOGY AND SYNDEPOSITIONAL TECTONICS OF THE JURASSIC-CRETACEOUS SUCCESSION AT THE TRANSITION BETWEEN PROVENÇAL AND DAUPHINOIS DOMAINS (MARITIME ALPS, NW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA BARALE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Provençal and Dauphinois Mesozoic successions cropping out at the southeastern margin of the Argentera Massif (Maritime Alps, NW Italy were deposited at the transition between the Provençal platform and the Dauphinois basin, marked in the study area by a partly preserved Mesozoic palaeoescarpment. These successions show important lateral variations occurring over relatively short distances, probably related to syndepositional tectonics. Different stratigraphic intervals of the pelagic-hemipelagic Dauphinois succession contain resedimented deposits, made up of both intra- and extrabasinal material, which provide a twofold evidence of syndepositional tectonics indicating both tectonically-triggered gravitational processes and a tectonically-driven evolution of the source areas. Two stages of syndepositional tectonics have been recognized: the first in the earliest Cretaceous, which is related to the deposition of carbonate breccias in the Dauphinois succession and to hydrothermal dolomitization of the Middle Triassic-Jurassic Provençal carbonates, and the second in the Late Cretaceous, which triggered the deposition of different detrital lithozones in the Upper Cretaceous Puriac Limestone. The cited evidence indicates that syndepositional tectonics continued to influence the evolution of the Alpine Tethys European passive margin long after the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic syn-rift stage, which caused the differentiation between the Dauphinois basin and the Provençal platform.

  10. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high

  11. LDL (Landscape Digital Library) a Digital Photographic Database of a Case Study Area in the River Po Valley, Northern Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, D

    2001-01-01

    Landscapes are both a synthesis and an expression of national, regional and local cultural heritages. It is therefore very important to develop techniques aimed at cataloguing and archiving their forms. This paper discusses the LDL (Landscape Digital Library) project, a Web accessible database that can present the landscapes of a territory with documentary evidence in a new format and from a new perspective. The method was tested in a case study area of the river Po valley (Northern Italy). The LDL is based on a collection of photographs taken following a systematic grid of survey points identified through topographic cartography; the camera level is that of the human eye. This methodology leads to an innovative landscape archive that differs from surveys carried out through aerial photographs or campaigns aimed at selecting "relevant" points of interest. Further developments and possible uses of the LDL are also discussed.

  12. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  13. Alpine ethnobotany in Italy: traditional knowledge of gastronomic and medicinal plants among the Occitans of the upper Varaita valley, Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Andrea; Giusti, Maria Elena

    2009-11-06

    A gastronomic and medical ethnobotanical study was conducted among the Occitan communities living in Blins/Bellino and Chianale, in the upper Val Varaita, in the Piedmontese Alps, North-Western Italy, and the traditional uses of 88 botanical taxa were recorded. Comparisons with and analysis of other ethnobotanical studies previously carried out in other Piemontese and surrounding areas, show that approximately one fourth of the botanical taxa quoted in this survey are also known in other surrounding Occitan valleys. It is also evident that traditional knowledge in the Varaita valley has been heavily eroded. This study also examined the local legal framework for the gathering of botanical taxa, and the potential utilization of the most quoted medicinal and food wild herbs in the local market, and suggests that the continuing widespread local collection from the wild of the aerial parts of Alpine wormwood for preparing liquors (Artemisia genipi, A. glacialis, and A. umbelliformis) should be seriously reconsidered in terms of sustainability, given the limited availability of these species, even though their collection is culturally salient in the entire study area.

  14. Managing Uncertainty through Profit sharing Contracts from medieval Italy to Silicon Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Organizational innovation is essential to economic development. But, the way successful societies have organized new ventures has been remarkably similar in both past and present. The commenda organizations of medieval Italy shared many characteristics with modern startups that are financed by

  15. A combined geochemical and isotopic study of the fluids discharged from the Montecatini thermal system (NW Tuscany, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capecchiacci, F.; Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Bicocchi, G.; Cabassi, J.; Giannini, L.; Nisi, B.; Chiocciora, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Water chemistry of the Montecatini thermal system (MTS) indicates a Na–Cl composition. • Dissolved gases are dominated by a CO 2 -rich gas phase. • MTS is fed by meteoric waters with a relatively long (>50 years) circulation. • Geothermometric estimations suggest that the fluid reservoir is at T ⩾ 80–90 °C. • A new conceptual model of fluid circulation was proposed for MTS. - Abstract: The thermo-mineral fluids discharges of Montecatini Terme (Northern Apennines, Tuscany, Italy) have been exploited since the Roman times and despite the fact that this thermal complex is one of the biggest in Europe, the most recent geochemical investigations were published almost 40 years ago. To fill this gap, in this paper a detailed geochemical and isotopic investigation on the main thermal springs and wells from the Montecatini thermal system (MTS) is presented. The chemical and isotopic features of the Montecatini waters suggested that they are mainly controlled by water–rock interaction processes between meteoric water, permeating at depth from the surrounding reliefs (up to 800 m a.s.l.), and the Triassic evaporites (Burano Formation) belonging to the Tuscan sedimentary series. The local stratigraphic and tectonic framework favors an efficient recharge of the hydrothermal reservoir by the meteoric precipitation from a large catchment area and this aspect plays a fundamental role for the longevity of the Montecatini thermal spas, notwithstanding the huge amount of thermal water exploited. The 3 H values indicated that the thermal waters are likely related to a relatively long (>50 years) fluid circulation pattern. Approaching the surface, thermal and saline waters mix with cold and low TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) waters hosted in short, shallow aquifer(s), whose chemistry is dictated by the interaction of rain waters with silico-clastic rocks of low solubility. Geothermometric estimations in the F − –SO 4 2− –HCO 3 − system suggested

  16. Constraining metamorphic rates through allanite and monazite petrochronology: a case study from the Miyar Valley (High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar, NW India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyr, Martin; Goswami-Banerjee, Sriparna

    2014-05-01

    Dating metamorphic rocks raises specific issues because metamorphism comprises a complex sequence of structural changes and chemical reactions that can be extended over millions or tens of millions of years so that metamorphic rocks cannot in general be said to have "an age". Therefore, an accurate interpretation of radiometric age data from metamorphic rocks requires first to establish the behavior of the isotopic system used for dating relative to the pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions that a metamorphic rock experienced. As the U-Th-Pb system in LREE-accessory phases like monazite and allanite is not easily reset during subsequent temperature increase, allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages are collectively interpreted as reflecting crystallization ages. As a consequence, to correctly interpret allanite and monazite crystallization ages, it is essential to accurately determine the physical conditions of their crystallization. A meticulous account of the chemical and textural evolution of monazite and allanite along a well constrained prograde pelitic sequence of the High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar (Miyar Valley; e.g. Robyr et al., 2002; 2006; 2014) reveals that: (1) the occurrence of the first metamorphic allanite coincides with the biotite-in isograd and (2) the formation of the first metamorphic monazite occurs at the staurolite-in isograd. The finding of both monazite and allanite as inclusion in staurolite porphyroblasts indicates that the breakdown of allanite and the formation of monazite occurred during staurolite crystallization. Thermobarometry results show that the metamorphic allanites are appeared in the 400-420 °C, while the signature of the first metamorphic monazite is found at ~ 600 °C with staurolite-in isograd. Allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages thus constrain the timing when the rocks reached the ~ 420 °C and ~ 600 °C isotherms respectively. In situ LA-ICPMS dating of coexisting allanite and monazite inclusions in garnet

  17. A model approach to assess the long-term trends of indirect photochemistry in lake water. The case of Lake Maggiore (NW Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minella, Marco; Rogora, Michela; Vione, Davide; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio

    2011-08-15

    A model-based approach is here developed and applied to predict the long-term trends of indirect photochemical processes in the surface layer (5m water depth) of Lake Maggiore, NW Italy. For this lake, time series of the main parameters of photochemical importance that cover almost two decades are available. As a way to assess the relevant photochemical reactions, the modelled steady-state concentrations of important photogenerated transients ((•)OH, ³CDOM* and CO₃(-•)) were taken into account. A multivariate analysis approach was adopted to have an overview of the system, to emphasise relationships among chemical, photochemical and seasonal variables, and to highlight annual and long-term trends. Over the considered time period, because of the decrease of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of water and of the increase of alkalinity, a significant increase is predicted for the steady-state concentrations of the radicals (•)OH and CO₃(-•). Therefore, the photochemical degradation processes that involve the two radical species would be enhanced. Another issue of potential photochemical importance is related to the winter maxima of nitrate (a photochemical (•)OH source) and the summer maxima of DOC ((•)OH sink and ³CDOM* source) in the lake water under consideration. From the combination of sunlight irradiance and chemical composition data, one predicts that the processes involving (•)OH and CO₃(-•) would be most important in spring, while the reactions involving ³CDOM* would be most important in summer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. What Factors Encourage Intrafamily Farm Succession in Mountain Areas? Evidence From an Alpine Valley in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cavicchioli, D.; Bertoni, D.; Tesser, F.; Frisio, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    Family farming plays a vital role in mountain areas. Its survival is related to multiple factors, including intrafamily farm succession. This study examined data on apple-producing family farms in an Italian Alpine valley, trying to identify which factors foster or discourage intrafamily succession and to what extent they do this, both at the farm level and from the potential successor's viewpoint. To do so, various farm, farmer, and individual characteristics were analyzed using probabilisti...

  19. Electrical imaging and self-potential surveys to study the geological setting of the quaternary slope deposits in the Agri high valley (Southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giano, S I; Schiattarella, M [Basilicata Univ., Potenza (Italy). Centro di Geodinamica; Lapenna, V; Piscitelli, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito, PZ (Italy). Ist. di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientale

    2000-04-01

    The paper presents the results of a geophysical survey carried out to outline the structural modelling of quarternary slope deposits in the northern part of Agri high valley (Basilicata region, Italy). Quaternary folding and brittle deformations of the subaerial slope deposits have been studied combining electrical imaging and self-potential surveys with geological structural analysis. This integrated approach indicates that the area underwent both transpressional and transtensional tectonics during Pleistocene times as testified by the existence of a push up structure in the basement buried by deformed Quaternary breccias. On this basis, the valley appears to be a more complex structure than a simple extensional graben, as traditionally assumed in the literature.

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Ferri, Maura; Salinitro, Mirko; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-09-06

    This research was carried out in a scarcely populated area of the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Fifty-eight people still possessing traditional local knowledge (TLK), 74% women and 26% men, were interviewed between May-August 2012 and January 2013, using open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each described plant species, the botanical family, the Italian common and folk names, the plant parts used, the culinary preparation and, when present, the medicinal use, were recorded and the relative frequency of citation index (RFC) was determined. The 52 plant species mentioned by the respondents belong to 23 botanical families, with Asteraceae (12 plants) and Rosaceae (7 plants) being most frequently cited. The species with the highest RFC index is Cichorium intybus L. (0.95), followed by Sonchus spp. (S. oleraceus L., S. asper L. and S. arvensis L.) (0.76). The plant parts preferably used are leaves (22 plants), fruits (12) and stems (7). Only six wild plants were indicated as having both food use and therapeutic effect. The survey conducted on the traditional use of wild food plants in the Middle Agri Valley revealed that this cultural heritage is only partially retained by the population. Over the last few decades, this knowledge has been in fact quickly disappearing along with the people and, even in the rural context of the study area, is less and less handed down to younger generations. Nevertheless, data also revealed that the use of wild plants is recently being revaluated in a way closely related to local habits and traditions.

  1. Seroprevalence of pestivirus in four species of alpine wild ungulates in the High Valley of Susa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Riekerink, R G M; Dominici, A; Barkema, H W; de Smit, A J

    2005-07-01

    Wildlife, once infected, can serve as a reservoir of infectious diseases that form a constant threat to domestic livestock. To make control and eradication programs successful in the long-term, presence of pestivirus in wildlife populations should be monitored. The goal of this study was to investigate seroprevalence of pestivirus in four alpine wild ungulates in the High Valley of Susa, north-west Italy. Species studied were: red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). A further goal was using virus neutralisation tests (VNT) for four strains of pestivirus in chamois and wild boar. Three hundred and seventy-five serum samples collected during the hunting season of 1999 were tested for pestivirus specific antibodies. Positive sera of chamois and wild boar were subsequently tested in a VNT with four major subtypes of pestivirus, and virus isolation was performed. No antibodies were found in the 73 samples of roe deer, while 7 (12.5%), 8 (5.9%) and 28 (25.5%) of 56, 136 and 110 samples of wild boar, red deer and chamois were ELISA-positive, respectively. Different ranges of titers were found in the VNT and no pestivirus was isolated in the ELISA-positive wild boar and chamois samples. Several possibilities, which might explain the high seroprevalence in chamois are discussed. Pestivirus antibodies were found in three out of four large alpine ungulates in the High Valley of Susa. Seroprevalence was particularly high in chamois. Further investigation is needed to characterise the pestiviruses that circulate in these animals.

  2. Electrical imaging and self-potential survayes to study the geological setting of the Quaternary, slope depositsin the Agri high valley (Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Schiattarella; S. Piscitelli; V. Lapenna; S. I. Giano

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a geophysical survey carried out to outline the structural modelling of Quaternary slopedeposits in the northern part of the Agri high valley (Basilicata, Southern Italy). Quaternary folding and brittle deformations of the subaerial slope deposits have been studied combining electrical imaging and self-potential surveys with geological structural analysis. This integrated approach indicates that the area underwent both transpressional and transtensional tectonics dur...

  3. Structural features of the Middle Tirso Valley (Central Sardinia - Italy from geoelectrical and gravity data

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    A. Tramacere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Tirso Valley is located in Central Sardinia and lies between two structural highs, the Marghine-Goceano chain and the Barbagia Paleozoic horst. The geological structures of the area, potentially interesting for its geothermal resources, are rather complex and dominated by two regional faults – the Marghine fault and the Nuoro fault – which affect the Palaeozoic basement and the Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits. Combined modelling of gravity and geoelectrical data defines the shape and extent of this Tertiary basin. The Bouguer anomaly is mainly characterized by a three-dimensional gravity low which has been named «Bolotana-Sedilo gravity low», corresponding to a structure generated by collapses attributable to transcurrent and extensional tectonic events. The down faulted zone is filled with a Tertiary low density volcano-sedimentary sequence extending southwards and overlain by Pliocene-Quaternary basalts. Another regional structure named «Tirso Fault» is proposed

  4. A project of reuse of reclaimed wastewater in the Po Valley, Italy: Polishing sequence and cost benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, P.; Al Aukidy, M.; Galletti, A.; Zambello, E.; Zanni, G.; Masotti, L.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryThe paper presents a study carried out in the environmentally sensitive area of the Po Valley in northern Italy, with the aim of evaluating, from technical and economic perspectives, a project to reuse part of the final effluent from the Ferrara wastewater treatment plant for irrigation and to develop the site for recreational purposes. Although this area features plentiful supplies of surface water, the Ministry of the Environment has declared it to be at risk of environmental crises due to eutrophication and the drought recurring over the last decade. Thus the availability of fresh water, particularly for agricultural purposes, is threatened, and prompt water saving and protection measures are required. Hence, the possibility of reusing reclaimed wastewater from this plant was investigated, with the aim of exploiting the space around the WWTP, situated within a large urban park, to install natural polishing treatment systems and create green spaces for recreational use. Based on experimental investigation on a pilot plant (featuring both natural and conventional treatments), the study outlines the rationale behind the treatment train selected for the project, details the initial and ongoing costs involved, evaluates the benefits deriving from the project, and assesses public acceptance of the project by the contingent valuation method. A cost-benefit analysis completes the study, and various economic indicators (net present value, benefit-cost ratio, pay-back period, and internal rate of return) revealed that the proposed project was financially feasible.

  5. What Factors Encourage Intrafamily Farm Succession in Mountain Areas? Evidence From an Alpine Valley in Italy

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    Daniele Cavicchioli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Family farming plays a vital role in mountain areas. Its survival is related to multiple factors, including intrafamily farm succession. This study examined data on apple-producing family farms in an Italian Alpine valley, trying to identify which factors foster or discourage intrafamily succession and to what extent they do this, both at the farm level and from the potential successor's viewpoint. To do so, various farm, farmer, and individual characteristics were analyzed using probabilistic regression. We found that intrafamily succession was more likely when the farm was managed by a woman (+20% with a high school diploma (+13% who had at least 1 child with specialized education in agriculture (+27% and when farm sales had increased in recent years (+25%. We also found that a child's willingness to take over the family farm decreases as the number of farm children increases and when the child is a female with a high school diploma; however, the likelihood that children will take over the family business rises as farmer education level and work experience increase. These findings, while mixed, suggest that women play a key role in keeping family farming alive in mountain areas, along with education of family members, improved marketability of agricultural products, and in general, competitiveness and profitability of the family farm.

  6. Impact of wild ungulates on coppices from the Bisenzio Valley (province of Prato, Italy

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    Bianchi L

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Apennine areas, a considerable increase of wild ungulate density has been observed in the past decades in the Bisenzio valley (province of Prato, leading to a strong impact on coppice regeneration. In some felling areas, the prolonged browsing on young suckers turned the stumps into low and dense bushes, thus threatening the survival of the forest stand and triggering a loss of environmental stability. The aim of this work was to study the impact of deer on sprout regeneration after cutting in mixed coppices felled in the period 2007-2010 and characterized by the dominance of chestnut, hornbeam, Turkey oak, and beech. Some 36 plots were established in four municipal districts of the Prato province (Cantagallo, Vernio, Montemurlo, Vaiano. Damage and browsing intensity on each stump were evaluated using an index that allowed the comparison among different areas and fores stand types. Regardless of the species, over 90% of the sprouts revealed a very strong damage, whereas only 6% did not exhibit any damage. A significant difference in the sprout height was detected between browsed and non-browsed areas. Despite a high incidence of damage in all the studied areas, chestnut showed a greater resilience against browsing. In summary, overgrazing by wild game may determine severe contraints to the evolutionary dynamics of forest stands, frustrating the effects of silvicultural practices. The possible benefits of the implementation of a large-scale integrated wildlife plan, including hunting and forest-evironmental management are discussed.

  7. Landscape analysis for multi-hazard prevention in Orco and Soana valleys, Northwest Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turconi, L.; Tropeano, D.; Savio, G.; De, S. K.; Mason, P. J.

    2015-09-01

    The study area (600 km2), consisting of Orco and Soana valleys in the Western Italian Alps, experienced different types of natural hazards, typical of the whole Alpine environment. Some of the authors have been requested to draw a civil protection plan for such mountainous regions. This offered the special opportunity (1) to draw a lot of unpublished historical data, dating back several centuries mostly concerning natural hazard processes and related damages, (2) to develop original detailed geo-morphological studies in a region still poorly known, (3) to prepare detailed thematic maps illustrating landscape components related to natural conditions and hazards, (4) to thoroughly check present-day situations in the area compared to the effects of past events and (5) to find adequate natural hazard scenarios for all sites exposed to risk. The method of work has been essentially to compare archival findings with field evidence in order to assess natural hazard processes, their occurrence and magnitude, and to arrange all such elements in a database for GIS-supported thematic maps. Several types of natural hazards, such as landslides, rockfalls, debris flows, stream floods and snow avalanches cause huge damage to lives and properties (housings, roads, tourist sites). We aim to obtain newly acquired knowledge in this large, still poorly understood area as well as develop easy-to-interpret products such as natural risk maps.

  8. Statistical analysis and modelling of weather radar beam propagation conditions in the Po Valley (Italy

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    A. Fornasiero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground clutter caused by anomalous propagation (anaprop can affect seriously radar rain rate estimates, particularly in fully automatic radar processing systems, and, if not filtered, can produce frequent false alarms. A statistical study of anomalous propagation detected from two operational C-band radars in the northern Italian region of Emilia Romagna is discussed, paying particular attention to its diurnal and seasonal variability. The analysis shows a high incidence of anaprop in summer, mainly in the morning and evening, due to the humid and hot summer climate of the Po Valley, particularly in the coastal zone. Thereafter, a comparison between different techniques and datasets to retrieve the vertical profile of the refractive index gradient in the boundary layer is also presented. In particular, their capability to detect anomalous propagation conditions is compared. Furthermore, beam path trajectories are simulated using a multilayer ray-tracing model and the influence of the propagation conditions on the beam trajectory and shape is examined. High resolution radiosounding data are identified as the best available dataset to reproduce accurately the local propagation conditions, while lower resolution standard TEMP data suffers from interpolation degradation and Numerical Weather Prediction model data (Lokal Model are able to retrieve a tendency to superrefraction but not to detect ducting conditions. Observing the ray tracing of the centre, lower and upper limits of the radar antenna 3-dB half-power main beam lobe it is concluded that ducting layers produce a change in the measured volume and in the power distribution that can lead to an additional error in the reflectivity estimate and, subsequently, in the estimated rainfall rate.

  9. Environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy): aspects of soil and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Giupponi, Luca; Cassinari, Chiara; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-05-01

    This work, originating in the preliminary analyses of a Life project and co-financed by the European Union ("Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified by a new treatment technology for land reconstruction", Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"; http://www.lifeplusecosistemi.eu), aims to evaluate the environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy) by analysing the characteristics of soil and vegetation. The area of study is located in the municipal territory of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) along the eastern shores of the river Trebbia and is made up of the closed landfill of Solid Urban Waste of Borgotrebbia (active from 1972 to 1985) and of the neighbouring areas (in North-South order: riverside area, northern borders of the landfill, landfill disposal, southern borders and cultivated corn fields). For each area pedological and vegetational analyses were carried out and in particular, as regards the soil, various chemical-physical analyses were done among which: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, salinity, exchangeable bases and granulometry. The ground vegetation data were collected using phytosociological relevés according to the method of the Zurich-Montpellier Sigmatist School, (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). For the analysis of the environmental quality of each area, the floristic-vegetation indexes system was applied as proposed by Taffetani & Rismondo (2009) (updated by Rismondo et al., 2011) conveniently created for analysing the ecological functionality of the agro-ecosystems. The results obtained by such applications drew attention to a dynamic vegetation mass in the landfill which, despite a value of the floristic biodiversity index (IFB) comparable to that of the borders, shows a much lower value of the maturity index (IM). This is due to the elevated percentage of annual species (index of the therophytic component = 52.78%) belonging to the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex

  10. Interdisciplinary approach for disaster risk reduction in Valtellina Valley, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolina; Blahut, Jan; Luna, Byron Quan; Poretti, Ilaria; Camera, Corrado; de Amicis, Mattia; Sterlacchini, Simone

    2010-05-01

    Inside the framework of the European research network Mountain Risks, an interdisciplinary research group has been working in the Consortium of Mountain Municipalities of Valtellina di Tirano (northern Italy). This area has been continuously affected by several mountain hazards such as landslides, debris flows and floods that directly affect the population, and in some cases caused several deaths and million euros of losses. An aim of the interdisciplinary work in this study area, is to integrate different scientific products of the research group, in the areas of risk assessment, management and governance, in order to generate, among others, risk reduction tools addressed to general public and stakeholders. Two types of phenomena have been particularly investigated: debris flows and floods. The scientific products range from modeling to mapping of hazard and risk, emergency planning based on real time decision support systems, surveying for the evaluation of risk perception and preparedness, among others. Outputs from medium scale hazard and risk modeling could be used for decision makers and spatial planners as well as civil protection authorities to have a general overview of the area and indentify hot spots for further detailed analysis. Subsequently, local scale analysis is necessary to define possible events and risk scenarios for emergency planning. As for the modeling of past events and new scenarios of debris flows, physical outputs were used as inputs into physical vulnerability assessment and quantitative risk analysis within dynamic runout models. On a pilot zone, the physical damage was quantified for each affected structure within the context of physical vulnerability and different empirical vulnerability curves were obtained. Prospective economic direct losses were estimated. For floods hazard assessment, different approaches and models are being tested, in order to produce flood maps for various return periods, and related to registered rainfalls

  11. Airborne multi-axis DOAS measurements of tropospheric SO2 plumes in the Po-valley, Italy

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    P. Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the second FORMAT (FORMaldehyde as A Tracer of oxidation in the troposphere campaign in 2003 the airborne multi-axis DOAS instrument (AMAXDOAS performed scattered-light spectroscopic measurements of SO2 over the city of Mantova and the power plant Porto Tolle, both situated in the Po-valley, Northern Italy. The SO2 vertical columns and emission flux were derived from two days of measurements, 26 and 27 September 2003. The SO2 emission flux from the power plant Porto Tolle was calculated to 1.93×1025 molec s-1 on 26 September and in good agreement with official emission data, which quote 2.25×1025 molec s-1. On 27 September the measured flux was much lower (3.77×1024 molec s-1 if ECMWF wind data are used, but of comparable magnitude (2.4×1025 molec s-1 if the aircraft on-board wind measurements are utilised. Official emission data was 2.07×1025 molec s-1 indicating only a small change from the previous day. Over the city of Mantova, the observed SO2 vertical columns were 1.1×1016 molec cm-2 and 1.9×1016 molec cm-2 on 26 and 27 September, respectively. This is in good agreement with ground-based measurements of 5.9 ppbv and 10.0 ppbv which correspond to 1.2×1016 molec cm-2 and 2.2×1016 molec cm-2 if a well mixed boundary layer of 500m altitude is assumed.

  12. Geochemical study of travertines along middle-lower Tiber valley (central Italy): genesis, palaeo-environmental and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, Francesca; Brilli, Mauro; Mancini, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Several travertine deposits dating to the Pleistocene outcrop along the Tiber valley between Orte and Rome. Mineralogically, they are mainly composed of calcite; various lithofacies (stromatolitic, phytoclastic, and massive) were identified and relatively wide ranges of carbon (δ13C -8.11 to +11.42‰ vs. VPDB) and oxygen (δ18O +22.74 to +27.71‰ vs. VSMOW) isotope compositions were measured. The isotope and chemical compositions of water and free gases, in some cases associated with the travertines, were also measured. Carbon isotope data show that several samples fall in the typical range of thermogenic travertine, i.e., linked to the addition of deep inorganic CO2. The oxygen isotope composition of the springs associated with the travertine deposits points to travertine precipitation by slightly thermal water of meteoric origin. In general, these travertines are in association with, or close to, mineralised groundwaters (with slightly acidic pH, low thermalism, and enrichment in sulphates or sodium chloride) and rich CO2 gas emissions, the origin of which may be linked to decarbonation reactions. The travertine bodies are locally connected with crustal structural lineaments favouring the circulation of ascending deep CO2-rich fluids. Conversely, some samples show isotopic connotations of meteogenic deposits, representing travertines formed mainly from soil biogenic or atmospheric carbon dioxide generally present in shallow groundwater or surface water. According to their morphology and isotope data, these travertines may be attributed to the sedimentary environment of waterfalls. These new geochemical and morphological data are integrated with those already available in the literature regarding the study area and contribute to shedding light on palaeo-environmental conditions in western-central Italy during the Quaternary.

  13. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes in response to eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus introduction (NW Italy

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    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115 in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989. Comparison included also the diet of badgers (Meles meles, considered as potential competitors for food resources. Alien lagomorphs (mean percent volume, Vm% = 68% represented by far the most exploited resource, only three other food items reaching values of mean percent volume barely higher than 5%. Cottontails frequency of occurrence did not vary according either to season or to their reproductive cycle (II-IX vs. X-I, whilst diet niche breadth varied inversely proportional to the use of this key-resource. Overall fox trophic niche breadth varied from 0.64 in 1988-89 to 0.31 in 1998-00 (B, Levin’s index. These findings led us to consider the feeding habits of the fox in the study area as a result of local specialization of a typical generalist carnivore, according to the predictions of optimal foraging theory. No variation occurred in the badger niche breadth since cottontail introduction, whilst niche overlap between foxes and badgers decreased from 0.59 to 0.13 (O, Pianka’s index, possibly reducing competition for food in summer. Riassunto Specializzazione alimentare a livello locale della Volpe Vulpes vulpes in risposta all’introduzione del Silvilago Sylvilagus floridanus (Italia nord occidentale. Per valutare gli effetti dell’introduzione del Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus sul comportamento alimentare della volpe (Vulpes vulpes, nel periodo giugno 1998-febbraio 2000, la dieta del carnivoro è stata definita tramite l’analisi di 115

  14. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  15. Late Mesolithic hunting of a small female aurochs in the valley of the River Tjonger (the Netherlands) in the light of Mesolithic aurochs hunting in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, W.; Niekus, M.J.L.Th.

    The valley of the River Tjonger, situated in the Province of Friesland (the Netherlands), is rich in prehistoric organic remains. The fill of the valley, consisting of waterlogged sediments (peat, gyttja and sands), presents favourable conditions for the preservation of bone, antler and botanical

  16. Electrical imaging and self-potential survayes to study the geological setting of the Quaternary, slope depositsin the Agri high valley (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schiattarella

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a geophysical survey carried out to outline the structural modelling of Quaternary slopedeposits in the northern part of the Agri high valley (Basilicata, Southern Italy. Quaternary folding and brittle deformations of the subaerial slope deposits have been studied combining electrical imaging and self-potential surveys with geological structural analysis. This integrated approach indicates that the area underwent both transpressional and transtensional tectonics during Pleistocene times as testified by the existence of a push up structure in the basement buried by deformed Quaternary breccias. On this basis, the valley appears to be a more complex structure than a simple extensional graben, as traditionally assumed in the literature.

  17. THE PALYNOLOGY AND PALAEONVIRONMENT OF THE UPPER TRIASSIC DOLOMITIC-MARLY SEQUENCE OF DOGNA VALLEY (UDINE, FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA, NE ITALY WITH REPTILE TRACKWAYS

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    GUIDO ROGHI

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available New data and considerations about the biostratigraphy and the palaeoenvironment of a section in the Late Triassic dolomitic-marly sequence which crops out in the Dogna valley (Udine, Friuli, NE Italy are reported. In particular a unit with a surface bearing tracks of archosauromorph terrestrial reptiles has been investigated. In the layer immediately overlaying the track-bearing one, a rich palynological assemblage with Enzonalasporites vigens; Vallasporites ignacii, Patinasporites densus, Zonalasporites cinctus, Pseudoenzonalasporites summus, Samaropollenites speciosus, Camerosporites secatus and Partitisporites spp. was found, indicating a Tuvalian age (Late Carnian . Microfloral and sedimentological evidence indicate a dry climate and a coastal depositional environment subject to repeated emersions.   

  18. SURVEY, REPRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF A WAR I COMPLEX SYSTEM OF SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND FORTIFICATIONS IN THE GRESTA VALLEY, ITALY

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    I. Salvador

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a research on the use of terrestrial laser scanner, integrated with total station and GPS, for the documentation and comprehension of complex architectures in up-land sites. The research is performed in the framework of the project "Ambiente e Paesaggi dei siti di Altura Trentini" – APSAT (Environment and landscape of hill-top sites in Trentino, a multidisciplinary project focused on the evolution of hill-top anthropic system in the Trentino region, Italy. The study area is located in the Gresta Valley and this work concerns on the Nagià Grom site, fortified by the Austria-Hungarian Army during the World War I. The site has been interested by a significant restore operation of a large series of entrenches paths and fortifications in the last decade. The survey herein described has involved an area once interested by military barracks with Officers' Mess, water provision and by one of the biggest field kitchens discovered in the Trentino region. A second survey involved the tunnel connecting the ammunition depot to the artillery stations. The nature of such complex architectures, characterized by an irregular and composite 3D span leads, in general, to necessary simple surveys and representations and somehow to simplified studies too. The 3D point cloud, once filtered by the massive presence of dense vegetation, eventually constitutes a rich data set for further analyses on the spatial, geological, architectural and historical properties of the site. The analysis has been carried out on two different scales. At the architectural-scale, the comparison to historic photos has allowed to understand how the original structure of the barracks was made and to find building characters that now are lost. The on-site observation of the underground stratigraphic splices and their analysis in the 3D point cloud, e.g., spatial extension and slope, have permitted the understanding of the special excavation process guided by the

  19. New simple mathematical model to help evaluating the extent of the late-Quaternary valley glacier in the Upper Soča Region (NW Slovenia

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    Miloš Bavec

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple mathematical model was developed that enables an evaluation of a valley glacier extent independently of any geological data. Based on glaciological criteria and on quantitative analysis of the glacier’s accumulation-, and ablation-areas the modeloffers an opportunity for an independent test of paleoenvironmental interpretations that are traditionally based on (often vague and difficult-to-interpret geomorphological and sedimentological information. The model is presented here through a case study from theUpper Soča River Region.

  20. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY, CONODONT BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE MIDDLE DEVONIAN (GIVETIAN TO EARLY CARBONIFEROUS (TOURNAISIAN LIPAK FORMATION IN THE PIN VALLEY OF SPITI (NW INDIA

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    ERICH DRAGANITS

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Bed-by-bed lithostratigraphic sections combined with sequence stratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy provide new information on the depositional environment and age of the Lipak Formation in the Pin Valley (Spiti. The formation comprises mixed siliciclastic and calcareous sediments at lower levels, richly fossiliferous limestones with two distinct sandstone incursions at higher levels, and dark mudstones followed by a thin siltstone interval. The upper limit of the Lipak Formation is defined by the angular unconformity below the sandstones of the Permian Gechang Formation. Lithologic correlation with sections in upper Lahaul indicates that, in the Pin Valley, the formation has been truncated just below its characteristic gypsum horizon. The lower boundary of the Lipak Formation is gradational from coastal arenites of the Muth Formation; the mappable boundary is drawn at the first appearance of dark carbonaceous, argillaceous siltstone and shale.Sedimentary structures, microfacies and conodont faunas indicate a general shallow marine depositional environment of the Lipak Formation in the Pin Valley; five sequence stratigraphic units have been distinguished. Conodont data demonstrate that the lowest 33 m of the Lipak Formation of the Pin Valley is mid to late Early varcus Subzone with characteristic species of Icriodus and Bipennatus. A previously unrecognised hiatus at c. 33 m above the base, at the boundary of sequence stratigraphic units S1 and S2, represents the interval Middle varcus Subzone to at least the end of the late Famennian Early expansa Zone. Because this hiatus does not correspond to a mappable boundary, no division of the Lipak Formation into named stratigraphic units is suggested, but we refer informally to the sediments represented by cycle S1 as Lipak A, and the sediments represented by cycles S2-S5 as Lipak B. Determination of S1 as Early varcus Subzone provides a maximum age for the gradationally underlying Muth Formation

  1. Risk management on an alluvial fan: a case study of the 2008 debris-flow event at Villar Pellice (Piedmont, N-W Italy

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    M. Arattano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Piedmont Region (North-Western Italy, the regional authorities manage debris flow risk by following the ideal sequence of steps that are generally pursued in land planning and civil protection activities. Complex procedures and methods are elaborated and widely discussed with politicians, economists and the general public. On the contrary, in emergency situations, civil protection agencies generally prefer the adoption of simple and flexible criteria. In this paper, a catastrophic debris flow event, that occurred in 2008 in Villar Pellice, is described in this perspective, after an analysis of the triggering rainfalls and of the effects on human life and properties. The availability of a series of personal accounts coming from people who witnessed the occurrences before, during and after the event has allowed us to analyse, in detail, the dynamics of the event. Thanks to these accounts, it has been possible to propose new guidelines for the planning of the emergency activities in areas that are potentially prone to similar impulsive phenomena.

  2. Contribution to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera Fauna of the lower Sangro valley in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy

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    Norbert Zahm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of recording Lepidoptera in the lower Sangro valley during a period of 22 years. The investigations were devoted to Macroheterocera and were carried out in the two regional nature reserves Oasi di Serranella and Lecceta di Torino di Sangro. The listing also includes some Microlepidoptera as non-target species, as well as occasionally observed butterflies. The 401 recorded species are presented in a table indicating both the locality of the records and the observed flight times and periods of activity. Fifteen species are published for the Abruzzo region for the first time; 2 species are new for the Italian peninsula.

  3. Multidisciplinary Investigations embedded in a photogrammatric three dimensional survey in an archaeological site and St Peter and Paul Church in Agro Valley (Messina, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Vincenza; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Majolino, Domenico; Paladini, Giuseppe; Persico, Raffaele; Saccone, Mauro; Spagnolo, Grazia; Venuti, Valentina

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the National School "Science and Cultural Heritage: from Non-Invasive Analysis to 3D Recostruction" (19-23 September 2016, Messina-Valle d'Agrò, Italy), organized by the Department of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Physical Sciences and Earth Sciences of the University of Messina, in co-opeartion with the Department of Geosciences of the University of Malta and in agreement with the Regional Order of Geologists of Sicily, non-invasive investigations have been performed aimed at the exploitation, fruition and safeguard of the archaeological site of Scifì and the St Peter and Paul Church in Agro Valley. Different georadar prospections [1-2] were carried out at both sites. Prospections have been performed by using a Ris-Hi mode system equipped with a dual antenna at the central frequencies of 200 and 600 MHz [3], and made along an orthogonal grid with 40 cm spacing. Data processing involved a zero timing, background removal on all tracks, a gain in-depth, a one-dimensional Butterworth filtering and a Kirchoff migration. Measurements of ambient vibrations were also performed [4-5], that revealed the absence of remarkable side heterogeneities, or large impedance contrasts associated surface stratigraphy. Measurements were also taken to measure the natural frequency of the church. In the two investigated sites, we also conducted spectroscopic investigations. The analysis was mainly focused on the study of variations, in terms of elemental composition by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements as well as Raman spectrospopy which allow to determine the elemental composition of the sample under investigation. In addition, several images (by means of drones) were also collected in order to create a detailed 3D model for each site the ultimate goal of creating a digital archive for the virtual use of sites of interest. References [1] M. Pieraccini, L. Noferini, D. Mecatti, C. Atzeni, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, Advanced Processing Techniques

  4. Zircon and monazite petrochronologic record of prolonged amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism in the Ivrea-Verbano and Strona-Ceneri Zones, NW Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergouz, Celia; Martin, Laure; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Thébaud, Nicolas; Fiorentini, Marco

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the understanding of thermal-tectonic evolution of high-grade terranes, we conducted a systematic study of textures, REE content and U-Pb ages of zircon and monazite grains extracted from migmatitic metapelites across the amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic gradient exposed in the Ivrea-Verbano and Strona-Ceneri Zones (Italy). This study documents the behaviour of these accessory minerals in the presence of melt. The absence of relict monazite grains in the metasediments and the gradual decrease in the size of inherited zircon grains from amphibolite to granulite facies cores indicate partial to total dissolution of accessory minerals during the prograde path and partial melting. The retrograde path is marked by (i) growth of new zircon rims (R1 and R2) around inherited cores in the mesosome, (ii) crystallisation of stubby zircon grains in the leucosome, especially at granulite facies, and (iii) crystallisation of new monazite in the mesosome. Stubby zircon grains have a distinctive fir-tree zoning and a constant Th/U ratio of 0.20. Together, these features reflect growth in the melt; conversely, the new zircon grains with R1 rims have dark prismatic habits and Th/U ratios ages obtained on both types are similar, indicating contemporaneous growth of stubby zircon and rims around unresorbed zircon grains, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of the melt at the grain scale. In the Ivrea-Verbano Zone the interquartile range (IQR) of U-Pb ages on zircon and monazite are interpreted to represent the length of zircon and monazite crystallisation in the presence of melt. Accordingly, they provide an indication on the minimum duration for high-temperature metamorphism and partial melting of the lower crust: 20 Ma and 30 Ma in amphibolite and granulite facies, respectively. In amphibolite facies, zircon crystallisation between 310 and 294 Ma (IQR) is interpreted to reflect metamorphic peak condition and earlier retrograde history; conversely

  5. Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Upper Orcia Valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy through conditional analysis: a contribution to the unbiased selection of causal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vergari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work the conditional multivariate analysis was applied to evaluate landslide susceptibility in the Upper Orcia River Basin (Tuscany, Italy, where widespread denudation processes and agricultural practices have a mutual impact. We introduced an unbiased procedure for causal factor selection based on some intuitive statistical indices. This procedure is aimed at detecting among different potential factors the most discriminant ones in a given study area. Moreover, this step avoids generating too small and statistically insignificant spatial units by intersecting the factor maps. Finally, a validation procedure was applied based on the partition of the landslide inventory from multi-temporal aerial photo interpretation.

    Although encompassing some sources of uncertainties, the applied susceptibility assessment method provided a satisfactory and unbiased prediction for the Upper Orcia Valley. The results confirmed the efficiency of the selection procedure, as an unbiased step of the landslide susceptibility evaluation. Furthermore, we achieved the purpose of presenting a conceptually simple but, at the same time, effective statistical procedure for susceptibility analysis to be used as well by decision makers in land management.

