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Sample records for valley central switzerland

  1. Seismic activity of northern and central Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichmann, N.; Ballarin Dolfin, D.; Kastrup, U.

    2000-12-01

    The present report is part of an ongoing study by the Swiss Seismological Service, that was initiated by Nagra almost 20 years ago. It is devoted to the detailed monitoring of the earthquake activity in northern and central Switzerland. The main objective of this study is to provide information about the locations of active deformation and the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to relate these to the geological features visible at the surface. Originally, this seismotectonic investigation was restricted to the northern part of Switzerland; later it was extended also to the central part. Concerning the seismotectonics of northern Switzerland, this report constitutes a continuation of earlier publications. Here we review the seismic activity and earthquake focal mechanisms of the last 10 years and subsequently derive a comprehensive picture of the deformation and stress in the Earth's crust of northern Switzerland, based on all data available up to the end of 1999. Concerning the seismotectonics of central Switzerland, this publication constitutes the first publicly available report. (author) [de

  2. Sinnerite, Cu6As4S9, from the Lengenbach Quarry, Binn Valley, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindi, Luca; Makovicky, Emil; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    We have characterized the crystal structure of sinnerite, Cu6As4S9, a rare sulfosalt mineral from the ores of the Lengenbach quarry, Binn Valley, Canton Valais, Switzerland, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. We found sinnerite to be structurally identical to synthetic Cu6As...

  3. Stable carbon isotopes as an indicator for soil degradation in an alpine environment (Urseren Valley, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Monika; Alewell, Christine

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of soil organic carbon (SOC) content and stable carbon isotope signatures (delta(13)C) of soils were assessed for their suitability to detect early stage soil erosion. We investigated the soils in the alpine Urseren Valley (southern central Switzerland) which are highly impacted by soil erosion. Hill slope transects from uplands (cambisols) to adjacent wetlands (histosols and histic to mollic gleysols) differing in their intensity of visible soil erosion, and reference wetlands without erosion influence were sampled. Carbon isotopic signature and SOC content of soil depth profiles were determined. A close correlation of delta(13)C and carbon content (r > 0.80) is found for upland soils not affected by soil erosion, indicating that depth profiles of delta(13)C of these upland soils mainly reflect decomposition of SOC. Long-term disturbance of an upland soil is indicated by decreasing correlation of delta(13)C and SOC (r soil erosion in hill slope transects from uplands to adjacent wetlands is documented as an intermediate delta(13)C value (-27.5 per thousand) for affected wetland soil horizons (0-12 cm) between upland (aerobic metabolism, relatively heavier delta(13)C of -26.6 per thousand) and wetland isotopic signatures (anaerobic metabolism, relatively lighter delta(13)C of -28.6 per thousand). Carbon isotopic signature and SOC content are found to be sensitive indicators of short- and long-term soil erosion processes. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Analysis of overdeepened valleys using the digital elevation model of the bedrock surface of Northern Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.

    2010-11-15

    Based on surface and borehole information, together with pre-existing regional and local interpretations, a 7,150 square kilometre Raster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface of northern Switzerland was constructed using a 25 m cell size. This model represents a further important step in the understanding of Quaternary sediment distribution and is open to a broad field of application and analysis, including hydrogeological, geotechnical and geophysical studies as well as research in the field of Pleistocene landscape evolution. An analysis of the overdeepened valleys in the whole model area and, more specifically in the Reuss area, shows that, in most cases, overdeepening is restricted to the areas covered by the Last Glaciation Maximum (LGM). However, at various locations relatively narrow overdeepened valleys outreach the tongue basins and the LGM ice shield limits. Therefore, an earlier and further-reaching glacial event has probably contributed significantly to the overdeepening of these valleys. No significant overdeepening has been identified downstream of Boettstein (Aare) and Kaiserstuhl (Rhine), although the ice extended considerably further downstream, at least during the most extensive glaciation. Except for the bedrock between Brugg and Boettstein, no overdeepened valleys are found significantly north of the outcrop of Mesozoic limestone of the Folded and Tabular Jura. A detailed analysis of the Reuss area shows that the Lake and Suhre valleys are separated from the Emmen-Gisikon Reuss valley basin by a significant bedrock barrier. The individual bedrock valleys are divided into several sub-basins, indicating a multiphase evolution of the valleys. Some of the swells or barriers separating the sub-basins coincide with known late LGM retreat stages. In the Suhre valley, an old fluvial valley floor with restricted overdeepened sections is documented. (author)

  5. Subglacial tunnel valleys in the Alpine foreland: an example from Bern, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerst Stucki, M.; Reber, R.; Schlunegger, F.

    2010-01-01

    The morphology of the Alpine and adjacent landscapes is directly related to glacial erosion and associated sediment transport. Here we report the effects of glacio-hydrologic erosion on bedrock topography in the Swiss Plateau. Specifically, we identify the presence of subsurface valleys beneath the city of Bern and discuss their genesis. Stratigraphic investigations of more than 4'000 borehole data within a 430 km 2 -large area reveal the presence of a network of >200 m-deep and 1'000 m-wide valleys. They are flat floored with steep sided walls and are filled by Quaternary glacial deposits. The central valley beneath Bern is straight and oriented towards the NNW, with valley flanks more than 20 o steep. The valley bottom has an irregular undulating profile along the thalweg, with differences between sills and hollows higher than 50-100 m over a reach of 4 km length. Approximately 500 m high bedrock highlands flank the valley network. The highlands are dissected by up to 80 m-deep and 500 m-broad hanging valleys that currently drain away from the axis of the main valley. We interpret the valleys beneath the city of Bern to be a tunnel valley network which originated from subglacial erosion by melt water. The highland valleys served as proglacial meltwater paths and are hanging with respect to the trunk system, indicating that these incipient highland systems as well as the main gorge beneath Bern formed by glacial melt water under pressure. (authors)

  6. Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri Jørgensen, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The book answers ten delay-related questions when the FIDIC Red Book (internationally recognized standard construction contract) is subjected to the law of twelve different countries. Sylvie Cavaleri wrote the chapter concerning Switzerland.......The book answers ten delay-related questions when the FIDIC Red Book (internationally recognized standard construction contract) is subjected to the law of twelve different countries. Sylvie Cavaleri wrote the chapter concerning Switzerland....

  7. Subglacial tunnel valleys in the Alpine foreland: an example from Bern, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerst Stucki, M.; Reber, R.; Schlunegger, F.

    2010-12-15

    The morphology of the Alpine and adjacent landscapes is directly related to glacial erosion and associated sediment transport. Here we report the effects of glacio-hydrologic erosion on bedrock topography in the Swiss Plateau. Specifically, we identify the presence of subsurface valleys beneath the city of Bern and discuss their genesis. Stratigraphic investigations of more than 4'000 borehole data within a 430 km{sup 2}-large area reveal the presence of a network of >200 m-deep and 1'000 m-wide valleys. They are flat floored with steep sided walls and are filled by Quaternary glacial deposits. The central valley beneath Bern is straight and oriented towards the NNW, with valley flanks more than 20 {sup o} steep. The valley bottom has an irregular undulating profile along the thalweg, with differences between sills and hollows higher than 50-100 m over a reach of 4 km length. Approximately 500 m high bedrock highlands flank the valley network. The highlands are dissected by up to 80 m-deep and 500 m-broad hanging valleys that currently drain away from the axis of the main valley. We interpret the valleys beneath the city of Bern to be a tunnel valley network which originated from subglacial erosion by melt water. The highland valleys served as proglacial meltwater paths and are hanging with respect to the trunk system, indicating that these incipient highland systems as well as the main gorge beneath Bern formed by glacial melt water under pressure. (authors)

  8. Post-glacial rock avalanches in the Obersee Valley, Glarner Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelisen, Jan; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Vockenhuber, Christoph; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2015-06-01

    The geological record of prehistoric rock avalanches provides invaluable data for assessing the hazard posed by these rare but destructive mass movements. Here we investigate two large rock avalanches in the Obersee valley of the Glarner Alps, Switzerland, providing detailed mapping of landslide and related Quaternary phenomena, revised volume estimates for each event, and surface exposure dating of rock avalanche deposits. The Rautispitz rock avalanche originated from the southern flank of the Obersee valley, releasing approximately 91 million m3 of limestone on steeply-dipping bedding planes. Debris had maximum horizontal travel distance of ~ 5000 m, a fahrboeschung angle (relating fall height to length) of 18°, and was responsible for the creation of Lake Obersee; deposits are more than 130 m thick in places. The Platten rock avalanche encompassed a source volume of 11 million m3 sliding from the northern flank of the Obersee valley on similar steeply-dipping limestone beds (bedrock forms a syncline under the valley). Debris had a maximum horizontal travel distance of 1600 m with a fahrboeschung angle of 21°, and is more than 80 m thick in places. Deposits of the Platten rock avalanche are superposed atop those from the Rautispitz event at the end of the Obersee valley where they dam Lake Haslensee. Runout for both events was simulated using the dynamic analysis code DAN3D; results showed excellent match to mapped deposit extents and thickness and helped confirm the hypothesized single-event failure scenarios. 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of 13 deposited boulders revealed a Younger Dryas age of 12.6 ± 1.0 ka for the Rautispitz rock avalanche and a mid-Holocene age of 6.1 ± 0.8 ka for the Platten rock avalanche. A seismological trigger is proposed for the former event due to potentially correlated turbidite deposits in nearby Lake Zurich.

  9. Acceptance of Ambulatory Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Central Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Sandra P; Fischer, Henning; Brunner, Alexander R; Honigmann, Philipp; Metzger, Jürg

    2017-11-01

    Currently, most patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in Switzerland are inpatients for 2-3 days. Due to a lack of available hospital beds, we asked whether day-case surgery would be an option for patients in central Switzerland. The questions of acceptability of outpatient LC and factors contributing to the acceptability thus arose. Hundred patients suffering from symptomatic cholecystolithiasis, capable of communicating in German, and between 18 and 65 years old, were included. Patients received a pre-operative questionnaire on medical history and social situation when informed consent on surgery and participation in the study was obtained. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from acute cholecystitis or any type of cancer; having a BMI >40 kg/m 2 ; needing conversion to open cholecystectomy or an intraoperative drainage; and non-German speakers. Surgery was performed laparoscopically. Both surgeon and patient filled in a postoperative questionnaire. The surgeon's questionnaire listed medical and technical information, and the patients' questionnaire listed medical information, satisfaction with the treatment and willingness to be released on the same day. These data from both questionnaires were grouped into social and medical factors and analysed on their influence upon willingness to accept an ambulatory procedure. No outpatient follow-up apart from checking for readmission to our hospital within 1 month after discharge was performed. Of the 100 participants, one-third was male. More than two-thirds were Swiss citizens. Only one participant was ineligible for rapid release evaluation due to need of a drainage. Among the social factors contributing to the acceptability of ambulatory care, we found nationality to be relevant; Swiss citizens preferred an inpatient procedure, whereas non-Swiss citizens were significantly more willing to return home on the same day. Household size, sex and age did not correlate with a preference for

  10. Irrigation channels of the Upper Rhone valley (Switzerland). Geomorphological analysis of a cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Rhone valley (Canton of Valais, Switzerland) is characterised by dry climatic conditions that explain the presence of an important network (about 800 km) of irrigation channels - called Bisses in the French-speaking part of the canton or Suonen in the German-speaking area - dating back to the Middle Ages. This network constitutes a cultural heritage and during the last 30 years these agricultural infrastructures have sparked a renewed interest for tourist and cultural reasons. Indeed, the paths along the channels are used as tourist trails and several abandoned channels have been renovated for tourist use. Based on an inventory of the Bisses/Suonen of Valais, the proposed communication has three aims: (1) to analyse the geomorphological context (morphometric analysis, structural geomorphology, main processes) of various types of channels and to show the impact of the geomorphological context on the building techniques; (2) to identify particularly active processes along the channels; (3) to classify the Bisses/Suonen according to their geomorphological value and to their geomorphological sensitivity, and to propose managing measures. Structural and climatic conditions influence the geomorphological context of the channels. In a structural point of view, irrigation channels are developed in three main contexts: (1) in the Aar Massif crystalline basement; (2) in the limestone and marl cover nappes of the Helvetic Alps; (3) in the metamorphic cover nappes of the Penninic domain. The Rhone River valley is boarded by two high mountain ranges: the Penninic Alps in the South and the Bernese Alps in the North. Because of rain shadow effects, the climate is relatively dry and, between Brig and Martigny, annual rainfall is not more than 600 mm at 500 m ASL and 800 mm at 1600 m ASL. Nevertheless, due to important vertical precipitation gradients annual rainfall totals are high at high altitudes. On the southern facing tributary valleys, the dry climatic conditions

  11. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  12. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  13. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  14. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  15. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds123

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Central Valley Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  16. Active thermal tracer testing in a shallow aquifer of the Thur valley, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweingruber, Mischa; Somogyvári, Márk; Bayer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Tracer tests are one of the standard methods for investigating groundwater processes. Among the range of different test variants, using heat as a tracer has gained substantial interest during the last decade. Temperature measurements have become essential ingredients for example for characterization of river-aquifer interactions and in the field of geothermics. Much less attention than on natural temperature signals has been devoted to induced synthetic temperature signals, even though it is well known that temperature is an easy to measure, invisible but sensitive system property. Design, application and inversion of such active thermal tracer tests represent one focus of our work. We build up on the experience from related field experiments, where heated water was injected and the propagation of the generated thermal anomaly was monitored. In this presentation, we show the results from first field-testing in an alluvial aquifer at the Widen site in the Thur valley in Switzerland. The thermal evolution of groundwater was monitored in summer 2014 during and after several days of heated water injection. By this test, we want to derive insights into the prevailing hydraulic heterogeneity of the shallow aquifer at the site. The results are used for calibration of a two dimensional hydrogeological numerical model. With the calibrated hydraulic conductivity field, the experiment is simulated and the transient evolution of the heat plume is visualized. Hydraulic heterogeneity is identified as one main factor for lateral spreading of the heat plume. The most important result of the experiment is that the significance of the ambient flow field is very high and even with high pumping rates to establish forced gradient conditions its effect cannot be overridden. During the test, precious technical experience was gained, which will be beneficial for subsequent heat tracer applications. For example, the challenge of maintaining a constant injection rate and temperature could

  17. Variability of indicator values for ozone production sensitivity: a model study in Switzerland and San Joaquin Valley (California)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Chenghsuan Lu; Chang, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The threshold values of indicator species and ratios delineating the transition between NO x and VOC sensitivity of ozone formation are assumed to be universal by various investigators. However, our previous studies suggested that threshold values might vary according to the locations and conditions. In this study, threshold values derived from various model simulations at two different locations (the area of Switzerland by UAM Model and San Joaquin Valley of Central California by SAQM Model) are examined using a new approach for defining NO x and VOC sensitive regimes. Possible definitions for the distinction of NO x and VOC sensitive ozone production regimes are given. The dependence of the threshold values for indicators and indicator ratios such as NO y , O 3 /NO z , HCHO/NO y , and H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 on the definition of NO x and VOC sensitivity is discussed. Then the variations of threshold values under low emission conditions and in two different days are examined in both areas to check whether the models respond consistently to changes in environmental conditions. In both cases, threshold values are shifted similarly when emissions are reduced. Changes in the wind fields and aging of the photochemical oxidants seem to cause the day-to-day variation of the threshold values. O 3 /NO z and HCHO/NO y indicators are predicted to be unsatisfactory to separate the NO x and VOC sensitive regimes. Although NO y and H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 provide a good separation of the two regimes, threshold values are affected by changes in the environmental conditions studied in this work. (author)

  18. Tritium as a tracer for the movement of surface water and groundwater in the Glatt Valley, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santschi, P.H.; Hoehn, E.; Lueck, A.; Farrenkothen, K.

    1987-01-01

    A pulse of tritiated water (∼ 500 Ci) accidentally discharged by an isotope processing plant in the Glatt River Valley, northern Switzerland, allowed us to observe the migration of a contaminant pulse through a sewage treatment plant, rivers, and various wells of infiltrated groundwater. The accident pointed to various memory effects of the tritium, which acted as a conservative tracer. Tritium concentrations in surface water and groundwater were used to test predictions for the transport of conservative anthropogenic trace contaminants accidentally discharged into the sewer system. Mass balance calculations indicate that about 2-10% of the tritium pulse infiltrated to the groundwater and about 0.5% of the total reached eight major drinking water wells of this densely populated area. In spite of the complex hydrogeology of the lower Glatt River Valley, tritium breakthrough curves could be effectively simulated with modeling approaches developed from an experimental well field

  19. Three consecutive years of road closures due to natural hazards in the Weisstannen valley, Canton of St-Gallen, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The Weisstannen small alpine valley located in the Canton of St-Gallen, Switzerland, has been affected by four different natural hazards these three last years. Its unique access road has been cut off height times during this period: by an earth slide in January 2014, by three debris flows in August 2015, by one debris flow in September 2016, by two floods in June and July 2016 and by a rockfall in May 2016. Although the valley is sparsely populated, 240 people have been affected by the height road closures due to these events. In addition to road damages, several buildings, of which a restaurant (with EUR 190'000 damages) and an animal shelter, have been damaged. In Switzerland, some roads of 15 communes have been affected by natural hazards at least three times in five years (2012-2016). Then the Weisstannen valley is not an exception at the communal level. However, it is the only valley whose unique access was cut off three consecutive years. With these repeated events, the population of the valley does not understand how possible it is to end up in such a situation in a country accustomed to natural hazards. In the media and social media, people do not hide their irritation regarding to this situation: "Have the authorities failed to take into account natural dangers despite of the 4.7 million Euro allocated for a flood protection project? Who is responsible of those repeated damages? Why the situation did not improve after the events of the first year and then the second year? ". In the present work, we try to shed the light on this peculiar case analysing the causes of road closures, studying meteorological, topographical, hydrological and geological data for each events. The effectiveness of the new protective measures built between the events are assessed, as the future planned protectives measures. Road closures consequences on the population and the economy are also estimated. Finally, we estimate the probability of having new road closures in the

  20. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  1. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The...

  2. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  3. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  4. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop criteria for... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  5. 75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... to establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  6. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  7. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review... establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices...

  8. Residence Times in Central Valley Aquifers Recharged by Dammed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustale, M.; Paukert Vankeuren, A. N.; Visser, A.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource for California, providing between 30-60% of the state's water supply. Recent emphasis on groundwater sustainability has induced a push to characterize recharge rates and residence times for high priority aquifers, including most aquifers in California's Central Valley. Flows in almost all rivers from the western Sierra to the Central Valley are controlled by dams, altering natural flow patterns and recharge to local aquifers. In eastern Sacramento, unconfined and confined shallow aquifers (depth recharged by a losing reach of the Lower American River, despite the presence of levees with slurry cut-off walls.1 Flow in the Lower American River is controlled through the operation of the Folsom and Nimbus Dams, with a minimum flow of 500 cfs. Water table elevation in wells in close proximity to the river are compared to river stage to determine the effect of river stage on groundwater recharge rates. Additionally, Tritium-3Helium dates and stable isotopes (∂18O and ∂2H) have been measured in monitoring wells 200- 2400 ft lateral distance from the river, and depths of 25 -225 feet BGS. Variation in groundwater age in the vertical and horizontal directions are used to determine groundwater flow path and velocity. These data are then used to calculate residence time of groundwater in the unconfined and confined aquifer systems for the Central Valley in eastern Sacramento. Applying groundwater age tracers can benefit future compliance metrics of the California Sustainable Groundwater Resources Act (SGMA), by quantifying river seepage rates and impacts of groundwater management on surface water resources. 1Moran et al., UCRL-TR-203258, 2004.

  9. Inter-seasonal surface deformations of an active rock glacier imaged with radar and lidar remote sensing; Turtmann valley, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Andrew; Buchli, Thomas; Strozzi, Tazio; Springman, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Inter-seasonal changes in surface deformation were imaged using a portable radar interferometer and terrestrial laser scanner during a series of three campaigns that took place in autumn 2011, summer 2012 and autumn 2012 on a rock glacier located in the Turtmann valley, Switzerland. Satellite radar interferometry (ERS 1 & 2, CosmoSkymed) indicate that accelerated downslope movement of the rock glacier commenced during the 1990s. Due to signal decorrelation associated with the satellite repeat pass time interval, continuous ground-based radar interferometry measurements were undertaken. Results show that the rock glacier accelerated significantly in Summer (Vmax = 6.0cm/25hrs), probably in response to the condition of the subsurface hydrology (e.g. post-peak spring snow melt and/or infiltration of rainfall). In autumn, the displacement velocity was reduced (Vmax = 2.0cm/25hrs). A one year surface difference of the glacier topography, derived from terrestrial laser scanning, provided insight into the rock glacier kinematics. Ongoing research is aimed at integrating surface displacement results with an extensive borehole monitoring system consisting of inclinometers and temperature sensors.

  10. 78 FR 75332 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; California Central Valley Angler Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... useful for understanding the economic importance of Central Valley fisheries and potential recreational.... Dated: December 5, 2013. Gwellnar Banks, Management Analyst, Office of the Chief Information Officer...

  11. Effects of Groundwater Development on Uranium: Central Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, B.C.; Fram, M.S.; Belitz, K.; Burow, K.R.; Landon, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater in several parts of the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, have exceeded federal and state drinking water standards during the last 20 years. The San Joaquin Valley is located within the Central Valley of California and is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. Increased irrigation and pumping associated with agricultural and urban development during the last 100 years have changed the chemistry and magnitude of groundwater recharge, and increased the rate of downward groundwater movement. Strong correlations between U and bicarbonate suggest that U is leached from shallow sediments by high bicarbonate water, consistent with findings of previous work in Modesto, California. Summer irrigation of crops in agricultural areas and, to lesser extent, of landscape plants and grasses in urban areas, has increased Pco2 concentrations in the soil zone and caused higher temperature and salinity of groundwater recharge. Coupled with groundwater pumping, this process, as evidenced by increasing bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater over the last 100 years, has caused shallow, young groundwater with high U concentrations to migrate to deeper parts of the groundwater system that are tapped by public-supply wells. Continued downward migration of U-affected groundwater and expansion of urban centers into agricultural areas will likely be associated with increased U concentrations in public-supply wells. The results from this study illustrate the potential long-term effects of groundwater development and irrigation-supported agriculture on water quality in arid and semiarid regions around the world. Journal compilation ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  12. Historical intensity VIII earthquakes along the Rhone valley (Valais, Switzerland): primary and secondary effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsche, S.; Faeh, D.; Schwarz-Zanetti, G.

    2012-06-15

    In recent years the upper Rhone Valley has been one of the most intensively investigated regions by the Swiss Seismological Service. The high seismicity in the region encourages research in the seismological field and one main focus has been historical seismology. This report presents the state of the art of our historical investigations by giving an overview of the effects of four damaging earthquakes with intensity larger than VII, for which a fairly large number of documents could be found and analyzed. The overview includes the events of 1584 (Aigle, epicentral intensity VIII), 1755 (Brig, epicentral intensity VIII), 1855 (Visp, epicentral intensity VIII), and 1946 (Sierre, epicentral intensity VIII for the main shock and intensity VII for the largest aftershock). The paper focuses mainly on primary and secondary effects in the epicentral region, providing the key data and a general characterization of the event. Generally, primary effects such as the reaction of the population and impact on buildings took more focus in the past. Thus building damage is more frequently described in historic documents. However, we also found a number of sources describing secondary effects such as landslides, snow avalanches, and liquefaction. Since the sources may be useful, we include citations of these documents. The 1584 Aigle event, for example, produced exceptional movements in the Lake of Geneva, which can be explained by an expanded sub aquatic slide with resultant tsunami and seiche. The strongest of the aftershocks of the 1584 event triggered a destructive landslide covering the villages Corbeyrier and Yvorne, Vaud. All macroseismic data on the discussed events are accessible through the web page of the Swiss Seismological Service (http://www.seismo.ethz.ch). (authors)

  13. New insights into structural and stratigraphic aspects of central Northern Switzerland from the Nagra 2D reflection seismic campaign 2011/12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, some findings resulting from the interpretation of reprocessed and newly acquired 2D seismic data in the central Northern Switzerland are presented. The seismic examples illustrate the relationship between basement and cover-tectonics and offer a closer look at seismic-stratigraphic characteristics which can be observed in the Middle Jurassic sequence. The new 2D seismic data have closed an important data gaps between the Nagra siting regions 'Jura Ost' and Nördlich Lägern' proposed for radioactive waste disposal and allow clarification of the general structural framework and internal composition of the Permo-Carboniferous Through. Furthermore, the kinematic relationships between the basement and cover structures can be studied and the newly acquired seismic data have allowed detailed depositional structures and seismic facies changes within the Mid-Upper Dogger sequence to be recognized, particularly east and west of the lower Aare valley. (author)

  14. Structural geology of Central Switzerland - Results of seismic campaign in 2011 in cantons Nid- and Obwalden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, A.; Genoni, O.; Haering, M.

    2013-07-01

    GVM (Gas Verbund Mittelland AG) commissioned in 2011 the acquisition of 113 km of 2D reflection seismic as a first step of an integrated exploration campaign for geothermal and hydrocarbon resources in the cantons Nid- and Obwalden (Switzerland]. One of the aims of the seismic campaign was to define the structure of the Helvetic nappes and its base, the internal build-up of the underlying Tertiary sediments and the autochthonous Mesozoic cover. The new data allow defining the internal tectonics of the Drusberg nappe and its base. The deformation style of the Drusberg nappe is characterized by imbrication and ramp anticlines. The base of the Helvetic nappe forms a relatively flat, wide and gently structured synform south of a line Schwendi - Alpnach - Stans. The base of the Helvetic nappes reaches a max. depth of approximately 1.8-2.0 km below the Sarner Aa valley. It is not possible to distinguish between south dipping Molasse and supposed North Helvetic Flysch. The autochthonous Mesozoic cover is less deformed. Few faults and folds may correlate with underlying Permo-Carboniferous troughs. The latter can be identified on the seismic sections by unconformities. (authors)

  15. Mapping Drought Impacts on Agricultural Production in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Guzman, A.; Johnson, L.; Rosevelt, C.; Verdin, J. P.; Dwyer, J. L.; Mueller, R.; Zakzeski, A.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Wallace, C.; Jones, J.; Windell, S.; Urness, J.; Teaby, A.; Hamblin, D.; Post, K. M.; Nemani, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California has substantially reduced surface water supplies for millions of acres of irrigated farmland in California's Central Valley. Rapid assessment of drought impacts on agricultural production can aid water managers in assessing mitigation options, and guide decision making with respect to requests for local water transfers, county drought disaster designations, and allocation of emergency funds to mitigate drought impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of drought impacts on agricultural production and increases in idle acreage associated with reductions in water supply. A key advantage of satellite-based assessments is that they can provide a measure of land fallowing that is consistent across both space and time. We describe an approach for monthly and seasonal mapping of uncultivated agricultural acreage developed as part of a joint effort by USGS, USDA, NASA, and the California Department of Water Resources to provide timely assessments of land fallowing during drought events. This effort has used the Central Valley of California as a pilot region for development and testing of an operational approach. To provide quantitative measures of uncultivated agricultural acreage from satellite data early in the season, we developed a decision tree algorithm and applied it to timeseries of data from Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI, and MODIS. Our effort has been focused on development of indicators of drought impacts in the March - August timeframe based on measures of crop development patterns relative to a reference period with average or above average rainfall. To assess the accuracy of the algorithms, monthly ground validation surveys were conducted across 640 fields from March - September, 2014. We present the algorithm along with updated results from the accuracy assessment, and discuss potential applications to other regions.

  16. 76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992 (CVPIA) and subsequent...

  17. Flooding in central Switzerland - Crisis management, experience gained and lessons learned; Hochwasser in der Zentralschweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresch, F.

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive article discusses how the Central Switzerland gas, water and power utility ewl, which was stricken in August 2005 by heavy precipitation, flooding and landslides, dealt with the crises thus triggered. Drinking-water pump stations were flooded, a local river tore away a bridge with a natural-gas pipeline and three hydro-power stations had to be powered down. The experience gained in handling this situation was analysed and led to the development of a package of know-how and measures to be taken under similar circumstances. This illustrated article describes the events that happened in detail, with details on the disruption of service and how improvisation helped return supplies of gas, electricity and water to the affected areas as soon as possible. Finally, the article discusses crisis-management aspects and the lessons learned from the disaster.

  18. 77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop criteria for evaluating the... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  19. 75 FR 69698 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The ``Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans'' (Refuge...

  20. 75 FR 15453 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Repayment Contract. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Reclamation will be initiating negotiations with the...

  1. Modeling applications for precision agriculture in the California Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklein, A. R.; Riley, W. J.; Grant, R. F.; Mezbahuddin, S.; Mekonnen, Z. A.; Liu, Y.; Ying, S.

    2017-12-01

    Drought in California has increased the motivation to develop precision agriculture, which uses observations to make site-specific management decisions throughout the growing season. In agricultural systems that are prone to drought, these efforts often focus on irrigation efficiency. Recent improvements in soil sensor technology allow the monitoring of plant and soil status in real-time, which can then inform models aimed at improving irrigation management. But even on farms with resources to deploy soil sensors across the landscape, leveraging that sensor data to design an efficient irrigation scheme remains a challenge. We conduct a modeling experiment aimed at simulating precision agriculture to address several questions: (1) how, when, and where does irrigation lead to optimal yield? and (2) What are the impacts of different precision irrigation schemes on yields, soil organic carbon (SOC), and total water use? We use the ecosys model to simulate precision agriculture in a conventional tomato-corn rotation in the California Central Valley with varying soil water content thresholds for irrigation and soil water sensor depths. This model is ideal for our question because it includes explicit process-based functions for the plant growth, plant water use, soil hydrology, and SOC, and has been tested extensively in agricultural ecosystems. Low irrigation thresholds allows the soil to become drier before irrigating compared to high irrigation thresholds; as such, we found that the high irrigation thresholds use more irrigation over the course of the season, have higher yields, and have lower water use efficiency. The irrigation threshold did not affect SOC. Yields and water use are highest at sensor depths of 0.5 to 0.15 m, but water use efficiency was also lowest at these depths. We found SOC to be significantly affected by sensor depth, with the highest SOC at the shallowest sensor depths. These results will help regulate irrigation water while maintaining yield

  2. Groundwater components in the alluvial aquifer of the alpine Rhone River valley, Bois de Finges area, Wallis Canton, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Marc; Vuataz, François-D.

    2000-09-01

    Source, type, and quantity of various components of groundwater, as well as their spatial and temporal variations were determined by different hydrochemical methods in the alluvial aquifer of the upper Rhone River valley, Bois de Finges, Wallis Canton, Switzerland. The methods used are hydrochemical modeling, stable-isotope analysis, and chemical analysis of surface water and groundwater. Sampling during high- and low-water periods determined the spatial distribution of the water chemistry, whereas monthly sampling over three years provided a basis for understanding seasonal variability. The physico-chemical parameters of the groundwater have spatial and seasonal variations. The groundwater chemical composition of the Rhone alluvial aquifer indicates a mixing of weakly mineralized Rhone River water and SO4-rich water entering from the south side of the valley. Temporal changes in groundwater chemistry and in groundwater levels reflect the seasonal variations of the different contributors to groundwater recharge. The Rhone River recharges the alluvial aquifer only during the summer high-water period. Résumé. Origine, type et quantité de nombreux composants d'eau de l'aquifère alluvial dans la vallée supérieure du Rhône, Bois de Finges, Valais, Suisse, ainsi que leurs variations spatiales et temporelles ont été déterminés par différentes méthodes hydrochimiques. Les méthodes utilisées sont la modélisation hydrochimique, les isotopes stables, ainsi que l'échantillonnage en période de hautes eaux et de basses eaux pour étudier la distribution spatiale de la composition chimique, alors qu'un échantillonnage mensuel pendant trois ans sert à comprendre les processus de la variabilité saisonnière. Les paramètres physico-chimiques des eaux souterraines montrent des variations spatiales et saisonnières. La composition chimique de l'aquifère alluvial du Rhône indique un mélange entre une eau peu minéralisée venant du Rhône et une eau sulfatée s

  3. 76 FR 16818 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Standard Criteria for Ag and Urban Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Valley Project water conservation best management practices (BMPs) that shall develop Criteria for... project contractors using best available cost- effective technology and best management practices.'' The... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Standard...

  4. Geomorphosite inventories for the promotion of tourism by geoheritage. The case of the Hérens and Réchy valleys (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangier, L.; Reynard, E.

    2012-04-01

    As for many Alpine valleys, the Hérens and Réchy valleys (Valais, Switzerland) have a very rich geological and geomorphological heritage, especially in terms of tectonic structure and glacial history. Despite this, very little has been done in the area to promote the geoheritage. At the moment, there is no official inventory of geoheritage in terms of Earth history or tourism promotion. This poster presents the results of a geomorphosite inventory conducted in the summer of 2011 in the Hérens and Réchy valleys. It is part of a larger project aiming at the development of geotourist products in the study area. The assessment of geomorphosites followed the method of Reynard et al. (2007), designed to evaluate both the scientific and the so-called additional values of each site, what we could consider the "intrinsic value" of the sites. 38 sites were identified and evaluated. Furthermore, this work tested the assessment of the "use value" - in terms of conservation, tourist promotion and education - of each site. A set of new assessment criteria was developed, concerning the conditions of visit (access (type, time of walking, difficulty), safety, visibility, environmental context, links with other sites), the educational value (readability, presence of educative/interpretation means), and the potential economic products. After this test, the assessment method (Reynard et al., 2007) will be improved by adding a category "use values" to the existing "scientific" and "additional values". Reference Reynard E., Fontana G., Kozlik L., Scapozza C. (2007). A method for assessing the scientific and additional values of geomorphosites, Geographica Helvetica, 62(3), 148-158.

  5. Solar Energy within the Central Valley, CA: Current Practices and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Utility-scale solar energy (USSE, ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) systems are rapidly being deployed in the Central Valley of California, generating clean electricity and new job opportunities. Utility-scale solar energy systems require substantial quantities of land or space, often prompting an evaluation of environmental impacts and trade-offs when selecting their placement. Utilizing salt-contaminated agricultural land (as the sodium absorption and electrical conductivity values are unsuitably high), unsuitable for food production, and lands within the built environment (developed), can serve as a co-benefit opportunity when reclamation of these lands for USSE development is prioritized. In this study, we quantify the theoretical and generation-based solar energy potential for the Central Valley according to land-cover type, crop type, and for salt-contaminated lands. Further, we utilize the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility (CEEC) model to identify and prioritize solar energy, integrating environmental resource opportunities and constraints most relevant to the Central Valley. We use the CEEC model to generate a value-based environmental compatibility output for the Central Valley. The Central Valley extends across nearly 60,000 km2 of California with the potential of generating 21,800 - 30,300 TWh y-1 and 41,600 TWh y-1 of solar energy for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP), respectively. Pasture, hay, and cultivated crops comprise over half of the Central Valley, much of which is considered prime agriculture or of statewide or local importance for farming (28,200 km2). Together, approximately one-third of this region is salt-contaminated (16%) or developed (11%). This confers a generation-based potential of 5713 - 7891 TWh y-1 and 2770 TWh y-1 for PV and CSP, respectively. As energy, food, and land are inextricably linked, our study shows how land favorable for renewable energy systems can be used more effectively in places where land is

  6. Subsidence and Rebound in California's Central Valley: Effects of Pumping, Geology, and Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Fairbanks, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent rains in California caused a pause, and even a reversal in some areas, of the subsidence that has plagued the Central Valley for decades. The 3 main drivers of surface deformation in the Central Valley are: Subsurface hydro-geology, precipitation and surface water deliveries, and groundwater pumping. While the geology is relatively fixed in time, water inputs and outputs vary greatly both in time and space. And while subsurface geology and water inputs are reasonably well-known, information about groundwater pumping amounts and rates is virtually non-existent in California. We have derived regional maps of surface deformation in the region for the period 2006 - present which allow reconstruction of seasonal and long-term changes. In order to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of subsidence and rebound in the Central Valley, we have been compiling information on the geology and water inputs and have attempted to infer pumping rates using maps of fallowed fields and published pumping information derived from hydrological models. In addition, the spatial and temporal patterns of hydraulic head as measured in wells across the region allow us to infer the spatial and temporal patterns of groundwater pumping and recharge more directly. A better understanding of how different areas (overlying different stratigraphy) of the Central Valley respond to water inputs and outputs will allow a predictive capability, potentially defining sustainable pumping rates related to water inputs. * work performed under contract to NASA and the CA Dept. of Water Resources

  7. Potential effects of drought on carrying capacity for wintering waterfowl in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Mark J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Wolder, Mike A.; Isola, Craig R.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    We used the bioenergetics model TRUEMET to evaluate potential effects of California's recent drought on food supplies for waterfowl wintering in the Central Valley under a range of habitat and waterfowl population scenarios. In nondrought years in the current Central Valley landscape, food supplies are projected to be adequate for waterfowl from fall through early spring (except late March) even if waterfowl populations reach North American Waterfowl Management Plan goals. However, in all drought scenarios that we evaluated, food supplies were projected to be exhausted for ducks by mid- to late winter and by late winter or early spring for geese. For ducks, these results were strongly related to projected declines in winter-flooded rice fields that provide 45% of all the food energy available to ducks in the Central Valley in nondrought water years. Delayed flooding of some managed wetlands may help alleviate food shortages by providing wetland food resources better timed with waterfowl migration and abundance patterns in the Central Valley, as well as reducing the amount of water needed to manage these habitats. However, future research is needed to evaluate the impacts of delayed flooding on waterfowl hunting, and whether California's existing water delivery system would make delayed flooding feasible. Securing adequate water supplies for waterfowl and other wetland-dependent birds is among the greatest challenges facing resource managers in coming years, especially in the increasingly arid western United States.

  8. Performance assessment of smallholder irrigation in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsema, van G.E.; Lencha, B.K.; Assefa, M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    The recent increase in smallholder irrigation schemes in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia has been associated with the overexploitation of water resources, while the economic viability of these schemes has been questioned. This paper assesses water use efficiencies of the Haleku Irrigation Scheme

  9. Exploring co-investments in sustainable land management in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu Teferi, Z.; Kessler, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2013-01-01

    In Ethiopia, not only farmers but also the public and private sector partners are still hesitant to invest in sustainable land management (SLM). This study focuses on the Central Rift Valley and explores the potential for co-investments in SLM, where public and private sector partners support

  10. Yield gaps and resource use across farming zones in the central rift valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getnet, Mezegebu; Ittersum, van Martin; Hengsdijk, Huib; Descheemaeker, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    In the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, low productive cereal systems and a declining resource base call for options to increase crop productivity and improve resource use efficiency to meet the growing demand of food. We compiled and analysed a large amount of data from farmers’ fields

  11. Tree-climate relations along an elevational transect in Manang Valley, central Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharal, Deepak Kumar; Thapa, Udya K.; St. George, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Elevation is a strong determinant of local climate and may therefore be an important factor to consider when examining the association between climate and tree growth. In this study, we developed a set of tree-ring width records for Abies spectablis (D.Don Spach) in the Manang Valley of central N...

  12. Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news sources…

  13. Analysis of Adoption Spell of Hybrid Maize in the Central Rift Valley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper estimates farm household level determinants of the speed of adoption of hybrid maize in the central rift valley of Ethiopia in the framework of the dynamic time on cross-sectional data. Descriptive statistics and duration model were used to study the objectives of the study. The results from descriptive analysis ...

  14. Groundwater arsenic in the Verde Valley in central Arizona, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, R.D.; Mohapatra, P.; Compton-O'Brien, A.-M.; Reifel, J.

    2004-01-01

    Forty-one water samples were collected and analyzed from throughout the Verde Valley watershed to identify the source of As in well water used for domestic and agricultural purposes. Each water sample was analyzed for anions, cations and trace chemical constituents by atomic absorption spectroscopy, anion chromatography and traditional wet chemical procedures. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10 to 210 μg/l, with the highest values observed for water pooled on tailings from an abandoned Cu mine. Geostatistical analysis of the data revealed the primary source of As to be groundwater in contact with the Supai and Verde formations, as opposed to runoff from the abandoned mine tailings. Montezuma Well, a collapsed travertine spring, contained the highest levels of naturally occurring As (> 100 μg/l). Arsenic in Montezuma Well water was shown to be 100% arsenate. X-ray absorbance near edge spectra (XANES) of Potomogeton illinoiensis, an endemic plant species of Montezuma Well, demonstrate that As is absorbed as arsenate, reduced to arsenite in the plant and retained as an organic glutathione complex. XANES spectra of Montezuma Well sediments show 4 forms of As present: arsenate (∼54%), As(III)-glutathione complex (∼32%) and an As-organic complex (∼14%) containing dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine. This is the first report of As(III)-glutathione in sediments

  15. Groundwater arsenic in the Verde Valley in central Arizona, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, R.D.; Mohapatra, P.; Compton-O' Brien, A.-M.; Reifel, J

    2004-02-01

    Forty-one water samples were collected and analyzed from throughout the Verde Valley watershed to identify the source of As in well water used for domestic and agricultural purposes. Each water sample was analyzed for anions, cations and trace chemical constituents by atomic absorption spectroscopy, anion chromatography and traditional wet chemical procedures. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10 to 210 {mu}g/l, with the highest values observed for water pooled on tailings from an abandoned Cu mine. Geostatistical analysis of the data revealed the primary source of As to be groundwater in contact with the Supai and Verde formations, as opposed to runoff from the abandoned mine tailings. Montezuma Well, a collapsed travertine spring, contained the highest levels of naturally occurring As (> 100 {mu}g/l). Arsenic in Montezuma Well water was shown to be 100% arsenate. X-ray absorbance near edge spectra (XANES) of Potomogeton illinoiensis, an endemic plant species of Montezuma Well, demonstrate that As is absorbed as arsenate, reduced to arsenite in the plant and retained as an organic glutathione complex. XANES spectra of Montezuma Well sediments show 4 forms of As present: arsenate ({approx}54%), As(III)-glutathione complex ({approx}32%) and an As-organic complex ({approx}14%) containing dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine. This is the first report of As(III)-glutathione in sediments.

  16. Hypogene caves of the central Appalachian Shenandoah Valley in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Orndorff, Wil

    2017-01-01

    Several caves in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia show evidence for early hypogenic conduit development with later-enhanced solution under partly confined phreatic conditions guided by geologic structures. Many (but not all) of these caves have been subsequently invaded by surface waters as a result of erosion and exhumation. Those not so affected are relict phreatic caves, bearing no relation to modern drainage patterns. Field and petrographic evidence shows that carbonate rocks hosting certain relict phreatic caves were dolomitized and/or silicified by early hydrothermal fluid migration in zones that served to locally enhance rock porosity, thus providing preferential pathways for later solution by groundwater flow, and making the surrounding bedrock more resistant to surficial weathering to result in caves that reside within isolated hills on the land surface. Features suggesting that deep phreatic processes dominated the development of these relict caves include (1) cave passage morphologies indicative of ascending fluids, (2) cave plans of irregular pattern, reflecting early maze or anastomosing development, (3) a general lack of cave breakdown and cave streams or cave stream deposits, and (4) calcite wall and pool coatings within isolated caves intersecting the local water table, and within unroofed caves at topographic locations elevated well above the local base level. Episodes of deep karstification were likely separated by long periods of geologic time, encompassing multiple phases of sedimentary fill and excavation within caves, and reflect a complex history of deep fluid migration that set the stage for later shallow speleogenesis that continues today.

  17. New foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, D K; Okelo, G B; Ndegwa, C W; Ashford, R W

    1993-01-01

    Active case detection and investigations of sandfly resting places in suspected transmission sites of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley resulted in the identification of several foci of the disease in Samburu, Isiolo, Laikipia, Nakuru and Nyandarua districts. The foci occurred in areas ranging from semi-arid lowlands at 400 m altitude to highland plateaux at 2500 m, including the floor of the Rift Valley, and were mostly inhabited by recently settled communities, nomads and migrant charcoal burners. Four species of Phlebotomus, 3 of the subgenus Larroussius (P. pedifer, P. aculeatus and P. guggisbergi) and one Paraphlebotomus (P. saevus) were collected from caves, rock crevices and tree hollows found in river valleys and in lava flows.

  18. Impacts of Geomorphic Disturbances on Plant Colonization in Ebba Valley, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawska Monika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming observed nowadays causes an increase in geomorphic activity in polar regions. Within the areas influenced by cold climatic conditions, relief dynamics and vegetation development are the main landscape shaping processes. The study is limited to the Ebba Valley (78°43’N; 16°37’E in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard, where geomorphologic observations and vegetation sampling were conducted in 2007. The valley was divided into three zones differentiated by dominating geomorphic activity and stability of deposits. The settlement and the evolution of plant cover have been documented there. The main factors that control well developed vegetation cover within raised marine terraces are frost heave and solifluction. In deeper parts of the valley, aeolian processes dominate and high differentiation of microsite conditions causes high variability in plant coverage. The area close to the Ebba glacier marginal zone is characterized by initial stages of plant colonisation where disturbance to vegetation is mainly caused by hydrological processes.

