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Sample records for valley lajeado rs-brazil

  1. Caracterização de matérias-primas cerâmicas do Vale do Rio Caí Characterization of ceramic raw materials from the Caí River Valley, RS, Brazil

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    J. E. Zorzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo a caracterização química e mineralógica de matérias-primas argilosas utilizadas pelas indústrias cerâmicas do Vale do Rio Caí, RS. Essa região, situada entre Porto Alegre e a Serra Gaúcha, é o maior centro produtor cerâmico para construção civil do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Apesar da importância da indústria cerâmica para a economia local e do Estado, a grande maioria das argilas disponíveis para consumo nunca foi caracterizada satisfatoriamente e não existem dados técnicos e científicos que possam orientar tanto a correta exploração das jazidas quanto o desenvolvimento de produtos cerâmicos de maior valor agregado. Neste trabalho foram feitas análises por fluorescência e difração de raios X das principais argilas utilizadas pela indústria cerâmica da região. De acordo com o método de análise hierárquica de agrupamentos e tendo como base a composição química das amostras, foram identificados três grupos de matérias-primas: argilas residuais (ou primárias e dois grupos de argilas transportadas (ou secundárias. A diferenciação das matérias-primas em grupos se manifesta também na composição de fases das amostras, tal como determinada por difração de raios X e análise racional.This work aims to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy of clay raw materials used in the heavy clay industry of the Caí River Valley, in southern Brazil. This region lies between Porto Alegre and Serra Gaúcha and is regarded as the major production center of brick and tiles in the Rio Grande do Sul. Despite the importance of this activity for both the local and state economy, the vast majority of clay raw materials have never been satisfactorily characterized, so there is not adequate data to guide its correct exploitation or to allow the development of ceramic products of higher quality. In this work X-ray fluorescence and diffraction were applied to analyze the clays largely used by

  2. Grapes, wine and cultural identity at Serra Gaúcha (RS, Brazil

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    Joice Lavandoski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to understand the relevance of wine production at Serra Gaúcha region (Rio Grande State, Brazil and unveil the role played by grapes and wine for XIXth century Italian migrants as for their contemporary descendents. A research was conducted at Vale dos Vinhedos (Vineyards Valley,(RS, Brazil, where a strong relation between wine and tourism exists. Bibliographical research, oral history and semi- structured interviews permitted the construction of a collective subject discourse. As a result it was revealed that wine production was important at first for subsistence and also a way to promote economic growth; at present, grapes and wine are cultural identity markers with which community members present themselves to tourist and visitors. It is a case study without intention of generalizing for other wine regions in Brazil and brings a new approach to tourism and heritage relations.

  3. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River - RS, Brazil.

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    Steffens, C; Klauck, C R; Benvenuti, T; Silva, L B; Rodrigues, M A S

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the water quality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil), one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al), chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in water quality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.

  4. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River – RS, Brazil

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    C. Steffens

    Full Text Available Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the water quality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil, one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in water quality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.

  5. Pentatomids associated with different forest species in Itaara, RS, Brazil

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    Ervandil Corrêa Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the pentatomid fauna associated with the canopy of different native species during the period from September 2005 to September 2006. Insects were collected from among nine botanical species: Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. (cambará, Eugenia uniflora Berg. (pitangueira, Acca selowiana (Berg Burret (goiaba-da-serra, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (araçá, Baccharis spp., Solanaum mauritianum Scop. (fumo-bravo, Micanea cinerascens Miq. (passiquinho, Calliandra brevipes Bhent. (caliandra, and Schinus molle L. (aroeira located at Rodolfo da Costa Dam in Itaara, RS, Brazil. Samples were taken every two weeks with a conical funnel made of tin plate (2mm, 70cm in diameter at the rim and 63cm in height. One sample per botanical species for each sampling date was taken, by shaking the branches, ten times over the funnel. Samples were sent to the Entomology Laboratory of the Crop Protection Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, where the material was analyzed. A total of nine Pentatomidae species were identified. Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 was the species of highest ocurrence followed by Thyanta humilis (Bergroth, 1891. The botanical species S. mauritianum presented the greatest number of Pentatomidae species, with an occurrence of 26.9%.

  6. The Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic passive margin Lajeado Group and Apiaí Gabbro, Southeastern Brazil

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    G.A.C. Campanha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lajeado Group in the Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil, corresponds to an open-sea carbonate platform, comprised of seven overlapping siliciclastic and carbonatic formations, intruded in its upper portion by the Apiaí Gabbro. These rocks have a Neoproterozoic tectonometamorphic overprint related to arc magmatism and the Brasiliano collisional orogeny. Geochronological constraints are given by new U-Pb SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS data for Lajeado Group detrital zircons and for magmatic zircons from the Apiaí Gabbro. The youngest detrital zircons in the Lajeado Group are 1400–1200 Ma, and constrain its maximum age of deposition to be <1200 Ma, whereas the 877 ± 8 Ma age for magmatic zircons in the Apiaí Gabbro give the minimum age. Detritus source areas are mainly Paleoproterozoic (2200–1800 Ma with some Archean and Mesoproterozoic contribution (1500–1200 Ma, with distal or tectonic stable cratonic character. The Lajeado Group should be a Stenian–Tonian carbonate platform passive margin of a continent at this time, namely the Columbia/Nuna or the Rodinia. The Apiaí Gabbro displays similar age to other intrusive basic rocks in the Lajeado and Itaiacoca groups and represents tholeiitic MORB-like magmatism that we relate to the initial break-up of a Mesoproterozoic continent and the formation of the Brasiliano oceans.

  7. Vulnerabilidade à perda de solo na microbacia Lajeado Pessegueiro, Brasil

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    Ludmila Nascimento Machado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnologies present as an important to ol in identifying vulnerable areas, assisting in land vulnerability mapping, allowing the spatial distribution of risks caused by soil loss. This study aimed to identify and diagnose the vulnerability of the soil in the Lajeado Pessegueiro watershed, Guaru já do Sul, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on the strengths and weaknesses of the environment, to provide input for the planning and environmental and economic management. The vulnerability mapping was developed through integrated environmental analysi s with many variables and with the use of a geographic information system that allows the spatial distribution of risk through thematic maps, which can assist in the planning and management of the river basin and farms placed in it. The methodology uses th e delimitation of landscape units, and assigns to each thematic variable a value of stability (ranging from 1 to 3 in thematic maps (physiographic, pedological, use and occupation of land and slope. The vulnerability map of soil loss was drawn from the i ntegration of physiographic maps, slope, soil conditions and use and occupation of land. The results showed the predominance with 51.98% of averagely stable/vulnerable areas in watershed and this occurrence is associated mainly by the presence of a balance between the morphogenesis and pedogenesis processes. The results obtained can be used in the development of prevention and enforcement practices and soil management aimed at decreasing soil loss.

  8. Os hodônimos da cidade de Lajeado-RS: sua natureza, suas interfaces

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    Kleber Eckert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe-se a fazer um estudo hodonímico a partir dos nomes das vias públicas de Lajeado-RS. Para tanto, fez-se um levantamento dos nomes de todas as ruas, avenidas e travessas constantes no mapa urbano do município, os quais foram classificados e analisados à luz das taxionomias propostas por Dick (1990. Para dar sustentação teórica ao estudo, discutiram-se questões relacionadas à onomástica, à toponímia e à hodonímia.

  9. Natural regeneration mechanisms in mixed subtropical Wet Forest Remnant, RS, Brazil

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    Angela Luciana de Avila

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the mechanisms of natural regeneration in a Mixed Subtropical Wet Forest remnant. The study was conducted in the National Forest of São Francisco de Paula, RS, Brazil, using six conglomerates (1 ha, with 16 plots (20×20 m each, disregarding 10 m surround. The sampling of the seed rain (SR was carried out in 96 circular collectors (1 m2, distributed in the center of each plot. The soil seed bank (SB was sampled randomly in a distance of 3 m of each SR collector and the seedling bank (SeB was sampled in plots of 2×2 m, located 4 m from SR collectors, counting the number of individuals (height > 30 cm and diameter at breast height (DBH < 1 cm for each species. The regeneration mechanisms were evaluated through the floristic composition and horizontal structure. In SR, were sampled 81 species, 46 genera and 28 families, in SB, 103, 65 and 41, and in SeB, 88, 57 and 36, respectively. The richness found and the presence of species with abundant fruiting and seed dispersal by animals, indicate the importance of seed rain as a strategic mechanism for the balance of flora and fauna in the ecosystem. The soil seed bank demonstrates potential for colonization and immediate restoration of vegetation after disturbances and the seedling bank is the main strategy for regeneration of many tree species that make up the current structure of the forest.

  10. Ensino de enfermagem em Lajeado, RS: resgate histórico Enseñanza de enfermería en Lajeado, RS: rescate historico Nursing teaching in Lajeado, RS: a historical recover

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    Giselda Veronice Hahn

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa qualitativa histórica, cujo objetivo foi resgatar a trajetória do ensino de Enfermagem no município de Lajeado, a partir da segunda metade do século passado. Utilizou-se como dados primários História Oral e como secundários, documentos, que foram analisados conforme a Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin. Os sujeitos foram alunos, professores e coordenadores de cursos de enfermagem. A profissionalização da enfermagem, na forma de cursos formais e informais, se intensificou nos últimos 50 anos, atendendo ao modelo político-econômico vigente. Os trabalhadores eram precariamente preparados e desenvolviam funções subalternas aos demais profissionais da saúde, ou seja, buscavam responder aos interesses dos médicos e dirigentes institucionais. Porém, a iniciativa de escolas e a atuação de diversos profissionais têm modificando esta realidade na região.Investigación cualitativa histórica, cuyo objetivo ha sido rescatar la trayectoria de la enseñanza de Enfermería en el municipio de Lajeado, desde la segunda mitad del siglo pasado. Como datos primarios se ha utilizado la Historia Oral y como secundarios los documentos, éstos analisados de acuerdo con el Análisis del Contenido de Cardin. Los sujetos fueron alumnos, profesores, y coordinadores de los cursos de Enfermería. El profesionalismo de Enfermería ha sido intenso en los últimos 50 años, a causa del modelo político-económico, y fue hecho con cursos formales e informales. Los trabajadores eran escasamente preparados, desarrollaban funciones subalternas para los otros profesionales de salud y buscaban responder a los intereses de médicos y dirigentes institucionales. Pero, la iniciativa de escuelas y la actuación de distintos profesionales ha cambiado esta realidad en la región.Historical qualitative research whose aim has been to recover nursing teaching path in the Brazilian town of Lajeado/RS, from the second half of the twentieth century. Oral history has

  11. Presence of p-synephrine in teas commercialized in Porto Alegre (RS/Brazil

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    Marcelo Dutra Arbo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium (bitter orange is characterized by the presence of p-synephrine, an amine structurally and pharmacologically related to ephedrine. Besides the same adverse effects as ephedrine, nowadays it is believed that altered levels of p-synephrine can be associated to the occurrence of migraine and cluster headaches. Leaves and fruits of this species are highly commercialized in form of teas and herbal preparations, but without taking into account the risks associated with its use. This work describes a survey of teas and herbal preparations containing C. aurantium, commercialized in Porto Alegre (RS/Brazil, in order to verify the presence of p-synephrine. Comparing with the mean amount available in the supermarkets, around 20% of the teas and 10% of the herbal preparations declared the presence of C. aurantium in their labels. In a sampling of 15 teas and 2 herbal preparations selected for the analysis, the presence of p-synephrine was characterized in all samples, with levels between 0.0040 to 0.2308%, leading to a caution that even being natural products, they are not free of adverse effects.Citrus aurantium (laranjeira-azeda é caracterizada pela presença de p-sinefrina, amina estrutural e farmacologicamente similar à efedrina. Além de poder causar efeitos adversos similares aos da efedrina, atualmente acredita-se que níveis endógenos alterados de p-sinefrina possam estar associados à causa da enxaqueca. Folhas e frutos desta espécie são largamente comercializados na forma de chá e em preparados de erva-mate, sem que sejam considerados os riscos associados ao seu uso. Neste sentido, este trabalho descreve uma pesquisa em chás e preparados de erva-mate comercializados em Porto Alegre, para verificar a presença de C. aurantium e p-sinefrina. Comparando com a quantidade média disponível nas prateleiras dos supermercados, cerca de 20% dos chás e 10% dos preparados de erva-mate declaravam nos rótulos conter C. aurantium. De

  12. Profile of establishments in the supermarket sector with respect to good practices in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil

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    Carla Cristina Bauermann Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the compliance of the supermarket sector with respect to the Good Practice Program standards of the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Sixty nine establishments were verified using a checklist of good practices for the supermarket sector in Santa Maria, RS (Brazil, from April to July 2011. The data were collected by a food safety and quality professional using this checklist. The results showed that the overall adequacy of the establishments surveyed was 29.07%. The highest percentage of compliance was found for storage at ambient temperature (64.13%. The lowest compliance percentage was also found in different sections and areas in the supermarkets such as bakery and confectionery (14.93%, water supply (18.30%, food handling (21.01%, sausage and cold meat (or deli meat (36.38%, and documentation-related items (4.97%. None of the supermarkets evaluated had the necessary documentation for the implementation of good practices. The results of this study show the importance of effectively implementing a good practice program and quality systems by raising awareness among technicians and professionals of the importance of quality programs used in food companies and the need for more thorough inspection delivered by competent authorities to ensure food safety for consumers.

  13. Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC serotype 091:H21 from a child with diarrhea in Porto Alegre city, RS, Brazil

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    Cantarelli Vlademir

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the isolation of one strain of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O91:H21 from a child with diarrhea in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Considering the pathogenic potential of STEC, these organisms should be looked for more carefully among our population.

  14. Influência da mata ciliar na qualidade da água na bacia do Ribeirão Lajeado - TO

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    Dalvany Alves de Sousa Lima

    2010-01-01

    O trabalho apresenta resultados de um estudo sobre a influência da mata ciliar na análise qualitativa e dados quantitativos de água, em três pontos pertencentes à bacia do Ribeirão Lajeado-TO, cuja área é de 612,77 Km2. Os três pontos delimitados para a realização do estudo foram: Trecho do Ribeirão Lajeado (Ponto 1) com 22,09% de mata ciliar; Córrego Brejo da Passagem (Ponto 2) com 14,80% e Contribuinte do Ribeirão Lajeado (Ponto 3) com 49,08%. O objetivo principal do estudo foi avaliar a in...

  15. Frequencies of DEA blood types in a purebred canine blood donor population in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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    Vanessa Sinnott Esteves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of canine immunohematology is very important for veterinary transfusion medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the DEA blood type frequencies in a purebred canine blood donor population from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy purebred dogs were chosen, 20 dogs from each breed (Great Dane, Rottweiler, Golden Retriever, German Shepherd and Argentine Dogo. Blood samples were taken in ACD-A tubes and the MSU hemagglutination tube test (MI, USA was used to determine the blood types. The studied population presented general frequencies of 61% for DEA 1.1, 22% for DEA 1.2, 7% for DEA 3, 100% for DEA 4, 9% for DEA 5 and 16% for DEA 7. A significant association was found between breeds and certain combinations of blood types in this population. The results are in agreement with the literature since most part of the canine population studied was positive for DEA 1.1, the most antigenic blood type in dogs. Differences were found among the studied breeds and those should be considered when selecting a blood donor. The knowledge of blood types frequencies and their combinations in different canine populations, including different breeds, is important because it shows the particularities of each group, helps to keep a data bank of local frequencies and minimizes the risks of transfusion reactions.

  16. GROUNDWATER QUALITY EVALUATION OF PERMANENT PRESERVATION AREAS (GUARANI AQUIFER SYSTEM - GAS, RIO PARDO HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN, RS, BRAZIL

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    Adilson Ben da Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of groundwater in areas of permanent preservation (Guarani Aquifer System – GAS in the Rio Pardo Hydrographical Basin, RS, Brazil, using physical, chemical and microbiological variables, based on resolution no. 396/2008 of the National Council on the Environment - CONAMA. Nine sampling points were distributed throughout the basin, where groundwater was classified as the major ions through the Piper diagram. The results indicated that most of the wells evaluated were classified in Class 4, accounting for water uses less restrictive. However, it should be considered that the aquifers are characterize by different geological conditions, having intrinsical physical, chemical and biological variables with hydrogeochemical variations, requiring that their quality levels are often based on these characteristics, as noted in diagram Piper, where the samples P1, P2, P3, P5 and P9 were classified as calcium bicarbonate, the waters of the points P4, P6, P7 as sodium bicarbonate and P8 as sulfated. It was found that the quality of water from wells with depths less than 6 m are becoming more vulnerable due to anthropogenic activities, as showing by the concentration of nitrate, total and thermotolerant coliforms, while the quality of water from deeper wells basically depends on their hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics based on the concentration of sodium and sulfate variables. However, they also showed contamination by human activities, mainly by the nitrate variable.

  17. Application of water quality biological indices using diatoms as bioindicators in the Gravataí river, RS, Brazil

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    SE. Salomoni

    Full Text Available The Gravataí river situated in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre has an area of approximately 2.020 km² and provides public water supply to about 500,000 inhabitants in 5 municipalities (latitude 29° 45'-30° 12' S; longitude 50° 27'-51° 12' W. The river basin has two regions with distinctive characteristics of occupation: the upper course shows intensive farming and the lower course presents urban and industrial uses. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the water quality in the Gravataí River (RS, Brazil by using physical, chemical and microbiological variables, and the water quality biological indices (WQBI formulated for southern Brazilian rivers based on epilithic diatom communities as indicators. For comparison purposes, a local WQBI, called the Gravataí WQBI, was also used where species were given new saprobic values (s and indicative values (vi according to their occurrence and abundance in the river, using multivariate analytical techniques. The biological samples were taken every three months at six stations along the Gravataí River between September 2000 and August 2002. The results of the physical and chemical analyses of the water indicated a pollution gradient down the river, from the headwaters to the mouth, detected mainly by considering a significant decrease in the concentration of dissolved oxygen and turbidity, as well as a significant increase in BOD5, total nitrogen, ortho-phosphate and thermotolerant coliforms. Comparing the results obtained, differences were found regarding the predominant pollution levels as higher in the Gravataí WQBI, although both corroborated a tendency for the contamination gradient to increase from the headwaters to the mouth. Given the local anthropic changes, it is of great importance to continue the study of diatom species tolerance to organic pollution and eutrophication in different lotic systems of the region.

  18. Feeding ecology of Pterodoras granulosus (Siluriformes, Doradidae in the Lajeado Reservoir, Tocantins, Brazil Ecologia alimentar de Pterodoras granulosus (Siluriformes, Doradidae no reservatório do Lajeado, Tocantins, Brasil

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    Carlos S. Agostinho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet and feeding habits of armado catfish, Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, 1821, were studied in the Lajeado Reservoir, Tocantins, Brazil, and the mouth of its tributaries. Stomach contents of 327 specimens were analyzed by the percentage composition and volumetric methods. The feeding of armado on a wide variety of foods, including both animal and plant items, leads to its classification as a euriphagic species with herbivorous tendency. However, it should be noted that armado showed a strong ontogenetic diet shift, with the gradual replacement of detritus and sediment by plant items, especially terrestrial ones. The environmental use pattern of P. granulosus corroborates the ontogenetic shift observed in its diet. Small fish predominated mainly in the benthic region and detritus and sediment represented an important resource, whereas large fish fed mainly on terrestrial plants, as they explore open water sites and the surface of the water column.Foi investigada a dieta e o hábito alimentar do armado, Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, 1821 no reservatório do Lajeado, Tocantins e na foz de seus tributários. Conteúdos estomacais de 327 exemplares foram analisados através dos métodos de composição percentual e volumétrico. A utilização de uma ampla variedade de tipos de itens alimentares pelo armado, incluindo itens de origem animal e vegetal permite classificar esta espécie como eurifágica, com tendência à herbivoria. No entanto, deve ser considerado que esta espécie apresenta uma forte variação ontogenética na dieta. Foi constatada uma redução gradual na participação de detrito e sedimento na dieta em detrimento dos itens de origem vegetal, especialmente os terrestres. O padrão de utilização do ambiente por P. granulosus está de acordo com a variação ontogenética observada na dieta do armado. Enquanto os indivíduos pequenos utilizam predominantemente a região bentônica e têm o detrito e sedimento

  19. Mapping and analysis of the groundwater potability in the Lajeado municipality, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Eduardo Strohschoen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater sources spread in extensive areas and are relatively protected from pollution agents when compared to rivers and artificial reservoirs. These aspects, combined with low exploitation costs, provided a considerable growth in the groundwater use in the last decades. Groundwater became an important alternative source for public water supply in Brazil. This paper shows the georeferenced location of the groundwater exploitation points in the Lajeado, RS municipality and the potability analysis of this water. The groundwater exploitation in the study area is accomplished in the Serra Geral and Guarani aquifers and the exploitation points were identified in field campaigns using a GPS receiver and plotted over satellite imagery using remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. The groundwater potability assessment was based on 100 samples for microbiological and physico-chemical analyses that included 78 samples of tubular wells and 22 of dug wells. Contour maps were generated for the analyzed parameters in the tubular wells, using geostatistics procedures. In this study, 362 tubular wells and 253 dug wells were studied. The results show that the dug wells are located mainly in rural areas and 77.27% of them aren’t suitable for human consumption due to high levels of contamination. The tubular wells are concentrated in urban areas and results revealed that 76.92% of them have water with suitable quality for the human consumption.

  20. Epilithic diatoms in headwater areas of the hydrographical sub-basin of the Andreas Stream, RS, Brazil, and their relation with eutrophication processes

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    Carla Giselda Heinrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This research aimed to study the composition of epilithic diatom flora in headwater areas of the sub-basin of the Andreas stream, RS, Brazil, and their relation with eutrophication processes. METHODS: Quarterly excursions (March, June, September, December 2012 and Mach 2013 were performed in ten sampling points selected in the sub-basin, to collect samples for the identification and counting the organisms in the group of diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae. RESULTS: The results indicated the occurrence of 243 taxa, distributed in 53 genera. Of these, 59 were considered abundant, being distributed in 29 genera. Seven species showed elevated tolerance levels to organic pollution and eutrophication: Adlafia drouetiana (R. M. Patrick Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Amphipleura lindheimeri Grunow; Fallacia monoculata (Hustedt D. G. Mann, Navicula cryptotenella Lange-Bertalot, Navicula symmetrica R. M. Patrick, Nitzschia palea (Kützing W. Smith and Sellaphora auldreekie D. G. Mann & S. M. McDonald in Mann et al. CONCLUSION: Although this research has been conducted in headwater areas, the occurrence of these seven species could be explained by considering the use of these areas for agricultural and livestock purposes, compromising the stability of these aquatic ecosystems, due to the significant contribution of fertilizer and organic matter, a condition that characterizes a process of eutrophication.

  1. INFORMATION ON HEALTH: RELATIONSHIP OF THE IMPLANTATION OF SYSTEMATIZATION OF NURSING ASSISTANCE IN A HOSPITAL OF VALE DO TAQUARI/RS, BRAZIL

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    Luís Felipe Pissaia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to share experiences of the implantation of the Nursing Assistance Systematization with the aid of computer science in a medical clinic unit of a small hospital in Vale do Taquari / RS, Brazil. This is a descriptive and exploratory experience report with a qualitative approach, in which nine nursing professionals were followed during the implantation of the SAE with the help of computer technology in a medical clinic unit of a general hospital, the implantation of the process began in September The results were analyzed as recommended by Bardin. There were some difficulties in the implementation of systematization, such as lack of knowledge about the process and difficulties in handling computer equipment. We also found facilities in the use of information technology during the implementation, such as the availability of information and improved communication between the multiprofessional team. Improvements such as client security and optimization of work processes were also observed. It is considered that the report has a limitation because it contemplates a short time of implantation of the process, nevertheless it leads to a greater discussion on the subject. It was observed the importance of a qualified training for nursing professionals regarding the use of this work methodology, as well as the qualification of assistance and implementation facilitated with the use of information technology.

  2. Study of enteroparasites infection frequency and chemotherapeutic agents used in pediatric patients in a community living in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrone Fernanda B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections caused by intestinal protozoan and helminths affect more than two billion people worldwide and chemotherapy is the most commonly used therapeutic procedure. Considering the problems created by parasitic infections and the incorrect use of drugs, the aim of this work was to detect the frequency of enteroparasites infection and to estimate the use of chemotherapeutic agents in children living in the periphery of the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Ninety-six preschool age children, who had parasitological exams and who used antiparasitic drugs, were analyzed. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by stool examination repeated six months after treatment. The same diagnostic test was used to evaluate parasitological cure, which was defined as absence of eggs and cysts in the stool. From these children, 79 (82.3% were contaminated by some species of parasite, the most prevalent were Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Giardia lamblia. The most commonly used drugs were mebendazole (86% of prescriptions and metronidazole (30.3%. The cure rate in the 79 children, examined 6 months after treatment, was 65.3% for A. lumbricoides and 66.1% for T. trichiura. This study suggests that a continuous education program regarding the prevention and treatment of parasitic infections is an essential tool for their eradication.

  3. The occurence of black spot disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus(characiformes: characidae in the Guaíba Lake basin, RS, Brazil

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    F Flores-Lopes

    Full Text Available Black spot disease is common in freshwater fish and is usually caused by the metacercaria stage of digenetic trematodes, normally from the Diplostomidae family. The present study evaluated the prevalence and intensity of this disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus(Teleostei: Characiformes in the Guaíba Lake basin (RS, Brazil, including body parts assessment and the points of sampling with higher occurrence of black spots. Fish samples were taken seasonally from December 2002 until October 2004. The samples were collected with the use of a seine net at eleven points. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and stored in 70% ethanol. Black spot disease showed a low frequency in the Guaíba lake basin (2.07% and no specificity to the species Astyanax aff. fasciatus was observed. A high prevalence among the individuals and high intensity of infection levels was found in the ventral and dorsal regions in relation to other body parts (e.g., pectoral, pelvic and anal regions. Among the sampling points studied, we observed a higher prevalence on samples collected at points Gasômetro, Saco da Alemoa and Sinos, located in open areas with less occurrence of mollusks.

  4. Quedas e fatores associados em idosos institucionalizados no município de Pelotas (RS, Brasil Falls and associated factors in institutionalized elderly people in Pelotas (RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitê Peres de Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da população idosa tem despertado o interesse dos profissionais de saúde por ser o envelhecimento um processo importante à saúde. Um estudo com delineamento transversal de base institucional foi realizado com indivíduos de 65 anos ou mais residentes em instituições de idosos no município de Pelotas (RS com o objetivo de verificar a prevalência de quedas e verificar alguns fatores associados a esse evento. A prevalência de quedas encontrada foi de 33,5%, sendo o quarto o local de maior prevalência (37%. Do total de indivíduos que relataram alguma queda, 16,9% fraturaram-se devido à queda. Cerca de 70% das quedas ocorreram na instituição. O tornozelo e o quadril foram os locais anatômicos de maior prevalência desse agravo, com 33,3%. Concluímos que a prevalência de quedas em idosos institucionalizados é alta e os agravos decorrentes das mesmas são preocupantes. Fazem-se necessárias medidas de intervenção por parte dos gestores e profissionais da saúde no sentido de minimizar esses índices e de proporcionar melhor qualidade de vida para os idosos institucionalizados.The ageing of the population generates interest among health professionals, because of its importance for health. A cross-sectional study was carried out including institutionalized subjects aged over 65 from Pelotas (RS, Brazil. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of falls and associated factors. The prevalence of falls was 33.5%; the most frequent place in which falls occurred was the bedroom (37%. Of all falls, 16.9% resulted in a fracture. Approximately 70% of the falls took place at the institution in which the subjects live. Ankles and hips were the most frequently anatomic sites fractured (33,3%. The prevalence of falls among the elderly was high and the consequences of such falls are worrying. Prevention strategies by healthcare professionals and managers are urgently needed in order to minimize the burden of falls and thus enhance

  5. Erosividade e características hidrológicas das chuvas de Rio Grande (RS Erosivity and hydrological characteristics of rainfalls in Rio Grande (RS, Brazil

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    Marcos Gabriel Peñalva Bazzano

    2010-02-01

    ,0 % do intermediário e 24,2 % do atrasado. Da erosividade anual, 49,1 % correspondeu a chuvas do padrão avançado, 28,9 % a chuvas do padrão intermediário e 22,1 % a chuvas do padrão atrasado. O método da distribuição extrema tipo I foi adequado para obter as curvas de intensidade-duração-frequência. Os períodos de retorno da chuva podem ser calculados por meio das equações, utilizando os valores dos parâmetros encontrados, ou pelos gráficos das curvas de intensidade-duração-frequência.Specific rainfall characteristics vary among regions and their erosion potential must be known for the planning of agricultural and civil engineering activities. For Rio Grande (RS, Brazil, the erosivity and relationships with the precipitation and rainfall coefficient, rainfall hydrologic patterns and return period were determined based on rainfall data of 23 years. For each erosive rainfall the segments of the rainfall chart with the same intensity were separated together and the data registered in worksheets. The mean monthly and annual rainfall erosivity, the EI30 index in the International System of Units and the rainfall patterns were estimated using software Chuveros. The mean monthly values of precipitation and erosivity index were expressed as percentage of the mean annual values of these variables, resulting in the curve of accumulated distribution of precipitation and erosivity index in function of time. The rainfall coefficient (Rc was calculated. Pearson correlations and linear regressions between the erosivity index EI30 and the mean annual values of precipitation and rainfall coefficient were calculated. The rainfall return period was calculated for 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 years. The mean annual value of EI30 was 5135 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, which is to be used as "R" Factor in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE for Rio Grande and surrounding regions with similar climatic conditions. The regression equations for EI30 and precipitation and rainfall

  6. Occurrence of limnic molluscs and crustaceous on clusters of the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, formed on “sarandi” at Guaíba Lake (rs, Brazil

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    Regina Maria de Fraga Alberto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the occurrence of invetebrates associated with macro clusters of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 formed on branches of “sarandi” (Chephalanthus glabratus (Spreng. K. Schum, quantitative samplings (N=28 were conducted for two years (2002 to 2004 at Veludo Beach on Guaíba Lake (municipality of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. From the results, the gastropod Heleobia piscium (Orbigny, 1835 was identified as a constant (78.57% species, while Potamolithus jacuyensis Pilsbry 1899 (35.71% and the crustaceous Hyalella curvispina Shoemaker 1942 (26% were indicated as accessory species. The other taxa were accidental (<25%: Ampullariidae (young individuals, Heleobia davisi (Silva & Thomé, 1985, Chilina parva (Martens, 1868 and Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774. Currently, the interspecific relationships among these taxa are poorly known.

  7. Impact of the construction of a hydroelectric power plant on the land cover and use: study of the basin Lajeado Bonito - RS; Impacto da construcao de uma usina hidreletrica no uso e cobertura da terra: estudo da bacia Lajeado Bonito-RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramontina, Juliana; Breunig, Fabio Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work aims to analyze the impact of the construction of a hydroelectric power plant on land cover and use in Lajeado Bonito-RS watershed. The study evaluated the temporal evolution of land cover and use in the watershed for the period before and after to installation of hydroelectric plant Foz do Chapeco (2009 to 2010). For temporal analysis, two images were interpreted, one orbital image of High Resolution Camera (HRC) onboard of the CBERS-2B, acquired in December 29, 2009. And a high-resolution image obtained from Google Earth application, acquired at December 26, 2010. The land cover and use maps were generated by vector editing SPRING software. We found that the predominant land use related to agriculture and livestock, including bare soil. In 2009 this class accounted for 70.23% of the total area, while it come to represent 61.8% in 2010. At the same time, there was increase of areas with native forest cover, from 27.49% covered by forest in 2009, to 31% in 2010. The results showed that in both 2009 and 2010 years, approximately 49% of permanent preservation area were used inappropriately. (author)

  8. DIVERSIDADE DE QUINZE ESPÉCIES DE BORBOLETAS (LEPIDOPTERA, PAPILIONIDAE EM SETE COMUNIDADES DE SANTA MARIA, RS DIVERSITY OF FIFTEEN SPECIES OF BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA, PAPILIONIDAE IN SEVEN COMMUNITIES OF SANTA MARIA, RS, BRAZIL

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    Gustavo Schwartz

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho compara a diversidade estimada para sete áreas de Santa Maria, RS, com diferentes níveis de antropização, com base na abundância, similaridade e constância de 15 espécies de papilionídeos. O estudo foi realizado de Setembro de 1994 a Março de 1995, e de Novembro de 1995 a Fevereiro de 1996. As capturas foram efetuadas em intervalos médios de trinta dias, utilizando rede entomológica convencional, durante intervalos médios de 4 horas. As borboletas foram transportadas em envelopes glicinados, individualizados e etiquetados, para o laboratório do Departamento de Biologia da UFSM. Os dados sugerem que a cobertura vegetal desempenha uma função importante na distribuição e abundância dessas borboletas, e os mecanismos que agem em escalas geográficas mais amplas podem ser diferentes daqueles que atuam em escalas menores. Habitats, como capões e ambientes urbanos, representam locais favoráveis onde as borboletas podem usar esses ambientes complexos, exibindo uma norma de reação que minimiza a competição e a ação de inimigos naturais.The research has as objective to compare the esteemed diversity for seven of Santa Maria's counties, RS, Brazil, with different urbane levels, based on the study of abundance, similarity and steadiness among 15 Papilionidae species, from September 1994 to March 1995 and November 1995 to February 1996. Captures were performed in intervals of thirty days, using entomological net, during intervals of 4 hours average. The butterflies were transported in glassine envelopes, individualized, properly labeled to the Laboratory at UFSM Biology Department. The results suggest that the canopy carries out an important function in the distribution and abundance of those butterflies. The mechanisms that act in wider geographical scales can be different from those that act in smaller scales. Coppices and urban landscapes can represent locals, where butterflies can use these complex environments

  9. Contaminação por compostos organoclorados em salsichas hot-dog comercializadas na cidade de Santa Maria (RS, Brasil Contamination for organochlorine compounds in hot-dog sausages, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil

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    Stanislau Bogusz Junior

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de monitorar os resíduos de compostos tóxicos em alimentos, verificou-se a freqüência e os níveis de praguicidas organoclorados (OC e bifenilas policloradas (PCBs em amostras de salsichas Hot-Dog, comercializadas na Cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS e, compararam-se os valores com aqueles estabelecidos pela Legislação. Para as análises, procedeu-se a extração da gordura das amostras. A partir da purificação desta, obteve-se um extrato do qual se determinaram os resíduos organoclorados por cromatografia gasosa com detector de captura eletrônica (CG - µECD63Ni. Verificou-se que o lindano e o HCB foram os pesticidas que apresentaram as maiores concentrações médias (0,001798ppm e 0,001652ppm, respectivamente. O somatório dos níveis médios dos pesticidas organoclorados detectados foi de 0,015783ppm, sendo que deste total 0,011165ppm pertencia aos metabólitos do DDT. Quanto as bifenilas policloradas, as maiores concentrações médias corresponderam às PCBs 10 (0,001817ppm e 28 (0,000317ppm. O somatório das PCBs foi de 0,002172ppm. As concentrações de praguicidas organoclorados e PCBs encontradas nas amostras analisadas estavam abaixo dos limites máximos permitidos pela legislação.With the objective of monitoring toxic compounds residues in food, the frequency and levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were verified in sausage samples, hot dog type, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Values were compared with the ones established by Brazilian legislation. For the analyses the extraction of fat from the samples was done. From the purification of the fat, there was acquisition of an extract in which was determined the organochlorine contaminants residues by gas chromatography with electronic capture detector (CG - µECD63Ni. It was learned that the lindane and HCB were the pesticides that presented the biggest concentration averages (0

  10. Valley fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially the first trimester) People of Native American, African, or Philippine descent may also get more severe ... that causes Valley fever) Chest x-ray Sputum culture Sputum smear (KOH test) Tests done for more ...

  11. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss Headache Valley fever Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  12. Comparison of methods to monitor populations of Alphitobius diaperinus (PANZER, 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae in poultry farm, Pelotas, RS, Brazil / Comparação de métodos para monitorar populações de Alphitobius diaperinus (PANZER, 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae em granja avícola, em Pelotas, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silveira Júnior

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alphitobius diaperinus (PANZER, 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae it colonizes the substratum found at farms, growing up in high populations, causing sanitary problems with economical reflexes. In this work the comparative evaluation of monitoring methods was accomplished of A. diaperinus. The evaluations were made in a period of twelve months, in broiler barn of the Conjunto Agrotécnico Visconde da Graça, in Pelotas - RS, Brazil, using traps of the type "tube" or of Arends and type "sandwich". The type sandwich trap was shown more efficient in the capture of larvae and adults of A. diaperinus.Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae coloniza o substrato encontrado em granjas, criando-se em altas populações, causando problemas sanitários com reflexos econômicos. Neste trabalho foi realizada a avaliação comparativa de métodos de monitoramento de A. diaperinus. As avaliações foram feitas em um período de doze meses, em galpão de poedeiras do Conjunto Agrotécnico Visconde da Graça, em Pelotas - RS, Brasil, utilizando armadilhas do tipo “tubo” ou de Arends e tipo “sanduíche”. A armadilha do tipo sanduíche mostrou-se mais eficiente na captura de larvas e adultos de A. diaperinus.