  6. A new magnetotelluric monitoring network operating in Agri Valley (Southern Italy: study of stability of apparent resistivity estimates

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    L. Telesca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Variations detected in geophysical, especially electromagnetic, parameters in seismic active areas have been sometimes attributed to modifications of the stress field. Among the different geophysical methods, magnetotellurics (MT could be one of the most effective because it allows us to explore down to seismogenic depths. Continuous MT recording could allow us to evaluate whether possible variations are significantly correlated with the seismic activity of investigated area. To assess the significance of such observations we must be able to say how well an apparent resistivity curve should be reproduced when measurements are repeated at a later time. To do this properly it is essential to know that the estimated error bars accurately represent the true uncertainties in comparing the transfer functions. In this work we will show the preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the data coming from the new MT monitoring network installed in Agri Valley. This analysis gives us the possibility: i to better study the temporal stability of the signals, ii to better discriminate the noise affecting the measures by remote reference estimation. The performed analysis disclosed a relatively low degree of noise in the investigated area, which is a promising condition for monitoring.

  7. Variations in the geomagnetic and gravitational background associated with two strong earthquakes of the May 2012 sequence in the Po Valley Plain (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    Reawakening of seismic activity in the Emilian Po Valley Plain (Italy) resulted in 2,492 earthquakes over five and a half months: 2,270 with M= 7. The mainshock was recorded during the night of 20 May 2012, at 04:03:52 Italian time (02:03:52 UTC) with epicentre in Finale Emilia, at a depth of 6.3km, by the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV). A long sequence of telluric shocks occurred in the same seismic district in the areas between the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantua, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. In addition to the general devastation plus damage to civil and industrial buildings and the historical heritage, the earthquakes resulted in a total of 27 victims. Concomitant with the two strongest quakes, recorded on 20 and 29 May 2012, respectively, as in the case of others, variations were noted in the geomagnetic background by the LTPA monitoring station in Rome (Italy). The geomagnetic background variations were associated with the appearance of radio-anomalies in a frequency range from 0.1 to 3.0Hz, as well as gravimetric variations found around 60km from the epicentre. The peak accelerations, detected in correspondence with the strongest shocks on 20 and 29 May 2012, were respectively 0.31g and 0.29g. The appearance of the radio-anomalies coincided, from a temporal point of view, with average gravimetric variations of approximately 30µGal around the epicentre areas, concurrent with the mainshock. In this study, both the appearance of radio-anomalies and the gravitational variations recorded before strong earthquakes were related to the dynamics of the fault and a progressive reduction in granulometry in the core of the fracture, until the point of dislocation was reached. The intense friction in the fault and the damping factors produced before the shock are hypothesized as being proportional to the number of radio-anomalies measured. The radio anomaly is an unknown radio emission that has no characteristics (duration

  8. Analysis of particulate matter in anthropized areas characterized by the presence of crude oil pre-treatment plants: The case study of the Agri Valley (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Serena; Caggiano, Rosa; Telesca, Luciano

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10, 2.5 and 1 μm, respectively) daily mass concentrations and daily particle number concentration were performed for the first time in Agri Valley (Basilicata Region - Southern Italy) from July to November 2011. This area is characterized by anthropogenic activities having high potential environmental and human health impacts. In fact, the Agri Valley houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest crude oil pre-treatment plant within an anthropized area. The PM measurements were analyzed combining an innovative statistical methodology, the Singular Spectral Analysis, with forecast models and remote sensing observations. Our findings show that most of the PM collected was made up of particles in the fine and sub-micrometric fractions (i.e., PM2.5 and PM1, respectively) very likely originated by common anthropogenic sources. Moreover, PM2.5 and PM1 daily mass concentrations were characterized by a slightly increasing trend that could be related to the contribution of local sources, such as the crude oil pre-treatment plant, whose combustion processes also produce the emission of particles mainly in the fine and sub-micrometric size ranges. The integrated use of model forecasts, satellite observations and in-situ measurements shows that the only PM10 exceedance was affected by the contribution of Saharan dust, while the three PM2.5 exceedances were mainly due to local anthropogenic sources. Finally, the analysis of the PM10 and PM2.5 Air Quality Index (AQI) values shows that air quality was always “good” with respect to PM10 and “moderate” with respect to PM2.5 suggesting that fine particles, if they will be not kept under control, should represent a real problem also posing health risks to the population living close to the crude oil pre-treatment plant.

  9. Variability of Black Carbon and Ultrafine Particle Concentration on Urban Bike Routes in a Mid-Sized City in the Po Valley (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lonati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclists might experience increased air pollution exposure, due to the proximity to traffic, and higher intake, due to their active travel mode and higher ventilation. Several local factors, like meteorology, road and traffic features, and bike lanes features, affect cyclists’ exposure to traffic-related pollutants. This paper investigates the concentration levels and the effect of the features of the bike lanes on cyclists’ exposure to airborne ultrafine particulate matter (UFP and black carbon (BC in the mid-sized city of Piacenza, located in the middle of the Po Valley, Northern Italy. Monitoring campaigns were performed by means of portable instruments along different urban bike routes with bike lanes, characterized by different distances from the traffic source (on-road cycle lane, separated cycle lane, green cycle path, during morning (9:00 am–10:00 am and evening (17:30 pm–18:30 pm workday rush hours in both cold and warm seasons. The proximity to traffic significantly affected cyclists’ exposure to UFP and BC: exposure concentrations measured for the separated lane and for the green path were 1–2 times and 2–4 times lower than for the on-road lane. Concurrent measurements showed that exposure concentrations to PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 were not influenced by traffic proximity, without any significant variation between on-road cycle lane, separated lane, or green cycle path. Thus, for the location of this study PM mass-based metrics were not able to capture local scale concentration gradients in the urban area as a consequence of the rather high urban and regional background that hides the contribution of local scale sources, such as road traffic. The impact of route choice on cyclists’ exposure to UFPs and BC during commuting trips back and forth from a residential area to the train station has been also estimated through a probabilistic approach through an iterative Monte Carlo technique, based on the measured data. Compared

  10. Observations of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L. post-larvae growth performances reared in an illuminated floating cage in Varese lake (N-W Italy over a two years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Antonini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eurasian perch (P. fluviatilis is a very important fish species in Varese lake (N-W Italy. Since the second half of 20th century, perch catches in the lake have steadily decreased and by the end of the ‘80s the species resulted clearly endangered. The purpose of this study was to investigate growth, mortality and feeding conditions of perch postlarvae, reared in illuminated floating cage in Varese lake, to obtain fingerlings for a restocking program. In June 2006 and 2007, groups of 280 and 300 pre-weaned post-larvae (average body weight 0.64±0.09 g and 0.25±0.08 g respectively P<0.01 were held in an illuminated net cage for 90 days. The cage was illuminated inside from 20:30 p.m. to 6:30 a.m. During the trial, the nightly zooplankton accumulation inside the cage was assessed weekly. At night time the zooplankton biomass, which resulted dominated by Cladocera family, was higher inside the cage than in the lake. In 2006, 322±36 zooplankters L–1 were observed, compared to 945±600 observed in 2007 (P<0.05. In the lake, the number of zooplankters per litre was similar in both years, resulting in 63.3±50.30 and 61.10±45 zooplankters L–1, respectively on 2006 and 2007. In order to assess perch growth performances, 25 fishes were sampled from the cage every 15-20 days and length (cm and weight (g were assessed for each sample. At the end of September, specific growth rate (SGR and survival rate were assessed. In 2006 the final mean body weight of the perch fry was 4.65±1.47 g and that results significantly lower (P<0.05 than of 2007 (6.3±1.69 g. The SGR was 2.04% and 3.42%, respectively. The higher growth rate observed in 2007 was influenced by a higher zooplankton accumulation in the cage due to an improved cage management. In order to assess the cage efficiency, in September 2006 and 2007, the weight of young-of-year perch (n=50 captured in the lake were compared to those of reared fish. Wild fry showed a mean body weight significantly

  11. Chronostratigraphic study of the Grottaperfetta alluvial valley in the city of Rome (Italy: investigating possible interaction between sedimentary and tectonic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Giulio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We carried out geomorphologic and geological investigations in a south-eastern tributary valley of the Tiber River in Rome, the Grottaperfetta valley, aimed to reconstruct its buried geometry. Since results of the geomorphologic study evidenced anomalies of the stream beds, we performed geoelectric and boreholes prospecting to check whether recent faulting, rather than an inherited structural control, possibly contributed to the evolution of the alluvial valley. Vertical offsets of the stratigraphic horizons across adjacent boreholes were evidenced within the Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvium and its substratum. In order to rule out the effects of irregular geometry of the alluvial deposits, we focussed on sectors where vertical offsets affected all the stratigraphic horizons (alluvium and pre-Holocene substratum, showing an increasing displacement with depth. We identified a site where repeated displacements occur coupled with a lateral variation of soil resistivity, and we drilled an oblique borehole aimed to cross and sample the possible fault zone affecting the terrain. A 7 cm thick granular layer, inclined 50°÷70° on the horizontal, was recovered 5 m b.g., and it was interpreted as the filling material of a fracture. The convergence of the reported features with independent evidence from geoelectric and geomorphologic investigations leads to hypothesize the presence of a faulting zone within the Holocene alluvial terrains and to propose the excavation of a trench to verify this hypothesis.

  12. Petrotectonic characteristics, geochemistry, and U-Pb geochronology of Jurassic plutons in the Upper Magdalena Valley-Colombia: Implications on the evolution of magmatic arcs in the NW Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, G.; Arango, M. I.; Zapata, G.; Bermúdez, J. G.

    2018-01-01

    Field, petrographic, and geochemical characterization along with U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Jurassic plutons exposed in the Upper Magdalena Valley (Colombia) allowed recognizing distinct western and eastern suites formed in at least three magmatic pulses. The western plutons crop out between the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera and the Las Minas range, being limited by the Avirama and the Betania-El Agrado faults. The western suite comprises a quartz monzonite - quartz monzodiorite - quartz diorite series and subordinate monzogranites. Chemically, the rocks are high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids (some reaching the shoshonitic series) with metaluminous of magnesium affinity. Trace-element tectonic discrimination is consistent with magmatism in a continental arc environment. Most rocks of this suite crystallized between 195 and 186 Ma (Early Jurassic, Pliensbachian), but locally some plutons yielded younger ages between 182 and 179 Ma (Early Jurassic, Toarcian). The eastern suite crops out in the eastern margin of the Upper Magdalena Valley, east of the Betania - El Agrado fault. Plutons of this unit belong to the monzogranite series with rock types ranging between syenogranites and granodiorites. They are high-K calc-alkaline continental granitoids, some metaluminous and some peraluminous, related to I-type granites generated in a volcanic arc. Crystallization of the suite was between 173 and 169 Ma (Middle Jurassic, Aalenian-Bajocian), but locally these rocks contain zircon with earlier inherited ages related to the magmatic pulse of the western suite between 182 and 179 Ma (Early Jurassic, Toarcian). The evolution of the Jurassic plutons in the Upper Magdalena Valley is best explained by onset or increase in subduction erosion of the accretionary prism. This explains the eastward migration of the arc away from the trench. Subduction of prism sediments increased the water flux from the subducting slab, decreasing solidus temperatures, therefore

  13. The communities and the comuni: The implementation of administrative reforms in the Fiemme Valley (Trentino, Italy during the first half of the 19th century

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    Giacomo Bonan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines transformations in the common management of lands in a valley of the Trentino Alps during the process of Austro-Hungarian state centralization in the first half of 19th century. The main aspects of this process involved an administrative transformation that led to the abolition of all legal and institutional competences of the rural communities and their replacement with modern municipal corpora-tions, and new forest legislation. The hypothesis proposed here is that state intervention did not cause the end of common institutions, but in-stead caused a general redefinition of who could use these lands and how these lands could be used. These transformations were not simple top-down impositions, but the results of conflicts and negotiations with-in local communities and between them and the central government.

  14. On the water-soluble organic nitrogen concentration and mass size distribution during the fog season in the Po Valley, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Martínez, Guillermo; Rinaldi, Matteo; Gilardoni, Stefania; Giulianelli, Lara; Paglione, Marco; Decesari, Stefano; Fuzzi, Sandro; Facchini, Maria Cristina

    2014-07-01

    The study of organic nitrogen gained importance in recent decades due to its links with acid rain, pollution, and eutrophication. In this study, aerosol and fog water samples collected from two sites in Italy during November 2011 were analyzed to characterize their organic nitrogen content. Organic nitrogen contributed 19-25% of the total soluble nitrogen in the aerosol and around 13% in fog water. The largest water soluble organic nitrogen concentrations in the PM1.2 fraction occurred during the diurnal period with mean values of 2.03 and 2.16 μg-N m(-3) (154 and 145 nmol-N m(-3)) at Bologna and San Pietro Capofiume (SPC), respectively. The mean PM10 WSON concentration during diurnal periods at SPC was 2.30 μg-N m(-3) (164 nmol-N m(-3)) while it was 1.34 and 0.82 μg-N m(-3) (95.7 and 58.5 nmol-N m(-3)) in the night and fog water samples, respectively. Aerosol mass distribution profiles obtained during fog changed significantly with respect to those estimated in periods without fog periods due to fog scavenging, which proved to be over 80% efficient. Linear correlations suggested secondary processes related to combustion and, to a lesser extent, biomass burning, as plausible sources of WSON. Regarding the inorganic nitrogen fraction, the results showed that ammonium was the largest soluble inorganic nitrogen component in the samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Imaging the Shallow Crust in the Epicentral Area of the 1857 M7 Agri Valley Earthquake (Southern Italy) by Combined Traveltime and Full-Waveform Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, L.; Operto, S.; Piromallo, C.; Valoroso, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Agri Valley is a Quaternary extensional basin located in the Southern Apennines range. This basin was struck by a M7 earthquake in 1857. In spite of extensive morphotectonic surveys and hydrocarbon exploration, major unsolved questions remain about the upper crustal structure, the recent tectonic evolution and seismotectonics of the area. Most authors consider a SW-dipping normal-fault system bordering the basin to the East as the major seismogenic source. Alternatively, some authors ascribe the high seismogenic potential of the region to NE-dipping normal faults identified by morphotectonic surveys along the ridge bounding the basin to the West. These uncertainties mainly derive from the poor performance of commercial reflection profiling that suffers from an extreme structural complexity and unfavorable near-surface conditions. To overcome these drawbacks, ENI and Shell Italia carried out a non-conventional wide-aperture survey with densely spaced sources (60 m) and receivers (90 m). The 18-km-long wide-aperture profile crosses the basin, yielding a unique opportunity to get new insights into the crustal structure by using advanced imaging techniques. Here, we apply a two-step imaging procedure. We start determining multi- scale Vp images down to 2.5 km depth by using a non-linear traveltime tomographic technique able to cope with strongly heterogeneous media. Assessment of an accurate reference Vp model is indeed crucial for the subsequent application of a frequency-domain full-waveform inversion aimed at improving spatial resolution of the velocity images. Frequency components of the data are then iteratively inverted from low to high frequency values in order to progressively incorporate smaller wavelength components into the model. Inversion results accurately image the shallow crust, yielding valuable constraints for a better understanding of the recent basin evolution and of the surrounding normal-fault systems.

  16. Moment magnitude, local magnitude and corner frequency of small earthquakes nucleating along a low angle normal fault in the Upper Tiber valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, I.; Malagnini, L.; Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.

    2015-12-01

    The relation between moment magnitude (MW) and local magnitude (ML) is still a debated issue (Bath, 1966, 1981; Ristau et al., 2003, 2005). Theoretical considerations and empirical observations show that, in the magnitude range between 3 and 5, MW and ML scale 1∶1. Whilst for smaller magnitudes this 1∶1 scaling breaks down (Bethmann et al. 2011). For accomplishing this task we analyzed the source parameters of about 1500 (30.000 waveforms) well-located small earthquakes occurred in the Upper Tiber Valley (Northern Apennines) in the range of -1.5≤ML≤3.8. In between these earthquakes there are 300 events repeatedly rupturing the same fault patch generally twice within a short time interval (less than 24 hours; Chiaraluce et al., 2007). We use high-resolution short period and broadband recordings acquired between 2010 and 2014 by 50 permanent seismic stations deployed to monitor the activity of a regional low angle normal fault (named Alto Tiberina fault, ATF) in the framework of The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory project (TABOO; Chiaraluce et al., 2014). For this study the direct determination of MW for small earthquakes is essential but unfortunately the computation of MW for small earthquakes (MW < 3) is not a routine procedure in seismology. We apply the contributions of source, site, and crustal attenuation computed for this area in order to obtain precise spectral corrections to be used in the calculation of small earthquakes spectral plateaus. The aim of this analysis is to achieve moment magnitudes of small events through a procedure that uses our previously calibrated crustal attenuation parameters (geometrical spreading g(r), quality factor Q(f), and the residual parameter k) to correct for path effects. We determine the MW-ML relationships in two selected fault zones (on-fault and fault-hanging-wall) of the ATF by an orthogonal regression analysis providing a semi-automatic and robust procedure for moment magnitude determination within a

  17. A comparison between univariate probabilistic and multivariate (logistic regression) methods for landslide susceptibility analysis: the example of the Febbraro valley (Northern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M.; Apuani, T.; Felletti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the results of two statistical methods for landslide susceptibility analysis: 1) univariate probabilistic method based on landslide susceptibility index, 2) multivariate method (logistic regression). The study area is the Febbraro valley, located in the central Italian Alps, where different types of metamorphic rocks croup out. On the eastern part of the studied basin a quaternary cover represented by colluvial and secondarily, by glacial deposits, is dominant. In this study 110 earth flows, mainly located toward NE portion of the catchment, were analyzed. They involve only the colluvial deposits and their extension mainly ranges from 36 to 3173 m2. Both statistical methods require to establish a spatial database, in which each landslide is described by several parameters that can be assigned using a main scarp central point of landslide. The spatial database is constructed using a Geographical Information System (GIS). Each landslide is described by several parameters corresponding to the value of main scarp central point of the landslide. Based on bibliographic review a total of 15 predisposing factors were utilized. The width of the intervals, in which the maps of the predisposing factors have to be reclassified, has been defined assuming constant intervals to: elevation (100 m), slope (5 °), solar radiation (0.1 MJ/cm2/year), profile curvature (1.2 1/m), tangential curvature (2.2 1/m), drainage density (0.5), lineament density (0.00126). For the other parameters have been used the results of the probability-probability plots analysis and the statistical indexes of landslides site. In particular slope length (0 ÷ 2, 2 ÷ 5, 5 ÷ 10, 10 ÷ 20, 20 ÷ 35, 35 ÷ 260), accumulation flow (0 ÷ 1, 1 ÷ 2, 2 ÷ 5, 5 ÷ 12, 12 ÷ 60, 60 ÷27265), Topographic Wetness Index 0 ÷ 0.74, 0.74 ÷ 1.94, 1.94 ÷ 2.62, 2.62 ÷ 3.48, 3.48 ÷ 6,00, 6.00 ÷ 9.44), Stream Power Index (0 ÷ 0.64, 0.64 ÷ 1.28, 1.28 ÷ 1.81, 1.81 ÷ 4.20, 4.20 ÷ 9

  18. Crustal stress regime in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cesaro

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a reliable map of the present-day stress field in Italy, needed to better understand the active tectonic processes and to contribute to the assessment of seismic hazard, in 1992 we started to collect and analyze new data from borehole breakouts in deep oil and geothermal wells and focal mechanisms of earthquakes (2.5 < M <5 occurred in Italy between 1988 and 1995. From about 200 deep wells and 300 focal mechanisms analyzed to date, we infer that: the internal (SW sector of the Northern Apenninic arc is extending with minimum compressional stress (Shmin oriented ? ENE, while the external front is thrusting over the Adriatic foreland (Shmin ? NW-SE. The entire Southern Apennine is extending in NE direction (from the Tyrrhenian margin to the Apulian foreland and compression (in the foredeep is no longer active at the outer (NE thrust front. Between these two arcs, an abrupt change in the tectonic regime is detected with directions of horizontal stress changing by as much as 90º in the external front, around latitude 430N. Along the Ionian side of the Calabrian arc the stress directions inferred from breakouts and focal mechanisms are scattered with a hint of rotation from N-S Shmin close to the Southern Apennines, to ~ E-W directions in the Messina Strait. In Sicily, a NW-SE direction of SHmax is evident in the Hyblean foreland, parallel to the direction of plate motion between Africa and Europe. A more complex pattern of stress directions is observed in the thrust belt zone, with rotations from the regional trend (NW í directed SHmax to NE oriented SHmax. A predominant NW direction of SHmax is also detected in mainland Sicily from earthquake focal mechanisms, but no well data are available in this region. In the northern part of Sicily (Aeolian Islands a ~N-S direction of SHmax is observed.

  19. Better Buildings NW Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin [Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily and

  20. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by ... species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne ...

  1. Early Paleozoic U-Pb age of zircons from meta-granophyres f the Grand-Saint-Bernard nappe (zona interna, Aosta Valley, Italy); Age paleozoique inferieur (U-Pb sur zircon) de metagranophyres de la nappe du Grand-Saint-Bernard (zona interna, Vallee d'Aoste, Italie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.M. [Laboratoire de Geodynamique des Chaines Alpines, LGCA, Campus Scientifique, 73 - Le Bourget-du-Lac (France)

    2000-04-01

    The U-Pb age of a meta-granophyre from the Val de Rhemes (Brianconnais basement of the Aosta valley) of 511{+-}9 Ma suggests that the micaschists which dominate the pre-alpine basement of the Grand-Saint-Bernard Nappe are, in part, of Early Paleozoic age. The Brianconnais domain is characterized by a Cambrian to Ordovician alkalineto sub-alkaline (monzonitic) magmatism, similar in age to orthogneisses known in other parts of the Variscan belt and generally interpreted as related to an extensional event. (authors)

  2. Pathways to High-tech Valleys and Research Triangles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsink, W.; Dons, H.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon Valley and the industrial districts of Italy, where shared identity, superior skills, regional specialization and trust-based networking among local firms have produced dynamic and flexible ecosystems, are inspiring examples of the successful promotion of thriving technology and business

  3. Exhumation history of the NW Indian Himalaya revealed by fission track and 40Ar/39Ar ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Micha; Steck, Albrecht; Carter, Andrew; Cosca, Michael; Epard, Jean-Luc; Hunziker, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    New fission track and Ar/Ar geochronological data provide time constraints on the exhumation history of the Himalayan nappes in the Mandi (Beas valley) — Tso Morari transect of the NW Indian Himalaya. Results from this and previous studies suggest that the SW-directed North Himalayan nappes were emplaced by detachment from the underthrusted upper Indian crust by 55 Ma and metamorphosed by ca. 48–40 Ma. The nappe stack was subsequently exhumed to shallow upper crustal depths (

  4. NW CSC annual report fiscal year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbal, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010 as one of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC encompasses Washing-ton, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana and has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. With guidance from its Executive Stakeholder Advisory Committee (ESAC), the NW CSC and its partner LCCs are addressing the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Climate Science Centers tap into the scientific expertise of both the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and academic institutions. The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium with the capacity to generate climate science and tools in a coordinated fashion, serving stakeholders across the Northwest region. This consortium is primarily represented by Oregon State University (OSU), the University of Id-ho (UI), and the University of Washington (UW). The academic consortium and USGS provide capabilities in climate science, ecology, impacts and vulnerability assessment, modeling, adaptation planning, and advanced information technology, all necessary to address and respond to climate change in the Northwest. University members also recruit and train graduate students and early-career scientists. This Annual Report summarizes progress for the goals set out in the NW CSC Strategic Plan for 2012-2015 (http://www.doi.gov/csc/northwest/upload/Northwest-CSC-Strategic-Plan.cfm) and the NW CSC Work-plan for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 (October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013). The report follows the structure of the Strategic Plan, which describes the five core services (Executive, Science, Data, Communications, and Education and Training) provided by the NW CSC in support of the stated vision: Our Vision: To become nationally recognized as a best-practice model for the provision

  5. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  6. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  7. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  8. Greening Turner Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed remedial activities undertaken in the Turner Valley. Remedial action in the valley must satisfy the financial concerns of engineers and investors as well as the environmental concerns of residents and regulators. Natural gas production in the Turner Valley began in 1914. The production practices were harmful and wasteful. Soil and water pollution was not considered a problem until recently. The impacts of cumulative effects and other pollution hazards are now being considered as part of many oil and gas environmental management programs. Companies know it is cheaper and safer to prevent pollutants from being released, and more efficient to clean them up quickly. Oil and gas companies are also committed to remediating historical problems. Several factors have simplified remediation plans in the Turner Valley. Area real estate values are now among the highest in Alberta. While the valley residents are generally friendly to the petroleum industry, strong communication with all stakeholders in the region is needed. 1 fig.

  9. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Voitkāne, Vita

    2017-01-01

    European member States implement Inclusive Education policies thus contributing to a sustainable, inclusive society, although each country is at a different stage in this process. Italy, one of the first countries to launch integrative learning, has set an example since the 1970s, although the quality of inclusive education is unpredictable due to many issues. Authors Cantoni and Panetta (2006) emphasize that, although the culture of integration in Italy exists, much needs to be done to impro...

  10. Glacial and periglacial environment monitoring in Aosta Valley - Northwestern Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Elena; Cremonese, Edoardo; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Pogliotti, Paolo; Vagliasindi, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Aosta Valley is a small alpine region of about 3.300 km2 located in the NW Italy, on the southern side of the Alps and surrounded by the highest Alpine peaks such as Mont Blanc (4810m), Mont Rose (4634m) and Cervino (4478m), More than 50% of the territory has an elevation above 2000 metres asl. High mountain, glacial and periglacial environments cover a significant part of the territory. As the cryosphere is strongly sensitive to climate change, global warming effects are particularly evident in this alpine region, and they often affect environment and social and economic life, thus representing a key issue for politicians and people working and living in the valley. Among these effects, some of the most important are the decrease of water storage due to glaciers retreat and the increasing natural hazards as a consequence of rapid environmental dynamics. Hence the importance of monitoring glacial and periglacial environment, in order to quantify effects of climate change, to detect new dynamics and to manage consequences on the environment and the social life. In Aosta Valley the understanding of these phenomena is carried out by means of several actions, both at a regional scale and on specific representative sites. A multi-temporal analysis of aerial photographs, orthophotos and satellite imagery allows to detect glaciers evolution trend at a regional scale. All this information is collected in a Regional Glacier inventory, according to the World Glaciers Inventory standard and recommendations. Analysis of the information collected in the Inventory show that the total area presently covered by glaciers is about 135 km2; area changes occurred in the past has been about -44.3 km2, and -17 km2. between 1975 and 2005. Glacier inventory also gathers - for each of the about 200 glaciers - morphological data, information about events and photos both historical and present. Glacier mass balance (the difference resulting from the mass gained by the glacier through the

  11. Italy in Postcolonial Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concilio, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I would like to explore the representations of Italy through the eyes of three outstanding postcolonial writers: Jhumpa Lahiri, Michael Ondaatje and Nuruddin Farah. Even though Italy is an oasis of art and culture, Jhumpa Lahiri looks at it with a profound sense of both admiration and sadness in Hema and Kaushik (2008. Her scrutiny of the ancient, pre-imperial ruins of the Etruscan period leads her characters to question life, death and marital life. Similarly, Ondaatje opposes an Italian Renaissance villa to the debris left behind by war in his well-known The English Patient (1992. His Punjabi character Kirpal Singh mentions Gabicce Mare, a place that soon after World War II will become a memorial and cemetery for the Indian troops who fought and died for the liberation of Italy. This discourse is picked up by Helena Janaczeck, a Polish-Italian writer who combines a narrative on Polish migration in Italy with an elegiac narrative about the cemetery and memorial in Cassino, where a Maori goes to visit the tombs of his ancestor, who also participated with the Commonwealth troops in World War II. Nuruddin Farah too, who provides a reportage on Somali immigrants to Italy, seems to consider the country as a springboard either to other North European destinations or to a possible destiny back home. All three writers present Italy according to varied and unusual perspectives.

  12. Flood susceptibility assessment in a highly urbanized alluvial fan: the case study of Sala Consilina (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Santangelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the risk assessment to alluvial fan flooding at the piedmont zone of carbonate massifs of the southern Apennines chain (southern Italy. These areas are prime spots for urban development and are generally considered to be safer than the valley floors. As a result, villages and towns have been built on alluvial fans which, during intense storms, may be affected by flooding and/or debris flow processes.

    The study area is located at the foothills of the Maddalena mountains, an elongated NW-SE trending ridge which bounds to the east the wide intermontane basin of Vallo di Diano. The area comprises a wide detrital talus (bajada made up by coalescent alluvial fans, ranging in age from the Middle Pleistocene to the Holocene. Historical analysis was carried out to ascertain the state of activity of the fans and to identify and map the zones most hit by past flooding. According to the information gathered, the Sala Consilina fans would appear prone to debris flows; in the past these processes have produced extensive damage and loss of life in the urban area. The watershed basins feeding the fans have very low response times and may produce debris flow events with high magnitudes. Taking into account the historical damage, the fan surface morphology, and the present urban development (street orientation and hydraulic network, the piedmont area was zoned and various susceptibility classes were detected. These results may represent a useful tool for studies aiming at territorial hazard mapping and civil protection interventions.

  13. Determining the rates and drivers of headwall erosion within glaciated catchments in the NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, E.; Owen, L. A.; Saha, S.; Caffee, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    Rates of headwall erosion are defined for fourteen glaciated catchments in the NW Himalaya by measuring 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in supraglacial debris. The investigated catchments are located throughout three broad climatic zones, which include the Lesser Himalaya (rainfall >1000 mm a-1), Greater Himalaya (500-1000 mm a-1) and Transhimalaya (arid catchments that are occupied by sub-polar glaciers, suggesting that there are additional controls upon periglacial domain landscape change. Other factors and catchment-specific dynamics influencing these landscapes include, temperature, surface processes, topography, valley morphology, geologic setting and glacial history. Defining rates of headwall erosion is one of the first steps to understanding the nature of sediment production and transfer within high-altitude glaciated catchments, and highlights the importance of periglacial rockfall processes in landscape evolution.

  14. Radon anomalies and their correlation with microseismicity in N-W Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.; Walia, Vivek; Sharma, Anand Kumar; Kumar, Naresh; Kumar, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    Evidence for radon anomalies in soil-gas and groundwater as earthquake precursor phenomenon is recorded in Kangra and Chamba valleys of Himachal Pradesh, India based on micro-seismicity trends in N-W Himalaya. Radon monitoring is being carried out at Palampur, Jawalamukhi, Dalhousie and Chamba stations using emanometry for discrete measurements and alpha-logger technique for continuous recording of time-series radon data from June 1996 to September 1997. Radon anomalies in both type of data are correlated with some of the micro-earthquakes recorded during the time-window by the seismographic network of Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). A critical analysis is made of radon data to find confidence level and sensitivity of each recording station

  15. Repeated sightings of Alexandrine parakeet Psittacula eupatria in Rome (Central Italy and its likely acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Angelici

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexandrine parakeet sightings have repeatedly occurred in the city of Rome, Italy in the Caffarella valley, within the ‘Regional Park of Appia Antica’ starting from March 2010. Several other sightings have been made since December 2014 onwards. Until now, nesting has not been proven, but it is believed that this may have already occurred.

  16. Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in Quetta Valley, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeebullah Kakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence is affecting several metropolitan cities in developing as well as developed countries around the world such as Nagoya (Japan, Shanghai (China, Venice (Italy and San Joaquin valley (United States. This phenomenon is attributed to natural as well as anthropogenic activities that include extensive groundwater withdrawals. Quetta is the largest city of Balochistan province in Pakistan. This valley is mostly dry and ground water is the major source for domestic and agricultural consumption. The unplanned use of ground water resources has led to the deterioration of water quality and quantity in the Quetta valley. Water shortage in the region was further aggravated by the drought during (1998-2004 that hit the area forcing people to migrate from rural to urban areas. Refugees from the war torn neighboring Afghanistan also contributed to rapid increase in population of Quetta valley that has increased from 0.26 million in 1975 to 3.0 million in 2016. The objective of this study was to measure the land subsidence in Quetta valley and identify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on land subsidence. To achieve this goal, data from five Global Positioning System (GPS stations were acquired and processed. Furthermore the groundwater decline data from 41 observation wells during 2010 to 2015 were calculated and compared with the land deformation. The results of this study revealed that the land of Quetta valley is subsiding from 30mm/y on the flanks to 120 mm/y in the central part. 1.5-5.0 m/y of groundwater level drop was recorded in the area where the rate of subsidence is highest. So the extensive groundwater withdrawals in Quetta valley is considered to be the driving force behind land subsidence.

  17. Collection for Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General, and Ghislain Roy, President of the Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Following the earthquake of 24 August in central Italy, many of you have expressed your solidarity. The collection to support the victims raised a total of 10 000 CHF, which was transferred in its entirety to Italy’s civil protection through the Italian delegation to the CERN Council. The CERN Directorate and the CERN Staff Association sincerely thank you for your generosity.

  18. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  19. Wine tourism in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars, Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 million. Wine tourists can be divided into four main groups: wine tourists by chance, classic wine tourists, talent scouts, and lovers of luxury. Each group is examined according to its consumption, its conduct, and its expectations. Wine tourism in Italy boasts around 170 territorial networks: “Strade del Vino” (wine routes regulated by law. After an initial pioneer phase during which preexisting wineries adapted to the growing number of tourists, modern-day wineries were created with bespoke areas for the welcoming of visitors. Wineries in Italy can be classified into the following main types: “functional wineries” that concentrate on productive efficiency; “cathedrals” – renovated historic buildings or modern “starchitecture” designs in which esthetics play an important role; wineries with a “strong identity” linked to the owner or wine producer with the special imprint of his or her personal wine making passion. Other features of Italian wine territories such as food and wellness centers not to speak of the ever present cultural heritage also play a part in attracting wine tourists. Lastly, an evaluation is made of business and communication aspects with a specific reference to the use of the web. Keywords: wine tourism, Italian wineries, winery tours, wine roads of Italy

  20. Structural Evolution of the East Sierra Valley System (Owens Valley and Vicinity, California: A Geologic and Geophysical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Blakely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS, which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm, which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3–3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  1. Structural evolution of the east Sierra Valley system (Owens Valley and vicinity), California: a geologic and geophysical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Blakely, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS), which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm), which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3-3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  2. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  3. NW-MILO Acoustic Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, Shari; Myers, Joshua R.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Jones, Mark E.

    2010-02-17

    There is an enduring requirement to improve our ability to detect potential threats and discriminate these from the legitimate commercial and recreational activity ongoing in the nearshore/littoral portion of the maritime domain. The Northwest Maritime Information and Littoral Operations (NW-MILO) Program at PNNL’s Coastal Security Institute in Sequim, Washington is establishing a methodology to detect and classify these threats - in part through developing a better understanding of acoustic signatures in a near-shore environment. The purpose of the acoustic data collection described here is to investigate the acoustic signatures of small vessels. The data is being recorded continuously, 24 hours a day, along with radar track data and imagery. The recording began in August 2008, and to date the data contains tens of thousands of signals from small vessels recorded in a variety of environmental conditions. The quantity and variety of this data collection, with the supporting imagery and radar track data, makes it particularly useful for the development of robust acoustic signature models and advanced algorithms for signal classification and information extraction. The underwater acoustic sensing system is part of a multi-modal sensing system that is operating near the mouth of Sequim Bay. Sequim Bay opens onto the Straight of Juan de Fuca, which contains part of the border between the U.S. and Canada. Table 1 lists the specific components used for the NW-MILO system. The acoustic sensor is a hydrophone permanently deployed at a mean depth of about 3 meters. In addition to a hydrophone, the other sensors in the system are a marine radar, an electro-optical (EO) camera and an infra-red (IR) camera. The radar is integrated with a vessel tracking system (VTS) that provides position, speed and heading information. The data from all the sensors is recorded and saved to a central server. The data has been validated in terms of its usability for characterizing the

  4. Mercury concentrations in cattle from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2003-01-20

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is released into the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural processes. It can be accumulated by domestic animals and so contaminate human foodstuffs. To date, there is no information on mercury residues in livestock in Spain and the aim of the present study was to quantify the concentrations of mercury in cattle in two of the major regions in north-west Spain, Galicia (a largely rural region) and Asturias, which is characterised by heavy industry and mining. Total mercury concentrations were determined in tissue (liver, kidney and muscle) and blood from 284 calves (6-10 months old) and 56 cows (2-16 years old) from across the whole of the two regions. Mercury was usually detected in the kidney (62.4-87.5% of samples) but most (79.5-96%) liver, muscle and blood samples did not contain detectable residues. Renal mercury concentrations did not differ between male and female calves but were significantly greater in female calves than in cows. Unexpectedly, kidney mercury concentrations were significantly higher in calves from the predominantly rural region of Galicia (geometric mean: 12.2 microg/kg w.wt.) than in animals from the industrialised-mining region of Asturias (3.40 microg/kg w.wt.). Overall, mercury residues in cattle from NW Spain were similar to those reported in cattle from non-polluted areas in other countries and do not constitute a risk to animal or human health. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Nuclear decommissioning in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripputi, I.

    2005-01-01

    Italy is in a unique position. Italy has been in the past among the leading countries in the pacific use of nuclear energy, but, as a consequence of the 1987 referendum decided to shutdown all operating power plants, to leave uncompleted the plants under construction and to stop all related research and industrial activities declaring a 5 years moratorium on any future initiative. The moratorium ended unnoticed in 1992, since there was no political move to restart nuclear power in Italy and, in practice, it is still acting. Therefore, now the major efforts in the nuclear field are focused on the closure of past liabilities assuring safety and security highest levels. This is a duty to be carried out by the generation that used this form of energy, but, at least for somebody, also a precondition for the acceptance of any future renaissance of nuclear energy in Italy. SOGIN is a Company carrying out a service for the country and fully committed to solve the liabilities left by the interrupted nuclear industry in Italy. To this aim SOGIN is managed as a private company to assure the highest possible efficiency, but, at the same time, is driven by moral and ethical objectives and the vision of protecting the environment and health and safety of the public. SOGIN blends in a synergic way the various ENEL experiences (design and operation of NPP's) and ENEA experiences (engineering and operation of R and D and industrial facilities supporting NPP's). Such a comprehensive combination of technical competences should not be dispersed in the medium and long term and the management is committed to facilitate the technical growth of the impressing number of motivated young people joining the Company, whose enthusiasm is contaminating every day also the 'veterans', to assure for the country an asset and a presidium of very specialized multi-disciplinary nuclear competences. Speaking of possible scenarios for the future, we should mention that the current international situation

  6. Surficial geology and land classification, Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, O L; Pilon, J; Veilette, J

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this project, continued from 1971 and 1972 is to provide an inventory of surficial geology and permafrost distribution data pertinent to pipeline construction, road building, and other land use activities that might take place in the Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor. Hughes together with N.W. Rutter devoted one month to reconnaissance examination of the area encompassed by this project and Project 710047 (see this report). A primary objective was to insure uniform usage of map-units throughout the 2 areas. Construction on the Mackenzie Highway was examined in order to evaluate terrain performance of various map-units crossed by the highway. Limited geological studies, including shallow borings and measurement of sections, were conducted to supplement field work of 1971 and 1972. J. Veillette conducted diamond drilling in permanently frozen surficial deposits during the period mid-March to mid-April.

  7. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley... analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238...

  8. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  9. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  10. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaerobic treatment in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Borghi, M; Solisio, C; Ferrailo, G

    1984-02-01

    In Italy, environmental protection and energy conservation have become very important since the increase in oil prices. The law requires that all waste waters have a B.O.D. of 40 mg/l by 1986 so there has been an expansion of purification plants since 1976, using anaerobic digestion. The report deals with the current state of anaerobic treatment in Italy with particular reference to (1) animal wastes. In intensive holdings, anaerobic digestion leads to a decrease in pollution and an increase in biogas generation which can be used to cover the energy demand of the process. The factors which influence the builders of digestors for farms are considered. (2) Non toxic industrial wastes. These are the waste waters emanating from the meat packing, brewing, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Particular reference is made to the distillery plants using anaerobic treatment prior to aerobic digestion. (3) Urban wastes. The advantages and the disadvantages are considered and further research and development is recommended. 20 references.