  19. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ∼50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ∼7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley. PMID:22645352

  20. Neutron activation analysis of archaeological ceramics from the Central Valley and Turrialba, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapdelaine, Claude; Vazquez Leiva, Ricardo; Kennedy, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis of 56 ceramic samples is oriented toward a better understanding of the interaction and autonomy among late Period V (A.D. 500-1000) and Period VI (A.D. 1000-1550) societies in the Central Valley and Turrialba. Samples are selected from three sites, Guayabo, Agua Caliente and La Ribera, the samples correspond to (1) local types and (2) polychrome types considered trade goods coming from Guanacaste/Nicoya. Data have supported the Guanacaste-Nicoyan origen of the polychrome pottery. Regarding the Central Valley and Turrialba local types, very little evidence was found for their exchange among communities. This result is explicable on the basis of political autonomy and economic autarky of first-tier chiefdom sites such as Agua Caliente and Guayabo. (author) [es

  1. Economic and Water Supply Effects of Ending Groundwater Overdraft in California's Central Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nelson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss1art7Surface water and groundwater management are often tightly linked, even when linkage is not intended or expected. This link is especially common in semi-arid regions, such as California. This paper summarizes a modeling study on the effects of ending long-term overdraft in California’s Central Valley, the state’s largest aquifer system. The study focuses on economic and operational aspects, such as surface water pumping and diversions, groundwater recharge, water scarcity, and the associated operating and water scarcity costs. This analysis uses CALVIN, a hydro-economic optimization model for California’s water resource system that suggests operational changes to minimize net system costs for a given set of conditions, such as ending long-term overdraft. Based on model results, ending overdraft might induce some major statewide operational changes, including large increases to Delta exports, more intensive conjunctive-use operations with increasing artificial and in-lieu recharge, and greater water scarcity for Central Valley agriculture. The statewide costs of ending roughly 1.2 maf yr-1 of groundwater overdraft are at least $50 million per year from additional direct water shortage and additional operating costs. At its worst, the costs of ending Central Valley overdraft could be much higher, perhaps comparable to the recent economic effects of drought. Driven by recent state legislation to improve groundwater sustainability, ending groundwater overdraft has important implications statewide for water use and management, particularly in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. Ending Central Valley overdraft will amplify economic pressure to increase Delta water exports rather than reduce them, tying together two of California’s largest water management problems.

  2. Topoclimatic modeling for minimum temperature prediction at a regional scale in the Central Valley of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santibáñez, F.; Morales, L.; Fuente, J. de la; Cellier, P.; Huete, A.

    1997-01-01

    Spring frost may strongly affect fruit production in the Central Valley of Chile. Minimum temperatures are spatially variable owing to topography and soil conditions. A methodology for forecasting minimum temperature at a regional scale in the Central Valley of Chile, integrating spatial variability of temperature under radiative frost conditions, has been developed. It uses simultaneously a model for forecasting minimum temperatures at a reference station using air temperature and humidity measured at 6 pm, and topoclimatic models, based on satellite infra-red imagery (NOAA/AVHRR) and a digital elevation model, to extend the prediction at a regional scale. The methodological developments were integrated in a geographic information system for geo referencing of a meteorological station with satellite imagery and modeled output. This approach proved to be a useful tool for short range (12 h) minimum temperature prediction by generating thermal images over the Central Valley of Chile. It may also be used as a tool for frost risk assessment, in order to adapt production to local climatological conditions. (author)

  3. Tree-ring growth patterns and climatic signals along a vertical transect of larch sites in the Simplon and Rhône Valleys (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Esper, Jan

    2017-04-01

    State-of-the-art millennial long temperature reconstructions from the European Alps integrate wood samples of Larix decidua Mill. from the Lötschental and Simplon regions in Switzerland (Büntgen et al., 2005; 2006). Some of the oldest samples that enable the extension of the time-series back into the first millennium AD are obtained from old buildings in Simplon Village, through the precise location of these samples and the elevation of sampling sites remain unknown. We here evaluate the growth characteristics of larch tree-ring width data along a vertical transect in the Simplon and Rhône valleys. 330 trees from nine sites in 985, 1100, 1400, 1575, 1710, 1712, 1900, 2020, and 2150 m asl have been sampled and analysed for their climate signals. The results indicate a stronger temperature signal in the tree-ring width with increasing elevation. The lower the sites the more a drought signal is imprinted in the ring width data. The intermediate site at 1400 m asl does not show any pronounced climate signal. A comparison of growth patterns of living-tree sites with samples from the historical buildings in Simplon Village (Riechelmann et al., 2013) indicates the construction timber to origin from intermediate to higher elevations. We therefore do not expect strong temperature signal from these timbers. References: Büntgen, U., Esper, J., Frank, D.C., Nicolussi, K., Schmidhalter, M., 2005. A 1052-year tree-ring proxy for Alpine summer temperatures. Climate Dynamics 25: 141-153. Büntgen, U., Frank, D.C., Nievergelt, D., Esper J., 2006. Summer temperature variations in the European Alps, A.D. 755-2004. Journal of Climate 19: 5606-5623. Riechelmann, D.F.C., Schmidhalter, M., Büntgen, U., Esper, J., 2013. Extending a high-elevation larch ring width chronology from the Simplon region in the Swiss Alps over the past millenium. TRACE 11:103-108.

  4. Investigating Groundwater Depletion and Aquifer Degradation in Central Valley California from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, C.; Shirzaei, M.; Werth, S.; Argus, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Valley in California includes one of the world's largest and yet most stressed aquifer systems. The large demand for groundwater, accelerated by population growth and extreme droughts, has been depleting the region's groundwater resources for decades. However, the lack of dense monitoring networks and inaccurate information on geophysical aquifer response pose serious challenges to water management efforts in the area and put the groundwater at high risk. Here, we performed a joint analysis of large SAR interferometric data sets acquired by ALOS L-band satellite in conjunction with the groundwater level observations across the Central Valley. We used 420 L-band SAR images acquired on the ascending orbit track during period Dec 24, 2006 - Jan 1, 2010, and generated more than 1600 interferograms with a pixel size of 100 m × 100 m. We also use data from 1600 observational wells providing continuous measurements of groundwater level within the study period for our analysis. We find that in the south and near Tulare Lake, north of Tule and south of Kaweah basin in San Joaquin valley, the subsidence rate is greatest at up to 20-25 cm/yr, while in Sacramento Valley the subsidence rate is lower at 1-3 cm/yr. From the characterization of the elastic and inelastic storage coefficients, we find that Kern, Tule, Tulare, Kaweah and Merced basins in the San Joaquin Valley are more susceptible to permanent compaction and aquifer storage loss. Kern County shows 0.23%-1.8% of aquifer storage loss during the study period, and has higher percentage loss than adjacent basins such as Tule and Tulare Lake with 0.15%-1.2% and 0.2 %-1.5% loss, respectively. Overall, we estimate that the aquifers across the valley lost a total of 28 km3 of groundwater and 2% of their storage capacity during the study period. Our unique observational evidence including valley-wide estimate of mechanical properties of aquifers and model results will not only facilitate monitoring water deficits

  5. Population and Habitat Objectives for Avian Conservation in California's Central Valley Riparian Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E. Dybala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss1art5Riparian ecosystems provide important ecosystem services and recreational opportunities for people, and habitat for wildlife. In California’s Central Valley, government agencies and private organizations are working together to protect and restore riparian ecosystems, and the Central Valley Joint Venture provides leadership in the formulation of goals and objectives for avian conservation in riparian ecosystems. We defined a long-term conservation goal as the establishment of riparian ecosystems that provide sufficient habitat to support genetically robust, self-sustaining, and resilient bird populations. To achieve this goal, we selected a suite of 12 breeding riparian landbird focal species as indicators of the state of riparian ecosystems in each of four major Central Valley planning regions. Using recent bird survey data, we estimated that over half of the regional focal species populations are currently small (< 10,000 and may be vulnerable to extirpation, and two species have steeply declining population trends. For each focal species in each region, we defined long-term (100-year population objectives that are intended to be conservation endpoints that we expect to meet the goal of genetically robust, self-sustaining, and resilient populations. We then estimated the long-term species density and riparian restoration objectives required to achieve the long-term population objectives. To track progress toward the long-term objectives, we propose short-term (10- year objectives, including the addition of 12,919 ha (31,923 ac of riparian vegetation in the Central Valley (by planning region: 3,390 ha in Sacramento, 2,390 ha in Yolo–Delta, 3,386 ha in San Joaquin, and 3,753 ha in Tulare. We expect that reaching these population, density, and habitat objectives through threat abatement, habitat restoration, and habitat enhancement will result in improvements to riparian ecosystem function and

  6. Waterbird habitat in California's Central Valley basins under climate, urbanization, and water management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    California's Central Valley provides critical, but threatened habitat and food resources for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other waterbirds. The Central Valley is comprised of nine basins that were defined by the Central Valley Joint Venture (CVJV) to assist in conservation planning. Basins vary in composition and extent of habitats, which primarily include croplands and wetlands that rely on water supplies shared with other competing human and environmental uses. Changes in climate, urban development, and water supply management are uncertain and could reduce future availability of water supplies supporting waterbird habitats and limit effectiveness of wetland restoration planned by the CVJV to support wintering waterbirds. We modeled 17 plausible scenarios including combinations of three climate projections, three urbanization rates, and five water supply management options to promote agricultural and urban water uses, with and without wetland restoration. Our research examines the reduction in quantity and quality of habitats during the fall migration-wintering period by basin under each scenario, and the efficacy of planned wetland restoration to compensate reductions in flooded areas of wetland habitats. Scenario combinations of projected climate, urbanization, and water supply management options reduced availability of flooded cropland and wetland habitats during fall-winter and degraded the quality of seasonal wetlands (i.e., summer-irrigation for improved forage production), though the extent and frequency of impacts varied by basin. Planned wetland restoration may substantially compensate for scenario-related effects on wetland habitats in each basin. However, results indicate that Colusa, Butte, Sutter, San Joaquin, and Tulare Basins may require additional conservation to support summer-irrigation of seasonal wetlands and winter-flooding of cropland habitats. Still further conservation may be required to provide sufficient areas of

  7. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground Water in Basin-Fill Deposits of the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbusch, Mary L.; Plume, Russell W.

    2006-01-01

    The Diamond Valley flow system, an area of about 3,120 square miles in central Nevada, consists of five hydrographic areas: Monitor, Antelope, Kobeh, and Diamond Valleys and Stevens Basin. Although these five areas are in a remote part of Nevada, local government officials and citizens are concerned that the water resources of the flow system eventually could be further developed for irrigation or mining purposes or potentially for municipal use outside the study area. In order to better understand the flow system, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka, Lander, and Nye Counties and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, is conducting a multi-phase study of the flow system. The principal aquifers of the Diamond Valley flow system are in basin-fill deposits that occupy structural basins comprised of carbonate rocks, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, igneous intrusive rocks, and volcanic rocks. Carbonate rocks also function as aquifers, but their extent and interconnections with basin-fill aquifers are poorly understood. Ground-water flow in southern Monitor Valley is from the valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large area of discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) that is formed south of a group of unnamed hills near the center of the valley. Ground-water flow from northern Monitor Valley, Antelope Valley, and northern and western parts of Kobeh Valley converges to an area of ground-water discharge by ET in central and eastern Kobeh Valley. Prior to irrigation development in the 1960s, ground-water flow in Diamond Valley was from valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large discharge area at the north end of the valley. Stevens Basin is a small upland basin with internal drainage and is not connected with other parts of the flow system. After 40 years of irrigation pumping, a large area of ground-water decline has developed in southern Diamond Valley around the irrigated area. In this part of Diamond

  8. Mapping Aquifer Systems with Airborne Electromagnetics in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R. J.; Smith, R.; Asch, T. H.; Abraham, J.; Cannia, J.; Fogg, G. E.; Viezzoli, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Central Valley of California is an important agricultural region struggling to meet the need for irrigation water. Recent periods of drought have significantly reduced the delivery of surface water, resulting in extensive pumping of groundwater. This has exacerbated an already serious problem in the Central Valley, where a number of areas have experienced declining water levels for several decades leading to ongoing concerns about depletion of aquifers and impacts on ecosystems, as well as subsidence of the ground surface. The overdraft has been so significant, that there are now approximately140 million acre-feet (MAF) of unused groundwater storage in the Central Valley, storage that could be used to complement the 42 MAF of surface storage. The alluvial sedimentary geology of the Central Valley is typically composed of more than 50 to 70 percent fine-grained deposits dominated by silt and clay beds. These fine grained deposits can block potential recharge, and are associated with the large amount of observed subsidence. Fortunately, the geologic processes that formed the region created networks of sand and gravel which provide both a supply of water and pathways for recharge from the surface to the aquifers. The challenge is to find these sand and gravel deposits and thus identify optimal locations for surface spreading techniques so that recharge could be dramatically increased, and re-pressurization of the confined aquifer networks could be accomplished. We have acquired 100 line kilometers of airborne electromagnetic data over an area in the San Joaquin Valley, imaging the subsurface hydrostratigraphy to a depth of 500 m with spatial resolution on the order of meters to tens of meters. Following inversion of the data to obtain resistivity models along the flight lines, we used lithology logs in the area to transform the models to images displaying the distribution of sand and gravel, clay, and mixed fine and coarse materials. The quality of the data and

  9. Geothermal energy from deep sedimentary basins: The Valley of Mexico (Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2015-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico has not been addressed in the past, although volcaniclastic settings in other parts of the world contain promising target reservoir formations. A first assessment of the geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico is based on thermophysical data gained from outcrop analogues, covering all lithofacies types, and evaluation of groundwater temperature and heat flow values from literature. Furthermore, the volumetric approach of Muffler and Cataldi (1978) leads to a first estimation of ca. 4000 TWh (14.4 EJ) of power generation from Neogene volcanic rocks within the Valley of Mexico. Comparison with data from other sedimentary basins where deep geothermal reservoirs are identified shows the high potential of the Valley of Mexico for future geothermal reservoir utilization. The mainly low permeable lithotypes may be operated as stimulated systems, depending on the fracture porosity in the deeper subsurface. In some areas also auto-convective thermal water circulation might be expected and direct heat use without artificial stimulation becomes reasonable. Thermophysical properties of tuffs and siliciclastic rocks qualify them as promising target horizons (Lenhardt and Götz, 2015). The here presented data serve to identify exploration areas and are valuable attributes for reservoir modelling, contributing to (1) a reliable reservoir prognosis, (2) the decision of potential reservoir stimulation, and (3) the planning of long-term efficient reservoir utilization. References Lenhardt, N., Götz, A.E., 2015. Geothermal reservoir potential of volcaniclastic settings: The Valley of Mexico, Central Mexico. Renewable Energy. [in press] Muffler, P., Cataldi, R., 1978. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources. Geothermics, 7, 53-89.

  10. Field Scale Groundwater Nitrate Loading Model for the Central Valley, California, 1945-Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley aquifer system, California, is widespread, with over 40% of domestic wells in some counties exceeding drinking water standards. Sources of groundwater nitrate include leaky municipal wastewater systems, municipal wastewater recharge, onsite wastewater treatment (septic) systems, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, animal farming, application of organic waste materials (sludge, biosolids, animal manure) to agricultural lands, and synthetic fertilizer. At the site or field scale, nitrogen inputs to the landscape are balanced by plant nitrogen uptake and harvest, atmospheric nitrogen losses, surface runoff of nitrogen, soil nitrogen storage changes, and leaching to groundwater. Irrigated agriculture is a dominant player in the Central Valley nitrogen cycle: The largest nitrogen fluxes are synthetic fertilizer and animal manure applications to cropland, crop nitrogen uptake, and groundwater nitrogen losses. We construct a historic field/parcel scale groundwater nitrogen loading model distinguishing urban and residential areas, individual animal farming areas, leaky wastewater lagoons, and approximately 50 different categories of agricultural crops. For non-agricultural landuses, groundwater nitrate loading is based on reported leaching values, animal population, and human population. For cropland, groundwater nitrate loading is computed from mass balance, taking into account diverse and historically changing management practices between different crops. Groundwater nitrate loading is estimated for 1945 to current. Significant increases in groundwater nitrate loading are associated with the expansion of synthetic fertilizer use in the 1950s to 1970s. Nitrate loading from synthetic fertilizer use has stagnated over the past 20 years due to improvements in nutrient use efficiency. However, an unbroken 60 year exponential increase in dairy production until the late 2000s has significantly impacted the

  11. Drought Impacts on Agricultural Production and Land Fallowing in California's Central Valley in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevelt, C.; Melton, F. S.; Johnson, L.; Guzman, A.; Verdin, J. P.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Mueller, R.; Jones, J.; Willis, P.

    2015-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California substantially reduced surface water supplies for millions of acres of irrigated farmland in California's Central Valley. Rapid assessment of drought impacts on agricultural production can aid water managers in assessing mitigation options, and guide decision making with respect to mitigation of drought impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of drought impacts on agricultural production and increases in fallow acreage associated with reductions in water supply. A key advantage of satellite-based assessments is that they can provide a measure of land fallowing that is consistent across both space and time. We describe an approach for monthly and seasonal mapping of uncultivated agricultural acreage developed as part of a joint effort by USGS, USDA, NASA, and the California Department of Water Resources to provide timely assessments of land fallowing during drought events. This effort has used the Central Valley of California as a pilot region for development and testing of an operational approach. To provide quantitative measures of uncultivated agricultural acreage from satellite data early in the season, we developed a decision tree algorithm and applied it to timeseries of data from Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI, and MODIS. Our effort has been focused on development of indicators of drought impacts in the March - August timeframe based on measures of crop development patterns relative to a reference period with average or above average rainfall. To assess the accuracy of the algorithms, monthly ground validation surveys were conducted across 650 fields from March - September in 2014 and 2015. We present the algorithm along with updated results from the accuracy assessment, and data and maps of land fallowing in the Central Valley in 2015.

  12. Historical Population Structure of Central Valley Steelhead and Its Alteration by Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Lindley

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation and recovery planning for Central Valley steelhead requires an understanding of historical population structure. We describe the historical structure of the Central Valley steelhead evolutionarily significant unit using a multi-phase modeling approach. In the first phase, we identify stream reaches possibly suitable for steelhead spawning and rearing using a habitat model based on environmental envelopes (stream discharge, gradient, and temperature that takes a digital elevation model and climate data as inputs. We identified 151 patches of potentially suitable habitat with more than 10 km of stream habitat, with a total of 25,500 km of suitable habitat. We then measured the distances among habitat patches, and clustered together patches within 35 km of each other into 81 distinct habitat patches. Groups of fish using these 81 patches are hypothesized to be (or to have been independent populations for recovery planning purposes. Consideration of climate and elevation differences among the 81 habitat areas suggests that there are at least four major subdivisions within the Central Valley steelhead ESU that correspond to geographic regions defined by the Sacramento River basin, Suisun Bay area tributaries, San Joaquin tributaries draining the Sierra Nevada, and lower-elevation streams draining to the Buena Vista and Tulare basins, upstream of the San Joaquin River. Of these, it appears that the Sacramento River basin was the main source of steelhead production. Presently, impassable dams block access to 80% of historically available habitat, and block access to all historical spawning habitat for about 38% of the historical populations of steelhead.

  13. The Origin of The Piz Terri-Lunschania zone (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, Federico; Stockli, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The Piz Terri-Lunschania zone (PTLZ) represents a band of metasedimentary rocks embedded in a crucial knot at the NE border of the Lepontine dome, at the intersection of the Gotthard, Lucomagno, Simano, Adula and Grava nappes. Its origin and its position in the tectonostratigraphy of the Central Alps are still not completely understood. A better understanding of this sedimentary zone and its tectonic position could shed lights on the Helvetic-Penninic connection and facilitate the disentanglement of the Lepontine dome tectonics. In this study we combine structural and stratigraphic observations with detrital zircon (DZ) and detrital rutile (DR) U-Pb geochronology as well as mineral trace element data from Permian, Triassic and Jurassic sandstones. We compare these data with those from adjacent tectonic units and coeval strata in other portions of the Alpine chain. Maximal depositional ages, abrupt changes in provenances and stratigraphic correlations based on new DZ and DR U-Pb and trace element data allow for a better understanding of the sedimentary evolution of the Terri basin and its palaeogeographic position along the northern margin of the Alpine Tethys. In particular the DZ U-Pb signatures, with its abundant 260-280 Ma zircons and the scarcity of 290-350 Ma zircons, corroborates an Ultra-Adula origin of the PTLZ as proposed by Galster et al (2010; 2012) based on stratigraphic arguments and reinforces the notion of a Briançonnais influence on the stratigraphic record of this complex zone, a fact that has important tectonic and Palaeogeographic implications. Galster F, Cavargna-Sani M, Epard J-L, Masson H (2012) New stratigraphic data from the Lower Penninic between the Adula nappe and the Gotthard massif and consequences for the tectonics and the paleogeography of the Central Alps. Tectonophysics 579:37-55. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2012.05.029 Galster F, Epard J-L, Masson H (2010) The Soja and Luzzone-Terri nappes: Discovery of a Briançonnais element below the

  14. Population and Habitat Objectives for Breeding Shorebirds in California’s Central Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khara M. Strum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2836q0qgThe Central Valley of California provides important breeding habitat to numerous species of wetland-dependent birds, despite the loss of over 90% of naturally occurring wetlands. A majority of shorebirds breeding in this region rely on shallow-flooded habitat adjacent to sparsely vegetated uplands as provided by rice (Oryza sativa, managed wetlands, and other habitats. We estimated the current extent of potential breeding shorebird habitat provided by rice and managed permanent and semi-permanent wetlands in each of four major planning regions of the Central Valley, and estimated the average breeding densities and current population sizes of two species of shorebirds: the Black-Necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus and American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana. Using a population status framework based on principles of conservation biology, we estimated that stilt populations are small (<10,000 individuals or very small (<1,000 individuals in three of the four planning regions, and avocet populations are small or very small in all four planning regions. We then used the framework to define long-term (100-year population objectives for stilts, avocets, and a third species, Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous, designed to meet our long-term conservation goal of supporting self-sustaining, genetically robust, and resilient populations of breeding shorebirds in the Central Valley. We also estimated the long-term species’ density and wetland habitat objectives necessary to achieve the population objectives for all three species. The corresponding short-term (10-year conservation objectives are to restore semi-permanent wetlands to provide an additional 11,537 ha (28,508 ac of habitat for breeding shorebirds (by planning region: 2,842 ha in Sacramento, 2,897 ha in Yolo–Delta, 2,943 ha in San Joaquin, and 2,855 ha in Tulare, and to enhance existing habitat to support density objectives. Our approach provides a

  15. Conservation Objectives for Wintering and Breeding Waterbirds in California’s Central Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Shuford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available http://escholarship.org/uc/item/5tp5m718Birds associated with wetlands have declined historically across North America from extensive habitat loss and degradation. Among the regions most affected is California’s Central Valley, where over 90% of the wetland base has been lost. Still, this region remains of continental importance to waterbirds. On-the-ground conservation efforts for all bird groups are the focus of the Central Valley Joint Venture, guided by a periodically updated implementation plan. To track progress toward goal attainment, that plan sets time-bound, quantitative conservation goals. Lacking robust data on the size and trends of populations of most species of waterbirds in the Central Valley, we set conservation goals for this group by selecting 10 focal species. These species are of heightened conservation concern or are otherwise representative of the habitat needs of Central Valley waterbirds. Given the great loss of historical habitat, we assumed focal species populations have declined by ≥ 50%. Hence, we defined population objectives for most focal species as increasing their current populations by 10% over 10 years and doubling them in 100 years. The corresponding habitat objectives are to increase wetlands or enhance suitable crops for waterbirds in proportion to the population objectives. These include an increase over 10 years of 7,948 ha (19,641 acres of winter seasonal wetlands, 921 ha (2,276 acres each of semi-permanent and summer seasonal wetlands, and 573 ha (1,416 acres of strategically placed riparian forest. Agricultural needs include additional winter flooding of 15,160 ha (37,461 acres of rice and 2,137 ha (5,281 acres of corn. We distributed the habitat objectives across five planning regions, in some cases favoring proportionally larger increases in those regions with the greatest need. To maximize success, however, conservationists must take into account the specific needs of individual waterbird

  16. Plants and butterflies of a small urban preserve in the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Nishida; Ichiro Nakamura; Carlos O Morales

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO), a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the vall...

  17. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2016-07-29

    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  18. Spatially distributed pesticide exposure assessment in the Central Valley, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang Minghua, E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.ed [Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Field runoff is an important transport mechanism by which pesticides move into the hydrologic environment of intensive agricultural regions such as California's Central Valley. This study presents a spatially explicit modeling approach to extend Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), a field-scale pesticide transport model, into basin level. The approach was applied to simulate chlorpyrifos use in the Central Valley during 2003-2007. The average value of loading as percent of use (LAPU) is 0.031%. Results of this study provide strong evidence that surface runoff generation and pesticide application timing are the two influencing factors on the spatial and temporal variability of chlorpyrifos sources from agricultural fields. This is one of the first studies in coupling GIS and field-scale models and providing simulations for the dynamics of pesticides over an agriculturally dominated landscape. The demonstrated modeling approach may be useful for implementations of best management practice (BMP) and total maximum daily load (TMDL). - Runoff generation and application timing are governing factors on spatiotemporal variability of pesticide sources.

  19. Spatially distributed pesticide exposure assessment in the Central Valley, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yuzhou; Zhang Minghua

    2010-01-01

    Field runoff is an important transport mechanism by which pesticides move into the hydrologic environment of intensive agricultural regions such as California's Central Valley. This study presents a spatially explicit modeling approach to extend Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), a field-scale pesticide transport model, into basin level. The approach was applied to simulate chlorpyrifos use in the Central Valley during 2003-2007. The average value of loading as percent of use (LAPU) is 0.031%. Results of this study provide strong evidence that surface runoff generation and pesticide application timing are the two influencing factors on the spatial and temporal variability of chlorpyrifos sources from agricultural fields. This is one of the first studies in coupling GIS and field-scale models and providing simulations for the dynamics of pesticides over an agriculturally dominated landscape. The demonstrated modeling approach may be useful for implementations of best management practice (BMP) and total maximum daily load (TMDL). - Runoff generation and application timing are governing factors on spatiotemporal variability of pesticide sources.

  20. [Ethnic conflicts and environmental degradation in Central Asia. The Ferghana valley and northern Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cordier, B

    1996-01-01

    This work seeks to demonstrate that the combination of ecological degradation, demographic pressure, and ethnic heterogeneity in Central Asia constitute a serious threat to the future stability of the region. The predominantly rural Ferghana Valley and Northern Kazakhstan suffer from shortages of water and land and from unemployment that leads to extensive out-migration to cities suffering from decline in their Soviet-era industries. The problem in the Ferghana Valley began with Tsarist conquest of the valley in 1876 and the subsequent imposition of cotton cultivation, which was greatly expanded by the Soviet Union. The Ferghana Valley, despite being a natural unit, was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan in the 1920s and 1930s, and remains divided between the independent states. The current population of 11 million is ethnically diverse, with Uzbeks in the majority and increasing most rapidly. Immigration from the Caucasus since 1950 added to the tension. Future peace will depend on such factors as whether the neo-Communist political regime chooses to incite ethnic hostilities, the manner in which land is redistributed, and the outcome of struggles for control of the flourishing narcotics trade. The northern Kazakhstan region was designated a pioneer wheat-growing region by Soviet planners in 1954. Russian and Ukrainian migrants established between 1954 and 1956 are today the predominant population sector, but feel their privileged position threatened by nationalist policies making Kazakh the official language and giving preference in employment to Kazakhs. Resettlement of Kazakhs from Mongolia, China, and Afghanistan in the region and the high Kazakh birth rate increase tensions. Grain production initially grew rapidly, but the mediocre soil and erosion-inducing constant dry winds have caused production to stagnate or decline. Regional disputes within Kazakhstan complicate the situation. Northern Kazakhstan, with its industrial development, is

  1. Efficient crop type mapping based on remote sensing in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng

    Most agricultural systems in California's Central Valley are purposely flexible and intentionally designed to meet the demands of dynamic markets. Agricultural land use is also impacted by climate change and urban development. As a result, crops change annually and semiannually, which makes estimating agricultural water use difficult, especially given the existing method by which agricultural land use is identified and mapped. A minor portion of agricultural land is surveyed annually for land-use type, and every 5 to 8 years the entire valley is completely evaluated. So far no effort has been made to effectively and efficiently identify specific crop types on an annual basis in this area. The potential of satellite imagery to map agricultural land cover and estimate water usage in the Central Valley is explored. Efforts are made to minimize the cost and reduce the time of production during the mapping process. The land use change analysis shows that a remote sensing based mapping method is the only means to map the frequent change of major crop types. The traditional maximum likelihood classification approach is first utilized to map crop types to test the classification capacity of existing algorithms. High accuracy is achieved with sufficient ground truth data for training, and crop maps of moderate quality can be timely produced to facilitate a near-real-time water use estimate. However, the large set of ground truth data required by this method results in high costs in data collection. It is difficult to reduce the cost because a trained classification algorithm is not transferable between different years or different regions. A phenology based classification (PBC) approach is developed which extracts phenological metrics from annual vegetation index profiles and identifies crop types based on these metrics using decision trees. According to the comparison with traditional maximum likelihood classification, this phenology-based approach shows great advantages

  2. HLA haplotype map of river valley populations with hemochromatosis traced through five centuries in Central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, K Sigvard; Ritter, Bernd; Hansson, Norbeth; Chowdhury, Ruma R

    2008-07-01

    The hemochromatosis mutation, C282Y of the HFE gene, seems to have originated from a single event which once occurred in a person living in the north west of Europe carrying human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A3-B7. In descendants of this ancestor also other haplotypes appear probably caused by local recombinations and founder effects. The background of these associations is unknown. Isolated river valley populations may be fruitful for the mapping of genetic disorders such as hemochromatosis. In this study, we try to test this hypothesis in a study from central Sweden where the haplotyope A1-B8 was common. HLA haplotypes and HFE mutations were studied in hemochromatosis patients with present or past parental origin in a sparsely populated (1/km(2)) rural district (n = 8366 in the year of 2005), in central Sweden. Pedigrees were constructed from the Swedish church book registry. Extended haplotypes were studied to evaluate origin of recombinations. There were 87 original probands, 36 females and 51 males identified during 30 yr, of whom 86% carried C282Y/C282Y and 14% C282Y/H63D. Of 32 different HLA haplotypes A1-B8 was the most common (34%), followed by A3-B7 (16%), both in strong linkage disequilibrium with controls, (P females. River valley populations may contain HLA haplotypes reflecting their demographic history. This study has demonstrated that the resistance against recombinations between HLA-A and HFE make HLA haplotypes excellent markers for population movements. Founder effects and genetic drift from bottleneck populations (surviving the plague?) may explain the commonness of the mutation in central Scandinavia. The intergenerational time difference >30 yr was greater than expected and means that the age of the original mutation may be underestimated.

  3. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Water Demands and Crop Yields in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, M. K.; Flores-Lopez, F.; Young, C. A.; Huntington, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Long term planning for the management of California's water resources requires assessment of the effects of future climate changes on both water supply and demand. Considerable progress has been made on the evaluation of the effects of future climate changes on water supplies but less information is available with regard to water demands. Uncertainty in future climate projections increases the difficulty of assessing climate impacts and evaluating long range adaptation strategies. Compounding the uncertainty in the future climate projections is the fact that most readily available downscaled climate projections lack sufficient meteorological information to compute evapotranspiration (ET) by the widely accepted ASCE Penman-Monteith (PM) method. This study addresses potential changes in future Central Valley water demands and crop yields by examining the effects of climate change on soil evaporation, plant transpiration, growth and yield for major types of crops grown in the Central Valley of California. Five representative climate scenarios based on 112 bias corrected spatially downscaled CMIP 3 GCM climate simulations were developed using the hybrid delta ensemble method to span a wide range future climate uncertainty. Analysis of historical California Irrigation Management Information System meteorological data was combined with several meteorological estimation methods to compute future solar radiation, wind speed and dew point temperatures corresponding to the GCM projected temperatures and precipitation. Future atmospheric CO2 concentrations corresponding to the 5 representative climate projections were developed based on weighting IPCC SRES emissions scenarios. The Land, Atmosphere, and Water Simulator (LAWS) model was used to compute ET and yield changes in the early, middle and late 21st century for 24 representative agricultural crops grown in the Sacramento, San Joaquin and Tulare Lake basins. Study results indicate that changes in ET and yield vary

  4. Large quaternary landslides in the central appalachian valley and ridge province near Petersburg, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, C. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Geological mapping and photointerpretation of side-looking airborne radar images and color-infrared aerial photographs reveal two large Quaternary landslides in the Valley and Ridge province of the central Appalachians near Petersburg, W. Va. The Elkhorn Mountain rock avalanche occurs on the thrust-faulted northwestern flank of the Elkhorn Mountain anticlinorium. A minimum of 7 ?? 106 m3 of quartzite colluvium was transported more than 3 km from a 91 m high escarpment of Silurian Tuscarora Quartzite. The extensively vegetated deposit may owe, in part, its transport and weathering to periglacial conditions during the Pleistocene. In contrast, the Gap Mountain rock block slide is a single allochthonous block that is 1.2 km long, 0.6 km wide, and at least 60 m thick. The 43 ?? 106 m3 block is composed of limestone of the Helderberg Group and the Oriskany Sanstone of Early Devonian age. Planar detachment probably occurred along a dissolution bedding plane near the Shriver Chert and the Oriskany Sandstone contact. Failure probably was initiated by downcutting of the South Branch Potomac River during the Pleistocene. Landslides of this magnitude suggest accelerated erosion during periglacial climates in the Pleistocene. The recognition of these large slope failures may provide evidence of paleoclimatic conditions and, thereby, increase our understanding of the geomorphologic development of the Valley and Ridge province. ?? 1988.

  5. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal

  6. Structural features of the Middle Tirso Valley (Central Sardinia - Italy from geoelectrical and gravity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tramacere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Tirso Valley is located in Central Sardinia and lies between two structural highs, the Marghine-Goceano chain and the Barbagia Paleozoic horst. The geological structures of the area, potentially interesting for its geothermal resources, are rather complex and dominated by two regional faults – the Marghine fault and the Nuoro fault – which affect the Palaeozoic basement and the Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits. Combined modelling of gravity and geoelectrical data defines the shape and extent of this Tertiary basin. The Bouguer anomaly is mainly characterized by a three-dimensional gravity low which has been named «Bolotana-Sedilo gravity low», corresponding to a structure generated by collapses attributable to transcurrent and extensional tectonic events. The down faulted zone is filled with a Tertiary low density volcano-sedimentary sequence extending southwards and overlain by Pliocene-Quaternary basalts. Another regional structure named «Tirso Fault» is proposed

  7. Availability of high-magnitude streamflow for groundwater banking in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocis, Tiffany N.; Dahlke, Helen E.

    2017-08-01

    California’s climate is characterized by the largest precipitation and streamflow variability observed within the conterminous US This, combined with chronic groundwater overdraft of 0.6-3.5 km3 yr-1, creates the need to identify additional surface water sources available for groundwater recharge using methods such as agricultural groundwater banking, aquifer storage and recovery, and spreading basins. High-magnitude streamflow, i.e. flow above the 90th percentile, that exceeds environmental flow requirements and current surface water allocations under California water rights, could be a viable source of surface water for groundwater banking. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the magnitude, frequency, duration and timing of high-magnitude streamflow (HMF) for 93 stream gauges covering the Sacramento, San Joaquin and Tulare basins in California. The results show that in an average year with HMF approximately 3.2 km3 of high-magnitude flow is exported from the entire Central Valley to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta often at times when environmental flow requirements of the Delta and major rivers are exceeded. High-magnitude flow occurs, on average, during 7 and 4.7 out of 10 years in the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins, respectively, from just a few storm events (5-7 1-day peak events) lasting for 25-30 days between November and April. The results suggest that there is sufficient unmanaged surface water physically available to mitigate long-term groundwater overdraft in the Central Valley.

  8. A comprehensive analysis of high-magnitude streamflow and trends in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocis, T. N.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    California's climate is characterized by the largest precipitation and streamflow variability observed within the conterminous US. This, combined with chronic groundwater overdraft of 0.6-3.5 km3 yr-1, creates the need to identify additional surface water sources available for groundwater recharge using methods such as agricultural groundwater banking, aquifer storage and recovery, and spreading basins. High-magnitude streamflow, i.e. flow above the 90th percentile, that exceeds environmental flow requirements and current surface water allocations under California water rights, could be a viable source of surface water for groundwater banking. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the magnitude, frequency, duration and timing of high-magnitude streamflow (HMF "metrics") over multiple time periods for 93 stream gauges covering the Sacramento, San Joaquin and Tulare basins in California. In addition, we present trend analyses conducted on the same dataset and all HMF metrics using generalized additive models, the Mann-Kendall trend test, and the Signal to Noise Ratio test. The results of the comprehensive analysis show, in short, that in an average year with HMF approximately 3.2 km3 of high-magnitude flow is exported from the entire Central Valley to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, often at times when environmental flow requirements of the Delta and major rivers are exceeded. High-magnitude flow occurs, on average, during 7 and 4.7 out of 10 years in the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins, respectively, from just a few storm events (5-7 1-day peak events) lasting for a total of 25-30 days between November and April. Preliminary trend tests suggest that all HMF metrics show limited change over the last 50 years. As a whole, the results suggest that there is sufficient unmanaged surface water physically available to mitigate long-term groundwater overdraft in the Central Valley.

  9. Population and Habitat Objectives for Avian Conservation in California’s Central Valley Grassland–Oak Savannah Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T. DiGaudio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0dn9f9b4In California’s Central Valley, grassland and oak savannah ecosystems provide multiple economic and social benefits, ecosystem services, and vital bird habitat. There is a growing interest in protecting, restoring, and managing these ecosystems, and the Central Valley Joint Venture (CVJV provides leadership in the formulation of conservation goals and objectives. We defined a long-term goal of protecting, restoring, and managing Central Valley grassland and oak savannah ecosystems so that they are capable of supporting genetically robust, self-sustaining, and resilient wildlife populations. To measure progress toward this goal, we selected a suite of 12 landbird focal species that primarily breed in grasslands and oak savannahs as indicators of the state of these ecosystems on the Central Valley floor (primary focus area and in the Central Valley’s surrounding foothills (secondary focus area. Using data on current densities and habitat extent, we estimated that at least three of the focal species populations in the primary focus area and at least two of the focal species populations in the secondary focus area are currently small (<10,000 individuals and may be vulnerable to extirpation. Furthermore, at least two species appear to have steeply declining population trends. We defined long-term (100-year population objectives for each focal species that we expect to meet the goal of genetically robust, self-sustaining, and resilient populations. We then estimated corresponding short-term (10-year habitat objectives of 4,183 ha of additional grassland and 3,433 ha of additional oak savannah that will be required to make progress toward the long-term objectives. We expect that habitat restoration and enhancement efforts aimed at reaching these long-term conservation objectives will result in improvements to the function of Central Valley grassland and oak savannah ecosystems.

  10. Crop intensification options and trade-offs with the water balance in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debas, Mezegebu

    2016-01-01

    The Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia is a closed basin for which claims on land and water have strongly increased over the past decade resulting in over-exploitation of the resources. A clear symptom is the declining trend in the water level of the terminal Lake Abyata. The actual

  11. An Investigation into the Involvement of California Central Valley High School Students with Disabilities in the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryle Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of California Central Valley high school students with disabilities in the Individual Education Plan (IEP) process. Specifically, this study investigated the involvement of students with disabilities in the development of the IEP and IEP meetings. In addition, this study explored the…

  12. Projected Impacts of Climate, Urbanization, Water Management, and Wetland Restoration on Waterbird Habitat in California's Central Valley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott L Matchett

    Full Text Available The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006-2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the "existing" landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration

  13. Projected Impacts of Climate, Urbanization, Water Management, and Wetland Restoration on Waterbird Habitat in California's Central Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L; Fleskes, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006-2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the "existing" landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration and additional

  14. Projected impacts of climate, urbanization, water management, and wetland restoration on waterbird habitat in California’s Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006–2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the “existing” landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration and additional

  15. Legacy lead arsenate soil contamination at childcare centers in the Yakima Valley, Central Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, Jenna; Bartrem, Casey; Möller, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    From the early 1900s to the 1950s, Yakima Valley orchards were commonly treated with lead arsenate (LA) insecticides. Lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) soil contamination has been identified on former orchard lands throughout Central Washington and pose a threat to human health and the environment. The levels of Pb and As in soil and interior dust at participating childcare centers in the Upper Yakima Valley (Yakima County), Washington were sampled to explore exposure potential for young children. Childcare center soils were collected from two soil depths, homogenized, and analyzed in bulk by a field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). Interior dust wipes samples were collected from at least two locations in each facility. All soil samples >250 mg/kg Pb and/or >20 As mg/kg were sieved to 250 μm, tested by XRF a second time, and analyzed via acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Bulk and sieved XRF results, as well as ICP-MS to XRF results were strongly correlated. Maximum Pb and As XRF results indicated that 4 (21%) and 8 (42%) of the 19 childcare centers surveyed exceeded the regulatory standard for Pb and As, respectively. Historic land use was significantly associated with elevated Pb and As levels. Interior dust loadings were below United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. Childcare centers are areas of intensive use for children and when coupled with potential residential exposure in their homes, the total daily exposure is a potential hazard to children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Paleoseismology of a possible fault scarp in Wenas Valley, central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brian L.; Barnett, Elizabeth A.; Knepprath, Nichole; Foit, Franklin F.

    2013-01-01

    In October 2009, two trenches excavated across an 11-kilometer-long scarp at Wenas Valley in central Washington exposed evidence for late Quaternary deformation. Lidar imagery of the Wenas Valley illuminated the west-northwest-trending, 2- to 8-meter-high scarp as it bisected alluvial fans developed at the mouths of canyons along the south side of Umtanum Ridge. The alignment of the scarp and aeromagnetic lineaments suggested that the scarp may be a product of and controlled by the same tectonic structure that produced the magnetic lineaments. Several large landslides mapped in the area demonstrated the potential for large mass-wasting events in the area. In order to test whether the scarp was the result of an earthquake-generated surface rupture or a landslide, trenches were excavated at Hessler Flats and McCabe Place. The profiles of bedrock and soil stratigraphy that underlie the scarp in each trench were photographed, mapped, and described, and a sequence of depositional and deformational events established for each trench. The McCabe Place trench exposed a sequence of volcaniclastic deposits overlain by soils and alluvial deposits separated by three unconformities. Six normal faults and two possible reverse faults deformed the exposed strata. Crosscutting relations indicated that up to five earthquakes occurred on a blind reverse fault, and a microprobe analysis of lapilli suggested that the earliest faulting occurred after 47,000 years before present. The Hessler Flat trench exposure revealed weathered bedrock that abuts loess and colluvium deposits and is overlain by soil, an upper sequence of loess, and colluvium. The latter two units bury a distinctive paloesol.

  17. Prediction and visualization of redox conditions in the groundwater of Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Celia Z.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.

    2017-03-01

    Regional-scale, three-dimensional continuous probability models, were constructed for aspects of redox conditions in the groundwater system of the Central Valley, California. These models yield grids depicting the probability that groundwater in a particular location will have dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations less than selected threshold values representing anoxic groundwater conditions, or will have dissolved manganese (Mn) concentrations greater than selected threshold values representing secondary drinking water-quality contaminant levels (SMCL) and health-based screening levels (HBSL). The probability models were constrained by the alluvial boundary of the Central Valley to a depth of approximately 300 m. Probability distribution grids can be extracted from the 3-D models at any desired depth, and are of interest to water-resource managers, water-quality researchers, and groundwater modelers concerned with the occurrence of natural and anthropogenic contaminants related to anoxic conditions. Models were constructed using a Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) machine learning technique that produces many trees as part of an additive model and has the ability to handle many variables, automatically incorporate interactions, and is resistant to collinearity. Machine learning methods for statistical prediction are becoming increasing popular in that they do not require assumptions associated with traditional hypothesis testing. Models were constructed using measured dissolved oxygen and manganese concentrations sampled from 2767 wells within the alluvial boundary of the Central Valley, and over 60 explanatory variables representing regional-scale soil properties, soil chemistry, land use, aquifer textures, and aquifer hydrologic properties. Models were trained on a USGS dataset of 932 wells, and evaluated on an independent hold-out dataset of 1835 wells from the California Division of Drinking Water. We used cross-validation to assess the predictive performance of

  18. Prediction and visualization of redox conditions in the groundwater of Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Celia Z.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.

    2017-01-01

    Regional-scale, three-dimensional continuous probability models, were constructed for aspects of redox conditions in the groundwater system of the Central Valley, California. These models yield grids depicting the probability that groundwater in a particular location will have dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations less than selected threshold values representing anoxic groundwater conditions, or will have dissolved manganese (Mn) concentrations greater than selected threshold values representing secondary drinking water-quality contaminant levels (SMCL) and health-based screening levels (HBSL). The probability models were constrained by the alluvial boundary of the Central Valley to a depth of approximately 300 m. Probability distribution grids can be extracted from the 3-D models at any desired depth, and are of interest to water-resource managers, water-quality researchers, and groundwater modelers concerned with the occurrence of natural and anthropogenic contaminants related to anoxic conditions.Models were constructed using a Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) machine learning technique that produces many trees as part of an additive model and has the ability to handle many variables, automatically incorporate interactions, and is resistant to collinearity. Machine learning methods for statistical prediction are becoming increasing popular in that they do not require assumptions associated with traditional hypothesis testing. Models were constructed using measured dissolved oxygen and manganese concentrations sampled from 2767 wells within the alluvial boundary of the Central Valley, and over 60 explanatory variables representing regional-scale soil properties, soil chemistry, land use, aquifer textures, and aquifer hydrologic properties. Models were trained on a USGS dataset of 932 wells, and evaluated on an independent hold-out dataset of 1835 wells from the California Division of Drinking Water. We used cross-validation to assess the predictive performance of

  19. Plants and butterflies of a small urban preserve in the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nishida

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO, a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the valley. Butterflies are one of the best bio-indicators of a habitat’s health, because they are highly sensitive to environmental changes and are tightly linked to the local flora. A description of the RELO’s physical features and its history is also presented with illustrations. Approximately 432 species of ca. 334 genera in 113 families of plants were identified. However, only 57 % of them represent species native to the Premontane Moist Forest of the region; the rest are either exotic or species introduced mostly from lowland. More than 200 species of butterflies in six families, including Hesperiidae, have been recorded. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 31-67. Epub 2009 November 30.Por ser el área más poblada del país, el valle Central de Costa Rica perdió su hábitat natural; lo poco que queda ha sido alterado en grados variados. Sin embargo, se han realizado algunos estudios para evaluar la necesidad de conservación en esta área. Se presentan inventarios preliminares de plantas, mariposas y polillas diurnas de la Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO; una pequeña reserva de bosque húmedo premontano en del campus de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en la parte urbanizada del valle. Las mariposas diurnas son uno de los mejores bio-indicadores de la salud del hábitat, porque son muy sensibles a los cambios del ambiente y están estrechamente ligadas a la flora local. Se presenta también una descripción de los caracteres físicos y la

  20. A statistical learning framework for groundwater nitrate models of the Central Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Lorenz, David L.