  13. Energy valley in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwayen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Valley foundation was born in 2004. It functions as a catalyst and platform for private and public organisations. It has a supporting and facilitating role in realising projects on energy conservation and sustainable energy. The Energy Valley a

  14. Indicadores de desempenho zootécnico observados nas unidades de produção familiar associadas à Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL, RS Zootechnical performance indexes observed in family production units associated to the "Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria" (COOPROL, RS, Brazil

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    Jorge Nunes Portela

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar o desempenho zootécnico das unidades de produção familiar (UPFs associadas à Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL, RS, que desenvolvem a atividade leiteira combinada ou não com outras atividades vegetal e/ou animal. Foram coletadas as informações de um grupo de 53 UPFs, sendo identificados nove sistemas de produção. Nestes sistemas, a idade média ao primeiro parto (IPP variou de 2,5 a 3 anos, o intervalo entre partos (IEP de 456 a 520 dias, o período seco (PS de 91 a 260 dias, a taxa de natalidade de 70 a 80%, a duração média das lactações (DML de 365 a 387 dias e a produtividade de leite de 2,52 a 13,5 /vaca/dia. Estes valores indicam a necessidade de ações visando readequar o manejo reprodutivo e o sistema alimentar dos rebanhos de cada sistema de produção identificado.The present work studied the zootechnical performance in family production units (UPFs, associated to a co-operative society (COOPROL in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Some of the studied farms had other animal or agricultural activities associated to the milk production unit. The data were obtained in 53 UPFs, and nine different systems of production were identified. The age at the first calving ranged from 2.5 to 3 years, the calving interval from 456 to 520 days, dry period from 91 to 260 days, birth rate 70 to 80%, lactation length from 365 to 387 days and milk production from 2.52 to 13.5 /cow/day. The numbers above show the need for actions to re-adequate the breeding and alimentary systems used in these home farms.

  15. Ocorrência de ixodidae parasitos de capivara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris linnaeus, 1766 na estação ecológica do Taim, Rio Grande - RS, Brasil Occurence of ixodidae parasites of capybara (Hydrochoeurus hydrochaeris linnaeus, 1766 in the ecologic area of Taim, Rio Grande - RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as espécies de carrapatos observadas sobre capivaras na Estação Ecológica do Taim, Rio Grande- RS, Brasil. Foram examinadas 27 capivaras encontradas mortas por atropelamento na BR 471, em seu trecho que corta a Estação, sendo cole lados 497 carrapatos das espécies Amblyomma cooperi (=A. lutzi; = A. ypisilophorum, Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma tigrinum e ninfas do gênero Amblyomma. A. cooperi representou 68,41% dos carrapatos identificados, com uma freqüência de parasitismo de 92,60% dos hospedeiros, enquanto A. triste representou 24,75% dos carrapatos em 44,43% dos hospedeiros e A. tigrinum foi coletado em 14,81% dos hospedeiros, totalizando 1,21% dos carrapatos. As ninfas de Amblyomma sp. foram cotetadas em 18,51% dos hospedeiros apresentando um percentual de 5,63% do total de carrapatos. A relação macho : fêmea apresentou valores de 2,3 : 1 e 2 : l para o A. cooperi e A. triste, respectivamente. Todos hospedeiros apresentavam-se parasitados, com uma média de 18,4 carrapatos, variando de 1 a 64 carrapatos coletados por hospedeiro.The aim of this article was the identification ofthe tick species observed on capybara in wildlife in the Ecologic Area of Taim, Rio Grande - RS; Brazil. Twenly seven capybaras found dead by trample in the road BR 471 in the Ecologic Area, wereexamined ticks coilected of the species Amblyomma cooperi (= A. lutzi and = A. ypisilophorum, Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma tigrinum and ninphs of the Genus Amblyomma. Amblyomma cooperi represented 68.41% of the ticks with a frequency of parasitism of 92.60% of the hosts; Amblyomma triste species represented 24.75% of the collected ticks m 44.43% of the hosts; Amblyomma tigrinum species were coilected m 14.81% of the hosts from a total of 1.21% of the found ticks and, the nimphs of Amblyomma were coilected in 18.51% of the hosts per forming 5.63% of the ali ticks coilected. The relation mate .female showed values of 2.3:1 and 2

  16. Estudo fenológico em três fases sucessionais de uma floresta estacional decidual no município de Santa Tereza, RS, Brasil Phenology study in three successional stages of a seasonal deciduous forest in Santa Tereza, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáren Andreis

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em 40 parcelas de área fixa pertencentes a três estágios sucessionais, denominados: Capoeirão, Floresta Secundária e Floresta Madura, em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual no município de Santa Tereza, RS. Foram realizadas observações fenológicas quinzenais em 53 espécies arbóreas, numa média de 8,4 indivíduos por espécie, durante o período de 16 de novembro de 2001 a 10 de novembro de 2002. As fenofases observadas foram floração, frutificação e mudança foliar. Os resultados indicaram que a atividade reprodutiva manteve uma porcentagem relativamente baixa nos três estágios sucessionais durante o período observado, com tendências em ser menor durante a estação de inverno. A quantidade total de folhas na árvore, não se distinguindo estágio sucessional, diminuiu de aproximadamente 85% no período de maior atividade vegetativa para até 35% no inverno, período de repouso, sendo a Floresta Madura a subsere, que manteve os maiores porcentuais de folhas durante o período estudado.The present study was accomplished in forty permanent plots belonging to three forest successional stages, denominated: Brush Forest, Secondary Forest and Mature Forest, in a seasonal deciduous forest in the municipal district of Santa Tereza, RS, Brazil. Phenologic observations were accomplished fortnightly for 53 arboreal species, in an average of 8,4 individuals per species, during the period of November 2001 to November 2002. The stages observed were flowering, fruiting and foliage change. The results indicate that the reproductive activity remained relatively low for three successional stages during the observed period, with a tendency to be even lower during winter. The total amount of leaves on the trees, regardless of the successional stage, decreased from approximately 85%, in the period of higher vegetative activity, to 35% in the winter, resting season. The Mature Forest maintained the largest percentage

  17. Comportamento da cultivar BR-IPAGRO 44-guapo brilhante de feijoeiro em quatro populaçções de plantas na safrinha em Santa Maria-RS Behavior of cultivar BR-IPAGRO 44-guapo brilhante of common bean in four plant populations in the latter season in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Jauer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar Guapo Brilhante de feijoeiro comum, tipo II, foi cultivada durante a safrinha de 2001 em Santa Maria-RS, com quatro populações de plantas (200, 300, 400 e 500 mil plantas ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados o rendimento de grãos, os componentes do rendimento e algumas características morfológicas. A produtividade máxima estimada foi de 2684kg ha-1 com a população de plantas de 337 mil plantas ha-1, demonstrando que, com práticas culturais adequadas, na safrinha, é possível produzir quase três vezes acima da média de produtividade do feijoeiro comum do Rio Grande do Sul da década de 90. O aumento da população de planta aumentou a altura de inserção do primeiro legume, a altura de inserção da base do primeiro legume e reduziu o número de entrenós. A partir de 400 mil plantas ha-1, as alturas de inserção do primeiro legume e da base do primeiro legume ajustam-se ao necessário para a colheita mecanizada, ainda que com perdas potenciais.The common bean cultivar Guapo Brilhante, type II, was grown during the latter season of 2001 in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil, in four plant populations (200, 300, 400, and 500 thousand plants ha-1. The experiment design was randomized blocks with four replications. The grain yield, yield components and some morphological traits were evaluated. The highest estimated yield was 2684kg ha-1 with 337 thousand plants ha-1, demonstrating that, with proper cultural practices, in the latter season, it is possible to produce almost three times more than the best production average of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil in the 90 decade. The increase in plant population increases the first pod height, first pod base height, and the number of internodes. With 400 thousand plants ha-1 the first pod height and the first pod base height are enough to mechanic harvesting, but with potential losses.

  18. Diagnóstico das unidades de produção de Avicultura e Suinocultura do Município de Relvado, Vale do Taquari, RS, Brasil / Diagnosis of the swine and poultry production in Relvado, Vale do Taquari, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Carboni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAs atividades de criação em confinamento como a avicultura e a suinocultura cresceram muito nas últimas décadas devido à conquista do mercado externo, aumentando os impactos ambientais devido à grande quantidade de dejetos produzidos por estas atividades. Este estudo apresenta o diagnóstico do município de Relvado (RS, que acelerou seu crescimento econômico a partir da década de 90 quando ali se desencadearam essas atividades. O estudo enfocou as 124 unidades de produção registradas na Secretaria Municipal da Agricultura e Departamento do Meio Ambiente, sendo 98 aviculturas e 26 suinoculturas, devidamente licenciadas. Os dados obtidos apontam que, nos últimos anos, o município vem perdendo grande número de empreendimentos devido a problemas estruturais e ambientais. São onze empreendimentos operando em Área de Preservação Permanente (APP e de modo geral, no período de estudo, dezoito empreendimentos foram desativados. O estudo, embasado nos processos das licenças ambientais das unidades de produção e em atividades de campo, levantou também a capacidade de produção de animais e de dejetos (m³ gerados pelas atividades no período de um ano.AbstractActivities of raising livestock in confinement, such as swine and poultry breeding, have grown greatly in recent decades because of the conquest of foreign markets. These activities produce a large amoount of waste, which have impacted harshly on the environment. This study presents a diagnosis of Relvado/RS/Brazil, which accelerated its economic growth when such activities started. The study focused on 124 production units that are registered in the Municipal Department of Agriculture and Environment, of which 98 poultry and 26 pig breeding units are properly licensed. The obtained data indicate that, in recent years, the city has lost many projects because of structural and environmental problems. There are 11 properties operating in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs

  19. Silicon Valley: Planet Startup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. P. Ester; dr. A. Maas

    2016-01-01

    For decades now, Silicon Valley has been the home of the future. It's the birthplace of the world's most successful high-tech companies-including Apple, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, Twitter, and many more. So what's the secret? What is it about Silicon Valley that fosters entrepreneurship and

  20. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  1. Geometry of Valley Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  2. Avaliação da Vulnerabilidade das Águas Subterrâneas no Município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS/Brasil. = Vulnerability assessment of underground water in the Santa Cruz do Sul City, RS/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica M. Martínez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa realizada no município de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS-Brasil, utilizou-se dados pré-existentes em banco de dados de empresas privadas, estatais, municipais e federais com o objetivo de espacializar as informações através da metodologia GOD e do aplicativo SURFER™ versão 6.0. Com essa metodologia GOD utilizada foi possível prever e avaliar a vulnerabilidade natural dos aqüíferos através dos parâmetros: grau de confinamento hidráulico (G; ocorrência do suprajacente (O e distância do nível da água (D. Foi utilizada uma planilha eletrônica, MS Excel™, para dispor os parâmetros hidrodinâmicos e físico-químicos das águas subterrâneas. Ilustra-se a superfície potenciométrica indicativa do fluxo subterrâneo, as concentrações de flúor e o índice de vulnerabilidade. A faixa de variação do flúor foi de 0,0 até 3,6 mgL-1, e o índice de vulnerabilidade obtido, apresentou dos 25 poços simulados; 4 poços na classe desprezível, 7 poços na classe baixa, á poços na classe média e apenas 1 na classe alta. Discutem-se alguns aspectos relativos á legislação das águas subterrâneas e seu uso para abastecimento público. = This research took place in the Santa Cruz do Sul city, RS-Brazil, and includes pre-existing data from data banks belonging to private, governmental, municipal and federal enterprises in order to show spacialization information through GOD methodology and SURFER™ version 6.0 software. With this GOD methodology it was possible to foresee and assess aquiferous natural vulnerability through the following parameters: degree of hydraulic confinement (G; occurrence of suprajascent (O; and distance of water level (D. An MS Excel™ spreadsheet was utilized to display underground water hydrodynamic and physical-chemical parameters. The potentiometric surface is here indicative of the underground fluxes, and the fluorine concentrations and the vulnerability index are illustrated. The range of

  3. Intermontane valley fills

    OpenAIRE

    Mey, Jürgen (Diplom-Geologe)

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentary valley fills are a widespread characteristic of mountain belts around the world. They transiently store material over time spans ranging from thousands to millions of years and therefore play an important role in modulating the sediment flux from the orogen to the foreland and to oceanic depocenters. In most cases, their formation can be attributed to specific fluvial conditions, which are closely related to climatic and tectonic processes. Hence, valley-fill deposits constitute v...

  4. Boyne Valley Tombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Frank

    The passage tombs of the Boyne Valley exhibit the greatest level of development of the megalithic tomb building tradition in Ireland in terms of their morphology, embellishment, burial tradition, grave goods, clustering, and landscape siting. This section examines these characteristics and gives a summary archaeoastronomical appraisal of their orientation and detected astronomical alignment.

  5. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  6. Bringing Silicon Valley inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  7. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  8. Fluvial valleys and Martian palaeoclimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Baker, Victor R.

    1989-10-01

    Theoretical models of early Martian atmospheric evolution describe the maintenance of a dense CO2 atmosphere and a warm, wet climate until the end of the heavy-bombardment phase of impacting. However, the presence of very young, earthlike fluvial valleys on the northern flank of Alba Patera conflicts with this scenario. Whereas the widespread ancient Martian valleys generally have morphologies indicative of sapping erosion by the slow outflow of subsurface water, the local Alba valleys were probably formed by surface-runoff processes. Because subsurface water flow might be maintained by hydrothermal energy inputs and because surface-runoff valleys developed late in Martian history, it is not necessary to invoke drastically different planet-wide climatic conditions to explain valley development on Mars. The Alba fluvial valleys can be explained by hydrothermal activity or outflow-channel discharges that locally modified the atmosphere, including precipitation and local overland flow on low-permeability volcanic ash.

  9. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  10. Dark Valley in Newton Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  11. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  12. Policentrismo, Áreas Urbanas Funcionais (FUAs e Dinâmica Territorial: Um estudo exploratório desde a região do Vale do Rio Pardo-RS-Brasil / Polycentric, Functional Urban Areas (FUAs and Territorial Dynamics: An exploratory study from the region of Vale do Rio Pardo-RS-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Leandro Lima da Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo aborda o potencial metodológico e analítico do conceito de áreas urbanas funcionais (FUAs para os estudos urbanos e regionais, notadamente em relação ao seu uso para a análise e interpretação da dinâmica territorial em contextos regionais. Revisa-se os conceitos de policentrismo e áreas funcionais urbanas e sua aplicação na análise da dinâmica territorial na escala regional. Com base em estudo exploratório na região do Vale do Rio Pardo, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul- Brasil, identifica-se, caracteriza-se e analisa-se as FUAS existentes no território regional, interpretando sua configuração espacial, seus principais fluxos e interações socioespaciais entre as cidades da região, decorrentes dos deslocamentos pendulares para trabalho e estudo. Observa-se a constituição de duas FUAs: a de Santa Cruz do Sul e a de Venâncio Aires, evidenciando um incipiente e desigual conteúdo policêntrico no território regional devido à orientação e à intensidade dos deslocamentos pendulares, que apontam a influência da cidade de Santa Cruz do Sul na dinâmica territorial e na rede urbana regional. Abstract This article discusses the methodological and analytical potential of the concept of functional urban areas (FUAS for urban and regional studies, notably in relation to its use for the analysis and interpretation of territorial dynamics in regional contexts. Revises the concepts of polycentrism and urban functional areas and its application in the analysis of territorial dynamics at the regional scale. Based on exploratory study in Rio Pardo Valley region in the state of Rio Grande do Sul-Brazil, identifies the existing functional urban areas in the regional territory is characterized and analyzed by interpreting their spatial configuration, its main flows and socio-spatial interactions between the towns of the region, resulting from commuting to work and study. Note the formation of two Fuas: the Santa Cruz do

  13. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  14. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1. Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model...

  15. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  16. Freqüencia da infecção por Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 em cães (Canis familiaris avaliada pelo Método de Faust e cols. (1939 e pela Coloração da Auramina, no município de Canoas, RS, Brasil Frequence of infection by Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882 in dogs (Canis familiaris available trough the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and Auramine Staining in Canoas, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Beck

    2005-02-01

    this study was to determine the frequence of Giardia lamblia in the canine population of Canoas, RS, Brazil, applying the Faust and Collaborators Method (1939 and the Auramine Staining Technique. The dogs were classified according to the origin and gender. Feces samples of 332 dogs were analyzed by the Faust and Collaborators Method. The frequency of the infection obtained was 34.04%, ranging from 28.95% to 39.13% (confident interval at a 95% level. For kennel bred animals 40,96% of the samples were positive and for stray dogs 27.11%. Applying Fisher’s Exact Test to these figures there was a significant difference (P=0.0107 when comparing the origin of the animals and the results of the tests. However when comparing genders there was no significant difference (P=0.8162, the former with 33.11% of positive males and 34.08% positive females. When submitted to the Auramine Staining Technique(147 samples, 15.67% (23 of the samples resulted positive. The statistical analysis using the McNemar Test exposed a significant difference between both techniques (P=0.0004. The Kappa value of 0.07 obtained was considered of low rate. The results allow one to affirm that the Faust and Collaborators Method was the most suitable diagnostic test for Giardia lamblia infection, considering the high prevalence of this parasite in the studied region.

  17. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  18. Mechanically and optically controlled graphene valley filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun, E-mail: gjin@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the valley-dependent electronic transport through a graphene monolayer modulated simultaneously by a uniform uniaxial strain and linearly polarized light. Within the Floquet formalism, we calculate the transmission probabilities and conductances of the two valleys. It is found that valley polarization can appear only if the two modulations coexist. Under a proper stretching of the sample, the ratio of the light intensity and the light frequency squared is important. If this quantity is small, the electron transport is mainly contributed by the valley-symmetric central band and the conductance is valley unpolarized; but when this quantity is large, the valley-asymmetric sidebands also take part in the transport and the valley polarization of the conductance appears. Furthermore, the degree of the polarization can be tuned by the strain strength, light intensity, and light frequency. It is proposed that the detection of the valley polarization can be realized utilizing the valley beam splitting. Thus, a graphene monolayer can be used as a mechanically and optically controlled valley filter.

  19. The Microclimate of Valley Glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Oerlemans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers have fascinated mankind throughout history. Glaciers look solid and robust, but observing them for only a couple of years shows that they are dynamic and change shape all the time. The lower glaciers come, the greater the contrast with the surrounding landscape. Many glaciers in the world enter pastures and forests. It is not surprising that laymen, artists and scientists have reported on the behaviour of large valley glaciers. A wealth of information on glacier fluctuations in histo...

  20. Spin-Valley Beam Splitter in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yu; Shi, Zhi-Gui; Li, Shun; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The fourfold spin-valley degenerate degrees of freedom in bulk graphene can support rich physics and novel applications associated with multicomponent quantum Hall effects and linear conductance filtering. In this work, we study how to break the spin-valley degeneracy of electron beams spatially. We propose a spin-valley beam splitter in a gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We demonstrate that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all spin-valley beam components, the formation of quasi-standing waves can lead four giant lateral Goos-H\\"{a}nchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the two modulated regions can lead difference of resonant angles or energies for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting an effective spin-valley beam splitting effect. The beam splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  1. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  2. Astyanax fasciatus as bioindicator of water pollution of Rio dos Sinos, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHULZ U. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an increasing downriver pollution gradient on the reproductive system of Astyanax fasciatus were investigated in the Rio dos Sinos, RS. The comparison of mean oocyte diameters, gonadal indices and gonado-somatic relationships of specimens captured in polluted areas with individuals from unpolluted reference sites revealed a significant decrease of these parameters with increasing water pollution. High loads of organic and industrial sewage are considered responsible for these effects. Condition factors showed an inverse relationship, and increased significantly in downriver polluted areas. The declining gonadal indices showed that energy was allocated to somatic growth. The results of the study recommend the use of A. fasciatus in biomonitoring essays.

  3. Sporothrix schenckii in a hospital and home environment in the city of Pelotas/RS - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella S. Mattei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the isolation of S. schenckii in hospital and home environments in Brazil. Samples were collected from surfaces of a veterinary service place and at home. S. schenckii was detected in 1.5% of the samples from the hospital environment. However, this fungus was isolated from all sampled areas in home environments. The isolation of S. schenckii deonstrates that these surfaces could act as infection sources to anials and huans. Therefore, employees and pet owners could be exposed to this agent, and the contamination, through surfaces, could occur through the traumatic inoculation of the fungus or by direct contact with pre-existing lesions.Esse estudo descreve o isolamento de S. schenckii em ambiente hospitalar e domiciliar, no Brasil. Foram colhidas amostras de superfície de local de atendimento veterinário e ambiente domiciliar. S. schenckii foi isolado em 1,5% das amostras do ambiente hospitalar. Entretanto, esse fungo foi isolado em todas as amostras do ambiente domiciliar. O isolamento do S. schenckii demonstra a importância dessas superfícies atuarem como fontes de infecção para animais e humanos. Portanto, funcionários e proprietários de animais de estimação estariam expostos a esse agente e a contaminação, através das superfícies, poderia ocorrer pela inoculação traumática do fungo ou pelo contato direto com lesões pré-existentes.

  4. Trophic state of water in the watershed of Lake Mirim, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Pereira-Ramirez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the spacetime variations in the trophic characteristics of the principal water bodies feeding Lake Mirim, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, by determination of the Trophic State Index proposed by Toledo Jr. (IETT and Lamparelli (IETL, to assess water quality data between 1996 and 1998. It was verified that the lotic environments presented greater eutrophication conditions when evaluated by the Toledo Jr. methodology, in which the IETT varied from Eutrophic to Hypereutrophic. However, the evaluated environments showed variations from Mesotrophic to Hypereutrophic for the IETL when evaluated according to the Lamparelli methodology. From the classification proposed by Toledo Jr., lentic water bodies were considered Mesotrophic (IETT > 44 and Hypereutrophic (IETT > 74, while the Lamparelli method classified them as Eutrophic (IETL > 59 and Hypereutrophic (IETL > 67. Concentrations of phosphorus encountered in all water samples were greater than the limits established by the CONAMA Resolution n. 357, 2005, for class 2 water bodies, probably due to the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial wastes into the waters.

  5. Evaluation of Pregnant and Postpartum Women's Knowledge about Toxoplasmosis in Rio Grande - RS, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Lis Maurente; Santos, Paula Costa; Scaini, Carlos James

    2016-11-01

    Introduction Toxoplasmosis a parasitic zoonosis of global distribution, responsible for disorders during gestation can cause fetal death or congenital anomalies. Objective To evaluate the knowledge of toxoplasmosis among pregnant and postpartum women treated at the University Hospital of the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 100 pregnant and postpartum women at the University Hospital. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire and gave consent for data relating to serological examinations to be abstracted from their medical records. Results The proportion of women who received information about toxoplasmosis was higher among those who received care in the private health care system (52.9%) than among those cared for in the public health care system (25.0%). Only 55.7% of women reported having some knowledge about toxoplasmosis. Of these, 53.7% received information during the prenatal period. However, most participants were unable to answer questions about preventive measures and modes of infection. Of the 100 patients in the study, only 46 underwent serologic testing for toxoplasmosis, 65.2% of whom tested negative (IgG). Conclusion Findings from this study are relevant to the training of health professionals regarding toxoplasmosis education and prevention. Improved education for health care providers and patients can lead to earlier diagnoses and reductions in adverse outcomes. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  6. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEZZARI Adelina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes and, (ii Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes, both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33% followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%. The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992. T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.

  7. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in Caxias do Sul-RS, Brazil adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Giordani Vasques

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite most part of cardiovascular diseases occur in adult life, the process frequently initiate in adolescence. The purpose was to analyze cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents from Caxias do Sul-RS. In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, 1.675 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were analyzed selected in a proportional randomized conglomerates method by city sector, type of school, and school grade. Risk factors prevalences were: family history (82.4%, athrogenic diet (74.7%, low cardiorespiratory fitness (61.6%, sedentariness (55.8%, elevated blood pressure (28.4%, high waist circumference (27.7%, excess of body fat (26.5%, etilism (22.3%, overweight (19.7%, smoking (6.2%, and alcohol abusive use (4.3%. Boys presented higher prevalence of atherogenic diet (79.4%>70.7%, while girls of sedentariness (66.8%>43.2%, low cardiorespiratory fitness (69.4%>53.0%, smoking (7.9%>4.3%, high waist circumference (32.9%>21.7%, and excess of fat (32.5%>19.7%. In girls, it was associated to sedentariness the age of 15-17y (PR=1.30, living until four people at home (PR=1.17, and to present sedentary behaviours more than 14 hours/week (PR=1.21, to present atherogenic diet (PR=1.12 and low fitness (PR=1.21. In boys, sedentariness was associated to low fitness (PR=1.21. Low cardiorespiratory fitness was associated in girls to the age of 15-17y (PR=1.43, and to mother sedentariness (PR=1.13, and in boys to passive transport to school (PR=1.18. To girls and boys, respectively, sedentariness (PR=1.19 and PR=1.17, overweight (PR=1.16 and PR=1.24, and excess of body fat (PR=1.14 and PR=1.51 were associated to low fitness. Physical activity interventions must be focused on girls, aged 15 to 17 years, living until four people, and exposed to sedentary behaviours. It is recommended more attention to girls in interventions on physical activity, smoking, and excess of weight, and to boys, in food habits

  8. Phytosociology of a coastal peat forest of the Toto Beach, Municipality of Pelotas, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Schuch Lemos Venzke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Floristic composition and structure of the tree component were analyzed in a coastal peat forest of the Toto Beach, located in the southern region of Lagoa dos Patos (31º43’39”S e 52º12’04”W. The phytosociological sampling was conducted on a sample area of 0.1 ha. All trees with DBH ≥ 4.8 cm were included. The species richness found was equivalent to 23 species distributed in 20 genera and 15 families. Two endangered species were sampled. The total tree density estimated for one hectare was equivalent to 3,480 trees. The most important species in the forest structure were Ocotea sp., Myrcia multiflora, Psidium cattleyanum, Ocotea pulchella, Myrsine lorentziana, Citharexyllum myrianthum, Ilex dumosa, Syagrus romanzoffiana, Guapira opposita and Sebastiania brasiliensis. The species diversity estimated by the Shannon index was 2,174 nats.ind.-1 and evenness (J was 0.684. The forest structure, number of taxa and diversity are similar to other surveys carried out in swamp forests of southern and southeastern Brazil. These parameters must be considered in the environmental licensing and ecological restoration projects of this forest type.

  9. FOREST COVER ANALYSIS THROUGH THE WEIGHTS OF EVIDENCE METHOD IN THE CAMPANHA OCIDENTAL REGION - RS (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Araújo Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The uncontrolled expansion of human activities may lead to a reduction in vegetation cover, an increase in erosion processes and soil sealing. The aim of this study is to examine forest cover using the Weights of evidence method based on land use maps between the years of 1996 and 2011 in the micro-region of the Campanha Ocidental located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil. The spatial database was constructed in SPRING software (version 5.2.1 based on LANDSAT 5 images, which were georeferenced and classified. Geophysical and socioeconomic variables were included in the database for further analysis in Dinamica EGO software (version 2.2.8. In order to parameterize the probabilistic model for the analysis of the dynamics of forest cover change, we calculated the percentage of class change through transition matrices; calculated the intervals for discretization of continuous variables; calculated the weights of evidence (W+; analyzed the correlation between the weights of the input variables for all transitions; simulated future scenarios and; validated the simulated final map based on the historical map. This model was adequate for understanding the variables that most contribute to forest cover change in the region. The results showed that the emergence of new forest areas was influenced by hypsometry, distance to sandy lands and per capita income, while deforestation by rural population and distance to the sandy lands.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF FLOODPLAIN SOILS IN THE PORTO ALEGRE METROPOLITAN REGION, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís de França da Silva Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn the Porto Alegre metropolitan region (PAMR there are a significant proportion of floodplain soils, mainly Planosols and Gleysols, in relation to upland soils. This study aimed to evaluate the morphological, chemical and physical characteristics, and to classify floodplain soils in the PAMR. Six soil profiles were evaluated under different sedimentary lithologies and drainage classes, and samples were collected for chemical and physical analyzes. Two orders of mineral soils (Planosols and Gleysols and one order of organic soil (Organosols were identified. The soils were moderately deep to deep and stratified. In mineral soils hue ranged between 7.5YR and 2.5Y, with the occurrence of Bg, Btg or Cg gley horizons, while in organic soil the colors were neutral. Sand and silt were the predominant particle sizes according to the origin sedimentary deposits. The organic carbon content was negatively related to soil density and positively related to soil specific surface area and with soil cation exchange capacity. Soil chemical characterization showed expressive variation in bases, aluminum and sodium saturation. Ki index and Fe(CBD/Fe(H2SO4 ratio indicated a low soil weathering degree. The different sedimentary lithologies and the soil hydromorphism degree were the main factors related to differences in morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils in the PAMR.

  11. Progress of foliar diseases in wheat crops at Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the progress of the yellow spot, brown spot and leaf rust in wheat cultivar FUNDACEP 50 in Passo Fundo. Was evaluated the incidence of yellow spot [Drechslera tritici-repentis (Died Drechs.] brown spot [Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.] and leaf rust [Puccinia triticina (Eriks]. Values obtained were integralized as Area Under the Disease Incidence Progress Curve (AUDIPC and to analyze the progress of the disease was considered the disease progress rate (r, which was obtained with the Logistic and Gompertz. Determination coefficients were high (0.93 to 0.98, as well as the mean square error (4.0706 to 7.6831. The r were 0.02 to 0.22 units, while the accumulated AUDIPC 787.5, 1216.3 and 1338.8 units for yellow spot, brown spot and leaf rust, respectively. The two models used satisfactorily explain the progress of yellow spot and brown spot, while the Gompertz explains better leaf rust.

  12. FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE EXCRETA OF WILD BIRDS IN SCREENING CENTERS IN PELOTAS, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiara Furtado Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the fungal species belonging to the healthy microflora in animals is a precondition for the recognition of pathological processes causing them. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic fungi in the feces of wild birds collected in Screening Centers. Samples were collected from the feces of 50 cages with different species of birds. The samples were processed according to the modified method STAIB and the plates incubated at 32 °C for up to ten days with daily observation for detection of fungal growth. The isolation of the following species was observed: Malassezia pachydermatis, Candida albicans, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. sphaerica, C. globosa, C. catenulata, C. ciferri, C. intermedia, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon asahii, Geotrichum klebahnii, Aspergillus spp., A. niger and Penicillium spp. Knowing the character of some opportunistic fungi is important in identifying them, facilitating the adoption of preventive measures, such as proper cleaning of cages, since the accumulation of excreta may indicate a risk for both health professionals and centers for screening public health.

  13. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzari, A

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i) the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes) and, (ii) Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes), both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33%) followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%). The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992). T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.

  14. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  15. Vernal Pool Distribution - Central Valley, 2005 [ds650

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — "Great Valley Vernal Pool Distribution", originally mapped by Bob Holland, 2005. This dataset contains vernal pool areas mapped over Califorina's Central Valley,...

  16. Valley filtering due to orbital magnetic moment in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Soo

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effect of valley-dependent orbital magnetic moment on the transmission of quasiparticles through biased bilayer graphene npn and pnp junctions in the presence of out-of-plane magnetic field. It is shown that the valley-polarized Zeeman-like energy splitting, due to the interaction of orbital magnetic moment with magnetic field, can suppress the transmission of quasiparticles of one valley while transmitting those of the other valley. This valley-selective transmission property can be exploited for valley filtering. We demonstrate that the npn and pnp junction, respectively, filters off the K‧-valley and K-valley particles, with nearly perfect degree of filtration.

  17. 27 CFR 9.100 - Mesilla Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mesilla Valley. 9.100 Section 9.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Mesilla Valley viticultural area is located within Dona Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas...

  18. Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  19. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Transforming the "Valley of Death" into a "Valley of Opportunity"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Merceret, Francis J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Roeder, William P.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2014-01-01

    Transitioning technology from research to operations (23 R2O) is difficult. The problem's importance is exemplified in the literature and in every failed attempt to do so. Although the R2O gap is often called the "valley of death", a recent a Space Weather editorial called it a "Valley of Opportunity". There are significant opportunities for space weather organizations to learn from the terrestrial experience. Dedicated R2O organizations like those of the various NOAA testbeds and collaborative "proving ground" projects take common approaches to improving terrestrial weather forecasting through the early transition of research capabilities into the operational environment. Here we present experience-proven principles for the establishment and operation of similar space weather organizations, public or private. These principles were developed and currently being demonstrated by NASA at the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The AMU was established in 1991 jointly by NASA, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide tools and techniques for improving weather support to the Space Shuttle Program (Madura et al., 2011). The primary customers were the USAF 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG who provided the weather observing and forecast support for Shuttle operations). SPoRT was established in 2002 to transition NASA satellite and remote-sensing technology to the NWS. The continuing success of these organizations suggests the common principles guiding them may be valuable for similar endeavors in the space weather arena.

  1. Photosensitive Epilepsy In Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem S M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A random population of 618 people with epilepsy hailing from different parts of Kashmir valley was screened for photosensitivity both clinically and on a standard protocol of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS provoked EEG recordings. Six (0.9% patients with a mean age of 15+6.57 years were found to be photosensitive; five had generalized and one had absence seizures. The baseline EEG in all patients showed generalized epileptiform discharges. On IPS, similar EEG findings were obtained with a narrow range of stimulus frequency i.e. 7-12 cycles/sec. There appears to be a low prevalence of photo-sensitivity in our epileptic population, possibly related to genetic factors.

  2. Qena Valley Evolution, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkareem, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Remotely sensed topographic and optical data were used to identify tectonic phenomena in Qena Valley. Using digital elevation model, morphotectonic features were identified. Processing and analysis were carried out by the combined use of: (1) digital elevation model, (2) digital drainage network analysis, (3) optical data analysis, and (4) lineament extraction and analysis. Structural information from other sources, such as geological maps, remotely sensed images and field observations were analyzed with geographic information system techniques. The analysis results reveal that the linear features of Qena Valley controlled by several structural elements have different trends NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S trends. Basement rocks at Qena valley has a major NE-SW trending and the sedimentary rocks are dominated by a NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S trends while, E-W are less abundant. The NE-SW trends at north Eastern Desert Egypt attain to normal faults that reflect extension in NW-SE direction, which is related to strike slip faulting along NW-SE directed Najd fault system. Further, the NE-SW is abundant as joints and fractures seem to have controlled the path of the Nile in Qift - Qena area. The NW-SE direction are abundant in the rock fracture trends (Gulf of Suez or Red Sea) and reflects Neoproterozoic faults have been reactivated in Neogene during rifting events of the Red Sea opening and marked the sedimentary rocks at Qena valley. The results of the lineament density map reveals that Qena valley was originated along one fault that trend like the Gulf of Suez and the range of the Red Sea Hills. This major fault was dissected by several lateral faults are seen well exposed at numerous places within the valley, especially on its eastern side. Both sides of Qena valley have a similar density matching may attain to that this lineaments affected Qena valley during rifting. This rifts it probably happened in Early Miocene associated with Red Sea tectonics. The general southward slope of

  3. 27 CFR 9.78 - Ohio River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ohio River Valley. 9.78... River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ohio River Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Ohio River Valley...

  4. Hydrothermal system of Long Valley caldera, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Lewis, R.E.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic setting of the hydrothermal system are described. The geochemical and thermal characteristics of the system are presented. A mathematical model of the Long Valley caldera is analyzed. (MHR)

  5. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  6. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  7. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  8. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  9. Detection of valley currents in graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    There are two valleys in the band structure of graphene zigzag ribbons, which can be used to construct valleytronic devices. We studied the use of a T junction formed by an armchair ribbon and a zigzag ribbon to detect the valley-dependent currents in a zigzag graphene ribbon. A current flowing in a zigzag ribbon is divided by the T junction into the zigzag and armchair leads and this separation process is valley dependent. By measuring the currents in the two outgoing leads, the valley-dependent currents in the incoming lead can be determined. The method does not require superconducting or magnetic elements as in other approaches and thus will be useful in the development of valleytronic devices.

  10. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  11. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  12. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  13. New River Valley Agriculture & Agritourism Strategic Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Martha A.; Scott, Kelli H.

    2017-01-01

    This strategic plan discusses plans for improving the marketing of agritourism and agribusiness in the New River Valley (Floyd, Giles, Montgomery and Pulaski Counties), and potentially increasing community wealth while improving the access to local crops and products. Includes Planning for an Agricultural Future in Giles, Montgomery, and Pulaski Counties: An Agricultural Regional Assessment, prepare for the New River Valley Agricultural & Agritourism Project Management Team by Matson Consu...

  14. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  15. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  16. Measured compaction for 24 extensometers in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the compaction data for 24 extensometers used for observations in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  17. Evapotranspiration Input Data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains monthly reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  18. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  19. Radon in water of Shu river valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Kuyanova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The values of radon and its daughter products in water of Shu River valley have been received, using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The radon concentration naturally increases in investigated water samples downstream the Shu River, reaching the maximum value in the Tashutkolsky basin. The radon and its daughter products in a human body of 15 % are in soft tissues have been calculated by a mathematical modeling method. The annual dose from radon and its daughter products calculated by a mathematical modeling method received by the residents living in Shu river valley is 0,03 mSv/year.

  20. The Health Valley: Global Entrepreneurial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    In the space of a decade, the Lake Geneva region has become the Health Valley, a world-class laboratory for discovering and developing healthcare of the future. Through visionary individuals and thanks to exceptional infrastructure this region has become one of the most dynamic in the field of innovation, including leading scientific research and exceptional actors for the commercialization of academic innovation to industrial applications that will improve the lives of patients and their families. Here follows the chronicle of a spectacular expansion into the Health Valley.