  12. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  13. Aburra Valley: Quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    2008-01-01

    These paper intents a brief description of the evolution that characterised natural risk prevention in the area surrounding the city of Medellin, Colombia, called the Aburra Valley. Both the lithological and structural composition of the Valle and its topographic and climatic conditions contribute to the abundance of destructive natural phenomena as earthquakes, slope movements, flash floods and, in a lower proportion, to floods. The population increase, which reaches now 3.5 millions inhabitants and the frequent occupation of sites exposed to natural hazards have resulted in numerous disasters. At present two entities called SIMPAD and DAPARD work on risk prevention, on city and department scale respectively. The amount of knowledge about physical environment is considered to be insufficient, together with regulations which should direct land use in accordance to restrictions related to natural hazards. Several seminars on this topic have already been carried out and the organisers of the present one, destined to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Villatina disaster, should make the decision to meet each two years. Furthermore, the creation of a permanent commission dedicated to study past events, to foster information broadcasting and to seek a better knowledge of the Aburra Valley, should be considered

  14. Assessment of the chemical status of the alluvial aquifer in the Aosta Plain: an example of the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotiroti, Marco; Fumagalli, Letizia; Stefania, Gennaro A.; Frigerio, Maria C.; Simonetto, Fulvio; Capodaglio, Pietro; Bonomi, Tullia

    2015-04-01

    The Italian Legislative Decree 30/09 (D.Lgs. 30/09) implements the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) providing some technical guidelines to assess the chemical status of groundwater bodies. This work presents the estimation of the chemical status of the shallow aquifer in the Aosta Plain (Aosta Valley Region, NW Alpine sector, Italy) on the basis of the D.Lgs. 30/09. The study area covers ~40 km2 along the Dora Baltea River basin. The Aosta Plain hosts an alluvial aquifer formed of lacustrine, glacial, fluvio-glacial and fan deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene ages. The unconfined aquifer features a depth of ~80 m in the western part of the plain and ~20 in the eastern part due to the intercalation of a silty lacustrine layer. The aquifer is mainly recharged by precipitation, surface water and ice and snow melt. Previous studies revealed that SO4, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr(VI) and PCE represent potential threats for groundwater quality in the Aosta Plain. The chemical status was calculated using the data collected during the 2012 by the Regional Environmental Protection Agency of the Aosta Valley Region from its groundwater quality monitoring network that includes 38 points. Each point was sampled up to four times. Since the D.Lgs. 30/09 excludes Fe and Mn from the assessment of the groundwater chemical status, the present work deals with SO4, Ni, Cr(VI) and PCE. Threshold values (TVs) were estimated on the basis of natural background levels (NBLs) for SO4, Ni and Cr(VI) whereas, for PCE, the reference value (REF) reported by the D.Lgs. 30/09 (i.e., 1.1 µg/L) was used as TV. The NBLs were calculated using the two approaches suggested by the EU research project BRIDGE, that are the pre-selection and the component separation. The TVs were evaluated using the following criteria: (a) if NBL pollution in the Aosta Plain in order to achieve the good chemical status as required by the WFD.

  15. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    / thalasoterapy. Black Sea ecosystem restoration - Certainties and Uncertainties: Pressure on the Danube and other rivers has decreased, chemical discharges have decreased obviously, and yet there appear phenomena of water flowering - "red waters", hypoxia is still present at times and there is mass mortality of fish and other benthic organisms. Why? Signs of recovery should be considered cautiously and uncertainties may be resolved only in a longer time by increasing our scientific efforts. The results of the EU FP7 Project PERSEUS led to the identification of three important issues that should be resolved in order to achieve good environmental status: • Applying an adaptive management to increase the resilience of the ecosystems and to diminish the vulnerability of biodiversity; • Necessity of participative approach by stakeholders; • Identifying and obtaining adequate financial support for new R-D-I projects. Who are the actors in addressing and implementing the actions? • Academic educational and research institutions for adequate working condition; • More specialists trained for taxonomic groups; • Reasonable diversity of coordinating specialists, capable team leaders / satisfactory work packages; • Attracting NGO members towards nature conservation issues; • Resonable stakeholders committed to environmental issues. Studying the results of researches carried out by GeoEcoMar on the Romanian Black Sea coast in recent years, the author concluded that the major problems hampering progress towards a good ecosystem in NW Bent Black Sea are: • lack of diversity in the fields of research, both in theoretical and applied realms; • structural and functional consequences of ecological pressures and the disordered state of the ecosystems in the periods of paroxysmal eutrophication / pollution at the end of the 20th Century; • scarcity of data and knowledge on the Social-Economic System; • high costs of the new marine technology used directly in the sea and

  16. The 2016 Central Italy Earthquake: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, A.

    2016-12-01

    The M6 central Italy earthquake occurred on the seismic backbone of the Italy, just in the middle of the highest hazard belt. The shock hit suddenly during the night of August 24, when people were asleep; no foreshocks occurred before the main event. The earthquake ruptured from 10 km to the surface, and produced a more than 17,000 aftershocks (Oct. 19) spread on a 40x20 km2 area elongated NW-SE. It is geologically very similar to previous recent events of the Apennines. Both the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake to the south and the 1997 Colfiorito to the north, were characterized by the activation of adjacent fault segments. Despite its magnitude and the well known seismic hazard of the region, the earthquake produced extensive damage and 297 fatalities. The town of Amatrice, that paid the highest toll, was classified in zone 1 (the highest) since 1915, but the buildings in this and other villages revealed highly vulnerable. In contrast, in the town of Norcia, that also experienced strong ground shaking, no collapses occurred, most likely due to the retrofitting carried out after an earthquake in 1979. Soon after the quake, the INGV Crisis Unit convened at night in the Rome headquarters, in order to coordinate the activities. The first field teams reached the epicentral area at 7 am with the portable seismic stations installed to monitor the aftershocks; other teams followed to map surface faults, damage, to measure GPS sites, to install instruments for site response studies, and so on. The INGV Crisis Unit includes the Press office and the INGVterremoti team, in order to manage and coordinate the communication towards the Civil Protection Dept. (DPC), the media and the web. Several tens of reports and updates have been delivered in the first month of the sequence to DPC. Also due to the controversial situation arisen from the L'Aquila earthquake and trials, particular attention was given to the communication: continuous and timely information has been released to

  17. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Andalo' Gianni Srl15 Finsys...

  18. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: - from your Divisional secretariat, - at the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LISTE DES EXPOSANTS / LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Anda...

  19. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industries will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The full event programme is available here.   Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will be in contact with relevant users and technicians, but anyone wishing to speak with a particular firm is welcome to visit the exhibition or to get in touch with organiser Karin Robert. Italian Industries will also be sponsoring a free concert in the Main Auditorium on Tuesday 11 October at 8:00 pm. The "Trio Poem" concert will feature music by Beethoven and A. Dvořák, with Alberto Torin on the piano, Enrico Carraro on the violin, and Davide Bernardi on the cello.

  20. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology.   The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua. The exhibitors are listed below.   A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Keno...

  1. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  2. [Primary care in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    Italy is not a country where Spanish doctors emigrate, as there is an over-supply of health care professionals. The Italian Servizio Sanitario Nazionale has some differences compared to the Spanish National Health System. The Servizio Sanitario Nazionale is financed by national and regional taxes and co-payments. There are taxes earmarked for health, and Primary Care receives 50% of the total funds. Italian citizens and residents in Italy have the right to free health cover. However, there are co-payments for laboratory and imaging tests, pharmaceuticals, specialist ambulatory services, and emergencies. Co-payments vary in the different regions. The provision of services is regional, and thus fragmentation and major inequities are the norm. Doctors in Primary Care are self-employed and from 2000 onwards, there are incentives to work in multidisciplinary teams. Salary is regulated by a national contract and it is the sum of per-capita payments and extra resources for specific activities. Responsibilities are similar to those of Spanish professionals. However, medical care is more personal. Relationships between Primary Care and specialised care depend on the doctors' relationships. Primary Care doctors are gatekeepers for specialised care, except for gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics. Specialised training is compulsory in order to work as general practitioner. The Italian Health Care System is a national health system like the Spanish one. However, health care professionals are self-employed, and there are co-payments. In spite of co-payments, Italians have one of the highest average life expectancy, and they support a universal and publicly funded health-care system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D modelling of the Austroalpine-Penninic collisional wedge of the NW Alps: dataset management and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monopoli, Bruno; Bistacchi, Andrea; Bertolo, Davide; Dal Piaz, Giovanni; Gouffon, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Sartori, Mario; Vittorio Dal Piaz, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    We know since the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to mapping and structural studies by the Italian Regio Servizio Geologico (Franchi et al., 1908) and Argand's work (1909; 1911; 1916), that the Austroalpine-Penninic collisional wedge of the NW Alps is spectacularly exposed across the Aosta Valley and Valais ranges (Italy and Switzerland). In the 150th anniversary of the first ascent to Ruskin's "most noble cliff in Europe" - the Cervino/Matterhorn (Whymper, July 14th 1865), first described in a geological profile by Giordano (1869) and in a detailed map by Gerlach (1869; 1871), we have seen the conclusion of very detailed mapping projects carried out in the last years over the two regions, with collaborative efforts across the Italy-Switzerland border, constellated by 4000 m-high peaks. These projects have pictured with an unprecedented detail (up to 1:10.000 scale) the geology of this complex region, resulting from pre-Alpine events, Alpine subduction- and collision-related ductile deformations, and finally late-Alpine brittle deformations from the Oligocene to the Present. Based on this dataset, we use up-to-date technology and software to undertake a 3D modelling study aimed at: i) reconstructing the 3D geometry of the principal tectonic units, ii) detecting and unravelling problems and incongruences in the 2D geometrical models, iii) modelling the kinematics of the Oligocene and Miocene brittle fault network using 2D and 3D balancing and palinspastic restoration techniques. In this contribution we mainly discuss the prerequisites of the project. Common geomodelling paradigms (mainly developed for the hydrocarbon industry) cannot be applied in this project due to (i) the little scale, (ii) the source of the data - fieldwork, and (iii) the polyphase ductile and brittle deformations in the metamorphic nappe stack. Our goals at the moment are to model the post-metamorphic fault network and the boundaries of the principal tectonic units, which will be

  4. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  5. Montane pollen from the Tertiary of NW. Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.

    1966-01-01

    In NW. Borneo thick series of Tertiary sediments occur which are rich in fossil pollen and spores. The majority of these plant microfossils were derived from the various types of tropical lowland vegetation such as mangrove (Muller, 1964), mixed peat swamp forest and mixed Dipterocarp forest. Some

  6. Hydrogeology of the basalts in the Uruguayan NW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, A.; Fernandez, A.

    1967-01-01

    This work is about the hydrogeological aspects in the NW Uruguayan basaltic area. The results of this research are the main geological, morphological and hydrogeological aspects of the area as well as the characteristics and the color of the basalt and sandstones

  7. Palaeofloods and ancient fishing weirs in NW Iberian rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Sanjurjo-Sanchez, J.; Goy-Dizc, A.; Veldkamp, A.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A 15-m-thick, fluvial sedimentary record of the NW Iberian lower Miño River was studied. Grain-size analyses were performed and twelve samples were dated using optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques, documenting a 1300-yr-old reconstructed fluvial record that does not match with known

  8. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, R.

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas

  9. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  10. The courts in Renaissance Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Del Bo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article offers a brief introduction to the issue of the courts in Renaissance Italy along with a selective description of bibliographic sources and electronic resources.

  11. Holocene versus modern catchment erosion rates at 300 MW Baspa II hydroelectric power plant (India, NW Himalaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganits, Erich; Gier, Susanne; Hofmann, Christa-Ch.; Janda, Christoph; Bookhagen, Bodo; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2014-08-01

    300 MW Baspa II is India's largest private hydroelectric facility, located at the Baspa River which is an important left-hand tributary to the Sutlej River in the NW Himalaya (India). In this valley the Sangla palaeo-lake has been dammed around 8200 yr BP behind a rock-avalanche dam and Baspa II is located exactly on top of this palaeo-lake. This special location represents a very rare possibility to evaluate the short-term, river load and hydrological parameters measured during the planning and operational stages of Baspa II with the long-term parameters gained from the palaeo-lake sediments from the catchment. Sedimentological and geomorphological investigations of the lacustrine sediments have been used to reconstruct environmental changes during >2500 years of its existence. The Mid-Holocene erosion rates of the Baspa catchment estimated from the volume and duration of deposition of the exposed lake sediments are at 0.7-1.0 mm yr-1, almost identical with the modern erosion rates calculated from river gauge data from Baspa II. Several charcoal layers and charcoal pieces from the uppermost palaeo-lake levels around 5000 cal yr BP might be related to woodland clearance and they possibly represent one of the oldest evidences for human presence in the Baspa Valley during Neolithic time.

  12. Italy of censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, G M

    1983-06-01

    To supplement census data on Italy's economy, Istat conducted a sample survey of 2% of households. This paper reports survey findings in 3 areas: age structure of the population, employment and unemployment patterns by region, and structure of the productive system. Those over age 65 years have increased from 11% of the population in 1971 to 13% in 1981 and are forecast to constitute 14.5% in 1991. Women accounted for 51.3% of the total population in 1981 but 58.5% of those over age 65. 12% of households have a member over age 75. The 0-14 year age group has declined from 24.4% of the population in 1971 to 21.5% in 1981 and is projected to comprise 17.4% in 1991. The labor force activity rate was 39.8% in 1981. Unemployment was set at 14.7% in the census sample compared with 9.1% in Istat's quarterly survey of the labor force. 60% of the difference between these 2 figures was accounted for by Campania, Sicily, Puglia, Calabria, and Latium. These 5 regions, which account for only 30% of total employment, are the areas with the most acute employment problems and highest proportions of casual employment in agriculture and traditional services. Agriculture accounted for 22% of total unemployment, construction for 18.5%, and traditional industry for 14%--percentages that are higher than the share of total employment represented by these sectors. In the South, 20.4% of employment is in agriculture, 18.1% in industry, 12.6% in construction, and 48.9% in services. The average worker in the South supports 3.3 persons compared with 2.5 persons in the North. Survey results indicate a substantial shift in the sectoral composition of employment as well as a change in the size of productive units. There has been an increase in the highly specialized components of the economy, including services to firms. The average size of factories has declined, with a proliferation of small and medium sized units. These findings suggest a need to broaden and deepen Italy's industrial base

  13. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmospheres of two French alpine valleys: sources and temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine valleys represent some of the most important crossroads for international heavy-duty traffic in Europe, but the full impact of this traffic on air quality is not known due to a lack of data concerning these complex systems. As part of the program "Pollution des Vallées Alpines" (POVA, we performed two sampling surveys of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in two sensitive valleys: the Chamonix and Maurienne Valleys, between France and Italy. Sampling campaigns were performed during the summer of 2000 and the winter of 2001, with both periods taking place during the closure of the "Tunnel du Mont-Blanc". The first objective of this paper is to describe the relations between PAH concentrations, external parameters (sampling site localization, meteorological parameters, sources, and aerosol characteristics, including its carbonaceous fraction (OC and EC. The second objective is to study the capacity of PAH profiles to accurately distinguish the different emission sources. Temporal evolution of the relative concentration of an individual PAH (CHR and the PAH groups BghiP+COR and BbF+BkF is studied in order to differentiate wood combustion, gasoline, and diesel emissions, respectively. The results show that the total particulate PAH concentrations were higher in the Chamonix valley during both seasons, despite the cessation of international traffic. Seasonal cycles, with higher concentrations in winter, are also stronger in this valley. During winter, particulate PAH concentration can reach very high levels (up to 155 ng.m-3 in this valley during cold anticyclonic periods. The examination of sources shows the impact during summer of heavy-duty traffic in the Maurienne valley and of gasoline vehicles in the Chamonix valley. During winter, Chamonix is characterized by the strong influence of wood combustion in residential fireplaces, even if the temporal evolution of specific PAH ratios are difficult to interpret. Information on sources

  15. Italy au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  16. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  17. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics.The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua.The exhibitors are listed below.A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Kenotec Srl O...

  18. Sediment-palaeosol successions in Calabria and Sardinia suggest spatially differentiated palaeo-vegetation patterns in southern Italy during the Last Glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zucca, Claudio; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Zwanzig, Lisa; Madrau, Salvatore; Andreucci, Stefano; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Kadereit, Annette; Scarciglia, Fabio; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    .9-30.3 ka cal BP, respectively. Thus, the formation of these soils falls into the period for which the lacustrine record indicates alternations between open and wooded steppe. The second palaeosol-sediment succession was found in a similar geomorphological situation near Piale, ca. 30 km north of the Lazzaro profile. In this case, the major part of the alluvial fan was removed by the creek (flowing from east to west), so that only its southernmost edge is preserved. SOM of the two lowermost palaeosols embedded in it was 14C-dated to 44.8-45.8 ka cal BP and 45.2-46.2 ka cal BP, respectively. The palaeosols of the Piale profile are very dark, almost carbonate-free, and several of them are characterized by an aeolian component (volcanic ash). The third sediment-palaeosol succession is exposed at the north-western coast of Sardinia, ca. 1.5 km north of Porto Palmas. The succession has developed in alluvial fan deposits that are constrained in a narrow valley, thus forming a valley infilling. Where the valley opens into the sea, this infilling is exposed in a high cliff. The sediment-palaeosol succession is sandwiched between marine deposits at the bottom (attributed to MIS 5c), and a sandy cover on top, dated to 23±4 ka by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). 14C dating was performed on charcoal fragments that were abundant in several horizons. Interestingly, in contrast to the two sediment-palaeosol successions in Calabria, the palaeosols exposed in NW Sardinia do not represent dark steppe and forest steppe soils. The NW Sardinian Late Pleistocene palaeosols are brownish, reflecting rather forest environments. This difference suggests somewhat more humid and less continental conditions in this area compared to Calabria, during the Last Glacial period. However, more of these terrestrial archives along the coast of S Italy would need to be studied to gain a deeper understanding of spatial patterns of Last Glacial vegetation and environments.

  19. ask 6 - Gubbio - Deliverable D21: Geological model of the Gubbio basin (Italy) for the characterization of local seismic response

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorini, E.; Pacor, F.; Bindi, D.; Rovelli, A.; Cara, F.; Di Giulio, G.; Milana, G.; Monachesi, G.; Nieto, D.; Bohm, G.; Albarello, D.; D'Amico, V.; Picozzi, M.; Mucciarelli M.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of the project S3 “Ground shaking scenarios for some strategic areas in Italy-Task6” the town of Gubbio has been selected as a test site to compute ground motion taking into account finite fault and site effects. Gubbio is located in central Italy, on the northern slopes of one of the many valleys characterising the central Appennines. The historical settlement is located on a rocky slope, while new developments extend on the Quaternary fluvio-lacustrine de...

  20. Nuclear power in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarossa, G.

    1990-01-01

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals

  1. Nuclear power in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarossa, G [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1990-07-01

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals.

  2. NW Pacific mid-depth ventilation changes during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, S.; Uchida, M.

    2010-12-01

    During the last 50 years the oxygen content of North Pacific Intermediate Water primarily originating in the Okhotsk Sea has declined suggesting decreased mid-depth water circulation, likely leading to changes in biological productivity in the NW Pacific realm and a decrease in CO2 drawdown. It is therefore of high interest to elucidate the climate-oceanic interconnections of the present interglacial period (Holocene) in the NW Pacific, in order to predict possible future climate and surface productivity changes associated with a decrease in mid-depth ventilation in this ecologically sensitive region. However, such efforts have been hampered so far by the lack of appropriate sediment cores with fast sedimentation rates during the Holocene. Core CK05-04 that was recovered in 2005 from off Shimokita peninsula, Japan, at ~1000 m depth shows sedimentation rates of ~80 cm/kyr during the Holocene and therefore presents an ideal opportunity to reconstruct for the first time the Holocene ventilation history of the NW Pacific Ocean. We employ Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (NIES-TERRA, Tsukuba) radiocarbon analysis of co-existing benthic and planktonic foraminifera to conclude on the ventilation age of the mid-depth water using benthic-planktonic radiocarbon age differences. At the conference we would like to present the results.

  3. Fatto in Italia: Refashioning Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrero-Regis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the Made in Italy brand helped Italy to recover from economic recession in the 1980s, but also how it redefined the country's identity after the traumatic years of terrorism and especially after the murder of the Christian Democratic Party Secretary, Aldo Moro, at the hands of the Red Brigades. In this period cinema as a form of artistic achievement declined, while fashion and industrial design moved at the centre stage of economic and creative success. The rampant consumerism of the 1980s, fuelled by tax reforms that favoured a wider urban middle class, the retreat of unionism, the abandonment of collective bargaining in many industrial sectors, industrial restructuring with the consequent growth of black market economy in the provincial areas of the so-called Third Italy first and the South later, were all factors that contributed to a social and economic shift within Italy itself. Commercial consumption, propagated by the proliferation of local commercial television networks, hedonism and a re-articulation of identity through appearance replaced the 1970s' political activism and ideological opposition to fashion. Ultimately, 'Made in Italy' was a multidimensional phenomenon that presented itself as a new cultural model for the country’s political tribes of the 1970s.

  4. Cogeneration at FIAT AVIO (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantoni, A.

    1991-01-01

    Brief notes are provided on the FIAT (Italy) - Foster Wheeler joint venture to equip about 20 FIAT manufacturing plants with 50 MW(e) combined cycle cogeneration plants which will make use of a gas turbine whose design is based on that of the successful General Electric aeronautic LM 6000 engine. The paper also discusses solutions, e.g., wet and dry methods, being considered for nitrogen ox des control, and cites the need in Italy for the optimization of Government licensing procedures for small and medium sized manufacturing firms opting for on-site power generation through cogeneration plants

  5. Syenite and diorite: a unique stone heritage in north of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Alice; Marini, Paula; Zichella, Lorena; Bellopede, Rossana

    2015-04-01

    The Syenite from the Cervo Torrent Valley near Biella in northern Italy has been widely used as a building material. During the XXth century it has been exported all over the World for covering and paving slabs and monumental work. It is an intrusive magmatic rock found in the Cervo Valley pluton, which is part of the Balma pluton. It formed about 30 million years ago as a result of the Alpine Orogeny and is known to be post-orogenic because of the absence of metamorphism. Hydrothermal mineralization associated with the pluton includes minerals of molybdenum, tungsten, copper, lead, silver and gold. Utilisation of the Syenite has been the only industrial activity in the high Cervo Valley sustaining the whole of valley life. During the second half of the XIXth century and during the first part of the XXth the competencies and the working skills of the Cervo Valley stonecutters was exported as far as Perù and China. It was e.g. used for the edification and refinement of the Oropa Sanctuary square in Piedmont, Italy. It has been recognized as an interesting building material because of the intrinsic characteristics such as its resistance to mechanical wear, durability of colour tone and intensity and resistance to water wear (e.g. in fountains) and maintains its mechanical integrity over time. Diorite is also a magmatic intrusive rock and, similar to the syenite, differs from granite due to the low concentration of quartz (<10%). It consists of plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole and quartz. It is exploited at the Vico Canavese quarry, near Turin, Italy. It is easy to cut and to process with the suitable tools. It has a number of variants, each with specific characteristics and behavior. It is multipurpose material and consequently it can be used in different shape and application, such as slabs, covering, bed river, building block and tiles. Although mainly used in Italy, it has also been used world wide for many different constructional and aesthetic purposes. These

  6. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. Environmental factors controlling macrofaunal assemblages on six microtidal beaches of the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covazzi Harriague, Anabella; Albertelli, Giancarlo

    2007-06-01

    Six microtidal beaches along the Ligurian coast (NW Mediterranean, Italy) were sampled in order to study their macrofaunal assemblages. All six beaches are subject to heavy tourism in the swimming season and three were subject to nourishment activities during the study period (May 2000). The beaches of Lavagna, Varazze and Pietra Ligure were sampled three times: before the nourishment and the onset of the swimming season (March 2000), after the nourishment (June 2000) and at the end of the swimming season (October 2000). The beaches of Varigotti, Albisola and Loano were sampled twice: before and after the swimming season (March and October 2000, respectively). Sampling was performed along two transects (T1 and T2), about 500 m apart, each transect having three sampling stations: one placed in the swash zone, one in the surf zone and one in the subtidal zone (depth of 3-5 m), in order to verify how far the nourishment material reached. The beaches were characterised by coarse sediments that became finer towards the sub-littoral station. The Beach Deposit Index and Beach Index classified the beaches as reflective (Lavagna, Varazze, Albisola and Varigotti) or intermediate (Pietra Ligure and Loano). Species richness showed a clearly increasing pattern from the swash zone (average 7) to the subtidal zone (average 103). The beach communities were dominated by polychaetes, in particular Saccocirrus papillocercus, which was mainly responsible for the dissimilarity between the beach and subtidal stations. The highest abundance was observed at the surf station (average 118.6 ind. m -2) and the lowest at the subtidal station (average 82.1 ind. m -2). The sediment composition and macrofaunal assemblages were not affected by the beach nourishment. The beach communities responded to different environmental descriptors: species richness seemed to be governed by environmental harshness, while abundance seemed to be linked to the degree of homogeneity of the sediments and the

  8. Development and Control of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation: The Case of Colzate-Vertova Landslide, Bergamo, Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Comella; Vincenzo Francani; Paola Gattinoni

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the Colzate-Vertova landslide, a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) located in the Seriana Valley, Northern Italy. The paper aims at describing the development as well as evaluating the factors that influence the evolution of the landslide. After defining the conceptual model of the landslide, numerical simulations were developed using a finite element numerical model, first with a two-dimensional domain, and later with a three-dimensional one. The results...

  9. Coastal Human Actions on Natural Morph-dynamics around RIA of FOZ (NW Spain). Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, J. Javier; Veiga, Efren M.; Rodriguez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    This work approaches the natural littoral processes and their changes induced by human activities around the Cantabrian RIA of FOZ (Galicia, NW Spain). Ria is a specific Spanish term for referring the estuary figured on the sea flooded mouth of a river valley. Although located in Galicia the RIA of FOZ is a Cantabrian Ria. The "Cantabrian rias" clearly differ from the "Galician rias" in their lower degree of tectonic complexity, in their smaller dimensions and in their more advanced current state of infilling (Diez, 1996). While Galician is a Pacific coast Cantabrian was generated as a mainly Atlantic coast. The sedimentary deposits of the Cantabrian rias are mainly from marine origin, being from fluvial origin (Asensio, 1979) just the finest components. The predominant Cantabrian littoral transport goes eastwards and, as consequence of it, the sedimentary littoral spits closing the mouths in coasts normally grow in the same sense. But there are many cases, like in the Ria of Foz, where the spit progresses in an apparent westwards atypical way. This work shows that it is due to combined wind wave phenomena of refraction, diffraction and reflection, which will be detailed. But the human activities interfere in these natural processes. Different port constructions have been made in the Ria of Foz from 1931 to 1977. Their final effects in the morph-dynamics obligate to introduce one construction for regenerate the spit in 1986. The performance, effectiveness and impact of all these port constructions are studied in detail and what are their influences in natural processes for finally applying this knowledge in risks management. Keywords: Rias, Littoral processes, Coastal morph-dynamics, Human induced driving, Risk management.

  10. Differentiated waste collection in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaboni, V.; Landolfo, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    Differentiated collection is an essential part of the integrated urban waste management system. Despite the progress made in recent years, Italy is still far from achieving the targets set by EU regulations. The simulation thus calls for great efforts by local administrations and individual citizens, especially in the Southern part of the country [it

  11. Flood risk management in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.

    2013-01-01

    Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina...

  12. Extensional Structures on the Po Valley Side of the Northern Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettelli, G.; Vannucchi, P.; Capitani, M.

    2001-12-01

    The present-day tectonics of the Northern Apennines is characterized by extension in the inner Tyrrhenian side and compression in the outer Po Valley-Adriatic side. The boundary separating the two domains, extensional and compressional, is still largely undetermined and mainly based on geophysical data (focal mechanisms of earthquakes). Map-scale extensional structures have been studied only along the Tyrrhenian side of the Northern Apennines (Tuscany), while along the Po Valley-Adriatic area the field studies concentrated on compressional features. A new, detailed field mapping of the Po Valley side of the Northern Apennines carried out in the last ten years within the Emilia Romagna Geological Mapping Program has shown the presence of a large extensional fault crossing the high Bologna-Modena-Reggio Emilia provinces, from the Sillaro to the Val Secchia valleys. This Sillaro-Val Secchia Normal Fault (SVSNF) is NW-SE trending, NE dipping and about 80 km long. The age, based on the younger displaced deposits, is post-Miocene. The SVSNF is a primary regional structure separating the Tuscan foredeep units from the Ligurian Units in the south-east sector of the Northern Apennines, and it is responsible for the exhumation of the Tuscan foredeep units along the Apennine water divide. The sub-vertical, SW-NE trending faults, formerly interpreted as strike slip, are transfer faults associated to the extensional structure. A geological cross-section across the SVSNF testifies a former thickness reduction and lamination of the Ligurian Units, as documented in the field, in the innermost areas of the Bologna-Modena-Reggio Emilia hills, implying the occurrence of a former extensional fault. These data indicate that the NE side of the water divide has already gone under extension reducing the compressional domain to the Po Valley foothills and plain. They can also help in interpreting the complex Apennines kinematics.

  13. Absconditella fossarum and A. sphagnorum (Lichenes, Stictidaceae in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Ceynowa-Giełdon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Absconditella fossarum, a species new to Poland, found on sands in the Noteć river valley and A. sphagnorum from the new stands found on peated shore of pure, forest lakes in the Tuchola Forest (Bory Tucholskie region.

  14. Geo-hydrological risk management for civil protection purposes in the urban area of Genoa (Liguria, NW Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, P.; Cevasco, A.; Firpo, M.; Robbiano, A.; Sacchini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past century the municipal area of Genoa has been affected by recurring flood events and several landslides that have caused severe damage to urbanized areas on both the coastal-fluvial plains and surrounding slopes, sometimes involving human casualties. The analysis of past events' annual distribution indicates that these phenomena have occurred with rising frequency in the last seventy years, following the main land use change due to the development of harbour, industrial, and residential areas, which has strongly impacted geomorphological processes. Consequently, in Genoa, civil protection activities are taking on an increasing importance for geo-hydrological risk mitigation. The current legislative framework assigns a key role in disaster prevention to municipalities, emergency plan development, as well as response action coordination in disaster situations. In view of the geomorphological and environmental complexity of the study area and referring to environmental laws, geo-hydrological risk mitigation strategies adopted by local administrators for civil protection purposes are presented as examples of current land/urban management related to geo-hydrological hazards. Adopted measures have proven to be effective on several levels (planning, management, structure, understanding, and publication) in different cases. Nevertheless, the last flooding event (4 November 2011) has shown that communication and public information concerning the perception of geo-hydrological hazard can be improved.

  15. LOWER TO MIDDLE MIOCENE MOLLUSC ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE TORINO HILLS (NW ITALY: SYNTHESIS OF NEW DATA AND CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHICAL ARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTA ZUNINO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to correlate in chronostratigraphic order the fossil assemblages of selected, historical Lower and Middle Miocene localities of the Torino Hills. More than 18,000 specimens have been classified and assigned to 798 taxa (cf. Tab. I. The compositional analyses mainly concern the 672 listed gastropods, most of which were already described in classical monographies. The critical evaluation of the morphological and architectural shell parameters let to a significant reduction of the species that could be realistically maintained in comparison to those cited in literature from the Torino Hills Miocene. Six localities have been analyzed: Valle Ceppi (VC and Val Sanfrà (VS referred to the middle part of the Burdigalian stage (N7a Biozone, Villa Bertini at the topmost Burdigalian, Villa Allason (VA and Villa Forzano (VF at the early Langhian (N8 Biozone and Monte dei Cappuccini (MC at the late Langhian (N9 Biozone. On the whole, the fossil assemblages show a taxonomic variation of both biochronologic and palaeobiogeographic meaning. Actually, the similarity in specific biodiversity of VC, VS, VB, VA and VS reflects homogeneity among late Burdigalian to early Langhian palaeocommunities. As to MC, its deep difference on VC is correlatable with the eastern closing between the Mediterranean areas and the Tethyan Realm, at the boundary Burdigalian-Langhian, that brought to disjoint evolutions of the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific palaeocommunities, the former being influenced by oceanic current changes and related climatic variations. 

  16. Seasonal dynamics and long-term trend of hypoxia in the coastal zone of Emilia Romagna (NW Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Francesca; Cozzi, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Long-term series of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data were compared with hypoxia occurrence, in order to define characteristics and trends of this phenomenon in the Emilia Romagna Coastal Zone (ERCZ) in 1977-2008. During this period, hypoxia was recorded at all sampling stations, up to 20 km offshore. In winter, spring and late autumn, hypoxia appearance was matched to significant positive anomalies of air and surface seawater temperatures (up to +3.6 °C), whereas this effect was less pronounced in August-October. Hypoxia generally occurred with scarce precipitation (0-2 dm(3)m(2)d(-1)) and low wind velocity (0-2 ms(-1)), suggesting the importance of stable meteo-marine conditions for the onset of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, wind direction emerged as an indicator of hydrodynamic seasonal changes in the area and is thus a hypoxia regulator. In winter, spring and autumn, hypoxia was favored by large increases of biomass induced by river freshets. In contrast, summer hypoxia occurred during periods of low runoff, suggesting that pronounced stratification and weak circulation of coastal waters were more important in this season. Since the 1990s, a shift from widespread summer hypoxia to local hypoxia irregularly distributed across the year has occurred. This process was concomitant to long-term increases of air temperature (+0.14 °C yr(-1)), wind speed (+0.03 ms(-1) yr(-1)) and salinity (+0.09 yr(-1)), and decreases of Po River flow (-0.54 km(3) yr(-1)), oxygen saturation (-0.2% yr(-1)) and PO4(3-) (-0.004 μmol P L(-1) yr(-1)) and NH4(+) (-0.04 μmol N L(-1) yr(-1)) concentrations in surface coastal waters. Despite that several of these changes suggest an ERCZ trophic level positive reduction, similar to that reported for the N Adriatic, the concomitant climate warming might further exacerbate hypoxia in particularly shallow shelf locations. Therefore, in order to avoid hypoxia development a further mitigation of anthropogenic pressure is still needed in the area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A casual alien plant new to Mediterranean Europe: Ceiba speciosa (Malvaceae in the suburban area of Palermo (NW Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasta, Salvatore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abiotic and biotic characteristics of the first sites where floss silk tree behaves as a casual alien plant in the Mediterranean Europe are described. The species was probably first planted in botanical gardens of southern France few decades before mid XIX century. It was introduced in Palermo in 1896, a city which appears to match very well its climatic requirements. According to the available information on its biology and ecology in both its original and secondary range, the floss silk tree should not become an invasive alien plant in the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, several gaps need to be filled in order to increase our understanding of future trends of Ceiba speciosa in southern Europe, in particular, the eventual role of pollinators and seed dispersers outside the species’ natural range.Se describen las caracteristicas abióticas y bióticas de los primeros sitios del mediterráneo europeo donde el árbol palo borracho se encuentra creciendo como especie alóctona casual. Con respecto a la historia de su introducción, esta especie fue probablemente plantada en los jardines botánicos del sur de Francia unos pocos decenios antes de la mitad del siglo XIX. En 1896, sin embargo, fue introducida en Palermo, ciudad que parece satisfacer muy bien sus requerimientos climáticos. De acuerdo con la información disponible, tanto dentro como fuera de su área de distribución natural, el palo borracho no debería convertirse en planta invasora en el mediterráneo. Sin embargo, algunos vacíos de información deben ser completados antes de establecer su potencial invasor de una manera definitiva, particularmente, el posible papel de agentes polinizadores y dispersores fuera del área de distribución natural de la especie.

  18. Direct measurement of 3D elastic anisotropy on rocks from the Ivrea zone (Southern Alps, NW Italy)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pros, Zdeněk; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Přikryl, R.; Klíma, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 370, 1-4 (2003), s. 31-47 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/01/1430; GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : anisotropy * Ivrea zone * transversal isotropic Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2003

  19. Contamination of the ground waters and surface waters by boron in Lerma Valley, NW-Argentina - an inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundschuh, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ground- and surface waters in areas unaffected by pollution from borax and boric acid producing plants exhibit low boron concentrations of less than 300 μg B/l. Only at the boric acid plant 'Mineratea' is the groundwater contaminated, with up to 6200 μg B/l occurring within an area of 8 to 10 km 2 with more than 1000 μg boron/l. Even higher boron concentrations (up to 18 μg B/l) are present in polluted surface waters. Not the boron concentration in the irrigation water, but the absolute amount of boron added to the plants by irrigation is what determines plant toxicity. For the contaminated area of the boric acid 'Mineratea', characterized by boron concentrations of between 1000 and 6000 μg B/l, the maximal amounts of irrigation water that can be applied lies between 300 and 8 mm. In order to protect the local groundwater resoures from present and future contamination, environmental impact assessment on industrial projects in the area are required. In this way, the quality of the drinking and irrigation water can be guaranteed through suitable measures, without hindering further necessary industrial development of the region. (orig./UWA) [de

  20. Controls on dryland mountain landscape development along the NW Saharan desert margin: Insights from Quaternary river terrace sequences (Dadès River, south-central High Atlas, Morocco)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokes, M.; Mather, A.E.; Belfoul, M.

    2017-01-01

    between 50 and 140 m. The rock strength, stratigraphy and structure of the mountain belt influences terrace distribution. Terraces are absent in river gorges of structurally thickened limestone; whilst well-developed, laterally continuous terraces (T1-T4) form along wide valleys occupying syncline...... sands and colluvium. This sequence with some OSL/IRSL age control, suggests terrace formation over a 100 ka climate cycle with valley floor aggradation during full glacials and incision during glacial-interglacial transitions. This integrates with other archives (e.g. lakes, glaciers, dunes), appearing...... typical of landscape development along the NW Saharan margin south of the High Atlas, and similar to patterns in the western-southern Mediterranean. The 100 ka climate cycle relationship suggests that the terrace sequence documents Late-Middle Pleistocene landscape development. Consistent altitudinal...

  1. Education and science museums. Reflections in Italy and on Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The educational function of science museums was born with the first naturalistic collections ever, flourished in 16th-century Italy. The pedagogic thought and the educational experimentations carried out in approximately five century of history have allowed the educational mission of museums to acquire many different facets, drawing a task having an increasingly higher and complex social value. Recent publications explore these new meanings of an old role.

  2. Seismic micro-zoning in the alpine valleys and local application in urban planning regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Cartier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Confrontées au risque sismique, les vallées sédimentaires alpines testent différentes solutions politiques pour transcrire en règles d’urbanisme les connaissances apportées par les micro-zonages. France, Italie, Slovénie et Suisse composent avec leur tradition politique et l’adoption de codes européens pour améliorer la sécurité selon la vulnérabilité et la géologie locales.Management of earthquake risks in the sedimentary valleys of the Alps depends on the ability to transcribe scientific knowledge obtained from micro-zoning into urban planning regulations. France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland are working with new European codes, and within their respective political contexts, to improve earthquake safety on the basis of enhanced input on local geological conditions and vulnerability levels.

  3. Variations of local seismic response in Benevento (Southern Italy) using earthquakes and ambient noise recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, Luigi; di Giulio, Giuseppe; Rovelli, Antonio

    The city of Benevento (Southern Italy) has been repeatedly struck by large historical earthquakes. A heterogeneous geologic structure and widespread soft soil conditions make the estimation of site effects crucial for the seismic hazard assessment of the city. From 2000 until 2004, we installed seismic stations to collect earthquake data over zones with different geological conditions. Despite the high level of urban noise, we recorded more than 150 earthquakes at twelve sites. This data set yields the first, well documented experimental evidence for weak to moderate local amplifications. We investigated site effects primarily by the classical spectral ratio technique (CSR) using a rock station placed on the Benevento hill as reference. All sites in the Calore river valley and in the eastern part of the Benevento hill show a moderate high-frequency (f > 4 Hz) amplification peak. Conversely, sites in the Sabato river valley share weak-to-moderate amplification in a wide frequency band (from 1-2 to 7-10 Hz), without evident frequency peaks. Application of no-reference-site techniques to earthquake and noise data confirms the results of the CSRs in the sites of the Calore river valley and of the eastern part of the Benevento hill, but fails in providing indications for site effects in the Sabato river valley, being the H/V ratios nearly flat. One-dimensional modeling indicates that the ground motion amplification can be essentially explained in terms of a vertically varying geologic structure. High-frequency narrow peaks are caused by the strong impedance contrast existing between near-surface soft deposits and stiff cemented conglomerates. Conversely, broad-band amplifications in the Sabato river valley are likely due to a more complex layering with weak impedance contrasts both in the shallow and deep structure of the valley.