    2015-01-01

    We used a statistical learning framework to evaluate the ability of three machine-learning methods to predict nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater of the Central Valley, California: boosted regression trees (BRT), artificial neural networks (ANN), and Bayesian networks (BN). Machine learning methods can learn complex patterns in the data but because of overfitting may not generalize well to new data. The statistical learning framework involves cross-validation (CV) training and testing data and a separate hold-out data set for model evaluation, with the goal of optimizing predictive performance by controlling for model overfit. The order of prediction performance according to both CV testing R2 and that for the hold-out data set was BRT > BN > ANN. For each method we identified two models based on CV testing results: that with maximum testing R2 and a version with R2 within one standard error of the maximum (the 1SE model). The former yielded CV training R2 values of 0.94–1.0. Cross-validation testing R2 values indicate predictive performance, and these were 0.22–0.39 for the maximum R2 models and 0.19–0.36 for the 1SE models. Evaluation with hold-out data suggested that the 1SE BRT and ANN models predicted better for an independent data set compared with the maximum R2 versions, which is relevant to extrapolation by mapping. Scatterplots of predicted vs. observed hold-out data obtained for final models helped identify prediction bias, which was fairly pronounced for ANN and BN. Lastly, the models were compared with multiple linear regression (MLR) and a previous random forest regression (RFR) model. Whereas BRT results were comparable to RFR, MLR had low hold-out R2 (0.07) and explained less than half the variation in the training data. Spatial patterns of predictions by the final, 1SE BRT model agreed reasonably well with previously observed patterns of nitrate occurrence in groundwater of the Central Valley.

  1. Human impacts on fire occurrence: a case study of hundred years of forest fires in a dry alpine valley in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumbrunnen, T.; Menéndez, P.; Bugmann, H.; Conedera, M.; Gimmi, U.; Bürgi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Forest fire regimes are sensitive to alterations of climate, fuel load, and ignition sources. We investigated the impact of human activities and climate on fire occurrence in a dry continental valley of the Swiss Alps (Valais) by relating fire occurrence to population and road density, biomass

  2. Analysis with SfM on-motion method of July 2015 extreme rainfall impacts on the S-charl valley road in the Canton of Graubünden, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The 22-23th July 2015, two severe storms at one day interval have caused in Scuol, lower Engadine (Canton of Graubünden, Switzerland). The static storm cells produced up to 150 mm rain precipitations in three hours generating several debris flow. On 22 July 2015, three buildings in the Pradella hamlet near Scuol were damaged by a debris flow. People of two holiday camps, 100 children and 40 adults, were evacuated. Nobody was injured but the buildings damages are important. A day after, about 200 mm rain in a short time were measured in the same area. A car was been swept away by a debris flow in the Scuol village and its driver could escape at the last moment. The S-charl valley was isolated during more than one week by seven big debris flows and several little ones. About 100 people, in majority holidaymakers, were blocked in the S-charl hamlet without power supply during few days. Until the swiss army built a provisional emergency bridge to open the valley access, the only way to access the S-charl valley was by helicopter. Overall damages -roads infrastructures, buildings, drinking water supply, power supply and other- are estimated to one million Swiss Francs and the debris flow volume is estimated to 100'00 cubic meters. The S-charl valley roadsides were photographed fifteen days before the extreme storm event from an on-motion vehicle. The same roadsides were photographed twenty days after the event with the same acquisition methodology. 3D point clouds from Structure of Motion (SfM) from the -before and after event- pictures have been produced and compared. Thus, is was possible to evaluate the number of debris flows that occurred in the S-charl valley and estimate their volume in the roadsides. This study case allows to evaluate the low-cost SfM on-motion methodology and to give theirs main advantages and disadvantages when it is used to estimate changes roadsides due to a natural hazard event.

  3. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  4. Ecosystem Services Mapping for Sustainable Agricultural Water Management in California's Central Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matios, Edward; Burney, Jennifer

    2017-03-07

    Accurate information on agricultural water needs and withdrawals at appropriate spatial and temporal scales remains a key limitation to joint water and land management decision-making. We use InVEST ecosystem service mapping to estimate water yield and water consumption as functions of land use in Fresno County, a key farming region in California's Central Valley. Our calculations show that in recent years (2010-2015), the total annual water yield for the county has varied dramatically from ∼0.97 to 5.37 km 3 (all ±17%; 1 MAF ≈ 1.233 km 3 ), while total annual water consumption has changed over a smaller range, from ∼3.37 to ∼3.98 km 3 (±20%). Almost all of the county's water consumption (∼96% of total use) takes place in Fresno's croplands, with discrepancy between local annual surface water yields and crop needs met by surface water allocations from outside the county and, to a much greater extent, private groundwater irrigation. Our estimates thus bound the amount of groundwater needed to supplement consumption each year (∼1.76 km 3 on average). These results, combined with trends away from field crops and toward orchards and vineyards, suggest that Fresno's land and water management have become increasingly disconnected in recent years, with the harvested area being less available as an adaptive margin to hydrological stress.

  5. Driving force of organic fertilizer use in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: Independent double hurdle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terefe Aemro T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the important factors that influence both adoption and level of use of organic fertilizer among smallholder farmers in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia using a primary data collected from 161 sample respondents. An independent double hurdle model was used to address the objectives of the study on the assumption that adoption and level of organic fertilizer use by are two independent decisions influenced by different factors. Empirical estimates of the first hurdle reveals that literacy status of the head, livestock holding, frequency of extension contact, distance to market and slope of the plot are statistically significant decision variables that affect the probability of adopting organic fertilizer. Meanwhile, estimates of the second hurdle revealed that, the extent of use of organic fertilizer was determined by livestock holding, access to credit distance to the market and slope of plot. This indicates that factors that affect adoption are not necessarily the same as those that influence intensity. Therefore, it is important to consider both stages in evaluating strategies aimed at promoting the adoption and use of organic fertilizer.

  6. Modeling nitrate at domestic and public-supply well depths in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Eberts, Sandra M.; Belitz, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer vulnerability models were developed to map groundwater nitrate concentration at domestic and public-supply well depths in the Central Valley, California. We compared three modeling methods for ability to predict nitrate concentration >4 mg/L: logistic regression (LR), random forest classification (RFC), and random forest regression (RFR). All three models indicated processes of nitrogen fertilizer input at the land surface, transmission through coarse-textured, well-drained soils, and transport in the aquifer to the well screen. The total percent correct predictions were similar among the three models (69–82%), but RFR had greater sensitivity (84% for shallow wells and 51% for deep wells). The results suggest that RFR can better identify areas with high nitrate concentration but that LR and RFC may better describe bulk conditions in the aquifer. A unique aspect of the modeling approach was inclusion of outputs from previous, physically based hydrologic and textural models as predictor variables, which were important to the models. Vertical water fluxes in the aquifer and percent coarse material above the well screen were ranked moderately high-to-high in the RFR models, and the average vertical water flux during the irrigation season was highly significant (p < 0.0001) in logistic regression.

  7. Sex-related differences in habitat associations of wintering American Kestrels in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfino, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We used roadside survey data collected from 19 routes over three consecutive winters from 200708 to 200910 to compare habitat associations of male and female American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) in the Central Valley of California to determine if segregation by sex was evident across this region. As a species, American Kestrels showed positive associations with alfalfa and other forage crops like hay and winter wheat, as well as grassland, irrigated pasture, and rice. Habitat associations of females were similar, with female densities in all these habitats except rice significantly higher than average. Male American Kestrels showed a positive association only with grassland and were present at densities well below those of females in alfalfa, other forage crops, and grassland. Males were present in higher densities than females in most habitats with negative associations for the species, such as orchards, urbanized areas, and oak savannah. The ratio of females to males for each route was positively correlated with the overall density of American Kestrels on that route. Our findings that females seem to occupy higher quality habitats in winter are consistent with observations from elsewhere in North America. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  8. Multiple geophysical methods examining neotectonic blind structures in the Maradona valley, Central Precordillera (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Gabriela; Klinger, Federico Lince; Perucca, Laura; Rojo, Guillermo; Vargas, Nicolás; Leiva, Flavia

    2017-08-01

    A high-resolution superficial geophysical study was carried out in an area of the retroarc region of the Andes mountains, located in the southwest of San Juan Province (31°45‧ S, 68°50‧ W), Central Precordillera of Argentina. The main objectives of this study were to confirm the presence of blind neotectonic structures and characterize them by observing variations in magnetic susceptibility, density and p-wave velocities. Geological evidence demonstrates the existence of a neotectonic fault scarps affecting Quaternary alluvial deposits in eastern piedmont of de Las Osamentas range, in addition to direct observation of the cinematic of this feature in several natural exposures. The Maradona valley is characterized by the imbricated eastern-vergence Maradona Fault System that uplifts Neogene sedimentary rocks (Albarracín Formation) over Quaternary (Late Pleistocene-Holocene) alluvial deposits. The combined application of different geophysical methods has allowed the characterization of a blind fault geometry also identified on a natural exposure. The magnetic data added to the gravimetric model, and its integration with a seismic profile clearly shows the existence of an anomalous zone, interpreted as uplifted blocks of Miocene sedimentary rocks of Formation Albarracín displaced over Quaternary deposits. The application and development of different geophysical methods, together with geological studies allow to significantly improving the knowledge of an area affected by Quaternary tectonic activity. Finally, this multidisciplinary study, applied in active blind structures is very relevant for future seismic hazard analysis on areas located very close to populated centers.

  9. Modeling nitrate at domestic and public-supply well depths in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Eberts, Sandra M.; Belitz, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer vulnerability models were developed to map groundwater nitrate concentration at domestic and public-supply well depths in the Central Valley, California. We compared three modeling methods for ability to predict nitrate concentration >4 mg/L: logistic regression (LR), random forest classification (RFC), and random forest regression (RFR). All three models indicated processes of nitrogen fertilizer input at the land surface, transmission through coarse-textured, well-drained soils, and transport in the aquifer to the well screen. The total percent correct predictions were similar among the three models (69–82%), but RFR had greater sensitivity (84% for shallow wells and 51% for deep wells). The results suggest that RFR can better identify areas with high nitrate concentration but that LR and RFC may better describe bulk conditions in the aquifer. A unique aspect of the modeling approach was inclusion of outputs from previous, physically based hydrologic and textural models as predictor variables, which were important to the models. Vertical water fluxes in the aquifer and percent coarse material above the well screen were ranked moderately high-to-high in the RFR models, and the average vertical water flux during the irrigation season was highly significant (p in logistic regression.

  10. Hydrology of Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts, central Utah, and potential effects of coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Baskin, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Alkali Creek coal-lease tract includes about 2,150 acres in the Book Cliffs coal field in central Utah, and the Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tract includes about 3,360 acres in the Wasatch Plateau coal field, also in central Utah. Both the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts are near areas where coal is currently (1987) mined by underground methods from the Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation. The Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge areas have intermittent streams in which flow after snowmelt runoff is locally sustained into midsummer by springflow. The only perennial stream is South Fork Corner Canyon Creek in the Castle Valley Ridge area. Peak flow in both areas generally is from snowmelt runoff; however, peak flow from thunderstorm runoff in the Alkali Creek area can exceed that from snowmelt runoff. Estimated annual source-area sediment yield was 0.5 acre-ft/sq mi in the Alkali Creek lease tract and it was 0.3 acre-ft/sq mi in the Castle Valley Ridge lease tract. Groundwater in the Alkali Creek area occurs in perched aquifers in the Flagstaff Limestone and in other formations above the coal-bearing Blackhawk Formation. The principal source of recharge to the aquifers is snowmelt on outcrops. Faults may be major conduits and control the movement of groundwater. Groundwater discharges at formation contacts, between zones of differing permeability within a formation, near faults and into mines. Water sampled from 13 springs in the Alkali Creek area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 273 to 5,210 mg/L. Water sampled from 17 springs in the Castle Valley Ridge area contained dissolved solids at concentrations ranging from 208 to 579 mg/L. The composition of water from a recently abandoned part of an active mine the Wasatch Plateau closely resembles that of water discharging from a nearby mine that has been abandoned for more than 30 years. Mining of the Alkali Creek and Castle Valley Ridge coal-lease tracts likely will

  11. New directional archeomagnetic data of burned cave sediments from Switzerland and geomagnetic field variations in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapper, K. L.; Donadini, F.; Mauvilly, M.; Panovska, S.; Hirt, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents new directional archeomagnetic data from nine Meso-/Neolithic fireplaces, sampled in a cave shelter, at Arconciel, in western Switzerland. Rock magnetic measurements indicate a homogenous magnetic mineralogy in all fireplaces, with magnetite as the main magnetic carrier. The remanent magnetization is stable and generally shows one characteristic directional component. Nine new directions, which were obtained from Arconciel, are combined with 356 other archeomagnetic data from a circular area with a radius of 700 km around this site, to obtain a penalized least square spline fit for the past 9000 yr. We found in general good agreement with other local compilations, such as the Balkan curve, the regional SCHA.DIF.8k model and with lake sediments from UK, Fennoscandia and Switzerland. Nevertheless, a time lag of several centuries is observed for a declination maximum between the archeomagnetic spline fit and the other European data records around 5900 BC. This time lag is also observed in the Swiss lake sediment record; therefore we interpret this shift as a local feature of the Earth's magnetic field.

  12. Stream seepage and groundwater levels, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Stream discharge and water levels in wells were measured at multiple sites in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, in August 2012, October 2012, and March 2013, as a component of data collection for a groundwater-flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This model is a cooperative and collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources. Stream-discharge measurements for determination of seepage were made during several days on three occasions: August 27–28, 2012, October 22–24, 2012, and March 27–28, 2013. Discharge measurements were made at 49 sites in August and October, and 51 sites in March, on the Big Wood River, Silver Creek, their tributaries, and nearby canals. The Big Wood River generally gains flow between the Big Wood River near Ketchum streamgage (13135500) and the Big Wood River at Hailey streamgage (13139510), and loses flow between the Hailey streamgage and the Big Wood River at Stanton Crossing near Bellevue streamgage (13140800). Shorter reaches within these segments may differ in the direction or magnitude of seepage or may be indeterminate because of measurement uncertainty. Additional reaches were measured on Silver Creek, the North Fork Big Wood River, Warm Springs Creek, Trail Creek, and the East Fork Big Wood River. Discharge measurements also were made on the Hiawatha, Cove, District 45, Glendale, and Bypass Canals, and smaller tributaries to the Big Wood River and Silver Creek. Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2006. Maps of the October 2012 water-table altitude in the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer have similar topology to those on maps of October 2006 conditions. Between October 2006 and October 2012, water-table altitude in the unconfined aquifer rose by

  13. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardiñas, Hillary S; Tom, Kathleen; Ponisio, Lauren Catherine; Rominger, Andrew; Kremen, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination coverage in agricultural regions utilize landscape-level estimates of floral availability and nesting incidence inferred from expert opinion, rather than direct assessments. Foraging distance is often derived from proxies of bee body size, rather than direct measurements of foraging that account for behavioral responses to floral resource type and distribution. The lack of direct measurements of nesting incidence and foraging distances may lead to inaccurate mapping of pollination services. We examined the role of local-scale floral resource presence from hedgerow plantings on nest incidence of ground-nesting bees in field margins and within monoculture, conventionally managed sunflower fields in California's Central Valley. We tracked bee movement into fields using fluorescent powder. We then used these data to simulate the distribution of pollination services within a crop field. Contrary to expert opinion, we found that ground-nesting native bees nested both in fields and edges, though nesting rates declined with distance into field. Further, we detected no effect of field-margin floral enhancements on nesting. We found evidence of an exponential decay rate of bee movement into fields, indicating that foraging predominantly occurred in less than 1% of medium-sized bees' predicted typical foraging range. Although we found native bees nesting within agricultural fields, their restricted foraging movements likely centralize pollination near nest sites. Our data thus predict a heterogeneous distribution of pollination services

  14. Ethiopian Central Rift Valley basin hydrologic modelling using HEC-HMS and ArcSWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Ferrer, Jordi; Candela, Lucila; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí

    2013-04-01

    An Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) shall be applied to achieve a sustainable development, to increase population incomes without affecting lives of those who are highly dependent on the environment. First step should be to understand water dynamics at basin level, starting by modeling the basin water resources. For model implementation, a large number of data and parameters are required, but those are not always available, especially in some developing countries where different sources may have different data, there is lack of information on data collection, etc. The Ethiopian Central Rift Valley (CRV) is an endorheic basin covering an area of approximately 10,000 km2. For the period 1996-2005, the average annual volume of rainfall accounted for 9.1 Mm3, and evapotranspiration for 8 Mm3 (Jansen et al., 2007). From the environmental point of view, basin ecosystems are endangered due to human activities. Also, poverty is widespread all over the basin, with population mainly living from agriculture on a subsistence economy. Hence, there is an urgent need to set an IWRM, but datasets required for water dynamics simulation are not too reliable. In order to reduce uncertainty of numerical simulation, two semi-distributed open software hydrologic models were implemented: HEC-HMS and ArcSWAT. HEC-HMS was developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACoE) Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) to run precipitation-runoff simulations for a variety of applications in dendritic watershed systems. ArcSWAT includes the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, Arnold et al., 1998) model developed for the USDA Agricultural Research Service into ArcGIS (ESRI®). SWAT was developed to assess the impact of land management practices on large complex watersheds with varying soils, land use and management conditions over long periods of time (Neitsch et al., 2005). According to this, ArcSWAT would be the best option for IWRM implementation in the basin. However

  15. Floods of November-December 1950 in the Central Valley basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, C.G.

    1953-01-01

    The flood of November-December 1950 in the Central Valley basin was the greatest in most parts of the basin since the turn of the century and probably was exceeded in the lower San Joaquin River basin only by the historic flood of 1862. In respect to monetary loss, the 1950 flood was the most disastrous in the history of the basin. Loss of life was remarkably small when one considers the extensive damage and destruction to homes and other property, which is estimated at 33 million dollars. Outstanding features of the flood were its unprecedented occurrence so early in the winter flood season, its magnitude in respect to both peak and volume in most major tributaries, and the occurrence of a succession of near-peak flows with a period of three weeks. The flood was caused by a series of storms during the period November 16 to December 8, which brought exceptionally warm, moisture-laden air inland against the Sierra Nevada range and caused intense rainfall, instead of snowfall, at unusually high altitudes. Basin-wide totals of rainfall during the period ranged from 30 inches over the Yuba and American River basins to 13 inches over the upper Sacramento and Feather River basins. Based on continuous records of discharge on major tributaries for periods ranging from 22 to 55 years and averaging about 43 years, the 1950 flood peaks were the greatest of record on the American, Cosumnes, Mokelumne, Stanislaus, Tuolumne, Merced, Chowchilla, Fresno, lower San Joaquin, Kings, Kaweah, Tule, and Kern Rivers. Second highest peak of record occurred during the flood of March 1928 on the Yuba, American and Mokelumne Rivers; the flood of Marcn 1940 on Cosumnes River; the flood of January 1911 on the Stanislaus and Tuolumne Rivers; the flood of December 1937 on the Merced, Kings, and Kaweah Rivers; the flood of March 1938 on the Chowchilla, Fresno, and lower San Joaquin Rivers; and the flood of March 1943 on the Tule and Kern Rivers. Peak discharges for 1950 did not exceed previous

  16. Maize Response to Fertilizer Dosing at Three Sites in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Sime

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the agronomic response, efficiency and profitability of fertilizer microdosing in maize. An experiment with the following treatments was conducted: control without fertilizer, microdosing treatments, with the rate of 27 + 27, 53 + 53 and 80 + 80 kg ha−1, and banding of fertilizer with 100 + 100 kg ha−1 of di ammonium phosphate (DAP + urea, applied at planting and jointing, respectively. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The experiment was conducted during the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 cropping seasons at Ziway, Melkassa and Hawassa in the semiarid central rift valley region of Ethiopia. Compared to the control, the fertilizer treatments had higher yield and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE profitably. The 27 + 27 kg ha−1 fertilizer rate increased the grain yield by 19, 45 and 46% at Hawassa, Ziway and Melkassa, respectively, and it was equivalent to the higher rates. The value cost ratio (VCR was highest with the lowest fertilizer rate, varying between seven and 11 in the treatment with 27 + 27 kg ha−1, but two and three in the banding treatment. Similarly, FUE was highest with the lowest fertilizer rate, varying between 23 and 34 kg kg−1 but 7 and 8 kg kg−1 in the banding treatment. The improved yield, FUE, VCR and gross margin in maize with microdosing at the 27 + 27 kg ha−1 of DAP + urea rate makes it low cost, low risk, high yielding and profitable. Therefore, application of this particular rate in maize may be an option for the marginal farmers in the region with similar socioeconomic and agroecological conditions.

  17. Land Use-Land Cover dynamics of Huluka watershed, Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Gebreslassie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land Use-Land Cover (LULC dynamic has of human kind age and is one of the phenomenons which interweave the socio economic and environmental issues in Ethiopia. Huluka watershed is one of the watersheds in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia which drains to Lake Langano. Few decades ago the stated watershed was covered with dense acacia forest. But, nowadays like other part of Ethiopia, it is experiencing complex dynamics of LULC. The aim of this research was thus to evaluate the LULC dynamics seen in between 1973–2009. This was achieved through collecting qualitative and quantitative data using Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS technique. Field observations, discussion with elders were also employed to validate results from remotely sensed data. Based on the result, eight major dynamic LULC classes were identified from the watershed. Of these LULC classes, only cultivated and open lands had shown continuous and progressive expansion mainly at the expense of grass, shrub and forest lands. The 25% and 0% of cultivated and open land of the watershed in 1973 expanded to 84% and 4% in 2009 respectively while the 29%, 18% and 22% of grass, shrub and forest land of the watershed in 1973 degraded to 3.5%, 4% and 1.5% in 2009 respectively. As a result, land units which had been used for pastoralist before 1973 were identified under mixed agricultural system after 2000. In the end, this study came with a recommendation of an intervention of concerned body to stop the rapid degradation of vegetation on the watershed.

  18. Integrated hazard assessment of Cirenmaco glacial lake in Zhangzangbo valley, Central Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weicai; Gao, Yang; Iribarren Anacona, Pablo; Lei, Yanbin; Xiang, Yang; Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Shenghai; Lu, Anxin

    2018-04-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) have recently become one of the primary natural hazards in the Himalayas. There is therefore an urgent need to assess GLOF hazards in the region. Cirenmaco, a moraine-dammed lake located in the upstream portion of Zhangzangbo valley, Central Himalayas, has received public attention after its damaging 1981 outburst flood. Here, by combining remote sensing methods, bathymetric survey and 2D hydraulic modeling, we assessed the hazard posed by Cirenmaco in its current status. Inter-annual variation of Cirenmaco lake area indicates a rapid lake expansion from 0.10 ± 0.08 km2 in 1988 to 0.39 ± 0.04 km2 in 2013. Bathymetric survey shows the maximum water depth of the lake in 2012 was 115 ± 2 m and the lake volume was calculated to be 1.8 × 107 m3. Field geomorphic analysis shows that Cirenmaco glacial lake is prone to GLOFs as mass movements and ice and snow avalanches can impact the lake and the melting of the dead ice in the moraine can lower the dam level. HEC-RAS 2D model was then used to simulate moraine dam failure of the Cirenmaco and assess GLOF impacts downstream. Reconstruction of Cirenmaco 1981 GLOF shows that HEC-RAS can produce reasonable flood extent and water depth, thus demonstrate its ability to effectively model complex GLOFs. GLOF modeling results presented can be used as a basis for the implementation of disaster prevention and mitigation measures. As a case study, this work shows how we can integrate different methods to GLOF hazard assessment.

  19. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, D; Romero-Zuñiga, J J; Dolz, G

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%), followed by WNV (44.2%), and IAV (41.8%). Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9%) was lower than to T. equi (38.1%). For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%), EVAV (5.0%), C. abortus (4.8%), and N. caninum (4.4%). Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV.

  20. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jiménez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV, Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4, West Nile Virus (WNV, Influenza A Virus (IAV, Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV, Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%, followed by WNV (44.2%, and IAV (41.8%. Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9% was lower than to T. equi (38.1%. For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%, EVAV (5.0%, C. abortus (4.8%, and N. caninum (4.4%. Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV.

  1. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Infections among Healthy Volunteer Blood Donors in the Central California Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Muhammad Y; Atla, Pradeep R; Ameer, Adnan; Sadiq, Humaira; Sadler, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    The Central California Valley has a diverse population with significant proportions of Hispanics and Asians. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in healthy blood donors in the Valley. A total of 217,738 voluntary blood donors were identified between 2006 and 2010 (36,795 first-time donors; 180,943 repeat donors). Among the first-time donors, the HBV and HCV prevalence was 0.28% and 0.52%, respectively. Higher HBV prevalence seen in Asians (3%) followed by Caucasians (0.05%), African Americans (0.15%), and Hispanics (0.05%). Hmong had a HBV prevalence of 7.63% with a peak prevalence of 8.76% among the 16- to 35-year-old age group. Highest HCV prevalence in Native Americans (2.8) followed by Caucasians (0.59%), Hispanics (0.45%), African Americans (0.38%), and Asians (0.2%). Ethnic disparities persist with regard to the prevalence of HBV and HCV in the Central California Valley. The reported prevalence may be an underestimate because our study enrolled healthy volunteer blood donors only. The development of aggressive public health measures to evaluate the true prevalence of HBV and HCV and to identify those in need of HBV and HCV prevention measures and therapy is critically important.

  2. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ice Mass Variations and the Local Climatic Factors in the Riparian Zone of Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, P.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2016-12-01

    Californian icefields are natural basins of fresh water. They provide irrigation water to the farms in the central valley. We analyzed the ice mass loss rates, air temperature and land surface temperature (LST) in Sacramento and San Joaquin basins in California. The digital elevation models from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to calculate ice mass loss rate between the years 2002 and 2015. Additionally, Landsat TIR data were used to extract the land surface temperature. Data from local weather stations were analyzed to understand the spatiotemporal trends in air temperature. The results showed an overall mass recession of -0.8 ± 0.7 m w.e.a-1. We also noticed an about 60% loss in areal extent of the glaciers in the study basins between 2000 and 2015. Local climatic factors, along with the global climate patterns might have influenced the negative trends in the ice mass loss. Overall, there was an increase in the air temperature by 0.07± 0.02 °C in the central valley between 2000 and 2015. Furthermore, LST increased by 0.34 ± 0.4 °C and 0.55± 0.1 °C in the Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. Our preliminary results show the decrease in area and mass of ice mass in the basins, and changing agricultural practices in the valley.

  3. Hydrochemistry of the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, East-Central Illinois: indicators of recharge and ground-water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, Chao-Li

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual model of the ground-water flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA), east-central Illinois, was developed using major ion chemistry and isotope geochemistry. The MVA is a 'basal' fill in the east-west trending buried bedrock valley composed of clean, permeable sand and gravel to thicknesses of up to 61 m. It is covered by a thick sequence of glacial till containing thinner bodies of interbedded sand and gravel. Ground water from the MVA was found to be characterized by clearly defined geochemical regions with three distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west. Ground water in the Onarga Valley, a northeastern tributary of the MVA, is of two types, a mixed cation-SO42- type and a mixed cation-HCO3- type. The ground water is enriched in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- which appears to be the result of an upward hydraulic gradient and interaction of deeper ground water with oxidized pyritic coals and shale. We suggest that recharge to the Onarga Valley and overlying aquifers is 100% from bedrock (leakage) and lateral flow from the MVA to the south. The central MVA (south of the Onarga Valley) is composed of relatively dilute ground water of a mixed cation-HCO3- type, with low total dissolved solids, and very low concentrations of Cl- and SO42-. Stratigraphic relationships of overlying aquifers and ground-water chemistry of these and the MVA suggest recharge to this region of the MVA (predominantly in Champaign County) is relatively rapid and primarily from the surface. Midway along the westerly flow path of the MVA (western MVA), ground water is a mixed cation-HCO3- type with relatively high Cl-, where Cl- increases abruptly by one to ??? two orders of magnitude. Data suggest that the increase in Cl- is the result of leakage of saline ground water from bedrock into the MVA. Mass-balance calculations indicate that approximately 9.5% of

  4. Minor and Trace Element Chemistry of Urban NS-Soot from the Central Valley of CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleich, S. J.; Hooper, R.

    2017-12-01

    During a recent study of metal transport in the Central Valley of California, it was noted that ns-soot (soot) occurred as complex clusters of graphene-like spheres admixed with other aerosols and were usually the dominant component of PM2.5 air particulates. These soot clusters contained a wide variety of metals of environmental concern such as As,Pb,Cr, and Ni. This study reports semi-quantitative results for 20 minor and trace elements (calibrated with Smithsonian microbeam standards) using a 200kV Transmission Electron Microscope, EDS, and SAED. This study also examined the mineralogy and crystallinity of admixed aerosols within composite soot clusters. Samples selected represent three contrasting urban settings in the Central Valley: Woodland, on the western side of the valley (Interstate highway to the east); Stockton, an inland sea-port and land transportation corridor in the center of the valley; and Roseville, a major rail-transport hub to the east. The wet/dry Mediterranean climate of California resulted in pronounced seasonal variations in total metal content. Soot cluster chemistry is highly variable however certain patterns emerged. Soot collected during the wet season is generally more aciniform, less structurally complex, and had lower sulfur (sulfate) concentrations but still had significant levels of transition metals (V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Ni,Zn and Pb) . Dry season soot was predominantly admixed with sulfate aerosols, and enriched in alkalis and alkaline earth metals. Stockton (wet-season) soot had up to 6000ppm of Pb. There is appreciable Pb (210ppm-2600ppm) in 38% of samples from Roseville but no Pb greater than 200ppm in Woodland. The highest overall total metals were found in Roseville soot with appreciable As(670ppm), V(100ppm), Pb(2600ppm), Zn(4000 ppm), Cr(90ppm), and Ni(300ppm). Heavy transport (road/rail/port) correlates with higher metal contents regardless of climate.

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis B infection among young and unsuspecting Hmong blood donors in the Central California Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Muhammad Y; Atla, Pradeep R; Raoufi, Rahim; Sadiq, Humaira; Sadler, Patrick C

    2012-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may result in cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma and is one of the leading causes of mortality in Asian Americans including Hmong Americans. The Central California Valley is home to a huge Hmong population. To date, the true prevalence of HBV among Hmong is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to contribute to the limited data on HBV prevalence and its trends in Hmong population in the Central California Valley. Between fiscal years 2006 and 2010, a total of 219, 450 voluntary donors were identified at Central California Blood Center in Fresno. Of these, 821 (399 males and 422 females) were Hmong donors. A cross-sectional review of the HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen) positivity among all donors was carried out. Prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Ninety-two percent of Hmong donors were between age groups 16 and 35 years, and only 8% were ≥36 years. The overall prevalence in Hmong was noted at 3.41% (95%CI 2.3-4.9) compared to 0.06% (95%CI 0.05-0.07) in donors of all ethnicities. The calculated prevalence could be an underestimate of the true HBV prevalence in Hmong as the study enrolled only healthy blood donors with predominant younger age (≤35 years) population. These results underscore the persistent burden of HBV infection and potentially increased risk of premature death even in the second generation Hmong community of the Central California Valley. This study reemphasizes the unequivocal need to develop robust preventive and treatment strategies for HBV in Hmong community.

  6. Soil properties relevant to land degradation in abandoned sloping fields in Aisa valley, Central Pyrenees (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardini, G.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-approach characterization of soil properties in abandoned fields in the Aisa valley, at mid mountain in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, demonstrated that the soil's own peculiar characteristics are concerned with conservation problems. Aggregate stability and shrinkage tests pointed to a relatively good soil performance due to the aggregating role of organic matter and calcium carbonates, although calcium ions, in some instances, may exert and additional antagonistic role for a sealed surface, increasing runoff. On the other hand, soil micromorphology suggests that the poor condition of the soils is in some contradiction to paedogenic activity. These findings, together with the presence of ashes, support the hypothesis that land degradation in these areas is mainly related to human activity thought unsuitable management after land abandonment.

    [es] La caracterización de diversas propiedades del suelo en campos abandonados del valle de Aisa, montaña media del Pirineo Central, ha mostrado que dichos suelos presentan algunos caracteres de interés desde el punto de vista de la conservación. La estabilidad de los agregados y los test de agrietamiento evidencian un comportamiento aceptable, gracias al papel agregante de la materia orgánica y carbonatos de calcio, a pesar que los iones calcio, en algunas ocasiones, pueden ejercer un papel antagonista adicional y favorecer el sellado de la superficie del suelo, aumentando la escorrentía superficial. Por otra parte, la micromorfología sugiere que el estado de degradación de los suelos contrasta con la actividad pedogénica. Estos resultados, juntamente con la presencia de cenizas, apoyan la hipótesis de que el estado de degradación en estas áreas es consecuencia principalmente de una utilización incorrecta después del abandono de los cultivos.
    [fr] Un étude des propriétés des sois dans une zone à cultures en pente abandonnées dans la vallée d'Aisa (Pyr

  7. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage using GRACE Satellites and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Faunt, C. C.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concerns about drought impacts on water resources in California underscores the need to better understand effects of drought on water storage and coping strategies. Here we use a new GRACE mascons solution with high spatial resolution (1 degree) developed at the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) and output from the most recent regional groundwater model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate changes in water storage in response to recent droughts. We also extend the analysis of drought impacts on water storage back to the 1980s using modeling and monitoring data. The drought has been intensifying since 2012 with almost 50% of the state and 100% of the Central Valley under exceptional drought in 2015. Total water storage from GRACE data declined sharply during the current drought, similar to the rate of depletion during the previous drought in 2007 - 2009. However, only 45% average recovery between the two droughts results in a much greater cumulative impact of both droughts. The CSR GRACE Mascons data offer unprecedented spatial resolution with no leakage to the oceans and no requirement for signal restoration. Snow and reservoir storage declines contribute to the total water storage depletion estimated by GRACE with the residuals attributed to groundwater storage. Rates of groundwater storage depletion are consistent with the results of regional groundwater modeling in the Central Valley. Traditional approaches to coping with these climate extremes has focused on surface water reservoir storage; however, increasing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and storing excess water from wet periods in depleted aquifers is increasing in the Central Valley.

  8. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners. [Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Image products and numeric data were extracted from both TM and MSS data in an effort to evaluate the quality of these data for interpreting major agricultural resources and conditions in California's Central Valley. The utility of TM data appears excellent for meeting most of the inventory objectives of the agricultural resource specialist. These data should be extremely valuable for crop type and area proportion estimation, for updating agricultural land use survey maps at 1:24,000-scale and smaller, for field boundary definition, and for determining the size and location of individual farmsteads.

  9. 78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Westside... project contractors using best available cost-effective technology and best management practices.'' These...

  10. Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley region of Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, N.J.; Flier, W.G.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Smart, C.D.; Matuszak, J.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.; Fry, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the population of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca valley region is genetically differentiated according to habitat. Isolates were sampled in three habitats from (i) wild Solanum spp. (WILD), (ii) land-race varieties in low-input production systems (RURAL), and

  11. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  12. Pattern of ground deformation in Kathmandu valley during 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, S.; Dwivedi, S. K.; Acharya, K. K.

    2016-12-01

    The 25th April 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (Mw=7.8) epicentered at Barpak along with thousands of aftershocks released seismic moment nearly equivalent to an 8.0 Magnitude earthquake rupturing a 150km long fault segment. Although Kathmandu valley was supposed to be severely devastated by such major earthquake, post earthquake scenario is completely different. The observed destruction is far less than anticipated as well as the spatial pattern is different than expected. This work focuses on the behavior of Kathmandu valley sediments during the strong shaking by the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. For this purpose spatial pattern of destruction is analyzed at heavily destructed sites. To understand characteristics of subsurface soil 2D-MASW survey was carried out using a 24-channel seismograph system. An accellerogram recorded by Nepal Seismological Center was analyzed to characterize the strong ground motion. The Kathmandu valley comprises fluvio-lacustrine deposit with gravel, sand, silt and clay along with few exposures of basement rocks within the sediments. The observations show systematic repetition of destruction at an average interval of 2.5km mostly in sand, silt and clay dominated formations. Results of 2D-MASW show the sites of destruction are characterized by static deformation of soil (liquefaction and southerly dipping cracks). Spectral analysis of the accelerogram indicates maximum power associated with frequency of 1.0Hz. The result of this study explains the observed spatial pattern of destruction in Kathmandu valley. This is correlated with the seismic energy associated with the frequency of 1Hz, which generates an average wavelength of 2.5km with an average S-wave velocity of 2.5km/s. The cumulative effect of dominant frequency and associated wavelength resulted in static deformation of surface soil layers at an average interval of 2.5km. This phenomenon clearly describes the reason for different scenario than that was anticipated in Kathmandu valley.

  13. Tomographic Rayleigh wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California, centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of freshwater for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental mode, Rayleigh wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations was stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 s. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which are dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4°. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large crosscutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5 s, the model's western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries of the low

  14. Tomographic Rayleigh-wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of fresh water for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental-mode, Rayleigh-wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations were stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 seconds. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which is dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4 degrees. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large cross cutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5s, the model’s western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries

  15. Root tensile strength assessment of Dryas octopetala L. and implications for its engineering mechanism on lateral moraine slopes (Turtmann Valley, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibisch, Katharina; Eichel, Jana; Dikau, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphic processes and properties are influenced by vegetation. It has been shown that vegetation cover intercepts precipitation, enhances surface detention and storage, traps sediment and provides additional surface roughness. Plant roots impact the soil in a mechanical and hydrological manner and affect shear strength, infiltration capacity and moisture content. Simultaneously, geomorphic processes disturb the vegetation development. This strong coupling of the geomorphic and ecologic system is investigated in Biogeomorphology. Lateral moraine slopes are characterized by a variety of geomorphic processes, e. g. sheet wash, solifluction and linear erosion. However, some plant species, termed engineer species, possess specific functional traits which allow them to grow under these conditions and also enable them to influence the frequency, magnitude and even nature of geomorphic processes. For lateral moraine slopes, Dryas octopetala L., an alpine dwarf shrub, was identified as a potential engineer species. The engineering mechanism of D. octopetala, based on its morphological (e.g., growth form) and biomechanical (e.g., root strength) traits, yet remains unclear and only little research has been conducted on alpine plant species. The objectives of this study are to fill this gap by (A) quantifying D. octopetala root tensile strength as an important trait considering anchorage in and stabilization of the slope and (B) linking plant traits to the geomorphic process they influence on lateral moraine slopes. D. octopetala traits were studied on a lateral moraine slope in Turtmann glacier forefield, Switzerland. (A) Root strength of single root threads of Dryas octopetala L. were tested using the spring scale method (Schmidt et al., 2001; Hales et al., 2013). Measurement equipment was modified to enable field measurements of roots shortly after excavation. Tensile strength of individual root threads was calculated and statistically analyzed. First results show that

  16. Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other

  17. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG ampersand E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it's new marketing plan

  18. Groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration, Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada, March 2009-September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Huntington, Jena M; Buto, Susan G.; Moreo, Michael T.; Smith, J. LaRue; Andraski, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    With increasing population growth and land-use change, urban communities in the desert Southwest are progressively looking toward remote basins to supplement existing water supplies. Pending applications by Churchill County for groundwater appropriations from Dixie Valley, Nevada, a primarily undeveloped basin east of the Carson Desert, have prompted a reevaluation of the quantity of naturally discharging groundwater. The objective of this study was to develop a revised, independent estimate of groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration (ETg) from Dixie Valley using a combination of eddy-covariance evapotranspiration (ET) measurements and multispectral satellite imagery. Mean annual ETg was estimated during water years 2010 and 2011 at four eddy-covariance sites. Two sites were in phreatophytic shrubland dominated by greasewood, and two sites were on a playa. Estimates of total ET and ETg were supported with vegetation cover mapping, soil physics considerations, water‑level measurements from wells, and isotopic water sourcing analyses to allow partitioning of ETg into evaporation and transpiration components. Site-based ETg estimates were scaled to the basin level by combining remotely sensed imagery with field reconnaissance. Enhanced vegetation index and brightness temperature data were compared with mapped vegetation cover to partition Dixie Valley into five discharging ET units and compute basin-scale ETg. Evapotranspiration units were defined within a delineated groundwater discharge area and were partitioned as (1) playa lake, (2) playa, (3) sparse shrubland, (4) moderate-to-dense shrubland, and (5) grassland.

  19. You Can't Unscramble an Egg: Population Genetic Structure of Oncorhynchus mykiss in the California Central Valley Inferred from Combined Microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon E. Pearse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss4art3Steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are found in all of the major tributaries of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, which flow through California’s Central Valley and enter the ocean through San Francisco Bay and the Golden Gate. This river system is heavily affected by water development, agriculture, and invasive species, and salmon and trout hatchery propagation has been occurring for over 100 years. We collected genotype data for 18 highly variable microsatellite loci and 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from more than 1,900 fish from Central Valley drainages to analyze genetic diversity, population structure, differentiation between populations above and below dams, and the relationship of Central Valley O. mykiss populations to coastal California steelhead. In addition, we evaluate introgression by both hatchery rainbow trout strains, which have primarily native Central Valley ancestry, and imported coastal steelhead stocks. In contrast to patterns typical of coastal steelhead, Central Valley O. mykiss above and below dams within the same tributary were not found to be each others’ closest relatives, and we found no relationship between genetic and geographic distance among below-barrier populations. While introgression by hatchery rainbow trout strains does not appear to be widespread among above-barrier populations, steelhead in the American River and some neighboring tributaries have been introgressed by coastal steelhead. Together, these results demonstrate that the ancestral population genetic structure that existed among Central Valley tributaries has been significantly altered in contemporary populations. Future conservation, restoration, and mitigation efforts should take this into account when working to meet recovery planning goals.

  20. Heat flow in Railroad Valley, Nevada and implications for geothermal resources in the south-central Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Sass, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Basin is a province of high average heat flow (approximately 90 mW m-2), with higher values characteristic of some areas and relatively low heat flow (characteristic of an area in south-central Nevada known as the Eureka Low. There is hydrologie and thermal evidence that the Eureka Low results from a relatively shallow, hydrologically controlled heat sink associated with interbasin water flow in the Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. Evaluating this hypothesis and investigating the thermal state of the Eureka Low at depth is a high priority for the US Geological Survey as it prepares a new national geothermal resource assessment. Part of this investigation is focused on Railroad Valley, the site of the largest petroleum reservoirs in Nevada and one of the few locations within the Eureka Low with a known geothermal system. Temperature and thermal conductivity data have been acquired from wells in Railroad Valley in order to determine heat flow in the basin. The results reveal a complex interaction of cooling due to shallow ground-water flow, relatively low (49 to 76 mW m-2) conductive heat flow at depth in most of the basin, and high (up to 234 mW m-2) heat flow associated with the 125??C geothermal system that encompasses the Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon oil fields. The presence of the Railroad Valley geothermal resource within the Eureka Low may be reflect the absence of deep ground-water flow sweeping heat out of the basin. If true, this suggests that other areas in the carbonate aquifer province may contain deep geothermal resources that are masked by ground-water flow.

  1. Stable isotope and groundwater flow dynamics of agricultural irrigation recharge into groundwater resources of the Central Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davisson, M.L.; Criss, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Intensive agricultural irrigation and overdraft of groundwater in the Central Valley of California profoundly affect the regional quality and availability of shallow groundwater resources. In the natural state, the δ 18 O values of groundwater were relatively homogeneous (mostly -7.0 ± 0.5 per-thousand), reflecting local meteoric recharge that slowly (1-3m/yr) flowed toward the valley axis. Today, on the west side of the valley, the isotope distribution is dominated by high 18 O enclosures formed by recharge of evaporated irrigation waters, while the east side has bands of low 18 O groundwater indicating induced recharge from rivers draining the Sierra Nevada mountains. Changes in δ 18 O values caused by the agricultural recharge strongly correlate with elevated nitrate concentrations (5 to >100 mg/L) that form pervasive, non-point source pollutants. Small, west-side cities dependent solely on groundwater resources have experienced increases of >1.0 mg/L per year of nitrate for 10-30 years. The resultant high nitrates threaten the economical use of the groundwater for domestic purposes, and have forced some well shut-downs. Furthermore, since >80% of modern recharge is now derived from agricultural irrigation, and because modern recharge rates are ∼10 times those of the natural state, agricultural land retirement by urbanization will severely curtail the current safe-yields and promote overdraft pumping. Such overdrafting has occurred in the Sacramento metropolitan area for ∼40 years, creating cones of depression ∼25m deep. Today, groundwater withdrawal in Sacramento is approximately matched by infiltration of low 18 O water (-11.0 per-thousand) away from the Sacramento and American Rivers, which is estimated to occur at 100-300m/year from the sharp 18 O gradients in our groundwater isotope map

  2. Chilean central valley beekeeping as socially inclusive conservation practice in a social water scarcity context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eduardo Trujillo Bilbao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Through an ethnographic approach that complements conversations, tours and surveys of productive characterization is that the present study aims to approach the domestic beekeeping in the valley of Colliguay, Quilpué, fifth region of Chile. This is an activity that emerges as a result of deep transformations detonated by the neoliberalization of nature in general and water in particular. That is why it seeks to contextualize the situation of water scarcity that displaced livestock and put in place the bees. All of this through a political ecology lens. It is discussed how to achieve an anthropological reading of the ecological scenarios that denaturalize metabolic fractures in an area with a threatened presence of native forest. It is discovered that the outsider is the material and symbolic responsible of an increase in water stress and a key element in the social relations of confrontation of the valley. It is then related how bees have diverted the attention of their human counterparts to the affection and care of the forest that allows them to live, thus reinforcing the idea of a socially inclusive conservation.