  1. Advanced seismic imaging of overdeepened alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burschil, Thomas; Buness, Hermann; Tanner, David; Gabriel, Gerald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Major European alpine valleys and basins are densely populated areas with infrastructure of international importance. To protect the environment by, e.g., geohazard assessment or groundwater estimation, understanding of the geological structure of these valleys is essential. The shape and deposits of a valley can clarify its genesis and allows a prediction of behaviour in future glaciations. The term "overdeepened" refers to valleys and basins, in which pressurized melt-water under the glacier erodes the valley below the fluvial level. Most overdeepened valleys or basins were thus refilled during the ice melt or remain in the form of lakes. The ICDP-project Drilling Overdeepened Alpine Valleys (DOVE) intends to correlate the sedimentary succession from boreholes between valleys in the entire alpine range. Hereby, seismic exploration is essential to predict the most promising well path and drilling site. In a first step, this DFG-funded project investigates the benefit of multi-component techniques for seismic imaging. At two test sites, the Tannwald Basin and the Lienz Basin, the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics acquired P-wave reflection profiles to gain structural and facies information. Built on the P-wave information, several S-wave reflection profiles were acquired in the pure SH-wave domain as well as 6-C reflection profiles using a horizontal S-wave source in inline and crossline excitation and 3-C receivers. Five P-wave sections reveal the structure of the Tannwald Basin, which is a distal branch basin of the Rhine Glacier. Strong reflections mark the base of the basin, which has a maximum depth of 240 metres. Internal structures and facies vary strongly and spatially, but allow a seismic facies characterization. We distinguish lacustrine, glacio-fluvial, and deltaic deposits, which make up the fill of the Tannwald Basin. Elements of the SH-wave and 6-C seismic imaging correlate with major structures in the P-wave image, but vary in detail. Based on

  2. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Weyer, Jacqueline; Leman, Patricia A.; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944–2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted into 15 lineages. A 2010 isolate from a patient in South Africa potentially exposed to co-infection with live animal vaccine and wild virus was a reassortant. The potential influence of large-scale use of live animal vaccine on evolution of Rift Valley fever virus is discussed. PMID:22172568

  4. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-04-01

    The discussion is presented under the following chapter titles: geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California; the source of geothermal heat; status of geothermal resources (worldwide); geothermal aspects of Imperial Valley, California; potential geothermal development in Imperial Valley; environmental considerations; and proposed plan for development. (JGB)

  5. Observation of acoustic valley vortex states and valley-chirality locked beam splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin; Lu, Jiuyang; Wen, Xinhua; Shen, Yuanyuan; Ke, Manzhu; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Zhengyou

    2017-05-01

    We report an experimental observation of the classical version of valley polarized states in a two-dimensional hexagonal sonic crystal. The acoustic valley states, which carry specific linear momenta and orbital angular momenta, were selectively excited by external Gaussian beams and conveniently confirmed by the pressure distribution outside the crystal, according to the criterion of momentum conservation. The vortex nature of such intriguing bulk crystal states was directly characterized by scanning the phase profile inside the crystal. In addition, we observed a peculiar beam-splitting phenomenon, in which the separated beams are constructed by different valleys and locked to the opposite vortex chirality. The exceptional sound transport, encoded with valley-chirality locked information, may serve as the basis of designing conceptually interesting acoustic devices with unconventional functions.

  6. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... resources within this remote area, many people associate Saline Valley only with Warm Springs. Since the... by partnerships between the NPS and the Tribe. As a consequence of conflicting perceptions and values...

  7. College in Paradise! (Paradise Valley Shopping Mall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolland, Lucile B.

    Rio Salado Community College (RSCC), a non-campus college within the Maricopa Community College District, offers hundreds of day, late afternoon, and evening classes at locations throughout the county. The Paradise Valley community had always participated heavily in the evening classes offered by RSCC at local high schools. In fall 1982, an effort…

  8. Businessman's Efforts Help Reinvent Valley Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Diane B.

    2007-01-01

    Machine shop and metal fabrication programs across the country have struggled since the mid-1980s when the rise in global competition resulted in more manufacturing jobs going overseas. Blackstone Valley Regional Vocational Technical High School in Upton, Massachusetts, was able to keep its program up and running due in large part to its…

  9. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  10. 27 CFR 9.103 - Mimbres Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mimbres Valley. 9.103 Section 9.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Counties, New Mexico. The boundaries are as follows: The beginning point is located at Faywood Station on...

  11. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located within Napa County, California. From the beginning point at the conjuction of the Napa County-Sonoma County line and the Napa County-Lake County line, the boundary runs along— (1) The Napa County-Lake County line; (2) Putah Creek and the western and southern shores of Lake...

  12. 27 CFR 9.76 - Knights Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located in northeastern Sonoma County, California. From the beginning point lying at the intersection of the Sonoma/Lake County line and the north line of Section 11, Township 10...,” and “Mount St. Helena Quadrangle” maps to the point of intersection with the Lake County line on the...

  13. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the

  14. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research time periods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  15. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  16. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  17. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  18. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Ying-Tao

    2011-09-28

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  20. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    Predicting the effects of hydrological alterations on terrestrial stream valley ecosystems requires multidisciplinary approaches involving both engineers and ecologists. Groundwater discharge in stream valleys and other lowland areas support a number of species rich ecosystems, and their protection...... is prioritised worldwide. Protection requires improved knowledge on the functioning of these ecosystems and especially the linkages between vegetation, groundwater discharge and water level conditions are crucial for management applications. Groundwater abstraction affects catchment hydrology and thereby also...... groundwater discharge. Numerical hydrological modelling has been widely used for evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources and effects of abstraction, however, the importance of local scale heterogeneity becomes increasingly important in the assessment of local damage to these groundwater dependent...

  1. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley, India. 1033. Figure 1. Geology of the study area and the location of sampling sites. 4. Results and discussion ..... 1036. G H Jeelani et al. F ig u re. 2 . Spa tia l v a ria tio n o f m a jo r io ns in g ro undw a ter a cro ss the a llu via l ba sin o f the. Ka sh mir. V a lley.

  2. 27 CFR 9.35 - Edna Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Edna Valley. 9.35 Section 9.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... identified as “T31S/T32S” on the U.S.G.S. map; (4) Thence east along township line “T31S/T32S”, across Price...

  3. Flood Frequency Analysis of Main Nara Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Manohar Lal; Bakhshal Khan Lashari; Khalifa Qasim Laghari

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the flood of 2007 and its frequency analysis at MNY (Main Nara Valley), and generally describe flood of 2010 in Sindh Pakistan. Heavy monsoon rain and cyclones cause the flood conditions in Sindh. The damages happened to the infrastructure of the MNVD from RD (Reduced Distance) 0-100 and the ecological impacts of the flood on the local region of Taluka Johi, District Dadu. For flood risk assessment and its description, knowledge of extreme flood events and...

  4. Optical manipulation of valley pseduospin in 2D semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang

    Valley polarization associated with the occupancy in the energy degenerate but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in the momentum space closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for future quantum information technologies. Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) crystals, with broken inversion symmetry and large spin-orbital coupling, support robust valley polarization and therefore provide an important platform for studying valley-dependent physics. Besides optical excitation and photoluminescence detection, valley polarization has been electrically measured through the valley Hall effect and created through spin injection from ferromagnetic semiconductor contacts. Moreover, the energy degeneracy of the valley degree of freedom has been lifted by the optical Stark effect. Recently, we have demonstrated optical manipulation of valley coherence, i.e., of the valley pseudospin, by the optical Stark effect in monolayer WSe2. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotated the valley pseudospin on the femtosecond time scale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be optically controlled by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. The pseudospin rotation was identified by changes in the polarization of the photoluminescence. In addition, by varying the time delay between the excitation and control pulses, we directly probed the lifetime of the intervalley coherence. Similar rotation levels have also been observed in static magneto-optic experiments. Our work presents an important step towards the full control of the valley degree of freedom in 2D semiconductors. The work was done in collaboration with Dr. Dezheng Sun and Prof. Tony F. Heinz.

  5. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, James W.; Price, Don; Waddell, K.M.

    1969-01-01

    This report is the third in a series by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, which describes the water resources of the western basins of Utah. Its purpose is to present available hydrologic data for Rush Valley, to provide an evaluation of the potential water-resources development of the valley, and to identify needed studies that would help provide an understanding of the valley's water supply.

  6. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Skull Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, James W.; Waddell, K.M.

    1968-01-01

    This report is the second in a series by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, which describes the water resources of the western basins of Utah. Its purpose is to present available hydrologic data on Skull Valley, to provide an evaluation of the potential water-resource development of the valley, and to identify needed studies that would help provide an understandingof the valley's water supply.

  7. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfi, J; Mol, J A; Rahman, R; Klimeck, G; Simmons, M Y; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.

  8. Disorder-dependent valley properties in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Kha

    2017-07-19

    We investigate the effect of disorder on exciton valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. By analyzing the polarization properties of photoluminescence, the valley coherence (VC) and valley polarization (VP) are quantified across the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance. We find that disorder plays a critical role in the exciton VC, while affecting VP less. For different monolayer samples with disorder characterized by their Stokes shift (SS), VC decreases in samples with higher SS while VP does not follow a simple trend. These two methods consistently demonstrate that VC as defined by the degree of linearly polarized photoluminescence is more sensitive to disorder, motivating further theoretical studies.

  9. Subsurface stratigraphy of the eastern Hollister Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMasters, Catherine R.; Herd, Darrell G.; Throckmorton, Constance K.; Heusser, Linda E.

    1987-01-01

    In September 1977, four cores were recovered by shallow auger drilling from Hollister Valley, California, near the Calaveras fault. The wells were drilled to search for evidence that Hollister Valley may have been occupied by a large lake during the late Pleistocene or Holocene. This small valley, near Monterey Bay, may have been dammed by a large landslide on the San Andreas fault (Jenkins, 1973; Herd and Helley, 1977). The cores sampled the first 38 m of sediment below the valley floor, but no lacustrine deposits were found at these sites; a very detailed record to Holocene alluviation in a tectonically subsiding basin. 

  10. Desvendando o fenômeno bullying nas escolas públicas de Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Krieger Grossi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullying es una palabra inglesa que fue adoptada en diversos países para referirse a intimidación. Peleas, ofensas, comentarios maldosos, agresiones físicas y sicológicas, represión son tipos de violencia generalmente asociados a infancia. Estudios indican que juegos de mal gusto pueden generar consecuencias serias como baja auto-estima, nuevas fuentes de violencia e, incluso, casos de suicidio. Este estudio viene siendo desarrollado desde julio de 2007 en cuatro colegios públicos de la ciudad de Porto Alegre - RS, totalizando 192 alumnos participantes. A través de cuestionario y grupos focales se observó que mas de 70% de los alumnos perciben la existencia de perjurios en el ambiente escolar y casi 40% consideran regular/ malo/ pésimo las relaciones en la colegio, reflejando el mal-estar del estudiante en relación a la colegio. Esta dinámica viene llevando cada vez más jóvenes al aislamiento y a la exclusión

  11. Antibodies against rabies virus in dogs with and without history of vaccination in Santa Maria - RS - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gonzalez Fernandes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the frequency and magnitude of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus (RABV in dogs with and without historic of vaccination in Santa Maria/RS. Group A included serum samples from 440 dogs with recent historic of vaccination against rabies, obtained during the 2015 rabies vaccination campaign. Group B included 300 serum samples from dogs submitted to the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria in 2015, whose historic of rabies vaccination was unknown. Serum samples were submitted to the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT to detect neutralizing antibodies against RABV. In group A, 70.6% (310/440 of the samples had neutralizing antibody titers ≥0.5 international units per milliliter (IU mL-1, considered an indicative of protection against rabies by the World Health Organization. However, approximately 30% of the dogs did not contain antibodies in adequate levels. In group B, 42.3% (127/300 of the samples contained neutralizing antibody titers ≥0.5IU mL-1 and 57.7% (173/300 were negative or contained titers below of the value considered immunized. These results demonstrate that an important proportion of vaccinated dogs (~30% did not develop adequate antibody levels, mainly those receiving a single vaccine dose. Serologic testing of animals with unknown historic of vaccination revealed relatively low vaccine coverage in the general dog population. Thus, reformulation of immunization strategies - especially the recommendation of a boost vaccination 30 days after the primary dose - and extension of vaccination campaigns are necessary to reach adequate levels and coverage of immunity against RABV in the canine population.

  12. Candida species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of blood isolates at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Giseli C. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Candidemia is a bloodstream infection produced by Candida genus yeasts. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and the fluconazole susceptibility in Candida species isolated from patients at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS. Methods: Records from the laboratory were used to identify patients with positive blood cultures for Candida between 2010 and 2011. The in vitro activity of fluconazole was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Were analyzed 24 positive blood cultures for Candida and found a 54.16% mortality rate. C. albicans was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. For susceptibility to fluconazole, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis showed 100% sensitivity. However, C. krusei was 100% resistant; and C. glabrata, 50% resistant. Conclusion: The high mortality and fluconazole resistance rates emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of candidemia in a hospital environment.

  13. OCCURRENCE OF MACROSCOPIC FUNGI IN DIFFERENT FOREST TYPES IN THE FORESTRY RESEARCH CENTRE (FEPAGRO, SANTA MARIA, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Maciel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic fungi performance a important role in the maintenance of forest environments, and studies related with the identification of species are fundamental to the research progress. This study aimed to realize a survey the species diversity of wood decomposing fungi in populations of Pinus elliottii Engelm, Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Acacia mearnsii de Wild and natural forest, in State Foundation for Agricultural Research - FEPAGRO, Forestry Research Center, located in Santa Maria, RS. Were collected 53 samples of macroscopic fungi in four areas, being 16 samples in forest of P. Elliottii; 12 samples in forest of E. globulus, 12 samples in forest of A. mearnsii and 13 samples in of native forest. In the laboratory, five genera were identified to the species level: Fuligo septica (L. F.H. Wigg, Gloeoporus dichrous (Fr. Bress., Lycogala epidendrum (L. Fr. e Trametes villosa (Sw. Kreisel.

  14. Cd, Cu, and Mn from Uruguay River Basin in Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil, and their toxicological potential for human leukocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Rezer Costa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the limnology from the Medium Uruguay River Basin in Uruguaiana, Brazil, with a focus on the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Mn, to assess the toxicological potential (cytotoxicity and genotoxicity for humans using as biological matrix of study human leukocyte cells. The conductivity, resistivity, and dissolved O2 levels exceeded the limits recommended by the National Environmental Council (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente - CONAMA. The percentage of non-viable human leukocyte cells exposed to water samples was approximately 20% higher than that of the negative control (<3%, but similar to the positive control. The DNA damage index was high for all heavy metal concentrations assayed when compared to the negative control 12±2.96, p < 0.0001, with a range of 155.66±23.89 to 194.33±23.23, but similar to the positive control (210.62±27.48. Moreover, the leukocyte degeneration index was higher in all samples containing heavy metals than in the negative control (4%, which demonstrates to be due the presence of Cu (11.8-12.5%, Cd (13-15.6%, and Mn (15.6-22.5%. Taken together, our results show that the quality from water samples analyzed is below than recommended by CONAMA and offers risk of contamination by heavy metals for the general population.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Rio Grande, RS, Brazil Epidemiologia molecular do HIV-1 em Rio Grande, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Barral de Martínez

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a molecular epidemiological study to investigate HIV-1 strains in Rio Grande, southern Brazil, searching for an association with transmission mode and risk behavior. Patients (185 identified at an AIDS treatment reference Hospital, from 1994 to 1997, were included; from which 107 blood samples were obtained. Nested PCR was realized once for each sample; for amplified samples (69 HIV subtypes were classified using the heteroduplex mobility assay. Subtypes identified were B (75%, C (22% and F (3%. All infections with C were diagnosed after 1994. Comparing patients with B and C, no differences were detected regarding demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics; survival analysis did not reveal differences in HIV to AIDS evolution. A higher proportion of injecting drug users, IDU (not significant, pUm estudo de epidemiologia molecular foi conduzido para investigar subtipos de HIV-1 circulando em Rio Grande, RS, buscando uma associação com modos de transmissão e comportamentos de risco. Pacientes (185 identificados de 1994 a 1997, em um Hospital de referência para o tratamento da AIDS foram incluidos; amostras de sangue foram obtidas de 107. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR foi realizada uma única vez; nas amostras que amplificaram, (69 o subtipo foi classificado pelo ensaio de mobilidade do heteroduplex (HMA. Os subtipos de HIV identificados foram B (75%, C (22% e F (3%. As infecções com C foram diagnosticadas após 1994. Pacientes infectados com B e C não mostraram diferenças (características demográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais; a análise de sobrevida não mostrou diferenças na evolução HIV-AIDS. Maior proporção de usuários de drogas injetáveis (UDI (não significativa, p<0,07, foi identificada entre infectados com C. Este resultado sugere C ter sido introduzido nesta área através dos UDI, sendo transmitido pelos seus parceiros sexuais, a pessoas com outras práticas de risco.

  16. Changes in soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblages after a sulphuric acid spill in the Rio Grande Harbor (RS, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemvenuti, C E; Rosa-Filho, J S; Elliott, M

    2003-05-01

    The structure of macrobenthic assemblages in Rio Grande Harbor was analyzed during and after a sulphuric acid spill in August 1988. Five stations were sampled four times between September 1988 and March 1999. At each station, three samples were taken using a van Veen grab (0.078 m2). A total of 22 taxa were collected including Crustacea (9 spp.), Polychaeta (7 spp.), Mollusca (3 spp.), Phoronida (1 sp.), Nemertinea (1 sp.), and Plathyelminthea (1 sp.). The macrobenthic assemblages suffered different impacts depending on station location and time: 1) immediate impact, i.e., during acid discharge, as at the station nearest (250 m) the acid spill source; 2) impact some time after the discharge, as at the station 500 m downstream from the acid spill source; and 3) absence of direct impact on the remaining sampling points, on the discharge area outer limit. The macrobenthic assemblage recovered six months after the sulphuric acid spill.

  17. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part I. Cultural Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Delmues (or Swiss Bob) Well where there was a station, then west across Dry Lake Valley toward Coyote Spring to another station (Lloyd, 1980). The line...in the recorded surface assemblages of the temporary camps. Further investigations may $ Etag E-TR-48-III-I 120 clarify the specific nature of the

  18. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.

    2016-01-10

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  19. Volume of Valley Networks on Mars and Its Hydrologic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W.; Cang, X.; Howard, A. D.; Heo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Valley networks on Mars are river-like features that offer the best evidence for water activities in its geologic past. Previous studies have extracted valley network lines automatically from digital elevation model (DEM) data and manually from remotely sensed images. The volume of material removed by valley networks is an important parameter that could help us infer the amount of water needed to carve the valleys. A progressive black top hat (PBTH) transformation algorithm has been adapted from image processing to extract valley volume and successfully applied to simulated landform and Ma'adim Valles, Mars. However, the volume of valley network excavation on Mars has not been estimated on a global scale. In this study, the PBTH method was applied to the whole Mars to estimate this important parameter. The process was automated with Python in ArcGIS. Polygons delineating the valley associated depressions were generated by using a multi-flow direction growth method, which started with selected high point seeds on a depth grid (essentially an inverted valley) created by PBTH transformation and grew outward following multi-flow direction on the depth grid. Two published versions of valley network lines were integrated to automatically select depression polygons that represent the valleys. Some crater depressions that are connected with valleys and thus selected in the previous step were removed by using information from a crater database. Because of large distortion associated with global dataset in projected maps, the volume of each cell within a valley was calculated using the depth of the cell multiplied by the spherical area of the cell. The volumes of all the valley cells were then summed to produce the estimate of global valley excavation volume. Our initial result of this estimate was ~2.4×1014 m3. Assuming a sediment density of 2900 kg/m3, a porosity of 0.35, and a sediment load of 1.5 kg/m3, the global volume of water needed to carve the valleys was

  20. Knickpoints and Hanging Valleys of Licus Vallis, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Fassett, C.

    2016-12-01

    Licus Vallis is a 350 km long valley system located along the dichotomy boundary on Mars. The main trunk of the valley is incised 200-700 m into the surrounding terrain. The valley heads at an outlet breach of a shallow, 30 km diameter impact crater, and is also fed by a system of tributaries incised into the plateau surrounding Licus Vallis. Many of the tributary valleys, as well as the main stem of the valley fed by the paleolake outlet, have profiles that are not smoothly graded, but rather have distinct reaches with concave downward topography. These sections are either knickpoints or hanging valleys that develop in response to changes in the effective local base level, changes in climate conditions during incision of the valley, or lithologic boundaries in the substrate. Here we present remote sensing observations from images and topography to test these competing hypotheses and further characterize the evolution of this large valley system. Slope-watershed area relationships for the tributaries and main trunk valley are used to distinguish between knickpoints and hanging valleys. Analysis of orbital images does not reveal any distinct layer above which knickpoints develop, and the elevation of knickpoints show no systematic trends that might be expected of a regional lithologic unit(s). Our preliminary results suggest that the distance of knickpoint retreat is correlated with the position of the tributary valley and not the watershed area. Downstream valleys have retreated the most, suggesting they have had the most time to adjust to lowering of the local base level associated with incision of the main valley. These results are most consistent with a wave of incision sweeping up the valley system as it adjusts to a low base level in the northern plains. This conclusion is also consistent with observations of the incision depth of Licus Vallis, which increases approximately linearly downstream. Understanding this signature of base level control on the incision

  1. Historical Geography of the Upper Tombigbee Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    0-0117 005 AL4AA8A IIV IN BZFI~~N$A cmkf FOR TH4I STW ~V O5-C PlO 5/4045TORICAL W5APm or T~iq LP t’ viLLEY. tuM AY t an 0 Po ot C4714(76) iL d Au rI...Archeology Upper Tombigbee Valley Cultural Resources Tombigbee River Predictive Models * A Settlement Patterns Transportation Activities cont on n xt...Tombigbee River Multi- Resource District of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway in Alabama and Mississippi. THE CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF SOUTHERN HISTORY

  2. Pleistocene glaciation in the Logar Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Stojilković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the glacial remains from the time of the last glacial maximum in the Logar Valley in the Kamnik-Savinja Alps. The purpose of the work is to reinterpret the findings written so far and the geomorphologic remains from the time of the Pleistocene glaciation and to prepare a new proposal of the circumference of the last glacial maximum in this area. The numerical analysis was based on the findings gained with field work. According to the findings, the maximum glacier extent was drawn and a three-dimensional reconstruction of the topography of the surface was created.

  3. Afforestation for improving valley urban air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Peter C.; Chen, Y.C.; Lu, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Air Quality Management at Urban, Regional, and Global Scales, Third International Symposium on Air Quality Management Lanzhou is one of the major cities in northwest China and the capital of Gansu Province and located at a narrow (2-8 km width), long (40-km), NW-SE oriented valley basin (elevation: 1,500- 1,600-m) with the Tibetan plateau in the west, Baita mountain (above 1,700-m elevation) in the north, and the Gaolan mountain in the south. Due to topographic and meteorol...

  4. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  5. The uncanny valley in games and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Tinwell, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny

  6. Oscillating Nocturnal Slope Flow in a Coastal Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mahrt, Larry

    1985-01-01

    over the sloping valley floor was studied during a special observing campaign. A downslope gravity flow interacts with even colder surface air at the valley floor. The latter originates as cold marine air or previous drainage of cold air. Regular oscillations which appear to be trapped, terrain...

  7. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  8. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Peter; Mubemba, Benjamin; Nhambirre, Ofélia; Neves, Luis; Coetzer, J.A.W.; Venter, Estelle H.

    2016-01-01

    In early 2014, abortions and death of ruminants were reported on farms in Maputo and Gaza Provinces, Mozambique. Serologic analysis and quantitative and conventional reverse transcription PCR confirmed the presence of Rift Valley fever virus. The viruses belonged to lineage C, which is prevalent among Rift Valley fever viruses in southern Africa. PMID:27869589

  9. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  10. Characterization of inland-valleys for smallholder dairy production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-level (village or town, household level) characterization of inland-valley areas was undertaken in order to assess the potentials and constraints associated with inland-valleys agriculture production in a croplivestock system in 3 west african countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Nigeria). User groups and opinion leaders in ...

  11. Groundwater recharge on east side soils of the Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    After four years of drought, groundwater levels in the Salinas Valley are at historically low levels which threaten to adversely affect farming in the Salinas Valley. Given the prospect of a strong El Niño this coming winter, it seems prudent to plan to capture as much of the rainfall as possible to...

  12. Valley Fever: Danger Lurking in a Dust Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Larry; Gaab, Erin M.; Sanchez, Javier; Bui, Phuong Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Hoyer, Katrina K.; Peterson, Michael W.; Ojcius, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii contribute to the development of Valley Fever. The ability of these fungal pathogens to evade the host immune system creates difficulty in recognition and treatment of this debilitating infection. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of Valley Fever and approaches to improve prevention, detection, and treatment. PMID:25038397

  13. Cache valley virus in a patient diagnosed with aseptic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nang L; Zhao, Guoyan; Hull, Rene; Shelly, Mark A; Wong, Susan J; Wu, Guang; St George, Kirsten; Wang, David; Menegus, Marilyn A

    2013-06-01

    Cache Valley virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes and had been linked to central nervous system-associated diseases. A case of Cache Valley virus infection is described. The virus was cultured from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid and identified with real-time reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing, which also yielded the complete viral coding sequences.

  14. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Monument. 7.26 Section 7.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.26 Death Valley National Monument. (a) Mining. Mining in Death Valley National Monument is subject to the following regulations, which are...

  15. A plateau-valley separation method for multifunctional surfaces characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    method based on the separation between the plateau and valley regions has been developed. After properly determining a threshold between plateaus and valleys, the two regions are divided in two distinct profiles, which can be studied separately according to the specific function....

  16. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  17. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  18. Geddes, Zoos and the Valley Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Thompson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Edinburgh Zoological Garden was a pioneering example of the modern approach to animal display, placing animals in naturalistic settings that demanded innovative landscape design. The concept for Edinburgh Zoo, opened in 1913, was devised by Patrick Geddes and developed in collaboration with Frank C Mears and Geddes's daughter, Norah. This paper draws on Welter's (2002 important study of Geddes's vision of the city and on Geddes biographies, as well as on original archive material, to explore aspects of Geddes's vision for landscape architecture in the early twentieth century. The paper discusses Geddes's contribution to contemporary design and planning theory through the concept of the valley section, which comes to an understanding of the global through the local and in turn inspires a vision of the universal. Geddes was influenced by Hagenbeck's design for his zoo, near Hamburg, and by the New York Zoological Park, in developing displays for Edinburgh zoo that attempted to show animal behaviour as it would be in its natural habitat. The work of the German evolutionary biologist, Ernst Haeckel, further inspired Geddes to conceptualise the design as one where, just as ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, so human civilisation might be recapitulated. He developed a three-dimensional expression of his hypothetical 'valley section' as a model for interaction between life and the environment. The zoo 'within' a city becomes a model for the ideal city, a city 'within' its region, reflecting the highest attainment of human development, yet still linked to the most primitive of origins.

  19. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Owens Valley, a long, narrow valley located along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada in east-central California, is the main source of water for the city of Los Angeles. The city diverts most of the surface water in the valley into the Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct system, which transports the water more than 200 miles south to areas of distribution and use. Additionally, ground water is pumped or flows from wells to supplement the surface-water diversions to the river-aqueduct system. Pumpage from wells needed to supplement water export has increased since 1970, when a second aqueduct was put into service, and local concerns have been expressed that the increased pumpage may have had a detrimental effect on the environment and the indigenous alkaline scrub and meadow plant communities in the valley. The scrub and meadow communities depend on soil moisture derived from precipitation and the unconfined part of a multilayered aquifer system. This report, which describes the hydrogeology of the aquifer system and the water resources of the valley, is one in a series designed to (1) evaluate the effects that groundwater pumping has on scrub and meadow communities and (2) appraise alternative strategies to mitigate any adverse effects caused by, pumping. Two principal topographic features are the surface expression of the geologic framework--the high, prominent mountains on the east and west sides of the valley and the long, narrow intermountain valley floor. The mountains are composed of sedimentary, granitic, and metamorphic rocks, mantled in part by volcanic rocks as well as by glacial, talus, and fluvial deposits. The valley floor is underlain by valley fill that consists of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated alluvial fan, transition-zone, glacial and talus, and fluvial and lacustrine deposits. The valley fill also includes interlayered recent volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks. The bedrock surface beneath the valley fill is a narrow, steep-sided graben

  20. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  1. Detection of valley polarization in graphene by a superconducting contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmerov, A R; Beenakker, C W J

    2007-04-13

    Because the valleys in the band structure of graphene are related by time-reversal symmetry, electrons from one valley are reflected as holes from the other valley at the junction with a superconductor. We show how this Andreev reflection can be used to detect the valley polarization of edge states produced by a magnetic field. In the absence of intervalley relaxation, the conductance GNS=(2e2/h)(1-cosTheta) of the junction on the lowest quantum Hall plateau is entirely determined by the angle Theta between the valley isospins of the edge states approaching and leaving the superconductor. If the superconductor covers a single edge, Theta=0 and no current can enter the superconductor. A measurement of GNS then determines the intervalley relaxation time.

  2. Fracture controls on valley persistence: the Cairngorm Granite pluton, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. M.; Gillespie, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Valleys are remarkably persistent features in many different tectonic settings, but the reasons for this persistence are rarely explored. Here, we examine the structural controls on valleys in the Cairngorms Mountains, Scotland, part of the passive margin of the eastern North Atlantic. We consider valleys at three scales: straths, glens and headwater valleys. The structural controls on valleys in and around the Cairngorm Granite pluton were examined on satellite and aerial photographs and by field survey. Topographic lineaments, including valleys, show no consistent orientation with joint sets or with sheets of microgranite and pegmatitic granite. In this granite landscape, jointing is not a first-order control on valley development. Instead, glens and headwater valleys align closely to quartz veins and linear alteration zones (LAZs). LAZs are zones of weakness in the granite pluton in which late-stage hydrothermal alteration and hydro-fracturing have greatly reduced rock mass strength and increased permeability. LAZs, which can be kilometres long and >700 m deep, are the dominant controls on the orientation of valleys in the Cairngorms. LAZs formed in the roof zone of the granite intrusion. Although the Cairngorm pluton was unroofed soon after emplacement, the presence of Old Red Sandstone (ORS) outliers in the terrain to the north and east indicates that the lower relief of the sub-ORS basement surface has been lowered by 1 km of vertical erosion and for 400 Myr. This valley persistence is a combined product of regionally low rates of basement exhumation and of the existence of LAZs in the Cairngorm pluton and sub-parallel Caledonide fractures in the surrounding terrain with depths that exceed 1 km.

  3. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  4. An epidemiological model of Rift Valley fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Leahy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We present and explore a novel mathematical model of the epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever (RVF. RVF is an Old World, mosquito-borne disease affecting both livestock and humans. The model is an ordinary differential equation model for two populations of mosquito species, those that can transmit vertically and those that cannot, and for one livestock population. We analyze the model to find the stability of the disease-free equlibrium and test which model parameters affect this stability most significantly. This model is the basis for future research into the predication of future outbreaks in the Old World and the assessment of the threat of introduction into the New World.

  5. Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradaib, Imadeldin E.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Elageb, Rehab M.; Khristova, Marina L.; Carroll, Serena A.; Elkhidir, Isam M.; Karsany, Mubarak E.; Karrar, AbdelRahim E.; Elbashir, Mustafa I.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006–2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas. PMID:23347790

  6. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai

    2016-02-29

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  7. Origin and evolution of valleys on Martian volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulick, V.C.; Baker, V.R. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1990-08-30

    Morphological analyses of six Martian volcanoes, Ceraunius Tholus, Hecates Tholus, Alba Patera, Hadriaca Patera, Apollinaris Patera, and Tyrrhena Patera, indicate that fluvial processes were the dominant influence in the initiation and subsequent development of many dissecting valleys. Lava processes and possibly volcanic density flows were also important as valley-forming processes. Fluvial valleys are especially well developed on Alba Patera, Ceraunius Tholus, and Hecates Tholus. These valleys are inset into the surrounding landscape. They formed in regions of subdued lava flow morphology, contain tributaries, and tend to widen slightly in the downstream direction. Lava channels on Alba Patera are located on the crest of lava flows and have a discontinuous, irregular surface morphology, and distributary patterns. These channels sometimes narrow toward their termini. Possible volcanic density flow channels are located on the northern flank of Ceraunius Tholus. Valleys dissecting Apollinaris Patera, Hadriaca Patera, and Tyrrhena Patera appear to have a complex evolution, probably a mixed fluvial and lava origin. They are inset into a subdued (possibly mantled) surface, lack tributaries, and either have fairly constant widths or widen slightly downvalley. Valleys surrounding the caldera of Apollinaris appear to have formed by fluvial and possibly by volcanic density flow processes, while those on the Apollinaris fan structure may have a mixed lava and fluvial origin. Valleys on Tyrrhena have broad flat floors and theater heads, which have been extensively enlarged, probably by sapping.

  8. Topological valley transport at bilayer graphene domain walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Long; Shi, Zhiwen; Nair, Nityan; Lv, Yinchuan; Jin, Chenhao; Velasco, Jairo; Ojeda-Aristizabal, Claudia; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C; Zettl, Alex; Analytis, James; Wang, Feng

    2015-04-30

    Electron valley, a degree of freedom that is analogous to spin, can lead to novel topological phases in bilayer graphene. A tunable bandgap can be induced in bilayer graphene by an external electric field, and such gapped bilayer graphene is predicted to be a topological insulating phase protected by no-valley mixing symmetry, featuring quantum valley Hall effects and chiral edge states. Observation of such chiral edge states, however, is challenging because inter-valley scattering is induced by atomic-scale defects at real bilayer graphene edges. Recent theoretical work has shown that domain walls between AB- and BA-stacked bilayer graphene can support protected chiral edge states of quantum valley Hall insulators. Here we report an experimental observation of ballistic (that is, with no scattering of electrons) conducting channels at bilayer graphene domain walls. We employ near-field infrared nanometre-scale microscopy (nanoscopy) to image in situ bilayer graphene layer-stacking domain walls on device substrates, and we fabricate dual-gated field effect transistors based on the domain walls. Unlike single-domain bilayer graphene, which shows gapped insulating behaviour under a vertical electrical field, bilayer graphene domain walls feature one-dimensional valley-polarized conducting channels with a ballistic length of about 400 nanometres at 4 kelvin. Such topologically protected one-dimensional chiral states at bilayer graphene domain walls open up opportunities for exploring unique topological phases and valley physics in graphene.

  9. Geothermal hydrology of Warner Valley, Oregon: a reconnaissance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammel, E.A.; Craig, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Warner Valley and its southern extension, Coleman Valley, are two of several high-desert valleys in the Basin and Range province of south-central Oregon that contain thermal waters. At least 20 thermal springs, defined as having temperatures of 20/sup 0/C or more, issue from Tertiary basaltic flows and tuffs in and near the valleys. Many shallow wells also produce thermal waters. The highest measured temperature is 127/sup 0/C, reported from a well known as Crump geyser, at a depth of 200 meters. The hottest spring, located near Crump geyser, has a surface temperature of 78/sup 0/C. The occurrence of these thermal waters is closely related to faults and fault intersections in the graben and horst structure of the valleys. Chemical analyses show that the thermal waters are of two types: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate waters. Chemical indicators show that the geothermal system is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. Conductive heat flow in areas of the valley unaffected by hydrothermal convection is probably about 75 milliwatts per square meter. The normal thermal gradient in valley-fill dpeosits in these areas may be about 40/sup 0/C per kilometer. Geothermometers and mixing models indicate that temperatures of equilibration are at least 170/sup 0/C for the thermal components of the hotter waters. The size and location of geothermal reservoirs are unknown.

  10. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  11. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B; Farrell, Roberta L

    2013-05-28

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution.

  12. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  13. Near-surface heat flow in Saline Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mase, C.W.; Galanis, S.P. Jr.; Munroe, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    With the exception of values from one borehole drilled at Palm Spring and three boreholes drilled around Saline Valley dry lake, eight new heatflow values in Saline Valley, California, are within or somewhat below the range one would expect for this region of the Basin and Range heat-flow province. The lack of recent volcanism in the area and the apparently normal Basin and Range heat flow suggest that geothermal systems within the valley are stable stationary phases supported by high regional heat flow and forced convection.

  14. Valley-selective topologically ordered states in irradiated bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Gapless bilayer graphene is susceptible to a variety of spontaneously gapped states. As predicted by theory and observed by experiment, the ground state is, however, topologically trivial, because a valley-independent gap is energetically favorable. Here, we show that under the application of interlayer electric field and circularly polarized light, one valley can be selected to exhibit the original interaction instability while the other is frozen out. Tuning this Floquet system stabilizes multiple competing topologically ordered states, distinguishable by edge transport and circular dichroism. Notably, quantized charge, spin, and valley Hall conductivities coexist in one stabilized state.

  15. Holocene alluvial fills in the South Loup Valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, David W.

    1989-07-01

    Four Holocene alluvial fills are present in Nebraska's South Loup River valley. Fill IV, the oldest and thickest, was deposited between 10,200 and 4800 14C yr B.P.; Fill III has an age of about 3000 14C yr B.P.; Fill II is younger than 2100 and older than 900 14C yr B.P.; and Fill I is younger than 900 14C yr B.P. Regional contemporaneity of valley alluviation in the eastcentral Great Plains suggests that climate has controlled long-term sediment storage in the South Loup River valley.

  16. VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1985-04-01

    An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  18. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  19. Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge Common Dragonflies and Damselflies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Canaan Valley NWR is cooperating with the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program to inventory dragonflies and damselflies in an...

  20. Comparison of access to medicines between Klang Valley and East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    income of USD1/person/day) between urbanised Klang Valley and rural East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: A semi-structured interview was conducted with caregivers to determine demographics, access to medicines, knowledge, ...

  1. Anuran Call Survey Summary 2006 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anuran call surveys were conducted at Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in April-June 2006 using the protocol developed by the North American Amphibian...

  2. Fishery Management Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) contains a limited fishery resource. Hogback Ponds, Round Lake, Bituminous Pond, and Blick Estate Stream have fishery...

  3. Law Enforcement Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Valley NWR Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about...

  4. NPP Tropical Forest: Magdalena Valley, Colombia, 1970-1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass, litterfall, and nutrient content of above-ground vegetation and soil for a tropical seasonal evergreen forest at Magdalena Valley, Columbia,...