  4. Using SLAM to Look For the Dog Valley Fault, Truckee Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.; Ashburn, J. A.; Sverdrup, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Truckee earthquake (9/12/1966, ML6.0) was a left-lateral event on a previously unrecognized NW-trending fault. The Prosser Creek and Boca Dams sustained damage, and the trace of the suspected causative fault passes near or through the site of the then-incomplete Stampede Dam. Another M6 earthquake occurred along the same general trend in 1948 with an epicenter in Dog Valley ~14 km to the NW of the 1966 epicenter. This trend is called the Dog Valley Fault (DVF), and its location on the ground surface is suggested by a prominent but broad zone of geomorphic lineaments near the cloud of aftershock epicenters determined for the 1966 event. Various ground effects of the 1966 event described by Kachadoorian et al. (1967) were located within this broad zone. The upper shoreface of reservoirs in the Truckee-Prosser-Martis basin are now exposed due to persistent drought. We have examined fault strands in a roadcut and exposed upper shoreface adjacent to the NE abutment of Stampede Dam. These are interpreted to be small-displacement splays associated with the DVF -- perhaps elements of the DVF damage zone. We have used the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to help us constrain the location of the DVF, based on earthquake focal mechanisms. Seismo-lineaments were computed, using recent revisions in the SLAM code (bearspace.baylor.edu/Vince_Cronin/www/SLAM/), for the 1966 main earthquake and for the better-recorded earthquakes of 7/3/1983 (M4) and 8/30/1992 (M3.2) that are inferred to have occurred along the DVF. Associated geomorphic analysis and some field reconnaissance identified a trend that might be associated with a fault, extending from the NW end of Prosser Creek Reservoir ~32° toward the Stampede Dam area. Triangle-strain analysis using horizontal velocities of local Plate Boundary Observatory GPS sites P146, P149, P150 and SLID indicates that the area rotates clockwise ~1-2°/Myr relative to the stable craton, as might be expected because the study area is

  5. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  6. Company profile: Edison of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The energy subsidiary of the Montedison chemicals company (Ferruzzi Group), Edison is Italy's largest private sector electricity producer. Last year production amounted to 4.7 TWh, an increase of 8.2% on 1990, and at the end of June this year, total net production of 2.4 TWh was 14.8% higher than in the first half of 1991. Edison also ranks first in the Italian league of private sector hydrocarbons producers, its Edison Gas subsidiary controlling a group that has significant exploration and development interests. These are mainly in Italy where production amounted to 333m cubic metres of natural gas and 690,000 barrels of oil in the first half of the year. The recent acquisition of Deutsche Shell's Italian fields should allow Edison to reach 2bn cubic metres of gas production by 1996. (author)

  7. Medieval Churches in Shushica Valley (South Albania and the Slavonic Bishopric of St. Clement of Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skënder Muçaj

    2014-08-01

    In St. Clement’s bishopric Church Slavonic was used as a liturgical language. For that purpose, a set of Byzantine liturgical books was translated from Greek into Church Slavonic, and Clement took an active part in this process. Liturgical pecularities of these books partially observed in Greek manuscripts of South Italian provenance testify to the hypothesis that Greek sources of the earliest Church Slavonic translations belonged to liturgical tradition of Epirus, similar to those of South Italy. This also proves the location of St. Clement’s bishopric in the valley of the Shushica River.

  8. Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozzi, Alberto; Eleni, Claudia; Polici, Nicola; D’Alterio, Gianlorenzo; Carletti, Fabrizio; Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Di Caro, Antonino; Autorino, Gian Luca; Amaddeo, Demetrio

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany. PMID:21801638

  9. Cold fusion research in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaramuzzi, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes cold fusion (CF) research in Italy. In Italy, many Agencies and Universities are moderately funding research in CF, and the scientists have made a few attempts to coordinate each other, organizing meetings and conferences. However, the activity has been mostly the fruit of the scientists' initiative, and never a coordinated proposal of Agencies and Universities. No position on the scientific validity of the subject has been officially taken and the funds for CF have been rather modest. The investments in Italy on CF, the figure referring to 1992 amounts to about 0.5 million dollars, not including expenses for personnel. A number of about 70 scientists, mostly working part-time, is committed all around the Country in research on CF. The lack of offical commitment and effective support by the Research Agencies and the Universities has not prevented scientists from being quite active in performing research. On the other side, it has to be acknowledged that no formal vetoes have been interposed to the free initiative of scientists in this field: on the contrary, some of the Agencies and Universities have moderately funded such an effort. The quality of the experiments in Italy has been increasingly good, and the results obtained are rather out standing in the general panorama of CF. But it is time to perform a more coordinated effort, keeping in mind that material science aspects, such as the characteristics of the materials used, play a very important role in the development of this topic. Thus, a much more intense effort is required to obtain a more substantial progress in the field. The increasingly convincing results obtained by the whole CF community, and the example of the Japanese Government and Industry, which appear to be determined to promoting CF research, have changed the panorama of CF. These are now signs that also the Italian scientific authorities could consider favouring research in this field in the near future. (J.P.N.)

  10. Reforming Capital Taxation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Eyraud

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews capital taxation issues in Italy based on a comprehensive definition encompassing taxes on income, transactions, and ownership. It discusses options to enhance the neutrality of the capital income tax system, followed by a detailed analysis of the property tax, the inheritance tax, and various transaction taxes. The paper also examines the case for replacing the set of existing taxes on financial and real assets with a single net wealth tax.

  11. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  12. Italy's recurrent energy dependency dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolito, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper first critically assesses the objectives of Italy's 1988 National Energy Plan which, in light of the moratorium on nuclear energy, called for moderate but steady reductions in imported energy supplies through the implementation of energy conservation programs and the development of available domestic conventional and renewable energy sources. The economics and energy analyses evidence that, in view this nation's current troubled economic situation, the Energy Plan's target for the year 2000 of a 76% dependency on foreign oil is just not good enough and not in line with stricter European environmental normatives limiting carbon dioxide emissions. It is argued that in order to effectively reduce the nation's excessively high energy costs, keep pace with other industrialized countries in a highly competitive market (Italy's energy tariffs are almost 55% greater than those of Germany and France), and to respect new European anti-pollution laws, Italy must restart its nuclear program and take advantage of the recent advances being made in passive reactor safety systems

  13. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  14. Combining literature review, acoustic mapping and in situ observations: an overview of coralligenous assemblages in Liguria (NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Cánovas Molina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A review and update of the existing knowledge on the coralligenous assemblages of Liguria (NW Italy was conducted as an essential step towards management measures for their conservation according to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. By combining a literature review, acoustic mapping and in situ observations on a geographic information systems platform, we were able to assess the distribution and heterogeneity of coralligenous assemblages and the main pressures affecting them. The reliability of the literature was previously estimated using a dependability index. The coralligenous assemblages cover an area of 130.9 ha and range from 10 to 113 m depth. Twelve different biological facies (five of them not included in the EUNIS list were identified and four main geomorphotypes (plungingcliffs, paleocliffs, rockfalls and shoals were recognized. Incident light values influenced the distribution of four facies in Portofino promontory. Pressures were found on 33% of the coralligenous assemblages investigated, mainly due to fishing activities, mass mortality events, invasive species and occasional mucilaginous events. Our results showed a high spatial, geomorphological and biological heterogeneity of coralligenous assemblages in Liguria.

  15. Una nueva zona de arte rupestre al aire libre en el NW : la península de Barbanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Gil Agra

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A new área with open air rock carvings in the Iberian NW; the península of Barbanza. Traditionally the research on Galician rock art had focused in the área around Campolameiro (Pontevedra where the biggest number of sites was reported, whereas other zones to the North were almost unknown in that respect. In this paper we deal with the new finds of petroglyphs in the Barbanza, where intensive survey has multiplied the number of this tipe of sites. The usual motifs are abstract (mainly concentric circles and cupmarks but also semischematic with representations of deer. The distribution of the art is more dense in the coastal lowlands, though a number of sites is reported in the passes leading into the high sierra and in this área itself. As to the relationship with the roughiy contemporary settiements (lllrd millenium BC, we have observed a definite pattern: cupmarks are sharing the same space with the more densely Inhabited áreas down to the coast and also they are found near to the mounds in the high plateau; animal representations and more complex abstract motifs (concentric circles with or without radius are sited along small valleys or ridges that link the lowlands and the upper reaches of the Sierra. All this patterning would point out to the role of petrogliphs as a mechanism for defining the most resourceful or symbolic places and the paths leading into them.

  16. Preliminary results for filtering-ecosystems in Val Trebbia (PC - Italy); Primi risultati per gli ecosistemi-filtro della Val Trebbia (PC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcevschi, Sergio [Pavia, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Bisogni, G Luca [N.Q.A. s.r.l., Pavia (Italy); Bernini, Fabrizio [Amministrazione Provinciale di Piacenza, Piacenza (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    Some artificial wetlands were constructed in 1993-1994 in the Trebbia Valley (Piacenza, Italy). These plants worked as further treatment of secondary effluents of five little towns in the valley: Bobbio, Travo, Perino-Dolgo, Marsaglia, Ottone. The project and the realization considered the systems as Filtering Ecosystems and not a simple Aquatic Plant Systems. In 1994-1995 a research by University of Pavia was carried out, on the filtering ecosystem of Bobbio. Removal efficiency was 9,9 for phaecal coliforms, and 65% for nitrates.

  17. Projected future wave climate in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Prat, M.; Sierra, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Projected future regional wave climate scenarios at a high temporal-spatial scale were obtained for the NW Mediterranean Sea, using five combinations of regional-global circulation models. Changes in wave variables were analyzed and related to the variations of the forcing wind projections, while also evaluating the evolution of the presence of the different types of sea states. To assess the significance of the changes produced, a bootstrap-based method was proposed, which accounts for the autocorrelation of data and correctly reproduces the extremes. For the mean climate, relative changes of Hs up to ±10% were obtained, whereas they were around ±20% for the extreme climate. In mean terms, variations of Hs are similar to those associated with wind speed but are enhanced/attenuated, respectively, when fetch conditions are favorable/unfavorable. In general, most notable alterations are not in the Hs magnitude but rather in its direction. In this regard, during the winter season, it is interesting to note that the significant deviations between the results derived from the two global circulation models are larger than those between regional models. ECHAM5 simulated an enhanced west wind flow that is translated into more frequent W-NW waves, whereas the HadCM3Q3 global model gives rise to the east component, which contributes to a higher intensity and number of storms coming from such a direction and directly affects the wind-sea/swell distribution of coastal stretches that face east, like the Catalan coast. Different patterns of change were obtained during the summer when a common rise of NE-E waves was found.

  18. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  19. Paleomagnetic dating of tectonically influenced Plio-Quaternary fan-system deposits from the Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Saroli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Roveto Valley is a narrow, elongated, NW-trending depression filled with continental Plio-Quaternary deposits that outcrop at different topographic elevations. A morpho-lithostratigraphic succession of the continental deposits has been defined in order to reconstruct the geological Quaternary evolution of the area. These deposits do not contain materials suitable for biostratigraphic dating; therefore, in order to determine their chronology, three different units were sampled for magnetostratigraphic investigations. Paleomagnetic results demonstrated that standard demagnetization techniques are effective in removing secondary remanence components and in isolating the characteristic remanent magnetization, allowing us to determine, for each cycle, whether it was deposited before or after the Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic reversal at 781 ka. Preliminary rock magnetic analyses indicated that magnetite is the main magnetic carrier and that hematite, which gives the pink colour to the matrix, is in the superparamagnetic grain-size range and thus does not retain any paleomagnetic remanence.

  20. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  1. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  2. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  3. Energy and environment in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menna, P.; Capra, M.; D'Acunto, A.; Del Ciello, R.; Molinas, P.; Virdis, M.

    2001-01-01

    Based upon the more meaningful changing recorded within the Italian energy sector in the year 2000, the Studies Department of ENEA (the Italian National board for new technologies, energy and environment) prepared the 'Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2000', which provides a picture of the country energy and energy-related activities concerning the environment. In this paper, it is only provided a summary of the whole work. The complete report can be downloaded from the ENEA main page (www.enea.it). Italy gross domestic product (Gdp) grew by almost 3% in the year 2000, mostly sustained by an increase in the industrial production and services, as well. At the same time the total energy consumption rose to almost 185 Mtoe (+1% over 1999). Because Gdp grew more than the energy consumption, the energy intensity decreases in the year 2000. Almost 82% of the Italian energy needs (mainly oil and gas, even if electricity imports are increasing) depend upon imports. This heavy burden makes Italy particularly sensitive to both the oil price fluctuations and the euro/dollar exchange rate. Transportation absorbs a large and growing share of the energy consumption while showing quite an impact on the environment. From the supply side, renewable energy sources appear very promising because they allow the use of local resources, promote local development and may create new jobs, in area of the country with less favourable economic conditions. First among the European countries, a market mechanism to increase the use of renewable by establishing that a share of the whole electricity production (currently set at 2%) has to come from renewable has been introduced. However among the OECD countries, Italy records the lowest rate of R/D investments to GDP. This rate should more than double if the new opportunities coming from the development of innovative energy technologies have to be fully exploited [it

  4. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  5. Legionnaires’ disease Surveillance in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Ricci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the report presented, data on legionellosis diagnosed in the year 2003 in Italy and notified to the National Surveillance System are analysed. Overall, 617 cases were notified, of which 517 were confirmed and 46 were presumptive.

    The characteristics of the patients are very similar to those reported in the previous years in terms of male/female ratio, age–specific distribution, occupation, etc. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was responsible for approximately 90% of the cases.

  6. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  8. Glacier-induced Hazards in the Trans-Himalaya of Ladakh (NW-India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Dame, Juliane; Nüsser, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers are important water resources for irrigated crop cultivation in the semi-arid Trans-Himalaya of Ladakh (NW-India). Due to global warming, many glaciers of South Asia have retreated over the last century and further ice loss will threaten local livelihoods in the long run. In the short term, an increase of flood events caused by melting glaciers and permafrost is expected for the Himalayan region. Beside large catastrophic events, small outburst floods are 'more' regularly reported for various parts of the region. This also holds true for the Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh, where small glaciers exist at high altitudes. Caused by glacier retreat, a number of proglacial lakes have been formed, most of them dammed by ice filled moraines. The potential risk of these lakes is shown by recent reports on glacial lake outburst flood in the villages Nidder in October 2010 and Gya in August 2014. The 2014 flood destroyed several agricultural terraces, a new concrete bridge and two houses. Own remote sensing analyses shows the increase of a moraine dammed proglacial lake in the upper catchment area, which grew from about 0.03 to 0.08 km2 between 1969 and 2014. Because of the relatively stable altitude of the lake level, one can assume that the flood was caused by a piping process, initiated by melted ice bodies in the moraine. Already in the 1990s a small GLOF was observed in the village, which destroyed some fields. As in 2014, the lake was not completely spilled and a short-term decrease of the lake area is detectable in remote sensing data. Thus, further GLOF-events can be expected for the future. Beside physical risk factors, population growth and new infrastructure development along the streams and valleys increases potential damages of floods. Therefore, investigations are required to estimate the risks of these small glacial lakes and the potential flood effected area for the case study of Gya as well as for the whole region of Ladakh. Remote sensing data are

  9. The Pocatello Valley, Idaho, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. M.; Langer, C.J.; Bucknam, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A Richter magnitude 6.3 earthquake occurred at 8:31 p.m mountain daylight time on March 27, 1975, near the Utah-Idaho border in Pocatello Valley. The epicenter of the main shock was located at 42.094° N, 112.478° W, and had a focal depth of 5.5 km. This earthquake was the largest in the continental United States since the destructive San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. The main shock was preceded by a magnitude 4.5 foreshock on March 26. 

  10. Radwaste challenge at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Duquesne Light Company met the problem of accumulating low-level radioactive waste at its Beaver Valley nuclear plant with an aggressive program to reduce the quantity of contaminated material and demonstrate that the plant was improving its radiological protection. There was also an economic incentive to reduce low-level wastes. The imaginative campaign involved workers in the reduction effort through training and the adoption of practical approaches to reducing the amount of material exposed to radiation that include sorting trash by radiation level and a compacting system. 4 figures

  11. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  12. Coal use in Italy and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Fossil fuels have in Italy great importance. In Italy, in terms of environmental protection and for social acceptance, coal has had a real opposition not verified in other countries. Environmental compatibility of coal cycle and related technologies are discussed also consequently at the Kyoto protocol [it

  13. Rembrandt in Italie. Receptie en verzamelgeschiedenis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, J.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation sets out to investigate if and to what extent Rembrandt's work was appreciated in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries. From approximately 1650 onwards paintings, drawings and prints by Rembrandt could be found in Italy, he is mentioned in several written sources and a few Italian

  14. Spirits and liqueurs in European traditional medicine: Their history and ethnobotany in Tuscany and Bologna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Teresa; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero; Rivera, Diego; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Palazón, José Antonio

    2015-12-04

    Fermented drinks, often alcoholic, are relevant in many nutritional, medicinal, social, ritual and religious aspects of numerous traditional societies. The use of alcoholic drinks of herbal extracts is documented in classical pharmacy since the 1st century CE and it is often recorded in ethnobotanical studies in Europe, particularly in Italy, where are used for a wide range of medicinal purposes. Formulations and uses represent a singular tradition which responds to a wide range of environmental and cultural factors. This research has two overarching aims To determine how long ancient uses, recipes and formulas for medicinal liqueurs from the pharmacopoeias and herbals of the 18th century persisted in later periods and their role in present ethnobotanical knowledge in areas of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna (Italy). To trace other possible relationships among ancient and recent recipes of alcoholic beverages, from both popular and 'classic' (learned) sources in N-C Italy and neighboring areas. The review of herbals and classical pharmacopoeias, and ethnobotanical field work in Alta Valle del Reno (Tuscany and Emilia Romagna, Italy) were followed of a systematic study of ingredients and medicinal uses with multivariate analysis techniques. The multivariate analysis clearly shows six different styles of preparing medicinal alcoholic beverages: 1. The medicinal wine formulae by Dioscorides (1st century CE). 2. The pharmacopoeias of Florence and Bologna in the 18th century CE. 3. The formularies of Santa Maria Novella and Castiglione (19th and early 20th centuries CE). 4. The ethnobotanical data from Appennino Tosco-Emiliano; home-made formulations based almost exclusively on the use of local resources. 5. Traditional recipes from NE Italy and Austria. 6. Traditional recipes from NW Italy, Emilia, and Provence (France). A total of 54 ingredients (29 fruits) from 48 species are used in different combinations and proportions in Alta Valle del Reno (Italy) to produce

  15. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  16. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  17. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  18. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cherie J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Necker, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 2 sites at Necker in the NW...

  20. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  1. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  2. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  3. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Laysan, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the NW...

  4. The Cape Ghir filament system in August 2009 (NW Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrà, Pablo; Troupin, Charles; Barreiro-González, Beatriz; Desmond Barton, Eric; Orbi, Abdellatif; Arístegui, Javier

    2015-06-01

    In the framework of the Canaries-Iberian marine ecosystem Exchanges (CAIBEX) experiment, an interdisciplinary high-resolution survey was conducted in the NW African region of Cape Ghir (30°38'N) during August 2009. The anatomy of a major filament is investigated on scales down to the submesoscale using in situ and remotely sensed data. The filament may be viewed as a system composed of three intimately connected structures: a small, shallow, and cold filament embedded within a larger, deeper, and cool filament and an intrathermocline anticyclonic eddy (ITE). The cold filament, which stretches 110 km offshore, is a shallow feature 60 m deep and 25 km wide, identified by minimal surface temperatures and rich in chlorophyll a. This structure comprises two asymmetrical submesoscale (˜18 km) fronts with jets flowing in opposite directions. The cold filament is embedded near the equatorward boundary of a much broader region of approximately 120 km width and 150 m depth that forms the cool filament and stretches at least 200 km offshore. This cool region, partly resulting from the influence of cold filament, is limited by two asymmetrical mesoscale (˜50 km) frontal boundaries. At the ITE, located north of the cold filament, we observe evidence of downwelling as indicated by a relatively high concentration of particles extending from the surface to more than 200 m depth. We hypothesize that this ITE may act as a sink of carbon and thus the filament system may serve dual roles of offshore carbon export and carbon sink.

  5. Tomographic models and seismotectonics of the Reggio Emilia region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, M. G.; Chiarabba, C.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study is to define the Vp and Vp/Vs structure of the fault zone ruptured by the M L 5.1 earthquake of October 15, 1996 which occurred near Reggio Emilia (central-northern Italy). A 1-month-long seismic sequence followed the mainshock and occurred in a small region along the outer border of the northern Apenninic belt, at depth ranging between 10 and 17 km. P- and S-wave arrival times from 304 aftershocks recorded by two local dense seismic arrays installed in the epicentral region have been inverted to obtain one- and three-dimensional velocity models by using state of the art local earthquake tomographic techniques. Velocity models and aftershock relocation help us to infer the seismotectonic of the region. Earthquakes originated along a NW-dipping backthrust of a NE-trending main thrust, composing the western part of the broad Ferrara Arc. A main high Vp and high Vp/Vs region delineates a pop-up structure in the center of the area. The high Vp/Vs within the pop-up structure supports the presence of a zone with increased pore pressure. The hypocentral depth of both mainshock and aftershocks is greater than those usually found for the main seismogenic regions of the Apenninic belt. P-wave velocity values in the seismogenic area, obtained by tomography, are compatible with rocks of the Mesozoic cover and suggest that seismicity occurred within the Mesozoic units stack at present by compressional tectonics.

  6. CAS Introductory Course in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School’s introductory course is a great success. This year the CERN Accelerator School held its "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" course in Frascati, Italy, from 2-14 November in collaboration with the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. The Introductory level course is particularly important since, for the majority of participants, it is the first opportunity to discover the various aspects of accelerator physics. For this school the programme had been significantly revised in order to take into account the new trends currently being developed in the field, thus putting more emphasis on linacs, synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers. The school was a resounding success with 115 participants of more than 23 nationalities. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the excellent organizati...

  7. Italy: a market in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.

    2002-01-01

    The prospects for the Italian gas market, the third biggest in Europe, are reviewed briefly. With increasing demand for gas-fired generation of electric power, Italy will need a new infrastructure. At present, Italian electric power is among the most expensive in Europe. Enei, the dominant generator in the country, is converting its oil-fired plants to gas to increase efficiency and reduce emissions. Combined cycle gas turbine plants are seen as the best way to enter the Italian market. Eni has much gas under 'take or pay' contracts but eventually their grip on the market will be loosened and international players such as Edison, BG Italia BP Shell, and Italian distributors such as AEM Milano, AEM Torino, and ACEA Roma may find new opportunities on offer

  8. Renewable energies. Italy is mobilizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marante, W.

    2005-01-01

    About 3 quarter of the Italian electric power comes from fossil fuel power plants. The rest is generated from hydropower, few comes from biomass and wind energy and a very few from geothermal energy (2% of the national production). However, the situation is changing and geothermal energy, with only 5 TWh, makes Italy the European leader in this domain and the world number 4 behind USA, Philippines and Mexico. The renewable sources represent 18.5% of the total Italian energy production. During the last five years, the renewable energy sources have developed rapidly: +80% per year for the wind energy, +32% per year for biomass and about +3% per year for geothermal energy. Moreover, the Italian government is implementing incentives for the development of renewable energy sources. This article gives an overview of the situation. (J.S.)

  9. Characterization of necrophagus entomofauna in a typical agricultural area in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calzolari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a checklist of Dipterans and Coleopterans accountable for carrion decay in the Po Valley (Italy, a contribution to the Forensic Entomology knowledge in Italy. Insects colonizing two pig carcasses in an agricultural area in Mezzani municipality (Parma, Northern Italy were sampled by pitfall traps and original Malaise-like traps, which allowed the sampling of a very relevant number of flying insects. A checklist of 57 taxa was obtained, of which 26 were considered of forensic importance. For the latter the arrival time of adult specimens on the carcasses was recorded, as an important parameter in minimum post mortem interval estimation. Dipterans (6141 specimens were the most common insects; the fastest specimens to detect and colonize the carcass belonged to the Calliphoridae family, while Fanniidae and Muscidae infested the carrion until completion of the skeletal stage. Coleopterans appeared later (308 adult specimens and 114 larvae were captured. Staphylinidae, Dermestidae, and Histeridae were the most common coleopterans sampled in this study.

  10. Easily fabricated and lightweight PPy/PDA/AgNW composites for excellent electromagnetic interference shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Gu, Fu-Qiang; Ni, Li-Juan; Liang, Kun; Marcus, Kyle; Liu, Shu-Li; Yang, Fan; Chen, Jin-Ju; Feng, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-11-30

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) containing nanoscale conductive fillers have been widely studied for their potential use in various applications. In this paper, polypyrrole (PPy)/polydopamine (PDA)/silver nanowire (AgNW) composites with high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance, good adhesion ability and light weight are successfully fabricated via a simple in situ polymerization method followed by a mixture process. Benefiting from the intrinsic adhesion properties of PDA, the adhesion ability and mechanical properties of the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites are significantly improved. The incorporation of AgNWs endows the functionalized PPy with tunable electrical conductivity and enhanced EMI shielding effectiveness (SE). By adjusting the AgNW loading degree in the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites from 0 to 50 wt%, the electrical conductivity of the composites greatly increases from 0.01 to 1206.72 S cm -1 , and the EMI SE of the composites changes from 6.5 to 48.4 dB accordingly (8.0-12.0 GHz, X-band). Moreover, due to the extremely low density of PPy, the PPy/PDA/AgNW (20 wt%) composites show a superior light weight of 0.28 g cm -3 . In general, it can be concluded that the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites with tunable electrical conductivity, good adhesion properties and light weight can be used as excellent EMI shielding materials.

  11. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Luigi Gini,; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    The radionuclides 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m −3 for 131 I was recorded at April 3–4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with 131 I and 137 Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of 131 I and 137 Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L −1 and 0.12 Bq L −1 , respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27–28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of 137 Cs than it was for 131 I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of 137 Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. - Highlights: ► Radioactive plume from Fukushima reactor accident reached Milano, Italy. ► 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs were determined in rainwater, air, soil, grass and milk samples. ► The 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity ratio values in air was about 1. ► High observed values of 137 Cs in grass, soil and milk samples are not due to Fukushima accident. ► The dose assessment show that the observed activities are very far below levels of concern.

  12. Hidden Valley Search at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Verducci, M

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.

  13. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The Italian Republic comprises a 1200 - Km - long peninsula ex- tending from southern Europe into the Mediterranean Sea, and a number of adjacent islands, among which the principals are Sicily and Sardinia. The total area is in excess of 300,000 Sq.Km, the islands account for some 50, 000 Sq.Km. From a physiographic and morphologic point of view, Italy mainly consists of the Alpine region and the Po valley to the North and of the Appennine range and small Coastal plains to the Centre and South. Plains occupied only 20% of the total area, hills and mountains, up to 4,810 m of elevation, contribute almost equally to the remaining 80%. The most promising uranium mineralizations have been found in the Bergamasc Alps, near the small town of Novazza. Pitchblende and minor sphalerite (formation temperature, 80 deg. - 100 deg. C) occur disseminated in volcanics of permian age. The host rocks at the Novazza uranium deposit, consist of an acid ignimbrite with cineritic texture. The rocks have been affected by metasomatism which brought abundant neo-formation minerals such as silica, sericite, carbonates and minor adularia, albite and muscovite. The reasonably assured resources of the Novazza deposit have been estimated to be 1,200 ton of U having a grade of 900 p.p.m. U. Estimated additional resources are 1,000 ton U. Production is scheduled to start in 1980

  14. NW Oregon radon potential based on soil radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashbaugh, S.G.; Burns, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of soil by gamma spectroscopy for Bi-214 (Ra-226) suggests low to moderate radon potentials for northwest Oregon in areas with low to moderate soil permeabilities. Very low radon potential zones (0.2 to 0.7 pCi/g) comprise 58% of the study area. These zones are frequently associated with soils developed from undifferentiated basalts and andesites of the Cascade Range, and basalts and undifferentiated mafic intrusives of the Coast Range. Low radon potential zones (0.7 to 1.2 pCi/g) comprise 28% of the study area. These zones are generally associated with Missoula Flood sediments, pre-Holocene loess in the Portland area, and Eocene/Oligocene marine sediments low in mica and/or tuff along the foothills of the Willamette Valley. Moderate radon potential zones (1.2 to 3.0 pCi/g) comprise 14% of the study area. These zones are often associated with the lateritic soils derived from Columbia River Basalts and Eocene/Oligocene marine sediments high in mica and/or tuff along the western edges of the Willamette Valley. A closer examination of soils in the Portland and Salem areas shows that: (1) Bi-214/K-40 ratios increase from 0.07 to 0.35 with respect to solid development, indicating K-40 to be preferentially leached over Ra-226; (2) clay development within B-horizons does not reflect a significant increase in Ra-226 mobility; and (3) elevated indoor radon within the Portland and Salem areas can be attributed to high soil permeabilities rather than soil chemistry

  15. Karst springs as 'natural' pluviometers: Constraints on the isotopic composition of rainfall in the Apennines of central Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minissale, A.; Vaselli, O.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Isotopic compositions of karstic springs in central Italy have been reviewed. → Isotopic gradients of rainfalls for elevations have been evaluated in an Alpine valley. → Karstic drops have been calculated by using isotopic compositions of springs. → Isotopic compositions of rainfalls in central Italy have been re-calculated using the isotopic compositions of karstic springs. - Abstract: This paper describes an indirect method to calculate the isotopic composition of rainfall by using the isotopic composition of karst springs fed by waters circulating in the most important regional aquifer of central Italy, i.e. the Mesozoic limestone sequence that forms the backbone of the Apennines. By using δ 18 O and δD data and the δ 18 O (and/or δD) average gradient for elevation, evaluated through the use of literature rainfall data and new measurements from a typical Alpine valley in northern Italy, the altitude of precipitation of their parent water has been re-calculated. Vertical descents of more than 2000 m, from recharge to discharge, have been assessed in some high flow-rate cold springs in the morphologically steep Adriatic sector of central Italy. A clear correlation between the vertical descents and more negative isotopic compositions at their relative emergence elevations is highlighted. In contrast, in the Tyrrhenian sector lower karstic drops (generally lower than 500 m) correlate with less negative isotopic composition of recharge areas. The δ 18 O iso-contour map of the 'recalculated' parent rainfall in central Italy is more detailed than any possible isotopic map of rainfall made using pluviometers, unless large number of rainfall collectors were deployed on mountaintops. The data also show that the isotopic composition of rainfall depends on the source of the storm water. In particular, precipitation is isotopically heavier when originating in the Mediterranean Sea, and lighter when formed in the Atlantic Ocean. Consequently, the

  16. Forest types of the "Argentino River Valley" Natural Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnato S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest classification is a fundamental target for understanding forest stand dynamics and for sustainable management strategy applications. In this paper the methodological approach of forest types, already used in other Italians region, was applied for the classification of the RNO "Argentino River Valley" (southern Apennine, Italy. This study has been organized in 4 steps: 1 bibliographic analysis and collection of the acquired knowledge; 2 preliminary verification of forest types in the field; 3 description of the different units; 4 final validation of typological units. Using this approach we have characterized 9 categories and 12 forest types units. The description of each units has been filed as cards, where information of different nature is summarized and related to the organization of the typological units, to its location, to the description of the qualitative indicators (disturbances, cohort, mortality, natural dynamic tendencies, SDT, CWD etc. and quantitative indicators (dbh, average height, current annual increment, etc., to the functioning and the current management. For a better understanding of types functioning, "sylvology models" based on the "Spatial Pattern of Relative Collective Interaction" (PSICR and on the principal characteristics influencing and characterizing forest stand dynamics (availability of resources, type and frequency of disturbances, stand development, etc. have been singled out and proposed. The "forest types map" and other maps useful for the management of forest resources have been obtained. Moreover, data collected did allow to formulate several hypotheses on sustainable management.

  17. ERUPTIVE VARIABLE STARS AND OUTFLOWS IN SERPENS NW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf; Watermann, Ramon; Lemke, Roland, E-mail: hodapp@ifa.hawaii.edu [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Astronomisches Institut, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    We study the outflow activity, photometric variability, and morphology of three very young stellar objects in the Serpens NW star-forming region: OO Serpentis, EC 37 (V370 Ser), and EC 53 (V371 Ser). High spatial resolution Keck/NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics images obtained in 2007 and 2009 in broadband K and in a narrowband filter centered on the 1-0 S(1) emission line of H{sub 2} allow us to identify the outflows from all three objects. We also present new, seeing-limited data on the photometric evolution of the OO Ser reflection nebula and re-analyze previously published data. We find that OO Ser declined in brightness from its outburst peak in 1995 to about 2003, but that this decline has recently stopped and actually reversed itself in some areas of the reflection nebula. The morphology and proper motions of the shock fronts MHO 2218 near EC 37 suggest that they all originate in EC 37 and that this is an outflow seen nearly along its axis. We identify an H{sub 2} jet emerging from the cometary nebula EC 53. The star illuminating EC 53 is periodically variable with a period of 543 days and has a close-by, non-variable companion at a projected distance of 92 AU. We argue that the periodic variability is the result of accretion instabilities triggered by another very close, not directly observable, binary companion and that EC 53 can be understood in the model of a multiple system developing into a hierarchical configuration.

  18. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  19. Firewood Resource Management in Different Landscapes in NW Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela V. Morales

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems, their components, processes and functions are all subject to management by human populations, with the purpose of adapting the environments to make them more habitable and ensuring the availability and continuity of subsistence resources. Although a lot of work has been carried out on resources of alimentary or medicinal interest, little has been done on associating processes of domestication with firewood extraction, a practice considered to be destructive of the environment. In the arid steppe of NW Patagonia, inhabited and managed for different purposes for a long time by Mapuche-Tehuelche communities, the gathering of combustible plant species has up to the present time played a crucial role in cooking and heating, and work is required to achieve sustainability of this resource. In this study we evaluate whether environments with less landscape domestication are more intensively used for firewood gathering. Using an ethnobiological approach, information was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Twenty-eight firewood species are gathered, both native (75% and exotic (25%. The supply of firewood mainly depends on gathering from the domesticated (10 species, semi-domesticated (17 species and low human intervention landscapes (17 species. In contrast to our hypothesis, average use intensity is similar in all these landscapes despite their different levels of domestication. That is, the different areas are taken advantage of in a complementary manner in order to satisfy the domestic demand for firewood. Neither do biogeographic origin or utilitarian versatility of collected plants vary significantly between the different landscape levels of domestication. Our results show that human landscape domestication for the provision of firewood seems to be a socio-cultural resilient practice, and shed new light on the role of culture in

  20. Campaigned GPS on Present-Day Crustal Deformation in Northernmost Longitudinal Valley Preliminary Results, Hualien Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Longitudinal Valley in Eastern Taiwan sits at the collision suture between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. Based on repeated GPS campaigned measurements from 25 stations six times in 2007 - 2009, we characterize the surface deformation in the northernmost Longitudinal Valley where the Coastal Range of the Philippine Sea plate turns northward diving under the Eurasian plate producing two major active faults: the Milun fault and the Longitudinal Valley fault. We reconstructed a GPS velocity field and conducted strain analyses and elastic block modeling. Our results suggest a rapid clockwise rotation of 33° Myr-1 and an eastward tectonic escape in the small Hualien City block (HUAL area of ~10 × 10 km, which is apparently detached from the regional rotating RYUK block defined by previous studies. We interpret it as being initiated locally by the northwest indentation of the Coastal Range, which pushed the HUAL block to move upward and eastward. According to our strain analyses, the HUAL block shows a significant internal elastic strain inside the Milun Tableland, the hanging wall of the Milun fault. No significant deformation was observed across the surface trace of the fault, indicating that the Milun fault is now probably locked in the near surface. The deformation in the footwall of the fault was accommodated by pure-shear strain with a major NNW-compression and a minor ENE-extension. The deformation in the hanging wall is characterized by simple-shear strain with ENE-extension in its northern part and little deformation in the southern part, separated by a little known NW-trending active fault zone (Dongmingyi fault, which needs further investigation.

  1. The Bisagno stream catchment (Genoa, Italy) and its major floods: geomorphic and land use variations in the last three centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini, Francesco; Paliaga, Guido; Piana, Pietro; Sacchini, Alessandro; Watkins, Charles

    2016-11-01

    The city of Genoa (Liguria, Italy) and the Bisagno Valley are affected by frequent floods, often with loss of human lives. Historically characterised by high flood hazards, the Bisagno Valley was recently affected by a flood event on 9 October 2014, less than three years after the tragic flood event of 4 November 2011 when six people died, including two children. In the last 50 years, four destructive floods occurred in the Bisagno Valley, in addition to some other events that caused significant damage and economic losses. This paper examines the three largest flood events in terms of intensity and ground effects which affected the Bisagno Valley in the last three centuries: the flood of 25 October 1822, well documented by contemporary sources, the flood of 8 October 1970, undoubtedly the most tragic on record, and the very recent event of 9 October 2014. For this purpose scientific and historical-geographical methodologies were adopted, the latter particularly useful for the reconstruction of the flood event of 1822 and the landscape history of the Bisagno Valley in the nineteenth century. This comparison shows that the Bisagno Valley is characterised by climatic and landform features that have been making the flood events historically common in the area. However, recent climate change and land-use variations, including some major modifications of the catchment basin, have progressively determined a decrease of the concentration time and an increase of runoff, solid transport, and flood hazard. Consequently, in recent decades a growth in the number of flood events occurred, to the extent that the Bisagno today is a famous case study on an international scale.

  2. Provenance analysis of Roman stone artefacts from sedimentary rocks from the archaeological site near Mošnje, NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Miletić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the macroscopic and microfacies characterisation of Roman stone artefacts excavated in 2006 from a Roman villa rustica near Mošnje (NW Slovenia with the aim of defiing their provenance. A total of 28 representative fids (querns, mortars, whetstones, tooled and rounded stones, a fragment of stone slab, mosaic tesserae and two architectural elements - one with a relief made of clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks were examined. Comparison was made with rock samples taken from quarries and gravel bars close to the archaeological site, as well as from larger distance to the site. The majority of artefact sampled is composed of Upper Palaeozoic quartz sandstones, which are found as pebbles in gravel bars close to the archaeological site; while 2 samples were from Quaternary coarse grained clastic rocks which can be found in local glacio-flvial sediments. Other fids were made of four different Mesozoic shallow-water limestones which outcrop in different areas of Central and SW Slovenia. The nearest Lower Jurassic biopelmicritic limestones are found at the western periphery of Ljubljana in Podutik. Cretaceous miliolid limestones and biocalcarenitic limestones with rudists are common in the successions of the Dinaric Carbonate Platform in SW Slovenia (for example, on the Trieste-Komen Plateau, NE Italy and SW Croatia. This indicates that the limestones for architectural elements, stone mortars and tesserae were brought to Mošnje from distant locations. Smaller stone tools are likely to have been made at the location of the archaeological site from material gathered locally, mostly pebbles from clastic rocks, which were accessible and suitable for tooling.

  3. The development and adaption of early agriculture in Huanghe River Valley, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    The expanding and developing of agriculture are the basic of population growth, the expansions of material cultures and civilization. The Huanghe River valley, as the origin center of millet agriculture, lies between the heartlands of wheat and rice, which gestates the flourishing Neolithic culture based on agriculture. Recent work using botanical remains has greatly expanded the knowledge concerning early agriculture. Here, we report the new progress on the development and adaption of early agriculture in Huanghe River valley and the surrounding areas. Based on the analysis of phytolith from 13 sites in middle reaches of Huanghe River and the survey of crop seeds from 5 sites in Guanzhong Basin, the rice have been cultivated around 7600 cal BP in semi-humid regions dominated by rain-fed agriculture. The mixed agriculture of common millet, foxtail millet, and rice continued to exist between 7600-3500 BP. In semi-arid region of Huanghe River valley, the agriculture was dominated by the production of common and foxtail millet and 3 major changes have taken place around 6500 BP, 5500 BP, and 4000 BP during Neolithic. The cultivating ratio of common and foxtail millet was adjusted by farmer for adapting the climate changes during Holocene. Approximately 5000 yr BP, the rain-fed agriculture continues to break geographical boundaries to expand to west and southwest from Huanghe River valley. Millet agriculture appeared in southern Ganshu and north eastern Tibetan Plateau. The common and foxtail millet spread to the arid-area of Hexi corridor, a major crossroad of the famous Silk Road, around 4500 yr BP. Wheat was added as a new crop to the existing millet based agricultural systems around 4100-4000 cal yr BP in Hexi corridor. Between 3800 and 3400 cal yr BP, the proportion of wheat and barley in agriculture was up to 90%,which have replaced the local millet and become the main crops. And now, some new evidences of wheat agriculture from NW Xijiang have been obtained and

  4. Discovery of alien water frogs (gen. Pelophylax in Umbria, with first report of P. shqipericus for Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Domeneghetti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Allochthonous water frogs (gen. Pelophylax have been repeatedly introduced in several European countries, causing dramatic consequences for the conservation of indigenous taxa. In Italy, invasive populations are known for northern regions, where they were introduced mainly for edible and scientific purposes. Here, we report the first detection of an alien population of water frogs in Central Italy, along the Resina valley (Umbria. Genetic analysis of the mitochondrial ND3 gene polymorphism assigned some specimens to two different Pelophylax ridibundus clades widespread in Central and Eastern Europe. By contrast, two samples matched the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence of Pelophylax lessonae bergeri, an autochthonous taxon widespread in Central Italy, suggesting possible hybridization between alien and indigenous frogs. Finally, the specific haplotype of Pelophylax shqipericus, the Albanian Pool Frog, was also identified according to mtDNA polymorphism. This record, firstly reported for Italy, poses concerns for the conservation of this cryptic taxon, suggesting that international water frog trade may involve also particularly endangered species.