  3. Vivid valleys, pallid peaks? Hypsometric variations and rural–urban land change in the Central Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    What happens to the land cover within the hinterland's altitudinal belts while Central Andean cities are undergoing globalization and urban restructuring? What conclusions can be drawn about changes in human land use? By incorporating a regional altitudinal zonation model, direct field observations and GIS analyses of remotely sensed long term data, the present study examines these questions using the example of Huancayo Metropolitano – an emerging Peruvian mountain city of 420,000 inhabitants, situated at 3260 m asl in the Mantaro Valley. The study's results indicate that rapid urban growth during the late 1980s and early 1990s was followed by the agricultural intensification and peri-urban condominization at the valley floor (quechua) – since the beginning of Peru's neoliberal era. Moreover, regarding the adjoining steep slopes (suni) and subsequent grassland ecosystems (puna), the research output presents land cover change trajectories that clearly show an expansion of human land use, such as reforestation for wood production and range burning for livestock grazing, even at high altitudes – despite rural–urban migration trends and contrary to several results of extra-Andean studies. Consequently, rural–urban planners and policy makers are challenged to focus on the manifold impacts of globalization on human land use – at all altitudinal belts of the Andean city's hinterland: toward sustainable mountain development that bridges the social and physical gaps – from the bottom up. PMID:23564987

  4. Vivid valleys, pallid peaks? Hypsometric variations and rural-urban land change in the Central Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    What happens to the land cover within the hinterland's altitudinal belts while Central Andean cities are undergoing globalization and urban restructuring? What conclusions can be drawn about changes in human land use? By incorporating a regional altitudinal zonation model, direct field observations and GIS analyses of remotely sensed long term data, the present study examines these questions using the example of Huancayo Metropolitano - an emerging Peruvian mountain city of 420,000 inhabitants, situated at 3260 m asl in the Mantaro Valley. The study's results indicate that rapid urban growth during the late 1980s and early 1990s was followed by the agricultural intensification and peri-urban condominization at the valley floor ( quechua ) - since the beginning of Peru's neoliberal era. Moreover, regarding the adjoining steep slopes ( suni ) and subsequent grassland ecosystems ( puna ), the research output presents land cover change trajectories that clearly show an expansion of human land use, such as reforestation for wood production and range burning for livestock grazing, even at high altitudes - despite rural-urban migration trends and contrary to several results of extra-Andean studies. Consequently, rural-urban planners and policy makers are challenged to focus on the manifold impacts of globalization on human land use - at all altitudinal belts of the Andean city's hinterland: toward sustainable mountain development that bridges the social and physical gaps - from the bottom up.

  5. Adapting to climate variability and change: experiences from cereal-based farming in the central rift and Kobo Valleys, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassie, Belay Tseganeh; Hengsdijk, Huib; Rötter, Reimund; Kahiluoto, Helena; Asseng, Senthold; Van Ittersum, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Small-holder farmers in Ethiopia are facing several climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall with severe droughts which can have devastating effects on their livelihoods. Projected changes in climate are expected to aggravate the existing challenges. This study examines farmer perceptions on current climate variability and long-term changes, current adaptive strategies, and potential barriers for successful further adaptation in two case study regions-the Central Rift Valley (CRV) and Kobo Valley. The study was based on a household questionnaire, interviews with key stakeholders, and focus group discussions. The result revealed that about 99 % of the respondents at the CRV and 96 % at the Kobo Valley perceived an increase in temperature and 94 % at CRV and 91 % at the Kobo Valley perceived a decrease in rainfall over the last 20-30 years. Inter-annual and intraseasonal rainfall variability also has increased according to the farmers. The observed climate data (1977-2009) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. In contrast to farmers' perceptions of a decrease in rainfall totals, observed rainfall data showed no statistically significant decline. The interaction among various bio-physical and socio-economic factors, changes in rainfall intensity and reduced water available to crops due to increased hot spells, may have influenced the perception of farmers with respect to rainfall trends. In recent decades, farmers in both the CRV and Kobo have changed farming practices to adapt to perceived climate change and variability, for example, through crop and variety choice, adjustment of cropping calendar, and in situ moisture conservation. These relatively low-cost changes in farm practices were within the limited adaptation capacity of farmers, which may be insufficient to deal with the impacts of future climate change. Anticipated climate change is expected to impose new

  6. Adapting to Climate Variability and Change: Experiences from Cereal-Based Farming in the Central Rift and Kobo Valleys, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassie, Belay Tseganeh; Hengsdijk, Huib; Rötter, Reimund; Kahiluoto, Helena; Asseng, Senthold; Van Ittersum, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Small-holder farmers in Ethiopia are facing several climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall with severe droughts which can have devastating effects on their livelihoods. Projected changes in climate are expected to aggravate the existing challenges. This study examines farmer perceptions on current climate variability and long-term changes, current adaptive strategies, and potential barriers for successful further adaptation in two case study regions—the Central Rift Valley (CRV) and Kobo Valley. The study was based on a household questionnaire, interviews with key stakeholders, and focus group discussions. The result revealed that about 99 % of the respondents at the CRV and 96 % at the Kobo Valley perceived an increase in temperature and 94 % at CRV and 91 % at the Kobo Valley perceived a decrease in rainfall over the last 20-30 years. Inter-annual and intraseasonal rainfall variability also has increased according to the farmers. The observed climate data (1977-2009) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. In contrast to farmers’ perceptions of a decrease in rainfall totals, observed rainfall data showed no statistically significant decline. The interaction among various bio-physical and socio-economic factors, changes in rainfall intensity and reduced water available to crops due to increased hot spells, may have influenced the perception of farmers with respect to rainfall trends. In recent decades, farmers in both the CRV and Kobo have changed farming practices to adapt to perceived climate change and variability, for example, through crop and variety choice, adjustment of cropping calendar, and in situ moisture conservation. These relatively low-cost changes in farm practices were within the limited adaptation capacity of farmers, which may be insufficient to deal with the impacts of future climate change. Anticipated climate change is expected to impose new

  7. Prestige and alcohol in South Mexican fiesta: drinking with saint patrons in the central valleys of Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jadwiga Zamorska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and alcohol are the key elements of celebrating a Mexican fiesta. I show that drinking at patronal feasts can be the way of constructing a respectful position, as presented in the ethnographic material collected in the three suburban communities of the Central Valleys of Oaxaca (in the years 2012–13. I discuss the relation between drinking alcohol at fiestas, participation and collective identity. I analyse the issue of prestige in the context drinking at fiestas and its relation to gender. I also discuss the role of alcohol in ritual exchanging of gifts at the patronal feasts which were under study and its relation with prestige. Other questions being analysed include the problem of refusing drink and the Catholic and non-Catholic critiques of patronal feasts as based on perceptions of excessive drinking.

  8. A hybrid machine learning model to predict and visualize nitrate concentration throughout the Central Valley aquifer, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Katherine M.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Traum, Jonathan A.; Faunt, Claudia; Bell, Andrew M.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Wheeler, David C.; Zamora, Celia; Jurgens, Bryant; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Belitz, Kenneth; Eberts, Sandra; Kourakos, George; Harter, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Intense demand for water in the Central Valley of California and related increases in groundwater nitrate concentration threaten the sustainability of the groundwater resource. To assess contamination risk in the region, we developed a hybrid, non-linear, machine learning model within a statistical learning framework to predict nitrate contamination of groundwater to depths of approximately 500 m below ground surface. A database of 145 predictor variables representing well characteristics, historical and current field and landscape-scale nitrogen mass balances, historical and current land use, oxidation/reduction conditions, groundwater flow, climate, soil characteristics, depth to groundwater, and groundwater age were assigned to over 6000 private supply and public supply wells measured previously for nitrate and located throughout the study area. The boosted regression tree (BRT) method was used to screen and rank variables to predict nitrate concentration at the depths of domestic and public well supplies. The novel approach included as predictor variables outputs from existing physically based models of the Central Valley. The top five most important predictor variables included two oxidation/reduction variables (probability of manganese concentration to exceed 50 ppb and probability of dissolved oxygen concentration to be below 0.5 ppm), field-scale adjusted unsaturated zone nitrogen input for the 1975 time period, average difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration during the years 1971–2000, and 1992 total landscape nitrogen input. Twenty-five variables were selected for the final model for log-transformed nitrate. In general, increasing probability of anoxic conditions and increasing precipitation relative to potential evapotranspiration had a corresponding decrease in nitrate concentration predictions. Conversely, increasing 1975 unsaturated zone nitrogen leaching flux and 1992 total landscape nitrogen input had an increasing relative

  9. Geologic map of the upper Arkansas River valley region, north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Bohannon, Robert G.; McIntosh, William C.; Premo, Wayne R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Moscati, Richard J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2017-11-17

    This 1:50,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey geologic map represents a compilation of the most recent geologic studies of the upper Arkansas River valley between Leadville and Salida, Colorado. The valley is structurally controlled by an extensional fault system that forms part of the prominent northern Rio Grande rift, an intra-continental region of crustal extension. This report also incorporates new detailed geologic mapping of previously poorly understood areas within the map area and reinterprets previously studied areas. The mapped region extends into the Proterozoic metamorphic and intrusive rocks in the Sawatch Range west of the valley and the Mosquito Range to the east. Paleozoic rocks are preserved along the crest of the Mosquito Range, but most of them have been eroded from the Sawatch Range. Numerous new isotopic ages better constrain the timing of both Proterozoic intrusive events, Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary intrusive events, and Eocene and Miocene volcanic episodes, including widespread ignimbrite eruptions. The uranium-lead ages document extensive about 1,440-million years (Ma) granitic plutonism mostly north of Buena Vista that produced batholiths that intruded an older suite of about 1,760-Ma metamorphic rocks and about 1,700-Ma plutonic rocks. As a result of extension during the Neogene and possibly latest Paleogene, the graben underlying the valley is filled with thick basin-fill deposits (Dry Union Formation and older sediments), which occupy two sub-basins separated by a bedrock high near the town of Granite. The Dry Union Formation has undergone deep erosion since the late Miocene or early Pliocene. During the Pleistocene, ongoing steam incision by the Arkansas River and its major tributaries has been interrupted by periodic aggradation. From Leadville south to Salida as many as seven mapped alluvial depositional units, which range in age from early to late Pleistocene, record periodic aggradational events along these streams that are

  10. Predominance of Central Asian and European families among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Kashmir Valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Gulnaz; Wani, Tehmeena; Sharma, Pragya; Katoch, V M; Lone, Rubina; Shah, Azra; Katoch, Kiran; Kakru, D K; Chauhan, Devendra Singh

    2017-10-01

    As there are no data available regarding the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in Kashmir Valley, India, the current study aimed at describing the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains in this region, by spoligotyping and 12-locus-based MIRU-VNTR typing (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeat). Sputa from 207 smear positive cases with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were subjected to culture for M. tuberculosis. Eighty-five isolates confirmed as M. tuberculosis were subjected to drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs. Drug susceptibility results of 72 isolates revealed 76.3% as fully sensitive while 5.5% as multidrug resistant (MDR). Spoligotyping of 85 isolates detected 42 spoligotypes with 50 isolates (58.8%) clustered into seven spoligotypes. SIT26/CAS1_Del was the major spoligotype (23, 27%) followed by SIT127/H4 (12, 14.1%); CAS lineage (37.6%) was predominant, followed by Haarlem (25.8%) and ill-defined T clade (23.5%). MIRU-VNTR analysis displayed 82 MIRU patterns from 85 strains, including 3 small clusters and 79 unique. MIRU 26 was found to be the most discriminatory locus. Kashmir Valley has CAS as the predominant lineage of M. tuberculosis similar to the rest of the Indian sub-continent, while it is peculiar in having Euro American lineages such as Haarlem and ill-defined T clade. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The population structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico suggests genetic differentiation between populations from cultivated potato and wild Solanum spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Grünwald, N.J.; Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Lozoya-Saldaña, H.; Fry, W.E.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected front cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xedinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and

  12. Methods, quality assurance, and data for assessing atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Celia; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey monitored atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California during two studies in 2001 and 2002–04. The 2001 study sampled wet deposition (rain) and storm-drain runoff in the Modesto, California, area during the orchard dormant-spray season to examine the contribution of pesticide concentrations to storm runoff from rainfall. In the 2002–04 study, the number and extent of collection sites in the Central Valley were increased to determine the areal distribution of organophosphate insecticides and other pesticides, and also five more sample types were collected. These were dry deposition, bulk deposition, and three sample types collected from a soil box: aqueous phase in runoff, suspended sediment in runoff, and surficial-soil samples. This report provides concentration data and describes methods and quality assurance of sample collection and laboratory analysis for pesticide compounds in all samples collected from 16 sites. Each sample was analyzed for 41 currently used pesticides and 23 pesticide degradates, including oxygen analogs (oxons) of 9 organophosphate insecticides. Analytical results are presented by sample type and study period. The median concentrations of both chloryprifos and diazinon sampled at four urban (0.067 micrograms per liter [μg/L] and 0.515 μg/L, respectively) and four agricultural sites (0.079 μg/L and 0.583 μg/L, respectively) during a January 2001 storm event in and around Modesto, Calif., were nearly identical, indicating that the overall atmospheric burden in the region appeared to be fairly similar during the sampling event. Comparisons of median concentrations in the rainfall to those in the McHenry storm-drain runoff showed that, for some compounds, rainfall contributed a substantial percentage of the concentration in the runoff; for other compounds, the concentrations in rainfall were much greater than in the runoff. For example, diazinon concentrations in rainfall were about

  13. Drinking-water hydropower station 'Loye' in Grone, Switzerland - Feasibility study; Petite centrale hydro-electrique de Loye sur le reseau d'eau potable de la commune de Grone. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a small hydropower project to be realised in Grone, southern Switzerland. The system planed is described. This provides the necessary pressure reduction in the drinking-water supply system between the springs in the mountains and the reservoir in the valley whilst generating electrical power at the same time. A one-injector Pelton turbine that meets all drinking-water quality requirements is used to generate 48 kW of electrical power using the pressure obtained from the height-difference of around 164 metres. The forecast electricity production amounts to 283,000 kWh/y, of which 88,000 kWh in the wintertime. The expected production cost is 0.219 CHF/kWh. A 550 m long pipeline has to be replaced.

  14. The ammonium nitrate particle equivalent of NOx emissions for wintertime conditions in Central California's San Joaquin Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockwell, W.R.; Watson, J.G.; Robinson, N.F.; Sylte, W.W.

    2000-01-01

    A new method has been developed to assess the aerosol particle formation reactivity of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions. The method involves using a photochemical box model with gas-phase photochemistry, aerosol production and deposition to calculate the ammonium nitrate particle equivalent of NO x emissions. The yields of ammonium nitrate particles used in the box model were determined from parametric simulations made with an equilibrium model that calculated the fraction of nitric acid that reacts to produce ammonium nitrate from the temperature, relative humidity and ammonium-to-nitrate ratios. For the wintertime conditions of emissions and meteorology in the San Joaquin Valley of central California, approximately 80% of the moles of nitric acid produced was found to be in the particulate nitrate phase and about 33% of the moles of emitted NO x was converted to particulate nitrate. The particle equivalent of NO x emissions was found to be on the order of 0.6 g of ammonium nitrate for each gram of NO x emitted (the mass of NO x calculated as NO 2 ). This estimate is in reasonable agreement with an analysis of field measurements made in central California. (author)

  15. Quality of groundwater and surface water, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, July and August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Residents and resource managers of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho are concerned about the effects that population growth might have on the quality of groundwater and surface water. As part of a multi-phase assessment of the groundwater resources in the study area, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the quality of water at 45 groundwater and 5 surface-water sites throughout the Wood River Valley during July and August 2012. Water samples were analyzed for field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity), major ions, boron, iron, manganese, nutrients, and Escherichia coli (E.coli) and total coliform bacteria. This study was conducted to determine baseline water quality throughout the Wood River Valley, with special emphasis on nutrient concentrations. Water quality in most samples collected did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. E. coli bacteria, used as indicators of water quality, were detected in all five surface-water samples and in two groundwater samples collected. Some analytes have aesthetic-based recommended drinking water standards; one groundwater sample exceeded recommended iron concentrations. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations varied, but tended to be higher near population centers and in agricultural areas than in tributaries and less populated areas. These higher nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were not correlated with boron concentrations or the presence of bacteria, common indicators of sources of nutrients to water. None of the samples collected exceeded drinking-water standards for nitrate or nitrite. The concentration of total dissolved solids varied considerably in the waters sampled; however a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate water type was dominant (43 out of 50 samples) in both the groundwater and surface water. Three constituents that may be influenced by anthropogenic activity (chloride, boron, and nitrate plus nitrite) deviate from this

  16. Temporal changes of meadow and peatbog vegetation in the landscape of a small-scale river valley in Central Roztocze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Szum is a right-side tributary of the Tanew River crossing the southern escarpment zone of the Central Roztocze region (SE Poland. Downstream of the strict river break in a section between the 10th and 12th km of the river course in the Szum valley, meadow and peatbog complexes have developed, associated with semi-hydrogenic and marshy soils. In an area of approx. 13 ha of the most valuable non-forest habitats, a variety of plant communities have been identified, including habitats of the Natura 2000 network and habitats that are protected under the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment (2001. These are, for instance, meadow associations Lysimachio vulgaris-Filipenduletum, Lythro-Filipenduletum, Filipendulo ulmariae-Menthetum longifoliae, Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei, and Cirsietum rivularis. The moss–sedge and sphagnum bog communities comprise noteworthy associations Caricetum limosae, Rhynchosporetum albae, Caricetum lasiocarpae, Caricetum paniceo-lepidocarpae, Caricetum davallianae, and Sphagnetum magellanici. These communities are composed of ca. 160 vascular plant species and 40 moss and liverwort species. In 1999–2014, the greatest changes occurred within macroforb meadows, i.e. small Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei and Cirsietum rivularis patches have been transformed into Lysimachio vulgaris-Filipenduletum, while some patches of the latter association have been transformed into a Caricetum acutiformis rush. Several patches of bog-spring associations Caricetum paniceo-lepidocarpae and Carici canescentis-Agrostietum caninae have been irretrievably destroyed. Sphagnetum magellanici appears to be the least stable community among the preserved peatbogs. The changes of meadow and peatbog vegetation observed for the last 15 years are a consequence of natural processes that take place in the river valley and to a large extent human activity connected with the so-called small-scale water retention as well as the presence of a beaver

  17. Improving Flood Risk Management for California's Central Valley: How the State Developed a Toolbox for Large, System-wide Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, N.; Liang, Y.; Bindra, A.

    2016-12-01

    More than 1 million Californians live and work in the floodplains of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley where flood risks are among the highest in the nation. In response to this threat to people, property and the environment, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) has been called to action to improve flood risk management. This has transpired through significant advances in development of flood information and tools, analysis, and planning. Senate Bill 5 directed DWR to prepare the Central Valley Flood Protection Plan (CVFPP) and update it every 5 years. A key component of this aggressive planning approach is answering the question: What is the current flood risk, and how would proposed improvements change flood risk throughout the system? Answering this question is a substantial challenge due to the size and complexity of the watershed and flood control system. The watershed is roughly 42,000 sq mi, and flows are controlled by numerous reservoirs, bypasses, and levees. To overcome this challenge, the State invested in development of a comprehensive analysis "tool box" through various DWR programs. Development of the tool box included: collection of hydro-meteorological, topographic, geotechnical, and economic data; development of rainfall-runoff, reservoir operation, hydraulic routing, and flood risk analysis models; and development of specialized applications and computing schemes to accelerate the analysis. With this toolbox, DWR is analyzing flood hazard, flood control system performance, exposure and vulnerability of people and property to flooding, consequence of flooding for specific events, and finally flood risk for a range of CVFPP alternatives. Based on the results, DWR will put forward a State Recommended Plan in the 2017 CVFPP. Further, the value of the analysis tool box extends beyond the CVFPP. It will serve as a foundation for other flood studies for years to come and has already been successfully applied for inundation mapping to support emergency

  18. Wild common bean in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: ecological distribution and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa In\\u00E9s Gonz\\u00E1lez Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Frijol silvestre en el Valle Central de Costa Rica: distribución ecológica y caracterización molecular. Este trabajo presenta una actualización sobre la distribución de las formas silvestres de fríjol común en Costa Rica, su ecología y su caracterización molecular. Ala fecha 22 poblaciones fueron encontradas en cuatro cuencas alrededor del Valle Central, generalmente en vegetaciones ruderales (frecuentemente bordes de cafetales, con estatuto de conservación variable (desde protegido a amenazado. Su caracterización molecular indica su pertenencia al acervo genético mesoamericano. Varios marcadores indican una variabilidad aumentada en las formas silvestres y permiten inferir la presencia de un fenómeno de flujo genético e introgresión desde materiales cultivados.

  19. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location

    OpenAIRE

    Sardiï as, HS; Tom, K; Ponisio, LC; Rominger, A; Kremen, C

    2016-01-01

    � 2016 by the Ecological Society of America. The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination cove...

  20. Demise of the northern Tethyan Urgonian carbonate platform and subsequent transition towards pelagic conditions: The sedimentary record of the Col de la Plaine Morte area, central Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Gainon, François

    2008-04-01

    The sedimentary succession of the Col de la Plaine Morte area (Helvetic Alps, central Switzerland) documents the disappearance of the northern Tethyan Urgonian platform in unprecedented detail and suggests stepwise platform demise, with each drowning phase documented by erosion and phosphogenesis. The first identified drowning phase terminated Urgonian carbonate production in a predominantly photozoan mode. Using a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record with the well-dated record from SE France, its age is inferred to as Middle Early Aptian (near the boundary between the weissi and deshayesi zones). A subsequent drowning phase is dated by ammonites and by a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record as Late Early Aptian (late deshayesi to early furcata zone). A third drowning phase provides an ammonite-based age of Early Late Aptian ( subnodosocostatum and melchioris zones) and is part of a widely recognized phase of sediment condensation and phosphogenesis, which is dated as latest Early to Middle Late Aptian (late furcata zone to near the boundary of the melchioris and nolani zones). The fourth and final drowning phase started in the latest Aptian ( jacobi zone) as is also indicated by ammonite findings at the Col de la Plaine Morte. The phases of renewed platform-carbonate production intervening between the drowning phases were all in a heterozoan mode. During the ultimate drowning phase, phosphogenesis continued until the Early Middle Albian, whereas condensation processes lasted until the Middle Turonian. Coverage of the external margin of the drowned Urgonian platform by a drape of pelagic carbonates started only in the Late Turonian. During the Santonian, the external part of the drowned platform underwent normal faulting and saw the re-exposure of already lithified Urgonian carbonates at the seafloor. Based on the here-inferred ages, the first drowning phase just precedes oceanic anoxic episode 1a (OAE 1a or "selli event") in time, and the second

  1. Seasonal and diurnal variations in methane and carbon dioxide in the Kathmandu Valley in the foothills of the central Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Mahata, Khadak; Panday, Arnico Kumar; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Singh, Ashish; Naja, Manish; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2017-10-01

    The SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) international air pollution measurement campaign was carried out from December 2012 to June 2013 in the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding regions in Nepal. The Kathmandu Valley is a bowl-shaped basin with a severe air pollution problem. This paper reports measurements of two major greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), along with the pollutant CO, that began during the campaign and were extended for 1 year at the SusKat-ABC supersite in Bode, a semi-urban location in the Kathmandu Valley. Simultaneous measurements were also made during 2015 in Bode and a nearby rural site (Chanban) ˜ 25 km (aerial distance) to the southwest of Bode on the other side of a tall ridge. The ambient mixing ratios of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured with a cavity ring-down spectrometer (G2401; Picarro, USA) along with meteorological parameters for 1 year (March 2013-March 2014). These measurements are the first of their kind in the central Himalayan foothills. At Bode, the annual average mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4 were 419.3 (±6.0) ppm and 2.192 (±0.066) ppm, respectively. These values are higher than the levels observed at background sites such as Mauna Loa, USA (CO2: 396.8 ± 2.0 ppm, CH4: 1.831 ± 0.110 ppm) and Waliguan, China (CO2: 397.7 ± 3.6 ppm, CH4: 1.879 ± 0.009 ppm) during the same period and at other urban and semi-urban sites in the region, such as Ahmedabad and Shadnagar (India). They varied slightly across the seasons at Bode, with seasonal average CH4 mixing ratios of 2.157 (±0.230) ppm in the pre-monsoon season, 2.199 (±0.241) ppm in the monsoon, 2.210 (±0.200) ppm in the post-monsoon, and 2.214 (±0.209) ppm in the winter season. The average CO2 mixing ratios were 426.2 (±25.5) ppm in the pre-monsoon, 413.5 (±24.2) ppm in the monsoon, 417.3 (±23.1) ppm in the post-monsoon, and 421.9 (±20

  2. The Relationship Between Turbulence and Air Quality in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, D.; Faloona, I. C.; Trousdell, J.; Conley, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The San Joaquin valley is known for excessive air pollution, owing to local production combined with flow patterns that channel in air from the bay area, with surrounding mountains trapping the air inside. Understanding the role of boundary layer in the context of these dynamics is a particular challenge that will aid in effective air quality attainment planning. During the summers of 2015 and 2016, a Mooney aircraft operated by Scientific Aviation Inc. collected 170 hours of airborne data between Fresno and Bakersfield, CA. Combining this data with WRF forecast output, it is possible to use a simple budget technique to estimate the kinematic surface heat fluxes and thus the convective velocity scale. The 1 Hz wind measurements on the aircraft are provided by a newly developed low-cost system that utilizes the placement of dual GPS antennae on fixed positions of the airframe. Power spectra from the data indicates that the inertial subrange of turbulence is detectable from wavelengths of 150-500 m. Using Kolmogorov scaling laws, it is possible to estimate that about 20% of the total variance is not being captured by the system (at spatial scales under 150 m). Similarity relationships can then be employed to estimate the convective velocity scale as a function of sampling length, which levels off at about 22 km to a value within 5% of the estimate obtained by the budgeting method. A larger goal of this work is to connect these turbulence parameters with observations of air quality, noting that a major finding of the field campaign is that the entrainment between the polluted boundary layer and cleaner free troposphere plays a significant role in the local daytime pollutant concentration. Nighttime dynamics are being explored as well. Using a combination of 915 MHz sounder data from Visalia, ground ozone monitors, and flight data, a relationship can be seen between the nocturnal low level jet speed and ozone concentrations the following day. This suggests a

  3. Telescoped porphyry-style and epithermal veins and alteration at the central Maratoto valley prospect, Hauraki Goldfield, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.P.; Mauk, J.L.; Kendrick, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    At the central Maratoto valley prospect, southern Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand, andesite flows and dacite breccias host rare porphyry-style quartz veins that are telescoped by widespread epithermal veins and alteration. Early porphyry-style quartz veins, which lack selvages of porphyry-style alteration, host hypersaline fluid inclusions that contain several translucent daughter crystals, including halite and sylvite. Overprinting epithermal veins and alteration are divided into two stages. Main-stage epithermal alteration and veins are characterised by the successive deposition of pyrite, quartz, and ankerite-dolomite veinlets coupled with intense alteration of the wall rock to quartz, illite, interlayer illite-smectite (≤ 10% smectite), chlorite, pyrite, ankerite, and dolomite. Late-stage epithermal veins and alteration are characterised by the formation of calcite and siderite veinlets, coupled with overprinting of the wall rocks by both these minerals. Multiphase fluid inclusions in a porphyry-style quartz vein formed at temperatures >400 degrees C and trapped hypersaline magmatic fluid. Lower temperature secondary liquid-rich inclusions in the porphyry-style quartz vein homogenise between 283 and 329 degrees C and trapped a dilute fluid with 18 O (VSMOW) values of 13.5-18.1 permille, whereas late-stage epithermal calcite has δ 18 O (VSMOW) values of 3.1-5.1 permille. Calculated isotopic compositions for the fluid in equilibrium with ankerite-dolomite and calcite at 260 degrees C, averages 6 and -3 permille, respectively. The enriched value for main-stage ankerite-dolomite suggests formation from waters that underwent significant water-rock exchange, whereas isotopically lighter water that formed late-stage calcite underwent little water-rock interaction. We propose a three-stage model to explain telescoped veins and alteration styles at the central Maratoto valley prospect area. Porphyry-style quartz veins were the first to form from hot hypersaline

  4. Understanding surface-water availability in the Central Valley as a means to projecting future groundwater storage with climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    California's Central Valley (CV) relies heavily on diverted surface water and groundwater pumping to supply irrigated agriculture. However, understanding the spatiotemporal character of water availability in the CV is difficult because of the number of individual farms and local, state, and federal agencies involved in using and managing water. Here we use the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), developed by the USGS, to understand the relationships between climatic variability, surface water inputs, and resulting groundwater use over the historical period 1970-2013. We analyzed monthly surface water diversion data from >500 CV locations. Principle components analyses were applied to drivers constructed from meteorological data, surface reservoir storage, ET, land use cover, and upstream inflows, to feed multiple regressions and identify factors most important in predicting surface water diversions. Two thirds of the diversion locations ( 80% of total diverted water) can be predicted to within 15%. Along with monthly inputs, representations of cumulative precipitation over the previous 3 to 36 months can explain an additional 10% of variance, depending on location, compared to results that excluded this information. Diversions in the southern CV are highly sensitive to inter-annual variability in precipitation (R2 = 0.8), whereby more surface water is used during wet years. Until recently, this was not the case in the northern and mid-CV, where diversions were relatively constant annually, suggesting relative insensitivity to drought. In contrast, this has important implications for drought response in southern regions (eg. Tulare Basin) where extended dry conditions can severely limit surface water supplies and lead to excess groundwater pumping, storage loss, and subsidence. In addition to fueling our understanding of spatiotemporal variability in diversions, our ability to predict these water balance components allows us to update CVHM predictions before

  5. 10Be exposure age chronology of the last glaciation of the Roháčská Valley in the Western Tatra Mountains, central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Mentlík, Pavel; Braucher, Régis; Křížek, Marek; Pluháčková, Markéta; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Keddadouche, Karim; Aster Team; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Keddadouche, Karim

    2017-09-01

    10Be exposure ages from moraines and bedrock sites in the Roháčská Valley provide chronology of the last glaciation in the largest valley of the Western Tatra Mts., the Western Carpathians. The minimum apparent exposure age of 19.4 ± 2.1 ka obtained for the oldest sampled boulder and the mean age of 18.0 ± 0.8 ka calculated for the terminal moraine indicate that the oldest preserved moraine was probably deposited at the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The age of this moraine coincides with the termination of the maximum glacier expansion in other central European ranges, including the adjacent High Tatra Mts. and the Alps. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the LGM glacier in the Roháčská Valley, estimated at 1400-1410 m a.s.l., was 50-80 m lower than in the eastern part of the range, indicating a positive ELA gradient from west to east among the north-facing glaciers in the Tatra Mts. Lateglacial glacier expansion occurred no later than 13.4 ± 0.5 ka and 11.9 ± 0.5 ka, as indicated by the mean exposure ages calculated for re-advance moraines. This timing is consistent with the exposure age chronology of the last Lateglacial re-advance in the High Tatra Mts., Alps and lower mountain ranges in central Europe. The ELA in the Roháčská Valley estimated at 1690-1770 m a.s.l. in this period was located 130-300 m lower than in the north-facing valleys in the High Tatra Mts. 10Be exposure ages obtained for a rock glacier constrains the timing of this landform stabilization in the Salatínska Valley and provides the first chronological evidence for the Lateglacial activity of rock glaciers in the Carpathians.

  6. Intermontane eolian sand sheet development, Upper Tulum Valley, central-western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Francisco Fuhr Dal' Bó

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe intermontane Upper Tulum eolian sand sheet covers an area of ca. 125 km² at north of the San Juan Province, central-western Argentina. The sand sheet is currently an aggrading system where vegetation cover, surface cementation and periodic flooding withhold the development of dunes with slipfaces. The sand sheet surface is divided into three parts according to the distribution of sedimentary features, which reflects the variation in sediment budget, water table level and periodic flooding. The central sand sheet part is the main area of eolian deposition and is largely stabilized by vegetation. The sedimentary succession is 4 m thick and records the vertical interbedding of eolian and subaqueous deposits, which have been deposited for at least 3.6 ky with sedimentation rates of 86.1 cm/ky. The construction of the sand sheet is associated with deflation of the sand-graded debris sourced by San Juan alluvial fan, which is available mainly in drier fall-winter months where water table is lower and wind speeds are periodically above the threshold velocity for sand transport. The accumulation of sedimentary bodies occurs in a stabilized eolian system where vegetation cover, thin mud veneers and surface cementation are the main agents in promoting accumulation. The preservation of the sand sheet accumulations is enabled by the progressive creation of the accommodation space in a tectonically active basin and the continuous burial of geological bodies favored by high rates of sedimentation.

  7. A new subdivision of the central Sesia Zone (Aosta Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Engi, Martin; Manzotti, Paola; Ballèvre, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Sesia Zone in the Western Alps is a continental terrane probably derived from the NW-Adriatic margin and polydeformed at HP conditions during Alpine convergence. Subdivisions of the Sesia Zone classically have been based on the dominant lithotypes: Eclogitic Micaschist Complex, Seconda Zona Diorito-Kinzigitica, and Gneiss Minuti Complex. However, recent work (Regis et al., 2014) on what was considered a single internal unit has revealed that it comprises two or more tectonic slices that experienced substantially different PTDt-evolutions. Therefore, detailed regional petrographic and structural mapping (1:3k to 1:10k) was undertaken and combined with extensive sampling for petrochronological analysis. Results allow us to propose a first tectonic scheme for the Sesia Zone between the Aosta Valley and Val d'Ayas. A set of field criteria was developed and applied, aiming to recognize and delimit the first order tectonic units in this complex structural and metamorphic context. The approach rests on three criteria used in the field: (1) Discontinuously visible metasedimentary trails (mostly carbonates) considered to be monocyclic (Permo-Mesozoic protoliths); (2) mappable high-strain zones; and (3) visible differences in the metamorphic imprint. None of these key features used are sufficient by themselves, but in combination they allow us to propose a new map that delimits main units. We propose an Internal Complex with three eclogitic sheets, each 0.5-3 km thick. Dominant lithotypes include micaschists associated with mafic rocks and minor orthogneiss. The main foliation is of HP, dipping moderately NW. Each of these sheets is bounded by (most likely monometamorphic) sediments, <10-50 m thick. HP-relics (of eclogite facies) are widespread, but a greenschist facies overprint locally is strong close to the tectonic contact to neighbouring sheets. An Intermediate Complex lies NW of the Internal Complex and comprises two thinner, wedge-shaped units termed slices. These

  8. The NRG1 exon 11 missense variant is not associated with autism in the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallas Marietha

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are conducting a genetic study of autism in the isolated population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR. A novel Neuregulin 1 (NRG1 missense variant (exon 11 G>T was recently associated with psychosis and schizophrenia (SCZ in the same population isolate. Methods We genotyped the NRG1 exon 11 missense variant in 146 cases with autism, or autism spectrum disorder, with CVCR ancestry, and both parents when available (N = 267 parents from 143 independent families. Additional microsatellites were genotyped to examine haplotypes bearing the exon 11 variant. Results The NRG1 exon 11 G>T variant was found in 4/146 cases including one de novo occurrence. The frequency of the variant in case chromosomes was 0.014 and 0.045 in the parental non-transmitted chromosomes. At least 6 haplotypes extending 0.229 Mb were associated with the T allele. Three independent individuals, with no personal or family history of psychiatric disorder, shared at least a 1 megabase haplotype 5' to the T allele. Conclusion The NRG1 exon 11 missense variant is not associated with autism in the CVCR.

  9. Fire Regimes of Remnant Pitch Pine Communities in the Ridge and Valley Region of Central Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Marschall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fire-adapted ecosystems in the northeastern U.S. are converting to fire-intolerant vegetation communities due to fire suppression in the 20th century. Prescribed fire and other vegetation management activities that increase resilience and resistance to global changes are increasingly being implemented, particularly on public lands. For many fire-dependent communities, there is little quantitative data describing historical fire regime attributes such as frequency, severity, and seasonality, or how these varied through time. Where available, fire-scarred live and remnant trees, including stumps and snags, offer valuable insights into historical fire regimes through tree-ring and fire-scar analyses. In this study, we dated fire scars from 66 trees at two sites in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains in central Pennsylvania, and described fire frequency, severity, and seasonality from the mid-17th century to 2013. Fires were historically frequent, of low to moderate severity, occurred mostly during the dormant season, and were influenced by aspect and topography. The current extended fire-free interval is unprecedented in the previous 250–300 years at both sites.

  10. Social and economic factors of chile de agua (Capsicum Annum L. in three municipalities of the Central Valley in Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Mendoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue was carried out in the municipalities of San Pablo Huixtepec, San Sebastián Abasolo and Culiapan of Guerrero as part of the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico. We studied the production system of Agua Chile, using the technique of structured interview,information was obtained that allowed us to determine and meet the current models of socio-economic benefits in the form of productionof this vegetable. The importance of this study is that the chile de agua despite being a highly profitable crop has been little studied, so it is not known the extent that can have, there are markets that offer potentially greater benefits to farmers, therefore it is important to know the current situation of farmers in order to provide alternatives to improve their economic situation. The results indicate that according to the practices of peasant production and the low level of technology that includes the type of fertilizers, agrochemicals to combat pests and diseases and low use of agricultural machinery, yields of 3.97 t ha-1 allow total revenues are higher than the costs of production. Besides the existence of limited marketing networks (primarily in local markets and in the Oaxaca city, is a competitive crop in terms of profitability for finance of small production units and furthermore, it is growing factor relevant food security of farming families.

  11. Water transfer and major environmental provisions of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act: A preliminary economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John B.

    1994-06-01

    Increasing block water pricing, water transfer, and wildlife refuge water supply provisions of the Central Valley Project (CVP) Improvement Act are analyzed in terms of likely farmer response and economic efficiency of these provisions. Based on a simplified partial equilibrium analysis, we estimate small, but significant water conservation savings due to pricing reform, the potential for substantial water transfers to non-CVP customers in severe drought years when the water price exceeds 110 per acre foot (1 acre foot equals 1.234 × 103 m3) and positive net benefits for implementation of the wildlife refuge water supply provisions. The high threshold water price is partly a result of requiring farmers to pay full cost on transferred water plus a surcharge of 25 per acre foot if the water is transferred to a non-CVP user. The act also sets an important precedent for water pricing reform, water transfer provisions, and environmental surcharges on water users that may find their way to other Bureau of Reclamation projects.

  12. Analysis of twelve polymorphous bookmarks in the DNA of a population sample of the Costa Rican Central Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, E.; Lobo, J.; Leon, P.

    1999-01-01

    To establish databases of allele frequencies in a Costa Rican Central Valley population sample. Peripheral blood samples from more than 40 individual were used to isolate DNA and analyze each sample with 10 dinucleotide repeat genetic markers and with 2 mini satellite repeats, using the polymerase chain reaction. Alleles were identified by comparison with DNA from CEPH family members. Genotypes were determined by labelling one of the two Pcr primers with 32P before amplification, electrophoresis in sequencing gels and autoradiography. Analysis of this data set indicates that these samples is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and shows no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between markers. These data are compared with results from other human populations analyzed with the same markers, finding similarities in allele frequencies among them. Notably, the Costa Rican sample presents the lowest heterozygosity value, with 4 of the 10 dinucleotide markers tested, followed by a Cerdenian sample. In contrast, the two African samples presented the highest heterozygosity indexes with a larger number of alleles. (L. Jimenez) [es

  13. Seasonal and diurnal variations in methane and carbon dioxide in the Kathmandu Valley in the foothills of the central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Mahata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley–Atmospheric Brown Clouds international air pollution measurement campaign was carried out from December 2012 to June 2013 in the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding regions in Nepal. The Kathmandu Valley is a bowl-shaped basin with a severe air pollution problem. This paper reports measurements of two major greenhouse gases (GHGs, methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2, along with the pollutant CO, that began during the campaign and were extended for 1 year at the SusKat-ABC supersite in Bode, a semi-urban location in the Kathmandu Valley. Simultaneous measurements were also made during 2015 in Bode and a nearby rural site (Chanban  ∼  25 km (aerial distance to the southwest of Bode on the other side of a tall ridge. The ambient mixing ratios of methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2, water vapor, and carbon monoxide (CO were measured with a cavity ring-down spectrometer (G2401; Picarro, USA along with meteorological parameters for 1 year (March 2013–March 2014. These measurements are the first of their kind in the central Himalayan foothills. At Bode, the annual average mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4 were 419.3 (±6.0 ppm and 2.192 (±0.066 ppm, respectively. These values are higher than the levels observed at background sites such as Mauna Loa, USA (CO2: 396.8 ± 2.0 ppm, CH4: 1.831 ± 0.110 ppm and Waliguan, China (CO2: 397.7 ± 3.6 ppm, CH4: 1.879 ± 0.009 ppm during the same period and at other urban and semi-urban sites in the region, such as Ahmedabad and Shadnagar (India. They varied slightly across the seasons at Bode, with seasonal average CH4 mixing ratios of 2.157 (±0.230 ppm in the pre-monsoon season, 2.199 (±0.241 ppm in the monsoon, 2.210 (±0.200 ppm in the post-monsoon, and 2.214 (±0.209 ppm in the winter season. The average CO2 mixing ratios were 426.2 (±25.5 ppm in the pre-monsoon, 413.5 (±24.2 ppm in the monsoon

  14. Impacts of the 2016 outburst flood on the Bhote Koshi River valley, central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristen; Andermann, Christoff; Gimbert, Florent; Hovius, Niels; Adhikari, Basanta

    2017-04-01

    The central Nepal Himalaya is a region of rapid erosion where fluvial processes are largely driven by the annual Indian Summer Monsoon, which delivers up to several meters of precipitation each year. However, the rivers in this region are also subject to rare catastrophic floods caused by the sudden failure of landslide or moraine dams. Because these floods happen rarely, it has been difficult to isolate their impact on the rivers and adjacent hillslopes, and their importance for the long-term evolution of Himalayan rivers is poorly constrained. On the 5th of July, 2016, the Bhote Koshi River in central Nepal was hit by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF). The flood passed through a seismic and hydrological observatory installed along the river in June 2015, and we have used the resulting data to constrain the timing, duration, and bedload transport properties of the outburst flood. The impact of the flood on the river can be further observed with hourly time-lapse photographs, daily measurements of suspended sediment load, repeat lidar surveys, and satellite imagery. Overall, our observatory data span two monsoon seasons, allowing us to evaluate the impacts of the outburst flood relative to the annual monsoon flood. The outburst flood affected the river on several timescales. In the short term, it transported large amounts of coarse sediment and restructured the river bed during the hours of the flood pulse itself. Over intermediate timescales it resulted in elevated bedload and suspended load transport for several weeks following the flood. Over longer timescales the flood undercut and destabilized the river banks and hillslopes in a number of locations, leading to bank collapses, slumps, and landslides. We map changes in the channel and associated mass wasting using rapidEye imagery from Oct. 2015 and Oct. 2016. We also use repeat terrestrial lidar scans to quantify the magnitude of change in multiple locations along the river channel and to measure bank

  15. Modeling The Evolution Of A Regional Aquifer System With The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, C. F.; Dogrul, E. C.; Kadir, T. N.; Moncrief, M. R.; Shultz, S.; Tonkin, M.; Wendell, D.

    2006-12-01

    The finite element application IWFM has been used to develop an integrated groundwater-surface water model for California's Central Valley, an area of ~50,000 km2, to simulate the evolution of the groundwater flow system and historical groundwater-surface water interactions on a monthly time step from October 1921 to September 2003. The Central Valley's hydrologic system changed significantly during this period. Prior to 1920, most surface water flowed unimpeded from source areas in the mountains surrounding the Central Valley through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to the Pacific Ocean, and groundwater largely flowed from recharge areas on the valley rim to discharge as evapotransipration in extensive marshes along the valley's axis. Rapid agricultural development led to increases in groundwater pumping from ~0.5 km3/yr in the early 1920's to 13-18 km3/yr in the 1940's to 1970's, resulting in strong vertical head gradients, significant head declines throughout the valley, and subsidence of >0.3 m over an area of 13,000 km2. Construction of numerous dams and development of an extensive surface water delivery network after 1950 altered the surface water flow regime and reduced groundwater pumping to the current ~10 km3/yr, increasing net recharge and leading to local head gradient reversals and water level recoveries. A model calibrated to the range of historical flow regimes in the Central Valley will provide robust estimations of stream-groundwater interactions for a range of projected future scenarios. C2VSIM uses the IWFM application to simulate a 3-D finite element groundwater flow process dynamically coupled with 1-D land surface, stream flow, lake and unsaturated zone processes. The groundwater flow system is represented with three layers each having 1393 elements. Land surface processes are simulated using 21 subregions corresponding to California DWR water-supply planning areas. The surface-water network is simulated using 431 stream nodes representing 72

  16. Human effects on the hydrologic system of the Verde Valley, central Arizona, 1910–2005 and 2005–2110, using a regional groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Pool, D.R.; Tillman, Fred D.; Forbes, Brandon T.