  5. Networking With Landscape: Local Initiatives in an Italian Alpine Valley

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giorgio De Ros; Astrid Mazzola

    2012-01-01

    ...? To increase our understanding of these issues, an analysis was carried out by using the theoretical framework of the sociology of translation on 8 landscape-based initiatives in an Italian Alpine valley...

  6. Rock glacier inventory, Printse Valley, Valais, Switzerland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Printse Valley is a 16-km-long north-orientated basin. The south-part (summits at 300 m asl) is glacierized. The intermediate sector, more continental, is very...

  7. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  8. A Statistical Model of Rift Valley Fever Activity in Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John M. Drake; Ali N. Hassan; John C. Beier

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral disease of animals and humans and a global public health concern due to its ecological plasticity, adaptivity, and potential for spread to countries with a temperate climate...

  9. Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Rappahannock River Valley NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge...

  10. Vernal Pool Complexes - Central Valley, 1989-1998 [ds36

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Arc/Info coverage is a polygon layer of vernal pool complexes greater than 40 acres in size for 29 counties throughout the greater Central Valley, and some...

  11. Groundwater discharge area for Diamond Valley, Central Nevada, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents "phreatophyte areas" mapped as part of an analysis of irrigation pumping in Diamond Valley, Nevada published in 1968. The data were digitized...

  12. Fire Management Plan Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge will provide guidance on a wide range of fire management activities including preparedness,...

  13. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to survey for and treat 17 different invasive species within the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and William L....

  14. Stakeholder Evaluation for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge : Completion Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a summary of results for the stakeholder evaluation conducted for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in winter 2006–2007. The purpose of...

  15. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to map and control invasive species within the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex refuges (William L. Finley, Ankeny,...

  16. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  17. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative: Fiscal year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 fiscal year. The report begins with an...

  18. Trip report (12-13 September 1995) - Canaan Valley NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reports describes recommendations for management practices at Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge. Topics include the following: deer herd management,...

  19. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan Amendment No. 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Master Plan developed for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge proposed that a refuge administration office and maintenance facility be located on an upland...

  20. Trip Report (November 29 - December 1, 2005) - Canaan Valley NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report describes suggestions for management alternatives to the Canaan Valley NWR. The major issues, or impediments to habitat management, that Sepik and Laskowski...

  1. Avian botulism in the southern San Joaquin valley 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A joint effort of the Department of Fish and' Game and the U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife contained botulism losses in the southern San Joaquin Valley...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Coachella Valley NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Coachella Valley National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds123

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Central Valley Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  4. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  5. Stillwater Marsh and Lahontan Valley Wetlands Literature Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of known literature on Lahontan Valley marshlands was made by The Nature Conservancy in preparation for the Stillwater Water Management Analysis Scoping...

  6. Factors influencing immunisation coverage in Mathare Valley, Nairobi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Cross section destrictive study. Setting: Mathare valley slums in Central district of Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Seven hundred and twelve children aged 12-23 months. Results: Access to immunisation services was excellent at 95.6%. However ...

  7. Fire Management Plan Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge will provide guidance on a wide range of fire management activities including preparedness,...

  8. Adapting to Climate Change in Peru's Mantaro Valley | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Mantaro Valley in central Peru is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, and frost. According to recent projections, this vulnerability will increase in coming years due to climate change.

  9. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals for this Wildlife Inventory Plan for Minnesota Valley NWR are: (1) to provide as good a survey method as possible to estimate population levels of key...

  10. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with refuge staff to survey for and treat invasive species on the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and WL Finley NWR). False brome...

  11. Geology and ground-water resources of Ogden Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggette, R.M.; Taylor, G.H.

    1937-01-01

    Ogden Valley is a fault trough bounded on both the east and west by faults that dip toward the middle of the valley. This fault trough contains unconsolidated deposits of clay, sand, and gravel, whose thickness is more than 600 feet. These materials are stream and lake deposits and in places are well sorted and stratified. The lake sediments were laid down in a small lake that occupied Ogden Valley and that was connected with glacial Lake Bonneville at its high stage by an arm of water that occupied Ogden Canyon. During this stage of Lake Bonneville the Ogden Valley was completely filled with lake sediments up to an altitude of about 4,900 feet. These sediments include about 70 feet of clay, sand, and gravel in alternating layers, below which is a bed of varved clay whose maximum thickness is about 70 feet. This clay is continuous under the lower parts of the valley and is the confining bed that produces the artesian conditions. Below the varved clay is a deposit of silt, sand, and gravel of unknown thickness, most of which is believed to be pre-Bonneville alluvium.In most summers the streams entering Ogden Valley are diverted for irrigation, and the upper parts of their channels are generally dry during the irrigation season. Lower down in the valley seepage water appears in the channels, and below these points there is continuous flow. The flow of the Ogden River increases as it passes through Ogden Canyon. This gain in flow is believed to be derived chiefly from ground-water seepage from the canyon walls, although there is probably some groundwater underflow from Ogden Valley at the head of Ogden Canyon. Some of the gain is also due to leakage from pipe lines in the canyon.Of the 146 wells whose records are given in this report, 70 are flowing wells.

  12. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step t...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  13. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.

    1982-07-08

    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  14. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide

  15. Valley-selective optical Stark effect probed by Kerr rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMountain, Trevor; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Stanev, Teodor K.; Hersam, Mark C.; Stern, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to monitor and control distinct states is at the heart of emerging quantum technologies. The valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers is a promising degree of freedom for such control, with the optical Stark effect allowing for valley-selective manipulation of energy levels in WS2 and WSe2 using ultrafast optical pulses. Despite these advances, understanding of valley-sensitive optical Stark shifts in TMDCs has been limited by reflectance-based detection methods where the signal is small and prone to background effects. More sensitive polarization-based spectroscopy is required to better probe ultrafast Stark shifts for all-optical manipulation of valley energy levels. Here, we show time-resolved Kerr rotation to be a more sensitive probe of the valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer TMDCs. Compared to the established time-resolved reflectance methods, Kerr rotation is less sensitive to background effects. Kerr rotation provides a fivefold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the Stark effect optical signal and a more precise estimate of the energy shift. This increased sensitivity allows for observation of an optical Stark shift in monolayer MoS2 that exhibits both valley and energy selectivity, demonstrating the promise of this method for investigating this effect in other layered materials and heterostructures.

  16. Assessment of Wastewater in Duhok Valley, Kurdistan Region/Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmaldin E. Hassan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the waste water in Duhok valley in Duhok governorate, during 25km, seven sites were selected in Duhok valley, to represent their water quality. Monthly samples were collected from the Duhok valley for the period from, April to September, 2015. The qualitative study of Duhok valley water tested, as considered one of the main sources of water pollution for Musol Lake. The physical and chemical test for water samples are taken from different locations in Duhok valley. To know the degree of pollution, and the impact of self-purification processes to improve water quality before arriving to the Mosul Lake, and the indicated results of the study a lack of dissolved oxygen in the water (DO. And high organic load values, (BOD and most of the bad qualities during water passage within the city of Duhok, while meat a significant improvement in the quality of water downstream before arriving at the dam Lake, is attributed to the effect of operations of self- purification ability of water. In spite of salinity problems and toxicity, the quality of water is suitable for irrigation crops on both sides of the valley .The all samples were tested for conductivity, TDS, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity, sulfate, BOD, and phosphate, according to the standard methods.

  17. Antifan activism as a response to MTV's The Valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MTV has launched several reality TV shows in the United Kingdom, but one, The Valleys (2012–14, about youth moving from the South Wales Valleys to Cardiff, has received much criticism. Grassroots criticism of the show arose, and a Valleys-centric campaign, The Valleys Are Here, took direct action. I adopt Jonathan Gray's definition of antifans to complicate ideas of fan activism. I utilize comments and posts made on the Valleys Are Here Twitter feed and Facebook account, as well as the organization's Web site, to examine the ways in which they encourage activism among antifans of the series. I pay particular attention to activist calls for MTV to be held accountable for its positioning of Wales and the Valleys, and to how it encourages participation among varied groups of people whose common denominator is their dislike of the series. Fan activism is not exclusive to people who consider themselves fans, and notions of fan activism can be complicated by drawing in antifans.

  18. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  19. The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Dale E.; Hurford, G. J.; Nita, G. M.; White, S. M.; Tun, S. D.; Fleishman, G. D.; McTiernan, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) is now under construction near Big Pine, CA as a solar-dedicated microwave imaging array operating in the frequency range 1-18 GHz. The solar science to be addressed focuses on the 3D structure of the solar corona (magnetic field, temperature and density), on the sudden release of energy and subsequent particle acceleration, transport and heating, and on space weather phenomena. The project will support the scientific community by providing open data access and software tools for analysis of the data, to exploit synergies with on-going solar research in other wavelengths. The New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is expanding OVSA from its previous complement of 7 antennas to a total of 15 by adding 8 new antennas, and will reinvest in the existing infrastructure by replacing the existing control systems, signal transmission, and signal processing with modern, far more capable and reliable systems based on new technology developed for the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR). The project will be completed in time to provide solar-dedicated observations during the upcoming solar maximum in 2013 and beyond. We provide an update on current status and our preparations for exploiting the data through modeling and data analysis tools. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-0908344, and AGS-0961867 and NASA grant NNX10AF27G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  20. Calibrating Treasure Valley Groundwater Model using MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J.; Tan, K.

    2016-12-01

    In Idaho, groundwater plays an especially important role in the state. According to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, groundwater supplies 95% of the state's drinking water (2011). The USGS estimates that Idaho withdraws 117 million cubic meters (95,000 acre-feet) per year from groundwater sources for domestic usage which includes drinking water. The same report from the USGS also estimates that Idaho withdraws 5,140 million cubic meters (4,170,000 acre-feet) per year from groundwater sources for irrigation usage. Quantifying and managing that resource and estimating groundwater levels in the future is important for a variety of socio-economic reasons. As the population within the Treasure Valley continues to grow, the demand of clean usable groundwater increases. The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a groundwater model with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes. Hydrologic simulations were done using the MODFLOW-2000 model. The model was calibrated for predevelopment period by reproducing and comparing groundwater levels of the years before 1925 using steady state boundary conditions representing no change in the land use. Depending on the reliability of the groundwater source, the economic growth of the area can be constrained or allowed to flourish. Mismanagement of the groundwater source can impact its sustainability, quality and could hamper development by increasing operation and maintenance costs. Proper water management is critical because groundwater is such a limited resource.

  1. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleine, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Ventura, Stefano; D'Acqui, Luigi Paolo; Onofri, Silvano; Zucconi, Laura

    2015-10-10

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  2. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coleine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  3. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references. (MCW)

  4. Soil formation in the Tsauchab Valley, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Marie; Bens, Oliver; Ramisch, Arne; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The BMBF-funded project GeoArchives (Spaces) investigates soils and sediments in Southern Africa. A focus area lies on the Tsauchab Valley (Namibia), South of the Naukluft mountain range (24°26'40'' S, 16°10'40'' E). On a gently sloping alluvial fan facing East towards the river, the surface is characterized by a desert pavement covering soils used as farmland. The landscape units were mapped and the area at the lower slope of a hill was divided into three units: a rinsing surface and a gravel plain, separated by a channel. On these surfaces soil profiles were excavated. Profile description followed the German system (Bodenkundliche Kartieranleitung KA 5) and disturbed samples were taken at various depths and analysed in the lab. Undisturbed soil cores with a volume of 100 cm³ were taken just below the surface at a depth of ~1-6 cm. Lab analyses included texture and gravel content, colour, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonates, CNS, cation exchange capacity, pedogenic oxides, main and trace elements (XRF), and clay mineral distribution (XRD). Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil water retention curve, air permeability and bulk density. The profiles revealed moderately developed cambic soils rich in clay minerals and with total carbon contents ranging up to 1.8 %, bearing shrubs and after episodic rainfall a dense grass vegetation. Their genesis is discussed and interpreted in the context of the landscape and climate history of this semi-desert environment.

  5. The Role of Source Material in Basin Sedimentation, as Illustrated within Eureka Valley, Death Valley National Park, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, M. J.; Yin, A.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Steep landscapes are known to provide sediment to sink regions, but often petrological factors can dominate basin sedimentation. Within Eureka Valley, in northwestern Death Valley National Park, normal faulting has exposed a steep cliff face on the western margin of the Last Chance range with four kilometers of vertical relief from the valley floor and an angle of repose of nearly 38 degrees. The cliff face is composed of Cambrian limestone and dolomite, including the Bonanza King, Carrara and Wood Canyon formations. Interacting with local normal faulting, these units preferentially break off the cliff face in coherent blocks, which result in landslide deposits rather than as finer grained material found within the basin. The valley is well known for a large sand dune, which derives its sediment from distal sources to the north, instead of from the adjacent Last Chance Range cliff face. During the Holocene, sediment is sourced primary from the northerly Willow Wash and Cucomungo canyon, a relatively small drainage (less than 80 km2) within the Sylvan Mountains. Within this drainage, the Jurassic quartz monzonite of Beer Creek is heavily fractured due to motion of the Fish Valley Lake - Death Valley fault zone. Thus, the quartz monzonite is more easily eroded than the well-consolidated limestone and dolomite that forms the Last Change Range cliff face. As well, the resultant eroded material is smaller grained, and thus more easily transported than the limestone. Consequently, this work highlights an excellent example of the strong influence that source material can have on basin sedimentation.

  6. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  7. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  8. The Evaporation Valley in the Kepler Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, James E.; Wu, Yanqin

    2017-09-01

    A new piece of evidence supporting the photoevaporation-driven evolution model for low-mass, close-in exoplanets was recently presented by the California-Kepler Survey. The radius distribution of the Kepler planets is shown to be bimodal, with a “valley” separating two peaks at 1.3 and 2.6 R ⊕. Such an “evaporation valley” had been predicted by numerical models previously. Here, we develop a minimal model to demonstrate that this valley results from the following fact: the timescale for envelope erosion is the longest for those planets with hydrogen/helium-rich envelopes that, while only a few percent in weight, double its radius. The timescale falls for envelopes lighter than this because the planet’s radius remains largely constant for tenuous envelopes. The timescale also drops for heavier envelopes because the planet swells up faster than the addition of envelope mass. Photoevaporation therefore herds planets into either bare cores (˜1.3 R ⊕), or those with double the core’s radius (˜2.6 R ⊕). This process mostly occurs during the first 100 Myr when the stars’ high-energy fluxes are high and nearly constant. The observed radius distribution further requires the Kepler planets to be clustered around 3 M ⊕ in mass, born with H/He envelopes more than a few percent in mass, and that their cores are similar to the Earth in composition. Such envelopes must have been accreted before the dispersal of the gas disks, while the core composition indicates formation inside the ice line. Lastly, the photoevaporation model fails to account for bare planets beyond ˜30-60 days; if these planets are abundant, they may point to a significant second channel for planet formation, resembling the solar system terrestrial planets.

  9. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Effects of valley meteorology on forest pesticide spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1990-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this study for the Missoula Technology and Development Center of the US Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The purpose of the study was to summarize recent research on valley meteorology during the morning transition period and to qualitatively evaluate the effects of the evolution of valley temperature inversions and wind systems on the aerial spraying of pesticides in National Forest areas of the western United States. Aerial spraying of pesticides and herbicides in forests of the western United States is usually accomplished in the morning hour after first light, during the period known to meteorologists as the morning transition period.'' This document describes the key physical processes that occur during the morning transition period on undisturbed days and the qualitative effects of these processes on the conduct of aerial spraying operations. Since the timing of valley meteorological events may be strongly influenced by conditions that are external to the valley, such as strong upper-level winds or the influence of clouds on the receipt of solar energy in the valley, some remarks are made on the qualitative influence of these processes. Section 4 of this report suggests ways to quantify some of the physical processes to provide useful guidance for the planning and conduct of spraying operations. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Mollusca, Hirudinea, and Amphibia biogeography and paleobiology in Tule Valley and adjacent regions of Bonneville Basin, western USA [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mollusk, leeches (Hirudinea), and amphibian distribution are described for Tule Valley and adjacent Snake Valley and Fish Springs Flat, Tule Valley aquatic resources...

  12. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    The increasing demands on groundwater for water supply in desert areas in California and the western United States have resulted in the need to better understand groundwater sources, availability, and sustainability. This is true for a 650-square-mile area that encompasses the Antelope Valley, El Mirage Valley, and Upper Mojave River Valley groundwater basins, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California, in the western part of the Mojave Desert. These basins have been adjudicated to ensure that groundwater rights are allocated according to legal judgments. In an effort to assess if the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins could be better defined, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 2014 with the Mojave Water Agency to better understand the hydrogeology in the area and investigate potential controls on groundwater flow and availability, including basement topography.Recharge is sporadic and primarily from small ephemeral washes and streams that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains to the south; estimates range from about 400 to 1,940 acre-feet per year. Lateral underflow from adjacent basins has been considered minor in previous studies; underflow from the Antelope Valley to the El Mirage Valley groundwater basin has been estimated to be between 100 and 1,900 acre-feet per year. Groundwater discharge is primarily from pumping, mostly by municipal supply wells. Between October 2013 and September 2014, the municipal pumpage in the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins was reported to be about 800 and 2,080 acre-feet, respectively.This study was motivated by the results from a previously completed regional gravity study, which suggested a northeast-trending subsurface basement ridge and saddle approximately 3.5 miles west of the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins that might influence groundwater flow. To better define potential basement

  13. Perceptual discrimination difficulty and familiarity in the Uncanny Valley: more like a "Happy Valley".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) predicts that greater difficulty perceptually discriminating between categorically ambiguous human and humanlike characters (e.g., highly realistic robot) evokes negatively valenced (i.e., uncanny) affect. An ABX perceptual discrimination task and signal detection analysis was used to examine the profile of perceptual discrimination (PD) difficulty along the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This was represented using avatar-to-human morph continua. Rejecting the implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty underlying the UVH' prediction, Experiment 1 showed that PD difficulty was reduced for categorically ambiguous faces but, notably, enhanced for human faces. Rejecting the UVH' predicted relationship between PD difficulty and negative affect (assessed in terms of the UVH' familiarity dimension), Experiment 2 demonstrated that greater PD difficulty correlates with more positively valenced affect. Critically, this effect was strongest for the ambiguous faces, suggesting a correlative relationship between PD difficulty and feelings of familiarity more consistent with the metaphor happy valley. This relationship is also consistent with a fluency amplification instead of the hitherto proposed hedonic fluency account of affect along the DHL. Experiment 3 found no evidence that the asymmetry in the profile of PD along the DHL is attributable to a differential processing bias (cf. other-race effect), i.e., processing avatars at a category level but human faces at an individual level. In conclusion, the present data for static faces show clear effects that, however, strongly challenge the UVH' implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty along the DHL and the predicted relationship between this and feelings of familiarity.

  14. Estimating Vehicular Emission in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Ghimire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study estimate, the vehicular emission load for CO, CO2 , HCs, NOX, SO2, Dioxin/Furans, Particulate Matters (PM10, PM2.5, Black carbon and Organic Carbon by using emission factors and Global Warming Potentials (GWPs of the pollutants (CO2, NOX, BC and OC. For this purpose, data were collected through the video tape record (in 30 sites, questionnaire survey, field visit, and literatures review. The total estimated emission of Kathmandu Valley (KV was 7231053.12 ton/year. Of the total emission, CO2 emission was highest i.e., 91.01% followed by CO 5.03%, HC 0.96%, NOX 0.60%, PM10 0.18% and SO2 0.10%. Annually 529353.36 μg Toxic Equivalent (TEQ of Dioxin/Furan produced and directly disperse to the ambient environment. The total estimated PM2.5, BC and OC emission were 9649.40 ton/year, 1640.4 ton/year and 2894.82 ton/year. The total carbon equivalence of the combined emissions (CO2, NOX and BC for 100-years standard time horizon is 10579763.6 ton CO2-eq i.e., 2885390.07 ton carbon.CO2 alone will be responsible, for about 62% of the impacts for the next century from current emissions of CO2, NOX and BC. Of the total emission Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV emits 50%, Light Duty Vehicles (LDV emits, 27%, 2-Wheelers emits 22% and 3-Wheeler (Tempo emits 1%. The total emission of all pollutants combined per vehicle together was estimated to be 5.46 ton/year which was estimated as 23.63, 10.35, 1.83 and 5.58 ton/year for HDV, LDV, 2-Wheelers and 3-Wheeler respectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i4.11742      International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 133-146 

  15. Rivers and valleys of Pennsylvania, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisawa, Marie

    1989-09-01

    The 1889 paper by William Morris Davis on the "Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania" is a landmark in the history of geomorphology. It was in this manuscript that he set forth what came to be known as the Davisian system of landscape. It is important to understand that Davis' interpretation of landforms was restricted by the geologic paradigms of his day. Uniformitarianism was strongly entrenched and Darwin's theory of evolution had become popularly accepted. The concept of the landmass Appalachia and then current theories on mountain building affected the approach that Davis took in hypothesizing the origin and development of the Folded Appalachian drainage. All of these geologic precepts influenced the formulation and explanation of his theories. In his exposition he adapted, synthesized and embellished on ideas he derived from fellow geologists such as Gilbert, Dutton, Powell, and McGee. A number of the concepts he proposed in the 1889 paper quickly became the bases for geomorphic studies by others: the cycles of river erosion and landscape evolution and the peneplain (here called base level erosion). The cycle of erosion became the model for subsequent geomorphic analyses, and peneplain hunting became a popular sport for geomorphologists. Davis' hypothesis of the origin and development of Pennsylvanian drainage stimulated subsequent discussion and further hypotheses by others. In fact, many of the later theories were refinements and/or elaborations of ideas mentioned in this paper of Davis. He proposed the origin of the drainage as consequent streams, then antecedence, superposition, headward extension of divides by piracy, erosion along lines of weaknesses (faults, easily erodible beds) through resistant ridges and normal fluvial erosion. Thus, the hypotheses of regional superposition (Johnson), extended consequents (Ruedemann), consequents and local superposition (Meyerhoff and Olmstead), the utilization of structural weaknesses in development of transverse

  16. Surface Deformation in Imperial Valley, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneva, M.; Adams, D.; Falorni, G.; Morgan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Imperial Valley in southern California is subjected to significant tectonic deformation resulting from the relative movement of the North American and Pacific plates. It is characterized by large earthquakes, frequent swarm activity, and aseismic events. High heat flow makes possible the operation of geothermal fields, some of which cause man-made surface displacements superimposed on the tectonic deformation. We apply radar interferometry (InSAR) to analyze Envisat ASAR data for the period 2003-2010. The SqueeSAR technique is used to obtain deformation time series and annual rates at numerous locations of permanent and distributed scatterers (PS and DS). SqueeSAR works very well in agricultural areas, where conventional differential InSAR (DinSAR) fails. We observe differential movements marking the Superstition Hills, San Andreas, and Imperial faults. The Imperial fault traverses agricultural fields, where DInSAR does not work and thus our SqueeSAR observations are the first for this fault (Fig. 1). We also observe steps in the deformation time series around the Superstition Hills fault from an October 2006 aseismic event and the April 2010 M7.2 earthquake south of the U.S.-Mexico border. Significant annual deformation rates are detected in the current geothermal fields. For example, subsidence of up to -50 mm/year is seen at the Salton Sea field (Fig. 2), and both subsidence and uplift are seen at Heber. We also determine the deformation baseline at prospective geothermal fields, thus making it possible in the future to distinguish between man-made and tectonic causes of surface deformation. Fig. 1. Line-of-sight (LOS) deformation indicates differential displacement on both sides of Imperial Fault. Movements away from the satellite are shown in yellow to red, and towards the satellite in blue. Larger deformation is associated with two geothermal fields, Heber (to the south-west) and East Mesa (to the east). Fig. 2. Subsidence in the Salton Sea geothermal

  17. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  18. Reflection Seismic Imaging of Buried Valleys, Onshore Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke-Andersen, H.; Jørgensen, F.; Nørmark, E.

    The steadily increasing demands for securing supplies of clean groundwater have in recent years led to the adoption of reflection seismics in the family of geophysical methods used for groundwater research in Denmark. Buried valleys- often some km wide and a few hundred metres deep - have proved to be important sites for deeply seated, well protected groundwater reservoirs. It is a well known fact that the structure of buried valleys is complicated. With their potential for generation of relatively high resolution images of depositional and tectonic structures, reflection seismics have be- come a valuable supplement to the traditional resistivity methods in the study of buried valleys. Reflection seismic is an expensive method compared to other methods in use for groundwater research; therefore, careful selection of profile locations is mandatory. A practice has developed where selection of locations are based on mapping results obtained by resistivity methods. Results obtained by dynamite and vibrator sources are presented. Experience shows that the quality of the two data types is comparable. Vertical resolution better than ca. 10 m can be obtained, but the bandwidth of data is variable. In areas where non-(water) saturated shallow sediments are present; the bandwidth may be strongly reduced. Depth penetration down to at least one km is normally obtained. The seismic data are tied to wells by means of vertical seismic profiles in exploratory wells. Results are presented to illustrate: 1) potentials and limi- tations of the method and 2) a number of valleys with different types of valley-fill and relationships with the substratum. The genesis of the valleys will be briefly discussed.

  19. Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an approximate...

  20. Monthly Diversions from the Surface-Water Network of the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly diversions from the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  1. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop criteria for...

  2. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop...

  3. EPA Region 1 - Map Layers for Valley ID Tool (Hosted Feature Service)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Valley Service Feature Layer hosts spatial data for EPA Region 1's Valley Identification Tool. These layers contain attribute information added by EPA R1 GIS...

  4. Grid cells used for Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the segment and reaches for the surface-water network by model cell for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  5. Monthly Precipitation Input Data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly precipitation for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an approximate 50,000...

  6. Monthly inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the monthly inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  7. Streamflow-gain- and streamflow-loss data for streamgages in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains 61 sets of annual streamflow gains and losses between 1961 and 1977 along Central Valley surface-water network for the Central Valley...

  8. Location of 24 extensometers used to measure compaction in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset describes the location of 21 extensometers used for observations of subsidence in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  9. Virtual wells used for pumpage for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: This digital dataset contains the virtual wells used for pumpage for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  11. Inflow Locations and Magnitude Input Files to the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the name and location for the inflows to the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  12. Giant and tunable valley degeneracy splitting in MoTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Qi, Jingshan; Niu, Qian; Feng, Ji

    Valleys in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides seamlessly connect two basic carriers of quantum information, namely, the electron spin and photon helicity. Lifting the valley degeneracy is an attractive route to achieve further optoelectronic manipulations. However, the magnetic field only creates a very small valley splitting. We propose a strategy to create giant valley splitting by the proximity-induced Zeeman effect. Our first principles calculations of monolayer MoTe2 on a EuO substrate show that valley splitting over 300 meV can be generated. Interband transition energies become valley dependent, leading to selective spin-photon coupling by optical frequency tuning. The valley splitting is also continuously tunable by rotating the substrate magnetization. The giant and tunable valley splitting adds a different dimension to the exploration of unique optoelectronic devices based on magneto-optical coupling and magnetoelectric coupling.

  13. How Silicon Valley Journalists Talk about: Independence in Innovation Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten; Nordfors, David

    2010-01-01

    Silicon Valley has become known for innovations that have led to substantial changes for citizens around the world. In 1960s’-80s’ the innovation had to do with computers and electronics, 1990s-00s’ it was on Internet and Web services. Since the later part of the 00’s, clean tech has emerged......-structured interviews with journalists who cover the innovation economy in Silicon Valley, the paper seeks to understand the professional challenges the network structure create for journalists and the strategies they apply. Comparing the results with previous research in journalism norms, this study suggests...

  14. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "THE MAN BEHIND THE MICROCHIP: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley""by Leslie Berlin.The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This author is project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives, a division of the Stanford University Department of Special Collections. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce. This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance

  15. Hydrogeology of the carbonate rocks of the Lebanon Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisler, Harold

    1963-01-01

    The Lebanon Valley, which is part of the Great Valley in southeastern Pennsylvania, is underlain by carbonate rocks in the southern part and by shale in the northern part. The carbonate rocks consist of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite of Cambrian and Ordovician age. Although the beds generally dip to the south, progressively younger beds crop out to the north, because the rocks are overturned. The stratigraphic units, from oldest to youngest, are: the Buffalo Springs Formation, Snitz Creek, Schaefferstown, Millbach, and Richland Formations of the Conococheague Group; the Stonehenge, Rickenbach, Epler, and Ontelaunee Formations of the Beekmantown Group; and the Annville, Myerstown, and Hershey Limestones.

  16. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  17. Valley fill in the Roswell-Artesia area, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, Forest P.

    1973-01-01

    Drill samples from 225 water and oil wells in an area 70 miles long and 20 miles wide in the Roswell-Artesia area, southeastern New Mexico were examined. A thickness map and a saturated thickness map of the valley-fill sediments were constructed. Maximum depth of valley fill is about 300 feet in large closed depressions near Roswell, Hagerman, and Artesia. The depressions were formed by the solution of carbonates and evaporites that underlie the fill. Maximum saturated thickness is about 250 feet in depressions near Hagerman and Artesia and about 300 feet in a depression near Roswell.

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  1. A skin test survey of valley fever in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrich, B E

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the prevalence of valley fever among 1128 residents of Tijuana, Baja California are presented. Children from primary and middle schools (n = 497) and adults from technical institutes and maquiladoras (assembly plants) were tested for reaction to both spherulin and coccidioidin during 1985-1986, and they completed a questionnaire containing 23 variables on their socio-environment. Place of residence was mapped. The population sampled is largely middle class. Discriminant analysis indicates the distribution of positive cases is not clustered, nor can it be correlated with geomorphic factors such as mesa tops, canyons, or valley bottoms.

  2. Inca expansion and parasitism in the lluta valley: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Calogero; Vinton, Sheila Dorsey; Reinhard, Karl J

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  3. A didactical geological path in Val Rosandra valley (Trieste - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godini, E.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: the presented field work is aimed to involve a group of 15-17 years old students in building a simplified geomorphological and geological model of Val Rosandra valley, by means of guided observations and data collection. The didactical path may be changed according to age, skills or particular needs of students and meteorological conditions; at best, 4-5 hours are needed for the complete field trip. Some ideas about sedimentary rocks, folding and faulting, and the principle of superposition could be useful as pre-concepts, but "could" also be learnt during the experience. Organization: students will be divided into small groups (3-4 students each), possibly with different roles within the group (topographer, photographer, draftsman, geologist, geomorphologist,…). Needed materials for each group: notebook, paper, pencil, rubber, photo camera, ruler, compass, scale 10.000 topographic map, stratigraphic chart, altimeter, diluted hydrochloric acid. Observation points: 1. Bagnoli spring, marl outcrop 2. Bagnoli village, towards the "heart-shaped quarry" 3. By the river, in the lower part of the valley 4. Moccò lookout 5. Marl outcrop, from Moccò to the old railway 6. From the old railway, above the valley 7. By the river, in the upper part of the valley The field work: at first, students will be guided to observe and take notes of the main morphological characteristics, so that the different "observation points" will be drawn on the map, with the help of compass. An easily recognizable system of faults cuts the valley; a "V" profile is visible in the lower part of the valley (a small amount of sediment is present), while a calcareous gorge is evident in the upper valley, where there are no sediments (observation points 3, 4, 6 and 7). The morphology is asymmetric, due to the different arrangement of strata in the left and right side of the valley: right side shows big "steps" (horizontal arrangement of strata), left side is rich in slopes (tilted

  4. 76 FR 31009 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. (YVRR) has agreed to grant, pursuant to a prospective written..., Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.--Discontinuance Exemption--in Richland and Dawson Counties, Montana, in...

  5. 78 FR 34127 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Coachella Valley History Museum, Indio, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Coachella Valley History Museum has completed... funerary objects should submit a written request to the Coachella Valley History Museum. If no additional...

  6. 76 FR 38572 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality...

  7. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality...

  8. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of... Rule 431.1 was actually for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope... Antelope Valley amended or rescinded the rule. On January 1, 2002, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  9. 75 FR 17756 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on..., Executive Director, John H. Chafee, Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission, One Depot...

  10. 75 FR 64741 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... the meeting to: Jan H. Reitsma, Executive Director, John H. Chafee, Blackstone River Valley National...

  11. 75 FR 2885 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on...: Jan H. Reitsma, Executive Director, John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor...

  12. 77 FR 2496 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  13. 77 FR 2469 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution.... * * * * * (G) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1134, ``Stationary Gas Turbines... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality...

  14. CRYOGENESIS AND GEODYNAMICS OF ICING VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseyev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to local groundwater seeping and freezing in layers that accumulate over each other and create large ice clusters on the ground surface, specific conditions of energy and mass transfer are created in the atmosphere–soil–lithosphere system. In winter, the vertical temperature distribution curve is significantly deformed due to heat emission from the water layer above the ice cover during its freezing, and a thermocline is thus formed. Deformation of the temperature curve is gradually decreasing in size downward the profile and decays at the interface of frozen and thaw rocks. Values and numbers of temperature deviations from a 'normal' value depend on heat reserves of aufeis water and the number of water seeps/discharges at a given location. The production of the thermocline alters freezing conditions for underlying ground layers and changes the mechanism of ice saturation, thus leading to formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC. IGCs are drastically different from cryogenic formations in the neighbouring sections of the river valley. Based on genetic characteristics and the ratios of components in the surface and subsurface layers, seven types of aufeis IGCs are distinguished: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressure-injection, and fissure-vein. Annual processes of surface and subsurface icing and ice ablation are accompanied by highly hazardous geodynamic phenomena, such as winter flooding, layered water freezing, soil heaving/pingo, thermokarst and thermal erosion. Combined, these processes lead to rapid and often incidental reconfigurations of the surface and subsurface runoff channels, abrupt uplifting and subsiding of the ground surface, decompaction and 'shaking-up' of seasonally freezing/thawing rocks, thereby producing exceptionally unfavourable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures.Formation and development of river networks are

  15. CRYOGENESIS AND GEODYNAMICS OF ICING VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to local groundwater seeping and freezing in layers that accumulate over each other and create large ice clusters on the ground surface, specific conditions of energy and mass transfer are created in the atmosphere–soil–lithosphere system. In winter, the vertical temperature distribution curve is significantly deformed due to heat emission from the water layer above the ice cover during its freezing, and a thermocline is thus formed. Deformation of the temperature curve is gradually decreasing in size downward the profile and decays at the interface of frozen and thaw rocks. Values and numbers of temperature deviations from a 'normal' value depend on heat reserves of aufeis water and the number of water seeps/discharges at a given location. The production of the thermocline alters freezing conditions for underlying ground layers and changes the mechanism of ice saturation, thus leading to formation of two-layer ice-ground complexes (IGC. IGCs are drastically different from cryogenic formations in the neighbouring sections of the river valley. Based on genetic characteristics and the ratios of components in the surface and subsurface layers, seven types of aufeis IGCs are distinguished: massive-segregation, cement-basal, layered-segregation, basal-segregation, vacuum-filtration, pressure-injection, and fissure-vein. Annual processes of surface and subsurface icing and ice ablation are accompanied by highly hazardous geodynamic phenomena, such as winter flooding, layered water freezing, soil heaving/pingo, thermokarst and thermal erosion. Combined, these processes lead to rapid and often incidental reconfigurations of the surface and subsurface runoff channels, abrupt uplifting and subsiding of the ground surface, decompaction and 'shaking-up' of seasonally freezing/thawing rocks, thereby producing exceptionally unfavourable conditions for construction and operation of engineering structures.Formation and development of river networks are

  16. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891

  17. Pediatric Burns at The Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim To determine the etiology and outcome of pediatric burns (0-12 years). Design A retrospective study of burn victims hospitalized at the Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital, Nakuru, Kenya from April 2004 to March 2007. Method Charts of all children hospitalized for burn injury were reviewed for patient demographics, ...

  18. Pediatric Burns at The Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical/female burn ward were eligible. On average the ward admits 680 patients a year out of which 170 pa- tients (25.7 %) are due to pediatric burns. The Hospital attracts patients mostly from low socioeconomic status. Pediatric Burns at The Rift Valley. Provincial General Hospital, Nakuru,. Kenya. Author: Oduor P.R. ...

  19. Rio Grande Valley State Park maintenance, improvements, and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Barron

    1996-01-01

    Managing the Rio Grande Valley State Park as a valued riparian-wetland area is very important as it encourages conditions for the growth of vegetation. This growth supports a riparian community consisting of various insects, animals, birds, and fish, as well as other wildlife. Human activity in riparian areas has led to historic use patterns causing erosion, re-...

  20. A DECADE FROM THE MAJOR LAYOFFS IN THE JIU VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN VALENTIN FULGER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an overview of how the population of the largest coalfield of Romania Jiu Valley, the perceived major staff cuts in the mining industry, the solutions required for economic rehabilitation of the area and difficulties of everyday faced by residents of the region.

  1. Feasibility of target communities in a Dutch brook valley system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, AH; Bekker, RM

    As a reaction to the ongoing deterioration of nature conservation interest in The Netherlands, an offensive nature strategy was formulated in the 1990 Nature Policy Plan. In this Plan, target communities and target plant species are mentioned. For the 'Drentse A brook valley system', target

  2. Opening remarks for the Fort Valley Centennial Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station recognizes and values the contributions of our scientists and collaborators for their work over the past century at Fort Valley Experimental Forest. With the help of our partners and collaborators, Rocky Mountain Research Station is working to improve coordination across its research Program Areas and Experimental Forests and Ranges...

  3. Opening remarks for the Fort Valley Centennial Celebration (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station recognizes and values the contributions of our scientists and collaborators for their work over the past century at Fort Valley Experimental Forest. With the help of our partners and collaborators, Rocky Mountain Research Station is working to improve coordination across its research Program Areas and Experimental Forests and Ranges...

  4. Valley segments, stream reaches, and channel units [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Bisson; David R. Montgomery; John M. Buffington

    2006-01-01

    Valley segments, stream reaches, and channel units are three hierarchically nested subdivisions of the drainage network (Frissell et al. 1986), falling in size between landscapes and watersheds (see Chapter 1) and individual point measurements made along the stream network (Table 2.1; also see Chapters 3 and 4). These three subdivisions compose the habitat for large,...