  5. Natural gas supply and demand in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaschi, C.; Di Giulio, E.; Sormani, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics between natural gas supply and demand in Italy. In order to supply Italy with increasing volumes of gas, several new pipelines and re gasification plants are expected in the next future, but their implementation is uncertain. Thus, there exist the possibility of natural gas shortage in the future. On the other hand, if all the expected projects will be implemented, situations of oversupply cannot be excluded. A system dynamics model deepens such as issue [it

  6. Biofuels in Italy: obstacles and development opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatelli, Vito; Clementi, Chiara

    2006-01-01

    Today biofuels are the sole realistically practical way to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transportation sector. In many countries, including Italy, biofuel production and use are already a reality corresponding to a large agro-industrial production system that uses essentially mature technologies. To significantly lower production costs and optimise land use, Italy needs to develop new, second-generation biofuel production operations that can offer significant opportunities to the nation's agro-industrial sector [it

  7. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  8. Heavy metals distribution in soils surrounding an abandoned mine in NW Madrid (Spain) and their transference to wild flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Manzano, Rebeca; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón O; Gamarra, Roberto; Esteban, Elvira

    2009-03-15

    The present work concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd) in the surrounding soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Thus, soils and plants were sampled from a mining valley in NW Madrid (Spain), and total and extractable heavy metals were analysed. Soils affected by mining activities presented total Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations above toxic thresholds. The percentage of extractable element was highest for Cd and lowest for Cu. A highly significant correlation was observed between the total and extractable concentrations of metals in soils, indicating that, among the factors studied, total metals concentration is the most relevant for heavy metals extractability in these soils. (NH(4))(2)SO(4)-extractable metal concentrations in soils are correlated better with metal concentrations in several plant species than total metals in soils, and thus can be used as a suitable and robust method for the estimation of the phytoavailable fraction present in soils. Twenty-five vascular plant species (3 ferns and 22 flowering plants) were analysed, in order to identify exceptional characteristics that would be interesting for soil phytoremediation and/or reclamation. High Cd and Zn concentrations have been found in the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum (Cd), Salix atrocinerea (Cd, Zn) and Digitalis thapsi (Cd, Zn). The present paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the metal accumulation ability of the two latter plant species. The phytoremediation ability of S. atrocinerea for Cd and Zn was estimated, obtaining intervals of time that could be considered suitable for the phytoextraction of polluted soils.

  9. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  10. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.

  11. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  12. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  13. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  14. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  15. Electrical valley filtering in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of electrical valley filtering for holes in transition metal dichalcogenides. We look specifically into the scheme that utilizes a potential barrier to produce valley-dependent tunneling rates, and perform the study with both a k .p -based analytic method and a recursive Green's function-based numerical method. The study yields the transmission coefficient as a function of incident energy and transverse wave vector, for holes going through lateral quantum barriers oriented in either armchair or zigzag directions, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The main findings are the following: (1) The tunneling current valley polarization increases with increasing barrier width or height; (2) both the valley-orbit interaction and band structure warping contribute to valley-dependent tunneling, with the former contribution being manifest in structures with asymmetric potential barriers, and the latter being orientation dependent and reaching maximum for transmission in the armchair direction; and (3) for transmission ˜0.1 , a tunneling current valley polarization of the order of 10 % can be achieved.

  16. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  17. Approach and institutions in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenta, G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to identify those who require training and information, a brief description is given of the organizational framework which exists in Italy to deal with the radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies. Because the basic training varies and the different fields involve a wide range of tasks, specific information and training are required and should also cover the psychological implications of the subject. We therefore go on to examine the various methods and instruments used in giving training in and information on radiation protection and radiation pathology to the various categories of people working in the fields of prevention, care and treatment. We also describe to what extent the positions of qualified expert and approved doctor are formally recognized academically and administratively; both have an important part to play in terms of providing information and taking action both before and during emergency situations. Lastly, we single out certain aspects of the criteria and methods involved in training and information which could be useful for other countries

  18. [Urinalysis in Italy in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, M; Lanfranco, G

    2007-01-01

    Urinalysis and proteinuria testing represent fundamental tests for the clinician, even though they too often lack standardization. Through the Italian Society of Nephrology Mailing List we sent a questionnaire to 282 centers, in order to assess the state of the art in Italy in the year 2006. 82% of the questionnaires were completed (nephrology laboratories: 64%, general laboratories: 36%). The questionnaire dealt with the main steps of preparation, analysis and report of urinalysis, and proteinuria / microalbuminuria measurement. 85% of the centers use first morning urine, and 7% second morning urine; only 57% of the centers supply with written instructions, 189 laboratories (82%) have only one bright field microscope, rate and time of centrifugation are very varied among centers, different units of measurement are used in reports. Few laboratories measure routinely the proteinuria / creatininuria ratio, there is no agreement on the urine sample type for microalbuminuria assay, total urinary proteins are measured through different methods. 92% of the centers is endowed with an internal quality control system, but only 47% participate in an external quality control program. These data confirm the lack of standardization for urine analysis methods and procedures.

  19. Description of some characteristics of flowers and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana - ecotype landsberg erecta and mutant NW4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Trząski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowers and seeds of Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype and NW4 mutant were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal characteristic features of their structure. The NW4 mutant flowers differ from Ler mainly in presence of two bract-like sepals with complicated vasculature and a variable number of secondary flowers. In the two outer whorls of NW4 flower, variable number of transformed stamen-, petal-, sepal- and style-like elements also occur. The NW4 mutant seeds are characterized by the absence of mucilage around the surface and a deviating seed coat morphology.

  20. An Operational Coastal Forecasting System in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro, C. F.; Carracedo, P.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, V.; Taboada, J.; Venacio, A.; Vilasa, L.

    2009-09-01

    The Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula coast) and mainly the Rias Baixas (southern Galician rias) are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world, supporting a very active fishing and aquiculture industry. This high productivity lives together with a high human pressure and an intense maritime traffic, which means an important environmental risk. Besides that, Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) are common in this area, producing important economical losses in aquiculture. In this context, the development of an Operational Hydrodynamic Ocean Forecast System is the first step to the development of a more sophisticated Ocean Integrated Decision Support Tool. A regional oceanographic forecasting system in the Galician Coast has been developed by MeteoGalicia (the Galician regional meteorological agency) inside ESEOO project to provide forecasts on currents, sea level, water temperature and salinity. This system is based on hydrodynamic model MOHID, forced with the operational meteorological model WRF, supported daily at MeteoGalicia . Two grid meshes are running nested at different scales, one of ~2km at the shelf scale and the other one with a resolution of 500 m at the rias scale. ESEOAT (Puertos del Estado) model provide salinity and temperature fields which are relaxed at all depth along the open boundary of the regional model (~6km). Temperature and salinity initial fields are also obtained from this application. Freshwater input from main rivers are included as forcing in MOHID model. Monthly mean discharge data from gauge station have been provided by Aguas de Galicia. Nowadays a coupling between an hydrological model (SWAT) and the hydrodynamic one are in development with the aim to verify the impact of the rivers discharges. The system runs operationally daily, providing two days of forecast. First model verifications had been performed against Puertos del Estado buoys and Xunta de Galicia buoys network along the Galician coast. High resolution model results

  1. Response of the Apodi-Mossoró estuary-incised valley system (NE Brazil to sea-level fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice Vital

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the Quaternary sea level changes in the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary and adjacent shelf, Northeastern Brazil, based on the analysis of high-resolution seismic profiles, integrated with echosounder, SRTM and satellite image data. We use these data to develop a relative stratigraphy. An incised-valley extending from the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary onto the shelf dominates the investigated area. In very shallow waters (down to 10 m depth the channel lies mainly in a NW-SE direction, changing to NE-SW in waters below10 m, in the form of a J-shaped valley. The southern flank of the shallow channel presents an abrupt morphology, probably determined by a residual scarp due to neotectonic reactivation of a pre-existing fault. This incised-valley can be correlated with a former river valley formed during the late Pleistocene fall in sea-level. The base-level change related to this drop in sea level can be regionally expressed on seismic lines as a laterally-continuous stratigraphic surface named Horizon I, interpreted as representing the sub-aerial exposure of the continental shelf. Many incised valleys were excavated on this exposed shelf, including that of the Apodi-Mossoró Estuary and its incised valley system. This incised valley has lain buried since the Holocene transgression. The Holocene sediments present sub-horizontal layers, or they have filled the incised valley with oblique features.Este estudo utiliza a integração de dados sísmicos de alta resolução, batimétricos, SRTM e imagens de satélite para desenvolvimento da estratigrafia relativa visando entender as variações do nível do mar durante o Quaternário no estuário do rio Apodi-Mossoró e plataforma adjacente, nordeste do Brasil. A principal feição identificada foi um canal submerso, na plataforma interna, parcialmente preenchido, provavelmente relacionado com o sistema de vales incisos formado durante o rebaixamento do nível do mar no Pleistoceno. O canal

  2. Comparative Medical Ethnobotany of the Senegalese Community Living in Turin (Northwestern Italy) and in Adeane (Southern Senegal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Rachele; Quave, Cassandra L.; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    A medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Senegalese migrant communities of Turin (Piedmont, NW Italy) and their peers living in Adeane (Casamance, Southern Senegal), both among healers and laypeople. Through 27 in-depth interviews, 71 medicinal plant taxa were recorded and identified in Adeane and 41 in Turin, for a total of 315 different folk remedies recorded in Senegal and 62 in Turin. The large majority of the medicinal plants recorded among Senegalese migrants in Turin were also used in their country of origin. These findings demonstrate the resilience of home remedies among migrants and consequently the role they should have in shaping public health policies devoted to migrant groups in Western Countries, which seek to seriously take into account culturally sensitive approaches, that is, emic health-seeking strategies. PMID:22761638

  3. Comparative Medical Ethnobotany of the Senegalese Community Living in Turin (Northwestern Italy and in Adeane (Southern Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachele Ellena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Senegalese migrant communities of Turin (Piedmont, NW Italy and their peers living in Adeane (Casamance, Southern Senegal, both among healers and laypeople. Through 27 in-depth interviews, 71 medicinal plant taxa were recorded and identified in Adeane and 41 in Turin, for a total of 315 different folk remedies recorded in Senegal and 62 in Turin. The large majority of the medicinal plants recorded among Senegalese migrants in Turin were also used in their country of origin. These findings demonstrate the resilience of home remedies among migrants and consequently the role they should have in shaping public health policies devoted to migrant groups in Western Countries, which seek to seriously take into account culturally sensitive approaches, that is, emic health-seeking strategies.

  4. Is the diversity of epiphytic lichens a reliable indicator of air pollution? A case study from Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordani, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    This work provided additional information for a better interpretation of lichen diversity values in biomonitoring studies of air pollution. The effects of 12 predictive variables were estimated for the Genova province (NW Italy) by means of a non-parametric model. The diversity of epiphytic lichens was strictly correlated with mean annual rainfall and mean annual temperature. Different variables were found to affect the lichen diversity in urban vs. forested areas. In urban areas, air pollutants, mainly SO 2 , are still the main limiting factor, even if under ameliorating conditions this relationship becomes less significant. In forested areas, harvesting and forest fires showed a predominant effect, suggesting the need to develop a more defined sampling protocol to estimate atmospheric pollution in such ecosystems. - Lichen diversity is a reliable tool to monitor atmospheric pollution, but care should be taken in forested areas, where other influencing factors occur

  5. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  6. Petrography, Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks, NW Ghonabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Zirjanizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located in NW Gonabad, Razavi Khorasan Province, northern Lut block and eastern Iran north of the Lut Block. Magmatism in NW Gonabad produced plutonic and volcanic rock associations with varying geochemical compositions. These rocks are related to the Cenozoic magmatic rocks in Iran and belong to the Lut Block volcanic–plutonic belt. In this study, petrogenesis of volcanic units in northwest Gonabad was investigated. The volcanic rocks are andesites/trachyandesites, rhyolites, dacites/ rhyodacites and pyroclastics.These rocks show porphyritic, trachytic and embayed textures in phenocrysts with plagioclase, sanidine and quartz (most notably in dacite and rhyolite, hornblende and rare biotite. The most important alteration zones are propylitic, silicification and argillic.Four kaolinite- bearing clay deposits have been located in areas affectedby hydrothermal alteration of Eocene rhyolite, dacite and rhyodacite. Analytical techniques Five samples were analyzed for major elements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF and six samples were analyzed for trace elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS in the Acme Laboratories, Vancouver (Canada.Sr and Nd isotopic compositions were determined for four whole-rock samples at the Laboratório de GeologiaIsotópica da Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal. Results Petrography. The rocks in this area are consist of trachyte, andesite/ trachyandesite, dacite/ rhyodacite, principally as ignimbrites and soft tuff. The textures of phenocrysts are mainly porphyritic, glomerophyric, trachytic and embayed textures in plagioclase, hornblende and biotite. The groundmasses consist of plagioclase and fine-grainedcrystals of hornblende. Plagioclase phenocrysts and microlitesare by far the most abundant textures in andesite - trachyandesites (>25% and in size from 0.01 to 0.1mm. Euhedral to subhedral hornblende phenocrysts areabundant (3-5%and 0.1 to 0

  7. The continuous automatic monitoring network installed in Tuscany (Italy) since late 2002, to study earthquake precursory phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierotti, Lisa; Cioni, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Since late 2002, a continuous automatic monitoring network (CAMN) was designed, built and installed in Tuscany (Italy), in order to investigate and define the geochemical response of the aquifers to the local seismic activity. The purpose of the investigation was to identify eventual earthquake precursors. The CAMN is constituted by two groups of five measurement stations each. A first group has been installed in the Serchio and Magra graben (Garfagnana and Lunigiana Valleys, Northern Tuscany), while the second one, in the area of Mt. Amiata (Southern Tuscany), an extinct volcano. Garfagnana, Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata regions belong to the inner zone of the Northern Apennine fold-and-thrust belt. This zone has been involved in the post-collision extensional tectonics since the Upper Miocene-Pliocene. Such tectonic activity has produced horst and graben structures oriented from N-S to NW-SE that are transferred by NE-SW system. Both Garfagnana (Serchio graben) and Lunigiana (Magra graben) belong to the most inner sector of the belt where the seismic sources, responsible for the strongest earthquakes of the northern Apennine, are located (e.g. the M=6.5 earthquake of September 1920). The extensional processes in southern Tuscany have been accompanied by magmatic activity since the Upper Miocene, developing effusive and intrusive products traditionally attributed to the so-called Tuscan Magmatic Province. Mt. Amiata, whose magmatic activity ceased about 0.3 M.y. ago, belongs to the extensive Tyrrhenian sector that is characterized by high heat flow and crustal thinning. The whole zone is characterized by wide-spread but moderate seismicity (the maximum recorded magnitude has been 5.1 with epicentre in Piancastagnaio, 1919). The extensional regime in both the Garfagnana-Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata area is confirmed by the focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes. An essential phase of the monitoring activities has been the selection of suitable sites for the installation of

  8. Hospitalisation among immigrants in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraci Salvatore

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is increasing in Italy. In 2003, 2.6 million foreign citizens lived in the country; 52% were men and the majority were young adults who migrated for work. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in hospitalisation between immigrants and the resident population during the year 2000 in the Lazio region. Methods Hospital admissions of immigrants from Less Developed Countries were compared to those of residents. We measured differences in hospitalisation rates and proportions admitted. Results Adult immigrants have lower hospitalisation rates than residents (134.6 vs. 160.5 per thousand population for acute care; 26.4 vs. 38.3 for day care. However, hospitalisation rates for some specific causes (injuries, particularly for men, infectious diseases, deliveries and induced abortions, ill-defined conditions were higher for immigrants than for residents. Immigrants under 18 years seem to be generally healthy; causes of admission in this group are similar to those of residents of the same age (respiratory diseases, injuries and poisoning. The only important differences are for infectious and parasitic diseases, with a higher proportion among immigrant youths. Conclusion The low hospitalisation rates for foreigners may suggest that they are a population with good health status. However, critical areas, related to poor living and working conditions and to social vulnerability, have been identified. Under-utilisation of services and low day care rates may be partially due to administrative, linguistic, and cultural barriers. As the presence of foreigners becomes an established phenomenon, it is important to evaluate their epidemiological profile, develop instruments to monitor and fulfil their specific health needs and plan health services for a multi-ethnic population.

  9. Climate risk index for Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, Jaroslav; Torresan, Silvia; Bosello, Francesco; Mistry, Malcolm; Amadio, Mattia; Marzi, Sepehr; Furlan, Elisa; Sperotto, Anna

    2018-06-01

    We describe a climate risk index that has been developed to inform national climate adaptation planning in Italy and that is further elaborated in this paper. The index supports national authorities in designing adaptation policies and plans, guides the initial problem formulation phase, and identifies administrative areas with higher propensity to being adversely affected by climate change. The index combines (i) climate change-amplified hazards; (ii) high-resolution indicators of exposure of chosen economic, social, natural and built- or manufactured capital (MC) assets and (iii) vulnerability, which comprises both present sensitivity to climate-induced hazards and adaptive capacity. We use standardized anomalies of selected extreme climate indices derived from high-resolution regional climate model simulations of the EURO-CORDEX initiative as proxies of climate change-altered weather and climate-related hazards. The exposure and sensitivity assessment is based on indicators of manufactured, natural, social and economic capital assets exposed to and adversely affected by climate-related hazards. The MC refers to material goods or fixed assets which support the production process (e.g. industrial machines and buildings); Natural Capital comprises natural resources and processes (renewable and non-renewable) producing goods and services for well-being; Social Capital (SC) addressed factors at the individual (people's health, knowledge, skills) and collective (institutional) level (e.g. families, communities, organizations and schools); and Economic Capital (EC) includes owned and traded goods and services. The results of the climate risk analysis are used to rank the subnational administrative and statistical units according to the climate risk challenges, and possibly for financial resource allocation for climate adaptation. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  10. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  11. Late Quaternary faulting in the Vallo di Diano basin (southern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, F.; Pierdominici, S.; Cinti, F. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Vallo di Diano is the largest Quaternary extensional basin in the southern Apennines thrust-belt axis (Italy). This portion of the chain is highly seismic and is currently subject to NE-extension, which triggers large (M> 6) normal-faulting earthquakes along NW-trending faults. The eastern edge of the Vallo di Diano basin is bounded by an extensional fault system featuring three main NW-trending, SW-dipping, right-stepping, ~15-17 km long segments (from north to south: Polla, Atena Lucana-Sala Consilina and Padula faults). Holocene activity has been documented so far only for the Polla segment. We have therefore focused our geomorphological and paleoseismological study on the southern portion of the system, particularly along the ~ 4 km long Atena Lucana-Sala Consilina and Padula faults overlap zone. The latter is characterized by a complex system of coalescent alluvial fans, Middle Pleistocene to Holocene in age. Here we recognized a > 4 km long and 0.5-1.4 km wide set of scarps (ranging in height between 1 m and 2.5 m) affecting Late Pleistocene - Holocene alluvial fans. In the same area, two Late Pleistocene volcanoclastic layers at the top of an alluvial fan exposed in a quarry are affected by ~ 1 m normal displacements. Moreover, a trench excavated across a 2 m high scarp affecting a Holocene fan revealed warping of Late Holocene debris flow deposits, with a total vertical throw of about 0.3 m. We therefore infer the overlap zone of the Atena Lucana-Sala Consilina and Padula faults is a breached relay ramp, generated by hard-linkage of the two fault segments since Late Pleistocene. This ~ 32 km long fault system is active and is capable of generating Mw ≥6.5 earthquakes.

  12. 76 FR 12212 - Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact for the Klingle Valley Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Administration, District of Columbia Division: Mr. Michael Hicks, Environmental/Urban Engineer, 1990 K Street, NW... mile barricaded portion of Klingle Road between Porter Street, NW., and Cortland Place, NW.; including...

  13. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and RAIA.co projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  14. The earthquake lights (EQL of the 6 April 2009 Aquila earthquake, in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fidani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A seven-month collection of testimonials about the 6 April 2009 earthquake in Aquila, Abruzzo region, Italy, was compiled into a catalogue of non-seismic phenomena. Luminous phenomena were often reported starting about nine months before the strong shock and continued until about five months after the shock. A summary and list of the characteristics of these sightings was made according to 20th century classifications and a comparison was made with the Galli outcomes. These sightings were distributed over a large area around the city of Aquila, with a major extension to the north, up to 50 km. Various earthquake lights were correlated with several landscape characteristics and the source and dynamic of the earthquake. Some preliminary considerations on the location of the sightings suggest a correlation between electrical discharges and asperities, while flames were mostly seen along the Aterno Valley.

  15. Country policy profile - Italy. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Italy, Renewable energy sources in are promoted through price and tax regulations mechanisms. Several kinds of feed-in and premium tariffs co-exist besides tendering schemes depending on technology and size of RES systems. Additionally regional support schemes exist for RES electricity. The thermal (heating and cooling) energy generated from renewable energies is incentivized through tax regulation and loans. A quota system is presently used for bio-fuels (transport). Under the country's NREAP, Italy has set a renewable energy target (electricity) of 26% to be achieved by 2020. The 2012 total share of renewable energy in Italy amounted to 13.5%; the target for 2020 has been defined as 17% (source: 'The State of Renewable Energies in Europe', 2013 edition)

  16. The dialect in Italy after the union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grochowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Italian dialects occupy an important position in the history of Italian linguistics and are still present and relevant in the linguistic panorama of modern Italy. The purpose of this article is to outline the linguistic image of Italy by drawing attention to its dialects. Through analysis of the situation after unification in Italy in 1861, the author attempts to mark off functions and roles which dialects used to serve. In the second part of the article she concentrates on the phenomena of nuova dialettalità, or the new perspective and collocation of dialect in the Italian linguistic panorama of the 21st century. This article is a part of a research project dedicated to functions and uses of dialects in the Italian cinematography.

  17. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  18. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region greatly enhances previous magnetic interpretations that were based on older, low-resolution, and regional aeromagnetic data sets and provides new insights into volcano-tectonic processes. The surveyed area covers a 8,750 km2 NNW-trending swath situated between the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. The surveyed area includes the volcanic centers of Mono Lake, Mono-Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain, Devils Postpile, and Long Valley Caldera. The NW-trending eastern Sierra frontal fault zone crosses through the study area, including the active Mono Lake, Silver Lake, Hartley Springs, Laurel Creek, and Hilton Creek faults. Over 6,000 line-kilometers of aeromagnetic data were collected at a constant terrain clearance of 150 m, a flight-line spacing of 400 m, and a tie-line spacing of 4 km. Data were collected via helicopter with an attached stinger housing a magnetic sensor using a Scintrex CS-3 cesium magnetometer. In the northern part of the survey area, data improve the magnetic resolution of the individual domes and coulees along Mono Craters and a circular shaped magnetic anomaly that coincides with a poorly defined ring fracture mapped by Kistler (1966). Here, aeromagnetic data combined with other geophysical data suggests that Mono Craters may have preferentially followed a pre-existing plutonic basement feature that may have controlled the sickle shape of the volcanic chain. In the northeastern part of the survey, aeromagnetic data reveal a linear magnetic anomaly that correlates with and extends a mapped fault. In the southern part of the survey, in the Sierra Nevada block just south of Long Valley Caldera, aeromagnetic anomalies correlate with NNW-trending Sierran frontal faults rather than to linear NNE-trends observed in recent seismicity over the last 30 years. These data provide an important framework for the further analysis of the

  19. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  20. A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H. C.; Yussim, S.; Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of the Michoacan earthquake (19th September, 1985, Mw 8.1) in Mexico City caused a significant change in the political, social and scientific history, as it was considered the worst seismic disaster ever lived in Mexico. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered. One of these efforts had began on 1960 with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification (1969), based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley.

  1. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  2. The reception of Austrian economics in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Magliulo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the Austrian School enjoys high reputation in Italy: books by Mises, Hayek and other Austrian economists are constantly republished and reviewed with great interest, both inside and outside academic circles. The situation was very different decades ago, when just a few Italian economists devoted attention to the Austrian School. This work studies the reception of Austrian Economics in Italy, from the beginning to our days, so as to bring out, by way of comparison, relevant features of Italian economic culture. We will try to offer just an overview of the entire story, in an attempt to provide useful elements for a deeper analysis of further topics and periods.

  3. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  4. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  5. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai; Moody, Galan; Wu, Fengcheng; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Xu, Lixiang; Chen, Chang Hsiao; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; MacDonald, Allan H.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge

  6. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  7. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm “valleytronics” applications. - Highlights: • We explore the mechanical strain effects on the valley magnetotransport in graphene. • We analytically derive the dc collisional and Hall conductivities under strain. • The strain removes the valley degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain causes a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. • The strain leads to the well separated valley Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects.

  8. The Health Valley: Global Entrepreneurial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    In the space of a decade, the Lake Geneva region has become the Health Valley, a world-class laboratory for discovering and developing healthcare of the future. Through visionary individuals and thanks to exceptional infrastructure this region has become one of the most dynamic in the field of innovation, including leading scientific research and exceptional actors for the commercialization of academic innovation to industrial applications that will improve the lives of patients and their families. Here follows the chronicle of a spectacular expansion into the Health Valley.

  9. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  10. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  11. The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Chiaraluce

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of multidisciplinary and high-resolution data is a fundamental requirement to understand the physics of earthquakes and faulting. We present the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO, a research infrastructure devoted to studying preparatory processes, slow and fast deformation along a fault system located in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Apennines, dominated by a 60 km long low-angle normal fault (Alto Tiberina, ATF active since the Quaternary. TABOO consists of 50 permanent seismic stations covering an area of 120 × 120 km2. The surface seismic stations are equipped with 3-components seismometers, one third of them hosting accelerometers. We instrumented three shallow (250 m boreholes with seismometers, creating a 3-dimensional antenna for studying micro-earthquakes sources (detection threshold is ML 0.5 and detecting transient signals. 24 of these sites are equipped with continuous geodetic GPS, forming two transects across the fault system. Geochemical and electromagnetic stations have been also deployed in the study area. In 36 months TABOO recorded 19,422 events with ML ≤ 3.8 corresponding to 23.36e-04 events per day per squared kilometres; one of the highest seismicity rate value observed in Italy. Seismicity distribution images the geometry of the ATF and its antithetic/synthetic structures located in the hanging-wall. TABOO can allow us to understand the seismogenic potential of the ATF and therefore contribute to the seismic hazard assessment of the area. The collected information on the geometry and deformation style of the fault will be used to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting diverse slip distributions and rupture directivity models.

  12. Northward subduction-related orogenesis of the southern Altaids: Constraints from structural and metamorphic analysis of the HP/UHP accretionary complex in Chinese southwestern Tianshan, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Scheltens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Tianshan belt of the southern Altaids has undergone a complicated geological evolution. Different theories have been proposed to explain its evolution and these are still hotly debated. The major subduction polarity and the way of accretion are the main problems. Southward, northward subduction and multiple subduction models have been proposed. This study focuses on the structural geology of two of the main faults in the region, the South Tianshan Fault and the Nikolaev Line. The dip direction in the Muzhaerte valley is southward and lineations all point towards the NW. Two shear sense motions have been observed within both of these fault zones, a sinistral one, and a dextral one, the latter with an age of 236–251 Ma. Structural analyses on the fault zones show that subduction has been northward rather than southward. The two shear sense directions indicate that the Yili block was first dragged along towards the east due to the clockwise rotation of the Tarim block. After the Tarim block stopped rotating, the Yili block still kept going eastward, inducing the dextral shear senses within the fault zones.

  13. Dating Saharan dust deposits on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) by luminescence dating techniques and their implication for palaeoclimate reconstruction of NW Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, H.; Fuchs, M.; ZöLler, L.

    2008-02-01

    Lava flow dammed valleys (Vegas) on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) represent unique sediment traps, filled with autochthonous volcanic material and allochthonous Saharan dust. These sediments and the intercalated palaeosoil sediments document past environmental change of the last glacial-interglacial cycles, both on Lanzarote and in NW Africa. A reliable chronology must be established to use these sediment archives for palaeoclimate reconstructions. Owing to the lack of organic material and the limiting time range of the 14C-dating method, luminescence dating is the most promising method for these sediments. However, the fluvio-eolian character of these sediments is a major problem for luminescence dating, because these sediments are prone to insufficient resetting of the parent luminescence signal (bleaching) prior to sedimentation. To check for the best age estimates, we compare the bleaching behavior of (1) different grain sizes (coarse- versus fine-grain quartz OSL) and (2) different minerals (fine-grain feldspar IRSL versus fine-grain quartz OSL). The results show that owing to its bleaching characteristics, quartz is the preferable mineral for luminescence dating. On the basis of the fine- and coarse-grain quartz OSL age estimates, a chronostratigraphy up to 100 ka could be established. Beyond this age limit for OSL quartz, the chronostratigraphy could be extended up to 180 ka by correlating the vega sediments with dated marine sediment archives.

  14. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...

  15. Two look-alike dasycladalean algae: Clypeina isabellae masse, Bucur, Virgone & Delmasso, 1999 from the Berriasian of Sardinia (Italy and Clypeina loferensis sp. N. from the upper Jurassic of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlagintweit Felix

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New material from the Berriasian of eastern Sardinia, Italy, and from the NW of Sardinia published by PECORINI in 1972 as 'Clypeina sp. A', allows a better characterization and an emended diagnosis of Clypeina isabellae MASSE et al., 1999 from the Berriasian of SW France. Another morphologically somehow similar Clypeina species from the Upper Jurassic of the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria is described as Clypeina loferensis n. sp. Remarks on the genera Clypeina MICHELIN and Hamulusella ELLIOTT, a Clypeina-type dasycladalean alga with proximal bulged laterals, and Clypeina jurassica-sulcata are also provided.

  16. A sagging along the eastern Chianti Mts., Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltorti, M.; Ravani, S.; Cornamusini, G.; Ielpi, A.; Verrazzani, F.

    2009-11-01

    A deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DGSD) affects the eastern side of the Chianti Mts. Ridge. It develops in an N-S to NW-SE direction and is > 10 km wide and 3-4 km long. This area corresponds to the eastern side of a main antiform, characterised by east-verging folds and thrusts involving bedrock of the Mesozoic-Paleogene Tuscan Units, particularly sandstones containing interlayered highly fractured and deformed Ligurian rocks (shales and limestones with olistostromes). The foot of the slope is characterised by tilted Plio-Pleistocene deposits unconformably sealing the bedrock structures as folds, thrusts and faults. The most significant morphological features are a main escarpment, trenches, several secondary and counter-slope escarpments that together indicate large-scale gravitational phenomena. The main escarpment is responsible for the headward retreat of the slope, and is deeply segmented by numerous arcuate niches that reveal differential movements of single blocks. The DGSD is also dissected by SW-NE trending streams that often deepen inside the N-S trenches. Minor landslides due to local instability are also present. At the foot of the slope, the older continental Pliocene deposits of the Upper Valdarno Basin crop out. Although tilted by tectonic movements, the deposits have not been severely affected by gravitational deformations. This indicates that the movement is a typical sagging, a large landslide at an embryonic stage, affecting the upper part of the slope but not reaching the valley bottom. The deformations are absorbed in the rock mass which is also partially drained by stream incision that prevents high pore pressure. The occurrence of down-slope and down-movement facing escarpments and up-slope and up-movement facing counter-slope escarpments indicate a sagging characterised by a listric spoon-shaped geometry. The DGSD has a style similar to crustal extensional tectonics such as Morton and Black's crustal attenuation model. Although

  17. Paleosol at the Archean–Proterozoic contact in NW India revisited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India. 2. Institut für .... region around Udaipur (NW India) large occur- rences of .... top of the section reddish colors (iron-oxide leach- ..... for Witwatersrand gold; Soc. Econ.

  18. A new structural interpretation relating NW Libya to the Hun Graben ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1.03) stereonet software, produced by Pangaea Scientific Ltd. The aim of this ... influence of basement fabrics of different ages on the subsequent structural development of NW Libya. 1. Introduction ...... formation with application to Britain; Oliver Boyd,. Edinburgh .... Price N J 1966 Fault and Joint Development in Brittle and.

  19. System-Level Sensitivity Analysis of SiNW-bioFET-Based Biosensing Using Lockin Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Dimaki, Maria; Kjærgaard, Claus

    2017-01-01

    carry out for the first time the system-level sensitivity analysis of a generic SiNW-bioFET model coupled to a custom-design instrument based on the lock-in amplifier. By investigating a large parametric space spanning over both sensor and instrumentation specifications, we demonstrate that systemwide...

  20. Radon/helium studies for earthquake prediction N-W Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the preliminary data of radon monitoring stated in the Himalayan orogenic belt. Radon anomalies are correlated with microseismic activity in the N-W Himalaya. The He/Rn ratio will be used as a predictive tool for earthquakes

  1. Effect of ocean warming and acidification on a plankton community in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maugendre, L.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Louis, J.; de Kluijver, A.; Marro, S.; Soetaert, K.; Gazeau, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ocean warming and acidification was investigated on a natural plankton assemblage from an oligotrophic area, the bay of Villefranche (NW Mediterranean Sea). The assemblage was sampled in March 2012 and exposed to the following four treatments for 12 days: control (~360 µatm, 14°C),

  2. 10 years of protein crystallography at AR-NW12A beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavas, L. M. G.; Yamada, Y.; Hiraki, M.; Igarashi, N.; Matsugaki, N.; Wakatsuki, S.

    2013-03-01

    The exponential growth of protein crystallography can be observed in the continuously increasing demand for synchrotron beam time, both from academic and industrial users. Nowadays, the screening of a profusion of sample crystals for more and more projects is being implemented by taking advantage of fully automated procedures at every level of the experiments. The insertion device AR-NW12A beamline is one of the five macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at the Photon Factory (PF). Currently the oldest MX beamline operational at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), the end-station was launched in 2001 as part of an upgrade of the PF Advanced Ring. Since its commissioning, AR-NW12A has been operating as a high-throughput beamline, slowly evolving to a multipurpose end-station for MX experiments. The development of the beamline took place about a decade ago, in parallel with a drastic development of protein crystallography and more general synchrotron technology. To keep the beamline up-to-date and competitive with other MX stations in Japan and worldwide, new features have been constantly added, with the goal of user friendliness of the various beamline optics and other instruments. Here we describe the evolution of AR-NW12A for its tenth anniversary. We also discuss the plans for upgrades for AR-NW12A, the future objectives in terms of the beamline developments, and especially the strong desire to open the beamline to a larger user community.

  3. Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): Impact of extreme storms and floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Palanques, A.

    2008-01-01

    In situ observations were combined with 3D modeling to gain understanding of and to quantify the suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea). The outputs of a hydrodynamic–sediment transport coupled model were compared to near-bottom current and suspended sediment

  4. High-grade metamorphic rocks of the Mellid area, Galicia, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubregtse, J.J.M.W.

    1973-01-01

    This study concerns the petrology of the Mellid area, the SE portion of the outer zone of the Ordenes Complex which is one of the upthrusted Precambrian complexes in the axial zone of the Hercynian orogen in Galicia, NW Spain. An eugeosynclinal rock sequence is found containing units with different

  5. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  6. An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014) have been best explained by the geometry .... flows through narrow valley confined by the steep valley slopes. ... valley (figure 3b) which opens up around Srina- ... Method. 4.1 Drainage basin and stream network. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) helps in extracting ... was processed to fill the pits or sinks, and to obtain.

  7. 1D and 2D site amplification effects at Tarcento (Friuli, NE Italy), 30 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzzi, Carlo; Faccioli, Ezio; Costa, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    A temporary accelerometer network has been installed in Tarcento (Friuli, NE Italy), a small town heavily hit by the 1976-1977 Friuli earthquake sequence, as a part of an ongoing research project aimed at ground motion simulation and generation of shakemaps in the near-field of an earthquake. The network operated from October 2008 to April 2010 and consisted of three K2 accelerographs with internal Episensor, distributed over a linear array of about 1.5 km length. Tarcento town had been chosen, at the end of the 1970s, as the ideal site for a pilot microzonation study, the first of this kind in Italy, in which a substantial number of field (and laboratory) tests were carried out in order to assess the mechanical properties of local alluvium deposits and their complex (3D) geometrical configuration. The data from the temporary network, illustrated herein, allow for proper verification and review of some of the quantitative predictions formulated in the 1980 study. As argued in the discussion section, we also believe that the data are apt to provide valuable information of more general interest on the complex seismic response of alluvium-filled valleys, and we show therein how the observations can be interpreted in the light of presently available parametric simulation studies and simplified criteria for handling basin amplification effects.

  8. Fascist labscapes: geneticists, wheat, and the landscapes of Fascism in Italy and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Tiago

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of scientists in the building of fascist regimes in Italy and Portugal by focusing on plant geneticists' participation in the Italian and Portuguese wheat wars for bread self-sufficiency. It looks closely at the work undertaken by Nazareno Strampelli at the National Institute of Genetics for Grain Cultivation (Italy) and by António Sousa da Câmara at the National Agronomic Experiment Station (Portugal), both of whom took wheat as their prime experimental object of genetics research. The main argument is that the production of standardized organisms—the breeder's elite seeds—in laboratory spaces is deeply entangled with their circulation through extended distribution networks that allowed for their massive presence in Italian and Portuguese landscapes such as the Po Valley and the Alentejo. The narrative pays particular attention to the historical development of fascist regimes in the two countries, advancing the argument that breeders' artifacts were key components of the institutionalization of the new political regimes.

  9. Education for Older People in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  10. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  11. Competitiveness and environmental protection in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, E.

    2000-01-01

    In presenting his Ministry's annual report for 1999, the Italian Environment Minister pointed out that after years of emergency-driven policies, Italy has finally embarked on far-reaching environmental reform designed to generate sustainable, lasting and high-quality development [it

  12. Measuring the income process in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a panel dataset from the SHIW survey to study the features of household income in Italy. Income is described as a combination of deterministic and random components. In aggregate deterministic income grows at an average annual rate of 1.8% net of inflation, shocks feature stationarity, and

  13. Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Criscuolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs: important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside Italy, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant. Indeed, it largely exceeds the percentage of Italian inhabitants versus the ones living in the remaining EU countries, as Italy has about 12% of EU population, but has a 17% share of the EU CTRs. Education in Pharmaceutical Medicine is now a must for all professionals interested to work either in pharma companies or in contract research organizations: several Italian universities are offering high quality courses, and in the last 10 years, more than 1,200 professionals received a postgraduate education in pharmaceutical medicine. This result places Italy on top of countries concerned about the professional education of people involved in drug development and will represent an asset for a larger involvement of Italian clinical sites in the global process of clinical research.

  14. Big Data Research in Italy: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Bergamaschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to synthetically describe the research projects that a selection of Italian universities is undertaking in the context of big data. Far from being exhaustive, this article has the objective of offering a sample of distinct applications that address the issue of managing huge amounts of data in Italy, collected in relation to diverse domains.

  15. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  16. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  17. SADF EARLYIRON AGE EXCAVATIONS IN THETUGELA VALLEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of the high flanking ridges of the Tugela. Valley. The high ... fire. Police intervention and the Bhengu superior- ity in numbers brought an end to the fights just prior to the ..... The tail and three legs of the reptile are miss- ing . . ~C£.'.':.-:".