    2013-01-01

    Water budgets were developed for the Verde Valley of central Arizona in order to evaluate the degree to which human stresses have affected the hydrologic system and might affect it in the future. The Verde Valley is a portion of central Arizona wherein concerns have been raised about water availability, particularly perennial base flow of the Verde River. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater Flow Model (NARGFM) was used to generate the water budgets and was run in several configurations for the 1910–2005 and 2005–2110 time periods. The resultant water budgets were subtracted from one another in order to quantify the relative changes that were attributable solely to human stresses; human stresses included groundwater withdrawals and incidental and artificial recharge but did not include, for example, human effects on the global climate. Three hypothetical and varied conditions of human stresses were developed and applied to the model for the 2005–2110 period. On the basis of this analysis, human stresses during 1910–2005 were found to have already affected the hydrologic system of the Verde Valley, and human stresses will continue to affect the hydrologic system during 2005–2110. Riparian evapotranspiration decreased and underflow into the Verde Valley increased because of human stresses, and net groundwater discharge to the Verde River in the Verde Valley decreased for the 1910–2005 model runs. The model also showed that base flow at the upstream end of the study area, as of 2005, was about 4,900 acre-feet per year less than it would have been in the absence of human stresses. At the downstream end of the Verde Valley, base flow had been reduced by about 10,000 acre-feet per year by the year 2005 because of human stresses. For the 2005–2110 period, the model showed that base flow at the downstream end of the Verde Valley may decrease by an additional 5,400 to 8,600 acre-feet per year because of past, ongoing, and hypothetical future human

  17. Seasonal and diel patterns of total gaseous mercury concentration in the atmosphere of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Aylin; Valdes, Juan; Sibaja, Jose; Vega, Ilena; Alfaro, Rosa; Morales, Jose; Esquivel, Germain; Barrantes, Elisa; Black, Paleah; Lean, David

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Elevated seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed in the Central Valley of Costa Rica 27 km south-east of the Poas volcano. → With the onset of the wet season TGM in late April, values increased from typical values near 10 to 905 ng m -3 . → During the day, TGM values increased until midday along with temperature and radiation but relative humidity showed a reciprocal pattern. → We conclude that elemental mercury from the volcano may react with atmospheric oxidants especially during the dry season and the mercury would be deposited to the ground. → With the onset of heavy rains, mercury in the soil is reduced and re-volatilized resulting in the high levels in atmospheric air at the end of April. - Abstract: Monitoring of Hg in the atmosphere near volcanoes is limited with no previous data for Costa Rica. Seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed at the main sampling location at the Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. The area (lat. 10.000230 long. -84.109499) is located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica and is 27 km SE of the Poas volcano (lat. 10.199486 long. -84.231388). Measurements were made from May 2008 to May 2009 at this location with some additional values obtained at other sites near the Poas volcano including San Luis and Grecia as well as near, Turrialba and Irazu volcanoes. Total gaseous Hg was determined in samples collected at a height of 2 m using the Tekran 2537A (Tekran Inc.) gas-phase Hg vapor analyzer. Meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, radiation and precipitation) were obtained from the airport weather station located at Alajuela. Monthly precipitation is typically 85 mm during the dry season (December to April) with winds from the west. The wet season begins in late April and continues to December with monthly rainfall of 328 mm and winds from the NE. The annual mean temperature is 20 deg. C

  18. Seasonal and diel patterns of total gaseous mercury concentration in the atmosphere of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Aylin; Valdes, Juan; Sibaja, Jose; Vega, Ilena; Alfaro, Rosa; Morales, Jose; Esquivel, Germain; Barrantes, Elisa [Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, LAQAT-UNA, Universidad Nacional, P.O. Box 86-3000, Heredia (Costa Rica); Black, Paleah [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, P.O. Box 450 Station A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Lean, David, E-mail: drslean@gmail.com [P.O. Box 309, Apsley, Ontario, K0L 1A0 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed in the Central Valley of Costa Rica 27 km south-east of the Poas volcano. {yields} With the onset of the wet season TGM in late April, values increased from typical values near 10 to 905 ng m{sup -3}. {yields} During the day, TGM values increased until midday along with temperature and radiation but relative humidity showed a reciprocal pattern. {yields} We conclude that elemental mercury from the volcano may react with atmospheric oxidants especially during the dry season and the mercury would be deposited to the ground. {yields} With the onset of heavy rains, mercury in the soil is reduced and re-volatilized resulting in the high levels in atmospheric air at the end of April. - Abstract: Monitoring of Hg in the atmosphere near volcanoes is limited with no previous data for Costa Rica. Seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed at the main sampling location at the Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. The area (lat. 10.000230 long. -84.109499) is located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica and is 27 km SE of the Poas volcano (lat. 10.199486 long. -84.231388). Measurements were made from May 2008 to May 2009 at this location with some additional values obtained at other sites near the Poas volcano including San Luis and Grecia as well as near, Turrialba and Irazu volcanoes. Total gaseous Hg was determined in samples collected at a height of 2 m using the Tekran 2537A (Tekran Inc.) gas-phase Hg vapor analyzer. Meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, radiation and precipitation) were obtained from the airport weather station located at Alajuela. Monthly precipitation is typically 85 mm during the dry season (December to April) with winds from the west. The wet season begins in late April and continues to December with monthly rainfall of 328 mm and winds from the NE. The annual mean

  19. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  20. Geochemical study of travertines along middle-lower Tiber valley (central Italy): genesis, palaeo-environmental and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, Francesca; Brilli, Mauro; Mancini, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Several travertine deposits dating to the Pleistocene outcrop along the Tiber valley between Orte and Rome. Mineralogically, they are mainly composed of calcite; various lithofacies (stromatolitic, phytoclastic, and massive) were identified and relatively wide ranges of carbon (δ13C -8.11 to +11.42‰ vs. VPDB) and oxygen (δ18O +22.74 to +27.71‰ vs. VSMOW) isotope compositions were measured. The isotope and chemical compositions of water and free gases, in some cases associated with the travertines, were also measured. Carbon isotope data show that several samples fall in the typical range of thermogenic travertine, i.e., linked to the addition of deep inorganic CO2. The oxygen isotope composition of the springs associated with the travertine deposits points to travertine precipitation by slightly thermal water of meteoric origin. In general, these travertines are in association with, or close to, mineralised groundwaters (with slightly acidic pH, low thermalism, and enrichment in sulphates or sodium chloride) and rich CO2 gas emissions, the origin of which may be linked to decarbonation reactions. The travertine bodies are locally connected with crustal structural lineaments favouring the circulation of ascending deep CO2-rich fluids. Conversely, some samples show isotopic connotations of meteogenic deposits, representing travertines formed mainly from soil biogenic or atmospheric carbon dioxide generally present in shallow groundwater or surface water. According to their morphology and isotope data, these travertines may be attributed to the sedimentary environment of waterfalls. These new geochemical and morphological data are integrated with those already available in the literature regarding the study area and contribute to shedding light on palaeo-environmental conditions in western-central Italy during the Quaternary.

  1. Downscaling GRACE Remote Sensing Datasets to High-Resolution Groundwater Storage Change Maps of California’s Central Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E. Miro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE has already proven to be a powerful data source for regional groundwater assessments in many areas around the world. However, the applicability of GRACE data products to more localized studies and their utility to water management authorities have been constrained by their limited spatial resolution (~200,000 km2. Researchers have begun to address these shortcomings with data assimilation approaches that integrate GRACE-derived total water storage estimates into complex regional models, producing higher-resolution estimates of hydrologic variables (~2500 km2. Here we take those approaches one step further by developing an empirically based model capable of downscaling GRACE data to a high-resolution (~16 km2 dataset of groundwater storage changes over a portion of California’s Central Valley. The model utilizes an artificial neural network to generate a series of high-resolution maps of groundwater storage change from 2002 to 2010 using GRACE estimates of variations in total water storage and a series of widely available hydrologic variables (PRISM precipitation and temperature data, digital elevation model (DEM-derived slope, and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS soil type. The neural network downscaling model is able to accurately reproduce local groundwater behavior, with acceptable Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE values for calibration and validation (ranging from 0.2445 to 0.9577 and 0.0391 to 0.7511, respectively. Ultimately, the model generates maps of local groundwater storage change at a 100-fold higher resolution than GRACE gridded data products without the use of computationally intensive physical models. The model’s simulated maps have the potential for application to local groundwater management initiatives in the region.

  2. Monitoring unrest in a large silicic caldera, the long Valley-inyo craters volcanic complex in east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. P.

    1984-06-01

    Recent patterns of geologic unrest in long Valley caldera in east-central California emphasize that this large, silicic volcanic system and the adjacent, geologically youthful Inyo-Mono Craters volcanic chain are still active and capable of producing locally hazardous volcanic eruptions. A series of four magnitude -6 earthquakes in May 1980 called attention to this current episode of unrest, and subsequent activity has included numerous earthquake swarms in the south moat of the caldera accompanied by inflation of the resurgent dome by more than 50 cm over the last five years. The seismicity associated with this unrest is currently monitored by a network of 31 telemetered seismic stations with an automatic processing system that yelds hypocentral locations and earthquake magnitudes in near-real time. Deformation of the ground is monitored by a) a series of overlapping trilateration networks that provide coverage ranging from annual measurements of regional deformation to daily measurements of deformation local to the active, southern section of the caldera, b) a regional network of level lines surveyed annually, c) a regional network of precise gravity stations occupied annually, d) local, L-shaped level figures surveyed every few months, and e) a network of fourteen borehole tiltmeter clusters (two instruments in each cluster) and a borehole dilatometer, the telemetered signals from which provide continuous data on deformation rates. Additional telemetered data provide continuous information on fluctuations in the local magnetic field, hydrogen gas emission rates at three sites, and water level and temperatures in three wells. Continuous data on disharge rates and temperatures from hot springs and fumaroles are collected by several on-site recorders within the caldera, and samples for liquid and gas chemistry are collected several times per year from selected hot springs and fumaroles.

  3. Potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  4. Water-table altitude of the unconfined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  5. Geothermal conditions in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Eugster, W.; Griesser, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The geothermal field in northern Switzerland, derived from a great number of borehole temperature measurements, is characterized by a strongly positive temperature gradient and heat flow anomaly (>150 mW/m 2 ) in the lower Aare valley. The anomaly is centered above the recently discovered Permocarboniferous trough. Several possibilities to explain the anomaly (thermal disturbance in the mantle, cooling shallow intrusion, locally strong uplift/erosion, local contrasts in petrophysical properties) can be ruled out on the basis of model calculations. Uprising deep groundwater is favoured as the mechanism creating the observed anomaly. Deep groundwater circulation was investigated in detail, especially to clarify the hydraulic role of the Permocarboniferous trough, by coupled thermo-hydraulic modelling, using the integrated finite difference technique. The model was carefully validated by field data. The results reveal the draining effect of the Permocarboniferous trough and indicate that vertical permeability is present in the vicinity of the trough even at depths of several kilometers. They further imply that large parts of the crystalline basement in northern Switzerland have average hydraulic conductivities >10 -9 m/sec and that Darcy velocities in the order of 10 mm/year must be expected. (author) 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. African Journals Online: Switzerland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Switzerland. Home > African Journals Online: Switzerland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  7. Retrofitting the small-scale hydro power plant of Chable, municipality of Vionnaz, Switzerland - Feasibility study; Rehabilitation de la petite centrale de Chable, Commune de Vionnaz (VS) - Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    A small-scale 200 kW hydro power plant has been installed 1988 on the drinking water supply system of the municipality of Vionnaz, Switzerland. It uses the elevation difference of 700 m between the springs in the mountains and the village in the Rhone river valley. A full refurbishment is suggested to improve the system efficiency and increase the water volume delivered to the turbine. The current status of the system has been evaluated. The replacement of the turbine is proposed. The water supply network of the mountain resort of Torgon located on the territory of Vionnaz should be connected to the existing reservoir ahead of the penstock. The penstock itself should be partly or totally replaced. In this way the yearly power production of 1,430 MWh could be increased by up to a factor of 2 at the attractive cost of CHF 0.06 to 0.09 per kWh, depending on the implemented variant.

  8. High Resolution Airborne InSAR DEM of Bagley Ice Valley, South-central Alaska: Geodetic Validation with Airborne Laser Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, R. R.; Lingle, C. S.; Echelmeyer, K. A.; Valentine, V. B.; Elsberg, D.

    2001-12-01

    Bagley Ice Valley, in the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains of south-central Alaska, is an integral part of the largest connected glacierized terrain on the North American continent. From the flow divide between Mt. Logan and Mt. St. Elias, Bagley Ice Valley flows west-northwest for some 90 km down a slope of less than 1o, at widths up to 15 km, to a saddle-gap where it turns south-west to become Bering Glacier. During 4-13 September 2000, an airborne survey of Bagley Ice Valley was performed by Intermap Technologies, Inc., using their Star-3i X-band SAR interferometer. The resulting digital elevation model (DEM) covers an area of 3243 km2. The DEM elevations are orthometric heights, in meters above the EGM96 geoid. The horizontal locations of the 10-m postings are with respect to the WGS84 ellipsoid. On 26 August 2000, 9 to 18 days prior to the Intermap Star-3i survey, a small-aircraft laser altimeter profile was acquired along the central flow line for validation. The laser altimeter data consists of elevations above the WGS84 ellipsoid and orthometric heights above GEOID99-Alaska. Assessment of the accuracy of the Intermap Star-3i DEM was made by comparison of both the DEM orthometric heights and elevations above the WGS84 ellipsoid with the laser altimeter data. Comparison of the orthometric heights showed an average difference of 5.4 +/- 1.0 m (DEM surface higher). Comparison of elevations above the WGS84 ellipsoid showed an average difference of -0.77 +/- 0.93 m (DEM surface lower). This indicates that the X-band Star-3i interferometer was penetrating the glacier surface by an expected small amount. The WGS84 comparison is well within the 3 m RMS accuracy quoted for GT-3 DEM products. Snow accumulation may have occurred, however, on Bagley Ice Valley between 26 August and 4-13 September 2000. This will be estimated using a mass balance model and used to correct the altimeter-derived surface heights. The new DEM of Bagley Ice Valley will provide a reference

  9. Assessing gaps in irrigated agricultural productivity through satellite earth observations-A case study of the Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Fabian; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Fliemann, Elisabeth; Lamers, John P. A.; Conrad, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Improving crop area and/or crop yields in agricultural regions is one of the foremost scientific challenges for the next decades. This is especially true in irrigated areas because sustainable intensification of irrigated crop production is virtually the sole means to enhance food supply and contribute to meeting food demands of a growing population. Yet, irrigated crop production worldwide is suffering from soil degradation and salinity, reduced soil fertility, and water scarcity rendering the performance of irrigation schemes often below potential. On the other hand, the scope for improving irrigated agricultural productivity remains obscure also due to the lack of spatial data on agricultural production (e.g. crop acreage and yield). To fill this gap, satellite earth observations and a replicable methodology were used to estimate crop yields at the field level for the period 2010/2014 in the Fergana Valley, Central Asia, to understand the response of agricultural productivity to factors related to the irrigation and drainage infrastructure and environment. The results showed that cropping pattern, i.e. the presence or absence of multi-annual crop rotations, and spatial diversity of crops had the most persistent effects on crop yields across observation years suggesting the need for introducing sustainable cropping systems. On the other hand, areas with a lower crop diversity or abundance of crop rotation tended to have lower crop yields, with differences of partly more than one t/ha yield. It is argued that factors related to the infrastructure, for example, the distance of farms to the next settlement or the density of roads, had a persistent effect on crop yield dynamics over time. The improvement potential of cotton and wheat yields were estimated at 5%, compared to crop yields of farms in the direct vicinity of settlements or roads. In this study it is highlighted how remotely sensed estimates of crop production in combination with geospatial technologies

  10. Quaternary sediment architecture in the Orkhon Valley (central Mongolia) inferred from capacitive coupled resistivity and Georadar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackens, Sonja; Klitzsch, Norbert; Grützner, Christoph; Klinger, Riccardo

    2017-09-01

    Detailed information on shallow sediment distribution in basins is required to achieve solutions for problems in Quaternary geology, geomorphology, neotectonics, (geo)archaeology, and climatology. Usually, detailed information is obtained by studying outcrops and shallow drillings. Unfortunately, such data are often sparsely distributed and thus cannot characterise entire basins in detail. Therefore, they are frequently combined with remote sensing methods to overcome this limitation. Remote sensing can cover entire basins but provides information of the land surface only. Geophysical methods can close the gap between detailed sequences of the shallow sediment inventory from drillings at a few spots and continuous surface information from remote sensing. However, their interpretation in terms of sediment types is often challenging, especially if permafrost conditions complicate their interpretation. Here we present an approach for the joint interpretation of the geophysical methods ground penetrating radar (GPR) and capacitive coupled resistivity (CCR), drill core, and remote sensing data. The methods GPR and CCR were chosen because they allow relatively fast surveying and provide complementary information. We apply the approach to the middle Orkhon Valley in central Mongolia where fluvial, alluvial, and aeolian processes led to complex sediment architecture. The GPR and CCR data, measured on profiles with a total length of about 60 km, indicate the presence of two distinct layers over the complete surveying area: (i) a thawed layer at the surface, and (ii) a frozen layer below. In a first interpretation step, we establish a geophysical classification by considering the geophysical signatures of both layers. We use sedimentological information from core logs to relate the geophysical classes to sediment types. This analysis reveals internal structures of Orkhon River sediments, such as channels and floodplain sediments. We also distinguish alluvial fan deposits and

  11. A hybrid machine learning model to estimate nitrate contamination of production zone groundwater in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, K.; Nolan, B. T.; Faunt, C. C.; Bell, A.; Gronberg, J.; Traum, J.; Wheeler, D. C.; Rosecrans, C.; Belitz, K.; Eberts, S.; Harter, T.

    2016-12-01

    A hybrid, non-linear, machine learning statistical model was developed within a statistical learning framework to predict nitrate contamination of groundwater to depths of approximately 500 m below ground surface in the Central Valley, California. A database of 213 predictor variables representing well characteristics, historical and current field and county scale nitrogen mass balance, historical and current landuse, oxidation/reduction conditions, groundwater flow, climate, soil characteristics, depth to groundwater, and groundwater age were assigned to over 6,000 private supply and public supply wells measured previously for nitrate and located throughout the study area. The machine learning method, gradient boosting machine (GBM) was used to screen predictor variables and rank them in order of importance in relation to the groundwater nitrate measurements. The top five most important predictor variables included oxidation/reduction characteristics, historical field scale nitrogen mass balance, climate, and depth to 60 year old water. Twenty-two variables were selected for the final model and final model errors for log-transformed hold-out data were R squared of 0.45 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.124. Modeled mean groundwater age was tested separately for error improvement in the model and when included decreased model RMSE by 0.5% compared to the same model without age and by 0.20% compared to the model with all 213 variables. 1D and 2D partial plots were examined to determine how variables behave individually and interact in the model. Some variables behaved as expected: log nitrate decreased with increasing probability of anoxic conditions and depth to 60 year old water, generally decreased with increasing natural landuse surrounding wells and increasing mean groundwater age, generally increased with increased minimum depth to high water table and with increased base flow index value. Other variables exhibited much more erratic or noisy behavior in

  12. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Schlumpf, Nadia; Minikus-Stary, Nicole; Hagedorn, Frank; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schoch, Werner; Burga, Conradin; Bonani, Georges; Schmidt, Michael W.I.; Cherubini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14 C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans

  13. Valley-Fill Standstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    1998-01-07

    Subsurface data is being collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview if being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map have been successfully imported to Arcview and customized. All of the four 30 feet by 60 feet geologic surface geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface data base for the Crow Reservation. Field investigations inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least a four major westward-trending valley systems.

  14. The 'Pontareuse' small hydropower station in Boudry, Switzerland; Avant-projet. Petite centrale hydroelectrique de Boudry 'Pontareuse'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, M.

    2007-05-15

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done in 2007 on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Boudry, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to take advantage of the hydro power of the river Areuse using an existing artificial weir which has been built and renovated as part of several river corrections in the past. Three variants for the construction of the proposed hydropower installation with a maximum projected power rating of 391 kilowatts are presented in detail. Options for the realisation of a fish pass to enable fish to pass the weir are also discussed. Figures are presented on the financial viability of the project which, although low, could however become interesting when the expected tariff changes in connection with the new Swiss legislation on electrical energy supply are considered.

  15. Retrofitting of the hydro-power installation of Vicques, Switzerland; Rehabilitation de la centrale de Vicques, Emile Aebin SA. Etude d'avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work involved in obtaining a new concession for the use of the water in the mill canal in Vicques, Switzerland on the Scheulte river. The author states that the existing concession for use is not optimal and should be optimised. A window of opportunity exists as a new river protection law requires a higher residual water flow rate and the creation of a fish passage facility. The paper discusses how the production of electrical energy could be doubled. The existing installation is described. Details of existing conduits and the installed power generator are presented. The measures proposed for the renewal of the hydro-power plant are described. An annex includes a copy of the construction plans.

  16. The Veneration and Visitation of the Graves of Saints in Soviet Central Asia. Insights from the Southern Ferghana Valley, Uzbekistan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exnerová, Věra

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2015), s. 501-536 ISSN 0044-8699 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-16520S Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : graves of saints * Uzbekistan * Ferghana Valley * Soviet period * oral history * local practices Subject RIV: AB - History

  17. National report for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, R [and others

    1997-12-01

    The presentation discusses general situation with nuclear energy in Switzerland; energy debate on the future of nuclear power; reactor operation; licensing questions; construction of a Swiss interim storage facility; final repository for low and intermediate level wastes; fuel research.

  18. National report for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, R.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses general situation with nuclear energy in Switzerland; energy debate on the future of nuclear power; reactor operation; licensing questions; construction of a Swiss interim storage facility; final repository for low and intermediate level wastes; fuel research

  19. Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Central Valley Aquifer System near Modesto, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Burow, Karen R.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Modesto, California. The well selected for study pumps on average about 1,600 gallons per minute from the Central Valley aquifer system during peak summer demand. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in the Modesto vicinity. Samples from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents uranium, nitrate, arsenic, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although none were present at concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards. Of these contaminants, uranium and nitrate pose the most significant water-quality risk to the public-supply well because human activities have caused concentrations in groundwater to increase over time. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and (or) fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Modesto: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) irrigation and agricultural and municipal pumping that drives contaminants downward into the primary production zone of the aquifer; (3) short-circuiting of contaminated water down the public-supply well during the low-pumping season; and (4) natural geochemical conditions of the aquifer. A local-scale computer model of groundwater flow and transport to the public-supply well was constructed to simulate long-term nitrate and uranium concentrations reaching the well. With regard to nitrate, two conflicting processes influence concentrations in the area contributing recharge to the well: (1) Beneath land that is being farmed or has recently been farmed (within the last 10 to 20 years), downward-moving irrigation waters contain elevated nitrate concentrations; yet (2) the proportion of agricultural land has decreased and the proportion of urban land has increased since 1960. Urban land use is associated with low nitrate

  20. Deformation fabrics of the Cima di Gagnone peridotite massif, Central Alps, Switzerland: evidence of deformation at low temperatures in the presence of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Philip; Katayama, Ikuo; Karato, Shun-Ichiro

    2006-07-01

    We report a new observation of the olivine B-type lattice-preferred orientation (LPO), from the garnet peridotite at Cima di Gagnone, Switzerland. The olivine B-type fabric forms at low temperatures and/or high stress in the presence of water, and is of particular interest because it may be used to explain the trench-parallel shear-wave splitting that is often observed at subduction zones. In conjunction with the olivine B-type fabric, we have found strong orthopyroxene LPO that is identical to those formed under water-free conditions. This suggests that water may not have a significant effect on orthopyroxene fabric. From the olivine microstructure, we determine that a stress of 22 ± 8 MPa was applied during the deformation event that formed the olivine LPO. Using an olivine flow-law, and assuming geological strain-rates, we determine the temperature of deformation to be 800 ± 175°C. This does not preclude an ultra-deep origin for the ultramafic rocks at Cima di Gagnone, but indicates that much of the deformation recorded in the microstructure occurred at modest temperatures.

  1. Assessing Child Obesity and Physical Activity in a Hard-to-Reach Population in California’s Central Valley, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Gomez, Rosa; Sadeghi, Banefsheh; Kaiser, Lucia; German, J. Bruce; de la Torre, Adela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In California’s agricultural Central Valley, the rate of childhood obesity is higher than the national average. Adequate physical activity contributes to obesity prevention and its assessment is useful to evaluate the impact of interventions. Methods Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (Healthy Children, Healthy Family [NSFS]) uses community-based participatory research to implement an intervention program to reduce childhood obesity among people of Mexican origin in the Central Valley. Anthropometric measurements were conducted on more than 650 children enrolled in NSFS. Physical activity data from a subgroup of children aged 4 to 7 years (n = 134) were collected via a wearable accelerometer. Results Children were classified on the basis of age and sex-adjusted body mass index as healthy weight (57.7%); overweight (19.3%), or obese (23%). Logistic regression showed that moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was associated with a child’s likelihood of having a healthy BMI (odds ratio: 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.05; P = .017). Conclusion NSFS’s community-based participatory approach resulted in successful use of a commercial electronic device to measure physical activity quantity and quality in this hard-to-reach population. Promotion of adequate daily MVPA is an appropriate and necessary component of NSFS’s childhood obesity prevention strategy. PMID:26203815

  2. Linking Groundwater Use and Stress to Specific Crops Using the Groundwater Footprint in the Central Valley and High Plains Aquifer Systems, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Esnault, L.; Gleeson, T.; Heinke, J.; Gerten, D.; Flanary, E.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    A number of aquifers worldwide are being depleted, mainly by agricultural activities, yet groundwater stress has not been explicitly linked to specific agricultural crops. Using the newly-developed concept of the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services), we develop a methodology to derive crop-specific groundwater footprints. We illustrate this method by calculating high resolution groundwater footprint estimates of crops in two heavily used aquifer systems: the Central Valley and High Plains, U.S. In both aquifer systems, hay and haylage, corn and cotton have the largest groundwater footprints, which highlights that most of the groundwater stress is induced by crops meant for cattle feed. Our results are coherent with other studies in the High Plains but suggest lower groundwater stress in the Central Valley, likely due to artificial recharge from surface water diversions which were not taken into account in previous estimates. Uncertainties of recharge and irrigation application efficiency contribute the most to the total relative uncertainty of the groundwater footprint to aquifer area ratios. Our results and methodology will be useful for hydrologists, water resource managers, and policy makers concerned with which crops are causing the well-documented groundwater stress in semiarid to arid agricultural regions around the world.

  3. Can a change in cropping patterns produce water savings and social gains: A case study from the Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimov Akmal Kh.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines possible water savings by replacing alfalfa with winter wheat in the Fergana Valley, located upstream of the Syrdarya River in Central Asia. Agricultural reforms since the 1990s have promoted this change in cropping patterns in the Central Asian states to enhance food security and social benefits. The water use of alfalfa, winter wheat/fallow, and winter wheat/green gram (double cropping systems is compared for high-deficit, low-deficit, and full irrigation scenarios using hydrological modeling with the HYDRUS-1D software package. Modeling results indicate that replacing alfalfa with winter wheat in the Fergana Valley released significant water resources, mainly by reducing productive crop transpiration when abandoning alfalfa in favor of alternative cropping systems. However, the winter wheat/fallow cropping system caused high evaporation losses from fallow land after harvesting of winter wheat. Double cropping (i.e., the cultivation of green gram as a short duration summer crop after winter wheat harvesting reduced evaporation losses, enhanced crop output and hence food security, while generating water savings that make more water available for other productive uses. Beyond water savings, this paper also discusses the economic and social gains that double cropping produces for the public within a broader developmental context.

  4. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  5. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  6. VALLEY-FILL SANDSTONE IN THE KOOTENAI FORMATION ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    1999-04-12

    The subsurface database has been completed for the project. An ACCESS database converted to PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from all of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base, except for some wells that have no available logs or other information. All of the four 30 x 60 feet geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for all the quandrangles; Billings, Bridger; Hardin, and Lodge Grass. All four quadrangles are in the Bureau's Publications Department being prepared for submittal to a printer. Field investigations were completed during the third quarter, 1997. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has been traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel was submitted and the paper was presented at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998. A follow on proposal to conduct a soil gas geochemical survey of the reservation was approved and the contract was received in late August. The sampling will be conducted next summer and will involve Crow students.

  7. Valley-Fill Sandstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A

    1998-07-03

    Subsurface data continues to be collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from about ¾ of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base. All of the four 30" X 60" geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for all the quadrangles; Billings, Bridger; Hardin, and Lodge Grass. Final GIS edits are being made before being forwarded to the Bureau's Publications Department. Field investigations were completed during the third quarter, 1997. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has bee traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel has been submitted and accepted for presentation at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998.

  8. Contribution to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera Fauna of the lower Sangro valley in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Zahm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of recording Lepidoptera in the lower Sangro valley during a period of 22 years. The investigations were devoted to Macroheterocera and were carried out in the two regional nature reserves Oasi di Serranella and Lecceta di Torino di Sangro. The listing also includes some Microlepidoptera as non-target species, as well as occasionally observed butterflies. The 401 recorded species are presented in a table indicating both the locality of the records and the observed flight times and periods of activity. Fifteen species are published for the Abruzzo region for the first time; 2 species are new for the Italian peninsula.

  9. An Integrated Hydrologic Model and Remote Sensing Synthesis Approach to Study Groundwater Extraction During a Historic Drought in the California Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatch, L. M.; Maxwell, R. M.; Gilbert, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century, groundwater levels in California's San Joaquin Valley have dropped more than 30 meters in some areas due to excessive groundwater extraction to irrigate agricultural lands and feed a growing population. Between 2012 and 2016 California experienced the worst drought in its recorded history, further exacerbating this groundwater depletion. Due to lack of groundwater regulation, exact quantities of extracted groundwater in California are unknown and hard to quantify. We use a synthesis of integrated hydrologic model simulations and remote sensing products to quantify the impact of drought and groundwater pumping on the Central Valley water tables. The Parflow-CLM model was used to evaluate groundwater depletion in the San Joaquin River basin under multiple groundwater extraction scenarios simulated from pre-drought through recent drought years. Extraction scenarios included pre-development conditions, with no groundwater pumping; historical conditions based on decreasing groundwater level measurements; and estimated groundwater extraction rates calculated from the deficit between the predicted crop water demand, based on county land use surveys, and available surface water supplies. Results were compared to NASA's Gravity Recover and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data products to constrain water table decline from groundwater extraction during severe drought. This approach untangles various factors leading to groundwater depletion within the San Joaquin Valley both during drought and years of normal recharge to help evaluate which areas are most susceptible to groundwater overdraft, as well as further evaluating the spatially and temporally variable sustainable yield. Recent efforts to improve water management and ensure reliable water supplies are highlighted by California's Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) which mandates Groundwater Sustainability Agencies to determine the maximum quantity of groundwater that can be withdrawn through

  10. Monitoring air quality in California's Central Valley with aircraft and continuous mountaintop observations - attribution insights gained by considering the scalar budget equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faloona, I. C.; Trousdell, J.; Caputi, D.; Conley, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is one of the six criteria pollutants established by the US EPA's Clean Air Act, and one of two that still routinely violates federal standards as it is a secondary pollutant and therefore subject to indirect control strategies on complex, non-linear atmospheric chemistry. While improvements have been seen in many regions where ozone controls are in place, gains in California's San Joaquin Valley have lagged many other districts across the state. We present airborne measurements from several different campaigns in the valley (DISCOVER-AQ, ArvinO3, and CABOTS) along with data from a mountaintop monitoring site on its upwind side near the Pacific coast that has been operational for 5 years, and we shed light on several outstanding questions concerning air pollution in California's vast Central Valley. The framework of analysis is centered on the primitive equation of any atmospheric constituent - the scalar budget equation. By measuring each term in this equation, we gain insights into the relative impacts of exogenous (due to long range transport) vs. endogenous ozone (due to local photochemical production). We further argue that small aircraft campaigns with an emphasis on scalar budgeting sorties are a cost-effective tool in uncovering specific shortcomings of regional air quality models (e.g., lateral boundary conditions can be tested by comparing horizontal advection, turbulence parameterizations by comparing vertical fluxes, and chemical mechanisms by comparing net photochemical production rates.) In the case of NOx and CH4, for instance, we find that solving for surface emissions points toward inventory underestimates of both species by at least a factor of two. We discuss possible causes of these discrepancies, and suggest other ways to specifically vet aspects of regional air quality models with airborne measurements of meteorological and chemical variables.

  11. A Bayesian approach to infer nitrogen loading rates from crop and land-use types surrounding private wells in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Katherine M.; Bell, Andrew M.; Barber, Quinn E.; Kourakos, George; Harter, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    This study is focused on nitrogen loading from a wide variety of crop and land-use types in the Central Valley, California, USA, an intensively farmed region with high agricultural crop diversity. Nitrogen loading rates for several crop types have been measured based on field-scale experiments, and recent research has calculated nitrogen loading rates for crops throughout the Central Valley based on a mass balance approach. However, research is lacking to infer nitrogen loading rates for the broad diversity of crop and land-use types directly from groundwater nitrate measurements. Relating groundwater nitrate measurements to specific crops must account for the uncertainty about and multiplicity in contributing crops (and other land uses) to individual well measurements, and for the variability of nitrogen loading within farms and from farm to farm for the same crop type. In this study, we developed a Bayesian regression model that allowed us to estimate land-use-specific groundwater nitrogen loading rate probability distributions for 15 crop and land-use groups based on a database of recent nitrate measurements from 2149 private wells in the Central Valley. The water and natural, rice, and alfalfa and pasture groups had the lowest median estimated nitrogen loading rates, each with a median estimate below 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Confined animal feeding operations (dairies) and citrus and subtropical crops had the greatest median estimated nitrogen loading rates at approximately 269 and 65 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. In general, our probability-based estimates compare favorably with previous direct measurements and with mass-balance-based estimates of nitrogen loading. Nitrogen mass-balance-based estimates are larger than our groundwater nitrate derived estimates for manured and nonmanured forage, nuts, cotton, tree fruit, and rice crops. These discrepancies are thought to be due to groundwater age mixing, dilution from infiltrating river water, or denitrification

  12. Bayesian nitrate source apportionment to individual groundwater wells in the Central Valley by use of elemental and isotopic tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Katherine M; Grote, Mark N.; Deinhart, Amanda; Eppich, Gary; Kendall, Carol; Sanborn, Matthew E.; Sounders, A. Kate; Wimpenny, Joshua; Yin, Qing-zhu; Young, Megan B.; Harter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers that underlie agricultural areas, such as in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Shallow domestic wells (less than 150 m deep) in agricultural areas are often contaminated by nitrate. Agricultural and rural nitrate sources include dairy manure, synthetic fertilizers, and septic waste. Knowledge of the relative proportion that each of these sources contributes to nitrate concentration in individual wells can aid future regulatory and land management decisions. We show that nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, boron isotopes, and iodine concentrations are a useful, novel combination of groundwater tracers to differentiate between manure, fertilizers, septic waste, and natural sources of nitrate. Furthermore, in this work, we develop a new Bayesian mixing model in which these isotopic and elemental tracers were used to estimate the probability distribution of the fractional contributions of manure, fertilizers, septic waste, and natural sources to the nitrate concentration found in an individual well. The approach was applied to 56 nitrate-impacted private domestic wells located in the San Joaquin Valley. Model analysis found that some domestic wells were clearly dominated by the manure source and suggests evidence for majority contributions from either the septic or fertilizer source for other wells. But, predictions of fractional contributions for septic and fertilizer sources were often of similar magnitude, perhaps because modeled uncertainty about the fraction of each was large. For validation of the Bayesian model, fractional estimates were compared to surrounding land use and estimated source contributions were broadly consistent with nearby land use types.

  13. Countermeasures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggenstos, M.; Brunner, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concerning countermeasures in Switzerland, part of them are tested every year in exercises. An operational emergency management in the EPZ (Emergency Planning Zones) is a condition for operating a NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) in Switzerland. The NPP operators have to pay special installations and preparations, automatic monitoring network in the inner EPZ and iodine tablets for the EPZ population. Countermeasures concerning EPZ, sheltering hospitals, farmers are summarized in this document. It also presents the use of iodine tablets based on the ICRP's recommendations (International Commission Radiological Protection), and the implementation of evacuation plans, public information or exercises organised by the EOR (Emergency Organisation Radioactivity). (TEC). 4 refs., 1 fig

  14. Photovoltaic applications in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.

    1993-01-01

    By the year 2000, Switzerland is planning to build a total of 50 MWp of grid-connected PV-installations. This challenging goal was adopted in the context of the Swiss national program 2000. The local/regional utilities are supporting this ambitious objective by reimbursing the marginal costs of the energy supplied and additional accompanying measures. Between 1988 and 1991 Switzerland installed more than 2.1 MWp of grid connected PV-installations. This represents 43% of the total grid connected capacity installed in the US over the same period including all government projects (PV USA)

  15. Cybersecurity in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Gives the reader a detailed account of how cyber-security in Switzerland has evolved over the years, using official documents and a considerable amount of inside knowledge. It focuses on key ideas, institutional arrangements, on the publication of strategy papers, and importantly, on processes leading up to these strategy documents. The peculiarities of the Swiss political system, which influence the way cyber-security can be designed and practiced in Switzerland are considered, as well as the bigger, global influences and driving factors that shaped the Swiss approach to cyber-security. It

  16. The Population Structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico Suggests Genetic Differentiation Between Populations from Cultivated Potato and Wild Solanum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flier, Wilbert G; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Kroon, Laurens P N M; Sturbaum, Anne K; van den Bosch, Trudy B M; Garay-Serrano, Edith; Lozoya-Saldaña, Hector; Fry, William E; Turkensteen, Lod J

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected from cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xendinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) multi-locus fingerprint genotype. Isolate samples were monomorphic for mtDNA haplotype because all isolates tested were of the Ia haplotype. A total of 158 multilocus AFLP genotypes were identified among the 170 P. infestans isolates included in this study. P. infestans populations sampled in the Toluca Valley in 1997 were highly variable and almost every single isolate represented a unique genotype based on the analysis of 165 AFLP marker loci. Populations of P. infestans collected from the commercial potato-growing region in the valley, the subsistence potato production area along the slopes of the Nevado de Toluca, and the native Solanum spp. on the forested slopes of the volcano showed a high degree of genetic diversity. The number of polymorphic loci varied from 20.0 to 62.4% for isolates collected from the field station and wild Solanum spp. On average, 81.8% (135) of the AFLP loci were polymorphic. Hetero-zygosity varied between 7.7 and 19.4%. Significant differentiation was found at the population level between strains originating from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum spp. (P = 0.001 to 0.022). Private alleles were observed in individual isolates collected from all three populations, with numbers of unique dominant alleles varying from 9 to 16 for isolates collected from commercial potato crops and native Solanum spp., respectively. Four AFLP markers were exclusively found present in isolates collected from S. demissum. Indirect estimation of gene flow between populations indicated restricted gene flow between both P. infestans populations from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum hosts. There was no evidence

  17. The new final Clinical Skills examination in human medicine in Switzerland: Essential steps of exam development, implementation and evaluation, and central insights from the perspective of the national Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berendonk, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since 2011, the new national final examination in human medicine has been implemented in Switzerland, with a structured clinical-practical part in the OSCE format. From the perspective of the national Working Group, the current article describes the essential steps in the development, implementation and evaluation of the Federal Licensing Examination Clinical Skills (FLE CS as well as the applied quality assurance measures. Finally, central insights gained from the last years are presented. Methods: Based on the principles of action research, the FLE CS is in a constant state of further development. On the foundation of systematically documented experiences from previous years, in the Working Group, unresolved questions are discussed and resulting solution approaches are substantiated (planning, implemented in the examination (implementation and subsequently evaluated (reflection. The presented results are the product of this iterative procedure.Results: The FLE CS is created by experts from all faculties and subject areas in a multistage process. The examination is administered in German and French on a decentralised basis and consists of twelve interdisciplinary stations per candidate. As important quality assurance measures, the national Review Board (content validation and the meetings of the standardised patient trainers (standardisation have proven worthwhile. The statistical analyses show good measurement reliability and support the construct validity of the examination. Among the central insights of the past years, it has been established that the consistent implementation of the principles of action research contributes to the successful further development of the examination.Conclusion: The centrally coordinated, collaborative-iterative process, incorporating experts from all faculties, makes a fundamental contribution to the quality of the FLE CS. The processes and insights presented here can be useful for others planning a

  18. Switzerland: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pietro, Carlo; Camenzind, Paul; Sturny, Isabelle; Crivelli, Luca; Edwards-Garavoglia, Suzanne; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Quentin, Wilm

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the Swiss health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Swiss health system is highly complex, combining aspects of managed competition and corporatism (the integration of interest groups in the policy process) in a decentralized regulatory framework shaped by the influences of direct democracy. The health system performs very well with regard to a broad range of indicators. Life expectancy in Switzerland (82.8 years) is the highest in Europe after Iceland, and healthy life expectancy is several years above the European Union (EU) average. Coverage is ensured through mandatory health insurance (MHI), with subsidies for people on low incomes. The system offers a high degree of choice and direct access to all levels of care with virtually no waiting times, though managed care type insurance plans that include gatekeeping restrictions are becoming increasingly important. Public satisfaction with the system is high and quality is generally viewed to be good or very good. Reforms since the year 2000 have improved the MHI system, changed the financing of hospitals, strengthened regulations in the area of pharmaceuticals and the control of epidemics, and harmonized regulation of human resources across the country. In addition, there has been a slow (and not always linear) process towards more centralization of national health policy-making. Nevertheless, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health care system are well above the EU average, in particular in absolute terms but also as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) (11.5%). MHI premiums have increased more quickly than incomes since 2003. By European standards, the share of out-of-pocket payments is exceptionally high at 26% of total health expenditure (compared to the EU average of 16%). Low and middle-income households contribute a greater share of their income to

  19. Water circulation within a high-Arctic glaciated valley (Petunia Bay, Central Spitsbergen): Recharge of a glacial river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marek; Dragon, Krzysztof; Chudziak, Łukasz

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an investigation of the runoff of a glacial river located in the high Arctic region of Spitsbergen. The Ebba River runoff was measured during three melting seasons of 2007, 2008 and 2009. The most important component of the river recharge is the flow of melting water from glaciers (76-82% of total river runoff). However, the other components (surface water and groundwater) also made a significant contribution to the river recharge. The contribution of groundwater flow in total river runoff was estimated by measurements performed in four groups of piezometers located in different parts of the valley. The hydrogeological parameters that characterize shallow aquifer (thickness of the active layer, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater level fluctuations) were recognized by direct field measurements. The groundwater recharging river was the most variable recharge component, and ranged from 1% of the total runoff at the beginning of the melting season to even 27% at the end of summer.

  20. An 11 000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history at Beaver Lake, Oregon, central Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Whitlock, Cathy; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Worona, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution macroscopic charcoal and pollen analysis were used to reconstruct an 11??000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history from Beaver Lake, Oregon, the first complete Holocene paleoecological record from the floor of the Willamette Valley. In the early Holocene (ca 11??000-7500 calendar years before present [cal??yr??BP]), warmer, drier summers than at present led to the establishment of xeric woodland of Quercus, Corylus, and Pseudotsuga near the site. Disturbances (i.e., floods, fires) were common at this time and as a result Alnus rubra grew nearby. High fire frequency occurred in the early Holocene from ca 11??200-9300??cal??yr??BP. Riparian forest and wet prairie developed in the middle Holocene (ca 7500??cal??yr??BP), likely the result of a decrease in the frequency of flooding and a shift to effectively cooler, wetter conditions than before. The vegetation at Beaver Lake remained generally unchanged into the late Holocene (from 4000??cal??yr??BP to present), with the exception of land clearance associated with Euro-American settlement of the valley (ca 160??cal??yr BP). Middle-to-late Holocene increases in fire frequency, coupled with abrupt shifts in fire-episode magnitude and charcoal composition, likely indicate the influence anthropogenic burning near the site. The paleoecological record from Beaver Lake, and in particular the general increase in fire frequency over the last 8500??years, differs significantly from other low-elevation sites in the Pacific Northwest, which suggests that local controls (e.g., shifts in vegetation structure, intensification of human land-use), rather than regional climatic controls, more strongly influenced its environmental history. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Annuities in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Monika; Ruesch, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Switzerland's pension system has attracted considerable attention, mainly due to its reliance on a three-pillar structure. A relatively small pay-as-you-go system (first pillar) is complemented by a mandatory, employer-based, fully funded occupational pension scheme (second pillar). The main goal of this paper is to provide a detailed description and analysis of the Swiss pension system. P...