  5. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  6. Comparison of access to medicines between Klang Valley and East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. ... available [5], suggesting that problems may exist ... access to medicines for children living in poor households in the economically contrasting areas of Klang Valley and East Coast of Peninsular. Malaysia.

  7. Forest pathology and entomology at Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Forest pathology and entomology have been researched at Fort Valley Experimental Forest throughout its history. The pathogens and insects of particular interest are mistletoes, decay and canker fungi, rusts, bark beetles, and various defoliators. Studies on life history, biotic interactions, impacts, and control have been published and incorporated into silvicultural...

  8. HBO-I on tour in Silicon Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. Deny Smeets; Drs. Miranda W Valkenburg

    2005-01-01

    Wat is 'hot' en wat is 'not' in de ict? Dat was 'in a nutshell' de reden voor het HBO-I om een studiereis te maken naar het Mekka voor ict'ers: Silicon Valley. Voor VS-verhoudingen een klein gebied met relatief veel belangrijke ict-bedrijven: SUN, Intel, Oracle, Hewlett-Packard. En twee van de beste

  9. A case study: Death Valley National Monument California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Hamson; Ristau Toni

    1979-01-01

    With passage of the Mining in the Parks Act (P.L. 94-429) in 1976, the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, was given the responsibility of preparing a report to Congress outlining the environmental consequences of mining on claims within Death Valley National Monument. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior is required to formulate a recommendation...

  10. Birds of Rishi Valley, and Renewal of their Habitats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 1. Birds of Rishi Valley, and Renewal of their Habitats. Mahesh Rangarajan. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 1 January 2000 pp 105-106 ... Author Affiliations. Mahesh Rangarajan1. Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, New Delhi, India.

  11. Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Water in the Rift Valley, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the amount of Fluoride in ground, potable water in Njoro division, Nakuru district and some parts outside the division was conducted to determine the concentration of Fluoride the residents are consuming through water. This area is situated in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa, which is known to have high levels ...

  12. Pathways to High-tech Valleys and Research Triangles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsink, W.; Dons, H.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon Valley and the industrial districts of Italy, where shared identity, superior skills, regional specialization and trust-based networking among local firms have produced dynamic and flexible ecosystems, are inspiring examples of the successful promotion of thriving technology and business

  13. Birds of Rishi Valley, and Renewal of their Habitats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nehru Memorial Museum Library. New Delhi, 1993, pp. 235. At a time when environmental concerns are commonly identified with lost causes and battles fought against heavy odds, it is a delight to come across a story of hope. Rishi. Valley's is a tale of ecological renewal in more ways than one. Rayalaseema, in Andhra.

  14. A Student Government Guidebook for Evergreen Valley College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mauro

    Designed to help develop informed and capable student leadership in student affairs at Evergreen Valley College (EVC), this student government guide and text for Government 91 focuses on the major leadership needs and objectives of student government within a participatory framework. After an explanation of course objectives and requirements,…

  15. An Instructional Guide for Ethnic Studies at Evergreen Valley College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mauro

    Guidelines and conceptual parameters are presented for ethnic studies courses at Evergreen Valley College (EVC). Introductory material discusses the requirement that all associate degree students complete three units of ethnic studies; presents general guidelines for ethnic studies; defines "ethnic-racial minority"; and suggests criteria for…

  16. Fort Valley studies: A natural laboratory for research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Drought, wildfire, extinction, and invasive species are considered serious threats to the health of our forests. Although these issues have global connections, we most readily see their consequences locally and attempt to respond with management based on science. For 100 years, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) has provided educational and experimental support...

  17. Hydropluviometric variability in the low valley of the mono | Vissin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show the dependence of flow and recharge from rainfall fluctuations. Keywords: Low Valley of Mono, hydropluviometric variability, impact, hydropluviometric deficits. Resume Cette recherche est consacrée à l'analyse de l'impact de la variabilité pluviométrique sur le cycle hydrologique et les ressources en eau.

  18. Appendix C: The sources of Copan Valley obsidian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Neff, H.; Bishop, R.L. [Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States). Conservation Analytical Lab.

    1995-05-01

    One hundred thirty-nine obsidian samples from the Copan Valley were subjected to neutron activation analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Obsidian sources from Mesoamerica have been characterized by a number of different laboratories using several techniques. Over 1,800 samples from Mesoamerica have been analyzed by neutron activation at BNL. These data are now housed both at BNL and in the Smithsonian Archaeometric Research Collections and Records (SARCAR) data base. Previous statistical analysis of the Mesoamerican obsidian artifacts and source samples has produced reference groups representing many of the sources, including Ixtepeque, San Martin Jilotepeque, and El Chayal, the three sources closest to the Copan Valley and therefore most likely to be represented in the analyzed sample. As anticipated, the overwhelming majority of obsidian recovered in the Copan Valley comes from the closest source, Ixtepeque. Of the seven El Chayal specimens, four pertain to CV-43 and three pertain to CV-20. These data provide no evidence of a difference between the two localities in external obsidian exchange relations. Thus, the authors find no grounds for questioning the assumption that the minor quantities of El Chayal obsidian that reached the Copan Valley were distributed through the same channels responsible for distribution of the more common Ixtepeque obsidian.

  19. Blue and Valley Oak Seedling Establishment on California's Hardwood Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore E. Adams Jr.; Peter B. Sands; William H. Weitkamp; Neil K. McDougald

    1991-01-01

    Factors contributing to poor establishment of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and valley oak (Q. lobata) in California oak-grassland savannas were studied in a series of acorn seeding experiments initiated in 1985. Exclusion of large herbivores permitted examination of herbaceous interference and small mammal and insect depredation....

  20. Integrated management of water resources in the valley of Oued ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study designed to analyze and evaluate the results of trend scenarios of the strategy management of water resources used in the valley of Oued-Souf, who led the region to a truly dramatic situation and almost desperate: rise of groundwater and its adverse consequences. In terms of this work, we seek a model (plan) ...

  1. Analysis of the Malaria situation in Hippo Valley Estates | Chirebvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... not infected with sporozoites. The malaria control programme for Hippo Valley Estates appears to be effective in controlling malaria disease. However, some other factors could be contributing to the low malaria transmission pattern observed in the estates. The Zimbabwe Science News Volume 34(2) June 2000, pp. 34-37 ...

  2. Leishmaniases survey in the Awash Valley: The magnitude of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are reckoned to be endemic in Ethiopia in magnitudes of undetermined prevalence and distribution. There is considerable information pertaining to the public health importance of leishmaniases in the lower course of the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, there is ...

  3. Herpetology of the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 110 species of amphibians (18 frogs and toads, and 1 salamander) and reptiles (47 snakes, 39 lizards, and 5 turtles) are known from the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys. The high diversity of the herpetofauna comes from a variety of factors, including a convergence of biotic communities representing deserts, grasslands, and mountains....

  4. Forecast and Outbreak of Rift valley fever in Sudan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks occur during heavy rainfall in various sub-Saharan countries including Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania and more recently in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Given the wide geographic and ecological range of RVF virus, it is necessary to monitor large areas for condit...

  5. Rift Valley fever Entomology, Ecology, and Outbreak Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease of domestic ruminants and humans in Africa. The disease is most severe in cattle, sheep, and goats, and it causes high mortality in young animals and abortion in adults. Exotic aanimal breeds from areas where RVF is not endemic tend to be ...

  6. Sound propagation from a ridge wind turbine across a valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Sound propagation outdoors can be strongly affected by ground topography. The existence of hills and valleys between a source and receiver can lead to the shielding or focusing of sound waves. Such effects can result in significant variations in received sound levels. In addition, wind speed and air temperature gradients in the atmospheric boundary layer also play an important role. All of the foregoing factors can become especially important for the case of wind turbines located on a ridge overlooking a valley. Ridges are often selected for wind turbines in order to increase their energy capture potential through the wind speed-up effects often experienced in such locations. In this paper, a hybrid calculation method is presented to model such a case, relying on an analytical solution for sound diffraction around an impedance cylinder and the conformal mapping (CM) Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) technique. The various aspects of the model have been successfully validated against alternative prediction methods. Example calculations with this hybrid analytical-CM-GFPE model show the complex sound pressure level distribution across the valley and the effect of valley ground type. The proposed method has the potential to include the effect of refraction through the inclusion of complex wind and temperature fields, although this aspect has been highly simplified in the current simulations. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  7. Status and population of vultures in Moyar Valley, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkitachalam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Four species of vultures were surveyed using road transects in two parts of the Moyar Valley, three of these are Critically Endangered by IUCN criteria and one is Endangered.  The vulture study was done for the first time in Nilgiri North Forest Division and Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve of Moyar Valley to determine the flock size in the three species of vultures and also to get a rough estimation of vultures. The results show higher flock size and higher densities in Nilgiri North Forest Division than in Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve and the most numerous of these was the White-rumped Vulture.  There is also evidence of seasonal movements in Nilgiri North Forest Division.  These data represent the first systematic survey results from the area and demonstrate the significance of the Moyar Valley for all four Endangered vulture species, probably the main stronghold remaining in southern India.  They are White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis, Indian Vulture Gyps indicus, Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvus and Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus.  The study recommends that immediate long-term conservation efforts should be taken to save the Critically Endangered vultures in the Moyar Valley

  8. Business plan Seed potato programmes Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, F.; Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand/start their business portfolio and are looking for an opportunity of investment in the agricultural sector in the Zambezi Valley in Mozambique. We propose the creation of a seed potato programme for the red skinned

  9. Effective utilization of the valley bushveld | AJ | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the arid Valley Bushveld to its full potential is discussed. Boer goats and Dorpers select forage of different quality within this veld type. In addition, Dorpers are chiefly grazers while Boer goats are browsers. The results show that more browsers can be maintained per unit area than grazers and that the ...

  10. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2017-03-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  11. Factors limiting recruitment in valley and coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia M. Tyler; Bruce E. Mahall; Frank W. Davis; Michael Hall

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Barbara County Oak Restoration Program was initiated in 1994 to determine the major factors limiting recruitment of valley oak (Quercus lobata) and coast live oak (Q. agrifolia). At Sedgwick Reserve in Santa Barbara County, California, we have replicated large-scale planting experiments in four different years to...

  12. Business plan Tilapia Pond Farming in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Herman; Meer, van der Magnus

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand their business portfolio or to start a value chain business in the aquaculture sector in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique.

    Freshwater aquaculture in Mozambique consists mainly of small-scale tilapia

  13. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2008-01-01

    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research timeperiods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  14. pastoralist tribes in lower Omo Valley, Southwestern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACIPH_Admin

    Abstract. Background: Survey of intestinal parasites provides information about the burden of parasites in a community and helps in making decisions for intervention. Nevertheless, such information on the communities living in the Lower. Omo Valley is scanty. Objective: To study the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ...

  15. Gravity Data from Newark Valley, White Pine County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.

    2007-01-01

    The Newark Valley area, eastern Nevada is one of thirteen major ground-water basins investigated by the BARCAS (Basin and Range Carbonate Aquifer Study) Project. Gravity data are being used to help characterize the geophysical framework of the region. Although gravity coverage was extensive over parts of the BARCAS study area, data were sparse for a number of the valleys, including the northern part of Newark Valley. We addressed this lack of data by establishing seventy new gravity stations in and around Newark Valley. All available gravity data were then evaluated to determine their reliability, prior to calculating an isostatic residual gravity map to be used for subsequent analyses. A gravity inversion method was used to calculate depths to pre-Cenozoic basement rock and estimates of maximum alluvial/volcanic fill. The enhanced gravity coverage and the incorporation of lithologic information from several deep oil and gas wells yields a view of subsurface shape of the basin and will provide information useful for the development of hydrogeologic models for the region.

  16. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. 7.17 Section 7.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can, or...

  17. Martian channels and valleys - Their characteristics, distribution, and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Clow, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and ages of Martian channels and valleys, which are generally believed to have been cut by running water, are examined with particular emphasis on the small branching networks referred to as runoff channels or valley networks. Valleys at latitudes from 65 deg S to 65 deg N were surveyed on Viking images at resolutions between 125 and 300 m. Almost all of the valleys are found in the old cratered terrain, in areas characterized by high elevations, low albedos and low violet/red ratios. The networks are deduced to have formed early in the history of the planet, with a formation rate declining rapidly shortly after the decline of the cratering rate 3.9 billion years ago. Two types of outflow channels are distinguished: unconfined, in which broad swaths of terrain are scoured, and confined, in which flow is restricted to discrete channels. Both types start at local sources, and have formed episodically throughout Martian history. Fretted channels, found mainly in two latitude belts characterized by relatively rapid erosion along escarpments, are explained by the lateral enlargement of other channels by mass wasting.

  18. Neotectonics of the Roer Valley Rift System, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtgast, R.F.; van Balen, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    The Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS) is located in the southern part of the Netherlands and adjacent parts of Germany and Belgium. The last rifting episode of the RVRS started in the Late Oligocene and is still ongoing. The present-day seismic activity in the rift system is part of that last rifting

  19. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  20. Fort Valley's early scientists: A legacy of distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Susan D. Olberding

    2008-01-01

    When the Riordan brothers of Flagstaff, Arizona, asked Gifford Pinchot to determine why there was a deficit in ponderosa pine seedlings, neither party understood the historical significance of what they were setting in motion for the field of forest research. The direct result of that professional favor was the establishment of the Fort Valley Experiment Station (Fort...

  1. Fort Valley's early scientists: A legacy of distinction (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Susan D. Olberding

    2008-01-01

    When the Riordan brothers of Flagstaff, Arizona asked Gifford Pinchot to determine why there was a deficit in ponderosa pine seedlings, neither party understood the historical significance of what they were setting in motion for the field of forest research. The direct result of that professional favor was the establishment of the Fort Valley Experiment Station (Fort...

  2. 1 characteristics, classification and management of inland valley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    ABSTRACT. Inland valley bottoms (IVBs) on basement complex in sub-humid southwestern Nigeria were studied for water-table (WT) dynamics, and physical and chemical characteristics for their classification and management needs for crop production. The IVBs are generally small in size. About 64% of the.

  3. Impact of Global Climate on Rift Valley Fever Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Since the virus was first isolated in Kenya in 1930 it has caused significant impact to animal and human health and national economies, and it is of concern to the internationa...

  4. Sound propagation from a ridge wind turbine across a valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Timothy

    2017-04-13

    Sound propagation outdoors can be strongly affected by ground topography. The existence of hills and valleys between a source and receiver can lead to the shielding or focusing of sound waves. Such effects can result in significant variations in received sound levels. In addition, wind speed and air temperature gradients in the atmospheric boundary layer also play an important role. All of the foregoing factors can become especially important for the case of wind turbines located on a ridge overlooking a valley. Ridges are often selected for wind turbines in order to increase their energy capture potential through the wind speed-up effects often experienced in such locations. In this paper, a hybrid calculation method is presented to model such a case, relying on an analytical solution for sound diffraction around an impedance cylinder and the conformal mapping (CM) Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) technique. The various aspects of the model have been successfully validated against alternative prediction methods. Example calculations with this hybrid analytical-CM-GFPE model show the complex sound pressure level distribution across the valley and the effect of valley ground type. The proposed method has the potential to include the effect of refraction through the inclusion of complex wind and temperature fields, although this aspect has been highly simplified in the current simulations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. The Sweet Valley High Gang Goes to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Joyce A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the first 14 books of the "Sweet Valley University" series. Finds that the storylines on sex send conflicting messages that make readers believe that premarital sex is not an important issue. Notes that date rape and a brief look at racism and alcohol abuse are the only serious topics addressed. (RS)

  6. Paleoenvironment reconstruction from channel and valley morphometry on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, A.

    The characteristics of the channels and valleys on Mars hold information on various environmental conditions were present during their formation. This work focuses on their easily observable main morphological and morphometrical aspects from a point of view how much are they useful for paleoenvironment reconstruction. The author analyzed longitudinal and cross sectional profiles of channels and valleys at Xanthe, Margaritifer, Noachis Terra and their surroundings from MOLA data, and morphological characteristics from MOC, THEMIS and HRSC images. During the work correlations were searched between the quantitative parameters (length, width, depth, slope, volume, curvature) and the geomorphological structures (regional topography, sedimentary infill, erodible/competent bedrock, inner channels etc.). The author tried to elucidate to what extent could the channels and valleys be used for the estimation of ancient environmental parameters (erosion, paleodischarge, ice covered/ice free surfaces, cutting into bedrock, water sources and sinks etc.). Among the results concave and convex longitudinal profiles were observed at Bahram and Tyras Valles respectively, while no general trend was visible at many other valleys. Several longitudinal profiles showed signs of knickpoints and some short reaches with increasing elevation in the flow direction. The cross-sectional profiles of Tyras Valles showed more V-shaped of upper and U-shaped profiles of lower reaches, but the great variety of profiles of other channels suggests a complex relationship. Tyras Valles could be divided into upper and lower sections that probably formed at different periods and conditions. The largest observed valleys contain small, previously unnoticed inner channels. There is no correlation between the shape of cross-sectional profiles and the direction of curvature of the valley's long axis, as is found in riverbeds on the Earth, suggesting that they are probably valleys and not dry riverbeds. The

  7. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  8. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  9. Wintertime Atmospheric Stability and PM Variability in Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandana Gamalathge, T. D.; Green, M.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution has already become a global threat. Particulate Matter (PM) which is commonly known as `aerosols' plays a significant role in negatively impacting the climate and human health. PM2.5 which are particles less than aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm can go deeply in to human lungs and cause serious health issues. Due to trapping of pollution, people living in cities that can be considered `valleys' are subjected to higher exposure, particularly in winter when there is less dispersion due to enhanced atmospheric stability. To identify whether there are any special atmospheric conditions or geographical locations that leads to increases in PM2.5 concentrations, we have gathering radiosonde data and PM2.5 data for cities within valleys. Although radiosonde archives consist of multi-decadal data and are easily accessible, it has been a difficult task to collect air quality data. Most of the developed countries have provided public access to their data bases, but different cities have measurements in different temporal resolutions. Apart from that, valleys to be used in our work should have both atmospheric soundings and air quality monitoring stations that are close together. Despite these constraints, we have selected about 100 cities which geographically represent various valley configurations (e.g. width, depth) and are in the process of categorizing them. We are limiting our work to winter season in each city and our goal is to see whether there are globally common relationships between atmospheric stability and PM variability. Initial results for a subset of cities are presented. Keywords: PM2.5, Valleys, Radiosonde data, Atmospheric stability

  10. Geophysical Data from Spring Valley to Delamar Valley, East-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Roberts, Carter W.; McKee, Edwin H.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Morin, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Cenozoic basins in eastern Nevada and western Utah constitute major ground-water recharge areas in the eastern part of the Great Basin and these were investigated to characterize the geologic framework of the region. Prior to these investigations, regional gravity coverage was variable over the region, adequate in some areas and very sparse in others. Cooperative studies described herein have established 1,447 new gravity stations in the region, providing a detailed description of density variations in the middle to upper crust. All previously available gravity data for the study area were evaluated to determine their reliability, prior to combining with our recent results and calculating an up-to-date isostatic residual gravity map of the area. A gravity inversion method was used to calculate depths to pre-Cenozoic basement rock and estimates of maximum alluvial/volcanic fill in the major valleys of the study area. The enhanced gravity coverage and the incorporation of lithologic information from several deep oil and gas wells yields a much improved view of subsurface shapes of these basins and provides insights useful for the development of hydrogeologic models for the region.

  11. Yellowstone and Long Valley - A Comparison of Two Restless Calderas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. P.; Smith, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Three large, silicic calderas in the conterminous United States have explosively erupted volumes > 300 km3 within in the last 2 million years -- Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming) Long Valley caldera (California) and the Vallez caldera (New Mexico) all located in extensional tectonic environments. All have shown varying levels of historic unrest. Pronounced unrest episodes at Yellowstone and Long Valley calderas over the past three decades stimulated extensive research on these two closely monitored calderas, and we explore some emerging similarities and differences. Yellowstone caldera is underlain by a long-lived (> 17 my) upper-mantle hot-spot that has fed a series of caldera-forming, extending to the southwest across southern Idaho to central Oregon including three caldera-forming eruptions from the Yellowstone caldera system in the last 2 my, the most recent at 600,000 ybp. It is marked by relatively low density and low seismic velocities extending to depths of at least 400 km and a regional topographic swell with elevations exceeding 2000 m. The extensive Yellowstone hydrothermal system has a thermal output of 5 GW. The most recent magmatic eruption dated at 70,000 ybp. By comparison, Long Valley caldera is underlain by a relatively modest "hot-spot", the locus of which appears to be influenced by a dilatational jog between the dextral Eastern California Shear Zone and the Walker Lane and westward delamination of the dense lithospheric root of the adjacent Sierra Nevada. The Long Valley system has fed multiple eruptions of over the past 4 my and a single caldera-forming eruption at 760,000 ybp. It is marked by a limited topographic swell but with the elevation of the caldera floor and adjacent basins comparable to the 2000-plus m elevation of the Yellowstone swell. Long Valley caldera hydrothermal system has a thermal output of 0.3 GW (including a 40 MW geothermal power plant). The most recent eruptions from the Long Valley Caldera- Mono Domes volcanic field

  12. Updated glacial chronology of the South Fork Hoh River valley, Olympic Peninsula, Washington through detailed stratigraphy and OSL dating

    OpenAIRE

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna E.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Thackray, Glenn D.

    2012-01-01

    Four glacial advances are preserved and exposed in the stratigraphy of the South Fork Hoh River valley. The oldest of these advances extended beyond the South Fork valley into the Hoh River valley. The three younger advances are preserved in the stratigraphy cut bank exposures in the valley and geomorphically by moraines and outwash plains. One of these advances represents a re-advance to the same terminal position of the previous advance and has not previously been recognized in this valley ...

  13. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. The Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Arnoldus Huyzendveld

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley project is the creation of an integrated digital system for the knowledge, valorisation and communication of the cultural landscape, archaeological and naturalistic sites along the Tiber Valley, in the Sabina area between Monte Soratte and the ancient city of Lucus Feroniae (Capena. Virtual reality applications, multimedia contents, together with a web site, are under construction and they will be accessed inside the museums of the territory and in a central museum in Rome. The different stages of work will cover the building of a geo-spatial archaeological database, the reconstruction of the ancient potential landscape and the creation of virtual models of the major archaeological sites. This paper will focus on the methodologies used and on present and future results.

  15. Laboratory work in support of West Valley glass development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnell, L.R.

    1988-05-01

    Over the past six years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted several studies in support of waste glass composition development and testing of glass compositions suitable for immobilizing the nuclear wastes stored at West Valley, New York. As a result of pilot-scale testing conducted by PNL, the glass composition was changed from that originally recommended in response to changes in the waste stream, and several processing-related problems were discovered. These problems were solved, or sufficiently addressed to determine their likely effect on the glass melting operations to be conducted at West Valley. This report describes the development of the waste glass composition, WV-205, and discusses solutions to processing problems such as foaming and insoluble sludges, as well as other issues such as effects of feed variations on processing of the resulting glass. An evaluation of the WV-205 glass from a repository perspective is included in the appendix to this report.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley in northern California was redefined on the basis of new data and a new hydrologic model. The regional groundwater flow systems can be subdivided into upper-aquifer and lower-aquifer systems that form a convergent flow system within a basin bounded by mountains and hills on three sides and discharge to pumping wells and the southern San Francisco Bay. Faults also control the flow of groundwater within the Santa Clara Valley and subdivide the aquifer system into three subregions.After decades of development and groundwater depletion that resulted in substantial land subsidence, Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) and the local water purveyors have refilled the basin through conservation and importation of water for direct use and artificial recharge. The natural flow system has been altered by extensive development with flow paths toward major well fields. Climate has not only affected the cycles of sedimentation during the glacial periods over the past million years, but interannual to interdecadal climate cycles also have affected the supply and demand components of the natural and anthropogenic inflows and outflows of water in the valley. Streamflow has been affected by development of the aquifer system and regulated flow from reservoirs, as well as conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water. Interaquifer flow through water-supply wells screened across multiple aquifers is an important component to the flow of groundwater and recapture of artificial recharge in the Santa Clara Valley. Wellbore flow and depth-dependent chemical and isotopic data indicate that flow into wells from multiple aquifers, as well as capture of artificial recharge by pumping of water-supply wells, predominantly is occurring in the upper 500 ft (152 m) of the aquifer system. Artificial recharge represents about one-half of the inflow of water into the valley for the period 1970–1999. Most subsidence is occurring below 250 ft

  17. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  18. Metallic iron for water treatment: leaving the valley of confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makota, Susanne; Nde-Tchoupe, Arnaud I.; Mwakabona, Hezron T.; Tepong-Tsindé, Raoul; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Nassi, Achille; Njau, Karoli N.

    2017-07-01

    Researchers on metallic iron (Fe0) for environmental remediation and water treatment are walking in a valley of confusion for 25 years. This valley is characterized by the propagation of different beliefs that have resulted from a partial analysis of the Fe0/H2O system as (1) a reductive chemical reaction was considered an electrochemical one and (2) the mass balance of iron has not been really addressed. The partial analysis in turn has been undermining the scientific method while discouraging any real critical argumentation. This communication re-establishes the complex nature of the Fe0/H2O system while recalling that, finally, proper system analysis and chemical thermodynamics are the most confident ways to solve any conflicting situation in Fe0 environmental remediation.

  19. Valley blockade in a silicon double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Justin K.; Gullans, Michael J.; Taylor, Jacob M.; Stewart, M. D.; Zimmerman, Neil M.

    2017-11-01

    Electrical transport in double quantum dots (DQDs) illuminates many interesting features of the dots' carrier states. Recent advances in silicon quantum information technologies have renewed interest in the valley states of electrons confined in silicon. Here we show measurements of dc transport through a mesa-etched silicon double quantum dot. Comparing bias triangles (i.e., regions of allowed current in DQDs) at positive and negative bias voltages we find a systematic asymmetry in the size of the bias triangles at the two bias polarities. Asymmetries of this nature are associated with blocked tunneling events due to the occupation of a metastable state. Several features of our data lead us to conclude that the states involved are not simple spin states. Rather, we develop a model based on selective filling of valley states in the DQD that is consistent with all of the qualitative features of our data.

  20. Metallic iron for water treatment: leaving the valley of confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makota, Susanne; Nde-Tchoupe, Arnaud I.; Mwakabona, Hezron T.; Tepong-Tsindé, Raoul; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Nassi, Achille; Njau, Karoli N.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers on metallic iron (Fe0) for environmental remediation and water treatment are walking in a valley of confusion for 25 years. This valley is characterized by the propagation of different beliefs that have resulted from a partial analysis of the Fe0/H2O system as (1) a reductive chemical reaction was considered an electrochemical one and (2) the mass balance of iron has not been really addressed. The partial analysis in turn has been undermining the scientific method while discouraging any real critical argumentation. This communication re-establishes the complex nature of the Fe0/H2O system while recalling that, finally, proper system analysis and chemical thermodynamics are the most confident ways to solve any conflicting situation in Fe0 environmental remediation.

  1. Venusian channels and valleys - Distribution and volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Goro; Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1993-01-01

    An updated map is presented which shows the distribution of more than 200 channels and valleys on Venus. A large number of channels are concentrated in equatorial regions characterized by highlands, rift and fracture zones, an associated volcanic features. Many channels associated with flow deposits are similar to typical terrestrial lava drainage channels. They are associated with a wide range of volcanic edifices. More than half of the sinuous rilles are associated with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. Corona volcanism driven by mantle plume events may explain this association. Many valley network are observed in highlands and in association with coronae, coronalike features, or arachnoids. This indicates that highlands and coronae provided fractures and flow-viscosity lavas, both of which seem to be required for network formation by lava sapping processes. Canali-type channels have a unique distribution limited to some plains regions.

  2. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring.

  3. Optically initialized robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2015-11-25

    A robust valley polarization is a key prerequisite for exploiting valley pseudospin to carry information in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Although monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides with inherent spin–valley coupling offer a unique platform to develop such valleytronic devices, the anticipated long-lived valley pseudospin has not been observed yet. Here we demonstrate that robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2 can be initialized by optical pumping. Using time-resolved Kerr rotation spectroscopy, we observe a long-lived valley polarization for positive trion with a lifetime approaching 1 ns at low temperatures, which is much longer than the trion recombination lifetime (~10–20 ps). The long-lived valley polarization arises from the transfer of valley pseudospin from photocarriers to resident holes in a specific valley. The optically initialized valley pseudospin of holes remains robust even at room temperature, which opens up the possibility to realize room-temperature valleytronics based on transition metal dichalcogenides.

  4. Water Allocation and Supply Reliability in the Murrumbidgee Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Randall E.; Musgrave, Warren F.; Bryant, Mike

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the average annual income and income variance of alternative irrigation water allocations and associated supply reliabilities in the Murrumbidgee Valley. Traditionally, water supply authorities have aimed to supply irrigators with their full allocations in all but the most severe drought years. This means that a substantial amount of water is held in storage as a reserve and in most years it is not utilised for irrigation or other, including environ...

  5. ADVERTISING AND AN ACCIDENTAL CLASSIC: ILLUSTRATED SKETCHES OF DFATH VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Steeples

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Illustrated Sketches of Death Valley (1891 originated as a hastily-written series of journalistic sketches of our Western borax deserts. They were written on commission to supplement their authors income. Conceived as a means subtly to promote the borax industry the Sketches in time won unintended recognition as a classic source for their subject. They also assumed unforeseen importance as an illustration of the role of advertising in America’s changing economy.

  6. Wright Valley Sediments as Potential Analogs for Martian Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, P. A. J.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) may provide a unique terrestrial analog for current Martian surface processes. The Wright Valley located in the ADV contains streams, lakes and ponds that host highly saline, sedimentary environments. This project highlights comparisons of formation and salt accumulation processes at the Don Juan Pond (DJP) and Don Quixote Pond (DQP). These are located in the north and south forks of the Wright Valley, which are unique areas where unusual terrestrial processes can be studied. DQP is located in the western part of the north fork about 100 m above mean seawater level. The DQP Valley walls are up to 2500 m high and the brine is seasonally frozen. DJP from the south fork is located ~9 km west of Lake Vanda. The basin floor is 117 m above mean seawater level with activity to the north and south rising above 1000 m. The DJP brine does not freeze and may be a model environment for Ca and Cl weathering and distribution on Mars. Our findings indicate that DJP and DQP have formed in similar climatic and geological environments, but likely experienced different formation conditions. Samples were collected from surface, soil pits and depth profiles during the 1979/1980, the 1990/1991 and the 2005/2006 field seasons. Elemental abundances and mineralogy were evaluated for several sets of sediments. The DJP basin shows low surface abundances of halite and relatively high abundances of sulfates throughout with gypsum or anhydrite dominating at different locations. The DQP area has high surface abundances of halite with gypsum present as the major sulfate. Two models have been proposed to explain these differences: DQP may have formed through a combination of shallow and some deep groundwater influx, while deep groundwater upwelling likely played the dominant role of salt formation at DJP. Our study seeks to understand the formation of DQP and DJP as unique terrestrial processes and as models for Ca, Cl, and S weathering and distribution on Mars.

  7. A novel cause of chronic viral meningoencephalitis: Cache Valley virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael R; Suan, Dan; Duggins, Andrew; Schubert, Ryan D; Khan, Lillian M; Sample, Hannah A; Zorn, Kelsey C; Rodrigues Hoffman, Aline; Blick, Anna; Shingde, Meena; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2017-07-01

    Immunodeficient patients are particularly vulnerable to neuroinvasive infections that can be challenging to diagnose. Metagenomic next generation sequencing can identify unusual or novel microbes and is therefore well suited for investigating the etiology of chronic meningoencephalitis in immunodeficient patients. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia from Australia suffering from 3 years of meningoencephalitis that defied an etiologic diagnosis despite extensive conventional testing, including a brain biopsy. Metagenomic next generation sequencing of his cerebrospinal fluid and brain biopsy tissue was performed to identify a causative pathogen. Sequences aligning to multiple Cache Valley virus genes were identified via metagenomic next generation sequencing. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry subsequently confirmed the presence of Cache Valley virus in the brain biopsy tissue. Cache Valley virus, a mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus, has only been identified in 3 immunocompetent North American patients with acute neuroinvasive disease. The reported severity ranges from a self-limiting meningitis to a rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis with multiorgan failure. The virus has never been known to cause a chronic systemic or neurologic infection in humans. Cache Valley virus has also never previously been detected on the Australian continent. Our research subject traveled to North and South Carolina and Michigan in the weeks prior to the onset of his illness. This report demonstrates that metagenomic next generation sequencing allows for unbiased pathogen identification, the early detection of emerging viruses as they spread to new locales, and the discovery of novel disease phenotypes. Ann Neurol 2017;82:105-114. © 2017 The Authors Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  8. Temperature and Precipitation trends in Kashmir valley, North Western Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Mifta Ul; Rasool, Rehana; Ahmed, Pervez; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as an important issue ever to confront mankind. This concern emerges from the fact that our day-to-day activities are leading to impacts on the Earth's atmosphere that has the potential to significantly alter the planet's shield and radiation balance. Developing countries particularly whose income is particularly derived from agricultural activities are at the forefront of bearing repercussions due to changing climate. The present study is an effort to analyze the changing trends of precipitation and temperature variables in Kashmir valley along different elevation zones in the north western part of India. As the Kashmir valley has a rich repository of glaciers with its annual share of precipitation, slight change in the temperature and precipitation regime has far reaching environmental and economic consequences. The results from Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data of the period 1980-2014 reveals that the annual mean temperature of Kashmir valley has increased significantly. Accelerated warming has been observed during 1980-2014, with intense warming in the recent years (2001-2014). During the period 1980-2014, steeper increase, in annual mean maximum temperature than annual mean minimum temperature, has been observed. In addition, mean maximum temperature in plain regions has shown higher rate of increase when compared with mountainous areas. In case of mean minimum temperature, mountainous regions have shown higher rate of increase. Analysis of precipitation data for the same period shows a decreasing trend with mountainous regions having the highest rate of decrease which can be quite hazardous for the fragile mountain environment of the Kashmir valley housing a large number of glaciers.

  9. Water resources of No Name Valley, Colville Indian Reservation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Denzel R.

    1978-01-01

    No Name Creek valley is a trough cut in granitic bedrock in north-central Washington. A low topographic divide in the northern third of the valley separates it into the No Name Creek basin on the south and Omak Creek basin on the north. Omak Creek is the larger stream and enters the valley through a narrow gorge in the eastern granite wall. Partly filled with unconsolidated sand, gravel, and silt to depths as great as 163 feet, the valley contains a ground-water reservoir which supplies four irrigation wells and several domestic-supply wells. The ground-water reservoir also feeds springs which give rise to No Name Creek, and it contributes some water to Omak Creek to the north. Under conditions of the pre-1976 development the ground-water divide was naturally about 3,000 feet north of Omak Creek gorge, and about 580 acre-feet of leakage from Omak Creek recharges the No Name Creek ground-water reservoir. By 1977, ground-water withdrawal of 994 acre-feet per year in No Name Creek basin had caused the ground-water divide to shift to a position about 4,000 feet north of the topographic divide. This increased the drainage area contributing to the No Name Creek ground-water reservoir for about three months so that during a year of normal flow a total of about 600 acre-feet of leakage from Omak Creek can be captured. It is postulated that as much as 1,100 acre-feet per year can be pumped in the central part of the reservoir. This pumpage would cause the ground-water divide to shift farther north, resulting in the capture of additional recharge from Omak Creek; the total leakage would be about 700 acre-feet per year. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Intelligent electric vehicle charging: Rethinking the valley-fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keenan; Temple, William G.; Zhang, K. Max

    This study proposes an intelligent PEV charging scheme that significantly reduces power system cost while maintaining reliability compared to the widely discussed valley-fill method of aggregated charging in the early morning. This study considers optimal PEV integration into the New York Independent System Operator's (NYISO) day-ahead and real-time wholesale energy markets for 21 days in June, July, and August of 2006, a record-setting summer for peak load. NYISO market and load data is used to develop a statistical Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and wholesale energy cost model. This model considers the high cost of ramping generators at peak-load and the traditional cost of steady-state operation, resulting in a framework with two competing cost objectives. Results show that intelligent charging assigns roughly 80% of PEV load to valley hours to take advantage of low steady-state cost, while placing the remaining 20% equally at shoulder and peak hours to reduce ramping cost. Compared to unregulated PEV charging, intelligent charging reduces system cost by 5-16%; a 4-9% improvement over the flat valley-fill approach. Moreover, a Charge Flexibility Constraint (CFC), independent of market modeling, is constructed from a vehicle-at-home profile and the mixture of Level 1 and Level 2 charging infrastructure. The CFC is found to severely restrict the ability to charge vehicles during the morning load valley. This study further shows that adding more Level 2 chargers without regulating PEV charging will significantly increase wholesale energy cost. Utilizing the proposed intelligent PEV charging method, there is a noticeable reduction in system cost if the penetration of Level 2 chargers is increased from 70/30 to 50/50 (Level 1/Level 2). However, the system benefit is drastically diminished for higher penetrations of Level 2 chargers.

  11. Governing Rural Health: Making Manageable Citizens in Colca Valley, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Skoftedalen, Kaja Bergskås

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is about public healthcare in the Andes and how women in the Colca Valley, an area located in the southern region of Arequipa, are made subjects by health-development projects Women in the Andes, especially those who are targeted in health-development programmes, are understood in certain ways by state-actors according to their ethnic identity. They are targeted by development programmes due to their socioeconomic status, but also because of their placement (by outsiders) in racia...