  18. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  19. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  20. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  1. Ecological Researches in the Yagnob Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razykov, Z.A.; Yunusov, M.M.; Bezzubov, N.I.; Murtazaev, Kh.; Fajzullaev, B.G.

    2002-01-01

    The article dwells on the resents of the estimation of the ecology surroundings of the Yagnob Valley. The researches included appraisal of radiation background, determination of the amount of heavy and radioactive elements in soil, bottom sedimentations, ashes in plants, water in rivers and wells. Designing on the premise of the researches implemented the ecology surrounding are estimated as propitious man's habitation. (Authors)

  2. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin Valley...-Salem, N.C.; VA; Tenn. (1953, Limited Revision 1962), and, (2) Charlotte, North Carolina; South Carolina... North Carolina within Wilkes, Surry, Yadkin and portions of Stokes, Forsyth, Davidson, and Davie...

  3. 27 CFR 9.41 - Lancaster Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lancaster Valley. 9.41 Section 9.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... through the town of Gap and along Mine Ridge to the 76°07′30″ west longitude line in Paradise Township. (9...

  4. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  5. College in Paradise! (Paradise Valley Shopping Mall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolland, Lucile B.

    Rio Salado Community College (RSCC), a non-campus college within the Maricopa Community College District, offers hundreds of day, late afternoon, and evening classes at locations throughout the county. The Paradise Valley community had always participated heavily in the evening classes offered by RSCC at local high schools. In fall 1982, an effort…

  6. Temperature profiles from Salt Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. H.; Lachenbruch, A. H.; Smith, E. P.

    Temperature profiles were obtained in the nine drilled wells as part of a thermal study of the Salt Valley anticline, Paradox Basin, Utha. Thermal conductivities were also measured on 10 samples judged to be representative of the rocks encountered in the deepest hole. The temperature profiles and thermal conductivities are presented, together with preliminary interpretive remarks and suggestions for additional work.

  7. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  8. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the

  9. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    a flow reduction in the order of 20 % in a natural spring, whereas no effect could be measured in neither short nor deep piezometers in the river valley 50 m from the spring. Problems of measuring effects of pumping are partly caused by disturbances from natural water level fluctuations. In this aspect...

  10. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  11. The 1963 Vajont landslide (Italy) simulated through a numerical 2D code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Filippo; Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Elsen, Katharina; Tinti, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    On October 9th, 1963, a huge mass of about 260 million m3 collapsed along Mt. Toc flank into the artificial lake called Vajont and generated a gigantic wave that invested the town of Longarone (North-East Italy, about 100 km north of Venice), provoking about 2000 casualties. The event started a public debate on the responsibilities for the disaster, and also raised crucial issues for the scientific and engineering community, regarding reservoir flank instability and safety of the hydroelectric plant. The peculiar features of the event were immediately evident. The clay layers remained uncovered in the upper part of the detachment niche, supporting the hypothesis of a well-defined pre-existing sliding surface, that could explain the high falling velocity (around 20 m/s as a maximum) and the compactness of the deposit layers that were found to sit almost unperturbed on the bottom of the valley. The numerical study presented here contributes to the understanding of dynamics of the Vajont landslide. It is found that the accurate knowledge of the pre- and post-slide morphology provides tight constraints on the parameters of the numerical model, that are tuned to fit the observed deposit. Numerical simulations are carried out by means of the in-house built code UBO-BLOCK2. The initial sliding body is divided into a mesh of interacting volume-conserving blocks, whose motion is computed numerically. The friction coefficient at the base of the landslide is determined through a best fit search by maximizing the degree of overlapping between the calculated and observed deposits. Our best solution is also able to account for the observed slight easterly rotation of the mass, the different behaviors of the eastern and western part of the sliding surface and the retrogressive motion of the slide that after climbing up the opposite flank of the valley reverted velocity to settle down on the bottom of the valley.

  12. Eclogite nappe-stack in the Grivola-Urtier Ophiolites (Southern Aosta Valley, Western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartarotti, Paola

    2013-04-01

    In the Western Alpine chain, ophiolites represent a section of the Mesozoic Tethys oceanic lithosphere, involved in subduction during the convergence between the paleo-Africa and paelo-Europe continents during the Cretaceous - Eocene. The Western Alpine ophiolites consist of several tectonic units, the most famous being the Zermatt-Saas and Combin nappes, and other major ophiolite bodies as the Voltri, Monviso, and Rocciavrè that show different rock assemblages and contrasting metamorphic imprints. The Grivola-Urtier (GU) unit is exposed in the southern Aosta Valley, covering an area of about 100 km2; it is tectonically sandwiched between the continentally-derived Pennidic Gran Paradiso Nappe below, and the Austroalpine Mount Emilius klippe above. This unit has been so far considered as part of the Zermatt-Saas nappe extending from the Saas-Fee area (Switzerland) to the Aosta Valley (Italy). The GU unit consists of serpentinized peridotites that include pods and boudinaged layers of eclogitic Fe-metagabbro and trondhjemite, rodingites and chloriteschists transposed in the main foliation together with calcschists and micaschists. All rocks preserve particularly fresh eclogitic mineral assemblages. The contact between the serpentinites and calcshists is marked by a tectonic mélange consisting of mylonitic marble and calcschist with stretched and boudinaged serpentinite blocks. Continentally-derived allochthonous blocks ranging in size from100 meters to meters are also included within the ophiolites. New field, petrographic and geochemical data reveal the complex nature of the fossil Tethyan oceanic lithosphere exposed in the southern Aosta Valley, as well as the extent and size of the continental-oceanic tectonic mélange. The geological setting of the GU unit is here inferred as a key tool for understanding the complex architecture of the ophiolites in the Western Alps.

  13. Present vertical movements in Central and Northern Italy from GPS data: Possible role of natural and anthropogenic causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenni, N.; Viti, M.; Baldi, P.; Mantovani, E.; Bacchetti, M.; Vannucchi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Insights into the present vertical kinematic pattern in Central and Northern Italy are gained by the analysis of GPS data acquired by a network of 262 permanent stations, working over various time intervals since 2001. Uplift is observed in the Alps (up to 5 mm/yr) and Apennines (1-2 mm/yr), whereas subsidence is recognized in the southern Venetian Plain (2-4 mm/yr) and the eastern Po Valley, where the highest rates are observed (up to 9 mm/yr between Reggio Emilia and Rimini). On the other hand, the western part of the Po Valley presents very low vertical rates. The boundary between subsiding and not subsiding Po Valley nearly corresponds to the Giudicarie tectonic discontinuity. It is argued that the different kinematic patterns of the eastern and western Padanian sectors may also be related to the underthrusting of the eastern domain beneath the western one. Some considerations are then reported on how the various causes of vertical movements (tectonic and sedimentological processes) may contribute to the observed kinematics.

  14. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Ying-Tao

    2011-09-28

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device.

  16. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Feng; Ma Yanling; Zhang Yingtao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device. (paper)

  17. Active tectonics and Holocene versus modern catchment erosion rates at 300 MW Baspa II hydroelectric power plant (NW Himalaya, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganits, Erich; Grasemann, Bernhard; Gier, Susanne; Hofmann, Christa-Charlotte; Janda, Christoph; Bookhagen, Bodo; Preh, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Baspa River is one of the most important tributaries to the Sutlej River in the NW Himalaya (India). Its catchment is 1116 km2 in size, ranges from c. 6400 m asl to 1770 m asl and contains India's largest private hydroelectric facility, the 300 MW Baspa II. Geologically, the hydroelectric installation is located in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline, just above the active Karcham Normal Fault, which is reactivating the Early Miocene Main Central Thrust, one of the principal Himalayan faults. The area is seismically active and mass-movements are common. Around 8200 yrs BP the Baspa was dammed by a rock-avalanche dam, leading to the formation of the originally c. 260 m deep palaeo-lake Sangla palaeo-lake. Detailed sedimentological investigations and radiocarbon dating indicate that the palaeo-lake was completely filled with sediments until c. 5100 yrs BP. This makes the Sangla palaeo-lake to a very rare example of a mass-movement dam with very long duration and its lacustrine sediments represent a valuable archive for geological processes and environmental proxies within the Baspa catchment during the c. 3100 years of its existence - which are the aim of our study. At least 5 levels of soft-sediment deformation have been recorded in the exposed part of the lacustrine sediments of Sangla palaeo-lake, including brecciated laminae, overturned laminae, folds, faults and deformation bands, separated by undeformed deposits. They are interpreted as seismites, indicating at least 5 earthquakes within 2500 years strong enough to cause liquefaction. The 300 MW Baspa II hydro-electric power plant has been built exactly on top of this palaeo-lake. This special location represents a very rare possibility to evaluate the short-term, river load and hydrological parameters measured during the planning and operational stages of Baspa II with the long-term parameters gained from the palaeo-lake sediments from the catchment. This data show that the Mid-Holocene erosion rates of the

  18. Karst springs as 'natural' pluviometers: Constraints on the isotopic composition of rainfall in the Apennines of central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, A., E-mail: minissa@igg.cnr.it [CNR - Italian Council for Research, Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources (Section of Florence) - Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Vaselli, O. [CNR - Italian Council for Research, Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources (Section of Florence) - Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy)] [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence - Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > Isotopic compositions of karstic springs in central Italy have been reviewed. > Isotopic gradients of rainfalls for elevations have been evaluated in an Alpine valley. > Karstic drops have been calculated by using isotopic compositions of springs. > Isotopic compositions of rainfalls in central Italy have been re-calculated using the isotopic compositions of karstic springs. - Abstract: This paper describes an indirect method to calculate the isotopic composition of rainfall by using the isotopic composition of karst springs fed by waters circulating in the most important regional aquifer of central Italy, i.e. the Mesozoic limestone sequence that forms the backbone of the Apennines. By using {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}D data and the {delta}{sup 18}O (and/or {delta}D) average gradient for elevation, evaluated through the use of literature rainfall data and new measurements from a typical Alpine valley in northern Italy, the altitude of precipitation of their parent water has been re-calculated. Vertical descents of more than 2000 m, from recharge to discharge, have been assessed in some high flow-rate cold springs in the morphologically steep Adriatic sector of central Italy. A clear correlation between the vertical descents and more negative isotopic compositions at their relative emergence elevations is highlighted. In contrast, in the Tyrrhenian sector lower karstic drops (generally lower than 500 m) correlate with less negative isotopic composition of recharge areas. The {delta}{sup 18}O iso-contour map of the 'recalculated' parent rainfall in central Italy is more detailed than any possible isotopic map of rainfall made using pluviometers, unless large number of rainfall collectors were deployed on mountaintops. The data also show that the isotopic composition of rainfall depends on the source of the storm water. In particular, precipitation is isotopically heavier when originating in the Mediterranean Sea, and lighter when formed in

  19. The Gabbs Valley, Nevada, geothermal prospect: Exploring for a potential blind geothermal resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J.; Bell, J. W.; Calvin, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    .5 km long temperature anomaly greater than 3° C above background temperatures forms west-northwest trending zone between terminations of the Phillips Wash fault zone and unnamed faults of Gabbs Valley to the south. Rupture segments of two young active faults bracket the temperature anomaly. The temperature anomaly may be due to several possible causes. 1. Increases in stress near the rupture segments or tip-lines of these faults, or where multiple fault splays exist, can increase fault permeability. The un-ruptured segments of these faults may be controlling the location of the Gabbs Valley thermal anomaly between ruptured segments of the 1932 Cedar Mountain and 1954 Fairview Peak earthquakes. 2. Numerous unnamed normal faults may interact and the hanging wall of these faults is hosting the thermal anomaly. The size and extent of the anomaly may be due to its proximity to a flat playa and not the direct location of the shallow heat anomaly. 3. The linear northwest nature of the thermal anomaly may reflect a hydrologic barrier in the subsurface controlling where heated fluids rise. A concealed NW- striking fault is possible, but has not been identified in previous studies or in the LiDAR or LSA fault mapping.

  20. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, T. L.; Miller, M.; Serpa, L.

    2008-07-01

    -thrust belts. Our work to the east of Death Valley suggests these thrusts were part of a NW trending thrust system that overprinted an older NE trending fold-thrust system that tracks into the Death Valley region from Nevada. These NW trending thrusts probably underlie all of the southern Black Mountains (south of the turtlebacks) and we suggest that pre-extensional structural relief along these basement thrusts placed basement at shallow crustal levels throughout what is now the Black Mountains; a conclusion consistent with the absence of rocks younger than Cambrian beneath Tertiary unconformities throughout the southern Death Valley region. In Late Miocene time, a major detachment system formed and the turtlebacks represent a mid-crustal shear zone developed during that time period, but this system is older, and structurally beneath younger detachments systems that comprise the Amargosa fault system. During motion on the detachment, an ~2km thick plutonic sheet was emplaced along the shear zone forming the Miocene plutonic assemblages of the Black Mountains, and produced upper amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblages along the floor of the pluton in what are now the Copper Canyon and Mormon Point turtlebacks, but the Badwater Turtleback escaped this metamorphism due to a different structural position. Motion continued along the floor of the pluton but syn-extensional folding produced structural relief along folds with axes parallel to the extension direction. Ultimately a new detachment system cut obliquely across the older extensional system, removing the roof of the pluton, but cutting down to its floor in the turtlebacks. This fault system formed a complex detachment system updip in the famous 'Amargosa Chaos', and removing the entire cover sequence from the Black Mountains (~10-12km of crustal section). The turtlebacks are therefore a composite structure in which extension contemporaneous with folding, presumably as a result of distributed transcurrent motion during

  1. Sustainable Water Resources Management to Combat Desertification in the Nurra Region, Northwestern Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Ghiglieri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management plays an important role in the frame of the multidisciplinary research activities aiming to combat or to mitigate the desertification processes. The study activities have been carried out by RIADE Research Project (Integrated Research for Applying new technologies and processes for combating Desertification,www.riade.net. RIADE was co-financed by MIUR within the National Operative Programme 2000-2006. The primary objective was to explore and to develop models and strategies for innovative and sustainable solutions of water resources management, adopting a multidisciplinary approach, at the catchment and hydrogeological basin scale in a Mediterranean context, using a case history of a pilot area in NW Sardinia (Italy. The high concentration of population in this coastal zone and the intense agricultural activity have determined a relevant increase of water demand. This demand is generally satisfied by surface water, but, in some peculiar dry periods, it exceeds the available quantities. In these critical periods, groundwater are the only alternative source constituting a strategic water resource. The groundwater chemical properties are then correlated with the effects of the anthropogenic pressures. The used approach shows the application of groundwater protection criteria, in accordance with EU policies, and it was aimed to develop a methodological tool which can be applied to different scenarios.

  2. Segmentation pattern and structural complexities in seismogenic extensional settings: The North Matese Fault System (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Federica; Boncio, Paolo; de Nardis, Rita; Pappone, Gerardo; Cesarano, Massimo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the northern slope of the Matese Mts. (Molise, Central Italy) with the aim of characterizing the N- to NE-dipping active normal fault system in the Bojano basin, a sector of primary importance from a seismic hazard perspective. We collected field data to define the geometry and segmentation pattern of two sub-systems (Patalecchia-Colle di Mezzo and Bojano-Campochiaro). New evidence of late Quaternary faulting was obtained by exploiting well log interpretations. Kinematic analysis revealed the interaction of pre-Quaternary inherited (mainly E-W-striking) and newly formed (NW-SE-striking) normal faults. Slip accommodation through linkage was clearly noted in the case of the Patalecchia-Colle di Mezzo sub-system. Detailed topographic profiles across the active fault segments provided post-LGM (15 ± 3 kyr) slip rates up to ∼2 mm/yr which agree with the high deformation rates based on different approaches in the literature. Finally, the instrumental seismicity analysis constrained the bottom of the seismogenic layer to depths of 13-14 km, and the gathered information allowed us to reconstruct the North Matese seismogenic source. Its 3D geometry and dimensions agree with both the dimension-magnitude relationships and macroseismic information available for the 1805 earthquake (Mw 6.6), the main historical earthquake to have struck the Bojano basin.

  3. Structural evolution of the virgin spring phase of the amargosa chaos, Death Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Samuel Robert

    The Amargosa Chaos and Fault of Death Valley are complex features that play important roles in various tectonic models. Some recent models claim the fault is a regional detachment accommodating 80 km of NW-directed transport that produced the Chaos in its hangingwall. I offer an alternative interpretation: the chaos is a product of multiphase deformation that likely spanned the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The Amargosa Fault represents just one of six deformation events. The accompanying map (supplemental file) shows the cross-cutting relationships among fault populations: (D1) 25% north-northwest directed shortening across an imbricate thrust and tight fold system; (D2) E-SE extension on five normal faults; (D3) extension-related folding, which folded the D2 faults; (D4) normal-oblique slip on the Amargosa Fault; (D5) E-W extension on domino faults; (D6) extension on the Black Mountains Frontal Fault. The D2 faults, not the Amargosa, created the enigmatic attenuation observed in the Chaos.

  4. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  5. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  6. Microscopic Identification of Prokaryotes in Modern and Ancient Halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 μm diameter cocci, <2.5 μm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  7. On a report that the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in Italy was predicted after seeing an unusual cloud formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.N.; Masci, F; Love, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Several recently published reports have suggested that semi-stationary linear-cloud formations might be causally precursory to earthquakes. We examine the report of Guangmeng and Jie (2013), who claim to have predicted the 2012 M 6.0 earthquake in the Po Valley of northern Italy after seeing a satellite photograph (a digital image) showing a linear-cloud formation over the eastern Apennine Mountains of central Italy. From inspection of 4 years of satellite images we find numerous examples of linear-cloud formations over Italy. A simple test shows no obvious statistical relationship between the occurrence of these cloud formations and earthquakes that occurred in and around Italy. All of the linear-cloud formations we have identified in satellite images, including that which Guangmeng and Jie (2013) claim to have used to predict the 2012 earthquake, appear to be orographic – formed by the interaction of moisture-laden wind flowing over mountains. Guangmeng and Jie (2013) have not clearly stated how linear-cloud formations can be used to predict the size, location, and time of an earthquake, and they have not published an account of all of their predictions (including any unsuccessful predictions). We are skeptical of the validity of the claim by Guangmeng and Jie (2013) that they have managed to predict any earthquakes.

  8. CERN Neutrinos search for sunshine in Italy!

    CERN Document Server

    Wednesday, 18th June 2008. The CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) beam has re-started, shooting muon neutrinos towards Italy. The neutrino beam should run this year until mid November.The aim of CNGS is to understand the oscillation of neutrinos, for example their transformation from muon into tau neutrinos over long distances.Edda Gschwendtner, the liaison physicist of the CNGS beam, describes the progress of the project, “We did a lot of modifications this year to CNGS, which was a huge amount of work, with many groups and services involved. In parallel the OPERA detector in Italy made an enormous progress in completing their detector and we are looking forward to seeing tau neutrinos soon.”

  9. Is marriage loosing its centrality in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the countries of north-western Europe, marriage in Italy has maintained a crucial role in the process of family formation. This raise doubts about the possibility that the theory of "second demographic transition" could adequately account for the behaviour of the European population living south of the Alps. The aim of this paper is twofold: to provide some empirical evidence that cohabitation is now spreading in Italy; and to propose an explanation of the delay of its diffusion until the 1990s. The hypothesis proposed here explains the delay, not so much in terms of limited interest of the Italian youth towards this type of union, but with the convenience of the children in the Mediterranean area to avoid choices which are openly clashing with the values of parents.

  10. Climate indicators for Italy: calculation and dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiato, F.; Fioravanti, G.; Fraschetti, P.; Perconti, W.; Toreti, A.

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, meteorological data necessary and useful for climate studies are collected, processed and archived by a wide range of national and regional institutions. As a result, the density of the stations, the length and frequency of the observations, the quality control procedures and the database structure vary from one dataset to another. In order to maximize the use of those data for climate knowledge and climate change assessments, a computerized system for the collection, quality control, calculation, regular update and rapid dissemination of climate indicators was developed. The products publicly available through a dedicated web site are described, as well as an example of climate trends estimates over Italy, based on the application of statistical models on climate indicators from quality-checked and homogenised time series.

  11. District heating in Italy: Extent of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Author surveys the trend that has been established over the last two decades in the use of district heating in Italy. Comparison with the European situation reveals that Italy is lagging behind. The reason for this the Author states is the Italian public's aversion to unknown risks involved in the utilization of innovative technologies associated with cogeneration/district heating (current preference is given to autonomous methane fuelled building space heating systems), and the current opinion of some misinformed public administrations that cogeneration/district heating plants are too costly. Citing the successful campaign by the natural gas industry to promote the public acceptance of methane as a safe, readily available and competitively priced energy source, he suggests that similar efforts be made to have the public also accept cogeneration (with methane fired gas turbines)/district heating as being safe and environmentally, as well as, economically beneficial

  12. Nuclear Renaissance in Italy: Maintaining Momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, F.

    2010-01-01

    Following the adoption of Law No.99 of July 209, Italy is on threshold of returning to nuclear power, even though there are many more challenges yet to overcome. It should be recalled that Law No. 99/2009 includes enabling provisions empowering the government to issue one or more implementing decrees providing rules for the sitting of new nuclear power plants, the licensing process for the construction, operation and dismantling of those plants, as well as rules for interim storage and the final disposal of nuclear waste. On 15 February 2010, upon the proposal of the Ministry of economic development, the Italian council of ministers issued legislative decree No. 31/2010 implementing the enabling provisions. This paper will analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the implementing decree in order to assess if it is able to provide Italy with a sound national nuclear legislative framework which is an essential precondition to the Italian nuclear resurgence. (N.C.)

  13. Italy and War of Vlora during 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhilda Shuka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Italy played special attention to the province of Vlora during World War I, because of its great strategic importance in the Adriatic Sea. Italy had deployed in October 1914 in Sazan and had occupied Vlore since December 1914. But for the Albanian people, the liberation of Vlora was a key moment for its survival. It was the victorious War of Vlora in 1920, following the decisions of the Congress of Lushnja which reconfirmed Albania's independence and which put Albania in the course of a normal independent country. The important role of the war in direct confrontation with the Italian political and military forces of the time, are intended to be reflected in this article based on historical arguments and new perspective of our days.

  14. Estimation of daily PM10 concentrations in Italy (2006-2012) using finely resolved satellite data, land use variables and meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Schwartz, Joel; Badaloni, Chiara; Bellander, Tom; Alessandrini, Ester; Cattani, Giorgio; De' Donato, Francesca; Gaeta, Alessandra; Leone, Gianluca; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; de Hoogh, Kees; Di, Qian; Forastiere, Francesco; Kloog, Itai

    2017-02-01

    Health effects of air pollution, especially particulate matter (PM), have been widely investigated. However, most of the studies rely on few monitors located in urban areas for short-term assessments, or land use/dispersion modelling for long-term evaluations, again mostly in cities. Recently, the availability of finely resolved satellite data provides an opportunity to estimate daily concentrations of air pollutants over wide spatio-temporal domains. Italy lacks a robust and validated high resolution spatio-temporally resolved model of particulate matter. The complex topography and the air mixture from both natural and anthropogenic sources are great challenges difficult to be addressed. We combined finely resolved data on Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm, ground-level PM 10 measurements, land-use variables and meteorological parameters into a four-stage mixed model framework to derive estimates of daily PM 10 concentrations at 1-km2 grid over Italy, for the years 2006-2012. We checked performance of our models by applying 10-fold cross-validation (CV) for each year. Our models displayed good fitting, with mean CV-R2=0.65 and little bias (average slope of predicted VS observed PM 10 =0.99). Out-of-sample predictions were more accurate in Northern Italy (Po valley) and large conurbations (e.g. Rome), for background monitoring stations, and in the winter season. Resulting concentration maps showed highest average PM 10 levels in specific areas (Po river valley, main industrial and metropolitan areas) with decreasing trends over time. Our daily predictions of PM 10 concentrations across the whole Italy will allow, for the first time, estimation of long-term and short-term effects of air pollution nationwide, even in areas lacking monitoring data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Market for wind turbines in italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Wind power utilization in Italy has not been very popular until the privatization of the ENEL and introduction of subsidies for private electricity producers. The greatest interest is concentrated around large wind turbines. Therefore the Danish manufacturers with know-how within large wind turbines can establish themselves on the Italian market. Cooperation with one of the four local wind turbine manufacturers is advisable. (EG)

  16. Mammal endemism In Italy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there are various checklists of Italian mammals, there is not yet a synthesis of those mammals that are endemic to Italy. Therefore, we provide for the first time a detailed review on Italian mammal endemic species including endemic taxa deserving additional studies. This review is based on the most recent taxonomic revisions obtained using Scopus and Google Scholar databases. We also considered the age of endemic species. Some aspects of mammalian conservation are also provided and discussed.

  17. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  18. Atmospheric deposition and environmental quality in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosello, R.

    1993-01-01

    For Italy's Po River hydrological basin, artificial reservoirs have a great importance; water reserve is about 1600 million cubic meters for the hydroelectric reservoirs and about 76 million cubic meters for irrigation. Relevant to studies on water quality and acidification in the Po River Basin, this paper reviews some aspects of research on atmospheric deposition, i.e., geographical variability, long term trends, and effects on surface waters

  19. Italy and gas: dependence and geopolitical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffida, L.G.; Nicolosi, L.

    2008-01-01

    The increase in world energy demand is making natural gas a leading player, yet its supply in Italy is still inefficient because of internal and external factors of its geopolitical diversification. On the contrary, thanks to its geographical position and morphology our Country could represent the major point of gas exchange in central-southern Europe and transform itself from a country at the risk of emergency into one of the greatest gas hub in Europe [it

  20. International franchising in Italy: trends and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Majocchi Antonio; Pavione Enrica

    2002-01-01

    In Italy, the recent gradual liberalization of the retail market has led to an increase in competition and innovation. In this context, new and more flexible forms of organization have emerged, and franchising in particular has undergone a strong expansion. The main purpose of this work is to present a complete framework of the Italian franchising and to analyse its role, structural characteristics, trend and development in the context of the European market.

  1. Free-lance nursing in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, E; Lindsay, J S

    1993-01-01

    In 1987 Registered Nurses Ernesta 'Tina' Galli and Joanne Lindsay embarked on a unique venture--a private agency* organized and run by nurses that engages free-lance nurses to fill the need for nursing assistance both at home and in public and private institutions. The response has been overwhelming. Today they have branches throughout Italy and have expanded their services to include research and primary health care. Below, their story.

  2. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Integrating CCHP with NW Food Processing Plant #1: Modeling Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Wagner, Anne W.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Thornton, John

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has launched a project funded by the Bonneville Power Association (BPA) to identify strategies for increasing industrial energy efficiency and reducing energy costs of Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) plants through deployment of novel combinations and designs of variable-output combined heat and power (CHP) distributed generation (DG), combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) DG and energy storage systems. Detailed evaluations and recommendations of CHP and CCHP DG systems will be performed for several Northwest (NW) food processing sites. The objective is to reduce the overall energy use intensity of NW food processors by 25% by 2020 and by 50% by 2030, as well as reducing emissions and understanding potential congestion reduction impacts on the transmission system in the Pacific Northwest.

  3. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  4. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  5. Country policy profile - Italy. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Italy, Renewable energy sources in are promoted through price and tax regulations mechanisms. Several kinds of feed-in and premium tariffs co exist besides tendering schemes depending on technology and size of RES systems. Additionally regional support schemes exist for RES electricity. The thermal (heating and cooling) energy generated from renewable energies is incentivized through tax regulation and loans. A quota system is presently used for bio-fuels (transport). In the year 2012 the major share of renewable electricity generation is accounted for by hydropower (3796 ktoe), mainly large plants. PV (1622 ktoe and wind power (1066 ktoe) provide the next largest contributions. As for renewable heating, solid biomass makes the largest contribution with 4671 ktoe ktoe, followed by geo thermal at 3228 ktoe. bio-fuels used in renewable transport amount to 1343 ktoe (source: EurObserv'ER, 2014, www.eurobserv-er.org). Under the country's NREAP, Italy has set a renewable energy target (electricity) of 26% to be achieved by 2020. The 2012 total share of renewable energy in Italy amounted to 13.5%; the target for 2020 has been defined as 17% (source: 'The State of Renewable Energies in Europe', 2013 edition)

  6. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  7. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 30291 Data in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 20020920-20050105 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 30291 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  8. CRED APEX Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24963 Data in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 200109-200506 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED APEX drifter Argos_ID 24963 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. APEX drifter data files...

  9. OXYGEN - AVERAGE SEABED CONSUMPTION from FIXED STATIONS From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 19750429 to 19760126 (NODC Accession 9200021)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data consists of taut moorings designed for long-duration measurement of temperature/pressure time series in the deep ocean. These data were collected in NW...

  10. High dark inorganic carbon fixation rates by specific microbial groups in the Atlantic off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Feijóo, E.; Sintes, E.; Herndl, G.J.; Varela, M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Bulk dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation rates were determined and compared to microbial heterotrophic production in subsurface, meso- and bathypelagic Atlantic waters off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin). DIC fixation rates were slightly higher than heterotrophic production

  11. CRED APEX Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 26070 Data in the NW Hawaiian Islands, the Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED APEX drifter Argos_ID 26070 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. APEX drifter data files...

  12. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required

  13. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required.

  14. Double-gated Si NW FET sensors: Low-frequency noise and photoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparyan, F.; Khondkaryan, H.; Arakelyan, A.; Zadorozhnyi, I.; Pud, S.; Vitusevich, S.

    2016-01-01

    The transport, noise, and photosensitivity properties of an array of silicon nanowire (NW) p"+-p-p"+ field-effect transistors (FETs) are investigated. The peculiarities of photosensitivity and detectivity are analyzed over a wide spectrum range. The absorbance of p-Si NW shifts to the short wavelength region compared with bulk Si. The photocurrent and photosensitivity reach increased values in the UV range of the spectrum at 300 K. It is shown that sensitivity values can be tuned by the drain-source voltage and may reach record values of up to 2–4 A/W at a wavelength of 300 nm at room temperature. Low-frequency noise studies allow calculating the photodetectivity values, which increase with decreasing wavelength down to 300 nm. We show that the drain current of Si NW biochemical sensors substantially depends on pH value and the signal-to-noise ratio reaches the high value of 10"5. Increasing pH sensitivity with gate voltage is revealed for certain source-drain currents of pH-sensors based on Si NW FETs. The noise characteristic index decreases from 1.1 to 0.7 with the growth of the liquid gate voltage. Noise behavior is successfully explained in the framework of the correlated number-mobility unified fluctuation model. pH sensitivity increases as a result of the increase in liquid gate voltage, thus giving the opportunity to measure very low proton concentrations in the electrolyte medium at certain values of the liquid gate voltage.

  15. Environmental Risk Assessment of dredging processes – application to Marin harbour (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Gómez; J. García Alba; A. Puente; J. A. Juanes

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a real dredging operation in the port of Marin (NW Spain). Results from Marin harbour confirmed the suitabi...

  16. Environmental Risk Assessment of dredging processes - application to Marin harbour (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A. G.; García Alba, J.; Puente, A.; Juanes, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a real dredging operation in the port of Marin (NW Spain). Results from Marin harbour confirmed the suitability of the developed methodology and the conceptual approaches as a comprehensive and practical management tool.

  17. Climate and sea level controlled sedimentation processes in two submarine canyons off NW-Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pierau, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the trigger mechanisms of gravity-driven sediment transport in two submarine canyons at the passive continental margin off NW-Africa during the past 240 kyr. The sedimentary records allow to determine the turbidite emplacement times based on high resolution age models. The sediment textures of the turbidites were studied by using X-ray radiographies. The sedimentary properties like the terrigenous silt size distribution and XRF-core scanning element data allow to identif...

  18. Quality-intensity relationships of phosphorus in some soils from NW India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, A.C.; Dev, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a laboratory investigation, Q/I relationship of soil phosphorus in soils derived from four different agroclimatic regions of N.W. India have been worked out on the basis of adsorption studies, involving the use of radioactive phosphorus. These two parameters are related to each other by a Langmuir-like equation. The results indicate that for supply of P, the soils fall in the decreasing order of: Dalhousie, Ludhiana, Gurudaspur, Palampur. (author)

  19. Looking for Larvae Above an Erupting Submarine Volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S.; Hanson, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Breuer, E. R.

    2016-02-01

    In 2009 the first marine protected areas for deep-sea hydrothermal vents in U.S. waters were established as part of the Volcanic Unit of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. In this region, hydrothermal vents are located along the Mariana Arc and back-arc spreading center. In particular hydrothermal vents are located near the summit of NW Rota-1, an active submarine volcano on the Mariana Arc which was erupting between 2003 and 2010 and ceased as of 2014. NW Rota-1 experienced a massive landslide in late 2009, decimating the habitat on the southern side of the volcano. This project looked at zooplankton tow samples taken from the water column above NW Rota-1 in 2010, searching for larvae which have the potential to recolonize the sea floor after such a major disturbance. Samples were sorted in entirety into coarse taxa, and then larvae were removed for DNA barcoding. Overall zooplankton composition was dominated by copepods, ostracods, and chaetognaths, the majority of which are pelagic organisms. Comparatively few larvae of benthic invertebrates were found, but shrimp, gastropod, barnacle, and polychaete larvae did appear in low numbers in the samples. Species-level identification obtained via genetic barcoding will allow for these larvae to be matched to species known to inhabit the benthic communities at NW Rota-1. Identified larvae will give insight into the organisms which can re-colonize the seafloor vent communities after a disturbance such as the 2009 landslide. Communities at hydrothermal vents at other submarine volcanoes in the Monument may act as sources for these larvae, but connectivity in this region of complex topography is unknown. As the microinvertebrate biodiversity in the Monument has yet to be fully characterized, our project also provides an opportunity to better describe both the zooplankton and benthic community composition in this area of the Monument.

  20. Ground water in Dale Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.

    1979-01-01

    Dale Valley is a broad valley segment, enlarged by glacial erosion, at the headwaters of Little Tonawanda Creek near Warsaw , New York. A thin, shallow alluvial aquifer immediately underlies the valley floor but is little used. A deeper gravel aquifer, buried beneath many feet of lake deposits, is tapped by several industrial wells. A finite-difference digital model treated the deep aquifer as two-dimensional with recharge and discharge through a confining layer. It was calibrated by simulating (1) natural conditions, (2) an 18-day aquifer test, and (3) 91 days of well-field operation. Streamflow records and model simulations suggest that in moderately wet years such as 1974, a demand of 750 gallons per minute could be met by withdrawal from the creek and from the aquifer without excessive drawdown at production wells or existing domestic wells. With reasonable but unverified model adjustments to simulate an unusually dry year, the model predicts that a demand of 600 gallons per minute could be met from the same sources. Water high in chloride has migrated from bedrock into parts of the deep aquifer. Industrial pumpage, faults in the bedrock, and the natural flow system may be responsible. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Climate fluctuations during the Holocene in NW Iberia: High and low latitude linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, L. D.; Francés, G.; Diz, P.; Esparza, M.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nombela, M. A.; Alejo, I.

    2010-07-01

    High resolution benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes (δ 18O, δ 13C) and molecular biomarkers in the sediments are used here to infer rapid climatic changes for the last 8200 years in the Ría de Muros (NW Iberian Margin). Benthic foraminiferal δ 18O and δ 13C potentially register migrations in the position of the hydrographic front formed between two different intermediate water masses: Eastern North Atlantic Central Water of subpolar origin (ENACW sp) and subtropical origin (ENACW st). The molecular biomarkers in the sediment show a strong coupling between continental organic matter inputs and negative δ 13C values in benthic foraminifera. The rapid centennial and millennial events registered in these records have been compared with two well known North Atlantic Holocene records from the subtropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SST) anomalies off Cape Blanc, NW Africa and the subpolar Atlantic (Hematite Stained Grains percentage, subpolar North Atlantic). Comparison supports a strong link between high- and low-latitude climatic perturbations at centennial-millennial time scales during the Holocene. Spectral analyses also points to a pole-to-equator propagation of the so-called 1500 yr cycles. Our results demonstrate that during the Holocene, the NW Iberian Margin has undergone a series of rapid events which are likely triggered at high latitudes in the North Atlantic and are rapidly propagated towards lower latitudes. Conceivably, the propagation of these rapid climatic changes involves a shift in atmospheric and oceanic circulatory systems.

  2. GHG emissions quantification at high spatial and temporal resolution at urban scale: the case of the town of Sassari (NW Sardinia - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    The European Union has set as priorities the fight against climate change related to greenhouse gas releases. The largest source of these emissions comes from human activities in urban areas that account for more than 70% of the world's emissions and several local governments intend to support the European strategic policies in understanding which crucial sectors drive GHG emissions in their city. Planning for mitigation actions at the community scale starts with the compilation of a GHG inventories that, among a wide range of measurement tools, provide information on the current status of GHG emissions across a specific jurisdiction. In the framework of a regional project for quantitative estimate of the net exchange of CO2 (emissions and sinks) at the municipal level in Sardinia, the town of Sassari represents a pilot site where a spatial and temporal high resolution GHG emissions inventory is built in line with European and international standard protocols to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends. The specific purpose of this accurate accounting is to obtain an appropriate allocation of CO2 and other GHG emissions at the fine building and hourly scale. The aim is to test the direct measurements needed to enable the construction of future scenarios of these emissions and for assessing possible strategies to reduce their impact. The key element of the methodologies used to construct this GHG emissions inventory is the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) (March 2012) that identifies four main types of emission sources: (i) Stationary Units, (ii) Mobile Units, (iii) Waste, and (iv) Industrial Process and Product Use Emissions. The development of the GHG emissions account in Sassari consists in the collection of a range of alternative data sources (primary data, IPCC emission factors, national and local statistic, etc.) selected on the base on relevance and completeness criteria performed for 2010, as baseline year, using top-down, bottom-up or mixed approaches. GPC protocol also defines three standard scopes for downscaling emissions from the national to the community level, that allow to handle the attribution of releases that occur outside the community boundary as a result of activity or consumption within it. The procedures for data processing have simple and concise structure, applicable in different communities that led to the possibility to compare the results with other national contexts. An appropriate GHG emissions allocation over detailed spatial and temporal scales has been achieved on the basis of specific indicators (population, industrial employees, amount of product, etc.) and of geo-location and size of all buildings, using appropriate models, that enable to properly georeference them respect to their uses. The main advantage of neighborhood-level quantification consists in the identification of the main productive sources and emissive activities within the urban boundaries that mostly contribute to the current GHG emissions and then focus the efforts on possible mitigation.

  3. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  4. The nuclear in Italy - state of the art; Le nucleaire en Italie - etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schifano, F.; Ziller, T

    2007-02-15

    This report aims to evaluate the italian situation in matter of the nuclear, following the referendum of 1987 which decided to stop the nuclear power plants in the country. The first part is devoted to the historical aspects of the nuclear sector in Italy. The second chapter presents the institutional and legislative framework. The third chapter discusses the today situation and the italian actors of the nuclear, from the radioactive wastes management and the dismantling of nuclear installations to the engineering service realized in other countries. It discusses also the research and development programs. The last chapter proposes perspectives of the debate around a possible restart of the nuclear activity in Italy.

  5. Holistic Overview of the Contribution of Tectonic, Geomorphic, and Geologic Factors to the Seismic Hazard of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, S.; Chang, A.; Sanquini, A.; Hilley, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Nepal has been a seismically active region since the mid-Eocene collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. It can be divided into four major tectonostratigraphic units. The Lesser Himalayan Zone, where Kathmandu Valley is located, is bounded to the south by the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and to the north by the Main Central Thrust (MCT). These faults, and the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) traverse the NW-SE length of Nepal and sole into the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Slip along these structures during the Plio-Quaternary has ponded sediment in the interior of the orogen, producing the nearly circular Kathmandu Basin, which hosts a series of radially converging rivers that exit the basin to the south. The sediment that is ponded within the basin consists of alluvial, lacustrine and debris flow deposits that are ~500 m thick. The faults in the vicinity of the Kathmandu Valley currently serve as potential earthquake sources. Sources that might plausibly be generated by these faults are constrained by structural, paleoseismic, and geodetic observations. The continued collision between India and Tibet is reflected in a convergence rate of about 20 mm/yr, as measured by Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic networks. Strain accumulates on the MHT, and is released during large earthquakes. The epicenter of the 1934 (M8.2) earthquake, about 175 km to the east of Kathmandu, resulted in MMI VIII- IX shaking intensity in the Kathmandu Valley. Seismic waves generated from faults in proximity to Kathmandu may be amplified or attenuated at particular locations due to specific site responses that reflect the geologic framework of the Kathmandu Valley. The ponded sediments within the Kathmandu Basin may contribute to basin effects, trapping seismic waves and prolonging ground motion, as well as increasing the amplitude of the waves as they travel from crystalline outer rocks into the soft lake-bed sediments. A hazard analysis suggests that a M8.0 earthquake originating in the

  6. Valley and spin thermoelectric transport in ferromagnetic silicene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Niu, Zhi; Dong, Shihao

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the valley and spin resolved thermoelectric transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction. Due to the coupling between the valley and spin degrees of freedom, thermally induced pure valley and spin currents can be demonstrated. The magnitude and sign of these currents can be manipulated by adjusting the ferromagnetic exchange field and local external electric field, thus the currents are controllable. We also find fully valley and/or spin polarized currents. Similar to the currents, owing to the band structure symmetry, tunable pure spin and/or valley thermopowers with zero charge counterpart are generated. The results obtained here suggest a feasible way of generating a pure valley (spin) current and thermopower in silicene

  7. Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2013-03-01

    The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).