  2. Switzerland country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aegerter, Irene [Cogito Foundation, Saeumerstrasse 26, 08832 Wollerau (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    - Nuclear in Switzerland: Percent of Electricity from Nuclear: 40%. Nuclear facilities: 2 Nuclear Research reactors at the University of Basle (Swimming pool Type) and EPF Lausanne; 5 Nuclear Power Plants: KKB I / II: Westinghouse; PWR; each 365 MWe (1969,1971), KKM: General Electric; BWR 355 MWe (1972), KKG: Siemens / KWU; PWR; 970 MWe (1979), KKL: General Electric; BWR; 1165 MWe (1984). Interim Storage for nuclear waste: ZWILAG. - Public acceptance: Acceptance of existing NPP: 70.3%; Acceptance of replacing old NPP by new NPP: 52%; Therefore: Only talk about replacing the 3 old ones by one or more new NPP at an existing site. Women: Only 45% accept replacing NPP. New and additional NPP do not get a majority (43,5%). - Energy policy: Referendum for the project of a new NPP (about 2011); DOE study about the security of supply shows Nuclear is needed; Reorganization of Nuclear Inspectorate Nuclear waste management policy; Positive decision of Federal Council on deep geological repository for spent fuel / high and low level waste 2007. - Nuclear research: Paul Scherrer Institute, Wuerenlingen, New Master study in Nuclear Engineering Fall 2008, Generation IV and ITER research. - Nuclear competences challenge in Switzerland: Nuclear Revival is coming in Switzerland only if we win the referendum. Therefore we need: Personal information and dialogue with the public, especially women about the necessity to replace the older NPP by new ones at the existing sites, because we need CO{sub 2}-free base load capacity; Sun and wind cannot replace nuclear because it is not base load. The sun sets every night. Nuclear plants cannot be replaced by fossil plants because of CO{sub 2}- emissions. Switzerland could not meet the Kyoto-targets if the now CO{sub 2}- free electricity production (40% Nuclear, 60% Hydro) would be given up with the construction of a gas fired power plant. - WIN - Switzerland Main achievements: Activities of 2007 WIN Switzerland: Visit of the special waste

  3. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European countries suggest that the tiger mosquito will colonize new areas in Switzerland

  4. Is Switzerland Suitable for the Invasion of Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020–2049 and 2045–2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020–2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045–2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Conclusions/Significance Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European

  5. Paleo erosion rates and climate shifts recorded by Quaternary cut-and-fill sequences in the Pisco valley, central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaddour, Toufik; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vogel, Hendrik; Delunel, Romain; Norton, Kevin P.; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Fluvial cut-and-fill sequences have frequently been reported from various sites on Earth. Nevertheless, the information about the past erosional regime and hydrological conditions have not yet been adequately deciphered from these archives. The Quaternary terrace sequences in the Pisco valley, located at ca. 13°S, offer a manifestation of an orbitally-driven cyclicity in terrace construction where phases of sediment accumulation have been related to the Minchin (48-36 ka) and Tauca (26-15 ka) lake level highstands on the Altiplano. Here, we present a 10Be-based sediment budget for the cut-and-fill terrace sequences in this valley to quantify the orbitally forced changes in precipitation and erosion. We find that the Minchin period was characterized by an erosional pulse along the Pacific coast where denudation rates reached values as high as 600±80 mm/ka for a relatively short time span lasting a few thousands of years. This contrasts to the younger pluvial periods and the modern situation when 10Be-based sediment budgets register nearly zero erosion at the Pacific coast. We relate these contrasts to different erosional conditions between the modern and the Minchin time. First, the sediment budget infers a precipitation pattern that matches with the modern climate ca. 1000 km farther north, where highly erratic and extreme El Niño-related precipitation results in fast erosion and flooding along the coast. Second, the formation of a thick terrace sequence requires sufficient material on catchment hillslopes to be stripped off by erosion. This was most likely the case immediately before the start of the Minchin period, because this erosional epoch was preceded by a >50 ka-long time span with poorly erosive climate conditions, allowing for sufficient regolith to build up on the hillslopes. Finally, this study suggests a strong control of orbitally and ice sheet forced latitudinal shifts of the ITCZ on the erosional gradients and sediment production on the western

  6. Hydrology and model of North Fork Solomon River Valley, Kirwin Dam to Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1981-01-01

    The alluvial valley of the North Fork Solomon River is an important agricultural area. Reservoir releases diverted below Kirwin Dam are the principal source of irrigation water. During the 1970'S, severe water shortages occurred in Kirwin Reservoir and other nearby reservoirs as a result of an extended drought. Some evidence indicates that surface-water shortages may have been the result of a change in the rainfall-runoff relationship. Examination of the rainfall-runoff relationship shows no apparent trend from 1951 to 1968, but annual records from 1969 to 1976 indicate that deficient rainfall occurred during 6 of the 8 years. Ground water from the alluvial aquifer underlying the river valley also is used extensively for irrigation. Utilization of ground water for irrigation greatly increased from about 200 acre-feet in 1955 to about 12,300 acre-feet in 1976. Part of the surface water diverted for irrigation has percolated downward into the aquifer raising the ground-water level. Ground-water storage in the aquifer increased from 230,000 acre-feet in 1946 to 275,000 acre-feet in 1976-77. A digital model was used to simulate the steady-state conditions in the aquifer prior to closure of Kirwin Dam. Model results indicated that precipitation was the major source of recharge to the aquifer. The effective recharge, or gain from precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was about 11,700 acre-feet per year. The major element of discharge from the aquifer was leakage to the river. The simulated net leakage (leakage to the river minus leakage from the river) was about 11,500 acre-feet per year. The simulated value is consistent with the estimated gain in base flow of the river within the area modeled. Measurements of seepage used to determine gain and loss to the stream were made twice during 1976. Based on these measurements and on base-flow periods identified from hydrographs, it was estimated that the ground-water discharge to the stream has increased about 4,000 acre

  7. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  8. The ‘Indianisation of Switzerland'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    This paper demonstrates how Indian popular cultural expressions (Bollywood films) are transforming sociospatial textures in central Switzerland. Empirical illustrations are derived from various data sources from an ongoing fieldwork conducted in multiple Swiss locations (Interlaken, Luzern......-induced spatial transformations and experience innovations are captured. The paper concludes with a reflection on emerging conflicts and controversies emerging from hybrid imageries and fundamentally distinct constructions of Alpine experiences....

  9. Th-Pb ion probe dating of zoned hydrothermal monazite and its implications for repeated shear zone activity: An example from the Central Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, C.; Gnos, E.; Berger, A.; Whitehouse, M.; Mullis, J.; Wehrens, P.; Pettke, T.; Janots, E.

    2017-04-01

    Th-Pb age dating of zoned hydrothermal monazite from alpine-type fissures/clefts is a powerful tool for constraining polyphase deformation at temperatures below 350°C and presents an alternative to K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating techniques for dating brittle tectonics. This study considers the relationship between cleft orientations in ductile shear zones and cleft mineral crystallization during subsequent brittle overprinting. In the Grimsel area, located in the Aar Massif of the Central Alps, horizontal clefts formed during a primary thrust dominated deformation, while younger and vertically oriented clefts developed during secondary strike-slip movements. The change is due to a switch in orientation between the principal stress axes σ2 and σ3. The transition is associated with monazite crystallization and chloritization of biotite at around 11.5 Ma. Quartz fluid inclusion data allow a link between deformation stages and temperatures to be established and indicate that primary monazite crystallization occurred in both cleft systems at 300-350°C. While cleft monazite crystallization ceases at 11 Ma in inactive shear zones, monazite growth, and/or dissolution-reprecipitation continues under brittle deformation conditions in vertical clefts during later deformation until 7 Ma. This younger shear zone activity occurs in association with dextral strike-slip movement of the Rhone-Simplon fault system. With the exception of varying Th/U values correlated with the degree of oxidation, there is only limited compositional variation in the studied cleft monazites.

  10. Thermochronometry across the Austroalpine-Pennine boundary, Central Alps, Switzerland: Orogen-perpendicular normal fault slip on a major ‘overthrust’ and its implications for orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jason B.; Wernicke, Brian P.; Cosca, Michael A.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    Fifty‐one new and 309 published thermochronometric ages (nine systems with closure temperatures ranging from ~450 to 70°C) from the Graubünden region of the Central Alps demonstrate that a pronounced thermal mismatch between the Austroalpine allochthon (Alpine “orogenic lid”) and the Pennine zone persisted until at least 29 Ma and, allowably, until circa 18 Ma. The observed mismatch supports previous suggestions that the famous “overthrust” between the Austroalpine allochthon and the Pennine zone, historically regarded as primarily an Eocene top‐north thrust fault, is in fact primarily an Oligocene‐Miocene normal fault that has a minimum of 60 km of displacement with top‐south or top‐southeast sense of shear. Two hallmarks of Alpine geology, deposition of the foredeep Molasse and emplacement of the Helvetic nappes, appear to be coeval, peripheral manifestations of crustal thickening via the interposition of the Pennine zone as a northward intruding wedge between the Austroalpine “lid” and the European cratonic margin, with the Helvetic system (European margin) acting as the “floor” of the wedge. We presume the Penninic wedge is driven by the buoyant rise of subducted crust no longer able to remain attached to the descending slab. If so, emplacement of the Pennine wedge could have occurred mainly after Adria was juxtaposed against cratonic Europe.

  11. Thermochronometry Across the Austroalpine-Pennine Boundary, Central Alps, Switzerland: Orogen-Perpendicular Normal Fault Slip on a Major "Overthrust" and Its Implications for Orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jason B.; Wernicke, Brian P.; Cosca, Michael A.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2018-03-01

    Fifty-one new and 309 published thermochronometric ages (nine systems with closure temperatures ranging from 450 to 70°C) from the Graubünden region of the Central Alps demonstrate that a pronounced thermal mismatch between the Austroalpine allochthon (Alpine "orogenic lid") and the Pennine zone persisted until at least 29 Ma and, allowably, until circa 18 Ma. The observed mismatch supports previous suggestions that the famous "overthrust" between the Austroalpine allochthon and the Pennine zone, historically regarded as primarily an Eocene top-north thrust fault, is in fact primarily an Oligocene-Miocene normal fault that has a minimum of 60 km of displacement with top-south or top-southeast sense of shear. Two hallmarks of Alpine geology, deposition of the foredeep Molasse and emplacement of the Helvetic nappes, appear to be coeval, peripheral manifestations of crustal thickening via the interposition of the Pennine zone as a northward intruding wedge between the Austroalpine "lid" and the European cratonic margin, with the Helvetic system (European margin) acting as the "floor" of the wedge. We presume the Penninic wedge is driven by the buoyant rise of subducted crust no longer able to remain attached to the descending slab. If so, emplacement of the Pennine wedge could have occurred mainly after Adria was juxtaposed against cratonic Europe.

  12. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-04-01

    This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

  13. Inferences on the hydrothermal system beneath the resurgent dome in Long Valley Caldera, east-central California, USA, from recent pumping tests and geochemical sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Sorey, Michael L.; Roeloffs, Evelyn; Galloway, Devin L.; Howle, James F.; Jacobson, Ronald

    2003-10-01

    Quaternary volcanic unrest has provided heat for episodic hydrothermal circulation in the Long Valley caldera, including the present-day hydrothermal system, which has been active over the past 40 kyr. The most recent period of crustal unrest in this region of east-central California began around 1980 and has included periods of intense seismicity and ground deformation. Uplift totaling more than 0.7 m has been centered on the caldera's resurgent dome, and is best modeled by a near-vertical ellipsoidal source centered at depths of 6-7 km. Modeling of both deformation and microgravity data now suggests that (1) there are two inflation sources beneath the caldera, a shallower source 7-10 km beneath the resurgent dome and a deeper source ˜15 km beneath the caldera's south moat and (2) the shallower source may contain components of magmatic brine and gas. The Long Valley Exploration Well (LVEW), completed in 1998 on the resurgent dome, penetrates to a depth of 3 km directly above this shallower source, but bottoms in a zone of 100°C fluid with zero vertical thermal gradient. Although these results preclude extrapolations of temperatures at depths below 3 km, other information obtained from flow tests and fluid sampling at this well indicates the presence of magmatic volatiles and fault-related permeability within the metamorphic basement rocks underlying the volcanic fill. In this paper, we present recently acquired data from LVEW and compare them with information from other drill holes and thermal springs in Long Valley to delineate the likely flow paths and fluid system properties under the resurgent dome. Additional information from mineralogical assemblages in core obtained from fracture zones in LVEW documents a previous period of more vigorous and energetic fluid circulation beneath the resurgent dome. Although this system apparently died off as a result of mineral deposition and cooling (and/or deepening) of magmatic heat sources, flow testing and tidal

  14. HTR development in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.

    1991-01-01

    The new activities in the field of high temperature gas-cooled reactors development in Switzerland, taking into account the general situation for nuclear power in the country, are not specifically tuned to a direct project, but are related to the improvement of the HTGR's safety in general, which will be carried out over the next 2-3 years are reported. The nature of this research and development is dedicated to more basic research where a return of industrial investment cannot be immediately foreseen. The main subjects of this basic research are outlined. Participation of Switzerland in the IAEA coordinated research programme ''Validation of Safety-Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched HTGRs'' is also described

  15. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  16. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  17. Travel Market Switzerland 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Laesser, Christian; Bieger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Technical Report and Results - In 2007, for the seventeenth time since 1972, a survey on the travel behaviour of the Swiss population was conducted. The database resulting from this project (Travel Market Switzerland 2007) is still the most extensive on private trips by the Swiss resident population. Private trips are defined/ delimited as all journeys by private persons with at least one overnight stay outside their home and their normal life and work environment. They include all types of l...

  18. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  19. Delineating the Drainage Structure and Sources of Groundwater Flux for Lake Basaka, Central Rift Valley Region of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megersa Olumana Dinka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As opposed to most of the other closed basin type rift valley lakes in Ethiopia, Lake Basaka is found to be expanding at an alarming rate. Different studies indicated that the expansion of the lake is challenging the socio-economics and environment of the region significantly. This study result and previous reports indicated that the lake’s expansion is mostly due to the increased groundwater (GW flux to the lake. GW flux accounts for about 56% of the total inflow in recent periods (post 2000 and is found to be the dominant factor for the hydrodynamics and existence of the lake. The analysis of the drainage network for the area indicates the existence of a huge recharge area on the western and upstream side of the catchment. This catchment has no surface outlet; hence most of the incoming surface runoff recharges the GW system. The recharge area is the main source of GW flux to the lake. In addition to this, the likely sources/causes of GW flux to the lake could be: (i an increase of GW recharge following the establishment of irrigation schemes in the region; (ii subsurface inflow from far away due to rift system influence, and (iii lake neotectonism. Overall, the lake’s expansion has damaging effect to the region, owing to its poor water quality; hence the identification of the real causes of GW flux and mitigation measures are very important for sustainable lake management. Therefore a comprehensive and detailed investigation of the parameters related to GW flux and the interaction of the lake with the GW system of the area is highly recommended.

  20. Co-evolution of soils and vegetation in the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Muela, Maria Pilar; Nadal Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; María García Ruiz, José

    2013-04-01

    Soils and vegetation tend to evolve jointly in relation to climate evolution and the impacts of human activity. This study analyzes soil and vegetation characteristics under various plant covers, using information from the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (AVES), Spanish Pyrenees, from 1991 to 2010. The land uses considered were: dense shrub cover, grazing meadow, abandoned field, cereal (barley), abandoned shifting agriculture, active shifting agriculture, burnt1 and burnt2 plots, and in-fallow plot. All the plots were installed on a field abandoned 45 years ago. Some of the plots did not change in plant cover through the study period (e.g., the meadow, cereal and shifting agriculture plots), but others underwent changes in density and composition, such as: (i) The dense shrub cover plot represents the natural evolution of the abandoned field. When the AVES was equipped, this plot was completely dominated by Genista scorpius, with a few stands of Rosa gr. Canina. Twenty years later, Genista scorpius is affected of senescence and shows almost no regeneration capacity. (ii) The abandoned field had previously been cultivated with cereals until 1993. Once abandoned, the progression of plant colonization was very rapid. Firstly with grasses and, 10 years later, with Genista scorpius. At present, this latter occupies more than 50% of the plot. (iii) The evolution of plant colonization in the abandoned shifting agriculture plot was slower than that in the 'normal' abandoned field, mainly because of the differences in fertilization when they were cultivated. (iv) One of the burnt plots evolved from 0% to a coverage of almost 100% in a shot period, whereas the other plot remained with a shrub density of about 60% several years after the fire. Soil samples (superficial and depth) were analyzed to obtain physical and chemical properties: structure, texture, pH, CaCO3, Organic Matter and various anions and cations. The main purpose was to detect differences in the soil

  1. Structural imprints at the front of the Chocó-Panamá indenter: Field data from the North Cauca Valley Basin, Central Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, F.; Sartori, M.; Neuwerth, R.; Gorin, G.

    2008-11-01

    The northern Andes are a complex area where tectonics is dominated by the interaction between three major plates and accessory blocks, in particular, the Chocó-Panamá and Northern Andes Blocks. The studied Cauca Valley Basin is located at the front of the Chocó-Panamá Indenter, where the major Romeral Fault System, active since the Cretaceous, changes its kinematics from right-lateral in the south to left-lateral in the north. Structural studies were performed at various scales: DEM observations in the Central Cordillera between 4 and 5.7°N, aerial photograph analyses, and field work in the folded Oligo-Miocene rocks of the Serranía de Santa Barbara and in the flat-lying, Pleistocene Quindío-Risaralda volcaniclastic sediments interfingering with the lacustrine to fluviatile sediments of the Zarzal Formation. The data acquired allowed the detection of structures with a similar orientation at every scale and in all lithologies. These families of structures are arranged similarly to Riedel shears in a right-lateral shear zone and are superimposed on the Cretaceous Romeral suture. They appear in the Central Cordillera north of 4.5°N, and define a broad zone where 060-oriented right-lateral distributed shear strain affects the continental crust. The Romeral Fault System stays active and strain partitioning occurs among both systems. The southern limit of the distributed shear strain affecting the Central Cordillera corresponds to the E-W trending Garrapatas-Ibagué shear zone, constituted by several right-stepping, en-échelon, right-lateral, active faults and some lineaments. North of this shear zone, the Romeral Fault System strike changes from NNE to N. Paleostress calculations gave a WNW-ESE trending, maximum horizontal stress, and 69% of compressive tensors. The orientation of σ1 is consistent with the orientation of the right-lateral distributed shear strain and the compressive state characterizing the Romeral Fault System in the area: it bisects the

  2. Is the alpine divide becoming more permeable to biological invasions? - Insights on the invasion and establishment of the Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, M; Guillén, L; Rull, J; Höhn, H; Frey, J; Graf, B; Samietz, J

    2011-08-01

    The Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to North America (Midwestern US and north-eastern Mexico) and has invaded several European countries in the past decades by likely crossing the alpine divide separating most parts of Switzerland from Italy. Here, we determined its current distribution in Switzerland by sampling walnuts (Juglans regia L.) in ecologically and climatically distinct regions along potential invasion corridors. R. completa was found to be firmly established in most low altitude areas of Switzerland where walnuts thrive, but notably not a single parasitoid was recovered from any of the samples. Infested fruit was recovered in 42 of the 71 localities that were surveyed, with mean fruit infestation rate varying greatly among sites. The incidence of R. completa in Switzerland is closely related to meteorological mean spring temperature patterns influencing growing season length, but not to winter temperatures, reflecting survival potential during hibernation. Importantly, areas in which the fly is absent correspond with localities where the mean spring temperatures fall below 7°C. Historical data records show that the natural cold barrier around the Alpine divide in the central Swiss Alps corresponding to such minimal temperatures has shrunk significantly from a width of more than 40 km before 1990 to around 20 km after 2000. We hypothesize on possible invasion/expansion routes along alpine valleys, dwell on distribution patterns in relation to climate, and outline future research needs as the incursion of R. completa into Switzerland; and, more recently, other European countries, such as Germany, Austria, France and Slovenia, represent an example of alien species that settle first in the Mediterranean Basin and from there become invasive by crossing the Alps.

  3. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  4. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  5. Land-Sparing Opportunities for Solar Energy Development in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study of the Great Central Valley, CA, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, Madison K; Allen, Michael F; Hernandez, Rebecca R

    2017-12-19

    Land-cover change from energy development, including solar energy, presents trade-offs for land used for the production of food and the conservation of ecosystems. Solar energy plays a critical role in contributing to the alternative energy mix to mitigate climate change and meet policy milestones; however, the extent that solar energy development on nonconventional surfaces can mitigate land scarcity is understudied. Here, we evaluate the land sparing potential of solar energy development across four nonconventional land-cover types: the built environment, salt-affected land, contaminated land, and water reservoirs (as floatovoltaics), within the Great Central Valley (CV, CA), a globally significant agricultural region where land for food production, urban development, and conservation collide. Furthermore, we calculate the technical potential (TWh year -1 ) of these land sparing sites and test the degree to which projected electricity needs for the state of California can be met therein. In total, the CV encompasses 15% of CA, 8415 km 2 of which was identified as potentially land-sparing for solar energy development. These areas comprise a capacity-based energy potential of at least 17 348 TWh year -1 for photovoltaic (PV) and 2213 TWh year -1 for concentrating solar power (CSP). Accounting for technology efficiencies, this exceeds California's 2025 projected electricity demands up to 13 and 2 times for PV and CSP, respectively. Our study underscores the potential of strategic renewable energy siting to mitigate environmental trade-offs typically coupled with energy sprawl in agricultural landscapes.

  6. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  7. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  8. Surnames and genetic structure of a high-altitude Quechua community from the Ichu River Valley, Peruvian Central Andes, 1825-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettener, D; Pastor, S; Tarazona-Santos, E

    1998-10-01

    Changes in isolation, inbreeding, population subdivision, and isonymous relationships are examined in six Quechua communities from the upper valley of the Ichu River in the Peruvian Central Andes (3700 m). All marriages registered between 1825 and 1914 in the Parish of Santa Ana were analyzed. The data (1680 marriages) were divided into 2 periods (1825-1870 and 1871-1914) and into the 6 villages that constitute the parish. Endogamy rates are between 81% and 100%, indicating high levels of reproductive isolation. The inbreeding indicated by isonymy (Ft, Fr, and Fn) is lower than in other mountain populations studied. Isonymy values, calculated from the different surname combinations made possible by the Ibero-American Surnames System, indicate a strong rejection of consanguineous marriages, particularly between patrilineal relatives, in agreement with the parental structure typical of Andean populations. The comparison between observed and expected repeated-pair values reveals a moderate level of subdivision within populations, which could be related to cultural and socioeconomic factors. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to investigate temporal changes in the isonymous relationships among the communities. The results reveal a decrease in the interpopulational variability measured by surnames, in agreement with an increase in exogamy. Surnames and data contained in historical and demographic records yield reliable information, and they can be used to reconstruct the biological history of Amerindian populations over the last few centuries.

  9. Controls on Mississippi Valley-Type Zn-Pb mineralization in Behabad district, Central Iran: Constraints from spatial and numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Mohammad; Maghsoudi, Abbas

    2018-04-01

    The Behabad district, located in the central Iranian microcontinent, contains numerous epigenetic stratabound carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb ore bodies. The mineralizations formed as fault, fracture and karst fillings in the Permian-Triassic formations, especially in Middle Triassic dolostones, and comprise mainly non-sulfides zinc ores. These are all interpreted as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) base metal deposits. From an economic geological point of view, it is imperative to recognize the processes that have plausibly controlled the emplacement of MVT Zn-Pb mineralization in the Behabad district. To address the foregoing issue, analyses of the spatial distribution of mineral deposits comprising fry and fractal techniques and analysis of the spatial association of mineral deposits with geological features using distance distribution analysis were applied to assess the regional-scale processes that could have operated in the distribution of MVT Zn-Pb deposits in the district. The obtained results based on these analytical techniques show the main trends of the occurrences are NW-SE and NE-SW, which are parallel or subparallel to the major northwest and northeast trending faults, supporting the idea that these particular faults could have acted as the main conduits for transport of mineral-bearing fluids. The results of these analyses also suggest that Permian-Triassic brittle carbonate sedimentary rocks have served as the lithological controls on MVT mineralization in the Behabad district as they are spatially and temporally associated with mineralization.

  10. Creole Hens and Ranga-Ranga: Campesino Foodways and Biocultural Resource-Based Development in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Turner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biocultural heritage-based products, including regional specialty foods, are increasingly part of sustainable rural development strategies. While export-oriented biocultural products are often the most visible, we examine the role of campesino gastronomic heritage in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, as a case study of a local market-centered biocultural resource-based development strategy reflected in an alternative agri-food network. We develop a biocultural sustainability framework to examine this network from ecological, economic and sociocultural perspectives. Data are drawn from interviews (n = 77, surveys (n = 89 and participant observation, with primary and secondary producers of traditional and new products, as well as restaurant owners, market vendors and local consumers. We find that campesino biocultural heritage and the alternative agri-food network surrounding it represent an influential territorial project that underpins many household economies, particularly for women. We conclude that the relatively small investments by local governments to promote campesino gastronomic heritage are having positive ripple effects on small-scale producer livelihoods and on biocultural sustainability. We suggest that further support to increase market access and reduce other barriers to participation in alternative food networks will likely increase the options and benefits available to small-scale producers mobilising campesino gastronomic heritage within the local economy.

  11. Farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management: a case study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-05-01

    To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study.

  12. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada For Calendar Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites, CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit, and CAS 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill, and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits (5), an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action.

  13. Early Jurassic clay authigenesis in the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge province; infiltration of surface-derived fluids during Pangean rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, E. A.; van der Pluijm, B.; Vennemann, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern margin of North America has a protracted and intricate tectonic history. The terminal collision of Gondwana and Laurentia in the late Paleozoic formed the Appalachian mountain belt, a trans-continental orogen that persisted for almost 100 million years until Mesozoic break-up of the supercontinent Pangea. A host of studies have targeted the evolution and migration of fluids through Appalachian crust in an effort to understand how fluid promotes mass and heat redistribution, and mediates crustal deformation, particularly during the assembly of Pangea. Folded clay units from the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge province were sampled for stable and radiogenic isotope analysis. Separation of samples into different grain-size fractions characterizes detrital (host) and authigenic (neomineralized) clays. Stable H-isotope compositions reveal a systematic pattern with varying proportions of illite polytypes—the finer, younger fraction is D-depleted compared to the coarser, primarily detrital fraction. For each individual location, the H-isotopic composition of the fluid from which the authigenic population was grown is calculated. δDVSMOW of these fluids has a range from -77 to -52 ± 2 ‰, consistent with a surface-derived fluid source. The notably negative values for several samples indicates a meteoric composition of moderate to high elevation origin, suggesting that they are not connate waters, but instead preserve infiltration of fluids due to fracture-induced permeability. Key to this interpretation is 40Ar/39Ar-dating of a subset of these samples that reveals a post-orogenic age for authigenic clay mineralization in the Early Jurassic ( 180 Ma). These ages are evidence that surface fluid infiltration was unrelated to the Appalachian orogeny, but coeval with (upper) crustal extension from the initial break-up of Pangea and the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

  14. Einstein's Years in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plendl, Hans S.

    2005-11-01

    Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.

  15. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are probably the most prominent surface water bodies in continuous permafrost areas. As a consequence, they are also the most studied features in these regions (e.g. Fedorov et al. 2014). They are indeed of great interest, not only for local populations that use the water resource they represent both in winter and summer, but also from a climatic point of view as they can be a specific source of green-house gases due to the relatively warmer environment they create, especially associated with their taliks (thawed zone surrounded by permafrost located beneath large enough lakes). From a hydrogeological perspective, such taliks can form complex groundwater networks, thus possibly connecting sub-permafrost groundwater with surface water in the present context of climate change. On the other hand, rivers, another important feature of permafrost landscapes providing similar challenges, have drawn less attention so that only a few studies focus on river interactions with permafrost (e.g. Costard et al. 2014, Grenier et al. 2013). However, the processes of heat transfer at stake between river and permafrost strongly differ from lake systems for several reasons. The geometries differ, the river water flow and thermal regimes and interactions with the lateral slopes (valley) are specific. Of particular importance is the fact that the water, in the case of rivers, is in motion leading to specific heat exchange phenomena between water and soil. (Roux et al., accepted) addressed this issue recently by means of an experimental study in a cold room and associated numerical simulations. The present study focuses on a real river-permafrost system with its full natural complexity. A small alas-valley in the vicinity of Yakutsk (Central Yakutia, Siberia) was chosen. Monitoring was started in October 2012 to study the thermal and hydrological interactions between a river and its underground in this continuous permafrost environment. Thermal sensors were installed inside the

  16. Quaternary geologic map of the north-central part of the Salinas River Valley and Arroyo Seco, Monterey County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Arroyo Seco, a perennial drainage in the central Coast Range of California, records a sequence of strath terraces. These terraces preserve an erosional and depositional history, controlled by both climate change and regional tectonics. These deposits have been mapped and correlated on the basis of field investigations, digital terrain analysis, stream gradient profiles, evaluation of published regional soil maps, and satellite imagery. Seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans have been dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) or infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The OSL and IRSL dates on seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans in Arroyo Seco are approximately >120 ka, >65 ka, 51–46 ka, 36–35 ka, 9 ka, and 2–1 ka. These dates generally fall within the range of ages reported from many well-dated marine terraces on the California coast that are formed during sea-level high stands. Tectonic movements, consistently upward, result in a constantly and slowly emerging coastline, however, the regional effects of climate change and resulting eustatic sea-level rises are interpreted as the driving mechanism for erosion and aggradation in Arroyo Seco.

  17. Genetic variation and evolution of Polaskia chichipe (Cactaceae) under domestication in the Tehuacán Valley, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Casas, Alejandro; Hamrick, James L; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer

    2005-05-01

    Polaskia chichipe is a columnar cactus under artificial selection in central Mexico because of its edible fruits. Our study explored the effect of human manipulation on levels and distribution of genetic variation in wild, silviculturally managed and cultivated sympatric populations. Total genetic variation, estimated in nine populations with five microsatellite loci, was H(T) = 0.658 +/- 0.026 SE, which was mainly distributed within populations (H(S) = 0.646) with low differentiation among them (F(ST) = 0.015). Fixation index (F(IS)) in all populations was positive, indicating a deficit of heterozygous individuals with respect to Hardy-Weinberg expectations. When populations were pooled by management type, the highest expected heterozygosity (H(E) = 0.631 +/- 0.031 SE) and the lowest fixation index (F(IS) = 0.07) were observed in wild populations, followed by cultivated populations (H(E) = 0.56 +/- 0.03 SE, F(IS) = 0.14), whereas the lowest variation was found in silviculturally managed populations (H(E) = 0.51 +/- 0.05 SE, F(IS) = 0.17). Low differentiation among populations under different management types (F(ST) 0.005, P < 0.04) was observed. A pattern of migration among neighbouring populations, suggested from isolation by distance (r2 = 0.314, P < 0.01), may have contributed to homogenizing populations and counteracting the effects of artificial selection. P. chichipe, used and managed for at least 700 generations, shows morphological differentiation, changes in breeding system and seed germination patterns associated with human management, with only slight genetic differences detected by neutral markers.

  18. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi of Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, central China: herbophilia and indifference to fruits and mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Kang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants and fungi in Han (i.e. Chinese nationality villages in central China, including famine plants used in the respondents' childhood. A valley adjacent to the extremely species-rich temperate forest vegetation of the Taibai Nature Reserve was chosen. Eighty-two people from 5 villages took part in the study. Altogether, 159 wild food plant species and 13 fungi folk taxa were mentioned by informants. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high (24.8; median – 21.5. An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables (mean – 17, me- dian – 14.5, a few wild fruits (mean – 5.9 and median – 6 and very few fungi (mean – 1.9, median – 1, which they had eaten. Over 50% of respondents mentioned gathering the young shoots or leaves of Celastrus orbiculatus, Staphylea bumalda and S. holocapra, Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pimpinella sp., Amaranthus spp., Matteucia struthiopteris, Allium spp., Cardamine macrophylla and Chenopodium album. Only one species of fruits (Schisandra sphenanthera and none of the mushrooms were mentioned by over half of the respondents. Although very diverse, it can be noted that the use of wild vegetables has decreased compared to the second half of the 20th century, as informants listed several plants which they had stopped using (e.g. Abelia engleriana due to the availability of cultivated vegetables and other foodstuffs. On the other hand, the collection of the most well-known wild vegetables is maintained by selling them to tourists visiting agritourist farms, and restaurants.

  19. Factors influencing temporal changes in chemical composition of biogenic deposits in the middle Tążyna River Valley (Kuyavian Lakeland, central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okupny, Daniel; Rzepecki, Seweryn; Borówka, Ryszard Krzysztof; Forysiak, Jacek; Twardy, Juliusz; Fortuniak, Anna; Tomkowiak, Julita

    2016-06-01

    The present paper discusses the influence of geochemical properties on biogenic deposits in the Wilkostowo mire near Toruń, central Poland. The analysed core has allowed the documentation of environmental changes between the older part of the Atlantic Period and the present day (probably interrupted at the turn of the Meso- and Neoholocene). In order to reconstruct the main stages in the sedimentation of biogenic deposits, we have used stratigraphic variability of selected litho-geochemical elements (organic matter, calcium carbonate, biogenic and terrigenous silica, macro- and micro-elements: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni). The main litho-geochemical component is CaCO3; its content ranges from 4.1 per cent to 92 per cent. The variability of CaCO3 content reflects mainly changes in hydrological and geomorphological conditions within the catchment area. The effects of prehistoric anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the River Tążyna, e.g., the use of saline water for economic purposes, are recorded in a change from calcareous gyttja into detritus-calcareous gyttja sedimentation and an increased content of lithophilous elements (Na, K, Mg and Ni) in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) has enabled the distinction the most important factors that affected the chemical composition of sediments at the Wilkostowo site, i.e., mechanical and chemical denudation processes in the catchment, changes in redox conditions, bioaccumulation of selected elements and human activity. Sediments of the Wilkostowo mire are located in the direct vicinity of an archaeological site, where traces of intensive settlement dating back to the Neolithic have been documented. The settlement phase is recorded both in lithology and geochemical properties of biogenic deposits which fill the reservoir formed at the bottom of the Parchania Canal Valley.

  20. A new concept of irrigation response units for effective management of surface and groundwater resources: a case study from the multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-09-09

    When estimating canal water supplies for large-scale irrigation schemes and especially in arid regions worldwide, the impact of all factors affecting the gross irrigation requirements (GIR) are not properly accounted for, which results in inefficient use of precious freshwater resources. This research shows that the concept of irrigation response units (IRU)—areas having unique combinations of factors effecting the GIR—allows for more precise estimates of GIR. An overlay analysis of soil texture and salinity, depth and salinity of groundwater, cropping patterns and irrigation methods was performed in a GIS environment, which yielded a total of 17 IRUs combinations of the Oktepa Zilol Chashmasi water consumers’ association in multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Groundwater contribution, leaching requirements, losses in the irrigation system through field application and conveyance and effective rainfall were included in GIR estimates. The GIR varied significantly among IRUs [average of 851 mm (±143 mm)] with a maximum (1051 mm) in IRU-12 and a minimum (629 mm) in IRUs-15, 16. Owing to varying groundwater levels in each IRU, the groundwater contribution played a key role in the estimation of the GIR. The maximum groundwater contribution occurred in IRUs dominated by cotton–fallow rotations as evidenced by an average value of 159 mm but a maximum of 254 mm and a minimum of 97 mm. Percolation losses depended on irrigation methods for different crops in their respective IRUs. The novel approach can guide water managers in this and similar regions to increase the accuracy of irrigation demands based on all the factor effecting the GIR. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  1. Factors influencing temporal changes in chemical composition of biogenic deposits in the middle Tążyna River Valley (Kuyavian Lakeland, central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okupny Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the influence of geochemical properties on biogenic deposits in the Wilkostowo mire near Toruń, central Poland. The analysed core has allowed the documentation of environmental changes between the older part of the Atlantic Period and the present day (probably interrupted at the turn of the Meso- and Neoholocene. In order to reconstruct the main stages in the sedimentation of biogenic deposits, we have used stratigraphic variability of selected litho-geochemical elements (organic matter, calcium carbonate, biogenic and terrigenous silica, macro- and micro-elements: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni. The main litho-geochemical component is CaCO3; its content ranges from 4.1 per cent to 92 per cent. The variability of CaCO3 content reflects mainly changes in hydrological and geomorphological conditions within the catchment area. The effects of prehistoric anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the River Tążyna, e.g., the use of saline water for economic purposes, are recorded in a change from calcareous gyttja into detritus-calcareous gyttja sedimentation and an increased content of lithophilous elements (Na, K, Mg and Ni in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA has enabled the distinction the most important factors that affected the chemical composition of sediments at the Wilkostowo site, i.e., mechanical and chemical denudation processes in the catchment, changes in redox conditions, bioaccumulation of selected elements and human activity. Sediments of the Wilkostowo mire are located in the direct vicinity of an archaeological site, where traces of intensive settlement dating back to the Neolithic have been documented. The settlement phase is recorded both in lithology and geochemical properties of biogenic deposits which fill the reservoir formed at the bottom of the Parchania Canal Valley.

  2. Implementation of warm-cloud processes in a source-oriented WRF/Chem model to study the effect of aerosol mixing state on fog formation in the Central Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-H. Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The source-oriented Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry model (SOWC was modified to include warm cloud processes and was applied to investigate how aerosol mixing states influence fog formation and optical properties in the atmosphere. SOWC tracks a 6-D chemical variable (X, Z, Y, size bins, source types, species through an explicit simulation of atmospheric chemistry and physics. A source-oriented cloud condensation nuclei module was implemented into the SOWC model to simulate warm clouds using the modified two-moment Purdue Lin microphysics scheme. The Goddard shortwave and long-wave radiation schemes were modified to interact with source-oriented aerosols and cloud droplets so that aerosol direct and indirect effects could be studied. The enhanced SOWC model was applied to study a fog event that occurred on 17 January 2011, in the Central Valley of California. Tule fog occurred because an atmospheric river effectively advected high moisture into the Central Valley and nighttime drainage flow brought cold air from mountains into the valley. The SOWC model produced reasonable liquid water path, spatial distribution and duration of fog events. The inclusion of aerosol–radiation interaction only slightly modified simulation results since cloud optical thickness dominated the radiation budget in fog events. The source-oriented mixture representation of particles reduced cloud droplet number relative to the internal mixture approach that artificially coats hydrophobic particles with hygroscopic components. The fraction of aerosols activating into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN at a supersaturation of 0.5 % in the Central Valley decreased from 94 % in the internal mixture model to 80 % in the source-oriented model. This increased surface energy flux by 3–5 W m−2 and surface temperature by as much as 0.25 K in the daytime.

  3. Changes in the water-table altitude of the unconfined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2006 to October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  4. Wells measured for water-levels, unconfined and confined aquifers, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2006 and October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  5. Changes in the potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2006 to October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  6. Spring migration ecology of the mid-continent sandhill crane population with an emphasis on use of the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.; Brandt, David A.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 10-year study (1998–2007) of the Mid-Continent Population (MCP) of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) to identify spring-migration corridors, locations of major stopovers, and migration chronology by crane breeding affiliation (western Alaska–Siberia [WA–S], northern Canada–Nunavut [NC–N], west-central Canada–Alaska [WC–A], and east-central Canada–Minnesota [EC–M]). In the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska, we evaluated factors influencing staging chronology, food habits, fat storage, and habitat use of sandhill cranes. We compared our findings to results from the Platte River Ecology Study conducted during 1978–1980. We determined spring migration corridors used by the breeding affiliations (designated subpopulations for management purposes) by monitoring 169 cranes marked with platform transmitter terminals (PTTs). We also marked and monitored 456 cranes in the CPRV with very high frequency (VHF) transmitters to evaluate length and pattern of stay, habitat use, and movements. An estimated 42% and 58% of cranes staging in the CPRV were greater sandhill cranes (G. c. tabida) and lesser sandhill cranes (G. c. canadensis), and they stayed for an average of 20 and 25 days (2000–2007), respectively. Cranes from the WA–S, NC–N, WC–A, and EC–M affiliations spent an average of 72, 77, 52, and 53 days, respectively, in spring migration of which 28, 23, 24, and 18 days occurred in the CPRV. The majority of the WA–S subpopulation settled in the CPRV apparently because of inadequate habitat to support more birds upstream, although WA–S cranes accounted for >90% of birds staging in the North Platte River Valley. Crane staging duration in the CPRV was negatively correlated with arrival dates; 92% of cranes stayed >7 days. A program of annual mechanical removal of mature stands of woody growth and seedlings that began in the early 1980s primarily in the main channel of the Platte River has allowed distribution of crane

  7. Sediment storage and transport in Pancho Rico Valley during and after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, Coast Ranges of central California (Monterey County)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Factors influencing sediment transport and storage within the 156??6 km2 drainage basin of Pancho Rico Creek (PRC), and sediment transport from the PRC drainage basin to its c. 11000 km2 mainstem drainage (Salinas River) are investigated. Numeric age estimates are determined by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on quartz grains from three sediment samples collected from a 'quaternary terrace a (Qta)' PRC terrace/PRC-tributary fan sequence, which consists dominantly of debris flow deposits overlying fluvial sediments. OSL dating results, morphometric analyses of topography, and field results indicate that the stormy climate of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition caused intense debris-flow erosion of PRC- tributary valleys. However, during that time, the PRC channel was backfilled by Qta sediment, which indicates that there was insufficient discharge in PRC to transport the sediment load produced by tributary-valley denudation. Locally, Salinas Valley alluvial stratigraphy lacks any record of hillslope erosion occurring during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, in that the alluvial fan formed where PRC enters the Salinas Valley lacks lobes correlative to Qta. This indicates that sediment stripped from PRC tributaries was mostly trapped in Pancho Rico Valley despite the relatively moist climate of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Incision into Qta did not occur until PRC enlarged its drainage basin by c. 50% through capture of the upper part of San Lorenzo Creek, which occurred some time after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. During the relatively dry Holocene, PRC incision through Qta and into bedrock, as well as delivery of sediment to the San Ardo Fan, were facilitated by the discharge increase associated with stream-capture. The influence of multiple mechanisms on sediment storage and transport in the Pancho Rico Valley-Salinas Valley system exemplifies the complexity that (in some instances) must be recognized in order to correctly

  8. [Puppy feeding in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B

    2009-11-01

    In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.

  9. Radiation protection in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.

    1990-01-01

    Switzerland's present radiation protection regulations are based on only two paragraphs of the atomic law but have been very successful in practice. A new radiation protection law, separated from nuclear legislation and valid for all application of ionizing radiation and radioctive materials, was proposed and drafted by the Federal Commission on Radiation Protection and has now been accepted by parliament with only minor modifications. The draft of the revised regulations which also will cover all applications, should be ready for consultations next year. Both the law (which contains principles but no figures such as limits) and the regulations incorporate the latest state of ICRP recommendations and are formulated in such a way as to allow application of or quick adaptation to the new basic ICRP recommendation expected for 1991. The legislation is flexible, with a relatively low regulation density and leaves sufficient room for professional judgement on a case by case basis both for authorities and for the specialists responsible for radiation protection in practice. (orig./HSCH)

  10. Weathering and the mobility of phosphorus in the catchments and forefields of the Rhône and Oberaar glaciers, central Switzerland: Implications for the global phosphorus cycle on glacial-interglacial timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Hosein, Rachel; Arn, Kaspar; Steinmann, Philipp

    2009-04-01

    In this study we evaluate the dynamics of the biophile element phosphorus (P) in the catchment and proglacial areas of the Rhône and Oberaar glaciers (central Switzerland). We analysed erosion and dissolution rates of P-containing minerals in the subglacial environment by sampling water and suspended sediment in glacier outlets during three ablation and two accumulation seasons. We also quantified biogeochemical weathering rates of detrital P in proglacial sedimentary deposits using two chronosequences of samples of fresh, suspended, material obtained from the Oberaar and Rhône water outlets, Little-Ice-Age (LIA) moraines and Younger Dryas (YD) tills in each catchment. Subglacial P weathering is mainly a physical process and detrital P represents more than 99% of the precipitation-corrected total P denudation flux (234 and 540 kg km -2 yr -1 for the Rhône and Oberaar catchments, respectively). The calculated detrital P flux rates are three to almost five times higher than the world average flux. The precipitation-corrected soluble reactive P (SRP) flux corresponds to 1.88-1.99 kg km -2 yr -1 (Rhône) and 2.12-2.44 kg km -2 yr -1 (Oberaar), respectively. These fluxes are comparable to those of tropical rivers draining transport-limited, tectonically inactive weathering areas. In order to evaluate the efficiency of detrital P weathering in the Rhône and Oberaar proglacial areas, we systematically graded apatite grains extracted from the chronosequence in each catchment relative to weathering-induced changes in their surface morphologies (grades 1-4). Fresh apatite grains are heavily indented and dissolution rounded (grade 1). LIA grains from two 0-10 cm deep moraine samples show extensive dissolution etching, similar to surface grains from the YD profile (mean grades 2.7, 3.5 and 3.5, respectively). In these proglacial deposits, the weathering front deepens progressively as a function of time due to biocorrosion in the evolving acidic pedosphere , with mechanical

  11. Grimsel and planning of the nuclear waste management in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, H.

    1997-01-01

    NAGRA (Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung Radioaktiver Abfaelle) was founded 25 years ago as a responsible for all preparatory work associated with the safe disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland. Extensive international R and D work has been carried out during the past 14 years at the GRIMSEL test site (GTS), one of the two underground rock laboratories headed by NAGRA. GTS is located approximately 450 meters beneath the crystalline rock in the Alps in the southern Central Switzerland. The rock lab is open for visitors not only to get acquainted with the research technology but also to admire the 16 million year old crystal cave at the place (author)

  12. Volatile Compounds in Honey Produced in the Central Valley of Ñuble Province, Chile Compuestos Volatiles en Miel Producida en el Valle Central de la Provincia de Ñuble, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Gianelli Barra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME with an 85 µm Carboxen polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS fiber was used to extract volatile compounds, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectometry detector (GC-MS was used to identify the volatile compounds in honeys. Thirty-four different volatile compounds from the headspace of honey produced in the central valley of Ñuble Province, Chile, were extracted with fiber coating CAR/PDMS. The identified compounds were: 10 alcohols, 9 acids, 6 ketones, 3 aldehydes, 2 furans, 2 terpenes and 2 lactones. Only four of the volatile compounds had never been reported before as honey compounds; these being: 1,3-propanodiol, 2-methyl butanoic acid, 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexen-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-octen-2-one. These four compounds were found in three of the 10 analyzed samples. The compounds found in the highest percentage of area were ethanol, acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propane, 3-hydroxy-2-butane, and furfural. However, the analyzed samples did not present a distinctive profile.La extracción de compuestos volátiles desde el espacio de cabeza de mieles se realiza mediante microextracción en fase sólida (SPME, utilizando una fibra de 85 µm de Carboxen polidimetilsiloxano (CAR/PDMS, el análisis de los compuestos volátiles se realiza mediante cromatografía de gases con detector de masa (GC-MS. Un total de 34 diferentes compuestos volátiles fueron extraídos desde el espacio de cabeza de mieles provenientes del valle central de la provincia de Ñuble con la fibra de CAR/PDMS. Los compuestos identificados fueron 10 alcoholes, 9 ácidos, 6 cetonas, 3 aldehídos, 2 furanos, 2 terpenos y 2 lactonas. De los compuestos volátiles sólo tres no han sido reportados con anterioridad en mieles, estos compuestos fueron: 1,3-propanodiol, ácido 2-metil butanoico, 3,4-dimetil-3-hexen-2-ona, 6-metil-5-octen-2-ona. Estos cuatro compuestos se encontraron en sólo tres de las 10 muestras analizadas. Los compuestos que se

  13. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  14. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by ... species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne ...