  12. Rock-fall Hazard In The Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent slope movements in Yosemite Na- tional Park, California. In historical time (1851-2001), more than 400 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the preliminary results of an attempt to assess rockfall hazard in the Yosemite Valley using STONE, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock-fall trajectories starting from a digital terrain model (DTM), the location of rock-fall release points (source areas), and maps of the dynamic rolling coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tan- gential energy restitution. For each DTM cell the software also calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock-fall velocity and the maxi- mum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DTM with a ground resolution of 10 x 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from USGS 1:24,000-scale maps. Rock-fall release points were identified as DTM cells having a slope steeper than 60 degrees, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the nor- mal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to cali- brate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls confirmed the accuracy of the model. The model results are also compared with a geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazard based on potential energy referred to as a "shadow angle" approach, recently completed for the Yosemite Valley.

  13. Climate change and agricultural transformation in the Oaxaca Valley, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Valley of Oaxaca, a semi-arid region in the central highlands of southern Mexico, provides a case study through which to develop a methodology for climate change impact assessment. The causes and impacts of climate change originate in dialectic processes within a nexus of inter-dependent social, technical, environmental, cultural and academic production relations. Agriculture is the most important economic activity in the Valley, and rain-fed maize the most important crop. Harvest failures from droughts occur one year in four. Annual rainfall varies with large-scale convection of water vapor transported from the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico during summer, upper-air disturbances caused by hurricanes and El Ninos. Variations in maize yields and losses have roughly moisture availability during August. Yields and losses can be predicted using precipitation during this time, or directly from atmospheric circulation. Contemporary agriculture in the Valley of Oaxaca has both traditional and modern sectors, of which both may appear within individual communities and households. The traditional sector consists of semi-autonomous rural communities using traditional technology for subsistence farming. The modern sector uses tractors, irrigation pumps, agricultural chemicals and hybrid seeds to produce cash crops and dairy products. The evidence for climate change in the Valley is ambiguous and contradictory. Under wet or dry scenarios, climate change affects the rate and pathway of the absorption of Oaxaca's traditional rural communities into the wage labor market of the larger capitalist system. Increased moisture availability would raise land productivity, promoting cash cropping and development of the modern market-oriented agricultural sector and leading to land consolidation and rural-to-urban migration. Decreased moisture availability would inhibit cash-cropping but also lead to rural-to-urban migration due to decreased land productivity.

  14. Calleguas Creek Simi Valley to Moorpark Ventura County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    limestone deposit in the Modelo Formation in Tapo Canyon. It is the only limestone deposit to have been mined in southern Ventura County. The product...provides an excellent habitat for invertebrate life and associated vertebrate consumers. Small rodents, rabbits, song birds, quail, doves, raptors, wading...park the length of Simi Valley that offers excellent recreational opportunities. 76. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES. The draft environmental statement was sent

  15. Electronic, Spin and Valley Transport in Two Dimensional Dirac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongya

    This dissertation aims to study and understand relevant issues related to the electronic, spin and valley transport in two-dimensional Dirac systems for different given physical settings. In summary, four key findings are achieved. First, studying persistent currents in confined chaotic Dirac fermion systems with a ring geometry and an applied Aharonov-Bohm flux, unusual whispering-gallery modes with edge-dependent currents and spin polarization are identified. They can survive for highly asymmetric rings that host fully developed classical chaos. By sustaining robust persistent currents, these modes can be utilized to form a robust relativistic quantum two-level system. Second, the quantized topological edge states in confined massive Dirac fermion systems exhibiting a remarkable reverse Stark effect in response to an applied electric field, and an electrically or optically controllable spin switching behavior are uncovered. Third, novel wave scattering and transport in Dirac-like pseudospin-1 systems are reported. (a), for small scatterer size, a surprising revival resonant scattering with a peculiar boundary trapping by forming unusual vortices is uncovered. Intriguingly, it can persist in arbitrarily weak scatterer strength regime, which underlies a superscattering behavior beyond the conventional scenario. (b), for larger size, a perfect caustic phenomenon arises as a manifestation of the super-Klein tunneling effect. (c), in the far-field, an unexpected isotropic transport emerges at low energies. Fourth, a geometric valley Hall effect (gVHE) originated from fractional singular Berry flux is revealed. It is shown that gVHE possesses a nonlinear dependence on the Berry flux with asymmetrical resonance features and can be considerably enhanced by electrically controllable resonant valley skew scattering. With the gVHE, efficient valley filtering can arise and these phenomena are robust against thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging.

  16. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  17. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-27

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.  Created: 5/27/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/27/2010.

  18. Mapping Evapotranspiration over Agricultural Land in the California Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Huntington, J. L.; Guzman, A.; Johnson, L.; Morton, C.; Nemani, R. R.; Post, K. M.; Rosevelt, C.; Shupe, J. W.; Spellenberg, R.; Vitale, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in satellite mapping of evapotranspiration (ET) have made it possible to largely automate the process of mapping ET over large areas at the field-scale. This development coincides with recent drought events across the western U.S. which have intensified interest in mapping of ET and consumptive use to address a range of water management challenges, including resolving disputes over water rights, improving irrigation management, and developing sustainable management plans for groundwater resources. We present a case study for California that leverages two automated ET mapping capabilities to estimate ET at the field scale over agricultural areas in the California Central Valley. We utilized the NASA Earth Exchange and applied a python-based implementation of the METRIC surface energy balance model and the Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) system, which uses a surface reflectance-based approach, to map ET over agricultural areas in the Central Valley. We present estimates from 2014 from both approaches and results from a comparison of the estimates. Though theoretically and computationally quite different from each other, initial results from both approaches show good agreement overall on seasonal ET totals for 2014. We also present results from comparisons against ET measurements collected on commercial farms in the Central Valley and discuss implications for accuracy of the two different approaches. The objective of this analysis is to provide data that can inform planning for the development of sustainable groundwater management plans, and assist water managers and growers in evaluating irrigation demand during drought events.

  19. Detection of chiral anomaly and valley transport in Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Enze; Liu, Yanwen; Chen, Zhigang; Liang, Sihang; Cao, Junzhi; Yuan, Xiang; Tang, Lei; Li, Qian; Gu, Teng; Wu, Yizheng; Zou, Jin; Xiu, Faxian

    Chiral anomaly is a non-conservation of chiral charge pumped by the topological nontrivial gauge field, which has been predicted to exist in the emergent quasiparticle excitations in Dirac and Weyl semimetals. However, so far, such pumping process hasn't been clearly demonstrated and lacks a convincing experimental identification. Here, we report the detection of the charge pumping effect and the related valley transport in Cd3As2 driven by external electric and magnetic fields (EB). We find that the chiral imbalance leads to a non-zero gyrotropic coefficient, which can be confirmed by the EB-generated Kerr effect. By applying B along the current direction, we observe a negative magnetoresistance despite the giant positive one at other directions, a clear indication of the chiral anomaly. Remarkably, a robust nonlocal response in valley diffusion originated from the chiral anomaly is persistent up to room temperature when B is parallel to E. The ability to manipulate the valley polarization in Dirac semimetal opens up a brand-new route to understand its fundamental properties through external fields and utilize the chiral fermions in valleytronic applications.

  20. Evapotranspiration of applied water, Central Valley, California, 1957-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Alex K.

    1982-01-01

    In the Central Valley, Calif., where 57% of the 20,000 square miles of land is irrigated, ground-water recharge from agricultural lands is an important input to digital simulation models of ground-water flow. Several methods of calculating recharge were explored for the Central Valley Aquifer Project and a simplified water budget was designed where net recharge (recharge minus pumpage) equals net surface water diverted minus evapotranspiration of applied water (ETAW). This equation eliminates the need to determine pumpage from the water-table aquifer, assuming that the time lag for infiltration is not longer than the time intervals of interest for modeling. This study evaluates only the evapotranspiration of applied water. Future reports will describe the other components of the water budget. ETAW was calculated by summing the products of ETAW coefficients and respective crop areas for each 7 1/2-minute quadrangle area in the valley, for each of three land-use surveys between 1957 and 1978. In 1975 total ETAW was 15.2 million acre-feet, a 43% increase since 1959. The largest increases were in the south, especially Kern County, which had a sixfold increase, which was caused by the import of surface water in the California Aqueduct. (USGS)

  1. Quaternary Glaciations in the Rio Mendoza Valley, Argentine Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espizua, Lydia E.

    1993-09-01

    In the Rio Mendoza valley, five Pleistocene drifts and one Holocene drift are distinguished by multiple relative-age criteria, including surface-rock weathering, development of rock varnish, moraine morphology, soil-profile development, and stratigraphic relationships. Several absolute ages suggest a preliminary chronology. During the oldest (Uspallata) glaciation, a system of valley glaciers flowed 110 km from the Andean drainage divide and 80 km from Cerro Aconcagua to terminate at 1850 m. Drift of this ice advance is older than a widespread tephra dated by fission-track at 360,000 ± 36,000 yr. During the Punta de Vacas advance, ice terminated at 2350 m, while during the subsequent Penitentes advance, the glacier system ended at 2500 m. A travertine layer overlying Penitentes Drift has U-series age of 24,200 ± 2000 yr B.P. The distribution of Horcones Drift, which is inferred to represent the last glacial maximum, delimits an independent ice stream that flowed 22 km down Horcones valley to 2750 m. A later readvance (Almacenes) reached 3250 m. Confluencia Drift is considered to be Neoglacial in age and extends downvalley to 3300 m. The moraine sequence is compared with those studied by Caviedes (1972) along Rio Aconcagua on the Chilean flank of the Andes.

  2. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  3. Geologic evaluation of the Oasis Valley basin, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridrich, C.J.; Minor, S.A.; and Mankinen, E.A.

    2000-01-13

    This report documents the results of a geologic study of the area between the underground-nuclear-explosion testing areas on Pahute Mesa, in the northwesternmost part of the Nevada Test Site, and the springs in Oasis Valley, to the west of the Test Site. The new field data described in this report are also presented in a geologic map that is a companion product(Fridrich and others, 1999) and that covers nine 7.5-minute quadrangles centered on Thirsty Canyon SW, the quadrangle in which most of the Oasis Valley springs are located. At the beginning of this study, published detailed maps were available for 3 of the 9 quadrangles of the study area: namely Thirsty Canyon (O'Connor and others, 1966); Beatty (Maldonado and Hausback, 1990); and Thirsty Canyon SE (Lipman and others, 1966). Maps of the last two of these quadrangles, however, required extensive updating owing to recent advances in understanding of the regional structure and stratigraphy. The new map data are integrated in this re port with new geophysical data for the Oasis Valley area, include gravity, aeromagnetic, and paleomagnetic data (Grauch and others, 1997; written comm., 1999; Mankinen and others, 1999; Hildenbrand and others, 1999; Hudson and others, 1994; Hudson, unpub. data).

  4. Record of recent river channel instability, Cheakamus Valley, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, John J.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Reyes, Alberto V.

    2003-07-01

    Rivers flowing from glacier-clad Quaternary volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia have high sediment loads and anabranching and braided planforms. Their floodplains aggrade in response to recurrent large landslides on the volcanoes and to advance of glaciers during periods of climate cooling. In this paper, we document channel instability and aggradation during the last 200 years in lower Cheakamus River valley. Cheakamus River derives much of its flow and nearly all of its sediment from the Mount Garibaldi massif, which includes a number of volcanic centres dominated by Mount Garibaldi volcano. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of recent floodplain sediments at North Vancouver Outdoor School in Cheakamus Valley show that Cheakamus River aggraded its floodplain about 1-2 m and buried a valley-floor forest in the early or mid 1800s. The aggradation was probably caused by a large (ca. 15-25×10 6 m 3) landslide from the flank of Mount Garibaldi, 15 km north of our study site, in 1855 or 1856. Examination of historical aerial photographs dating back to 1947 indicates that channel instability triggered by this event persisted until the river was dyked in the late 1950s. Our observations are consistent with data from many other mountain areas that suggest rivers with large, but highly variable sediment loads may rapidly aggrade their floodplains following a large spike in sediment supply. Channel instability may persist for decades to centuries after the triggering event.

  5. Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamantes, Jorge; Behseta, Sam; Zender, Charles S

    2007-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a fungal infection found in the southwestern US, northern Mexico, and some places in Central and South America. The fungus that causes it (Coccidioides immitis) is normally soil-dwelling but, if disturbed, becomes air-borne and infects the host when its spores are inhaled. It is thus natural to surmise that weather conditions that foster the growth and dispersal of the fungus must have an effect on the number of cases in the endemic areas. We present here an attempt at the modeling of valley fever incidence in Kern County, California, by the implementation of a generalized auto regressive moving average (GARMA) model. We show that the number of valley fever cases can be predicted mainly by considering only the previous history of incidence rates in the county. The inclusion of weather-related time sequences improves the model only to a relatively minor extent. This suggests that fluctuations of incidence rates (about a seasonally varying background value) are related to biological and/or anthropogenic reasons, and not so much to weather anomalies.

  6. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring. In 2011, DRI installed two meteorological monitoring stations south (station #1) and north (station #2) of the Plutonium Valley CA and a runoff sediment sampling station within the CA. Temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and airborne particulate concentration are collected at both meteorological stations. The maximum, minimum, and average or total (as appropriate) for each of these parameters are recorded for each 10-minute interval. The sediment sampling station includes an automatically activated ISCO sampling pump with collection bottles for suspended sediment, which is activated when sufficient flow is present in the channel, and passive traps for bedload material that is transported down the channel during runoff events. This report presents data collected from these stations during fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  7. Interaction Induced Quantum Valley Hall Effect in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We use pseudo-quantum electrodynamics in order to describe the full electromagnetic interaction of the p electrons in graphene in a consistent 2D formulation. We first consider the effect of this interaction in the vacuum polarization tensor or, equivalently, in the current correlator. This allows us to obtain the T→0 conductivity after a smooth zero-frequency limit is taken in Kubo’s formula. Thereby, we obtain the usual expression for the minimal conductivity plus corrections due to the interaction that bring it closer to the experimental value. We then predict the onset of an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum valley Hall effect below an activation temperature of the order of 2 K. The transverse (Hall valley conductivity is evaluated exactly and shown to coincide with the one in the usual quantum Hall effect. Finally, by considering the effects of pseudo-quantum electrodynamics, we show that the electron self-energy is such that a set of P- and T-symmetric gapped electron energy eigenstates are dynamically generated, in association with the quantum valley Hall effect.

  8. Basic subsurface geology of the south-central Sacramento Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, S.T.

    1978-01-01

    The generalized east-west cross section of the south-central Sacramento Valley shows the subsurface geology underlying the 27 miles long Interstate Highway 5 and State Highway 16 from the Yuba City turnoff I-5 to Esparto on Highway 16. The uppermost 2,000 to 3,000 ft of section consists of the Mid-Miocene Valley Springs, Upper Miocene Mehrten and Pliocene Upper Mehrten, and Tehama and the Pleistocene Red Bluff gravels. These formations are not differentiated on the section. A westward thickening wedge of Upper Cretaceous to Oligocene marine units underlies the continental deposits. Basement complexes are Sierran on the east and Coast Range on the west. The boundary between these basement assemblages probably underlies the area just to the east of Woodland. The east-west portion of I-5 parallels a break in the geology of the Sacramento Valley. To the north, the Martinez, H and T, Starkey sands, and Winters Formation are soon truncated by the unconformity at the base of the Capay Shale. These units are important gas reservoirs adjacent to the south of the highway. To the north, most production is from the Cretaceous F Zone.

  9. Early to middle Holocene valley glaciations in northernmost Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Per; Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2010-01-01

    the period from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18e22 cal ka BP) into the Holocene. It records the history of a shelf-based glaciation with ice flowing eastward along the coast as well as two local valley glacier advances from the south during the Holocene. With ice on the coastal plain during the LGM...... formed prominent valley mouth moraines, especially in Sifs valley. Here, both glaciolacustrine and marine sediments were remoulded and/or dislocated as thrust blocks into a moraine ridge spanning more than 1 km in width and >60 m in height. Radiocarbon ages of sediments incorporated in this moraine......, as well as from onlapping sediments, suggest that the moraine formed between 9.6 and 6.3 cal ka BP. Based on 14C dating results, the youngest ice advance phase can be narrowed down to 14C ages between w5.5e5.0 cal ka BP. The recorded ice advances took place during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM...

  10. Hyperfine-induced valley mixing and the spin-valley blockade in carbon-based quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palyi, Andras; Burkard, Guido [Department of Physics, University Konstanz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Hyperfine interaction (HFI) in carbon nanotube and graphene quantum dots is due to the presence of {sup 13}C atoms. We theoretically show that in these structures the short-range nature of the HFI gives rise to a coupling between the valley degree of freedom of the electron and the nuclear spin, in addition to the usual electron spin-nuclear spin coupling. We predict that this property of the HFI affects the Pauli blockade transport in carbon-based double quantum dots. In particular, we show that transport is blocked only if both the spin and the valley degeneracies of the quantum dot levels are lifted, e.g., by an appropriately oriented magnetic field. The blockade is caused by four ''supertriplet'' states in the (1,1) charge configuration.

  11. Artificial-recharge tests in Upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, Jimmy Camp Valley, and Fountain Valley, El Paso County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Artificial-recharge tests were conducted in the alluvium in upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, the alluvium in Jimmy Camp Valley, and in the alluvium overlying the Widefield aquifer which is located in an ancestral channel in Fountain Valley, Colo. Nine artificial-recharge pits with areas of approximately 9,200 square feet each were excavated in the unsaturated zones above the three aquifers. Each artificial-recharge site was instrumented to measure inflow, stage fluctuations, and water-table fluctuations. Artificial-recharge tests of approximately 10 days ' duration were conducted at each of the nine artificial-recharge sites and one extended test of approximately 30 days ' duration was conducted in each of the three study areas. Periphyton growth, present in most of the artificial-recharge ponds, was insufficient to cause noticeable decline in the rate of infiltration. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  13. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume II, Part II. Biological Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii), is found in large areas of Wah Wah Valley. Winterfat (Ceratoides lanata) is often found in pure stands within the...America. Domestic livestock eating green Salsola are subject to scours (Hitchcock et al., 1964). Blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) and galleta grass...glabrata The galleta grass (Hilaria spp.)/three-awn grass (Aristida spp.) community is considered by Conquist (1972) to belong to the sagebrush zone

  14. Sediment budget in a Himalayan Valley (Middle Kali Gandaki, Nepal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, M.; Cossart, E.

    2012-04-01

    Active mountains supply the largest sediment fluxes experienced on earth. At mountain range scale, sediment budgets are controlled by rock uplift and climate, hence by a wide range of erosion processes (detachment, transport and deposition), all operating within drainage basin units, with time and spatial patterns that indeed are quite complex at local scale. In the Himalayas, the sediment cascade is particularly efficient, as favoured by high, glaciated peaks, together with narrow valleys and steep hillslopes, in a monsoon-contrasted, climatic context. We focus on the Kali Gandaki valley, along the gorge section across Higher Himalaya (e.g. from Jomosom down to Tatopani). Along this reach, we identify sediment sources, sediment stores and sinks, and specifically consider hillslope interactions with valley floor at short and longer time scales, and their impact on sediment budgets and fluxes. We present a detailed sediment budget, constrained by available dates and/or relative chronology. Studied sites include rock-avalanches (Jomosom, Dhumpu), Pairothapla-Talbagar and Tatopani landslides, Ghatte khola debris fan, and terraces systems preserved at confluence sites along the lower slopes of the valley. On the basis of geomorphic surveys and mapping, and thanks to DEM facilities, we estimate the volume of each sedimentary unit, including lacustrine sediments trapped upstream of landslide and/or glacial dams. Debris volume eroded and/or deposited during the last decades is also calculated. Alternation of alluviation events and incision stages are then reconstructed, and their relation with sismo-tectonic and/or climatic triggering events suggested, according to the time scale considered. From our results it appears that if large landslides contribute significantly to the denudation history of active mountain range, more frequent, medium to small scales landslides are in fact of primary concern for Himalayan population. This conclusion suggests that in this very

  15. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  16. The persistence of glacier moraines in Ong Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. J.; Sams, S.; Balco, G.; Putkonen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Glacier moraines are the most prominent feature created by glacier advances, and they are the primary landform used to map the extent and determine the timing of past ice ages. Although glacial tills that are millions of years old can be found on and near Earth's surface, moraines are often removed as topographic features by the readvance of glaciers and the action of geomorphic processes. Here we report the persistence of a glacier end moraine in Ong Valley, Antarctica for a minimum of 2 Myrs, with a likely minimum age of 7 Myrs. Ong Valley is in the Miller Range of the central Transantarctic Mountains, and contains three distinct glacial drifts on the valley floor due to the expansion of the Argosy glacier. The oldest drift records the farthest expansion of ice into Ong Valley, and is marked by a clear set of lateral moraines that wrap around to the end moraine, which stands in relief 10 m above the valley floor. Because of the cold and hyperarid environment, ablation of glacier ice happens by sublimation, and there are no apparent signs of flowing liquid water on the surface. At the crest of the end moraine, we collected bulk sediment samples in a vertical profile, and measured the concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in quartz in these samples. Assuming zero erosion has occurred, the minimum exposure age that these concentrations represent is 2 Myrs. However, the pit stratigraphy indicates that the site has undergone erosion, so we use exposure models to constrain the erosion rate, inherited nuclide concentrations due to previous exposure, and any information about exposure age that the concentrations reflect. The measured concentrations indicate a steady-state erosion rate of 0.4 m/Myrs, with zero inherited nuclide component, and the concentrations appear to have reached equilibrium with this erosion rate. The amount of time that it would take for the Ne-21 concentrations to reach 95% of the equilibrium concentration, which is the point where it is

  17. Structural Evolution of the East Sierra Valley System (Owens Valley and Vicinity, California: A Geologic and Geophysical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Blakely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS, which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm, which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3–3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  18. Taxonomic and Functional Diversity of Soil and Hypolithic Microbial Communities in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sean T. S.; Lacap-Bugler, Donnabella C.; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Caruso, Tancredi; Rao, Subramanya; de los Rios, Asunción; Archer, Stephen K.; Chiu, Jill M. Y.; Higgins, Colleen; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Hopkins, David W.; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are an extreme polar desert. Mineral soils support subsurface microbial communities and translucent rocks support development of hypolithic communities on ventral surfaces in soil contact. Despite significant research attention, relatively little is known about taxonomic and functional diversity or their inter-relationships. Here we report a combined diversity and functional interrogation for soil and hypoliths of the Miers Valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The study employed 16S rRNA fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing combined with the GeoChip functional microarray. The soil community was revealed as a highly diverse reservoir of bacterial diversity dominated by actinobacteria. Hypolithic communities were less diverse and dominated by cyanobacteria. Major differences in putative functionality were that soil communities displayed greater diversity in stress tolerance and recalcitrant substrate utilization pathways, whilst hypolithic communities supported greater diversity of nutrient limitation adaptation pathways. A relatively high level of functional redundancy in both soil and hypoliths may indicate adaptation of these communities to fluctuating environmental conditions. PMID:27812351

  19. Taxonomic and functional diversity of soil and hypolithic microbial communities in Miers Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are an extreme polar desert. Mineral soils support subsurface microbial communities and translucent rocks support development of hypolithic communities on ventral surfaces in soil contact. Despite significant research attention relatively little is known about taxonomic and functional diversity or their inter-relationships. Here we report a combined diversity and functional interrogation for soil and hypoliths of the Miers Valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The study employed 16S rRNA fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing combined with the GeoChip functional microarray. The soil community was revealed as a highly diverse reservoir of bacterial diversity dominated by actinobacteria. Hypolithic communities were less diverse and dominated by cyanobacteria. Major differences in putative functionality were that soil communities displayed greater diversity in stress tolerance and recalcitrant substrate utilization pathways, whilst hypolithic communities supported greater diversity of nutrient limitation adaptation pathways. A relatively high level of functional redundancy in both soil and hypoliths may indicate adaptation of these communities to fluctuating environmental conditions.

  20. Groundwater-flow and land-subsidence model of Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Rewis, Diane L.; Martin, Peter; Phillips, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley groundwater basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, groundwater provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most groundwater pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley groundwater basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Groundwater-level declines of more than 270 feet in some parts of the groundwater basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may increase reliance on groundwater.

  1. Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, J.

    2014-12-04

    The valley pseudospin is a degree of freedom that emerges in atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2). The capability to manipulate it, in analogy to the control of spin in spintronics, can open up exciting opportunities. Here, we demonstrate that an ultrafast and ultrahigh valley pseudo-magnetic field can be generated by using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses to selectively control the valley degree of freedom in monolayer MX2. Using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, we observed a pure and valley-selective optical Stark effect in WSe2 monolayers from the nonresonant pump, resulting in an energy splitting of more than 10 milli-electron volts between the K and K′ valley exciton transitions. Our study opens up the possibility to coherently manipulate the valley polarization for quantum information applications.

  2. Valley-polarized quantum transport generated by gauge fields in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Garcia, Jose H; Roche, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven by t...... Kubo transport methods combined with a valley projection scheme to access valley-dependent conductivities and show that the results are robust against disorder.......We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven...

  3. A study of valley winds using the MIUU meso-scale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Hans; Juuso, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    High winds are sometimes found in low-altitude terrain in mountain valleys. The reasons for this and the possibilities to find such sites from modelled wind fields are investigated. The higher-order closure MIUU model developed at Uppsala University is used for a general study of channelling of winds in mountain valleys. The importance of length, width and depth of the valley is investigated. Comparisons are made with wind measurements. Copyright

  4. Hybrid spin and valley quantum computing with singlet-triplet qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, Niklas; Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2014-10-24

    The valley degree of freedom in the electronic band structure of silicon, graphene, and other materials is often considered to be an obstacle for quantum computing (QC) based on electron spins in quantum dots. Here we show that control over the valley state opens new possibilities for quantum information processing. Combining qubits encoded in the singlet-triplet subspace of spin and valley states allows for universal QC using a universal two-qubit gate directly provided by the exchange interaction. We show how spin and valley qubits can be separated in order to allow for single-qubit rotations.

  5. Disorder-mediated electron valley resonance in carbon nanotube quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pályi, András; Burkard, Guido

    2011-02-25

    We propose a scheme for coherent rotation of the valley isospin of a single electron confined in a carbon nanotube quantum dot. The scheme exploits the ubiquitous atomic disorder of the nanotube crystal lattice, which induces time-dependent valley mixing as the confined electron is pushed back and forth along the nanotube axis by an applied ac electric field. Using experimentally determined values for the disorder strength we estimate that valley Rabi oscillations with a period on the nanosecond time scale are feasible. The valley resonance effect can be detected in the electric current through a double quantum dot in the single-electron transport regime. © 2011 American Physical Society

  6. Hydrological responses to channelization and the formation of valley plugs and shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of floodplain systems focuses on restoring interactions between the fluvial system and floodplain, however, there is a paucity of information on the effects of valley plugs and shoals on floodplain hydrological processes. We investigated hydrologic regimes in floodplains at three valley plug sites, two shoal sites, and three unchannelized sites. Valley plug sites had altered surface and sub-surface hydrology relative to unchannelized sites, while only sub-surface hydrology was affected at shoal sites. Some of the changes were unexpected, such as reduced flood duration and flood depth in floodplains associated with valley plugs. Our results emphasize the variability associated with hydrologic processes around valley plugs and our rudimentary understanding of the effects associated with these geomorphic features. Water table levels were lower at valley plug sites compared to unchannelized sites, however, valley plug sites had a greater proportion of days when water table inundation was above mean root collar depth than both shoal and unchannelized sites as a result of lower root collar depths and higher deposition rates. This study has provided evidence that valley plugs can affect both surface and sub-surface hydrology in different ways than previously thought and illustrates the variability in hydrological responses to valley plug formation.

  7. Long valley relaxation time of free carriers in monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tengfei; Yang, Siyuan; Li, Dian; Cui, Xiaodong

    2017-06-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) feature a valley degree of freedom, giant spin-orbit coupling, and spin-valley locking. These exotic natures have stimulated efforts of exploring potential applications in conceptual spintronics, valleytronics, and quantum computing. Among all the exotic directions, a long relaxation time of spin and/or valley polarization is critical. The present valley dynamics studies concentrate on the band edge excitons which predominate the optical response due to an enhanced Coulomb interaction in two dimensions. The valley relaxation time of free carriers remains ambiguous. In this Rapid Communication, we use time-resolved Kerr rotation spectroscopy to probe the valley dynamics of excitons and free carriers in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The valley relaxation time of free carriers is found around 2 ns at 70 K, about three orders of magnitude longer than the excitons of about 2 ps, and 15 times larger than that of trions (130 ps). The extended valley relaxation time of free carriers evidences that an exchange interaction dominates the valley relaxation in optical excitations. The pump-probe spectroscopy also reveals an exciton binding energy of 0.60 eV in monolayer WSe2.

  8. Valley Zeeman effect in elementary optical excitations of monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ajit; Sidler, Meinrad; Allain, Adrien V.; Lembke, Dominik S.; Kis, Andras; Imamoğlu, A.

    2015-02-01

    A monolayer of a transition metal dichalcogenide such as WSe2 is a two-dimensional direct-bandgap valley-semiconductor having an effective honeycomb lattice structure with broken inversion symmetry. The inequivalent valleys in the Brillouin zone could be selectively addressed using circularly polarized light fields, suggesting the possibility for magneto-optical measurement and manipulation of the valley pseudospin degree of freedom . Here we report such experiments that demonstrate the valley Zeeman effect--strongly anisotropic lifting of the degeneracy of the valley pseudospin degree of freedom using an external magnetic field. The valley-splitting measured using the exciton transition deviates appreciably from values calculated using a three-band tight-binding model for an independent electron-hole pair at +/-K valleys. We show, on the other hand, that a theoretical model taking into account the strongly bound nature of the exciton yields an excellent agreement with the experimentally observed splitting. In contrast to the exciton, the trion transition exhibits an unexpectedly large valley Zeeman effect that cannot be understood within the same framework, hinting at a different contribution to the trion magnetic moment. Our results raise the possibility of controlling the valley degree of freedom using magnetic fields in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides or observing topological states of photons strongly coupled to elementary optical excitations in a microcavity.

  9. Electrical control of the anomalous valley Hall effect in antiferrovalley bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2017-08-01

    In analogy to all-electric spintronics, all-electric valleytronics, i.e., valley manipulation via electric means, becomes an exciting new frontier as it may bring revolutions in the field of data storage with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. The existence of the anomalous valley Hall effect in ferrovalley materials demonstrates the possibility of electrical detection for valley polarization. However, in previously proposed valley-polarized monolayers, the anomalous valley Hall effect is controlled by external magnetic fields. Here, through elaborate structural design, we propose the antiferrovally bilayer as an ideal candidate for realizing all-electric valleytronic devices. Using the minimal k.p model, we show that the energy degeneracy between valley indexes in such system can be lifted by electric approaches. Subsequently, the anomalous valley Hall effect strongly depends on the electric field as well. Taking the bilayer VSe2 as an example, all-electric tuning and detecting of anomalous valley Hall effect is confirmed by density-functional theory calculations, indicating that the valley information in such antiferrovalley bilayer can be reversed by an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the system and easily probed through the sign of the Hall voltage.

  10. Hydrologic effects of stress-relief fracturing in an Appalachian Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Granville G.; Borchers, James W.

    1981-01-01

    A hydrologic study at Twin Falls State Park, Wyoming County, West Virginia, was made to determine how fracture systems affect the occurrence and movement of ground water in a typical valley of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province. Twin Falls was selected because it is generally unaffected by factors that would complicate an analysis of the data. The study area was the Black Fork Valley at Twin Falls. The valley is about 3 miles long and 400 to 600 feet wide and is cut into massive sandstone units interbedded with thin coal and shale beds. The study was made to determine how aquifer characteristics were related to fracture systems in this valley, so that the relation could be applied to studies of other valleys. Two sites were selected for test drilling, pumping tests, and geophysical studies. One site is in the upper part of the valley, and the second is near the lower central part. At both sites, ground water occurs mainly in horizontal bedding-plane fractures under the valley floor and in nearly vertical and horizontal slump fractures along the valley wall. The aquifer is under confined conditions under the valley floor and unconfined conditions along the valley wall. The fractures pinch out under the valley walls, which form impermeable barriers. Tests of wells near the valley center indicated a change in storage coefficient as the cone of depression caused by pumping reached the confined-unconfined boundaries; the tests also indicated barrier-image effects when the cone reached the impermeable boundaries. Drawdown from pumping near the center of the valley affected water levels at both sites, indicating a hydraulic connection from the upper to the lower end of the valley. Stream gain-and-loss studies show that ground water discharges to the stream from horizontal fractures beneath Black Fork Falls, near the mouth of Black Fork. The fracture systems that constitute most of the transmissive part of the aquifer at Twin Falls are like those described as

  11. Determination of hydrocarbons transported by urban runoff in sediments of São Gonçalo Channel (Pelotas - RS, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches Filho, Pedro J; Böhm, Emerson M; Böhm, Giani M B; Montenegro, Gissele O; Silveira, Lucas A; Betemps, Glauco R

    2017-01-30

    A high concentration of hydrocarbons in the environment is indicative of pollution. To evaluate the effect of hydrocarbons transported by urban runoff, the present study analyzed total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), unresolved complex mixture (UCM), and n-alkanes of the sediments of the canal that cross the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The carbon preference index (CPI), terrigenous/aquatic ratio (TAR), and pristane/phytane ratio were determined. The TPH content ranged from 177,043.7μg·kg-1±13.4% to 5,892,667.0μg·kg-1±5.9%. The total aliphatic content ranged from 116,268.8μg·kg-1±11.1% to 2,393,592.6μg·kg-1±7.7%, indicating chronic contamination of n-alkanes petrogenic and biogenic sources. The levels of hydrocarbons (TPH, AHs, and n-alkanes) were considered relatively high, confirming the effect of urban runoff on the drainage system of cities and their consequent effect on the estuarine region of Patos Lagoon and other water resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Frequency of geohelminths in public squares in Pelotas, RS, Brazil Frequência de geohelmintos em praças públicas de Pelotas, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaele Quintana de Moura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of parasitic contamination of public areas in the municipality of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was studied between June 2010 and May 2011, when soil samples were collected from eight city squares. Out of 400 samples submitted to centrifugal floatation technique in solution of sodium dichromate with density of 1.35, 176 (44% proved positive for at least one parasite; 29 (16.5% samples were multi-infested. The results showed that there was a significant soil contamination rate in all the parks included in the study. The positivity rate was higher for hookworms eggs (13.5% and Toxocara eggs (8.8%; Trichuris, Ascaris and Capillaria eggs were also detected. This study shows the risks to which the population is exposed in relation to zoonotic geohelminths, and suggests that sanitation and health education measures should be implemented in the municipality.A frequência de contaminação parasitária de áreas públicas de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi avaliada entre junho de 2010 e maio de 2011, com coletas mensais de amostras de solo de oito praças. Das 400 amostras submetidas à técnica de centrífugo-flutuação em solução de dicromato de sódio com densidade de 1,35, 176 (44% apresentaram pelo menos uma forma parasitária e, das amostras positivas, 29 (16,5% estavam poliparasitadas. Os resultados demonstraram relevante índice de contaminação do solo em todas as praças avaliadas, com maiores índices de positividade para ovos de ancilostomídeos (13,5% e ovos de Toxocara (8,8%, sendo também identificados ovos de Trichuris, Ascaris e Capillaria. O estudo demonstrou a contaminação ambiental de praças públicas e os riscos a que a população está exposta em relação a doenças causadas por geoparasitos zoonóticos e sugere que medidas de saneamento e educação em saúde devem ser implementadas no município.

  13. Airport solid waste generation and its interfaces with tourism: Hugo Cantergiani Airport’s case, Caxias do Sul-RS, Brazil

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    Jaciel Gustavo Kunz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The tourism phenomenon cannot be separated of transport systems and it needs to be examined in the light of the environmental dimension, in particular the air mode. The aim of this research was to investigate the situation of solid waste generation at Hugo Cantergiani Airport, located in Caxias do Sul-RS. The research, which applied a descriptive and exploratory approach, involved document survey, direct observation and solid waste characterization. The period of the sample was of 18 and a half days, spread over three weeks/months in 2012. The operational movimentation at the airport during the conduct of the research was of 15,543 passengers. At the time of the sample 878.76 kg of waste were weighed of which 606.83 kg were segregated and characterized. In relation to this amount around 70% were derived from services undertaken at the airport site and around 30% came from the aircraft itself. The results revealed that there was a production by passenger at the aircraft of 30g/passenger/trip and at the airport site a per capita production of 40g/person/day. The most representative components were as follows: biological contaminant (29.54%, putrescible organic matter (27.16%, plastic (19.15% and paper and paperboard (14.04%. These types of studies contribute to fill gaps in knowledge related to the gravimetric composition of solid waste in the context of airports, to assess the environmental impacts caused by the generation of such wastes and to provide guidelines for the management plan of solid waste at airports, tourism supporting infrastructures.

  14. Demanda hídrica e coeficientes de cultura (Kc para macieiras em Vacaria, RS Water requirement and crop coefficients (Kc for apple trees in Vacaria, RS, Brazil

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    Marco Antônio Fonseca Conceição

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a demanda hídrica e os coeficientes de cultura (Kc para macieiras cultivadas na região de Vacaria, RS. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Estação Experimental de Fruticultura Temperada (EEFT da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, localizada em Vacaria, RS, em plantas da cultivar 'Royal Gala' (Malus domestica sobre porta-enxerto M9. Foram determinados os valores do potencial matricial da água no solo, empregando-se tensiômetros de punção. Com base nesses valores, determinou-se a umidade volumétrica e o balanço hídrico mensal. O consumo hídrico da cultura variou entre 0,3mm dia-1 a 4,5mm dia-1, com média de 1,9mm dia-1. O coeficiente da cultura (Kc apresentou tendência quadrática, variando entre 0,19 e 0,88, com média igual a 0,58.The objective of this study was to determine the water requirement and the crop coefficients (Kc values for apple trees cultivated in Vacaria, RS. The study was conducted at the Experimental Station of Temperate Fruits (EEFT of Embrapa Grape and Wine, located in Vacaria, RS, in plants of the cultivar 'Royal Gala' (Malus domestica on the rootstock M9. The soil water matric potential values, that were determined employing tensiometers, were used to obtain the soil moisture and the monthly soil water balance. The water consumption of the culture ranged from 0.3mm day-1 to 4.5mm day-1, with an average of 1.9mm day-1. The crop coefficient (Kc presented a quadratic trend, ranging between 0.19 and 0.88, with mean value of 0.58.