  8. Valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in strain engineered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi Ping; Yao, Jian-ming

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict the existence of tunneling valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in the normal/strain/normal graphene junctions, where a strained graphene is sandwiched by two normal graphene electrodes. By applying an electric bias a pure transverse valley Hall current with longitudinal charge current is generated. If the system is driven by a temperature bias, a valley Nernst effect is observed, where a pure transverse valley current without charge current propagates. Furthermore, the transverse valley current can be modulated by the Fermi energy and crystallographic orientation. When the magnetic field is further considered, we obtain a fully valley-polarized current. It is expected these features may be helpful in the design of the controllable valleytronic devices.

  9. Geothermal energy in Italy - its importance, potential and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the perspectives for the use of geothermal energy in Italy. Starting with an overview of the principles of the use of geothermal energy in general, the article goes on to review Italy's geothermal resources and their relevance to energy supply. Figures are given on the political situation in Italy concerning energy and the rapidly increasing demands made on electricity supply. Political support for renewable energy in Italy is looked at and models for financing projects are examined. Examples of geothermal energy projects are given and the perspectives for further developments in this industry are looked at

  10. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-24

    Cheyenne, Wyoming. DMAHTC reduces the data to Simple Bouguer Anomaly (see Section A1.4, Appendix Al.0). The Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center...Desert Valley, Utah ......... 2 2 Topographic Setting - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah . 3 LIST OF DRAWINGS Drawing Number 1 Complete Bouguer Anomaly...gravity stations were distributed throughout the valley at an approxi- mate interval of 1.4 miles (2.3 km). Drawing 1 is a Complete Bouguer Anomaly

  11. Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Macelloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the MAP and RAPHAEL projects, airborne experimental campaigns were carried out by the IFAC group in 1999 and 2000, using a multifrequency microwave radiometer at L, C and X bands (1.4, 6.8 and 10 GHz. The aim of the experiments was to collect soil moisture and vegetation biomass information on agricultural areas to give reliable inputs to the hydrological models. It is well known that microwave emission from soil, mainly at L-band (1.4 GHz, is very well correlated to its moisture content. Two experimental areas in Italy were selected for this project: one was the Toce Valley, Domodossola, in 1999, and the other, the agricultural area of Cerbaia, close to Florence, where flights were performed in 2000. Measurements were carried out on bare soils, corn and wheat fields in different growth stages and on meadows. Ground data of soil moisture (SMC were collected by other research teams involved in the experiments. From the analysis of the data sets, it has been confirmed that L-band is well related to the SMC of a rather deep soil layer, whereas C-band is sensitive to the surface SMC and is more affected by the presence of surface roughness and vegetation, especially at high incidence angles. An algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture, based on the sensitivity to moisture of the brightness temperature at C-band, has been tested using the collected data set. The results of the algorithm, which is able to correct for the effect of vegetation by means of the polarisation index at X-band, have been compared with soil moisture data measured on the ground. Finally, the sensitivity of emission at different frequencies to the soil moisture profile was investigated. Experimental data sets were interpreted by using the Integral Equation Model (IEM and the outputs of the model were used to train an artificial neural network to reproduce the soil moisture content at different depths. Keywords: microwave radiometry, soil moisture

  12. Disorder-dependent valley properties in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Kha

    2017-07-19

    We investigate the effect of disorder on exciton valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. By analyzing the polarization properties of photoluminescence, the valley coherence (VC) and valley polarization (VP) are quantified across the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance. We find that disorder plays a critical role in the exciton VC, while affecting VP less. For different monolayer samples with disorder characterized by their Stokes shift (SS), VC decreases in samples with higher SS while VP does not follow a simple trend. These two methods consistently demonstrate that VC as defined by the degree of linearly polarized photoluminescence is more sensitive to disorder, motivating further theoretical studies.

  13. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  14. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The promotion of energy efficiency in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paoli, L.; Bongiolatti, L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 Italy introduced an obligation for electricity and gas distribution companies to reach specific objectives regarding the improvement of energy efficiency in final energy consumption. The scope of the provision is to promote investments in energy efficiency in order to meet the greenhouse gases reduction target set by the Kyoto protocol. The adoption of binding targets of energy efficiency will also lead to the development of an energy services market, modifying the traditional relation between energy dealers and final consumers, thus leading to a more efficient use of the available resources. Similar mechanisms have already been applied in other European countries (as France and United Kingdom) and will be likely introduced in other countries with the implementation of European Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services. This paper describes and analyzes both the measures adopted in Italy and the results obtained after the first year of operation of the mechanism. The paper is divided in six different sections. In the first part we highlight the main problems related to the development of system based on tradable white certificates. In the second part we provide a brief description of the Italian regulatory context. In the third part there is an economic analysis of investments in energy efficiency. The fourth part considers the different options that distribution companies face in order to reach the energy efficiency targets. The fifth part shows the results obtained after the first year of operation of the mechanism. Finally, we propose some possible modifications to the scheme adopted in Italy considering the results obtained and the alternative solutions already applied in France and United Kingdom [it

  16. Cogeneration plants in Italy: Licensing aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscaglione, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper focusses on administrative/bureaucratic problems relative to the licensing of cogeneration plants in Italy. The current stumbling block appears to lie in organizational difficulties relative to the coordination of various Government authorized safety committees responsible for the drafting up of suitable legislation governing cogeneration plant fire safety aspects. The author cites the possible environmental benefits in terms of air pollution abatement that could have been had with the timely start-up of a new 7 MW plant (in Lombardia) still awaiting its go-ahead authorization

  17. Italy - A sustainable development discourse analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, Arnaud; Lallemand, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the Italian Discourse on Sustainable Development (SD). The 'mainstream political discourse', in line with the European guidelines, encompasses the three key SD dimensions (social, economic, and environmental dimensions), at least in theory. But, in practice, Italy is the country with the highest open infringements on EU environmental laws, as recently reflected by the scandalous waste management crises in the region of Naples. In the wake of the economic crises, the mainstream SD discourse is challenged by the environmentalist discourse, led by NGOs, the 'socio-religious discourse', focusing on a human SD, and by the 'alternative development' discourse, which opposes the capitalist system

  18. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mariacher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica. and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals.

  19. Electric power. Enron establishes in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The US Enron group and the Italian Enel group have decided to create a joint-venture for the production of electric power in Italy. Their activities will be based on the transformation of existing classical thermal power plants into natural gas fueled combined cycle power plants. The total capacity of the converted power plants will be of 5000 MW. Enron should invest about 3 billions of US Dollars in this project and will be in a privileged position when the Italian electric power market will be open to competition in 1999. Short paper. (J.S.)

  20. Home electrical system safety in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auditor,

    1990-06-01

    Italy, amongst the industrialized countries, has the highest mortality rate due to accidents associated with the improper use or maintenance of home electrical systems. The increasing use of domestic electrical appliances has raised the risk of accidents, especially in homes equipped with out-dated, low-capacity electrical plants and worn wiring. Within this context, this paper reports on the results of survey to establish the worthiness and type of electrical systems in use in a sample of 1,000 residential buildings. The paper then assesses the efficacy of recent normatives designed to increase the safety and efficiency of home electrical installations.

  1. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.; Amos, C. B.; Zielke, Olaf; Jayko, A. S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  2. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.

    2016-01-10

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  3. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  4. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  5. The burden of rare cancers in Italy: the surveillance of rare cancers in Italy (RITA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trama, Annalisa; Mallone, Sandra; Ferretti, Stefano; Meduri, Francesca; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Gatta, Gemma

    2012-01-01

    The project Surveillance of rare cancers in Italy (RITA) provides, for the first time, estimates of the burden of rare cancers in Italy based on the list of rare cancers proposed in collaboration with the European project Surveillance of Rare Cancers in Europe (RARECARE). RITA analyzed data from Italian population-based cancer registries (CR). The period of diagnosis was 1988 to 2002, and vital status information was available up to December 31, 2003. Incidence rates were estimated for the period 1995-2002, survival for the years 2000-2002 (with the period method of Brenner), and complete prevalence at January 1, 2003. Rare cancers are those with an incidence <6/100,000/year. In Italy, every year there are 60,000 new diagnoses of rare cancers corresponding to 15% of all new cancer diagnoses. Five-year relative survival was on the average worse for rare cancers (53%) than for common cancers (73%). A total of 770,000 patients were living in Italy in 2008 with a diagnosis of a rare cancer, 22% of the total cancer prevalence. Our estimates constitute a useful base for further research and support the idea that rare cancers are a public health problem that deserves attention. Centers of expertise for rare cancers that pool cases, expertise and resources could ensure an adequate clinical management for these diseases. Our data also showed that cancer registries are suitable sources of data to estimate incidence, prevalence and survival for rare cancers and should continue to monitoring rare cancers in Italy.

  6. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of...

  7. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State... for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope Valley Air Pollution...

  8. The uncanny valley in games and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Tinwell, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny

  9. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  10. Clinical scientific research with ionizing radiations in Italy. Jurisprudential aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, G.; Frusciante, V.; Petrucelli, L.; Podagrosi, V.; Giustini, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews the laws that regulate the clinical scientific research with ionizing radiations in Italy and the effects of ICRP 62, introduced in Italy by the Minister's Decree 21/11/1997, renders invalid all previous rules and regulations which contrast with them [it

  11. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 Outbreak, Italy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuglia, Anna R.; Scognamiglio, Paola; Petrosillo, Nicola; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Sordillo, Pasquale; Gentile, Daniele; La Scala, Patrizia; Girardi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    During 2011, 5 persons in the area of Lazio, Italy were infected with a monophyletic strain of hepatitis E virus that showed high sequence homology with isolates from swine in China. Detection of this genotype in Italy parallels findings in other countries in Europe, signaling the possible spread of strains new to Western countries. PMID:23260079

  12. First record of Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus in Italy (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus, a species native of the Eastern Palaearctic, is reported for the first time from Italy on the basis of a female specimen collected in a beech forest (Veneto Region, Treviso Province, Foresta del Cansiglio. The possible establishment of this alien species in Italy is briefly discussed.

  13. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on...

  14. An autochthonous sexually transmitted Zika virus infection in Italy 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Percivalle, Elena; Campanini, Giulia; Sarasini, Antonella; Premoli, Marta; Zavattoni, Maurizio; Girello, Alessia; Dalla Gasperina, Daniela; Balsamo, Maria Luisa; Baldanti, Fausto; Rovida, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    We describe two cases of Zika virus infection involving an Italian patient returning from the Dominican Republic and his wife, who remained in Italy and had not travelled to Zika virus endemic areas in the previous months. The infection was transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse after the man's return to Italy.

  15. The US Mission in Italy's "Partnership for Growth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spogli, Ronald P.; Truhn, J. Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper first examines key differences between the traditional approaches of the USA and Italy in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship. The authors then turn to the specific example of southern Italy, which has experienced higher rates of unemployment, lower US investment and fewer educational and cultural exchanges than the rest of the…

  16. Reappraisal of paleomagnetic data from Gargano (South Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    VandenBerg, J., 1983. Reappraisal of paleomagnetic data from Gargano (South Italy). In: E. McClelland Brown and J. VandenBerg (Editors), Palaeomagnetism of Orogenic Belts. Tectonophysics, 98: 29-41. The platform limestones of Apulia (Italy) outcropping in the Gargano peninsula have been

  17. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  18. Information resources in toxicology--Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preziosi, Paolo; Dracos, Adriana; Marcello, Ida

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of current resources in the field of toxicology in Italy. The discussion will begin with a brief history of toxicology in this country, which includes the study of the toxicity of plants and other natural substances, and the birth of industrial and forensic toxicology. We will also provide information on research, education, and hazard control in the field of toxicology. Within this context we will examine the public bodies responsible for surveillance and regulatory activities, state-owned and private structures involved in toxicological research, and the educational programs and research activities of universities. Particular emphasis will be placed on the activities of the National Health Service, which plays an important role in areas such as clinical toxicology, food safety, and animal health, as well as those of national and regional agencies dedicated to the protection of the environment. The presentation will be organized as follows: - A Brief History of Toxicology in Italy; - Professional Societies; - National Health Service; - National Bodies; - Resources for the Environment; - Biomedical Websites; - Recent Publications; - Research Structures; - Graduate and Postgraduate Programs; - Legislation

  19. Cryptostroma corticale in the northern Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria OLIVEIRA LONGA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptostroma corticale was observed on declining trees of Acer pseudoplatanus L. at Montovolo, a mountain site located in the northern Apennines, Italy. Morphological and biomolecular analyses confirmed the presence of the fungus in affected trees, which has not yet been officially described as occurring in Italy. No damage by the pathogen was observed on other species of Acer in the affected area, while drought–related decline symptoms were present on Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia near the affected site, confirming the possible role of climate and especially repeated drought periods in the appearance of the problem. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  20. Power programmes review: Nuclear power in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    Several concrete measures have been initiated in Italy for the generation of nuclear power on a substantial scale. Two plants are already under construction and work will start soon on a third. Plans have also been announced for more stations. If the work already initiated is completed on schedule the installed capacity of nuclear power in Italy is likely to exceed 500 mw (electric) in the course of the next four years. This will constitute a sizeable proportion of the total electrical capacity in the country. After the Italian National Committee for Nuclear Research (Comitato Nazionale per le Ricerche Nucleari) was reorganized late in 1956, it prepared what can be described as a nuclear five-year plan for Italy. The plan, designed to cover the period 1957-1962, includes detailed schemes for a comprehensive development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including a programme for the generation of power. The Comitato Nazionale per le Ricerche Nucleari (CNRN) promotes and co-ordinates the various activities in the field, and within the framework of its general programme certain industrial groups in Italy have formulated specific projects for nuclear power. At a Geneva conference (1958) it was disclosed that several companies were planning to build nuclear power stations in Italy. (1) SELNI (Societa Elettronucleare Italiana), pertaining to the Edison-Volta group, which plans to build a pressurized water reactor. (2) So.R.I.N. (Societa Ricerche Impianti Nucleari), a company founded by the Fiat and Montecatini groups, which is constructing a research centre, with a swimming pool reactor, and various laboratories for chemistry, physics and metallurgy. This centre will also be used for the training of specialized personnel, in view of the company's programme which envisages two 150 mw (e) plants: one operating with enriched uranium, the other with natural uranium. Such a programme will become effective only when the cost of power produced by these plants may actually

  1. Resurgence of nuclear energy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, F.

    2009-01-01

    In order to shed light on recent developments, as well as on future steps, this paper will first analyse the history of nuclear power production in Italy and the reasons for the decision to re-embark upon a nuclear power programme. It will briefly describe the legislation which governed nuclear activities before this decision, introduce the latest legislative changes and legislative projects and, finally, aim to demonstrate what else is necessary to realize this ambitious project in the near future. This analysis will be particularly focused on the current italian legislation following the recent approval of Act No. 99 of 23. july 2009, which lays down milestones for the new national nuclear legal framework. The implementation of a nuclear power programme is an enormous challenge. however, it can be successful if appropriate and timely steps are taken in the months and years to come. the national nuclear framework will play a key role in managing and regulating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in a consistent and rational manner. It is therefore crucial that the foundation for this framework is set accurately so that it provides a sound basis for activities related to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Italy. (N.C.)

  2. The Child Health Care System in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Giovanni; Ferrara, Pietro; Chiamenti, Gianpietro; Nigri, Luigi; Campanozzi, Angelo; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric care in Italy has been based during the last 40 years on the increased awareness of the importance of meeting the psychosocial and developmental needs of children and of the role of families in promoting the health and well-being of their children. The pediatric health care system in Italy is part of the national health system. It is made up of 3 main levels of intervention: first access/primary care, secondary care/hospital care, and tertiary care based on specialty hospital care. This overview will also include a brief report on neonatal care, pediatric preventive health care, health service accreditation programs, and postgraduate training in pediatrics. The quality of the Italian child health care system is now considered to be in serious danger because of the restriction of investments in public health caused both by the 2008 global and national economic crisis and by a reduction of the pediatric workforce as a result of progressively insufficient replacement of specialists in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency in refugees in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, L G; Trombetta, I; Novella, T; Alampi, M

    2017-09-21

    The objective of the research is to determine 25[OH]D serum levels in refugees in Italy. In the following research we have taken into consideration the results of the monitoring of Vitamin D levels in 46 refugees of the Italian Service for protection of refugees and asylum seekers (SPRAR) system. The indicator of overall vitamin D status used was the circulating serum level of 25(OH)D. Data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel. In the refugees tested, the mean level of 25(OH)D resulted 9.18 ng/mL. The standard deviation was 4.8, with a minimal level of 4.3 and a maximum of 27.4. This figure indicates a clear condition of hypovitaminosis in refugees. While it is general assumption that migratory phenomena may induce the spread of tropical or infectious diseases, widely attested literature demonstrates how chronic pathologies and diseases related to altered lifestyles are the most relevant for Italian case records. Indeed, among the aforementioned diseases, Vitamin D deficiency so far lacks acknowledgement at a national level. Considering the results of lower-than-desirable vitamin D levels found in refugees in Italy, it is necessary to take this parameter into consideration when analyzing individuals who have faced migratory phenomena in order to mitigate the effects of hypovitaminosis D.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in refugees in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. De Filippis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to determine 25[OH]D serum levels in refugees in Italy. In the following research we have taken into consideration the results of the monitoring of Vitamin D levels in 46 refugees of the Italian Service for protection of refugees and asylum seekers (SPRAR system. The indicator of overall vitamin D status used was the circulating serum level of 25(OHD. Data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel. In the refugees tested, the mean level of 25(OHD resulted 9.18 ng/mL. The standard deviation was 4.8, with a minimal level of 4.3 and a maximum of 27.4. This figure indicates a clear condition of hypovitaminosis in refugees. While it is general assumption that migratory phenomena may induce the spread of tropical or infectious diseases, widely attested literature demonstrates how chronic pathologies and diseases related to altered lifestyles are the most relevant for Italian case records. Indeed, among the aforementioned diseases, Vitamin D deficiency so far lacks acknowledgement at a national level. Considering the results of lower-than-desirable vitamin D levels found in refugees in Italy, it is necessary to take this parameter into consideration when analyzing individuals who have faced migratory phenomena in order to mitigate the effects of hypovitaminosis D.

  5. Werner Sombart and his reception in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Pisanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to focus on the difficulty encountered by Werner Sombart’s works in gaining a hearing in various Italian intellectual circuits. As is well known, Sombart belonged to the German Historical School of economics, sharing with other scholars of that school the same problems in getting his work known in Italy. Our aim is to explain the reason for this hostile reception. First of all, we will analyze the factors which generally hindered the spread of the German Historical School in Italy, recognizing in economists like Francesco Ferrara, Idealists like Benedetto Croce and Marxists like Antonio Labriola some of its strongest opponents. We will dwell on the cases of Gustav Schmoller and Max Weber, in order to give two representative examples of the slow and complicated Italian reception of methodological approaches and analytical perspectives which characterized the scientific experience of the German Historical School. Secondly, we will try to show why Sombart was even less appreciated than other German social scientists, giving the reasons that attracted severe criticism from economists, economic historians and sociologists towards his interdisciplinary approach in the analysis of modern capitalism. Finally, we will show the reasons of the contemporary rediscovery of Sombart and of his works.

  6. Life cycle assessment: an application to poplar for energy cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Bacenetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the bioenergy sector has led to an increasing interest in energy crops. Short rotation coppices (SRC are forestry management systems in which fast-growing tree species are produced under intensive cultivation practices to obtain high wood chips yields. In Italy, most SRC plantations consist of poplar biomass-clones. SRC plantations can be carried out with different management systems with diverse cutting times; consequently, the cultivation system can be crucial for attaining high yields depending on: i short and ii medium cutting frequency. Nowadays, the larger part of Italian SRC is based on 2-year cutting short rotation forestry (SRF but the best quality of wood chips is linked to 5-year plantation medium rotation forestry (MRF. This work compares an SRF and an MRF poplar plantation located in the Po Valley in northern Italy. In particular, a life cycle assessment (LCA was carried out to evaluate their energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. The LCA software SimaPro 7.10 was used to create the LCA model and to assure an accurate impact assessment calculation. The analysis shows several differences between MRF and SRF in terms of fertiliser requirements and intensive agricultural activities. Results highlight that MRF produces a more sustainable wood chip production than SRF according to energy and environmental concerns. Furthermore, hot spots were identified in both SRF and MRF due to the high energy consumption and the related emissions. These hot spots were: i mineral fertilisation; ii mechanical weed-control; iii harvesting and biomass transport.

  7. Digital geologic map of the Thirsty Canyon NW quadrangle, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, S.A.; Orkild, P.P.; Sargent, K.A.; Warren, R.G.; Sawyer, D.A.; Workman, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This digital geologic map compilation presents new polygon (i.e., geologic map unit contacts), line (i.e., fault, fold axis, dike, and caldera wall), and point (i.e., structural attitude) vector data for the Thirsty Canyon NW 7 1/2' quadrangle in southern Nevada. The map database, which is at 1:24,000-scale resolution, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic and tectonic interest. The Thirsty Canyon NW quadrangle is located in southern Nye County about 20 km west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and 30 km north of the town of Beatty. The map area is underlain by extensive layers of Neogene (about 14 to 4.5 million years old [Ma]) mafic and silicic volcanic rocks that are temporally and spatially associated with transtensional tectonic deformation. Mapped volcanic features include part of a late Miocene (about 9.2 Ma) collapse caldera, a Pliocene (about 4.5 Ma) shield volcano, and two Pleistocene (about 0.3 Ma) cinder cones. Also documented are numerous normal, oblique-slip, and strike-slip faults that reflect regional transtensional deformation along the southern part of the Walker Lane belt. The Thirsty Canyon NW map provides new geologic information for modeling groundwater flow paths that may enter the map area from underground nuclear testing areas located in the NTS about 25 km to the east. The geologic map database comprises six component ArcINFO map coverages that can be accessed after decompressing and unbundling the data archive file (tcnw.tar.gz). These six coverages (tcnwpoly, tcnwflt, tcnwfold, tcnwdike, tcnwcald, and tcnwatt) are formatted here in ArcINFO EXPORT format. Bundled with this database are two PDF files for readily viewing and printing the map, accessory graphics, and a description of map units and compilation methods.

  8. Microseismicity, tectonics and seismic potential in the Western Himalayan segment, NW Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parija, Mahesh Prasad; Kumar, Sushil; Tiwari, V. M.; Rao, N. Purnachandra; Kumar, Narendra; Biswal, Shubhasmita; Singh, Ishwar

    2018-06-01

    The tectonics and seismic potential of the western Himalayan segment (30-33°N; 76-80°E) of the NW Himalayan (India) region have been determined in this study. 423 earthquakes were located in the NW Himalaya between 2004 and 2013 using more than 4495 P and 4453 S differential travel times to determine the moment tensors for 8 (Mw ≥ 4.0) of these earthquakes using their broadband regional waveforms. The geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) plane which varies along the strike of the Himalaya in flat and ramp segments with a dip ranging between ∼2.5 to ∼4° to ∼19° below the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in the south to the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) in the north has also been deduced in this study. Two crustal ramps were reported in this study with a depth variance below the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) between 12 to 22 km and 28 to 40 km depth respectively. The estimated earthquake potential prevailing in the western Himalayan seismic gap lying between the epicentral zone of the 1905 Kangra earthquake and the 1975 Kinnaur earthquake reveals that the total amount of energy released since the last great event is only a fraction (3-5%) of the accommodated energy i.e.1.1E+28 dyne-cm/yr. This suggests that if an earthquake hits this NW Himalayan segment in the future, its magnitude might be around Mw ≥ 8.0.

  9. Frequency-volume Statistics of Rock Falls: Examples From France, Italy and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussauge-Peisser, C.; Guzzetti, F.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    There is accumulating evidence that the distribution of rock-fall volume exhibits power law (fractal) statistics in different physiographic and geologic environments. We have studied the frequency-volume statistics of rock falls in three areas: Grenoble, France; Umbria, Italy; and Yosemite Valley, California, USA. We present a compari- son of the datasets currently available. For the Grenoble area a catalogue of rock falls between 1248 and 1995 occurred along a 120 km long limestone cliff. The dataset contains information on 105 rock-fall events ranging in size from 3xE-2 to 5xE8 m3. Only the time window 1935-1995 is considered in the study, involving 87 events from 1E-2 to 1E6 m3. The cumulative frequency-volume statistics follow a power-law (frac- tal) relationship with exponent b = -0.4 over the range 50 m3 Yosemite Valley the database contains information on historical (1851-2001) rock falls (122), rock slides (251) and prehistoric rock avalanches (5). For Yosemite, the non-cumulative frequency-volume statistics of rock falls and rock slides are very sim- ilar and correlate well with a power-law (fractal) relation with exponent beta = -1.4, over the range 30 m3

  10. Food habits of the stone marten (Martes foina in the upper Aveto Valley (Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martinoli

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the stone marten (Martes foina was studied analysing 63 faeces collected from February 1990 to December 1991. The results were expressed as relative percentage of frequency (Fr% and as percentage of mean bulk (Vm%. Mammals, mainly rodents, were the staple in the diet (annual Vm% = 62.9 and reached a maximum peak in winter (Vm% = 79.4. Vegetables were mostly represented by Rosaceae fruits (annual Vm% = 22.3 and were consumed during all year round. Insects, mainly Coleoptera and Orthoptera, were fairly frequently eaten, although their volume was not remarkable (annual Vm% = 4.1. Birds and garbage were scarcely used. The trophic niche breadth of the stone marten, evaluated using the Levin's index (B, varied from 2.49 in winter to 4.8 in summer. In the same study area the diet of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes was studied. The niche overlap between this canid and the stone marten was not extensive (Op = 0.52; Os = 0.51. Riassunto Indagine sul comportamento trofico della faina (Martes foina in alta Val d'Aveto (Appennino Ligure-Emiliano - La dieta della Faina (Martes foina è stata studiata analizzando 63 feci raccolte dal febbraio 1990 al dicembre 1991. I dati ottenuti, espressi come frequenza relativa percentuale (Fr% e come volume medio percentuale (Vm%, evidenziano che i Mammiferi, in particolare i Roditori, sono la componente alimentare principale (Vm% annuale = 62,9, con maggior consumo durante il periodo invernale (Vm% = 79,4. I vegetali, rappresentati per la maggior parte dai frutti delle Rosacee (Vm% annuale = 22,3, sono la seconda categoria trofica per importanza e compaiono per tutto l'arco dell'anno. Gli Insetti, quasi esclusivamente Coleotteri ed Ortotteri, presentano una discreta percentuale di utilizzo (Fr% annuale = 21,2 pur non avendo un'incidenza volumetricamente importante (Vm% annuale = 4,1. Gli Uccelli costituiscono una fonte di cibo poco utilizzata. L'ampiezza di nicchia trofica, valutata mediante l'indice di Levins (B, variava da 2,49 (inverno a 4,8 (estate. Il confronto dello spettro trofico della faina con quello della volpe (Vulpes vulpes, rilevato nella stessa area di studio, evidenzia una limitata sovrapposizione di nicchia (Op = 0,52; Os = 0,51.

  11. Medicinal plants of Usherai valley, Dir, NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarat, A.; Shah, J.; Ahmad, S.; Nasir, M.; Jan, A.K.; Skindar

    2010-01-01

    This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley. (author)

  12. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya | Wakhisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. ... Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age ... This may lead to identification of molecular biomarkers to be used in future for the early detection of this neoplasm.

  13. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  14. Rift Valley fever potential mosquito vectors and their infection status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been isolated from more than 40 species of mosquitoes from eight genera. This study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential mosquito vectors and their RVFV infection status in Ngorongoro ...

  15. Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Abanin, D. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a multi-valley two dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We focus on QHE states that arise due to spontaneous breaking of the valley symmetry by the Coulomb interactions. We show that the anisotropy of the Fermi surface in each valley, which is generally present in such systems, favors states where all the electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley ordering occurs via a finite temperature Ising-like phase transition, which, owing to the Fermi surface anisotropy, is accompanied by the onset of nematic order. In a disordered system, domains of opposite polarization are formed, and therefore long-range valley order is destroyed, however, the resulting state is still compressible. We discuss the transport properties in ordered and disordered regimes, and point out the possible relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs [1]. [1] Y. P. Shkolnikov, S. Misra, N. C. Bishop, E. P. De Poortere, and M. Shayegan, Observation of Quantum Hall ``Valley Skyrmions", Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 068809 (2005)[2] D.A. Abanin, S.A. Parameswaran, S.A. Kivelson and S.L. Sondhi, Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems, to be published.

  16. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  17. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis plant, supplement 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Supplement 18 contains the following additions to Appendix II--5.0 Geology and Seismology: Section 12 ''Seismic Investigations for Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facility at West Valley, New York,'' October 20, 1975, and Section 13 ''Earthquake Return Period Analysis at West Valley, New York, for Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.'' November 5, 1975

  18. Composition of the metazooplankton community and structure across the continental shelf off tropical NW Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Maar, Marie

    This talk focuses on the distribution pattern and grazing impact of different functional metazooplankton groups in a tropical marine ecosystem. We studied the metazooplankton distribution across the continental shelf from eutrophic mangrove areas to the oligotrophic deep blue ocean off NW Australia....... Chlorophyll a concentrations were reduced by factor 10 along the transect including a shift towards small sized primary producers. The metazooplankton biomass followed the same pattern. Even though low in abundance, copepods were most frequent followed by larvaceans, doliolids other thaliacea and chaetognaths...

  19. ‘In Drag’: Performativity and Authenticity in Zadie Smith’s NW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata Beatriz Pérez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zadie Smith’s latest novel, NW, presents a multiverse in which multiplicity is driven into homogeneization by the forces of those dominant discourses that attempt to suppress the category of the “Other.” This paper focuses on the development of the two female protagonists. Their opposing attitudes towards motherhood, together with their confrontation with their origins, bring to the fore the performativity found in the discourses of gender, sexuality, class, and race. Thus, this paper will explore authenticity and performativity in a contemporary context, where patriarchal and neocolonial discourses still apply.

  20. Upper Permian ostracode assemblage from the Jadar Block (Vardar zone, NW Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasquin Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ostracodes from the Changhsingian (latest Permian age in the uppermost part of the “Bituminous Limestone” Formation of the Komirić Section in NW Serbia (Jadar Block, Vardar Zone are described and illustrated. Three new species of ostracodes are introduced: Basslerella jadarensis n. sp., Acratia serbianella n. sp., and Knoxiella vardarensis n. sp. The ostracode assemblage, together with conodonts and foraminifers, is the first record of the youngest Late Permian age microfaunas from Serbia and from the central part of the Balkan Peninsula.

  1. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  2. West Valley waste removal system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank

  3. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  4. Naturalizing Alterity: Edward Maturin’s Bianca: A Tale of Erin and Italy and Lady Morgan's Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Abbate Badin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth century the image of Italy appealed also to Irish Romantic writers. But the way in which they naturalized the Italian alterity is quite ambivalent. On the one hand they filtered their images of the southern country through their relationship with England and thus ended up mirroring stereotypes common to the English-speaking world, and on the other hand they established a special, personal relationship with it shaped by their ideological and cultural differences from the British. This essay tackles the representations of Italy in two texts, namely Edward Maturin’s Bianca: A Tale of Erin and Italy, published in 1852, and in the earlier Italy (1821 by Lady Morgan. Both these works show that at that time there was a certain awareness, in Ireland, of the special historical and political conditions of Italy and of possible similarities with Ireland. Italy, oppressed by foreign domination yet aspiring to freedom, became a yardstick for gauging issues of subjugation, injustice, and national identity and invited sympathy from the citizens of a colonized country. Therefore, Italy was perceived as a mirror in which to reflect the Irish identity torn by aspirations which were hard to confess publicly or even to oneself. Keywords: Maturin, Lady Morgan, alterity, Italy, Irish Romanticism

  5. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  6. The quasi-steady state of the valley wind system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg eSchmidli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-steady-state limit of the diurnal valley wind system is investigated overidealized three-dimensional topography. Although this limit is rarely attained inreality due to ever-changing forcings, the investigation of this limit canprovide valuable insight, in particular on the mass and heat fluxes associatedwith the along-valley wind. We derive a scaling relation for the quasi-steady-state along-valleymass flux as a function of valley geometry, valley size, atmospheric stratification,and surface sensible heat flux forcing. The scaling relation is tested by comparisonwith the mass flux diagnosed from numerical simulations of the valleywind system. Good agreement is found. The results also provide insight into the relationbetween surface friction and the strength of the along-valley pressure gradient.

  7. An Overview of Italy's Energy Mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammi, Corrado; Assanelli, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    In Italy, the issue of energy supply is always of great interest because this country depends on foreign imports for 83% of its primary energy needs. This is due to the limited availability of domestic mineral resources, combined with a strong dependence of the electricity production on fossil fuels. The present situation should be viewed in the light of the decision to freeze the nuclear program following the referendum of 1987. Italy's energy strategy subsequently turned back to the thermoelectric sector, which was updated, during the latter part of the 1990's, with several modern and efficient plants, mainly based on a combined cycle structure and fed by natural gas. In addition, the Italian government has started to fund renewables, in compliance with the European regulations, and these forms of energy have experienced a significant increase, especially in recent years. The current energy-mix makes the Italian economy more exposed to the global geopolitical instabilities of the oil- and gas-producing countries, compared to northern European countries. Moreover, with the shift of economic activities towards the service sector, the demand of electric energy is increasing and its costs, weighted also by renewable incentives, are becoming more and more significant for Italian users and the economy in general. These issues, coupled with the constraints set by the European 20-20-20 plan, in particular in terms of polluting gas emissions and energy savings, led the Berlusconi government (2008-2011) to resort to a new nuclear program. This relied on the construction of 4 EPR power plants (at least) in order to cover 25% of Italy's entire electricity needs. But the program was stopped by another referendum in June 2011, whose result was strongly influenced by the Fukushima tragedy. However, a new national energy strategy has not yet been defined. This paper analyses the present energy mix, with particular attention to the electricity production system, in order to

  8. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEDERICA eMATTEUCCI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Perchloroethene, Trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo (Val Vibrata, characterized by a significant chlorinated solvents contamination. Data from the various monitoring campaigns that have taken place over time were collected, and new samplings were carried out, resulting in a complete database. The data matrix was processed with a multivariate statistic analysis (in particular Principal Components Analysis, PCA and was then imported into Geographic Information System (GIS, to obtain a model of the contamination. A microcosm anaerobic study was utilized to assess the potential for in situ natural or enhanced bioremediation. Most of the microcosms were positive for dechlorination, particularly those inoculated with a mineral medium. This indicate the presence of an active native dechlorinating population in the subsurface, probably inhibited by co-contaminants in the groundwater, or more likely by the absence or lack of nutritional factors. Among the tested electron donors (i.e., yeast extract, lactate, and butyrate lactate and butyrate enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated compounds. PCA and GIS studies allowed delimiting the contamination; the microcosm study helped to identify the conditions to promote the bioremediation of the area.

  9. Validation and sensitivity tests on improved parametrizations of a land surface process model (LSPM) in the Po Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassardo, C.; Carena, E.; Longhetto, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Land Surface Process Model (LSPM) has been improved with respect to the 1. version of 1994. The modifications have involved the parametrizations of the radiation terms and of turbulent heat fluxes. A parametrization of runoff has also been developed, in order to close the hydrologic balance. This 2. version of LSPM has been validated against experimental data gathered at Mottarone (Verbania, Northern Italy) during a field experiment. The results of this validation show that this new version is able to apportionate the energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes. LSPM has also been submitted to a series of sensitivity tests in order to investigate the hydrological part of the model. The physical quantities selected in these sensitivity experiments have been the initial soil moisture content and the rainfall intensity. In each experiment, the model has been forced by using the observations carried out at the synoptic stations of San Pietro Capofiume (Po Valley, Italy). The observed characteristics of soil and vegetation (not involved in the sensitivity tests) have been used as initial and boundary conditions. The results of the simulation show that LSPM can reproduce well the energy, heat and water budgets and their behaviours with varying the selected parameters. A careful analysis of the LSPM output shows also the importance to identify the effective soil type

  10. Palaeoloxodon and Human Interaction: Depositional Setting, Chronology and Archaeology at the Middle Pleistocene Ficoncella Site (Tarquinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Daniele; Contardi, Antonio; Giaccio, Biagio; Jicha, Brian; Lemorini, Cristina; Madonna, Sergio; Magri, Donatella; Marano, Federica; Milli, Salvatore; Modesti, Valerio; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rocca, Roxane

    2015-01-01

    The Ficoncella site in northern Latium (Italy) represents a unique opportunity to investigate the modalities of a short occupation in an alluvial setting during the Lower Palaeolithic. The small excavation area yielded a lithic assemblage, a carcass of Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and some other faunal remains. The main objectives of the study are to better characterize the depositional context where the Palaeoloxodon and the lithic assemblage occur, and to evaluate with greater precision the occupation dynamics. A 25 m-long well was drilled just above the top of the terrace of the Ficoncella site and faunal and lithic remains were analyzed with current and innovative techniques. The archaeological site contains floodplain deposits as it is located next to a small incised valley that feeds into a larger valley of the Mignone River. A tephra layer capping the site is 40Ar/39Ar dated to 441± 8 ka. Collectively, the geochronologic, tephrochronologic and geologic data, suggest the site was occupied during MIS 13. The new results should prompt further research at Ficoncella in order to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human settlement in Europe during the Early to Middle Pleistocene. PMID:25898322

  11. The Financialization of Companies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Salento

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical and theoretical analysis of the financialization of companies and the diffusion of shareholder value maximization in Italy. Unlike the anglo-saxon contexts, financial accumulation and short-termism in Italy are not a consequence of institutional investors’ activism: Italian capitalism is still a holigarchic family capitalism, and few blockholders are in control of Italian large firms. Financialization of companies and the orientation to maximize shareholder value in Italy are rather the outcome of isomorphic processes, supported by institutional and legal transformations occurred since 1980s: reforms of finance, company and labour law, the privatization of state firms, the diffusion of finance-oriented accounting rules. The statutory reforms enabled the dominant coalitions within Italian capitalism to operate in a regulatory framework harmonized with a transnational context, largely assimilated to Anglo-Saxon norms, promoting a finance-oriented conception of control and managerial practices.En este trabajo se presenta un análisis empírico y teórico de la financiarización de las empresas y la difusión de la maximización del valor para los accionistas en Italia. A diferencia de los contextos anglosajones, la acumulación financiera y el cortoplacismo en Italia no son una consecuencia del activismo de los inversores institucionales: el capitalismo italiano es todavía un capitalismo familiar holigarchic, y pocos son blockholders en el control de las grandes empresas italianas. La financiarización de las empresas y la orientación para maximizar el valor para los accionistas en Italia son más bien el resultado de los procesos isomórficos, con el apoyo de las transformaciones institucionales y legales ocurrieron desde 1980: las reformas de las finanzas, empresa y derecho laboral, la privatización de empresas estatales, la difusión de finanzas- normas de contabilidad orientados. Las reformas estatutarias

  12. The Aggradational Successions of the Aniene River Valley in Rome: Age Constraints to Early Neanderthal Presence in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruleo, Piero; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Rolfo, Mario F.; Salari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    We revise the chronostratigraphy of several sedimentary successions cropping out along a 5 km-long tract of the Aniene River Valley in Rome (Italy), which yielded six hominin remains previously attributed to proto- or archaic Neanderthal individuals, as well as a large number of lithic artefacts showing intermediate characteristics somewhere between the local Acheulean and Mousterian cultures. Through a method of correlation of aggradational successions with post-glacial sea-level rises, relying on a large set of published 40Ar/39Ar ages of interbedded volcanic deposits, we demonstrate that deposition of the sediments hosting the human remains spans the interval 295–220 ka. This is consistent with other well constrained ages for lithic industries recovered in England, displaying transitional features from Lower to Middle Paleolithic, suggesting the appearance of Mode 3 during the MIS 9-MIS 8 transition. Moreover, the six human bone fragments recovered in the Aniene Valley should be regarded as the most precisely dated and oldest hominin remains ascribable to Neanderthal-type individuals in Europe, discovered to date. The chronostratigraphic study presented here constitutes the groundwork for addressing re-analysis of these remains and of their associated lithic industries, in the light of their well-constrained chronological picture. PMID:28125602

  13. Electric-powered vehicles in Italy; Les vehicules electriques en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordel, St.; Carles, R.