  15. Ammonoids from the Dalle des Iridet of the Mouydir and Ahnet (Central Sahara and the Formation d'Hassi Sguilma of the Saoura Valley (Late Tournaisian–Early Viséan; Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Korn

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Four ammonoid species are described from the Early Carboniferous (Mississippian Iridet Formation of the Ahnet and Mouydir (Central Sahara, Algeria; three of which are new: Eurites temertassetensis n. sp., Trimorphoceras teguentourense n. sp., and Trimorphoceras azzelmattiense n. sp. The species can be attributed to the North African Ammonellipsites-Merocanites Assemblage (Fascipericyclus-Ammonellipsites Genus Zone; Late Tournaisian to Early Viséan. Additionally, the two new species Ammonellipsites sguilmensis n. sp. and Muensteroceras beniabbesense n. sp. are described from the time equivalent Hassi Sguilma Formation of the Saoura Valley (north-western Algeria. doi:10.1002/mmng.200900012

  16. Bayesian Nitrate Source Apportionment to Individual Groundwater Wells in the Central Valley by use of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Boron Isotopic Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, K.; Harter, T.; Grote, M.; Young, M. B.; Eppich, G.; Deinhart, A.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide, an example of which is the San Joaquin Valley, California. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. Dairy manure and synthetic fertilizers are the major sources of nitrate in groundwater in the San Joaquin Valley, however, septic waste can be a major source in some areas. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (≤150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Consumption of water containing nitrate above the drinking water limit has been linked to major health effects including low blood oxygen in infants and certain cancers. Knowledge of the proportion of each of the three main nitrate sources (manure, synthetic fertilizer, and septic waste) contributing to individual well nitrate can aid future regulatory decisions. Nitrogen, oxygen, and boron isotopes can be used as tracers to differentiate between the three main nitrate sources. Mixing models quantify the proportional contributions of sources to a mixture by using the concentration of conservative tracers within each source as a source signature. Deterministic mixing models are common, but do not allow for variability in the tracer source concentration or overlap of tracer concentrations between sources. Bayesian statistics used in conjunction with mixing models can incorporate variability in the source signature. We developed a Bayesian mixing model on a pilot network of 32 private domestic wells in the San Joaquin Valley for which nitrate as well as nitrogen, oxygen, and boron isotopes were measured. Probability distributions for nitrogen, oxygen, and boron isotope source signatures for manure, fertilizer, and septic waste were compiled from the literature and from a previous groundwater monitoring project on several

  17. Strontium-90 measurements in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedli, C.; Geering, J.J.; Lerch, P.

    1988-01-01

    Strontium-90 contamination in Switzerland has been measured since the sixties. The determination of 90 Sr in human vertebrae, milk-teeth, milk and wine have shown a maximum activity between 1964 and 1966. Since 1976, the survey has been extended to the food chain. After the Chernobyl accident, the measurements indicated a significative 90 Sr contamination in the Tessin and the north-east of Switzerland. The partition of 90 Sr in wheat has been determined and transfer factors are given for the milk - cheese - whey chain

  18. California GAMA Special Study: An isotopic and dissolved gas investigation of nitrate source and transport to a public supply well in California's Central Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K; Roberts, S K; Hillegonds, D J

    2010-04-14

    This study investigates nitrate contamination of a deep municipal drinking water production well in Ripon, CA to demonstrate the utility of natural groundwater tracers in constraining the sources and transport of nitrate to deep aquifers in the Central Valley. The goal of the study was to investigate the origin (source) of elevated nitrate and the potential for the deep aquifer to attenuate anthropogenic nitrate. The site is ideal for such an investigation. The production well is screened from 165-325 feet below ground surface and a number of nearby shallow and deep monitoring wells were available for sampling. Furthermore, potential sources of nitrate contamination to the well had been identified, including a fertilizer supply plant located approximately 1000 feet to the east and local almond groves. A variety of natural isotopic and dissolved gas tracers including {sup 3}H-{sup 3}He groundwater age and the isotopic composition of nitrate are applied to identify nitrate sources and to characterize nitrate transport. An advanced method for sampling production wells is employed to help identify contaminant contributions from specific screen intervals. Nitrate transport: Groundwater nitrate at this field site is not being actively denitrified. Groundwater parameters indicate oxic conditions, the dissolved gas data shows no evidence for excess nitrogen as the result of denitrification, and nitrate-N and -O isotope compositions do not display patterns typical of denitrification. Contaminant nitrate source: The ambient nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater at the Ripon site ({approx}12 mg/L as nitrate) is typical of shallow groundwaters affected by recharge from agricultural and urban areas. Nitrate concentrations in Ripon City Well 12 (50-58 mg/L as nitrate) are significantly higher than these ambient concentrations, indicating an additional source of anthropogenic nitrate is affecting groundwater in the capture zone of this municipal drinking water well. This

  19. Biogas in Austria and Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, A.

    Several well-functioning biogas plants in Austria and in Switzerland are briefly described. The profitability of the combination of dairy farming and pig breeding is emphasized. The whey produced by the cheese-dairies is fed to the pigs and the pigs dung is fermented to biogas.

  20. Switzerland: the pragmatics of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    Switzerland has a population of seven million and approximately 600 medical technology companies are located there. This equates to one company per 12 thousand people and arguably the highest density in the world. The factors that make the country a successful place to do business are outlined in this interview with Professor Bestetti, Head of the CTI Medtech initiative.

  1. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit and 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits 9, an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action. Quarterly post-closure inspections are performed at the CASs that were closed in place at UC-I, UC-3, and UC-4. During calendar year 2005, site inspections were performed on March 15, June 16, September 22, and December 7. The inspections conducted at the UC-1 CMP documented that the site was in good condition and continued to show integrity of the cover unit. No new cracks or fractures were observed until the December inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover showed evidence of lateral expansion; however, it is not at an actionable level. The crack will be sealed by filling with

  2. Feasibility study for the retrofitting a small hydroelectric power station at the mill of Noiraigue, Switzerland; Projet de rehabilitation d'une centrale hydro-electrique au moulin de Noiraigue. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choulot, A.; Chenal, R.; Denis, V. [MHyLab, Montcherand (Switzerland); Chuat, O. [RWB SA, Cernier (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    For the time being, the old mill on the left bank of the river Noiraigue, Switzerland is equipped with a small turbine of only a few kW. The present study investigates the technical and economical possibilities for maximizing the electric power production at the site. Two variants were studied: variant A retains the existing construction at the site and comprises a single turbine with a maximum electric power output of 70 kW. The annual energy production would be 348'300 kWh and the production cost 0.13 CHF/kWh. Variant B includes important modifications in the construction - especially the dam and the channels. Two turbines with a total maximum power output of 118 kW are foreseen. The annual energy production would be 448'500 kWh and the production cost 0.15 CHF/kWh. Due to these findings, variant A is preferred and proposed for realization.

  3. Feasibility study for the retrofitting a small hydroelectric power station at the mill of Noiraigue, Switzerland; Projet de rehabilitation d'une centrale hydro-electrique au moulin de Noiraigue. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choulot, A; Chenal, R; Denis, V [MHyLab, Montcherand (Switzerland); Chuat, O [RWB SA, Cernier (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    For the time being, the old mill on the left bank of the river Noiraigue, Switzerland is equipped with a small turbine of only a few kW. The present study investigates the technical and economical possibilities for maximizing the electric power production at the site. Two variants were studied: variant A retains the existing construction at the site and comprises a single turbine with a maximum electric power output of 70 kW. The annual energy production would be 348'300 kWh and the production cost 0.13 CHF/kWh. Variant B includes important modifications in the construction - especially the dam and the channels. Two turbines with a total maximum power output of 118 kW are foreseen. The annual energy production would be 448'500 kWh and the production cost 0.15 CHF/kWh. Due to these findings, variant A is preferred and proposed for realization.

  4. Refurbishment and optimisation of the district heating system and the Morettina central heating station in Locarno, Switzerland; Sanierung und Optimierung des Waermeverbundes und der Heizzentrale Morettina in Locarno. Erfolgskontrolle der Betriebsoptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanz, S. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Berne (Switzerland); Ceschi, P. A. [Calore SA, c/o S.E.S., Locarno (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the successful operational optimisation of a district heating system in Locarno in southern Switzerland. The system supplies various public and private buildings with heat and cold. This pilot installation features boilers fired with liquefied gas, a combined heat and power unit and a combined heat-pump/refrigeration system. The refurbishment of the installations after three years of operation is described, which included changes to the system's hydraulics and control system as well as improvements to various sub-stations in the heating network. The results of the refurbishment, including better co-ordination of the various aggregates and lower operating temperatures, are discussed. Recommendations are also made on the planning, organisation and operation of future projects of this type.

  5. The small-scale hydroelectric power plant project 'Les Esserts' in Boudry, Switzerland - Feasibility study and preliminary planning; Centrale des Esserts a Boudry. Etude de faisabilite et avant-projet detaille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelli, P; Croci, S; Ernst, J -R

    2004-07-01

    This report describes in details the project of the installation of a small-scale hydroelectric power plant on the river Areuse in Switzerland. Located on a 4 m high waterfall the plant includes a 10-13 m{sup 3}/s Kaplan turbine, which should deliver roughly 1.6 GWh/year for an installed power of about 500 kVA. The authors insist on the ecological aspect of the project. The plant will be built underground; the river track will be practically unchanged and the existing fish ladder maintained. The report includes maps and pictures of the site as well as technical drawings of the installation. An economic analysis of the project is presented and its viability is discussed. Finally, the authors state that the energy produced by this plant will certainly be certified under one of the Swiss labels 'naturemade star' or 'naturemade basic', in the framework of the federal government's promotion of renewable energy sources.

  6. Status of burnup credit implementation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, P.

    1998-01-01

    Burnup credit is currently not used for the storage of spent fuel in the reactor pools in Switzerland, but credit is taken for integral burnable absorbers. Interest exists to take credit of burnup in future for the storage in a central away-from-reactor facility presently under construction. For spent fuel transports to foreign reprocessing plants the regulations of the receiving countries must be applied in addition to the Swiss licensing criteria. Burnup credit has been applied by one Swiss PWR utility for such transports in a consistent manner with the licensing practice in the receiving countries. Measurements of reactivity worths of small spent fuel samples in a Swiss zero-power research reactor are at an early stage of planning. (author)

  7. Soil water storage and groundwater behaviour in a catenary sequence beneath forest in central Amazonia: I. Comparisons between plateau, slope and valley floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Hodnett

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water storage was monitored in three landscape elements in the forest (plateau, slope and valley floor over a 3 year period to identify differences in sub-surface hydrological response. Under the plateau and slope, the changes of storage were very similar and there was no indication of surface runoff on the slope. The mean maximum seasonal storage change was 156 mm in the 2 m profile but it was clear that, in the dry season, the forest was able to take up water from below 3.6 m. Soil water availability was low. Soil water storage changes in the valley were dominated by the behaviour of a shallow water table which, in normal years, varied between 0.1 m below the surface at the end of the wet season and 0.8 m at the end of the dry season. Soil water storage changes were small because root uptake was largely replenished by groundwater flow towards the stream. The groundwater behaviour is controlled mainly by the deep drainage from beneath the plateau and slope areas. The groundwater gradient beneath the slope indicated that recharge beneath the plateau and slope commences only after the soil water deficits from the previous dry season have been replenished. Following a wet season with little recharge, the water table fell, ceasing to influence the valley soil water storage, and the stream dried up. The plateau and slope, a zone of very high porosity between 0.4 and 1.1 m, underlain by a less conductive layer, is a probable route for interflow during, and for a few hours after, heavy and prolonged rainfall.

  8. Anisian and Ladinian Beds in the Cross-Section above Srednik Valley at Križna Gora,Central Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Demšar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Križna Gora and wider surroundings are built of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks. Pretty extended among them are the carbonate Anisian and heterogeneously developed variegated Ladinian rocks wedging out laterally and vertically already at short distances as a result of active volcanism, tectonics and the fact that this region is situated on the margin between the Dinaric Carbonate Platform and the Slovenian Basin. The Ladinian rocks lie discordantly upon the Anisian dolomite. In the Ladinian sediments pelecypods Daonella lommeli (Wissmann are rather extended. The Ladinian beds are overlain by theCordevolian dolomite. The boundary between them in the Srednik Valley is strongly tektonized.

  9. Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoseismology of an intraplate seismic zone in a large alluvial valley, the New Madrid seismic zone, Central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guccione, Margaret J.

    2005-10-01

    The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) is an intraplate right-lateral strike-slip and thrust fault system contained mostly within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The most recent earthquake sequence in the zone occurred in 1811 1812 and had estimated moment magnitudes of 7 8 (e.g., [Johnston, A.C., 1996. Seismic moment assessment of stable continental earthquakes, Part 3: 1811 1812 New Madrid, 1886 Charleston, and 1755 Lisbon. Geophysical Journal International 126, 314 344; Johnston, A.C., Schweig III, E.S, 1996. The enigma of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811 1812. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 24, 339 384; Hough, S.E., Armbruster, J.G., Seeber, L., Hough, J.F., 2000. On the modified Mercalli intensities and magnitudes of the New Madrid earthquakes. Journal of Geophysical Research 105 (B10), 23,839 23,864; Tuttle, M.P., 2001. The use of liquefaction features in paleoseismology: Lessons learned in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States. Journal of Seismology 5, 361 380]). Four earlier prehistoric earthquakes or earthquake sequences have been dated A.D. 1450 ± 150, 900 ± 100, 300 ± 200, and 2350 B.C. ± 200 years using paleoliquefaction features, particularly those associated with native American artifacts, and in some cases surface deformation ([Craven, J. A. 1995. Paleoseismology study in the New Madrid seismic zone using geological and archeological features to constrain ages of liquefaction deposits. M.S thesis, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, U.S.A.; Tuttle, M.P., Lafferty III, R.H., Guccione, M.J., Schweig III, E.S., Lopinot, N., Cande, R., Dyer-Williams, K., Haynes, M., 1996. Use of archaeology to date liquefaction features and seismic events in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States. Geoarchaeology 11, 451 480; Guccione, M.J., Mueller, K., Champion, J., Shepherd, S., Odhiambo, B., 2002b. Stream response to repeated co-seismic folding, Tiptonville dome, western Tennessee. Geomorphology 43(2002), 313 349; Tuttle, M

  10. Switzerland advances payments to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the picture, Charles Kleiber (third from left) visits the TI8 tunnel with (left to right) Jean-Luc Baldy, Head of the LHC civil engineering group, Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General, Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN Council, Guy Hentsch, Personal adviser to the Director-General, Michel Buchs and Frédéric Chavan, representatives of the firm Prader Losinger. The State Secretary for Science and Research in Switzerland, Charles Kleiber, signed an agreement with CERN last week for an advancement of contributions from his country. The Confédération Helvétique will make an advanced payment of 90 million CHF. There will be no interest involved in this payment and the amount of money will be deducted from Switzerland's ordinary contributions to CERN in later years.

  11. Intolerance toward immigrants in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance is neverthel......Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...... that Swiss who view rising immigration to mean a loss of economic privileges and an erosion of Swiss cultural values are less tolerant toward immigrants. Moreover, our results indicate that contact with immigrants may moderate this effect. However, not all group settings are able to reduce the perceived...... threats in a similar way, and not all sorts of social contact are able to foster tolerance toward immigrants....

  12. Nuclear energy discussion in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brupbacher, F.

    1989-01-01

    As regards the subject of nuclear power, Switzerland is no better off than Germany or the Benelux nations. In particular, Swiss people do not have superior insight or more general agreement in their views as to nuclear energy use. With reference to the whole nation, advocates and opponents of nuclear power currently are about equal in number; hence decisions are blocked the same as elsewhere. (orig.) [de

  13. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  14. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  15. The small-scale hydroelectric power plant project 'Les Esserts' in Boudry, Switzerland - Feasibility study and preliminary planning; Centrale des Esserts a Boudry. Etude de faisabilite et avant-projet detaille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelli, P.; Croci, S.; Ernst, J.-R.

    2004-07-01

    This report describes in details the project of the installation of a small-scale hydroelectric power plant on the river Areuse in Switzerland. Located on a 4 m high waterfall the plant includes a 10-13 m{sup 3}/s Kaplan turbine, which should deliver roughly 1.6 GWh/year for an installed power of about 500 kVA. The authors insist on the ecological aspect of the project. The plant will be built underground; the river track will be practically unchanged and the existing fish ladder maintained. The report includes maps and pictures of the site as well as technical drawings of the installation. An economic analysis of the project is presented and its viability is discussed. Finally, the authors state that the energy produced by this plant will certainly be certified under one of the Swiss labels 'naturemade star' or 'naturemade basic', in the framework of the federal government's promotion of renewable energy sources.

  16. Retrofitting the small-scale hydro power plant 'La Chocolatiere' in Echandens-Bussigny, Switzerland; Rehabilitation de la petite centrale de la Chocolatiere (Echandens - Bussigny)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a project study for the retrofitting of a small-scale hydro power plant installed on the River Venoge, between the communities of Echandens and Bussigny, western Switzerland. At this site, hydro power is used since the 18{sup th} century. A permanent license to use at most 3 m{sup 3}/s is available. The study concludes that the maximum flow rate of 6 m{sup 3}/s would be more advantageous, implying a 35 cm higher dam on the river. Two turbines could then be installed, leading to the maximum electric power of 177 kW and the power production of 727,000 kWh/y. From the detailed inventory of the retrofitting work and the installation of the new turbines - including a new fish ladder according to the legislation in force - the authors conclude that electricity could be generated at a cost amounting to about CHF 0.24/kWh. It is recommended to request the modification of the water use license in order to be able to use up to 6 m{sup 3}/s.

  17. Identification of central Kenyan Rift Valley Fever virus vector habitats with Landsat TM and evaluation of their flooding status with airborne imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, K. O.; Sheffner, E. J.; Linthicum, K. J.; Bailey, C. L.; Logan, T. M.; Kasischke, E. S.; Birney, K.; Njogu, A. R.; Roberts, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne virus that affects livestock and humans in Africa. Landsat TM data are shown to be effective in identifying dambos, intermittently flooded areas that are potential mosquite breeding sites, in an area north of Nairobi, Kenya. Positive results were obtained from a limited test of flood detection in dambos with airborne high resolution L, C, and X band multipolarization SAR imagery. L and C bands were effective in detecting flooded dambos, but LHH was by far the best channel for discrimination between flooded and nonflooded sites in both sedge and short-grass environments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a combined passive and active remote sensing program for monitoring the location and condition of RVF vector habitats, thus making future control of the disease more promising.

  18. Drainage water use from the railway Mont d'Or tunnel in Vallorbe, Switzerland; Centrale du Bief-Rouge. Recuperation des eaux du tunnel du Mont d'Or a Vallorbe - Rapport 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerodetti, M.

    2009-02-15

    The 6'097 m long Railway Tunnel under the Mont d'Or (western Switzerland, under the Jura mountains) was constructed at the beginning of the 20{sup th} century and inaugurated on 16 May 1915. During the construction there was an important break-in of water in the tunnel that flooded the whole construction area. Since the completion of the tunnel, the water incursion is drained and conveyed to the Swiss entrance. The flow rate coming from the tunnel is constant at about 120 l/s and didn't show any variation during all the past decades. The idea of using the tunnel water energy in a turbine is thought of since a long time. Considering the present situation on the energy sector, the 'Societe electrique du Chatelard' (the local electricity utility) with the support of the municipal authority, decided now to realize this concept and to turbine the water from the tunnel, also known as 'Bief Rouge', for power generation. The 'Bief Rouge' project consists in catching the flow at the Vallorbe entrance of the tunnel and conducting it into a new penstock down to the river Orbe situated some 65 m downhill where electricity will be produced in a new small-scale power plant. The planned scheme will have an electrical power of 54.5 kW and be located in a new building near the existing sewage pumping station of Vallorbe. The total investment cost is 1.3 million CHF and includes the construction of a new headwater basin, a penstock, a power plant and a tailrace channel as well as the electro-mechanical equipment for power production. Based on a mean annual power production of some 465,000 kWh, the retail price of the kWh has been evaluated to 21 Swiss cents/kWh. (author)

  19. Small-scale hydro power plant on the main drinking water line La Rippaz in Bex, Switzerland - Feasibility study; Petite centrale hydraulique. Aduction d'eau potable La Rippaz. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapallaz, J.-M. [Jean-Marc Chapallaz, Ingenieur EPFL/SIA, Baulmes (Switzerland); Meylan, D. [Perret-Gentil et Rey et Associes SA, Ingenieurs civils et Ingenieurs Conseil EPF/SIA, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study for the replacement work of the drinking-water supply line from the location of the spring water collection to a water reservoir belonging to the rock-salt mining company 'Hotel des Salines' in Bex, Switzerland. Built 1887 and following years this water supply system has already been designed for power generation as well. However, a 40 kW micro-scale turbine has only been installed 2005 in the lower part of the water supply system (hydraulic head: 115 m). The new project includes the replacement of the existing piping by a penstock, the construction of a new water collection reservoir at the highest point, the construction of a new 300 kW hydro power plant using the upper part of the water supply system (hydraulic head: 520 m), and some improvements of the existing lower power plant. The available water flow rate lies in the range 57-70 l/s, all the year round. The question arising is whether this construction project could be financed by the benefit from the sale of electricity that could be produced by the two power plants. The authors of the study estimate the power production to be 2.5 kWh/y. If the electricity can be sold at least at CHF 0.20/kWh for 25 years this could finance the whole project that has an estimated cost of CHF 7,000,000.

  20. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California (ver. 2.0, January 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-06-30

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and also for preparing emergency response plans.The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault Zone to the east of the study area.In this report, an earthquake scenario is intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. A scenario earthquake is not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquake possible on a recognized fault. Rather it is both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider it in regional emergency response plans. In particular, the ground motion predicted for a given scenario earthquake does not represent a full probabilistic hazard assessment, and thus it does not provide the basis for hazard zoning and earthquake-resistant building design.Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM). Alternatives

  1. Groundwater-level change and evaluation of simulated water levels for irrigated areas in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, west-central Nevada, 1992 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W.; Buto, Susan G.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2016-09-14

    The acquisition and transfer of water rights to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley, Nevada, has caused concern over the potential effects on shallow aquifer water levels. In 1992, water levels in Lahontan Valley were measured to construct a water-table map of the shallow aquifer prior to the effects of water-right transfers mandated by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Settlement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3289). From 1992 to 2012, approximately 11,810 water-righted acres, or 34,356 acre-feet of water, were acquired and transferred to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley. This report documents changes in water levels measured during the period of water-right transfers and presents an evaluation of five groundwater-flow model scenarios that simulated water-level changes in Lahontan Valley in response to water-right transfers and a reduction in irrigation season length by 50 percent.Water levels measured in 98 wells from 2012 to 2013 were used to construct a water-table map. Water levels in 73 of the 98 wells were compared with water levels measured in 1992 and used to construct a water-level change map. Water-level changes in the 73 wells ranged from -16.2 to 4.1 feet over the 20-year period. Rises in water levels in Lahontan Valley may correspond to annual changes in available irrigation water, increased canal flows after the exceptionally dry and shortened irrigation season of 1992, and the increased conveyance of water rights transferred to Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Water-level declines generally occurred near the boundary of irrigated areas and may be associated with groundwater pumping, water-right transfers, and inactive surface-water storage reservoirs. The largest water-level declines were in the area near Carson Lake.Groundwater-level response to water-right transfers was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed water-level changes for periods representing water-right transfers and a shortened irrigation season in areas near Fallon

  2. Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruettener, E.

    1995-01-01

    Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  3. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  4. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenea, Oljira; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2011-06-01

    Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia and elsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporal variation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables (water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables) were measured, characterized and analyzed. Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV) of anopheline larvae collected throughout the study period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only 3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus). Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logistic regression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vector species. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquatic vegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly and positively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies. Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintained by perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vector control operations.

  5. Simulated effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface-water resources and riparian vegetation in the Verde Valley sub-basin, Central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Pool, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    In the Verde Valley sub-basin, groundwater use has increased in recent decades. Residents and stakeholders in the area have established several groups to help in planning for sustainability of water and other resources of the area. One of the issues of concern is the effect of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin on surface water and on groundwater-dependent riparian vegetation. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater-Flow Model by Pool and others (in press) is the most comprehensive and up-to-date tool available to understand the effects of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin. Using a procedure by Leake and others (2008), this model was modified and used to calculate effects of groundwater pumping on surface-water flow and evapotranspiration for areas in the sub-basin. This report presents results for the upper two model layers for pumping durations of 10 and 50 years. Results are in the form of maps that indicate the fraction of the well pumping rate that can be accounted for as the combined effect of reduced surface-water flow and evapotranspiration. In general, the highest and most rapid responses to pumping were computed to occur near surface-water features simulated in the modified model, but results are not uniform along these features. The results are intended to indicate general patterns of model-computed response over large areas. For site-specific projects, improved results may require detailed studies of the local hydrologic conditions and a refinement of the modified model in the area of interest.

  6. Switzerland and the Holocaust: Teaching Contested History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schar, Bernhard C.; Sperisen, Vera

    2010-01-01

    This study is about a history textbook which introduces the new transnational master-narrative of Holocaust memory into the classrooms of the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The script of the book entails a replacement of the formerly dominant view of Switzerland as a neutral nation resisting evil in favour of an image that aligns Switzerland…

  7. Nuclear energy in limelight of publicity. [Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmaier, H

    1978-12-12

    The future of nuclear energy is discussed considering economical, political and environmental protection questions raised in Switzerland on eve of the national referendum held in February 1979. It is argued that the objections are unfounded and it is shown that Switzerland cannot afford to be without nuclear energy needed to maintain the required rate of growth of the economy.

  8. Counseling in Switzerland: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roslyn; Henning, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    The authors review counseling in Switzerland and compare it with counseling in the United States. They evaluate the role of professional associations and programs and argue that the evolution of counseling is situated within the history and economic, social, and political systems of Switzerland. Findings suggest that Swiss counselors are ready to…

  9. The winterstorm ``Vivian'' of 27 February 1990: About the meteorological development, wind forces and damage situation in the forests of Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, M.; Schiesser, H. H.; Huntrieser, H.; Scherrer, H. U.; Schmidtke, H.

    1994-09-01

    During the months January and February 1990 a series of severe cyclones were responsible for enormous wind-induced damage in Europe. The final of this series, on 27 February 1990, cyclone “Vivian” mainly affected the alpine valleys of Switzerland. 5 Millions m3 of timber were felled by the severe winds, a record number in this century. A complete damage survey of the deforested areas offers in combination with meteorological data an unique data set for a detailed case study of this extreme event. This paper describes the general meteorological development from the synoptic scale down to the mesoscale of Switzerland and presents a general overview of the damage situation. The main results show that a rare situation of a straight frontal zone stretching over the whole Atlantic Ocean and showing a strong gradient in temperature pointed directly toward Central-Europe. Two waves formed along this elongated polar front and deepend rapidly to depressions. The first low travelled on the southernmost trajectory of the whole storm series and affected Switzerland most. North of the Alps the prefrontal warm air was blocked to the east by the arriving coldfront and had to escape into the complex terrain of the alpine valleys. There, the stormy winds were strengthened by channelizing and “Föhn” effects. The large temperature gradient between the prefrontal and the incoming air masses induced thunderstorm activity which vortices and downdrafts might have enhanced locally. As a result most of the damaged forested areas were found between 1200 and 1600 m MSL on slopes, which were mainly exposed toward the prevailing NW-winds. A comparison of extreme wind speeds for the period 1978 1992 revealed that this event's extreme high speed of 74.5 m/s, measured at a high elevated pass station in the mountains, was exceptional. For lower elevated stations the wind speeds were high but in the range of other observed extreme values. In addition to the severe wind forces the duration

  10. Anthropogenic changes and environmental degradation in pre-Hispanic and post-Colonial periods: soil erosion modelled with WEPP during Late Holocene in Teotihuacán Valley (central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdes González-Arqueros, M.; Mendoza Cantú, Manuel E.

    2015-04-01

    Land use changes and support practices are a worldwide significant issue in soil erosion and subsequently, land degradation. Anthropogenic changes, along different periods of the history in the last 2000 years in the Valley of Teotihuacan (central Mexico), highlight that soil erosion varies depending on how the management and the intensity of soil use is handled, considering the soils as a main resource. As a part of a broader effort to reconstruct the erosion dynamics in the Teotihuacán Valley through geoarchaeological approaches, this study apply a process-based watershed hydrology and upland erosion model, Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). This research aims to contribute with insights through modelling and to recreate soil erosion and sedimentation dynamics in several historical periods with different environmental and anthropogenic scenarios. The Geo-spatial interface for WEPP (GeoWEPP) was used to characterize location of detachment, depositions and erosion predicted on the profile through time, based on current and hypothetical reconstructed conditions in the watershed. Climate, topography, soil and land use were used as inputs for the WEPP model to estimate runoff fluxes, soil loss rates, and sediment delivery ratio (SDR) for three historical scenarios: current period, reconstructed Teotihuacán period (AD 1-650), and reconstructed Aztec period (AD 1325-1520). Over a simulated and stablished timeframe for those social periods, the runoff, soil loss rate and SDR were estimated to be greater during the Aztec period. We assume that in general the climate conditions for this period were wetter, compared with present, in agreement with several authors that proposed climate reconstructions for the center of Mexico. It is also highlighted that support practices were more effective in this period. The next period with higher values is the current one, and fewer rates are estimated for the Teotihuacán period. This comparison release new arguments in the

  11. Biomass in Switzerland. Energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggisberg, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the long term, biomass could be used for energy production in a three times more intensive way, compared to current figures. A major contribution would be delivered to Switzerland's energy supply. Numerous biomass conversion technologies do exist, for the production of heat, power or vehicle fuel. However, the implementation of such a large-scale utilisation of biomass requires a couple of strategic decisions in order to improve the framework conditions for biomass development and precisely target the supporting measures applicable to both research and pilot plants. In short, a clear and efficient strategy is necessary in what regards biomass, that will be used for the definition of a future catalogue of measures. (author)

  12. Integrated care organizations in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Peter; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The Swiss health care system is characterized by its decentralized structure and high degree of local autonomy. Ambulatory care is provided by physicians working mainly independently in individual private practices. However, a growing part of primary care is provided by networks of physicians and health maintenance organizations (HMOs) acting on the principles of gatekeeping. The share of insured choosing an alternative (managed care) type of basic health insurance and therefore restrict their choice of doctors in return for lower premiums increased continuously since 1990. To date, an average of one out of eight insured person in Switzerland, and one out of three in the regions in north-eastern Switzerland, opted for the provision of care by general practitioners in one of the 86 physician networks or HMOs. About 50% of all general practitioners and more than 400 other specialists have joined a physician networks. Seventy-three of the 86 networks (84%) have contracts with the healthcare insurance companies in which they agree to assume budgetary co-responsibility, i.e., to adhere to set cost targets for particular groups of patients. Within and outside the physician networks, at regional and/or cantonal levels, several initiatives targeting chronic diseases have been developed, such as clinical pathways for heart failure and breast cancer patients or chronic disease management programs for patients with diabetes. Swiss physician networks and HMOs were all established solely by initiatives of physicians and health insurance companies on the sole basis of a healthcare legislation (Swiss Health Insurance Law, KVG) which allows for such initiatives and developments. The relevance of these developments towards more integration of healthcare as well as their implications for the future are discussed.

  13. Seismic risk maps of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegesser, R.; Rast, B.; Merz, H.

    1977-01-01

    Seismic Risk Maps of Switzerland have been developed under the auspices of the Swiss Federal Division on Nuclear Safety. They are primarily destined for the use of owners of future nuclear power plants. The results will be mandatory for these future sites. The results will be shown as contourmaps of equal intensities for average return periods of 500, 1000, 10 000... years. This general form will not restrict the use of the results to nuclear power plants only, rather allows their applicability to any site or installation of public interest (such as r.a. waste deposits, hydropower plants, etc.). This follows the recommendations of the UNESCO World Conference (Paris, February 1976). In the study MSK 64 INTENSITY was chosen. The detailed scale allowed a precise handling of historical data and separates the results from continuously changing state-of-the-art correlations to acceleration and other input motion parameters. The method used is the probabilistic theory developed by C.A. Cornell and others at MIT in the late 1960's with the program in the version of the US Geological Survey by R. McGuire. In the study, the program was extended for the use of the continuous attenuation law by Sponheuer, azimuth-dependency in the attenuation relation, a quadratic intensity-frequency relation, large number of gross sources and output modifications with respect to the mapping program used. To determine the basic parameters, more than 3000 independent events in an area of approximately 240 000km 2 -Switzerland with its neighbouring parts of Italy, Austria, Germany and France- were systematically classified (and relocated where necessary)

  14. Impacts of the May 2015 bad weather in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Strong precipitations occurred on Western Switzerland in the beginning of May 2015, especially on May 1st. Over 100 mm of rain fell in about 24 hours in some places in Western Switzerland, with a maximum of 130 mm at La Dôle, Canton of Vaud. Those heavy rains caused different damages as debris flow, floods and landslides. Several roads and railway have been closed, preventively or due to tracks obstructions in the Alps, the Jura mountains and in the Swiss Plateau. Two landslides have disrupted two main railway tracks, causing high traffic disturbances due to deviations and affecting the railway traffic during more than one week. In the village of St-Gingolph in the Canton of Valais, the Morge river overflowed two restaurants with debris flows. Their ground floor levels have been totally destroyed. In the town of Monthey, Canton of Valais, about 300 residents along the Viège river have been evacuated during the night because of the high risk of floods. The Arve river -which flows through the Chamonix Valley in the French Alps- has reached a flow rate record with 903 m3/s compared to its standard flow of 77 m3/s at its mouth into the Rhône river in Geneva on 2nd May. Several bridges in the town had to be closed, affecting the urban traffic of the second biggest town of Switzerland. North-east of the Western Switzerland, the lakes of Neuchâtel (Canton of Neuchâtel), Biel (Canton of Bern) and Morat (Canton of Fribourg), overflowed because of the high flow rate of the Aare river. The maximum height of water level has been reached about 8 days after the first heavy rain with a water level increase of 1 meter. A lot of wood has been carried by the rivers to the shores of the lakes. The damages are only material, no injuries were identified. Financial and temporal damages consequences are high for the two destroyed restaurants. The return to normality for river flows and water levels of the lakes took several weeks. The aim of this study is to document the natural

  15. Providing Quality Therapeutics in Switzerland: Role of the Stakeholders and Recent Incentives for Further Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Marie; Samer, Caroline; Rollason, Victoria; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules

    2015-07-01

    Quality therapeutics play an important role in Switzerland's health care and economy. Switzerland holds a key position in the world of research and development, as well as in drug production. Recently, new emphasis has been placed on promoting clinical research and maintaining Switzerland's position as a center of excellence in the field. Recent revisions to the law regarding medical trials in human research allow for better allocation of regulatory resources and simplified procedures for drugs already authorized in Switzerland. The country has its own regulatory agency, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic), which is a public institution of the Swiss government. Swissmedic is responsible for ensuring safety in medicines, particularly regarding authorizations and market surveillance in the sector of medicinal products and medical devices. Although the centralized authorization procedure of the European Union for medicines does not apply to Switzerland, there are mutual recognition mechanisms between the Swiss medicine regulatory authority and the European Medicines Agency. Swissmedic is also in charge of postmarketing safety and oversees the national pharmacovigilance center, which collaborates closely with the World Health Organization center in Uppsala. In addition, university hospital-based clinical pharmacologists, who are involved in basic science and clinical research, regulatory affairs, ethics committees, and pharmacovigilance, promote quality therapeutics. This article discusses the role of the various stakeholders and the recent efforts made to provide a better allocation of resources aimed at further improving quality therapeutics in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intercultural Education in Spain and Switzerland: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Ferrer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural education during the last two decades in Spain and Switzerland can be understood as balancing acts because policymakers in both countries saw their school systems enrolling a growing number of immigrant and minority students. While solutions were formulated and adopted in response to each country's unique problems and political tradition, they were also driven by forces that fostered a restrictive immigration policy toward immigrants from third world countries. This article examines the emergence of intercultural education and compares diverse practices linked to this process. Some similarities were found in both socio-cultural contexts. The use of compensatory education with culturally diverse children contributes to school segregation. Although cultural and linguistic diversity is a structural and historical component of Spanish and Swiss identities, there is a clear separation between "internal" and "external" diversity in educational policy. It is interesting, for instance, to observe that the concept used in addressing regional identities in Spain and Switzerland is "bilingual education" while the theme used for immigrants is "intercultural education". We also identified some important differences between the two contexts. The number of immigrant youth is much more important in Switzerland. On the other hand, the presence of Gypsy students is a central issue of cultural diversity in Spain. The paper also reports on the general lack of teacher education departments to prepare their pre-service students for diverse schools. Most teacher education programs acknowledge in principle the importance of pluralistic preparation of teachers. In practice, however, most teacher education programs actually represent a monocultural approach. Continuing education in the field of intercultural education is linked to individual initiatives rather than to an institutional awareness of the importance of cross-cultural training. In order to

  17. U-Pb La-ICP-ms geochronology and regional correlation of middle Jurassic intrusive rocks from the Garzon Massif, Upper Magdalena Valley and central cordillera, southern Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, Camilo; Cardona, Agustin; Bayona, German; Mora, Andres; Valencia, Victor; Gehrels, George; Vervoort, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    New U-Pb zircon geochronology from four granitic units sampled along a southeast-northwest transect between the Garzon massif and the Serrania de las Minas (central cordillera), records a middle Jurassic magmatic activity with two different spatio-temporal domains at ca. 189 ma and 180-173 ma. Reconnaissance data suggest that the four granitoids are characterized by mineralogical and geochemical characteristics akin to a continental magmatic arc setting. The new results suggest that the southern Colombian continental margin includes remnants of tectonomagmatic elements formed by the subduction of the Farallon plate under the South American continental margin. This middle Jurassic arc magmatism is part of the broader Andean scale arc province, and is significant for understanding the tectonic and paleogeographic scenario that characterized the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the northern Andes.

  18. Glaciolacustrine deposits formed in an ice-dammed tributary valley in the south-central Pyrenees: New evidence for late Pleistocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Carlos; Arenas, Concha; Pardo, Gonzalo; Peña-Monné, José Luis; Rhodes, Edward J.; Bartolomé, Miguel; García-Ruiz, José M.; Martí-Bono, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    Combined geomorphic features, stratigraphic characteristics and sedimentologic interpretation, coupled with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates, of a glacio-fluvio-lacustrine sequence (Linás de Broto, northern Spain) provide new information to understand the palaeoenvironmental significance of dynamics of glacier systems in the south-central Pyrenees during the Last Glacial Cycle (≈130 ka to 14 ka). The Linás de Broto depositional system consisted of a proglacial lake fed primarily by meltwater streams emanating from the small Sorrosal glacier and dammed by a lateral moraine of the Ara trunk glacier. The resulting glacio-fluvio-lacustrine sequence, around 55 m thick, is divided into five lithological units consisting of braided fluvial (gravel deposits), lake margin (gravel and sand deltaic deposits) and distal lake (silt and clay laminites) facies associations. Evolution of the depositional environment reflects three phases of progradation of a high-energy braided fluvial system separated by two phases of rapid expansion of the lake. Fluvial progradation occurred during short periods of ice melting. Lake expansion concurred with ice-dam growth of the trunk glacier. The first lake expansion occurred over a time range between 55 ± 9 ka and 49 ± 11 ka, and is consistent with the age of the Viu lateral moraine (49 ± 8 ka), which marks the maximum areal extent of the Ara glacier during the Last Glacial Cycle. These dates confirm that the maximum areal extent of the glacier occurred during Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3 in the south-central Pyrenees, thus before the Last Glacial Maximum. The evolution of the Linás de Broto depositional system during this maximum glacier extent was modulated by climate oscillations in the northern Iberian Peninsula, probably related to latitudinal shifts of the atmospheric circulation in the southern North-Atlantic Ocean, and variations in summer insolation intensity.

  19. Quantification of aquifer properties with surface nuclear magnetic resonance in the Platte River valley, central Nebraska, using a novel inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Trevor P.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Steele, Gregory V.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Woodward, Duane D.

    2012-01-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance, a noninvasive geophysical method, measures a signal directly related to the amount of water in the subsurface. This allows for low-cost quantitative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In practice, however, additional factors influence the signal, complicating interpretation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District, evaluated whether hydraulic parameters derived from surface nuclear magnetic resonance data could provide valuable input into groundwater models used for evaluating water-management practices. Two calibration sites in Dawson County, Nebraska, were chosen based on previous detailed hydrogeologic and geophysical investigations. At both sites, surface nuclear magnetic resonance data were collected, and derived parameters were compared with results from four constant-discharge aquifer tests previously conducted at those same sites. Additionally, borehole electromagnetic-induction flowmeter data were analyzed as a less-expensive surrogate for traditional aquifer tests. Building on recent work, a novel surface nuclear magnetic resonance modeling and inversion method was developed that incorporates electrical conductivity and effects due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities, both of which can have a substantial impact on the data. After comparing surface nuclear magnetic resonance inversions at the two calibration sites, the nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived parameters were compared with previously performed aquifer tests in the Central Platte Natural Resources District. This comparison served as a blind test for the developed method. The nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived aquifer parameters were in agreement with results of aquifer tests where the environmental noise allowed data collection and the aquifer test zones overlapped with the surface nuclear magnetic resonance testing. In some cases, the previously performed aquifer tests were not designed fully to characterize

  20. Risk profile of microbiological and chemical contamination in the production chain of nine horticultural products for fresh consumption of a group of agricultural companies in the Costa Rican Central Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Vargas Hernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The risk of microbiological or chemical contamination was determined in each of the processes of the production system of produce for fresh consumption, in a population of 164 agricultural companies in the central valley of Costa Rica. The risk quantification was calculated using the responses to a 46-item survey conducted with the managers of the companies included in the study. The responses to the 46 items were grouped according to the production process; the risk contamination calculation formula validated by the authors in another study was used to obtain the risk value per process. The microbiological or chemical contamination risk results were calculated for the land preparation and planting process, cultural management of the crop, human factor performing the cultural management of the crop, phytosanitary control, harvesting, packaging, and the human factor involved in packaging. The risk analysis results indicate that the human factor participating in the packaging obtains the highest risk rating, followed by the cultural management of the crop and, in third place, by the harvesting process. In all processes where the risk was quantified, the results showed values close to or greater than 50 in a 0 to 100 risk scale. These results should alert producers and consumers of produce for fresh consumption in the analyzed population. The effect of the buyer on the packaging risk values was also observed; when the producers are supermarket chain suppliers the risk values are lower as compared to those of producers who are not supermarket chain suppliers.

  1. Status of groundwater quality in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Hancock, Tracy Connell; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 963-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southern California in San Bernardino, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 52 wells (49 grid wells and 3 understanding wells) and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, not the

  2. Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  3. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-01

    This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2007. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover was observed during the last quarterly inspection in December 2006. This crack was filled with bentonite as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007 and will be monitored during subsequent annual inspections. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showing signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. New DOE Office of Legacy Management signs with updated emergency phone numbers were installed as part of this annual inspection, no issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. A vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas was conducted as part of the annual inspection in May 2007. The vegetation survey indicated that revegetation continues to be successful, although stressed due to the area's prevailing drought conditions. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and to identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action to maintain a viable

  4. Experiences and Concepts Related to Gifted Education and Talent Development in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Oppliger, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a summary of efforts and projects related to the provision of gifted students and talent development in Swiss schools and with partners in the German speaking Central Europe. In the first part, relevant activities about teacher education in Switzerland based on a cooperative arrangement with the University of Connecticut will…

  5. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  6. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  7. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  8. Climate index for Switzerland - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Switzerland. (J.S.)

  9. Heat pumps in western Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymond, A.

    2003-01-01

    The past ten years have seen an extraordinary expansion of heat-pump market figures in the western (French speaking) part of Switzerland. Today, more than 14,000 units are in operation. This corresponds to about 18% of all the machines installed in the whole country, compared to only 10 to 12% ten years ago. This success illustrates the considerable know-how accumulated by the leading trade and industry during these years. It is also due to the promotional program 'Energy 2000' of the Swiss Federal Department of Energy that included the heat pump as a renewable energy source. Already in 1986, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne was equipped with a huge heat pump system comprising two electrically driven heat pumps of 3.5 MW thermal power each. The heat source is water drawn from the lake of Geneva at a depth of 70 meters. An annual coefficient of performance of 4.5 has been obtained since the commissioning of the plant. However, most heat pump installations are located in single-family dwellings. The preferred heat source is geothermal heat, using borehole heat exchangers and an intermediate heat transfer fluid. The average coefficient of performance of these installations has been increased from 2.5 in 1995 to 3.1 in 2002

  10. Seismic risk maps of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegesser, R.; Rast, B.; Merz, H.

    1977-01-01

    Seismic Risk Maps of Switzerland have been developed under the auspices of the Swiss Federal Division on Nuclear Safety. They are primarily destined for the use of owners of future nuclear power plants. The results will be mandatory for these future sites. The results will be shown as contourmaps of equal intensities for average return periods of 500, 1 000, 10 000... years. This general form will not restrict the use of the results to nuclear power plants only, rather allows their applicability to any site or installation of public interest (such as r.a. waste deposits, hydropower plants, etc.). This follows the recommendations of the UNESCO World Conference (Paris, February 1976). In the study MSK 64 INTENSITY was chosen. The detailed scale allowed a precise handling of historical data and separates the results from continuously changing state of the art correlations to acceleration and other input motion parameters. The method used is the probabilistic theory developed by C.A. Cornell and others at MIT in the late 1960's with the program in the version of the US Geological Survey by R. McGuire. (Auth.)