  15. Terapia anti-hipertensiva utilizada por pacientes idosos de Porto Alegre/RS, Brasil = Antihypertensive therapy used by elderly patients from Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil

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    Schroeter, Guilherme

    2006-01-01

    Conclusões: Os diuréticos, inibidores da ECA e betabloqueadores foram os anti-hipertensivos mais utilizados. Muitas vezes o usuário comete erros na medicação, o que pode ser resolvido com uma assistência correta a esse paciente. Diante da prevalência da hipertensão entre os idosos, observa-se a necessidade de uma maior atenção dos profissionais de saúde a esses pacientes

  16. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

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    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban environments, such as parks and gardens, may offer many alimentary resources, besides shelter and favorable conditions, for butterfly survival. This study aimed to make an inventory of butterflies visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM. From March 2006 to March 2007, the floral visitors were observed weekly for 2h. After 108 hours’ observations, 1114 visits by 39 butterfly species, associated with 43 plant species (21 families, were confirmed. Among the butterflies, Nymphalidae had the highest richness of species (S= 18, followed by Hesperiidae (S= 8, Pieridae (S= 7, Papilionidae (S= 4 and Lycaenidae (S= 2. The pierid Phoebis philea philea was the most frequent species (188 visits, followed by hesperiids Urbanus proteus proteus (100, U. teleus (73 and the nymphalid Heliconius erato phyllis (71. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae, Eupatorium laevigatum (Asteraceae, Russelia equisetiformis (Scrophulariaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Verbenaceae were the most visited plants. The Botanical Garden of UFSM is an example of an urban park that seems to provide floral resources for the feeding of many butterfly species, being also a potential refuge for species from forest areas nearby.

  17. Species richness of the genera Trachelomonas and Strombomonas (pigmented Euglenophyceae in a subtropical urban lake in the Porto Alegre Botanical Garden, RS, Brazil

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    Sandra Maria Alves-da-Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic composition and richness of the genera Trachelomonas and Strombomonas (pigmented Euglenophyceae in a subtropical urban lake (30º03'05"S; 51º10'34"W within the Botanical Garden, in the city of Porto Alegre, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to contribute to the floristic knowledge of Euglenophyta in artificial urban lakes. From July 2007 to June 2008, we collected samples monthly from two sampling stations, using a 25-µm mesh plankton net. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde. We evaluated the following environmental variables related to the water in the lake: ammonia content, silica content, organic matter content, dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature, pH, depth, transparency, electrical conductivity and rainfall. To study the species composition in relation to environmental factors, we used cluster analysis, principal components analysis, canonical correspondence analysis and indicator species analysis. At the specific and infraspecific level, 22 taxa were identified, Trachelomonas elliptica (Playf. Defl. and T. gracillima Bal. & Dast. representing new records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The cluster analysis indicated seasonal variation, species richness being highest in the spring of 2007. Seven indicator species were characterized as acid-tolerant.

  18. Relationship between caga-positive Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of gastric cancer: a case control study in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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    Gilmara Coelho Meine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Although Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a class I carcinogen, the presence of infection is not a factor that alone is able to lead to gastric cancer, and one of the possible explanations for this is the existence of different strains of H. pylori with different degrees of virulence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cagA-positive H. pylori and gastric cancer, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the detection of this bacterial strain. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with gastric cancer were matched by sex and age (± 5 years with 58 patients without gastric cancer, submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All patients were evaluated for the status of infection by H. pylori (through urease test, histological analysis and PCR for the genes ureA and 16SrRNA and by cagA-positive strain (through PCR for cagA gene. RESULTS: Evaluating the presence of infection by cagA-positive H. pylori, it was verified that the rate of infection was significantly higher in the group with gastric cancer when compared with the matched controls, occurring in 62.1% and 29.3%, respectively (OR = 3.95; CI 95% 1.543-10.096. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between cagA-positive H. pylori strain and risk of gastric cancer.

  19. Trophic quality of waters in the Patos Lagoon estuary: a comparison between its margins and the port channel located in Rio Grande, RS, Brazil

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    Rafela Neves Marreto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim This study aimed to evaluate the Trophic State Index (TSI at the margin and in the channel of the Patos Lagoon estuary, considering different hydrological conditions. Methods Surface and bottom water samples were collected in three sites in the channel (margin and center and in two sites at the Saco da Mangueira in different hydrological conditions in 2011. Results Waters at the Saco da Mangueira are very contaminated by phosphate and nitrogenous compounds. The TSI classifies these waters as being hypereutrophic, the consequence of both the release of effluents which were poorly treated and the low water flow in the inlet. Contamination was mild at the margins of the channel, where waters were classified as being eutrophic and mesotrophic. Trophic balance (mesotrophic waters - oligotrophic surface - bottom was found in the center of the channel as a consequence of strong water flow and dilution of contaminants coming from the margins. Conclusions Spatial variation in the TSI value enabled clear distinction to be observed between the areas at the margins and in the channel, because it reflected the punctual presence of anthropogenic input in the marginal waters, mainly in the Saco da Mangueira. Effluent treatment must be required in order to control severe trophic imbalance in the waters at the margins of the city. Variations of the proposed index are a useful tool to identify sources of phosphate compounds in other aquatic environments.

  20. Epidemiological study of facial fractures at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Service, Santa Casa de Misericordia Hospital Complex, Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Rodrigo Andrighetti; Wagner, João Carlos Birnfeld; Volkweis, Maurício Roth; Gerhardt, Eduardo Luis; Buchmann, Elissa Muller; Bavaresco, Caren Serra

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the incidence and etiology of face trauma with diagnosis of facial fracture treated at the Buccomaxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology Service of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre. we conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective epidemiological study of 134 trauma victims with 153 facial fractures. the male gender was the most affected (86.6%) and the incidence was higher in the age group from 21 to 30 years. The main etiology was assault (38.8%), followed by motor vehicle accidents (14.2%), motorcycle accidents (13.4%), falls (9%), road accidents (6.7%), sports accidents (5.2%), work accidents (5.2%), firearm injuries (4.5%) and cycling accidents (3%). The most frequent fractures were those of the zygomatic complex (44.5%), followed by fractures of the mandible (42.5%), maxillary bone (5.2%), nasal bones (4.5%) and zygomatic arch (3.3%). the fractures of the zygomatic complex and the mandible were the ones with the highest incidence in the facial traumas, having physical assaults as their main cause.

  1. Association of periphytic diatom species of artificial substrate in lotic environments in the Arroio Sampaio Basin, RS, Brazil: relationships with abiotic variables

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    M. A. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Associations of diatom species were identified, in the Arroio Sampaio Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, based on monthly samplings over a year along Arroio Sampaio and its main tributaries, using polyamide thread as an artificial substrate. The species groupings showed four different environments: medium-lower course of Arroio Sampaio; and lower course of Arroio Teresinha; upper course of Arroio Sampaio; and lower course of Arroio Duvidosa. Among the physical and chemical variables measured, water pollution, particularly organic contamination and eutrophication, measured from BOD5 and total phosphate concentration, respectively, appeared to be one of the most important environmental factors determining the composition and structure of species associations in the area studied.

  2. Response and legislative changes after the Kiss nightclub tragedy in Santa Maria/RS/Brazil: Learning from a large-scale burn disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnani, Alfredo; de Oliveira, Andrea Fernandes; Boro, Daniel; Pham, Tam N; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2017-03-01

    A major fire occurred on January 27, 2013, at 02:30 at Kiss nightclub in the city of Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, in Southern Brazil. In this retrospective report, we aimed to describe the nightclub fire event, its immediate consequences, and evaluated its impact on legislation. Our objective was to disseminate the lessons we learned from this large-scale nightclub fire disaster. We conducted a literature review in PubMed and Lilacs database from 2013 to 2015 related to the nightclub Kiss, Santa Maria, fire, burns, and similar events worldwide over the past 15 years. We searched in the general press and online media information sites, and seeking legislation about this topic at the federal level in Brazil. We reported on the legislation changes that resulted from this nightclub fire. Current federal legislation on fire prevention and the scope of public safety, including night clubs and discos, states is the duty of the state and everyone's responsibility, pursuant to Article 144 of the Federal Constitution of Brazil. Thus, the federal union, individual states and municipalities have the power to legislate on fire prevention, and especially to ensure the security of the population. A state law called "Law Kiss", was passed in 2014, establishing standards on safety, prevention and protection against fire in buildings and areas of fire risk in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. On a national level, a law of prevention and fire fighting in Brazil was also drafted after the Santa Maria disaster (Law project no. 4923, 2013). Currently, this bill is still awaiting sanction before it can take effect. As we push for enactment of the national law of prevention and fire fighting in Brazil, we will continue emphasizing fire prevention, fire protection, fire fighting, means of escape and proper management. All similar events in this and other countries remind us that similar tragedies may occur anywhere, and that the analysis of facts, previous mistakes, during and after the incident are crucial to our understanding, and will help us lessen the chance of future occurrences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. AAA application in diagnosis exams in a large public hospital, RS, Brazil; Aplicacao do AAA na realizacao de exames diagnosticos em um hospital publico de grande porte

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    Bacelar, A.; Ferret, A.A.; Vanni, S.; Galhardi, M.P.; Lykawka, R., E-mail: abacelar@hepa.ufrgs.br, E-mail: allferret@gmail.com, E-mail: svanni@hepa.ufrgs.br, E-mail: mpgalhardi@gmail.com, E-mail: rlykawka@hepa.ufrgs.br [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: the initiative AAA - Awareness , Appropriateness and Audit , promotes consciousness ( Awareness) , fitness ( Appropriateness ) and Audit ( Audit) . This paper analyzes the application of the concept in the AAA requests and justifications examinations using ionizing radiation within a large public hospital. Materials and methods: we collected and analyzed data between the years 2011 and 2012, concerning the number of exams performed with the use of radiation and their justifications. After, we sought to raise awareness of the clinical team through training on the risks and benefits of the various modalities of the radiology department and the need to justify the use of ionizing radiation on health. After the data were collected again of test requests for verification of the effectiveness of training. Results: the mean requests that need to be appropriate to the AAA in the last quarter of 2011 was 75 % lower than the average demands of the first quarter, matched against the last two months of 2012 increased by up to four times the number requests that require improvements in relation to the excellent results obtained in July 2012. Conclusion: it is shown in this paper the need of implementing this initiative AAA continuously added to the clinical staff awareness about the risk of the use of ionizing radiation, the appropriateness of the requests of these tests , as well as the control of this process in order to optimize use of ionizing radiation on health.

  4. Epidemiological study of facial fractures at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Service, Santa Casa de Misericordia Hospital Complex, Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil

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    Rodrigo Andrighetti Zamboni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to investigate the incidence and etiology of face trauma with diagnosis of facial fracture treated at the Buccomaxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology Service of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective epidemiological study of 134 trauma victims with 153 facial fractures. Results: the male gender was the most affected (86.6% and the incidence was higher in the age group from 21 to 30 years. The main etiology was assault (38.8%, followed by motor vehicle accidents (14.2%, motorcycle accidents (13.4%, falls (9%, road accidents (6.7%, sports accidents (5.2%, work accidents (5.2%, firearm injuries (4.5% and cycling accidents (3%. The most frequent fractures were those of the zygomatic complex (44.5%, followed by fractures of the mandible (42.5%, maxillary bone (5.2%, nasal bones (4.5% and zygomatic arch (3.3%. Conclusion: the fractures of the zygomatic complex and the mandible were the ones with the highest incidence in the facial traumas, having physical assaults as their main cause.

  5. Shoals and valley plugs in the Hatchie River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural land use and gully erosion have historically contributed more sediment to the streams of the Hatchie River watershed than those streams can carry. In 1970, the main sedimentation problem in the watershed occurred in the tributary flood plains. This problem motivated channelization projects (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1970). By the mid-1980's, concern had shifted to sedimentation in the Hatchie River itself where channelized tributaries were understood to contribute much of the sediment. The Soil Conservation Service [Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) since 1996] estimated that 640,000 tons of bedload (sand) accumulates in the Hatchie River each year and identified roughly the eastern two-thirds of the watershed, where loess is thin or absent, as the main source of sand (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1986a). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the West Tennessee River Basin Authority (WTRBA), conducted a study of sediment accumulation in the Hatchie River and its tributaries. This report identifies the types of tributaries and evaluates sediment, shoal formation, and valley-plug problems. The results presented here may contribute to a better understanding of similar problems in West Tennessee and the rest of the southeastern coastal plain. This information also will help the WTRBA manage sedimentation and erosion problems in the Hatchie River watershed.The source of the Mississippi section of the Hatchie River is in the sand hills southwest of Corinth, Mississippi (fig. 1). This section of the Hatchie River flows northward in an artificial drainage canal, gathering water from tributary streams that also are channelized. The drainage canal ends 2 miles south of the Tennessee State line. The Tennessee section of the Hatchie River winds north and west in a meandering natural channel to the Mississippi River. Although most of the Hatchie River tributaries are also drainage canals, the river's main stem has kept most of

  6. Ground-water conditions in Las Veags Valley, Clark County, Nevada; part 1 Hydrogeologic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plume, Russell W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the lithology, thickness, and extent of valley-fill deposits in Las Vegas Valley, Nev. This information will be used to develop a hydraulic model of the valley's ground-water system. Las Vegas Valley is a structural basin formed by bedrock that ranges in age from Precambrian through Miocene. Gravity data indicate that the deeper parts of the basin are filled with 3,000-5,000 feet of clastic sedimentary deposits that range in age from Miocene through Holocene. These deposits constitute the valley-fill aquifer and yield most of the water pumped in the valley. The upper 1,000 feet of this valley fill consist of coarse-grained deposits (sand and gravel), fine-grained deposits (silt and clay), and heterogeneous deposits that comprise either thinly interbedded coarse- and fine-grained deposits or mixtures of the two. Coarse-grained deposits, in places more than 1,000 feet thick, underlie the south and west sides of the valley and interfinger with fine-grained and heterogeneous deposits toward the center of the valley. Intervals of fairly thin heterogeneous deposits underlie parts of the valley, but they are not laterally persistent. The distribution of coarse-grained and fine-grained deposits in three depth zones of the valley fill (0-200 feet, 200-700 feet, and 700-1,000 feet) suggests that: (1) the Spring Mountains and McCullough Range were the major sources of clastic material for the valley fill; (2) Frenchman Mountain and the Las Vegas Range were emplaced later than the Spring Mountains; (3) the east side of the Spring Mountains, which was originally closer to the center of the valley, has receded westward because of erosion; and (4) shallow, fine-grained deposits (0-200 feet deep) are more susceptible to subsidence than deeper ones. The bedrock basin that underlies Las Vegas Valley consists of a deeply buried part that underlies most of the valley and a shallow bedrock surface on the west side of the valley. The deep part of the basin is

  7. Modelling the Crust beneath the Kashmir valley in Northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, R. R.; Parvez, I. A.; Gaur, V. K.; A.; Chandra, R.; Romshoo, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure beneath five broadband seismic stations in the NW-SE trendingoval shaped Kashmir valley sandwiched between the Zanskar and the Pir Panjal ranges of thenorthwestern Himalaya. Three of these sites were located along the southwestern edge of the valley andthe other two adjoined the southeastern. Receiver Functions (RFs) at these sites were calculated usingthe iterative time domain deconvolution method and jointly inverted with surface wave dispersiondata to estimate the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station. To further test the results ofinversion, we applied forward modelling by dividing the crust beneath each station into 4-6homogeneous, isotropic layers. Moho depths were separately calculated at different piercing pointsfrom the inversion of only a few stacked receiver functions of high quality around each piercing point.These uncertainties were further reduced to ±2 km by trial forward modelling as Moho depths werevaried over a range of ±6 km in steps of 2 km and the synthetic receiver functions matched with theinverted ones. The final values were also found to be close to those independently estimated using theH-K stacks. The Moho depths on the eastern edge of the valley and at piercing points in itssouthwestern half are close to 55 km, but increase to about 58 km on the eastern edge, suggesting thathere, as in the central and Nepal Himalaya, the Indian plate dips northeastwards beneath the Himalaya.We also calculated the Vp/Vs ratio beneath these 5 stations which were found to lie between 1.7 and1.76, yielding a Poisson's ratio of ~0.25 which is characteristic of a felsic composition.

  8. COMPLEX LANDSLIDE IN THE RJEČINA RIVER VALLEY

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    Čedomir Benac

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first phase investigation results of the complex landslide situated on north-eastern slope of the Rječina valley, between Valići damm and the village of Pašac. The valley slopes were formed in Paleogene flysch and Quaternary formations. The limestone rocks are present on the top sites, forming the scarps there. The complex landslide formation has been preconditioned by the geological structure and morphogenesis of the Rječina valley. This is the type of complex retrogressive landslide, starting with its development from toe to head. Thirteen individual landslide bodies were discovered on the slope. The material of slope formation and a part of weathering zone is caught by the landsliding. The larger part of landslide body is saturated by underground water penetrating through the covering zone in contact with flysch bedrock. The landsliding is relatively shallow, because there is no visible damage affected by sliding in the hydrotechnical tunnel, situated below the landslide toe. The mega-blocks of the limestone rock have also been moved and, most probably, are sliding down the flysch bedrock. This is a special phenomenon, atypical of the flysch slope landslide type in the area of Rijeka. The limestone rock on a scarp is extremely disintegrated, with new visible fractures in it. The site investigations comprised the surveying, seismic and engineering geological explorations. The surveying was performed by the method of terrestrial photogrammetry. The results are compared with aerial photos from 1981. In this respect, it was possible to discover the changes of slope morphology during the period 1981 — 1997. The photos were also used for the engineering geological mapping supplementation. The seismic surveying was performed by the surface seismic refraction method (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  10. Microseisms in geothermal exploration: studies in Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, A.L.C.

    1977-11-01

    Frequency-wavenumber (f-k) spectra of seismic noise in the bands 1 less than or equal to f less than or equal to 10 Hz in frequency and parallel bar k parallel bar less than or equal to 35.7 cycles/km in wavenumber, measured at several places in Grass Valley, Nevada, exhibit numerous features which can be correlated with variations in surface geology and sources associated with hot spring activity. Exploration techniques for geothermal reservoirs, based upon the spatial distribution of the amplitude and frequency characteristics of short-period seismic noise, are applied and evaluated in a field program at a potential geothermal area in Grass Valley, Nevada. A detailed investigation of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the noise field was made to guide subsequent data acquisition and processing. Contour maps of normalized noise-level derived from carefully sampled data are dominated by the hot spring noise source and the generally high noise levels outlining the regions of thick alluvium. Major faults are evident when they produce a shallow lateral contrast in rock properties. Conventional seismic noise mapping techniques cannot differentiate noise anomalies due to buried seismic sources from those due to shallow geological effects. The noise radiating from a deep reservoir ought to be evident as body waves of high phase velocity with time-invariant source azimuth. A small two-dimensional array was placed at 16 locations in the region to map propagation parameters. The f-k spectra reveal local shallow sources, but no evidence for a significant body wave component in the noise field was found. With proper data sampling, array processing provides a powerful method for mapping the horizontal component of the vector phase velocity of the noise field. In Grass Valley, and probably in most areas, the 2 to 10 Hz microseismic field is predominantly fundamental mode Rayleigh waves controlled by the very shallow structure.

  11. W. W. Hansen, Microwave Physics, and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, David

    2009-03-01

    The Stanford physicist W. W. Hansen (b. 1909, AB '29 and PhD '32, MIT post-doc 1933-4, Prof. physics '35-'49, d. 1949) played a seminal role in the development of microwave electronics. His contributions underlay Silicon Valley's postwar ``microwave'' phase, when numerous companies, acknowledging their unique scientific debt to Hansen, flourished around Stanford University. As had the prewar ``radio'' companies, they furthered the regional entrepreneurial culture and prepared the ground for the later semiconductor and computer developments we know as Silicon Valley. In the 1930's, Hansen invented the cavity resonator. He applied this to his concept of the radio-frequency (RF) linear accelerator and, with the Varian brothers, to the invention of the klystron, which made microwave radar practical. As WWII loomed, Hansen was asked to lecture on microwaves to the physicists recruited to the MIT Radiation Laboratory. Hansen's ``Notes on Microwaves,'' the Rad Lab ``bible'' on the subject, had a seminal impact on subsequent works, including the Rad Lab Series. Because of Hansen's failing health, his postwar work, and MIT-Stanford rivalries, the Notes were never published, languishing as an underground classic. I have located remaining copies, and will publish the Notes with a biography honoring the centenary of Hansen's birth. After the war, Hansen founded Stanford's Microwave Laboratory to develop powerful klystrons and linear accelerators. He collaborated with Felix Bloch in the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance. Hansen experienced first-hand Stanford's evolution from its depression-era physics department to corporate, then government funding. Hansen's brilliant career was cut short by his death in 1949, after his induction in the National Academy of Sciences. His ideas were carried on in Stanford's two-mile long linear accelerator and the development of Silicon Valley.

  12. Interaction of valleys and circulation patterns (CPs) on spatial precipitation patterns in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Bárdossy, A.; Zehe, E.

    2013-11-01

    Topography exerts influence on the spatial precipitation distribution over different scales, known typically at the large scale as the orographic effect, and at the small scale as the wind-drift rainfall (WDR) effect. At the intermediate scale (1~10 km), which is characterized by secondary mountain valleys, topography also demonstrates some effect on the precipitation pattern. This paper investigates such intermediate-scale topographic effects on precipitation patterns, focusing on narrow-steep valleys in the complex terrain of southern Germany, based on the daily observations over a 48 yr period (1960~2007) from a high-density rain-gauge network covering two sub-areas, Baden-Wuerttemberg (BW) and Bavaria (BY). Precipitation data at the valley and non-valley stations are compared under consideration of the daily general circulation patterns (CPs) classified by a fuzzy rule-based algorithm. Scatter plots of precipitation against elevation demonstrate a different behavior of valley stations comparing to non-valley stations. A detailed study of the precipitation time series for selected station triplets, each consisting of a valley station, a mountain station and an open station have been investigated by statistical analysis with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test supplemented by the One-way analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA) and a graphical comparison of the mean precipitation amounts. The results show an interaction of valley orientation and the direction of the CPs at the intermediate scale, i.e. when the valley is shielded from the CP which carries the precipitation, the precipitation amount within the valley is comparable to that on the mountain crest, and both larger than the precipitation at the open station. When the valley is open to the CP, the precipitation within the valley is similar to the open station but much less than that on the mountain. Such phenomenon where the precipitation is "blind" to the valleys at the intermediate scale conditioned on CPs is

  13. Interaction of valleys and circulation patterns (CPs on spatial precipitation patterns in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Topography exerts influence on the spatial precipitation distribution over different scales, known typically at the large scale as the orographic effect, and at the small scale as the wind-drift rainfall (WDR effect. At the intermediate scale (1~10 km, which is characterized by secondary mountain valleys, topography also demonstrates some effect on the precipitation pattern. This paper investigates such intermediate-scale topographic effects on precipitation patterns, focusing on narrow-steep valleys in the complex terrain of southern Germany, based on the daily observations over a 48 yr period (1960~2007 from a high-density rain-gauge network covering two sub-areas, Baden-Wuerttemberg (BW and Bavaria (BY. Precipitation data at the valley and non-valley stations are compared under consideration of the daily general circulation patterns (CPs classified by a fuzzy rule-based algorithm. Scatter plots of precipitation against elevation demonstrate a different behavior of valley stations comparing to non-valley stations. A detailed study of the precipitation time series for selected station triplets, each consisting of a valley station, a mountain station and an open station have been investigated by statistical analysis with the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS test supplemented by the One-way analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA and a graphical comparison of the mean precipitation amounts. The results show an interaction of valley orientation and the direction of the CPs at the intermediate scale, i.e. when the valley is shielded from the CP which carries the precipitation, the precipitation amount within the valley is comparable to that on the mountain crest, and both larger than the precipitation at the open station. When the valley is open to the CP, the precipitation within the valley is similar to the open station but much less than that on the mountain. Such phenomenon where the precipitation is "blind" to the valleys at the intermediate scale

  14. Microstructures of glassy alloys: presence of hills, valleys, and veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboki T.A.M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous ribbon surfaces, wheel and free sides are peculiar, but no microstructural description is not yet proposed. Here, we introduce a new description of the two surfaces by analogy with biological organs like a leaf as a network of hills, valleys, and veins. The venation can help understand the transport properties like heat dissipation during ribbon processing and mechanical properties like resilience or tensile strength of the amorphous ribbon. The new microstructure presentation can be useful to describe the crystallization of glassy materials

  15. POLISH CATHOLICS IN MÄLAREN VALLEY: SWEDIFICATION AND RESISTANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Drigo, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I explore the ways, in which the engagement of Polish Catholics with Swedish society generates both adaptation and resistance. The thesis begins with an overview of the history of the Swedish Catholic Church and notes how Poles became one of the most numerous immigrant groups in Sweden during past decades. I then make use of fifteen in-depth interviews along with more than twenty sessions of observation in a Polish milieu in the Mälaren Valley. Polish Catholics oft...

  16. Knappable materials in the Criș Valley, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otis Crandell

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify and characterise some of the raw materials in the Criș Valley, in the Apuseni Mountains, Romania which are suitable for knapping tools. The materials cropping out in this area include: siliceous sinter, agate, and silicified wood. The basic characteristics of the materials, obtained by macroscopic and petrographic investigations, provide a reference database useful in provenance studies on individual artefacts or whole assemblages. An assessment of each material is made regarding its quality as a knappable material.

  17. Control of medfly by SIT in the Nereva river valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjelis, Mario, E-mail: mario.bjelis@zzb.h [Institut for Plant Protection in Agriculture and Foresty of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, Zvonimirova (Croatia); Ljubetic, Visnja [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Watter Managment of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb (Croatia); Novosel, Nevenka [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    A feasibility study of medfly suppression by means of sterile males released program in the Neretva Vallley, Croatia, is presented. The increase of medfly infestation is considered, as almost all cultures of the region represent host plants for the insect. Environmental friendly methods such well developed SIT technique associated with other organic methods are mentioned as an option of no disruption of the present natural balance. Area study and strategy planning is briefly presented. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata in the different parts of the delta Neretva valley, during period 2002 - 2004 Year is reported. Medfly capture on selected locations with different host availability in Neretva river is studied. (MAC)

  18. STUDY OF ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN WINE RED VALLEY ICA

    OpenAIRE

    Felices V., Leslie M.; Facultad de Quimica e Ing. Quimica - UNMSM; Garcia A., Fred; Facultad de Quimica e Ing. Quimica - UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    lt has been evaluated the antioxidant activity «In Vitro» of its wines and the quantity of total polyphenols. The samples evaluated of red wine come from three prestigious wine cellars of lca's Valley like they are: Wine Cellar Tacama, Wine Cellar Vista Alegre and Wine Cellar Ocucaje. The analytical methods used to evaluate the antioxidant activity based on its capacity to catch radical free, !he use of !he radical 2,2-Difenil-1-picril hidracilo (test of !he DPPH). For !he determination of th...

  19. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a current research project investigating the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in realistic, human-like virtual characters. !e research methods used in this Work include a retrospective of both empirical studies and philosophical writings on the Uncanny. No other rese...... of psychology, social psychology, game studies, animation and graphics, and human computer interaction....... research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...

  20. Molecular Epidemiology and Emergence of Rift Valley Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sall AA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral disease which manifested itself during recent epidemics and revealed its significant potential of emergence. Studies on molecular epidemiology undertaken to better understand the factors leading to RVF emergence, have confirmed the mode of circulation of the virus and highlithted probable risks and obstacles for prevention and control. As for several other viral agents, molecular epidemiology is becoming a useful tool in the study of the emergence of RVF as a serious infectious disease.

  1. Etruscan pottery from the Albegna Valley/Ager Cosanus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Perkins

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents some of the results of 18 years of research in the Albegna Valley/Ager Cosanus area, Tuscany, Italy. Thousands of artefacts have been collected and hundreds of sites recorded during this period by systematic field survey. The Albegna Valley/Ager Cosanus Survey was directed by Professor Andrea Carandini, now of the University of Rome, La Sapienza, and Professor Elisabeth Fentress, now of the American Academy at Rome. The project is a collaboration between scholars of many institutions in Italy, France and Britain and the first volume of the final report detailing and interpreting the sites located is now in press (Cambi et al, forthcoming. This study concentrates upon a part of the finds made during field walking: the ceramics dating to the Etruscan period (8th-3rd century BC. The collection largely consists of finewares, coarsewares and amphorae. Together with the study of the ceramics from the Etruscan city at Doganella (Perkins and Walker 1990, and the excavated Etruscan farm at Podere Tartuchino (Attolini and Perkins 1992, both also in the Albegna Valley, the present study forms the most extensive detailed study of Etruscan ceramics from settlements identified by systematic survey that has been made to date. Collections from individual sites have been published in the past but the Albegna Valley/Ager Cosanus is the first part of Etruria, investigated at a regional scale, where the Etruscan ceramics have been fully studied and published. The first part of the study is an account of the fieldwork and the sampling strategy which was used during the collection of the ceramics presented here. This is followed by a summary of the assemblage. The detailed catalogue of the survey finds follows and is extended by a catalogue of an out-of-context tomb group recovered during the survey. All the illustrations of the ceramics are interactive, forming a graphical interface to the data set. The full database of the ceramics is published

  2. Ethnobotanical study in River Tenes valley (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M A; Blanché, C; Xirau, J V

    1992-10-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the River Tenes valley, in an area of 260 km2 not far from the city of Barcelona. Although this setting might suggest that the area was unsuitable for research of this kind, the variety of microclimates--which implies a rich flora--and the existence of small villages and isolated houses made it possible to obtain valuable information. We obtained data on 209 species belonging to 60 families and here we present our findings on the properties, preparations and uses.

  3. Anthrax in Lake Rukwa Valley, Tanzania: a persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, R H

    1985-10-01

    An epidemic of 239 human cases of anthrax is reported in the Rukwa Valley area of Tanzania. Although the infecting source was meat from animals dying of the disease, no intestinal cases occurred. Those infected were predominantly males between 15 and 35. The epidemic was seasonal, reaching a peak towards the end of the dry period when cattle were close grazing, and declining rapidly once the rains started and the grass began to grow. The increasing magnitude of annual epidemics suggests that the problem will get worse unless major efforts are made to vaccinate cattle before the epidemic period.

  4. Assessment of the geothermal resources of Carson-Eagle valleys and Big Smoky Valley, Nevada. First annual report, May 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Koenig, B.A.; Flynn, T.; Bruce, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two geothermal investigations were completed in three Nevada locations. The regions studied were selected from areas outlined as having direct utilization potential (Trexler and others, 1979) and included the Carson-Eagle Valley, Bis Smoky Valley and Caliente. Studies were organized around the completion of a group of tasks in each area. These tasks included: geologic reconnaissance, gravity surveys, aerial photography, fluid sampling and analysis, shallow depth temperature probe surveys, soil mercury surveys, shallow electrical resistivity measurements, and temperature gradient hole drilling. Goals of the project were to provide regional information about the nature and extent of the resources and to offer a critical evaluation of the techniques employed. Results from the work in the Carson-Eagle Valley and Big Smoky Valley are presented. (MHR)

  5. Boundary of the Death Valley region by Bedinger and others (1989), for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set delineates the boundary of the Death Valley region that was first evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as a potential hydrogeologic...

  6. Canaan Valley A Watershed Protection Approach An Integrated Approach To Problem Solving Through An Open Forum Known As The Canaan Valley Task Force

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Canaan Valley Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies, program...

  7. Depths to Ice-cemented Soils in High-elevation Quartermain Mountains, Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is comprised of four surveyed valleys focusing on the depth to ground ice in the high-elevation Quartermain Mountains in the Beacon Valley area:...

  8. Nomination of the Lahontan Valley Wetlands Nevada, U.S.A. as Wetlands of International Importance under the RAMSAR Convention

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a proposal to list the Lahontan Valley Wetlands as a Wetlands of International Importance. The Lahontan Valley Wetlands are an important habitat for...

  9. 76 FR 56471 - Meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission AGENCY: National Heritage Corridor Commission, John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley, National... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the John H. Chafee Blackstone River...

  10. 76 FR 62457 - Tennessee Valley Authority (Bellefonte Nuclear Plant, Unit 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority (Bellefonte Nuclear Plant, Unit 1) Order I. The Tennessee Valley.... ML090680334) for construction of the Bellefonte Nuclear Plant (BLN), Units 1 and 2, respectively. The CPs for... ``Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site...

  11. 75 FR 3762 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority; Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and..., issued to Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, the licensee), for operation of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant... 2010. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Siva P. Lingam, Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch...

  12. Silicon Valley: Planet Startup : Disruptive Innovation, Passionate Entrepreneurship & High-tech Startups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. P. Ester; dr. A. Maas

    2016-01-01

    For decades now, Silicon Valley has been the home of the future. It's the birthplace of the world's most successful high-tech companies-including Apple, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, Twitter, and many more. So what's the secret? What is it about Silicon Valley that fosters entrepreneurship and

  13. 78 FR 16792 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of California; Imperial Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of California; Imperial Valley Planning Area for PM10; Clarification of Nonattainment Area Boundary AGENCY: Environmental... Imperial Valley planning area, an area designated as nonattainment for the national ambient air quality...

  14. 78 FR 16827 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of California; Imperial Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of California; Imperial Valley Planning Area for PM 10 Clarification of Nonattainment Area Boundary AGENCY: Environmental... Imperial Valley planning area, an area designated as nonattainment for the national ambient air quality...

  15. Results of a conservation agreement and strategy for Rabbit Valley gilia (Gilia caespitosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. A. Armstrong; T. O. Clark; R. B. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    Gilia caespitosa Gray (Rabbit Valley gilia) is a rare species restricted to scattered occurrences from the northern Waterpocket Fold to Thousand Lakes Mountain and Rabbit Valley in Wayne County, Utah. This species is a very narrow endemic, known only from unstable and faulting soils of detrital Navajo Sandstone. Species occurrences are often found with limited numbers...

  16. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices...

  17. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop...

  18. Comparison of plant cover of river valley fragments by using GIS tools and multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldon-Rudzionek, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Selected landscape registers and results of ecological analyses of flora used in studies of transformations of anthropogenic plant cover and river valley landscapes were presented. The results were shown pursuant to a comparison of fragments of two adjacent valleys in north-western Poland.

  19. A Route to Permanent Valley Polarization in Monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2016-10-24

    Realization of permanent valley polarization in Cr-doped monolayer MoS2 is found to be unfeasible because of extended moment formation. Introduction of an additional hole is suggested as a viable solution. V-doped monolayer MoS2 is demonstrated to sustain permanent valley polarization and therefore can serve as a prototype material for valleytronics.

  20. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Farming and their effect on San Joaquin Valley Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. R.; Yang, M.; Meinardi, S.; Krauter, C.; Rowland, F. S.

    2009-05-01

    The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District of California issued a report identifying dairies as a main source of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). A dairy study funded by the California Air Resources Board commenced shortly after the report was issued. Our University of California Irvine group teamed with California State University Fresno to determine the major sources of VOCs from various dairy operations and from a variety of dairy types. This study identified ethanol and methanol as two gases produced in major quantities throughout the dairies in the San Joaquin valley as by-products of yeast fermentation of silage. Three different types of sampling protocols were employed in order to determine the degree of enhancement of the target oxygenates in the valley air shed. Their sources, emission profiles, and emission rates were determined from whole air samples collected at various locations at the six dairies studied. An assessment of the impact of dairy emissions in the valley was achieved by using data obtained on low altitude NASA DC-8 flights through the valley, and from ground level samples collected though out the valley in a grid like design. Our data suggest that a significant amount of O3 production in the valley may come from methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde (a photochemical by-product ethanol oxidation). Our findings indicate that improvement to valley air quality may be obtained by focusing on instituting new silage containment practices and regulations.

  1. Valley surface-wave photonic crystal and its bulk/edge transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Xue, Haoran; Yang, Yahui; Dong, Jianwen; Zhang, Baile

    2017-11-01

    Recent theories have proposed a concept of valley photonic crystals as an analog of gapped valleytronic materials such as Mo S2 and bilayer graphene. Here, we further extend the applicability of valley photonic crystals to surface electromagnetic waves and experimentally demonstrate a valley surface-wave photonic crystal on a single metal surface as a photonic duplicate of Mo S2 . Both bulk transport and edge transport are directly mapped with a near-field microwave imaging system. The photonic valley pseudospins are demonstrated, together with the photonic valley Hall effect that splits the opposite photonic valley pseudospins into two opposite directions. The valley edge transport in Mo S2 or other transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers, which is different from bilayer graphene but still stays unrealized in condensed-matter systems, is demonstrated on this Mo S2 -like photonic platform. Our study not only offers a tabletop platform to study the valleytronic physics, but also opens a venue for on-chip integrated photonic device applications using valley-polarized information.

  2. 78 FR 57629 - Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 9, 2013, Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC filed Form 556 and a petition for certification as a...