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study is to make a synthesis about the development of electric-powered vehicles, in particular in Italy. After a brief historical review of this type of propulsion system, a state-of-the-art review is made which allows to show up the different existing architectures and their characteristic specificities. This review allows to identify the key scientific and technical domains in the existing research programs in progress in order to make these 'alternative' transportation systems economically viable. The second part of the study explains the situation of Italy with respect to these propulsion systems. The political commitments are analyzed first and then some of the university and industry centers of competences for these key domains are presented. Finally, some trans-national collaborations in progress are shown. (J.S.)

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ZONAL WIND ANOMALIES IN HIGH AND LOW TROPOSPHERE AND ANNUAL FREQUENCY OF NW PACIFIC TROPICAL CYCLONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Zhen-song; HE Min

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between large-scale zonal wind anomalies and annual frequency of NW Pacific tropical cyclones and possible mechanisms are investigated with the methods of correlation and composition.It is indicated that when △ U200-△U850 >0 in the eastern tropical Pacific and △ U200- △U850 <0 in western tropical Pacific, the Walker cell is stronger in the Pacific tropical region and the annual frequency of NW Pacific tropical cyclone are above normal. In the years with zonal wind anomalies, the circulation of high and low troposphere and the vertical motions in the troposphere have significant characteristics. In the time scale of short-range climate prediction, zonal wind anomalies in high and low troposphere are useful as a preliminary signal of the annual frequency prediction of NW Pacific tropical cyclones.

  15. ‘A Passport to Cross the Room’: Cosmopolitan Empathy and Transnational Engagement in Zadie Smith’s NW (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Shaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to demonstrate that Zadie Smith’s fourth novel, 'NW' (2012, deviates away from celebratory multiculturalism in Britain, interrogating the struggle between critical cosmopolitanism and melancholia in a twenty-first century urban environment. It will be argued that Smith’s limited geographical focus (on an area in which she was born and continues to reside intimates that the social constructs of the family and local community are more conducive to developing cosmopolitan empathy and meaningful relations. Through an analysis of the ethical values of hospitality and openness, it will be suggested that 'NW' reflects a rise in transnational relations and the construction of a cultural model of cosmopolitan communication haunted by national identity and the difficulties of negotiating cultural diversity. The article will then conclude by examining how 'NW' exposes the racial inequalities and socio-economic disparities continuing to reside at the heart of British urban life.

  16. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Thun Hohenstein, U.; Peretto, C.

    2013-03-01

    The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT)", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41- to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favourable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680-600 ka), La Pineta (ca. 600-620 ka), Guado San Nicola (ca. 380-350 ka) or Ceprano (ca. 345-355 ka) testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma Basin (ca. 300 ka). Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviours benefited from a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional- and local-scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano Basin (Molise, Italy) attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between MIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka). In this basin the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favoured the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities during the Middle

  17. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41- to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favourable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Guado San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma Basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviours benefited from a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional- and local-scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano Basin (Molise, Italy attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between MIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favoured the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  18. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucchese Fernando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  19. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  20. Evidence of endocrine alteration in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus from the NW Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Skilton, Rebeca; Lavado, Ramon; Thibaut, Remi; Minier, Christophe; Porte, Cinta

    2006-01-01

    Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) were collected from different sampling sites (NW Mediterranean) in spring and autumn, with the aim of assessing potential alterations of the endocrine system. Alkylphenols were measured in fish bile as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis (ovarian 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and P450 aromatase) and metabolism of steroids were assessed together with histological alterations of the gonads. During the spring sampling, delayed gamete maturation, intersexuality, fibrosis, and depressed ovarian P450 aromatase activity were observed in organisms from the most polluted sites. During the autumn sampling, those effects were less evident, indicating that fish might be more susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the reproductive period. Nonetheless, enhanced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol was observed. Overall, this work provides first evidences of significant alterations in the endocrine system of red mullet from highly impacted areas in the NW Mediterranean. - Red mullet may be more susceptible to endocrine disruptors during the reproductive period

  1. Evidence of endocrine alteration in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus from the NW Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Skilton, Rebeca [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Lavado, Ramon [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Thibaut, Remi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Minier, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, Universite du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, F-76058 Le Havre (France); Porte, Cinta [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es

    2006-05-15

    Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) were collected from different sampling sites (NW Mediterranean) in spring and autumn, with the aim of assessing potential alterations of the endocrine system. Alkylphenols were measured in fish bile as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis (ovarian 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and P450 aromatase) and metabolism of steroids were assessed together with histological alterations of the gonads. During the spring sampling, delayed gamete maturation, intersexuality, fibrosis, and depressed ovarian P450 aromatase activity were observed in organisms from the most polluted sites. During the autumn sampling, those effects were less evident, indicating that fish might be more susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the reproductive period. Nonetheless, enhanced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol was observed. Overall, this work provides first evidences of significant alterations in the endocrine system of red mullet from highly impacted areas in the NW Mediterranean. - Red mullet may be more susceptible to endocrine disruptors during the reproductive period.

  2. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan; Gaafar, Gamal Ragab

    2016-01-01

    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin

  3. New Insight Into The Crustal Structure of The Continental Margin Off NW Sabah/borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Behain, D.; Meyer, H.

    The continental margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo (Malaysia) has been investigated with reflection and refraction seismics, magnetics, and gravity during the recent cruise BGR01-POPSCOMS. A total of 4000 km of geophysical profiles has been acquired, thereof 2900 km with reflection seismics. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere. We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the continental slope land- ward of the Trough, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The characteristic pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and the carbon- ates which are observed all over the Dangerous Grounds can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate. The magnetic anomalies which are dominated by the magnetic signatures of relatively young volcanic features also continue under the continental slope. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anoma- lies. We suspect that the volcanic activity coincided with the collision of Borneo and the Dangerous Grounds in middle or late Miocene time. The emplacement of an al- lochtonous terrane on top of the extended continental lithosphere could be explained by overthrusting as a result of the collision or it could be related to gravity sliding following a broad uplift of NW Borneo at the same time.

  4. Characterization of gold mineralization in Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria, using remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaat M. Ramadan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria is part of the Neoproterozoic to Early Phanerozoic terrane separating the west African and Congo Cratons. Three main gold-bearing shear zones were detected in the study area from the processed Landsat ETM+ images and extensive ground investigation. Field and petrographical studies indicate that the Neoproterozoic rocks are represented by a highly folded and faulted belt constituted of hornblende, muscovite and graphite schist. They are intruded by granondiorites and late to post granitic dykes. Extensive alteration zones were identified using high resolution QuickBird image along Garin Hawal shear zone. The alteration zones and associated quartz veins are generally concordant with the main NE–SW regional structural trend and are dipping to the NW. Geochemical studies indicate that the gold content reaches 8 g/t in the alteration zones, while it reaches up to 35 g/t in the quartz veins. Mineralogical studies indicate that the alterations are strongly potassium-enriched. Pyrophyllite, kaolinite, illite, gypsum and quartz also occur. The main ore minerals are gold, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, galena and iron oxides. This study indicates that the alteration zones and the associated quartz veins in the muscovite schist are promising and need more detailed exploration for Au and Ag mineralization to evaluate their potential.

  5. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahid, Ali, E-mail: ali.wahid@live.com; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail: mohamed.salim@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan, E-mail: wanismail-wanyusoff@petronas.com.my [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Gaafar, Gamal Ragab, E-mail: gaafargr@gmail.com [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.

  6. Comparison of clay mineral stratigraphy to other proxy palaeoclimate indicators in the Mesozoic of NW Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer M; Worden, Richard H

    2002-04-15

    This paper reviews the opportunities and pitfalls associated with using clay mineralogical analysis in palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Following this, conjunctive methods of improving the reliability of clay mineralogical analysis are reviewed. The Mesozoic succession of NW Europe is employed as a case study. This demonstrates the relationship between clay mineralogy and palaeoclimate. Proxy analyses may be integrated with clay mineralogical analysis to provide an assessment of aridity-humidity contrasts in the hinterland climate. As an example, the abundance of kaolinite through the Mesozoic shows that, while interpretations may be difficult, the Mesozoic climate of NW Europe was subject to great changes in rates of continental precipitation. We may compare sedimentological (facies, mineralogy, geochemistry) indicators of palaeoprecipitation with palaeotemperature estimates. The integration of clay mineralogical analyses with other sedimentological proxy indicators of palaeoclimate allows differentiation of palaeoclimatic effects from those of sea-level and tectonic change. We may also observe how widespread palaeoclimate changes were; whether they were diachronous or synchronous; how climate, sea level and tectonics interact to control sedimentary facies and what palaeoclimate indicators are reliable.

  7. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E.K.; Amos, C.B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, Angela S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ∼1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ∼0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ∼6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7–11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ∼7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ∼0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  8. Education and science museums. Reflections in Italy and on Italy (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The educational function of science museums was born with the first naturalistic collections ever, flourished in 16th-century Italy. The pedagogic thought and the educational experimentations carried out in approximately five century of history have allowed the educational mission of museums to acquire many different facets, drawing a task having an increasingly higher and complex social value. Recent publications explore these new meanings of an old role.

  9. The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.B.; Leslie, D.L.; Harmon, R.S.; Neumann, K.; Welch, K.A.; Bisson, K.M.; McKnight, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► δ 13 C-DIC reported from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, streams. ► Stream water δ 13 C PDB values range −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, largely inorganic in character. ► Atmospheric exchange is the dominant control on δ 13 C-DIC. - Abstract: The McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is the largest ice-free region on the continent. This study reports the first C stable isotope measurements for dissolved inorganic C present in ephemeral streams in four dry valleys that flow for four to twelve weeks during the austral summer. One of these valleys, Taylor Valley, has been the focus of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (MCM-LTER) program since 1993. Within Taylor Valley, numerous ephemeral streams deliver water to three perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes: Lake Fryxell, Lake Hoare, and Lake Bonney. The Onyx River in the Wright Valley, the longest river in Antarctica, flows for 40 km from the Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda. Streamflow in the McMurdo Dry Valley streams is produced primarily from glacial melt, as there is no overland flow. However, hyporheic zone exchange can be a major hydrogeochemical process in these streams. Depending on landscape position, these streams vary in gradient, channel substrate, biomass abundance, and hyporheic zone extent. This study sampled streams from Taylor, Wright, Garwood, and Miers Valleys and conducted diurnal sampling of two streams of different character in Taylor Valley. In addition, transect sampling was undertaken of the Onyx River in Wright Valley. The δ 13 C PDB values from these streams span a range of greater than 14‰, from −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, with the majority of samples falling between −3‰ and +2‰, suggesting that the C stable isotope composition of dissolved C in McMurdo Dry Valley streams is largely inorganic in character. Because there are no vascular plants on this landscape and no groundwater input to these

  10. The current wind energy programme in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Foli, U.; Sesto, E.; Vigotti, R.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, the main activities in the field of wind energy are carried out by two state-owned organizations, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board), and two major wind turbine generator manufacturers, Alenia/WEST and Riva Calzoni, within the framework of a national programme which is supervized by the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. The work currently under way concerns both wind power plant siting and the development and testing of Italian-made wind turbine generators ranging from 5 to 1500 kW in power. In addition, programmes aimed at constructing wind-farms made up of medium-sized machines (200-400 kW) have recently been launched

  11. RELIGIOUS SLAUGHTER: EXAMPLES OF PRACTICES IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Catanese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at identifying the procedures for current methods of religious slaughter. It consisted of spot visits in abattoirs carried out from October 2008 to March 2009 in Italy. The species covered were cattle, sheep and poultry. During this period, five abattoirs in three different Italian regions were assessed. All the animals were slaughtered without stunning. A reliable protocol was developed to record each animal during slaughter, to get 329 minutes and 28 seconds of video. 313 animals were observed by video image analysis for both halal slaughter and shechita. Observed parameters are discussed in the light of animal welfare. Remarks on restraining methods as well as post-cut clinical indicators of consciousness are considered.

  12. An agreement for applied research in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 26 February, two of CERN's Directors-General had a very official handshake. Luciano Maiani, CERN's current Director-General, and Carlo Rubbia, one of his predecessors and current "commissario straordinario" of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiante, Institute for new technologies, energy and the environment) signed a collaboration agreement between their two organisations. ENEA carries out applied research in various fields such as renewable energies, new materials and medical applications. The organisation, which employs 3400 people in 10 laboratories in Italy, has a clear interest, therefore, in the technologies developed at CERN, which, in turn, seeks to promote them. Their collaboration will shortly lead to common research projects. CERN now has two Italian partners : INFN, its historical partner for particle physics research and ENEA for technological applications.

  13. Update on Fish Disease Situation in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation we provide a general overview of the aquatic animal health issues related to the aquaculture sector and wild environment in Italy in 2011. Considering saltwater species European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) are still the most widely...... (Thunnus thynnus) and amberjack (Seriola dumerilii) for which some breeding/reproduction plans have been attempted by some hatcheries. The farming of sea bass and sea bream is affected by the presence of several important diseases. Firstly considering Bacterial diseases, Marine Flexibacteriosis, caused...... main pathological scenarios are present. Farms with low water temperature (mainly located in the mountains) can be more affected and damaged by viral diseases (i.e. viral haemorrhagic septicaemia VHS) which is one of the most important problem. Rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) is responsible...

  14. GPR Activities in Italy: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Ambrosanio, Michele; Battaglia, Enzo; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; De Carlo, Lorenzo; Matera, Loredana; Prontera, Santo; Sileo, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has been increasingly played an important role over the last 15 years in Italy due to its high reliability in assisting the assessment of the built environment for civil engineering purposes, and in being used for geophysical investigations within many other fields of application. In line with this, original works involving fundamental aspects of this technique and implementing its use more practically in a number of interesting projects have been developed over years, both under a research and an enterprise point of view. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground-penetrating radar activities in Italy. Efforts have been devoted to single out the most interesting national research projects, both recent and ongoing, involving ground-penetrating radar in Italy, such as the ARCHEO project in the 90s, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities, wherein a stepped frequency ultra-wide band radar suited for archaeological surveys was manufactured. In this framework, it is worth citing another important and more recent project, European Community funded, namely, ORFEUS, which started in the late 2006 with the overall aim of providing the capability to locate buried infrastructure accurately and reliably by means of a bore-head ground-penetrating radar for horizontal directional drilling. A review on the main use of this non-destructive technique in management activities of national resources and infrastructures has been also performed, ranging from the applications made by Anas S.p.A., i.e., the main management authority for the Italian road and motorway network, up to private enterprises specialized in both services providing and ground-penetrating radar manufacturing such as, to cite a few, Sineco S.p.A. and IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., respectively. Current national guidelines, rules or protocols to be followed during radar surveys have been also reviewed. Unlike well-established international standards such as

  15. CAS Accelerator Physics held in Erice, Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Superconductivity for Accelerators, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 24 April-4 May, 2013.   Photo courtesy of Alessandro Noto, Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture. Following a handful of summary lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of superconductivity, the course covered a wide range of topics related to superconductivity and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful with 94 participants representing 23 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Belorussia, Canada, China, India, Japan and the United States (for the first time a young Ethiopian lady, studying in Germany, attended this course). The programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars and 7 hours of case study. The case studies were p...

  16. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Italy approved the National Energy Strategy in 2013. It is built around 7 priorities and focusses on a sustainable deployment of renewable energy and stresses the importance of energy efficiency. The Strategy contains targets and measures until 2020 as well as long-term strategies until 2050. In 2013, the green certificate scheme was replaced by other support schemes to promote RES-E, namely different feed-in and premium tariffs. Very large plants are awarded contracts under a tender scheme (auction process). For RESH, there exists a tax regulation scheme and incentive for small RES-H sources. RES-T is promoted by quotas

  17. Crossing gender in the Postmodern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porpora Marcasciano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty years after transsexual coming out, from the beginning of a physical, cultural and historic transit, what has changed in Italy today? It is certainly the visibility that filled a historical vacuum. It allows us to speak, understand, read the trans experience: for some, as a phenomenon, for others, as category, pathology, gender incongruity. Open questions are several about a complex and varied experience on a socio-cultural contexts at same time complex and varied. One answer is certain: we can no longer talk about transsexualism / transgender in the singular, but rather about plural transsexualism. The Transsexualism is different, various, diversified according to several possible variations that the Post-modern presents us.

  18. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  19. Women and botany in Risorgimento Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Gabriella Berti

    2004-01-01

    The first Italian women described as botanists by their male peers were active during the Risorgimento. They were few in numbers and only one of them, Elisabetta Fiorini, was recognized for her extensive contributions to the field of cryptogams in Italy by being nominated to important Italian scientific academies. No such recognition was ever alloted to the other female botanists who acted as collectors, correspondents and/or patrons to male botanists, had their own garden of exotic plants, or discovered a new species of phanerogams, and occasionally published on the subject. This study will show that a woman could still belong to Italian scientific academies in the nineteenth century, if like Fiorini, she chose to practice science in a way that was considered at par with that of male scientists.

  20. Comparison of energy fluxes at the land surface-atmosphere interface in an Alpine valley as simulated with different models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grossi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a research project coupling meteorological and hydrological models in mountainous areas a distributed Snow-Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model was developed and applied to simulate the energy fluxes at the land surface – atmosphere interface in an Alpine valley (Toce Valley - North Italy during selected flood events in the last decade. Energy fluxes simulated by the distributed energy transfer model were compared with those simulated by a limited area meteorological model for the event of June 1997 and the differences in the spatial and temporal distribution. The Snow/Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer model was also applied to simulate the energy fluxes at the land surface-atmosphere interface for a single cell, assumed to be representative of the Siberia site (Toce Valley, where a micro-meteorological station was installed and operated for 2.5 months in autumn 1999. The Siberia site is very close to the Nosere site, where a standard meteorological station was measuring precipitation, air temperature and humidity, global and net radiation and wind speed during the same special observing period. Data recorded by the standard meteorological station were used to force the energy transfer model and simulate the point energy fluxes at the Siberia site, while turbulent fluxes observed at the Siberia site were used to derive the latent heat flux from the energy balance equation. Finally, the hourly evapotranspiration flux computed by this procedure was compared to the evapotranspiration flux simulated by the energy transfer model. Keywords: energy exchange processes, land surface-atmosphere interactions, turbulent fluxes

  1. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U 3 O 8 by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  2. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geochemistry and habitat of oils in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, L.; Mattavelli, L.

    1988-02-01

    Most of the onshore and offshore oil occurrences found in Italy have been systematically analyzed by different techniques, i.e., capillary gas chromatography, biological markers, and stable isotopes composition. On the basis of the above analyses, ten different groups of oil have been identified and geographically located. Subsequently, the influence of the various geological settings on generation and migration of these different groups of oils was investigated and is discussed here. In a foredeep regime, the remarkably fast heating rates, due to the rapid burial during late Tertiary, caused a rapid generation of oil mainly in the Triassic carbonate source rocks. Such generation, combined with the high over-burden pressure and a contemporaneous development of an intense tectonic compression, resulted in the expulsion of immature, heavy oils. Examples of this are evident in the central Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, and southeastern Sicily. Due to its complex geological and tectonic history, the Alpine-Apennine chain behaved differently with regard to oil generation and migration in different areas. In fact, the high temperatures reached by the Mesozoic source rocks underneath a stack of allochthonous thrust sheets and the insulating thermal blanket effect exerted by the same sheets on other younger source rocks above gave rise to generally light oils. Furthermore, in this unique geological setting, the most external thrust sheets locally acted as reservoirs of the foredeep regime. Foreland sequences acted as both reservoirs of the foredeep oils and as generative kitchens of liquid hydrocarbons if suitable source rocks were present and adequate burial was reached.

  4. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  5. Israeli Infotech Migrants in Silicon Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Gold

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the 1980s, Israel’s national ideology discouraged emigration and entrepreneurship among its citizens. Yet, by the late 1990s, Israeli emigrants were one of the leading immigrant nationalities in Silicon Valley. Drawing on interviews, fieldwork, a literature review, and perusal of social media, I explore the origins of Israeli involvement in high-tech activities and the extensive linkages between Israeli emigrants and the Israeli high-tech industry. I also summarize the patterns of communal cooperation that permit emigrant families to maintain an Israel-oriented way of life in suburban communities south of San Francisco, and I compare these patterns with those of Indians, a nationality engaged in the same pursuit. I conclude by considering the impact of infotech involvement on Israeli immigrants and on the U.S. economy.

  6. Elk Valley Coal innovation paving the way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.; Ednie, H.; Weldon, H.

    2006-09-15

    Elk Valley Coal maintains performance optimization across its six metallurgical coal operations. Performance, personnel issues, and training are discussed. Programmes at Fording River, Greenhills, and Coal Mountain are described. Fording River is implementing new computer systems and high-speed wireless networks. The pit control system and the equipment maintenance and remote maintenance programmes are being improved. The Glider Kit program to rebuild major equipment is described. Safety and productivity measures at Greenhills include testing and evaluation of innovations such as the Drilling and Blasting System (DABS), a payload monitor on a shovel, and two GPS-based systems. Blasting methods, a timing study that examines wall stability, fragmentation simulation, and the Six Mine structure at Coal Mountain are described. 5 photos.

  7. Hydrogeological reconnaissance study: Dyfi Valley, Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendining, S.J.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes work carried out for the Department of the Environment as part of its research programme into radioactive waste management. It presents an account of a hydrogeological reconnaissance study in the Dyfi Valley area of Central Wales. Initially the purposes of such a study are given and the assumptions used in deriving parameters such as flow volume, path length and transit time in areas of massive fractured rocks are described. Using these assumptions with geological, topographic and hydrometeorological data the potential ranges in properties such as bulk hydraulic conductivity, path lengths, hydraulic gradients and volumes of groundwater flow have been determined. These ranges have been used to estimate solute transport model parameters. The limitations and usefulness of the reconnaissance study in planning research and siting exploratory boreholes in the Dyfi area are discussed. (author)

  8. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  9. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai

    2016-02-29

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  10. Italy's green party: on the road to success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, A.

    1988-01-01

    Italy's Green Party (Lista Verde) does not consider itself a political party but it is changing the environmental consciousness of the nation. There are new eight popular television shows covering environmental problems and a national weekly newspaper devotes a regular column to ecology. Environmental associations, including the Environmental League, have been started in the 1980s. The Greens have also succeeded in halting Italy's nuclear power programme. In a national referendum held in 1987 almost 80% of the voters agreed with the Greens' views. No fewer than 14 more popular referenda are planned throughout Italy on environmental issues. (UK)

  11. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, M

    1996-01-01

    "Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome." excerpt

  12. Seismotectonic models and CN algorithm: The case of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, G.; Orozova Stanishkova, I.; Panza, G.F.; Rotwain, I.M.

    1995-07-01

    The CN algorithm is here utilized both for the intermediate term earthquake prediction and to validate the seismotectonic model of the Italian territory. Using the results of the analysis, made through the CN algorithm and taking into account the seismotectonic model, three areas, one for Northern Italy, one for Central Italy and one for Southern Italy, are defined. Two transition areas, between the three main areas are delineated. The earthquakes which occurred in these two areas contribute to the precursor phenomena identified by the CN algorithm in each main area. (author). 26 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  13. A bill for the renaissance of nuclear power in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Today Italy is the only G8 member to have no nuclear power plants in operation. In 1987 as a consequence of a referendum Italy decided to shut down its nuclear power plants and to forbid the construction of new ones. Italy relies on oil and gas imports for 80% of its energy needs. The Italian parliament has recently passed a bill for a renaissance of nuclear power. The bill gives 6 months to the government to set the rules and conditions for the come-back of nuclear energy. (A.C.)

  14. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesari, S.; Allan, J.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Williams, B. J.; Paglione, M.; Facchini, M. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Harrison, R. M.; Gietl, J. K.; Coe, H.; Giulianelli, L.; Gobbi, G. P.; Lanconelli, C.; Carbone, C.; Worsnop, D.; Lambe, A. T.; Ahern, A. T.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Elste, T.; Gilge, S.; Zhang, Y.; Dall'Osto, M.

    2014-11-01

    The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterised by a less dense urbanisation. We present here the results obtained at a background site in the Po Valley, Italy, in summer 2009. For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art spectrometric techniques were used in parallel: aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), two aerosol mass spectrometers (high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer - HR-ToF-AMS and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer - SP-AMS), thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (TAG), chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS) and (offline) proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that, under high-pressure conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black carbon (BC), secondary semivolatile compounds such as ammonium nitrate and amines and a class of monocarboxylic acids which correspond to the AMS cooking organic aerosol (COA) already identified in urban areas. In daytime, the entrainment of aged air masses in the mixing layer is responsible for the accumulation of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and also for the recycling of non-volatile primary species such as black carbon. According to organic aerosol source apportionment, anthropogenic aerosols accumulating in the lower layers overnight accounted for 38% of organic aerosol mass on average, another 21% was accounted for by aerosols recirculated in

  15. Asthmatic symptoms and air pollution: a panel study on children living in the Italian Po Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ranzi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Po Valley (Northern Italy has elevated levels of air-pollution due to various sources of pollution and adverse weather conditions. This study evaluates the short-term effects of exposure to particulate matter with a diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10 on asthma symptoms in school-aged children. An initial cross-sectional survey was conducted in the area to estimate asthma prevalence in children. Out of a total of 250 asthmatic children identified by the study, 69 agreed to participate in a panel study. The PM10 exposure assessment was based on a combination of geographic and environmental measurements leading to a focus on three different areas, each characterised by its own daily PM10 level. Participants were monitored daily for respiratory symptoms for eight weeks (January-March 2006. We assessed the relationship between daily PM10 exposure and occurrence of asthma symptoms with a generalised linear model based on a total of 3864 person-days of observation. Exposure to PM10 per m3 was found to be particularly associated with cough (OR=1.03, CI 95% 0.99; 1.08 and phlegm (OR=1.05, CI 95% 1.00; 1.10. In the most polluted area, exposure to PM10 was also associated with wheezing (OR=1.18, CI 95% 1.02; 1.37.

  16. Valley-chiral quantum Hall state in graphene superlattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H. Y.; Tao, W. W.; Wang, J.; Cui, Y. H.; Xu, N.; Huang, B. B.; Luo, G. X.; Hao, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum Hall effect in a graphene superlattice (GS) system, in which the two valleys of graphene are coupled together. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, an ordinary quantum Hall effect is found with the sequence σxy=ν e^2/h(ν=0,+/-1,+/-2,\\cdots) . At the zeroth Hall platform, a valley-chiral Hall state stemming from the single K or K' valley is found and it is localized only on one sample boundary contributing to the longitudinal conductance but not to the Hall conductivity. Our findings may shed light on the graphene-based valleytronics applications.

  17. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  18. 76 FR 18542 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Document 2 and Soliciting Scoping Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-002] Copper Valley.... Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley) d. Name of Project: Allison Creek Project. e.... 791(a)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O...

  19. The botanical macroremains from the prehistoric settlement Kalnik-Igrišče (NW Croatia in the context of current knowledge about cultivation and plant consumption in Croatia and neighboring countries during the Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mareković

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the first extensive archaeobotanical research into a Bronze Age site in Croatia. The aim of the study was to reveal what plants were consumed (grown at Kalnik-Igrišče (NW Croatia in the Bronze Age and to realize if the plant diet of the local population differed from that of the inhabitants in neighboring countries. The results show that all plant macrofossils found at Kalnik-Igrišče can be classified into one of four functional groups: cereals, cultivated legumes, useful trees and weeds. As much as 98% of the findings are of cereals and legumes. The most abundant species found are Panicum miliaceum (millet, Hordeum vulgare (barley, Vicia faba (faba bean, Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum (bread wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccon (emmer wheat and Lens culinaris (lentils. The findings from Kalnik-Igrišče do not differ from the findings of neighboring countries, indicating that there were similar diets and agricultural/plant-collecting activities throughout the whole of the studied area (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, Italy, Austria and Hungary.

  20. The Solarya Volcano-Plutonic Complex (NW Turkey): Petrography, Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Alp; Kamacı, Ömer; Altunkaynak, Şafak

    2014-05-01

    The post collisional magmatic activity produced several volcano-plutonic complexes in NW Anatolia (Turkey) during the late Oligocene- Middle Miocene. One of the major volcano-plutonic complexes, the Solarya volcano-plutonic complex is remarkable for its coeval and cogenetic plutonic (Solarya pluton), hypabysal and volcanic rocks of Early Miocene (24-21 Ma) age. Solarya pluton is an epizonal pluton which discordantly intruded into metamorphic and nonmetamorphic basement rocks of Triassic age. It is a N-S trending magmatic body covering an area of 220 km2,approximatelly 20 km in length and 10 km in width. Based on the field and petrographic studies, three main rock groups distinguished in Solarya pluton; K-feldspar megacrystalline granodiorite, microgranite-granodiorite and haplogranite. Porphyritic and graphic-granophyric textures are common in these three rock groups. Pluton contains magmatic enclaves and syn-plutonic dykes of dioritic composition. Hypabyssal rocks are represented by porphyritic microdiorite and porphyritic quartz-diorite. They form porphyry plugs, sheet inrusions and dykes around the pluton. Porphyrites have microcrystalline-cryptocrystalline groundmass displaying micrographic and granophyric textures. Petrographically similar to the hypabyssal rocks, volcanic rocks are formed from andesitic and dasitic lavas and pyroclastic rocks. Plutonic, hypabyssal and volcanic rocks of Solarya volcano-plutonic complex show similar major-trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, indicating common magmatic evolution and multicomponent melt sources including mantle and crustal components. They are mainly metaluminous, medium to high-K calc alkaline rocks and display enrichment in LILE and depletion in Nb, Ta, P and Ti. They have initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.70701- 0.70818 and 143Nd/144Nd values of 0.51241-0.51250. These geochemical characteristics and isotopic signatures are considered to reflect the composition of the magmas derived from a

  1. New Insight Into the Crustal Structure of the Continental Margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Behain, D.; Meyer, H.

    2002-12-01

    The continental margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo (Malaysia) has been investigated with reflection and refraction seismics, magnetics, and gravity during the recent cruise BGR01-POPSCOMS. A total of 4000 km of geophysical profiles has been acquired, thereof 2900 km with reflection seismics. The focus of investigations was on the deep water areas. The margin looks like a typical accretionary margin and was presumably formed during the subduction of a proto South China Sea. Presently, no horizontal movements between the two plates are being observed. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere which is characterised by a pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and a carbonate platform of Early Oligocene to Early Miocene age. We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the Sabah Trough and the adjacent continental slope, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The tectonic pattern of the Dangerous Grounds' extended continental crust can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate. The magnetic anomalies which are dominated by the magnetic signatures of relatively young volcanic features also continue under the continental slope. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anomalies. Based on the new data we propose the following scenario for the development of the NW Sabah continental margin: Seafloor spreading in the present South China Sea started at about 30 Ma in the Late Oligocene. The spreading process separated the Dangerous Grounds area from the SE Asian continent and ceased in late Early Miocene when the oceanic crust of the proto South China Sea was fully subducted in eastward direction along the Borneo-Palawan Trough. During Lower and/or Middle Miocene, Borneo rotated counterclockwise and was

  2. Arctic passages: liminality, Iñupiat Eskimo mothers and NW Alaska communities in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Llewellyn Schwarzburg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. While the primary goal of the NW Alaska Native maternal transport is safe deliveries for mothers from remote villages, little has been done to question the impact of transport on the mothers and communities involved. This study explores how presence of Iñupiat values influences the desire of indigenous women of differing eras and NW Alaska villages to participate in biomedical birth, largely made available by a tribal health-sponsored transport system. Objective. This paper portrays how important it is (and why for Alaska Native families and women of different generations from various areas of Iñupiat villages of NW Alaska to get to the hospital to give birth. This research asks: How does a community’s presence of Iñupiat values influence women of different eras and locations to participate in a more biomedical mode of birth? Design. Theoretical frameworks of medical anthropology and maternal identity work are used to track the differences in regard to the maternal transport operation for Iñupiat mothers of the area. Presence of Iñupiat values in each of the communities is compared by birth era and location for each village. Content analysis is conducted to determine common themes in an inductive, recursive fashion. Results. A connection is shown between a community’s manifestation of Iñupiat cultural expression and mothers’ acceptance of maternal transport in this study. For this group of Iñupiat Eskimo mothers, there is interplay between community expression of Iñupiat values and desire and lengths gone to by women of different eras and locations. Conclusions. The more openly manifested the Iñupiat values of the community, the more likely alternative birthing practices sought, lessening the reliance on the existing transport policy. Conversely, the more openly western values are manifested in the village of origin, the less likely alternative measures are sought. For this study group, mothers from study villages with

  3. Earthquake precursory studies in Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, with special emphasis on radon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, Sandeep; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Kalia, Rajeev; Dhar, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    The continuous soil gas radon monitoring is carried out at Palampur and the daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Dharamshala region of Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, a seismic zone V, to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France, whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD 7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity, rainfall, and humidity on radon emission has been studied. The seasonal average value and standard deviation of radon in soil and water is calculated to find the radon anomaly to minimize the effect of meteorological parameters on radon emission. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M≥2 reported by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi in NW Himalayas within 250 km distance from the monitoring stations.

  4. Considerations on long-term energy prospects in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Venuti, G; Frullani, S; Tabet, E; Vecchia, P

    1977-11-07

    The different implications of alternative energy sources (nuclear, fusion, and solar) for Italy are discussed from the environmental, economic, and political viewpoint. Natural limits to the increase of energy production and some energy conservation measures are also considered.

  5. Natural gas prices in Italy. Tariffs geographical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrocchelli, A.

    2000-01-01

    The annual report on services and activity carries at some evaluations of data concerned the natural gas market: total consumption, costs and prices in Italy and comparative evaluations with other european countries [it

  6. Phytochemical pattern of Gentiana species of Appennino in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, A; Guarcini, L; Altieri, A; Bianco, A

    2013-01-01

    The molecular pattern of two Gentiana species, G. dinarica and G. lutea, present in a protected area of Appennino Centrale in Italy, was examined. Results were compared with literature data, examining the differences between the two species.

  7. Nocardia brasiliensis in Italy: a nine-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Claudio; Andrini, Laura; Bruno, Gianfranco; Sarti, Mario; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Utili, Riccardo; Boiron, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the past, no case reports concerning N. brasiliensis infections were published from Italy. We now report 4 cases observed during 1998-2006 in 4 Italian patients, 1 immunosuppressed and 3 immunocompetent.

  8. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  9. 1st International Conference of IFToMM Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Gasparetto, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the First International Conference of IFToMM Italy (IFIT2016), held at the University of Padova, Vicenza, Italy, on December 1-2, 2016. The book contains contributions on the latest advances on Mechanism and Machine Science. The fifty-nine papers deal with such topics as biomechanical engineering, history of mechanism and machine science, linkages and mechanical controls, multi-body dynamics, reliability, robotics and mechatronics, transportation machinery, tribology, and vibrations.

  10. VALUATIONS OF CURRENT METHODS OF RELIGIOUS SLAUGHTER IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Catanese

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate the scale of practices of religious slaughter and to evaluate current methods practiced in Italy. Three different approaches have been used to obtain data. Stunning before sticking is performed in 5,9% of small ruminants slaughtered according to Halal ritual. Hypothesis of violation of Dlgs 333/98 are discussed in the light of an improvement of religious slaughter practices in Italy.

  11. Finance and Development: The Case of Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Faini, Riccardo; Giannini, Curzio; Ingrosso, Fulvio

    1992-01-01

    We look at the role of the financial sector in the context of the relatively backward regions of Southern Italy (the so-called Mezzogiorno). Commercial banks in the South typically have higher operating costs and charge higher interest rates than Northern banks. Econometric analysis on a large set of individual loan contracts suggests that borrowers in the South are considerably riskier than those elsewhere in Italy. It also indicates, however, that risk accounts for only half of the 200 basi...

  12. A review of the nuclear safety activities in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merelli, A.

    1989-01-01

    A review of research programs carried out in Italy in the field of nuclear reactor safety was done in 1986, in the frame of the activities of the Commission of the European Communities, the International Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The report contains information on these programs, as well as information on the organization of safety research in Italy and the evolution of safety research programs

  13. CERN collect for Earthquakein Italy August 24, 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    Ghislain Roy, President of CERN's Staff Association, Maurizio Serra, Ambassador, permanent Mission of Italy to teh United NAtions Office in Geneva, FAbiola Gianotti, CERN director General and Umberto Dosselli, scientific ataché Italian Permanent Mission in Geneva, show the letter co-signed by CERN's director general and CERN' s Staff Association President indicating the amounbt collected in favour of the vicitims of the August 24 2016 earthquake in central Italy.

  14. Life cycle assessment. Specific indicators for Italy in impact evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoni, P.

    1999-01-01

    After a brief recall and a short description of the LCA (life cycle assessment) methodology, the work is focused on the impact assessment step, discussing the state of the art and a critical identification of environmental indicators, of normalization and weighting principles for the different environmental categories specific for Italy. The application methodology to a case study concerning the production of butter by the Consorzio Granterre of Modena (Italy) is also described [it

  15. AMS radiocarbon dating of 'Grotta Cappuccini' in Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarta, G.; Calcagnile, L.; D'Elia, M.; Rizzo, A.; Ingravallo, E.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating of human bones recovered in 'Grotta Cappuccini', a prehistoric cave in Galatone, Lecce (Southern Italy). The AMS analysis has confirmed the archaeological dating of the cave to the period between the end of the Copper Age and the early Bronze Age, and has given a fundamental contribution to the chronological definition of an important cultural aspect of the prehistory of Southern Italy

  16. Analysis of Earthquake Catalogs for CSEP Testing Region Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresan, A.; Romashkova, L.; Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V.; Panza, G.F.

    2010-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis shows that the set of catalogs provided by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV, Italy) as the authoritative database for the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability - Testing Region Italy (CSEP-TRI), is hardly a unified one acceptable for the necessary tuning of models/algorithms, as well as for running rigorous prospective predictability tests at intermediate- or long-term scale. (author)

  17. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Italy [Italian Version, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more sustainable energy future. The Italian government has made substantial progress in a number of sectors since the last IEA in-depth energy policy review in 2003. The success of the green certificate and white certificate schemes and continued reform of the electricity and natural gas supply markets are just a few examples and build on the recommendations contained in the previous review. Nonetheless, many challenges remain. Italy recognises the need to diversify its energy supply portfolio to reduce its heavy dependence on fossil fuels and electricity imports, and to decrease its growing greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, the government announced its intention to recommence the countrys nuclear power program and start building a new nuclear power plant by 2013. To do so, Italy must first develop an efficient process for identifying critical energy infrastructure, including nuclear power, and subjecting it to an effective, streamlined siting and permitting process. Italy will face another major challenge in complying with Europe’s new climate and energy package, particularly in relation to renewable energy and emissions targets. Italy must step up efforts to comply with its new responsibilities, specifically by developing and putting in place a comprehensive climate change strategy for the years until 2020. In mid-2009, the legislature enacted a comprehensive new law that will facilitate the emergence of a robust long-term energy policy. The government must respond to this opportunity and elaborate, with industry, a comprehensive long-term strategy for the development of the energy sector. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Italy and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Italy towards a more

  18. Ethics committees in Italy--a time for change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, E

    2000-01-01

    The Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica (CNB) in Italy has recently produced an unprecedented discussion document on the state of ethics committees in Italy, with an invitation to interested parties to comment on proposed changes to their fundamental structure. After this consultation, and taking note of relevant official publications and the most recent national and international literature on the subject, the CNB proposes to produce a final, definitive document that will consider options for the future development of such committees.

  19. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  20. Nitrogen deposition and grass encroachment in calcareous and acidic Grey dunes (H2130) in NW-Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; van Til, M.; Noordijk, E.; Remke, E.; Kalbitz, K.

    We present an overview of high nitrogen deposition effects on coastal dune grasslands in NW-Europe (H2130), especially concerning grass encroachment in calcareous and acidic Grey Dunes. The problem is larger than previously assumed, because critical loads are still too high, and extra N-input from