  3. 75 FR 877 - Cancellation of the South Valley Facilities Expansion Project-Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cancellation of the South Valley Facilities Expansion Project-- Clark County, NV... (NOI) to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the South Valley Facilities Expansion... Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region, P.O. Box 61470, Boulder City, NV 89006-1470. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  4. Debris flow occurrence and sediment persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Kyle J; Rathburn, Sara L.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  5. Photon wavelength dependent valley photocurrent in multilayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hongming; Tang, Ning; Xu, Xiaolong; Shang, LiangLiang; Huang, Wei; Fu, Lei; Fang, Xianfa; Yu, Jiachen; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Dai, Lun; Chen, Yonghai; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The degree of freedom (DOF) of the K (K') valley in transition-metal dichalcogenides, especially molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), offers an opportunity for next-generation valleytronics devices. In this work, the K (K') valley DOF of multilayer MoS2 is studied by means of the photon wavelength dependent circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) at room temperature upon a strong external out-of-plane electric field induced by an ionic liquid (IL) gate, which breaks the spatial-inversion symmetry. It is demonstrated that only on resonant excitations in the K (K') valley can the valley-related CPGE signals in multilayer MoS2 with an IL gate be detected, indicating that the valley contrast is indeed regenerated between the K and K' valleys when the electric field is applied. As expected, it can also be seen that the K (K') valley DOF in multilayer MoS2 can be modulated by the external electric field. The observation of photon wavelength dependent valley photocurrent in multilayer MoS2, with the help of better Ohmic contacts, may pave a way for optoelectronic applications of valleytronics in the future.

  6. The browse value of the Eastern Cape valley bushveld. | A.J. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding value of the Eastern Cape Valley Bushveld in terms of crude protein, digestible dry matter, digestible energy and metabolic energy, as selected by oesophageal fistulated Boer- and Angora goats was determined. Results show that the Valley Bushveld maintains a high feed value throughout the year. The high ...

  7. 78 FR 48666 - Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Declaration of Intention and... of Intention b. Docket No: DI13-6-000 c. Date Filed: July 15, 2013 d. Applicant: Browns Valley... Declaration of Intention is filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Federal Power Act...

  8. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No. 08-17309)] to overturn a District Court ruling that...

  9. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this action, we are proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an extreme...

  10. 77 FR 7536 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Reporting... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air...

  11. 78 FR 49925 - Revisions to California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Air Management District (AVAQMD) and Ventura County Air Pollution... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  12. 77 FR 12495 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Mojave Desert Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Mojave Desert Air Quality Management...

  13. 76 FR 38589 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of...

  14. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  15. Blue Valley School District: Kansas District Extends Growth Measurement to the Early Grades, Experiences Measurable Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Blue Valley, the fourth largest school district in Kansas, covers 91 square miles. More than 20,000 K-12 students attend its 34 schools ( five high schools, nine middle schools, and 20 elementary schools). Of the district's students, 8% qualify for free and reduced lunch and about 3% are English Language Learners. Blue Valley began using Measures…

  16. Groundwater-controlled valley networks and the decline of surface runoff on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Keith P.; Grimm, Robert E.

    2005-10-01

    Fluvial erosion on early Mars was dominated by valley networks created through a combination of groundwater processes and surface runoff. A reduced greenhouse effect due to CO2 loss, together with a declining geothermal heat flux, promoted the growth of a cryosphere and a Hesperian hydrologic regime dominated by outflow channel formation. We test the hypothesis that the transition from valley network to outflow channel formation was preceded by a more subtle evolution characterized by a weakening of surface runoff, leaving groundwater processes as the dominant, final source of valley network erosion. Our hypothesis, supported by a terrestrial analog in the Atacama desert of Chile, is related to the groundwater sapping reactivation hypothesis for densely dissecting highland valley networks on Mars suggested by Baker and Partridge in 1986 and focuses on the age analysis of large, sparsely dissecting valley networks such as Nanedi Valles, Nirgal Vallis, valleys in fretted terrain, and tributaries of outflow channels and Valles Marineris chasmata. We find that these features are consistently late Noachian to Hesperian in age, younger than Noachian densely dissecting dendritic valley networks in the southern highlands. In the Tharsis region the observation of dense and sparse valley network morphologies on Hesperian terrain suggests that while surface runoff gave way to groundwater processes consistent with our hypothesis, the transition may have occurred later than elsewhere on the planet. The volcanic nature of Tharsis suggests that geothermal heat and volatile production led to episodically higher volumes of surface runoff in this region during the Hesperian.

  17. 75 FR 48359 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... be made prior to the meeting to: Jan H. Reitsma, Executive Director, John H. Chafee, Blackstone River...

  18. Coherent manipulation of valley states at multiple charge configurations of a silicon quantum dot device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfield, Joshua S; Freeman, Blake M; Jiang, HongWen

    2017-07-05

    Qubits based on silicon quantum dots are emerging as leading candidates for the solid-state implementation of quantum information processing. In silicon, valley states represent a degree of freedom in addition to spin and charge. Characterizing and controlling valley states is critical for the encoding and read-out of electrons-in-silicon-based qubits. Here, we report the coherent manipulation of a qubit, which is based on the two valley states of an electron confined in a silicon quantum dot. We carry out valley qubit operations at multiple charge configurations of the double quantum dot device. The dependence of coherent oscillations on pulse excitation level and duration allows us to map out the energy dispersion as a function of detuning as well as the phase coherence time of the valley qubit. The coherent manipulation also provides a method of measuring valley splittings that are too small to probe with conventional methods.Silicon quantum dots provide a promising platform for quantum computing based on manipulation of electron degrees of freedom in a well-characterized environment. Here, the authors demonstrate coherent control of electron valley states, yielding an accurate determination of the valley splitting.

  19. Infill of tunnel valleys associated with landward‐flowing ice sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Huuse, Mads

    2014-01-01

    The southern termination of the Middle and Late Pleistocene Scandinavian ice sheets was repeatedly located in the southern North Sea (sNS) and adjacent, north-sloping land areas. Giant meltwater-excavated valleys (tunnel valleys) formed at the southern termination of the ice sheets and contain...

  20. Tlokoeng Valley Community's Conceptions of Wetlands: Prospects for More Sustainable Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokuku, Tšepo; Taylor, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article explores prospects for community-based water resources management in Tlokoeng Valley, in the northern district of Lesotho. A qualitative survey was conducted to establish the pre-knowledge of the valley community. This provided a basis for a community education programme on wetlands conservation. Fifteen focus group interviews (FGIs)…

  1. Green valley galaxies as a transition population in different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenda, Valeria; Martínez, Héctor J.; Muriel, Hernán

    2018-02-01

    We present a comparative analysis of the properties of passive, star-forming and transition (green valley) galaxies in four discrete environments: field, groups, the outskirts and the core of X-ray clusters. We construct samples of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in these environments so that they are bound to have similar redshift distributions. The classification of galaxies into the three sequences is based on the UV-optical colour NUV - r. We study a number of galaxy properties: stellar mass, morphology, specific star formation rate and the history of star formation. The analysis of green valley (GV) galaxies reveals that the physical mechanisms responsible for external quenching become more efficient moving from the field to denser environments. We confirm previous findings that GV galaxies have intermediate morphologies; moreover, we find that this appears to be independent of the environment. Regarding the stellar mass of GV galaxies, we find that they tend to be more massive in the field than in denser environments. On average, GV galaxies account for ∼ 20 per cent of all galaxies in groups and X-ray clusters. We find evidence that the field environment is inefficient in transforming low-mass galaxies. GV galaxies have average star formation histories intermediate between passive and star-forming galaxies, and have a clear and consistent dependence on the environment: both, the quenching time and the amplitude of the star formation rate, decrease towards higher density environments.

  2. Hydrogeological Characterization of the Middle Magdalena Valley - Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Maria Cristina; Riva, Monica; Donado, Leonardo David; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    We provide a detailed hydrogeological characterization of the complex aquifer system of the Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia. The latter is comprised by 3 sub-basins within which 7 blocks have been identified for active exploration and potential production of oil and gas. As such, there is a critical need to establish modern water resources management practices in the area to accommodate the variety of social, environmental and industrial needs. We do so by starting from a detailed hydrogeological characterization of the system and focus on: (a) a detailed hydrogeological reconnaissance of the area leading to the definition of the main hydrogeological units; (b) the collection, organization and analysis of daily climatic data from 39 stations available in the region; and (c) the assessment of the groundwater flow circulation through the formulation of a conceptual and a mathematical model of the subsurface system. Groundwater flow is simulated in the SAM 1.1 aquifer located in the Middle Magdalena Valley with the objective of showing and evaluating alternative conceptual hydrogeological modeling alternatives. We focus here on modeling results at system equilibrium (i.e., under steady-state conditions) and assess the value of available information in the context of the candidate modeling strategies we consider. Results of our modeling effort are conducive to the characterization of the distributed hydrogeological budget and the assessment of critical areas as a function of the conceptualization of the system functioning and data avilability.

  3. Future Parking Demand at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Klang Valley, Malaysia is currently undergoing a massive development of rail transportation system expansion where the current integrated rail transit system will see new extensions of two MRT lines and an LRT line by year 2020. By year 2017, the first MRT line will be ready to run with 31 new rail stations connected to the current passenger rail network. The existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are commonly known as being unable to sufficiently cater for the current parking space demand. Therefore, with the expansion of many additional rail stations which are rapidly under construction, there are doubts that the future parking space at rail stations will be able to accommodate the sudden rise of rail passengers. Although the authorities are increasing parking bays at various locations, will the future parking demand at rail stations be sufficient? This paper studies the factors influencing parking demand in terms of population, car ownership, new car registrations and passenger rail ridership and estimating the future parking demand using Linear Regression method. Result shows that the forecasted parking demand at rail stations after the implementation of the first new MRT system in 2017 is 2.7 times more than in 2014.

  4. Oncolytic Seneca Valley Virus: past perspectives and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke MJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Burke Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, MACC Fund Research Center, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Seneca Valley Virus isolate 001 (SVV-001 is an oncolytic RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family. It is also the first picornavirus discovered of the novel genus Senecavirus. SVV-001 replicates through an RNA intermediate, bypassing a DNA phase, and is unable to integrate into the host genome. SVV-001 was originally discovered as a contaminant in the cell culture of fetal retinoblasts and has since been identified as a potent oncolytic virus against tumors of neuroendocrine origin. SVV-001 has a number of features that make it an attractive oncolytic virus, namely, its ability to target and penetrate solid tumors via intravenous administration, inability for insertional mutagenesis, and being a self-replicating RNA virus with selective tropism for cancer cells. SVV-001 has been studied in both pediatric and adult early phase studies reporting safety and some clinical efficacy, albeit primarily in adult tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of SVV-001 and what its future as an oncolytic virus may hold. Keywords: oncolytic, virus, oncology, Seneca, valley

  5. New records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR A. MIR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. New Records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 131-136. During the recent field survey of district Shopian four species of Pteridophytes are reported for the first time that constitutes new records for Kashmir valley. These species are Hypolepis polypodioides (Blume Hook, Pteris stenophylla Wall. ex Hook. & Grev., Dryopteris subimpressa Loyal and Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng. Hylander. The diagnostic features of H. polypodioides are presence of long-creeping slender rhizome and eglandular, colorless or brown tinged hairs throughout the frond. P. stenophylla is characterized by having dimorphic fronds and 3 to 5 pinnae clustered at stipe apex. D. subimpressa is marked by pale-green lamina and the largest basiscopic basal pinnule in the lowest pair of pinnae. Similarly, the characteristic features of D. wallichiana are presence of huge frond size, glossier and dark-green lamina and dense browner scales in stipe and rachis. In present communication taxonomic description, synonyms, ecology and photographs are provided for each of these newly recorded species.

  6. 3D GIS FOR FLOOD MODELLING IN RIVER VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tymkow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is implementation of system architecture for collecting and analysing data as well as visualizing results for hydrodynamic modelling of flood flows in river valleys using remote sensing methods, tree-dimensional geometry of spatial objects and GPU multithread processing. The proposed solution includes: spatial data acquisition segment, data processing and transformation, mathematical modelling of flow phenomena and results visualization. Data acquisition segment was based on aerial laser scanning supplemented by images in visible range. Vector data creation was based on automatic and semiautomatic algorithms of DTM and 3D spatial features modelling. Algorithms for buildings and vegetation geometry modelling were proposed or adopted from literature. The implementation of the framework was designed as modular software using open specifications and partially reusing open source projects. The database structure for gathering and sharing vector data, including flood modelling results, was created using PostgreSQL. For the internal structure of feature classes of spatial objects in a database, the CityGML standard was used. For the hydrodynamic modelling the solutions of Navier-Stokes equations in two-dimensional version was implemented. Visualization of geospatial data and flow model results was transferred to the client side application. This gave the independence from server hardware platform. A real-world case in Poland, which is a part of Widawa River valley near Wroclaw city, was selected to demonstrate the applicability of proposed system.

  7. Residues of cypermethrin and endosulfan in soils of Swat valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nafees

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Swat Valley was studied for two widely used pesticides; cypermethrin and endosulfan. A total of 63 soil samples were collected from 27 villages selected for this purpose. The collected soil samples were extracted with n-hexane, pesticides were separated, identified and quantified by a GC-ECD system. Endosulfan was 0.24 - 1.51 mg kg-1 and 0.13 - 12.67 mg kg-1 in rainfed and irrigated areas, respectively. The residual level of cypermethrin was comparatively high with a level of0.14 to 27.62 mg kg-1 and 0.05 to 73.75 mg kg-1 in rainfed and irrigated areas, respectively. For assessing the possible causes of pesticide residues in soil, 360 farmers were interviewed. It was found that both, cypermethrin and endosulfan, apart from agriculture were also widely misused for fishing in the entire stretch of River Swat and its tributaries. River Swat is used for irrigation in Swat Valley and this wide misuse of pesticides can also contribute to pesticide residue in soil.

  8. An Epidemiological Model of Rift Valley Fever with Spatial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchan Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a category A agent in the Center for Disease Control bioterrorism list, Rift Valley fever (RVF is considered a major threat to the United States (USA. Should the pathogen be intentionally or unintentionally introduced to the continental USA, there is tremendous potential for economic damages due to loss of livestock, trade restrictions, and subsequent food supply chain disruptions. We have incorporated the effects of space into a mathematical model of RVF in order to study the dynamics of the pathogen spread as affected by the movement of humans, livestock, and mosquitoes. The model accounts for the horizontal transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV between two mosquito and one livestock species, and mother-to-offspring transmission of virus in one of the mosquito species. Space effects are introduced by dividing geographic space into smaller patches and considering the patch-to-patch movement of species. For each patch, a system of ordinary differential equations models fractions of populations susceptible to, incubating, infectious with, or immune to RVFV. The main contribution of this work is a methodology for analyzing the likelihood of pathogen establishment should an introduction occur into an area devoid of RVF. Examples are provided for general and specific cases to illustrate the methodology.

  9. Science guide for the Long Valley Caldera deep hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundle, J.B.; Eichelberger, J.C. (eds.)

    1989-05-01

    The Magma Energy Program of the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Technology Division, is planning to begin drilling a deep (6 km) exploration well in Long Valley Caldera, California, in September 1988. The location of the well is in the central part of the caldera, coincident with a large number of shallow (5-7 km) geophysical anomalies identified through many independent investigations. Results from the hole will permit the following: direct investigation of the geophysical anomalies interpreted to be magma; investigation of the patterns and conditions of deep fluid circulation and heat transport below the caldera floor; determination of the amount of collapse and subsequent resurgence of the central portion of Long Valley caldera; and determination of the intrusion history of the central plutonic complex beneath the caldera, and establishment of the relationship of intrusive to eruptive events. The hole will thus provide a stringent test of the hypothesis that magma is still present within the central plutonic complex. If the interpretation of geophysical anomalies is confirmed, the hole will provide the first observations of the environment near a large silicic magma chamber. 80 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Ferns and fern allies of District Shopian, Kashmir Valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR A. MIR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Mir SA, Mishra AK, Pala SA, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. Ferns and fern allies of District Shopian, Kashmir Valley, India Biodiversitas 16: 27-43. Shopian, recently created hilly district of Kashmir valley, Jammu and Kashmir is surrounded by the lofty mountains of Pir-Panjal range. More than half area of district is occupied by different forests, subalpine, alpine and mountainous zones. Great altitudinal variation, adequate rainfall, high forest cover, large number of streams, springs and topographic variations render the district worthy for supporting rich fern flora. Therefore, the current study was aimed to undertake in-depth systematic survey of different habitats of Shopian for the collection of diversity of pteridophytes. Specimens were collected during 2010, 2011 and 2012 growing seasons from June to November. A total 81 species of ferns and fern allies belonging 27 genera and 11 families were reported. The dominant families of the region are Dryopteridaceae (25 species followed by Woodsiaceae (16 species, Aspleniaceae (13 species and Pteridaceae (12 species. Similarly, the dominant genera collected from here are Dryopteris (14 species, Asplenium (13, Polystichum (11 species and Athyrium (6 species. A list of the fern and fern allies, along with update nomenclature, their selected Synonym, diagnostic features, distributional and ecological notes have been provided here.

  11. Sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoups, Gerrit; Hopmans, Jan W; Young, Chuck A; Vrugt, Jasper A; Wallender, Wesley W; Tanji, Ken K; Panday, Sorab

    2005-10-25

    The sustainability of irrigated agriculture in many arid and semiarid areas of the world is at risk because of a combination of several interrelated factors, including lack of fresh water, lack of drainage, the presence of high water tables, and salinization of soil and groundwater resources. Nowhere in the United States are these issues more apparent than in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A solid understanding of salinization processes at regional spatial and decadal time scales is required to evaluate the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. A hydro-salinity model was developed to integrate subsurface hydrology with reactive salt transport for a 1,400-km(2) study area in the San Joaquin Valley. The model was used to reconstruct historical changes in salt storage by irrigated agriculture over the past 60 years. We show that patterns in soil and groundwater salinity were caused by spatial variations in soil hydrology, the change from local groundwater to snowmelt water as the main irrigation water supply, and by occasional droughts. Gypsum dissolution was a critical component of the regional salt balance. Although results show that the total salt input and output were about equal for the past 20 years, the model also predicts salinization of the deeper aquifers, thereby questioning the sustainability of irrigated agriculture.

  12. Lower Cretaceous nannofossil stratigraphy of the Great Valley sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bralower, T.J. (Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy of four sections in the Great Valley Sequence of the Sacramento Valley, California, has been investigated in detail. These sections include Grindstone and Stony Creeks (Glenn County) and McCarty Creek and the Vestal Road segment of Dry Creek (both in Tehama County). The ages of the sections investigated, which have independently been studied by ammonite, pelecypod, and radiolaria biostratigraphers, range from Berriasian to Albian. Nannofossils occur rarely in these sediments and are restricted largely to mudstone deposited in the most distal portions of turbiditic sequences. Approximately 5% of the samples collected are nannofossiliferous. Assemblages contain some elements of Boreal floras but are dominated by Tethyan taxa. These assemblages are more directly comparable to those of stratotype sequences in Europe than are the other fossil groups, but the ages given are generally similar. However, two major discrepancies do exist. The results of this study indicate that the pelecypod, Buchia aff. B. okensis zone is Berriasian in age, not Tithonian as previously believed and the B. pacifica zone is not entirely Valanginian but partly Berriasian. Nannofossil data provide useful age calibrations for ammonite stratigraphy. The stratigraphy obtained supports structural interpretations based upon Buchia, in particular that the Paskenta fault zone remained active throughout the Early Cretaceous. The study illustrates that nannofossil biostratigraphy can be effectively used to date sediments deposited in convergent margin settings.

  13. Analysis of gravity data in Central Valleys, Oaxaca, southern, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Ferrusquia, I.

    2015-12-01

    The region known as Central Valleys is located in the state of Oaxaca, southern, Mexico (16.3o- 17.7 o N Lat. and 96 o - 97 o W Long.) In its central portion is settled the capital of the state. There are very few published detailed geological studies.. Geomorphological and geological features, indicates that Central Valleys and surrounding mountains conform a graben structure. Its shape is an inverted Y, centred on Oaxaca City. The study area was covered by a detailed gravity survey with a homogenous distribution of stations. The Bouguer gravity map is dominated by a large gravity low, oriented NW-SE. In order to know the characteristics of anomalies observed gravity, data transformations were used. The use of spectral methods has increased in recent years, especially for the estimation of the depth of the source. Analysis of the gravity data sheds light on the regional depth of the Graben basement and the spatial distribution of the volcanic rocks

  14. Conference report: 1st Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastow, Orest

    2013-02-01

    The 1st Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium was arranged by the Medicon Valley Inhalation Consortium. It was held at the Medicon Village site, which is the former AstraZeneca site in Lund, Sweden. It was a 1-day symposium focused on inhaled drug delivery and inhalation product development. A total of 90 delegates listened to 15 speakers. The program was organized to follow the value chain of an inhalation product development. The benefits and future opportunities of inhaled drug delivery were discussed together with some new disease areas that can be targeted with inhalation. The pros and cons of the two main formulation types; dry powder and liquid formulations, were discussed by a panel. The different requirements of the drug molecules from a pharmacology, chemical and physical perspective were explained. The modeling of the physics inside an inhaler was demonstrated and the potential strategic benefits of device design were highlighted together with the many challenges of formulation manufacturing. Lung deposition mechanisms and the difficulties of the generic bioequivalence concept were discussed. Using an anatomically correct impactor inlet is a valuable tool in lung deposition predictions and the planning of clinical trials. The management of the biological material generated in clinical studies is key to successful studies.

  15. Ocular morbidity among street children in Kathmandu Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Mukund; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Joshi, Niraj Dev

    2014-12-01

    Prevalence of ocular morbidity among street children is largely unknown. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ocular morbidity among street children in the Kathmandu Valley. A cross-sectional study consisting of an eye examination program among 569 street children aged younger than 18 years was conducted from March 2013 to February 2014. Children were included from 11 safe houses of 6 non-governmental organizations and an independent eye camp. Eye examination included visual acuity testing, anterior segment and posterior segment examination, retinoscopy and refraction, cover test, convergence, accommodation and color vision tests. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association of ocular morbidity with age, sex and living conditions. The majority of children (43.8%) were in the age group of 12-15 years, and the male to female ratio was 3.9:1. Uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity ≥6/9 in at least one eye was found in 89.8% and 98.4% of children, respectively. Total ocular morbidity was observed at 31.6%. The most common types of ocular morbidity were conjunctivitis (11.0%) and refractive error (11.6%). Ocular morbidity was more common in children over 15 years of age (40.9%; p morbidities in street children in the Kathmandu Valley.

  16. Giovani e ricerca: il progetto WebValley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Furlanello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available WebValley è un'iniziativa di avvicinamento dei giovani alla ricerca scientifica interdisciplinare. Ha come azione principale l’organizzazione di una scuola estiva che permette a studenti delle superiori, di 18 anni, di lavorare in team con ricercatori ed esperti internazionali a un progetto di ricerca per tre settimane, in un'atmosfera vivace e interattiva, caratterizzata dal lavoro in gruppo e dall’uso di tecnologie web per risolvere un problema scientifico a forte connotazione etica, proposto da un esperto esterno. Vengono inizialmente fornite competenze tecniche, con forte attenzione all’open source per il calcolo scientifico e per trattare dati complessi. Si definisce da queste basi un progetto in cui sono gli stessi studenti a organizzarsi in gruppi, selezionare le tecnologie e sviluppare nuove soluzioni. Al termine essi restituiscono al committente e a specialisti del settore i loro risultati in una presentazione pubblica, negli ultimi anni, in lingua inglese e in teleconferenza. WebValley si caratterizza anche per il luogo in cui si svolge: a rotazione, in piccoli paesi di montagna del Trentino, per mostrare come sia possibile sviluppare innovazione in località periferiche disponendo di strumenti tecnici, connessione e conoscenze. Dal 2001, hanno frequentato la scuola circa 220 studenti, molti dei quali si sono poi indirizzati verso una carriera in materie scientifiche e tecnologiche, hanno tenuto i contatti tra loro, collaborando con i ricercatori anche nell’organizzazione della

  17. Soapstones from the Ossola Valley (Piedmont, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The term "soapstones" is referred to "soft", easily workable stones (talc and/or chlorite-rich metamorphic rocks, deriving from mafic - ultramafic protoliths), typically used for jars, pots and pipes. The term has been also improperly extended to "harder" varieties (e.g. serpentinites), mostly suitable for roof slabs and millstones. These rocks are characterized by easy workability and fire-resistance, and they had a remarkable historical, artistic and archaeological importance. In the Ossola region (Piedmont, northern Italy), the soapstones are traditionally known as "Pietra Laugera", "Pietra Lavizzaria" or "Pietra Ollare", and represent one of the oldest stony raw materials used since the Bronze Age (archaeological find in the Toceno surroundings, Vigezzo Valley). The discovery of archaeological handmade objects in the surroundings of the Ossola Valley testifies a massive use of green stones during the I century A.D., even for cinerary urns and grave outfits. A lot of two handles pots and milk vessels date back to the Middle Ages, as well as millstones and water pipes. Artistic and ornamental uses are documented in churches and civil buildings: for example, columns, capitals, pilasters and bas-reliefs (Sacro Monte del Calvario chapels, now UNESCO heritage, and the Collegiale Church in Domodossola) as well as fireplaces (e.g. Silva Palace in Domodossola), sculptures, ornaments and balustrades. The productivity reached the top in the XIX century and stopped in the twenties; nowadays the extraction occurs only in the Loana Valley, with a very limited production. The historical soapstones derive both from ophiolitic complexes (Antrona and Zermatt-Saas Zones) and from the ultramafic complexes within the Orselina-Moncucco-Isorno Zone, Monte Leone nappe and Sesia-Lanzo Zone. The historical quarries are usually small (even erratic boulders), and scattered over many lateral valleys, such as Brevettola, Antrona, Bognanco and Loana. A total of 52 representative samples were

  18. Debris-flow observations in the Zermatt Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    In the Alps, a multitude of unstable slopes is located at altitudes of ~2700 m asl, where sediment transfers typically happen outside the range of humans or their infrastructure. The situation is slightly different in the Zermatt Valley, a high-elevation, north-south oriented glacial valley in the Swiss Alps, where the detachment of melting permafrost results in rock falls on steep slopes and debris flows in high-gradient gullies through which till is transferred directly to the inhabited valley floor at elevations between 1100 (N) and 1600 m asl (S). As a result of the excellent database on past disasters in the valley, recent developments and measurements in the local rock glacier bodies and current torrential events, I show data from some debris-flow torrents to document impacts of past, ongoing and possible future changes of debris flows originating from periglacial environments. Debris flows are typically initiated by the abrupt input of considerable quantities of water. The water-saturated masses of fragmented rock and soil slump down mountainsides into gullies which in turn mobilize stored sediment in the channels. In addition to triggering by extreme rainstorms, debris flows have also been reported to be released by rapid snowmelt, rain-on-snow storms, or the sudden emptying of glacier water bodies or through the rupture of landslide dams. More frequently, debris flows occur as a result of high-intensity, convective rainstorms of short duration or low-intensity advective precipitation events over several days. Displacement rates and instability of rock glaciers have increased further recently to show movement rates without historical precedents. At Grabengufer (Dorfbach) e.g., increasing air and ice temperatures have favoured the development of annual displacement rates from just a few decimetres in the past decades to 80 m in 2010. Similar behaviour was observed in catchments nearby. As a consequence of the enhanced movement of these permafrost bodies and

  19. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  20. Electron spin resonance and spin-valley physics in a silicon double quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaojie; Ruskov, Rusko; Xiao, Ming; Tahan, Charles; Jiang, HongWen

    2014-05-14

    Silicon quantum dots are a leading approach for solid-state quantum bits. However, developing this technology is complicated by the multi-valley nature of silicon. Here we observe transport of individual electrons in a silicon CMOS-based double quantum dot under electron spin resonance. An anticrossing of the driven dot energy levels is observed when the Zeeman and valley splittings coincide. A detected anticrossing splitting of 60 MHz is interpreted as a direct measure of spin and valley mixing, facilitated by spin-orbit interaction in the presence of non-ideal interfaces. A lower bound of spin dephasing time of 63 ns is extracted. We also describe a possible experimental evidence of an unconventional spin-valley blockade, despite the assumption of non-ideal interfaces. This understanding of silicon spin-valley physics should enable better control and read-out techniques for the spin qubits in an all CMOS silicon approach.

  1. Soil nematodes and desiccation survival in the extreme arid environment of the antarctic dry valleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treonis, Amy M; Wall, Diana H

    2005-11-01

    Soil nematodes are capable of employing an anhydrobiotic survival strategy in response to adverse environmental conditions. The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica represent a unique environment for the study of anhydrobiosis because extremes of cold, salinity, and aridity combine to limit biological water availability. We studied nematode anhydrobiosis in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, using natural variation in soil properties. The coiled morphology of nematodes extracted from dry valley soils suggests that they employ anhydrobiosis, and these coiled nematodes showed enhanced revival when re-hydrated in water as compared to vermiform nematodes. Nematode coiling was correlated with soil moisture content, salinity, and water potential. In the driest soils studied (gravimetric water content snowfall and melting events. Anhydrobiosis represents an important temporal component of a dry valley nematode's life span. The ability to utilize anhydrobiosis plays a significant role in the widespread distribution and success of these organisms in the Antarctic Dry Valleys and beyond.

  2. Gravitational stresses in long symmetric ridges and valleys in anisotropic rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, E.; Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of topography and rock mass anisotropy on gravitational stresses in long isolated symmetric ridges and valleys is modeled using an analytical method proposed earlier by the first two authors. The rock mass deforms under a condition of plane strain. A parametric study is presented on the effect of (1) topography, (2) orientation of anisotropy and (3) degree of anisotropy on the magnitude and distribution of gravitational stresses in transversely isotropic rock masses with planes of anisotropy striking parallel to the ridge or valley axis. It is found that compressive stresses develop near ridge crests and that tensile stresses develop in valley bottoms and valley walls. The magnitude of the gravitational stresses is of the order of the characteristics stress ??{variant}g??b?? where ??{variant} is the rock density, g is the gravitational acceleration and ??b?? is the height of the ridge or depth of the valley. ?? 1994.

  3. Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-09-22

    We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.

  4. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around Buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Christensen, Steen

    In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures. The admini......In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures....... The administration of groundwater resources has been based on simulations using regional scale groundwater models. However, regional scale models have difficulties with accurately resolving the complex geology of the buried valleys, which bears the risk of poor model predictions of local scale effects of groundwater...

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESSES AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE DENUNDATION VALLEYS IN THE BIELSK PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Micun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to recognise natural and anthropogenic transformations taking place in small denudation valleys in the old glacial landscape of the Bielsk Plain. The changes are registered in sediments of the valleys. The Bielsk Plain area situated in the north of Bielsk Podlaski is characterized by the presence of latitudinal running denudation valleys, that end with concave broadenings in their headwaters. The geological structure is dominated by silt deposits of various origins. Tills are present in the hilltops while organic and organo-mineral deposits in the depressions. The thickness of the deluvial deposits in the valleys reaches 2 m though usually it does not exceed 1 m. The deposits are mostly silts that developed lithologically as sandy dust and loam dust. Colluvium sedimentation in the valleys clearly correlates with the development of agriculture, deforestation and farming in the area. The abandonment of the cultivation causes significant slowdown in the pace of accumulation of colluvium sediments.

  6. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.

  7. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1983-07-01

    The commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 to 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source was assessed. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (IGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstocks for the production of ethanol.

  8. EPIGENETIC VALLEYS IN THE TIKVES BASIN IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kole Pavlov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic valleys as part of the fluvial relief are of special geomorphologic significance. As ostensibly anomalous phenomena, they mirror the inconsistent fluvial relief, i.e. a phase of adjustment of longitudinal profiles of rivers. The subject of research in this paper involved some forms of the fluvial relief in the drainage basin of the Vardar River, in the Tikves Basin, which had some predispositions to be classified as an epigenetic valleys. The necessary geological-and-lithological and morphological parameters have shown that specific segments in the river valleys in Tikves are distinguished by special physiognomy, lithology and genesis, which correspond to epigenetic valleys and gorges. Thus arguments indicated in total ten created epigenetic valleys and gorges on the level of the Tikves Basin. Seven epigenetic occurrences were formed below the neogene level, whereas three of them were formed above the neogene level.

  9. Tuning Spin- and Valley-Degeneracies in Multicomponent Quantum Well Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu-Gaunkar, Sunanda

    The theme of this thesis is manipulation of spin and valley degeneracies in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) by locally or globally controlling the energy gaps between the two spin states or multiple valley states. Degeneracies in 2DES can be controlled internally or externally with magnetic, strain, and electrostatic fields. With magneto-transport measurements we can probe these spin and valley energy gaps. Spin degeneracies in quantum wells (QW) can be controlled with magnetic field by changing the tilt angle of the field with respect to the sample. Valley degeneracies can be controlled principally by growing QWs of a certain orientation and width. Furthermore, the valley energies can be controlled externally by applying strain or electrostatic gated devices. We first consider transport signatures of controlled spin degeneracies. Magnetic fields can be used to control spin degeneracies and spin gaps by tuning the tilt angle of the field with respect to the sample plane. These spin dependencies can be observed at different tilt angles by conducting measurements of the longitudinal and Hall resistance. In particular, transport measurements in a Si/SiGe spin-split valley degenerate 2DES demonstrates anomalous rise of the transverse Hall resistance at certain quantized plateaus. With systematic tilted field data we map this anomaly to the longitudinal resistance, and also to directional derivatives of the longitudinal resistance. We also develop a theoretical model for estimating the spin-degenerate and spin-split density of states which we fit using the data on longitudinal resistance. We input the exactly calculated spin gaps at every tilt angle in the edge state model of quantum Hall effect, and we are able to provide a microscopic justification to the experimentally observed anomalous features by introducing a constant energy density of disordered states in our model. We next consider transport signatures of controlled valley degeneracies. Valley

  10. Analysis of overdeepened valleys using the digital elevation model of the bedrock surface of Northern Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.

    2010-11-15

    Based on surface and borehole information, together with pre-existing regional and local interpretations, a 7,150 square kilometre Raster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface of northern Switzerland was constructed using a 25 m cell size. This model represents a further important step in the understanding of Quaternary sediment distribution and is open to a broad field of application and analysis, including hydrogeological, geotechnical and geophysical studies as well as research in the field of Pleistocene landscape evolution. An analysis of the overdeepened valleys in the whole model area and, more specifically in the Reuss area, shows that, in most cases, overdeepening is restricted to the areas covered by the Last Glaciation Maximum (LGM). However, at various locations relatively narrow overdeepened valleys outreach the tongue basins and the LGM ice shield limits. Therefore, an earlier and further-reaching glacial event has probably contributed significantly to the overdeepening of these valleys. No significant overdeepening has been identified downstream of Boettstein (Aare) and Kaiserstuhl (Rhine), although the ice extended considerably further downstream, at least during the most extensive glaciation. Except for the bedrock between Brugg and Boettstein, no overdeepened valleys are found significantly north of the outcrop of Mesozoic limestone of the Folded and Tabular Jura. A detailed analysis of the Reuss area shows that the Lake and Suhre valleys are separated from the Emmen-Gisikon Reuss valley basin by a significant bedrock barrier. The individual bedrock valleys are divided into several sub-basins, indicating a multiphase evolution of the valleys. Some of the swells or barriers separating the sub-basins coincide with known late LGM retreat stages. In the Suhre valley, an old fluvial valley floor with restricted overdeepened sections is documented. (author)

  11. 75 FR 71414 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Forest Service Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010... prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: Taos Ski Valley (TSV) is a downhill ski area located... (Phase I) projects included in the Taos Ski Valley (TSV) 2010 Master Development Plan (MDP). These...

  12. 77 FR 36994 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master Development Plan--Phase 1 Projects... included in the Taos Ski Valley (TSV) 2010 Master Development Plan (MDP). All proposed projects would be..., Taos Ski Valley MDP--Phase 1 Projects, 208 Cruz Alta Road, Taos, NM 87571. Comments may also be sent...

  13. 75 FR 28279 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Hyder Valley Solar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... circulating pumps, circulating water piping, valves, and instrumentation would also be located within the... Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project, Maricopa County, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... related to the Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project by any of the following methods: E-mail: HyderValley...

  14. 76 FR 12212 - Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact for the Klingle Valley Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact for the Klingle Valley Trail... No Significant Impact for the Klingle Valley Trail Project. SUMMARY: The U.S. Federal Highway... (FONSI) for the Klingle Valley Trail Project, pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental...

  15. 75 FR 22620 - Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National..., Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) located in Klamath County..., Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake Refuges located in Klamath County, Oregon, and...

  16. 78 FR 8018 - Establishment of the Indiana Uplands Viticultural Area and Modification of the Ohio River Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Viticultural Area and Modification of the Ohio River Valley Viticultural Area AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax... mile Ohio River Valley viticultural area to eliminate a potential overlap with the Indiana Uplands viticultural area. The modification decreases the size of the Ohio River Valley viticultural area by...

  17. 77 FR 68816 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Sun Valley to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ...; AZA35079] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Sun Valley to... Proposed Sun Valley to Morgan 500/230-kilovolt (kV) Transmission Line Project (Project) and Draft Bradshaw... comments by any of the following methods: Web site: http://www.blm.gov/az/st/en.html . Email: SunValley...

  18. 78 FR 43224 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Sun Valley to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Proposed Sun Valley to Morgan Transmission Line Project (Formerly Called TS-5 to TS-9) and the Proposed... proposed Sun Valley to Morgan 500/230-kilovolt (kV) Transmission Line Project (Project) and Proposed... to construct, operate, and maintain a 500/230-kV overhead transmission line from the Sun Valley...

  19. 78 FR 13932 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage Rights Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage... County, ND On February 11, 2013, Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ filed with the Surface... 59270. \\1\\ According to YVRR, its name was formerly Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco Holdings...

  20. 76 FR 37888 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Dawson and Richland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Dawson and Richland Counties, Mont. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ has filed a verified... Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco Holdings, Watco Companies, and Watco Transp. Services--Corporate...