  11. A new fossil cichlid from the Middle Miocene in the East African Rift Valley (Tugen Hills, Central Kenya: First record of a putative Ectodini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Altner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of fossil cichlids is difficult, because the currently used diagnostic morphological characters for living cichlids are mostly soft tissue based and such characters are hardly preserved in fossils. During our recent fieldwork in the Central Kenya Rift (E-Africa, we discovered several exceptionally well-preserved fossil cichlids, which can be assigned to different lineages among the African Pseudocrenilabrinae. Here we present one of those new specimens. Its most conspicuous character is a lateral line divided into three segments. This specimen was found in the lacustrine sediments of the Middle Miocene site Waril, Tugen Hills, Kenya. The site represents the deposits of an ancient freshwater lake ca. 9-10 million years ago. Previous work on fossil leaves from the same site allow for the reconstruction of open vegetation surrounding the lake and pronounced dry seasons. Among the main further characteristics of the new fossil cichlid is a lachrimal with six lateral line canals, big cycloid scales and a low number of dorsal fin spines (XIII. The latter two characters are traceable in several members of tribes within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. However, a lachrimal with six lateral line canals is exclusively found in certain tribes of the EAR (East African Radiation within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. Moreover, the unique lateral line pattern is solely present in two genera of the EAR tribe Ectodini. However, the fossil shows cycloid scales, while modern Ectodini have ctenoid scales. Taken all evidence together, this fossil may perhaps represent an ancient lineage related to the Ectodini. Up to date, there is no definite fossil record of the members of the EAR. Our fossil may represent the first reliable calibration point for this group, which would be consistent with the previously reconstructed diversification time of the H-lineage (EAR tribes, except Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini, Trematocarini and Lamprologini and the Lamprologini ca

  12. Nutrient Management Programs, Nitrogen Fertilizer Practices, and Groundwater Quality in Nebraska’s Central Platte Valley (U.S., 1989–1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Daberkow

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the societal concern about groundwater pollution from agricultural sources, public programs have been proposed or implemented to change farmer behavior with respect to nutrient use and management. However, few of these programs designed to change farmer behavior have been evaluated due to the lack of detailed data over an appropriate time frame. The Central Platte Natural Resources District (CPNRD in Nebraska has identified an intensively cultivated, irrigated area with average groundwater nitrate-nitrogen (N levels about double the EPA’s safe drinking water standard. The CPNRD implemented a joint education and regulatory N management program in the mid-1980s to reduce groundwater N. This analysis reports N use and management, yield, and groundwater nitrate trends in the CPNRD for nearly 3000 continuous-corn fields from 1989 to 1998, where producers faced limits on the timing of N fertilizer application but no limits on amounts. Groundwater nitrate levels showed modest improvement over the 10 years of this analysis, falling from the 1989–1993 average of 18.9 to 18.1 mg/l during 1994–1998. The availability of N in excess of crop needs was clearly documented by the CPNRD data and was related to optimistic yield goals, irrigation water use above expected levels, and lack of adherence to commercial fertilizer application guidelines. Over the 10-year period of this analysis, producers reported harvesting an annual average of 9729 kg/ha, 1569 kg/ha (14% below the average yield goal. During 1989�1998, producers reported annually applying an average of 162.5 kg/ha of commercial N fertilizer, 15.7 kg/ha (10% above the guideline level. Including the N contribution from irrigation water, the potential N contribution to the environment (total N available less estimated crop use was estimated at 71.7 kg/ha. This is an estimate of the nitrates available for denitrification, volatilization, runoff, future soil N, and leaching to groundwater. On

  13. New tree-ring evidence for the Late Glacial period from the northern pre-Alps in eastern Switzerland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reinig, F.; Nievergelt, D.; Esper, J.; Friedrich, M.; Helle, G.; Hellmann, L.; Kromer, B.; Morganti, S.; Pauly, M.; Sookdeo, A.; Tegel, W.; Treydte, K.; Verstege, A.; Wacker, L.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 186, APR (2018), s. 215-224 ISSN 0277-3791 Keywords : new-zealand kauri * laacher see volcano * ice-core records * radiocarbon calibration * central-europe * cal bp * southern-hemisphere * last deglaciation * hohenheim oak * climate * Central Europe * Dendrochronology * Late Glacial * Paleoclimatology * Radiocarbon * Subfossil wood * Switzerland * Tree rings * Younger Dryas Impact factor: 4.797, year: 2016

  14. Drinking-water hydropower station in Sachseln, Switzerland; Trinkwasserkraftwerk Mettental Sachseln. Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelletti, R.; Siegrist, W.; Schwab, B.

    2007-06-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a small hydropower project realised in the Mettental valley in Sachseln, Switzerland. The system installed is described. This provides the necessary pressure reduction in the drinking-water supply system between the springs in the mountains and the reservoir in the valley whilst generating electrical power at the same time. A Pelton turbine that meets all drinking-water quality requirements is used to generate 300 kW of electrical power using the pressure obtained from the height-difference of around 880 metres. The first two years of operation have proved that the system provides over 30% more power than expected. The report includes technical details on the installation and reports on initial experience gained with the system.

  15. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  16. Potential for geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} in Switzerland - Final report; Studie zur Abschaetzung des Potenzials fuer CO{sub 2}-Sequestrierung in der Schweiz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, L. W.; Chevalier, G. [Institut fuer Geologie, Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Leu, W. [Geoform AG, Geologische Beratungen und Studien, Villeneuve (former Minusio) (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    One approach to dispose of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} is to inject it into deep, porous geological formations, where is remains safely trapped over periods of many millennia. This report evaluates the potential for this option within Switzerland, based on a literature review. Only geological criteria for CO{sub 2} sequestration are taken into account, following international best-practice principles for reservoir safety. Simultaneous consideration of nine geological attributes (including faulting and natural seismicity) allows the sequestration potential to be mapped at a resolution of a few km{sup 2}, using a scale between 0 (negligible potential) and 1 (high potential). It is concluded that the crystalline rocks of the Alps and the sediments underlying the valleys of Valais, Ticino and Grisons are unsuitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. However, the sedimentary rocks below the Central Plateau (and to lesser extent below the Jura Chain), locally show moderate to very good potential. At least four formations of porous sandstones and limestones (saline aquifers) underlie large areas of the Plateau within the technically favoured depth interval of 800-2500 m. Approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of the Plateau (mostly in the sector Fribourg-Olten-Lucerne) exhibits sequestration potentials above 0.6, offering a theoretical (unproven) storage capacity for approximately 2680 million tonnes of CO{sub 2}. From a purely geological point of view these results are promising. Although the high potentials do not guarantee the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration, they serve as guides to areas that warrant detailed investigation. If this CO{sub 2} storage option is pursued in Switzerland, then more detailed geological investigations and a pilot study would be necessary to prove its feasibility. The assessed risks, leakage-monitoring procedures and non-geological criteria (proximity to CO{sub 2} point-sources, economics, conflicts of use of the subsurface, etc.) would have to be

  17. Homicide-suicide cases in Switzerland and their impact on the Swiss Weapon Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabherr, Silke; Johner, Stephan; Dilitz, Carine; Buck, Ursula; Killias, Martin; Mangin, Patrice; Plattner, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Homicide followed by the suicide of the offender is a well-known phenomenon. In most cases, it takes place in the context of the so-called "family tragedies." A recent series of such family tragedies in Switzerland prompted an intensive debate in the media and the Swiss government concerning the Swiss Weapon Law, in particular the requirement to keep personal army weapons at home. The present study of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland, thus focuses on the role played by guns, especially military weapons, in such crimes. We investigated retrospectively 75 cases of Homicide-Suicide, comprising 172 individuals and spanning a period of 23 years in western and central Switzerland. Our results show that if guns were used in 76% of the cases, army weapons were the cause of death in 25% of the total. In 28% of the deaths caused by a gunshot, the exact type of the gun and its origin could not be determined. Thus, the majority of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland involve the use of guns. The exact percentage of cases were military weapons were involved could not be defined. In our opinion, a stricter weapons law, restricting access to firearms, would be a factor of prevention of Homicide- Suicide cases in Switzerland.

  18. Prediction of ore fluid metal concentrations from solid solution concentrations in ore-stage calcite: Application to the Illinois-Kentucky and Central Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Schmitz, Sarah E.; Appold, Martin S.

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge of the concentrations of Zn and Pb in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore fluids is fundamental to understanding MVT deposit origin. Most previous attempts to quantify the concentrations of Zn and Pb in MVT ore fluids have focused on the analysis of fluid inclusions. However, these attempts have yielded ambiguous results due to possible contamination from secondary fluid inclusions, interferences from Zn and Pb in the host mineral matrix, and uncertainties about whether the measured Zn and Pb signals represent aqueous solute or accidental solid inclusions entrained within the fluid inclusions. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to try to determine Zn and Pb concentrations in MVT ore fluids using an alternate method that avoids these ambiguities by calculating Zn and Pb concentrations in MVT ore fluids theoretically based on their solid solution concentrations in calcite. This method was applied to the Illinois-Kentucky and Central Tennessee districts, which both contain ore-stage calcite. Experimental partition coefficient (D) values from Rimstidt et al. (1998) and Tsusue and Holland (1966), and theoretical thermodynamic distribution coefficient (KD) values were employed in the present study. Ore fluid concentrations of Zn were likely most accurately predicted by Rimstidt et al. (1998) D values, based on their success in predicting known fluid inclusion concentrations of Mg and Mn, and likely also most accurately predicted ore fluid concentrations of Fe. All four of these elements have a divalent ionic radius smaller than that of Ca2+ and form carbonate minerals with the calcite structure. For both the Illinois-Kentucky and the Central Tennessee district, predicted ore fluid Zn and Fe concentrations were on the order of up to 10's of ppm. Ore fluid concentrations of Pb could only be predicted using Rimstidt et al. (1998) D values. However, these concentrations are unlikely to be reliable, as predicted ore fluid concentrations of Sr and Ba

  19. Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We use a representative survey covering 1,500 households to document the level of financial literacy in Switzerland and to examine how financial literacy is related to retirement planning. We measure financial literacy with standardized questions that capture knowledge about three basic financial concepts: Compound interest, inflation, and risk diversification. We measure retirement planning by the incidence of a voluntary retirement savings account. Our results show that financial literacy in Switzerland is high by international standards--a result which is compatible with the high ranking of Switzerland on the PISA mathematical scales. Financial literacy is lower among low-income, less-educated, and immigrant, non-native-speaking households as well as among women. We find that financial literacy is strongly correlated with voluntary retirement saving. Our results also show that financial literacy is correlated with financial market participation and mortgage borrowing.

  20. Greening Turner Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed remedial activities undertaken in the Turner Valley. Remedial action in the valley must satisfy the financial concerns of engineers and investors as well as the environmental concerns of residents and regulators. Natural gas production in the Turner Valley began in 1914. The production practices were harmful and wasteful. Soil and water pollution was not considered a problem until recently. The impacts of cumulative effects and other pollution hazards are now being considered as part of many oil and gas environmental management programs. Companies know it is cheaper and safer to prevent pollutants from being released, and more efficient to clean them up quickly. Oil and gas companies are also committed to remediating historical problems. Several factors have simplified remediation plans in the Turner Valley. Area real estate values are now among the highest in Alberta. While the valley residents are generally friendly to the petroleum industry, strong communication with all stakeholders in the region is needed. 1 fig.

  1. Metal working fluid exposure and diseases in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael F; Pletscher, Claudia; Scholz, Stefan M; Schneuwly, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to metal working fluids (MWF) is common in machining processes worldwide and may lead to diseases of the skin and the respiratory tract. The aim of the study was to investigate exposure and diseases due to MWF in Switzerland between 2004 and 2013. We performed descriptive statistics including determination of median and 90th percentile values of MWF concentrations listed in a database of Suva. Moreover, we clustered MWF-induced occupational diseases listed in a database from the Swiss Central Office for Statistics in Accident Insurance, and performed linear regression over time to investigate temporal course of the illnesses. The 90th percentile for MWF air concentration was 8.1 mg (aerosol + vapor)/m 3 and 0.9 mg aerosol/m 3 (inhalable fraction). One thousand two hundred and eighty skin diseases and 96 respiratory diseases were observed. This is the first investigation describing exposure to and diseases due to MWF in Switzerland over a timeframe of 10 years. In general, working conditions in the companies of this investigation were acceptable. Most measured MWF concentrations were below both the Swiss and most international occupational exposure limits of 2014. The percentage of workers declared unfit for work was 17% compared to the average of other occupational diseases (12%).

  2. Overview of Nagra's geological investigation programme in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thury, M.; Diebold, P.

    1987-01-01

    For the assessment of the feasibility and safety of a repository for high level radioactive waste, Nagra (National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste) has started in 1980 in central Northern Switzerland an extensive geological investigation program. This overall program contains four field investigation programs and several programs for synthesis work. By the end of 1985, six deep drillings have been completed. The deepest borehole reached 2482 m. All in all, more than 8000 m of cores have been taken and analyzed in detail. In the boreholes, extensive hydrogeological tests have been carried out. Within the regional geophysical investigation program gravimetric, aeromagnetic and magnetotelluric, refraction seismic and reflection seismic surveys have been carried out. Vibroseis lines of 400 km length have been measured. Within the regional hydrogeological program, water samples of more than 100 springs and wells with hydrochemically or thermally abnormal waters have been analyzed in detail for their chemical and isotopic composition. Within the neotectonic program, geomorphologic, tectonic, geodetic and seismic studies and measurements have been carried out. In 1983, a microearthquake survey network was installed. All these data were analyzed in several synthetic programs: Structural geology, hydrochemistry, hydrodynamic modelling and long term stability scenarios. The Nagra program continues. As next, a deep borehole in the Canton of Schaffhausen is planned. Meanwhile all data are analyzed in detail and the understanding of the regional and local geology, geochemistry and hydrogeology of northern Switzerland is improved and refined. (author) 32 refs., 8 figs

  3. Natural gas and its consumption in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniriah, N.

    1991-01-01

    In this report the worldwide position of natural gas as an important energy of the coming decades and its modest current standing in the Swiss energy balance are highlighted. The relative role and importance of the principal fossil fuels in the energy supply, the average energy prices and taxes, particularly those of gas and fuel oil in the residential sector and the overall statistically related inter-fuel substitution in Switzerland are examined. The role of governments in energy supply in general and with gas utilization in particular is examined. The international trade in gas and its supply infrastructure are reviewed and the advantageous situation of Switzerland in Western Europe and the latter in the World, with respect to present and future gas supplies, are underlined. Considering the current level of gas consumption in Switzerland and its past and projected rates of market penetration, in comparison to other OECD countries, it would appear that Switzerland is not taking full advantage of the situation. The implicit message, even if diffidently conveyed, is intervention by prescription and by proscription. In the absence of such measures, and with the virtual demise of nuclear energy or its expansion, the disproportionate and dominant position of fuel oil in the energy mix, will endure whereas the share of gas grows very slowly remaining at much lower levels than in the neighbouring countries. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  4. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (pSwitzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  5. Wind turbines in Switzerland - Bat mortality; Eoliennes en Suisse - Mortalite de chauves-souris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuzinger, Y.; Lugon, A.; Bontadina, F.

    2008-03-15

    There are growing concerns about possible negative impact of wind turbines on bats. In this study we evaluated the occurrence of bat mortality caused by wind turbines in Switzerland. From about 20 existing wind turbines in year 2007 we selected five medium to large sized turbines in two hilly regions of Switzerland. Between June and October we searched 10 times in regular intervals for carcasses on the ground (total 50 controls) in a circle of up to 40 m distance to the tower. We measured detectability and bait removal rates by experiments at every site (using 12 dummy bats and 10 dead mice per site, respectively). Two bat carcasses were found at two sites, one of the migrating species N. leisleri in August, another in September, belonging to the non-migrating species P. pipistrellus. The detectability was 74 {+-} 13% (mean {+-} standard deviation). The removal rate was 72 {+-} 25% in the first 2-3 days and an average of 91% in the control intervals of 15 days. Estimates of seasonal bat mortality, corrected for season, detectability and removal rate, revealed an average of 8.2 (range 4.9 - 11.4) dead bats per turbine and season. This study demonstrates the occurrence of bat mortality caused by wind turbines in Switzerland. However, the estimated mortality per season remains in international comparisons small to medium at the studied sites. The mortality of individuals of endangered and protected species is a serious issue, but most important, the long-term effect on populations is difficult to assess. In the case of the investigated wind turbines the negative impact on bats does not generally preclude the development of wind energy sites in Switzerland. We recommend avoiding sites in and near woodlands. The abundance of local and migratory bats at planned sites should be evaluated, obligatory in the case of larger wind parks and at exposed sites (ridge tops, mountain passes, river valleys), in order to consider adequately bat conservation. (author)

  6. The region makes the difference: disparities in management of acute myocardial infarction within Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insam, Charlène; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In this study, we assessed geographical differences within Switzerland regarding management of AMI. Cross-sectional study. Swiss hospital discharge database for period 2007-2008 (26,204 discharges from AMI). Seven Swiss regions (Leman, Mittelland, Northwest, Zurich, Central, Eastern, and Ticino) were analysed. Almost 53.7% of discharges from AMI were managed in a single hospital, ranging from 62.1% (Leman) to 31.6% (Ticino). The highest intensive care unit admission rate was in Leman (69.4%), the lowest (16.9%) in Ticino (Swiss average: 36.0%). Intracoronary revascularization rates were highest in Leman (51.1%) and lowest (30.9%) in Central Switzerland (average: 41.0%). Bare (non-drug-eluting) stent use was highest in Leman (61.4%) and lowest (16.9%) in Ticino (average: 42.1%), while drug-eluting stent use was highest (83.2%) in Ticino and lowest (38.6%) in Leman (average: 57.9%). Coronary artery bypass graft rates were highest (4.8%) in Ticino and lowest (0.5%) in Eastern Switzerland (average: 2.8%). Mechanical circulatory assistance rates were highest (4.2%) in Zurich and lowest (0.5%) in Ticino (average: 1.8%). The differences remained after adjusting for age, single or multiple hospital management, and gender. In Switzerland, significant geographical differences in management and revascularization procedures for AMI were found.

  7. Regional differences in self-reported screening, prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved. PMID:22452881

  8. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Amphipod Species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems. PMID:25354099

  9. Federal census of the population in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

    A federal census of the 2010 population has been underway since January 2011. The objective is to provide important insights into the composition of the resident population, households and families in Switzerland and identify trends. The census methods have been modernised so that it covers only information that is not already contained in Federal, Cantonal and municipal registries of persons; the information will be gathered via questionnaires issued to approximately 3% of the population residing in Switzerland. In order to obtain representative information about the local population, the Canton of Geneva has requested that questionnaires be issued to international civil servants and members of their families aged 15 and over who live in the Canton. They will be invited to respond to the questionnaire on a strictly voluntary basis. If they choose not to respond to the questionnaire, they will not be contacted again. The Permanent Swiss Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva wishes in advance t...

  10. [Imported diseases in Switzerland: development and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrémont, A; Lorenz, N

    1990-10-01

    During the last years, imported diseases have become more frequent in Switzerland. This is easily explained by the enormous increase of tourism to tropical and subtropical countries. Immigration from these countries has equally seen an important augmentation. The principal imported diseases are still malaria and gastrointestinal infections. Viral infections are rarely diagnosed, with the exception of hepatitis and HIV infection. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases is most certainly underestimated. The differential diagnosis of imported skin diseases is still difficult. Rare tropical diseases will probably become more frequent in the coming years as travellers leave more and more the traditional tourist paths. Practitioners have to look out for such problems, and continuous training programmes for them will have to take these new problems into account. Referral centres of infectious diseases should be established in all regions of Switzerland. High priority should be given to the prevention of imported diseases.

  11. [Legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, H

    1970-01-01

    Aspects of legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland are discussed. About 110,000 births, 25,000 therapeutic abortions (75% for psychiatric indications) and an estimated 50,000 illegal abortions occur annually in Switzerland. Although the mortality and morbidity of therapeutic aborti on are similar to those of normal births (1.4 per 1000 and 11%, respectively) the mortality and morbidity of criminal abortions are far greater (3 per 1000 and 73%, respectively). In the author's view, too strict an interpretatiok of Swiss abortion law (which permits abortion to avoid serious harm to the mother's health) does not take into account the severe and lasting emotional and psychological damage which may be caused by unwanted pregnancy, birth, and childraising. In the present social situation, the social and psychological support required by these women is not available; until it is, abortion is to be preferred.

  12. Energy Sector Liberalisation and Privatisation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlome, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to its geographical situation, Switzerland is important for the transit lines of electricity and gas through the Alps. But Switzerland is not a member of the European Union. Furthermore, Swiss citizens enjoy extended direct-democratic rights. The author presents the story of energy sector liberalisation and privatisation in their three phases: 1. The late nineties: The phase of expectations 2. The phase of legislation: Open electricity market and elements of sustainable development as mitigating factors 3. The new awareness: Public service The Swiss citizens will have to adopt the law installing an open electricity market in June or September 2002. For the case of a (still very possible) rejection of the law, the author presents a no-go-solution and three realistic scenarios.(author)

  13. Spatiotemporal aspects of flood exposure in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röthlisberger Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While flood hazard mapping in Switzerland is close to completion, only a limited number of studies have been specifically conducted on exposure and vulnerability. We fill this knowledge gap by conducting a nation-wide study of flood exposure of buildings in Switzerland. Therefore, we generate a country-wide comprehensive and homogenous data set of polygons of residential buildings and their period of construction and overlay these building polygons with compiled and harmonized flood hazard maps provided by the Swiss cantons. In this paper we present first results of spatiotemporal analyses, namely the evolution of exposure from 1919 to 2012. Surprising is the increase in the share of exposure of new constructed buildings since the 1980s which contradicts the indented effects of the Swiss flood risk management strategies and calls for further investigations.

  14. Housing Markets in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Schneider; Karin Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Running counter to the sharp rise in house prices and housing wealth observed since the mid- 1990s in the vast majority of European countries, real house prices in Germany and Austria were going down in this period and did not start to rise until 2010 or 2007, respectively. This reflects national idiosyncracies in housing markets and motivated the discussion of relevant peculiarities in, and similarities among, Austria and Germany as well as Switzerland. Among the most important structural fe...

  15. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Ferro-Luzzi

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Swiss inter-industry wage structure in the light of the current debate on the efficiency wage hypothesis. Results clearly indicate the presence of an industry component in the determinants of earnings in Switzerland. No definite conclusion emerges though as to the source of wage variation. The stability of the wage structure and the role of tenure point to the existence of "wage rents". However, these results may be severely biased if unobserved ability is used by firm...

  16. Biocrystallography in Switzerland: achievements and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grütter, Markus G

    2014-01-01

    The first protein crystallography group in Switzerland was installed at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel approximately 40 years ago. Since then protein crystallography has grown and matured remarkably and is now established in the molecular biology, biochemistry or biological medicine departments of most major Swiss Universities as well as in the pharmaceutical industry and in biotech startup companies. Swiss X-ray biocrystallography groups have made remarkable contributions from the beginning and have brought Switzerland to the forefront in biostructural research during the last 5 to 10 years. Switzerland has now a leading position in the areas of supramolecular complexes, membrane proteins and structure-based drug design in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Protein crystallography on the outer membrane protein ompF as well as the development of the lipidic cubic phase crystallization methodology has been pioneered at the Biozentrum. The latter found its somewhat late recognition through the recent explosion in structure determinations of the seven transmembrane helix G-coupled receptors. Highlights from Swiss structural biology groups in the field of supramolecular complexes include the structures of ribosomal particles, of the nucleosome and the pilus assembly complex of uropathogenic E. coli. On the membrane protein side advances in the field of ABC transporters and ion channels are world-recognized achievements of Swiss structural biology. Dedicated laboratories at many academic and industrial institutions, their current research programs, the availability of excellent infrastructure and the continuing efforts to build new facilities such as the SwissFEL indicate an even brighter future for structural biology in Switzerland.

  17. Stakeholder mapping of CSR in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Looser, S; Wehrmeyer, WCH

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate, using stakeholder map methodology, showing power, urgency, legitimacy and concerns of different actors, the current state of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Switzerland. Previous research on CSR in Europe has made few attempts to identify stakeholders and their contribution to this topic. Design/methodology/approach – To derive this map, publicly available documents were explored, augmented by 27 interviews with key stakeholders (consumers, m...

  18. Geomechanical modeling of the Steinernase landslide (Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Laloui, Lyesse; Ferrari, Alessio; Bonnard, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    A geomechanical model was developed to analyse the behaviour of a natural slope located on the bank of the Rhine River between the towns of Stein and Mumpf in Switzerland. The slope is affected by a landslide and three strategic infrastructure assets are located at its toe. An intense monitoring campaign made it possible to identify pore water pressure evolution as the main cause for movement accelerations and to detect the presence of a multiple slip surface system. Advanced coupled finite e...

  19. Monthly Rainfall Erosivity Assessment for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion is crucially controlled by rainfall erosivity, which is quantified out of the kinetic energy of raindrop impact and associated surface runoff. Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as the R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). Just like precipitation, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland has a characteristic seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This inter-annual variability is to be assessed by a monthly and seasonal modelling approach. We used a network of 86 precipitation gauging stations with a 10-minute temporal resolution to calculate long-term average monthly R-factors. Stepwise regression and Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) was used to select spatial covariates to explain the spatial pattern of R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The regionalized monthly R-factor is mapped by its individual regression equation and the ordinary kriging interpolation of its residuals (Regression-Kriging). As covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included like snow height, a combination of hourly gauging measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), mean monthly alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD) and monthly precipitation sums (Rhires). Topographic parameters were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of all 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed seasonality with highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) and lowest rainfall erosivity in winter months. Besides the inter-annual temporal regime, a seasonal spatial variability was detectable. Spatial maps of monthly rainfall erosivity are presented for the first time for Switzerland. The assessment of the spatial and temporal dynamic behaviour of the R-factor is valuable for the identification of more susceptible seasons and regions as well as for the application of selective erosion control measures. A combination with monthly vegetation

  20. Debates about assisted suicide in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Sandra; La Harpe, Romano

    2012-12-01

    Assisted suicide is allowed in 3 states of the United States (Oregon, Washington, Montana) but only if performed by a physician.On the opposite, in Switzerland, at the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss Penal Code referred to assisted suicide in the context of honor or an unhappy love affair. It was only in 1985 that Exit Deutsche Schweiz (Exit for German-speaking Switzerland) "medically" assisted the first patient to end his life.Even if authorized by the Swiss law upon certain conditions, assisted suicide is subject to debates for ethical reasons. The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences described directives to guide physicians on this difficult subject.Different studies showed an increase in the number of medical-assisted suicide in Switzerland since the 1990s. Now, this number seems to be quite stable. Assisted suicide is authorized in a few hospitals under strict conditions (especially when returning home is impossible).Thus, according to the Swiss law, any person could perform assisted suicide; this is essentially performed by 3 main associations, using pentobarbital on medical prescription as lethal substance.Generally speaking, the Swiss population is rather in favor of assisted suicide. Among politics, the debate has been tough until 2010, when the Federal Council decided not to modify the Swiss Penal Code concerning assisted suicide.

  1. Ten years of integrated care in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Berchtold

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, a growing part of primary care is provided by networks of physicians and health maintenance organizations (HMOs acting on the principles of gatekeeping. To date, an average of one out of eight insured person in Switzerland, and one out of three in the regions in north-eastern Switzerland, opted for the provision of care by general practitioners in one of the 86 physician networks or HMOs. About 50% of all general practitioners and more than 400 other specialists have joined a physician networks. Seventy-three of the 86 networks (84% have contracts with the healthcare insurance companies in which they agree to assume budgetary co-responsibility, i.e. to adhere to set cost targets for particular groups of patients. Within and outside the physician networks, at regional and/or cantonal levels, several initiatives targeting chronic diseases have been developed, such as clinical pathways for heart failure and breast cancer patients or chronic disease management programs for patients with diabetes. The relevance of these developments towards more integration of healthcare as well as their implications for the future are discussed.

  2. Groundwater-quality data in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010--Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Wright, Michael T.; Beuttel, Brandon S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 12,103-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (CLUB) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from December 2008 to March 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CLUB study unit was the twenty-eighth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA CLUB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) are defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CLUB study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CLUB study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 52 wells in 3 study areas (Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts) in San Bernardino, Riverside, Kern, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. Forty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and three wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile

  3. Radioactive waste management in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, M.

    2011-01-01

    deep geological repositories are commissioned, the radioactive waste will be temporarily stored in the nuclear power plants and in the central interim storage facility (Würenlingen). The expected amount of waste is based on a safety-related service life of probably 50 years for the existing five nuclear power plants and a MIF collection period until 2050 and comprises approx. 90,000 m3 SMA (conditioned including packaging) and 9,500 m3 HAA / LMA. The site selection procedure is defined as binding in the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. It is a federal planning instrument for regulating and carrying out site selection in accordance with the Swiss Spatial Planning Act. The Sectoral Plan defines the procedural steps and criteria for a transparent and fair selection process and leads to the site selection and the initiation of the general approval procedure in three stages. The Federal Council's decision on the proposals of waste producers regarding geological siting areas according to stage 1 is expected by the end of 2011. Safety is the first priority for site selection, socio-economic and spatial planning aspects have an important but subordinate significance. The commissioning of the deep geological repository SMA is scheduled for 2030 at the earliest, and that for the deep repository HAA at the earliest in 2040. (roessner)

  4. Primary care in Switzerland gains strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Sima; Meier, Tatjana; Hasler, Susann; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Although there is widespread agreement on health- and cost-related benefits of strong primary care in health systems, little is known about the development of the primary care status over time in specific countries, especially in countries with a traditionally weak primary care sector such as Switzerland. The aim of our study was to assess the current strength of primary care in the Swiss health care system and to compare it with published results of earlier primary care assessments in Switzerland and other countries. A survey of experts and stakeholders with insights into the Swiss health care system was carried out between February and March 2014. The study was designed as mixed-modes survey with a self-administered questionnaire based on a set of 15 indicators for the assessment of primary care strength. Forty representatives of Swiss primary and secondary care, patient associations, funders, health care authority, policy makers and experts in health services research were addressed. Concordance between the indicators of a strong primary care system and the real situation in Swiss primary care was rated with 0-2 points (low-high concordance). A response rate of 62.5% was achieved. Participants rated concordance with five indicators as 0 (low), with seven indicators as 1 (medium) and with three indicators as 2 (high). In sum, Switzerland achieved 13 of 30 possible points. Low scores were assigned because of the following characteristics of Swiss primary care: inequitable local distribution of medical resources, relatively low earnings of primary care practitioners compared to specialists, low priority of primary care in medical education and training, lack of formal guidelines for information transfer between primary care practitioners and specialists and disregard of clinical routine data in the context of medical service planning. Compared to results of an earlier assessment in Switzerland, an improvement of seven indicators could be stated since 1995. As a

  5. Status of Court Management in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At an international level, and in particular in the Anglo-American region, there is a long tradition of scientific study of court management. Thus in Australia there has for quite some time been the Australasian Institution of Judicial Administration (AIJA, which concerns itself with every aspect of court administration. In the USA too, research and education in the field of court management has been institutionalized for a long time, in particular by the National Center for State Courts (NCSC and the related Institute for Court Management (ICM. In Europe, a working group known as the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ deals with issues of court management as part of the activities of the Council of Europe. The fact that court management is also increasingly becoming an important topic in the European area was demonstrated by the establishment, in 2008, of a new professional journal that focuses on court management, the International Journal for Court Administration (IJCA. In Switzerland, the issue of court management was discussed for the first time in the course of the New Public Management (NPM projects in the cantons, but was often limited to the question of whether to include the courts in the relevant cantonal NPM model. Generally speaking, court management was a matter that was only sporadically raised, such as at a symposium of the Swiss Society of Administrative Sciences (SSAS in 2003 or more recently in an article in which theses on good court management are formulated. In Switzerland even today there is a general dearth of empirical and other theoretical findings on the mode of operation of the justice system and its interaction with society, or with specific social target groups. For example, it was only in 2009 that the first indications were obtained of how cases in various categories were handled by the highest administrative and social insurance courts in Switzerland. In the fields of criminal and civil

  6. Small hydro schemes in Turtmanntal, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This two-part report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents several variants and two preliminary projects with respect to schemes for the use of hydropower in the Turtmanntal valley in the Swiss Alps. The various possible sites for the power stations both on the left and right-hand sides of the main valley are described. Technical details and prognoses for costs and energy production are discussed for all these variants. In the second part of the report, preliminary projects for hydropower installations on the Braendji and Piji streams are presented. Costs and economic viability are discussed and time-scales for the realisation are examined.

  7. Status of spent fuel storage facilities in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyeler, P.C.; Lutz, H.R.; Heesen, W. von

    1999-01-01

    Planning of a dry spent fuel storage facility in Switzerland started already 15 years ago. The first site considered for a central interim storage facility was the cavern of the decommissioned pilot nuclear plant at Lucens in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. This project was terminated in the late eighties because of lack of public acceptance. The necessary acceptance was found in the small town of Wuerenlingen which has hosted for many years the Swiss Reactor Research Centre. The new project consists of centralised interim storage facilities for all types of radioactive waste plus a hot cell and a conditioning and incinerating facility. It represents a so-called integrated storage solution. In 1990, the new company 'ZWILAG Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG' (ZWILAG) was founded and the licensing procedures according to the Swiss Atomic law were initiated. On August 26, 1996 ZWILAG got the permit for construction of the whole facility including the operating permit for the storage facilities. End of construction and commissioning are scheduled for autumn 1999. The nuclear power station Beznau started planning a low level waste and spent fuel storage facility on its own, because in 1990 its management thought that by 1997 the first high active waste from the reprocessing facilities in France would have to be taken back. This facility at the Beznau site, called ZWIBEZ, was licensed according to a shorter procedure so its construction was finished by 1997. The two facilities for high level waste and spent fuel provide space for a total of 278 casks, which is sufficient for the waste and spent fuel of the four Swiss nuclear power stations including their life extension programme. (author)

  8. Plio-Pleistocene landscape evolution in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlemann, J.; Rhan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Re-evaluation of the river history, palaeosurface levels and exhumation history in northern Switzerland for the last 10 million years reveals that distinct morphotectonic events about 4.2 and 2.8 million years ago (Ma) caused major reorganisation of river networks and morphosculpture. As a result of the earlier formation of the Swiss Jura, potential relief energy in the piggy-back North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) of northern central Switzerland south of the Jura fold belt was built up after 11–10 Ma. It was suddenly released by river capture at about 4.2 Ma when the Aare-Danube was captured by a tributary of the Rhône-Doubs river system which rooted southeast of the Black forest. This event triggered rapid denudation of weakly consolidated Molasse sediments, in the order of about 1 km, as constrained by apatite fission track data from drill holes in the NAFB. Likely mechanisms of river capture are (a) headward erosion of Rhône-Doubs tributaries, (b) uplift and rapidly increasing erosion of the Swiss Alps after about 5.3 Ma, and (c) gravel aggradation at the eastern termination of the Jura fold belt in the course of eastward and northward tilt of the piggy-back NAFB. A morphotectonic event between 4.2 and 2.5 Ma, probably at about 2.8 Ma, caused a phase of planation, accompanied by local gravel aggradation and temporary storage of Alpine debris. Between 2.8 and 2.5 Ma, the Aare-Rhône river system is cannibalised by the modern Rhine River, the latter later connecting with the Alpine Rhine River. (authors)

  9. Quality of Shallow Groundwater and Drinking Water in the Mississippi Embayment-Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System and the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, South-Central United States, 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Tollett, Roland W.; Seanor, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system is an important source of drinking water, providing about 724 million gallons per day to about 8.9 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Alabama. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer ranks third in the Nation for total withdrawals of which more than 98 percent is used for irrigation. From 1994 through 2004, water-quality samples were collected from 169 domestic, monitoring, irrigation, and public-supply wells in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in various land-use settings and of varying well capacities as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical properties and about 200 water-quality constituents, including total dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, pesticide degradates, and volatile organic compounds. The occurrence of nutrients and pesticides differed among four groups of the 114 shallow wells (less than or equal to 200 feet deep) in the study area. Tritium concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium, Pleistocene valley trains, and shallow Tertiary wells indicated a smaller component of recent groundwater than samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits. Although the amount of agricultural land overlying the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was considerably greater than areas overlying parts of the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells, nitrate was rarely detected and the number of pesticides detected was lower than other shallow wells. Nearly all samples from the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains were anoxic, and the reducing conditions in these aquifers likely result in denitrification of nitrate. In contrast, most samples from the

  10. The impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barrantes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant populations may experience local extinction and at the same time new populations may appear in nearby suitable locations. Species may also colonize the same site on multiple occasions. Here, we examined the impact of local extinction and recolonization on the genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus in the Central valley of Costa Rica. We compared genetic diversity from the samples taken from the populations before and after extinction at 13 locations using microsatellite markers. Locations were classified according to the occurrence of extinction episodes during the previous five years into three groups: 1 populations that experienced extinction for more than one year, and were later recolonized (recolonized, 2 populations that did not experience local extinction (control, and 3 populations that did not experience local extinction during the study, but were cut to experimentally simulate extinction (experimental. Our data did not show a clear tendency in variation in allele frequencies, expected heterozygosity, and effective number of alleles within and between groups of populations. However, we found that the level of genetic differentiation between samples collected at different times at the same location was different in the three groups of populations. Recolonized locations showed the highest level of genetic differentiation (mean Fst= 0.2769, followed by control locations (mean Fst= 0.0576 and experimental locations (mean Fst= 0.0189. Similar findings were observed for Nei’s genetic distance between samples (di,j= 0.1786, 0.0400, and 0.0037, respectively. Our results indicate that genetic change in lima beans depends on the duration and frequency of local extinction episodes. These findings also showed that control populations are not in equilibrium. Implications of these results for the establishment of conservation strategies of genetic resources of lima beans are discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3

  11. Photovoltaic (PV) energy in the Netherlands and Switzerland. A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Loo, F.; Spiessens, P.

    1995-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Switzerland and the Netherlands is compared for a number of aspects. The Swiss have realized more PV capacity. Also the economic conditions to develop PV are better in Switzerland than in the Netherlands. In Switzerland the public support is mobilized for solar energy while in the Netherlands a social basis is created for wind energy. 3 ills., 3 tabs

  12. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  13. Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Stewart, K.C.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.; Crabtree, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Department of the Interior began a program to study the effects of irrigation drainage in the Western United States. These studies were done to determine whether irrigation drainage was causing problems related to human health, water quality, and fish and wildlife resources. Results of a study in 1991-93 of irrigation drainage associated with the Uncompahgre Project area, located in the lower Gunnison River Basin, and of the Grand Valley, located along the Colorado River, are described in this report. The focus of the report is on the sources, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in the hydrologic and biological systems and the effects on biota. Generally, other trace- constituent concentrations in water and biota were not elevated or were not at levels of concern. Soils in the Uncompahgre Project area that primarily were derived from Mancos Shale contained the highest concentrations of total and watrer-extractable selenium. Only 5 of 128\\x11alfalfa samples had selenium concentrations that exceeded a recommended dietary limit for livestock. Selenium data for soil and alfalfa indicate that irrigation might be mobilizing and redistributing selenium in the Uncompahgre Project area. Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground- water system. Selenium concentrations were as high as 1,300\\x11micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; selenium concentrations were lower in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Selenium in the study area could be mobilized by oxidation of reduced selenium, desorption from aquifer sediments, ion exchange, and dissolution. Infiltration of irrigation water and, perhaps nitrate, provide oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and for

  14. Gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billieux, Joël; Achab, Sophia; Savary, Jean-Félix; Simon, Olivier; Richter, Frédéric; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2016-09-01

    To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. A literature search was conducted on two databases (PubMed and PsycINFO), and official government and statistical reports selected from the official websites of four sources (Federal Office of Justice; Federal Gambling Board; Federal Office of Statistics; Swiss Lottery and Betting Board). After a history of banning or partial banning, Swiss gambling became regulated at the beginning of the 20th century through successive laws. The current system is characterized by important differences in the law and policies for casinos and lotteries, and contradictions in the regulation of these two areas are still under debate in order to develop new legislation. Gambling is widespread in Switzerland, and the prevalence of problem gambling in this country was comparable to that in other European countries in 2014. Most gambling treatment facilities are integrated into mental health treatment services that have out-patient programmes, and treatment for problem gambling is covered by a universal compulsory Swiss health insurance system. The availability of public funding for gambling research is still limited. Switzerland needs to develop a more coherent regulatory and prevention policy approach to gambling, overcoming conflicts in the current dual system of federal and cantonal regulation. Recent efforts to enhance funding for gambling research are promising, and could lead to a more systematic analysis of the efficacy of prevention and treatment programmes. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. The determinants of early retirement in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, David; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, Switzerland has experienced a large increase in the number of individuals going into early retirement. This paper examines the determinants of such early retirement using data from the newly implemented social-security module of the 2002 Swiss Labor Force Survey. In the sixteen-month period from January 2001 to April 2002, more than 36,000 older individuals, representing 8% of all workers within nine years of legal retirement age, became early retirees. One of the most imp...

  16. Regionalization of monthly rainfall erosivity patternsin Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    One major controlling factor of water erosion is rainfall erosivity, which is quantified as the product of total storm energy and a maximum 30 min intensity (I30). Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). As rainfall erosivity is closely correlated with rainfall amount and intensity, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland can be expected to have a regional characteristic and seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This intra-annual variability was mapped by a monthly modeling approach to assess simultaneously spatial and monthly patterns of rainfall erosivity. So far only national seasonal means and regional annual means exist for Switzerland. We used a network of 87 precipitation gauging stations with a 10 min temporal resolution to calculate long-term monthly mean R-factors. Stepwise generalized linear regression (GLM) and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) were used to select spatial covariates which explain the spatial and temporal patterns of the R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The monthly R-factor is mapped by summarizing the predicted R-factor of the regression equation and the corresponding residues of the regression, which are interpolated by ordinary kriging (regression-kriging). As spatial covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included such as snow depths, a combination product of hourly precipitation measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), daily Alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD), and monthly precipitation sums (RhiresM). Topographic parameters (elevation, slope) were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of the 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed a distinct seasonality with the highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) influenced by intense rainfall events. Winter months have the lowest rainfall erosivity. A proportion of 62 % of

  17. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south-central United States, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Katz, Brian G.; Welch, Heather L.; Tollett, Roland W.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.

    2015-01-01

    About 8 million people rely on groundwater from the Mississippi embayment—Texas coastal uplands aquifer system for drinking water. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer also provides drinking water for domestic use in rural areas but is of primary importance to the region as a source of water for irrigation. Irrigation withdrawals from this aquifer are among the largest in the Nation and play a key role in the economy of the area, where annual crop sales total more than $7 billion. The reliance of the region on both aquifers for drinking water and irrigation highlights the importance of long-term management to sustain the availability and quality of these resources.

  18. Sutter Buttes-the lone volcano in California's Great Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausback, Brain P.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic spires of the Sutter Buttes tower 2,000 feet above the farms and fields of California's Great Valley, just 50 miles north-northwest of Sacramento and 11 miles northwest of Yuba City. The only volcano within the valley, the Buttes consist of a central core of volcanic domes surrounded by a large apron of fragmental volcanic debris. Eruptions at the Sutter Buttes occurred in early Pleistocene time, 1.6 to 1.4 million years ago. The Sutter Buttes are not part of the Cascade Range of volcanoes to the north, but instead are related to the volcanoes in the Coast Ranges to the west in the vicinity of Clear Lake, Napa Valley, and Sonoma Valley.

  19. Evaluating model structure adequacy: The case of the Maggia Valley groundwater system, southern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.; L. Foglia,; S. W. Mehl,; P. Burlando,

    2013-01-01

    Model adequacy is evaluated with alternative models rated using model selection criteria (AICc, BIC, and KIC) and three other statistics. Model selection criteria are tested with cross-validation experiments and insights for using alternative models to evaluate model structural adequacy are provided. The study is conducted using the computer codes UCODE_2005 and MMA (MultiModel Analysis). One recharge alternative is simulated using the TOPKAPI hydrological model. The predictions evaluated include eight heads and three flows located where ecological consequences and model precision are of concern. Cross-validation is used to obtain measures of prediction accuracy. Sixty-four models were designed deterministically and differ in representation of river, recharge, bedrock topography, and hydraulic conductivity. Results include: (1) What may seem like inconsequential choices in model construction may be important to predictions. Analysis of predictions from alternative models is advised. (2) None of the model selection criteria consistently identified models with more accurate predictions. This is a disturbing result that suggests to reconsider the utility of model selection criteria, and/or the cross-validation measures used in this work to measure model accuracy. (3) KIC displayed poor performance for the present regression problems; theoretical considerations suggest that difficulties are associated with wide variations in the sensitivity term of KIC resulting from the models being nonlinear and the problems being ill-posed due to parameter correlations and insensitivity. The other criteria performed somewhat better, and similarly to each other. (4) Quantities with high leverage are more difficult to predict. The results are expected to be generally applicable to models of environmental systems.

  20. A comparison of estimates of basin-scale soil-moisture evapotranspiration and estimates of riparian groundwater evapotranspiration with implications for water budgets in the Verde Valley, Central Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; Wiele, Stephen M.; Pool, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Population growth in the Verde Valley in Arizona has led to efforts to better understand water availability in the watershed. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a substantial component of the water budget and a critical factor in estimating groundwater recharge in the area. In this study, four estimates of ET are compared and discussed with applications to the Verde Valley. Higher potential ET (PET) rates from the soil-water balance (SWB) recharge model resulted in an average annual ET volume about 17% greater than for ET from the basin characteristics (BCM) recharge model. Annual BCM PET volume, however, was greater by about a factor of 2 or more than SWB actual ET (AET) estimates, which are used in the SWB model to estimate groundwater recharge. ET also was estimated using a method that combines MODIS-EVI remote sensing data and geospatial information and by the MODFLOW-EVT ET package as part of a regional groundwater-flow model that includes the study area. Annual ET volumes were about same for upper-bound MODIS-EVI ET for perennial streams as for the MODFLOW ET estimates, with the small differences between the two methods having minimal impact on annual or longer groundwater budgets for the study area.

  1. Energy supply and energy policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1985-01-01

    The article gives an outline of the problems of energy supply in Switzerland, with some emphasis upon the extent to which Federal and Cantonal constitutions and the functioning of Swiss democracy, notably the relatively frequent recourse to referendums and the strong public interest in conservation and ecology, affect the nature of decisions upon technical matters such as the authorisation and siting of generating plants and the construction of transmission lines. The dominating factor in the energy situation in Switzerland has been and will remain the need to import about 84% of the energy used, mainly in the form of oil, the cost of which is nearly 10% of the total value of all imports. Water power accounts for 13% of the total supply and is approaching the limit of its possible development. The use of energy constantly increases but the political difficulties in the way of providing the consequently necessary resources increase if anything still more rapidly. The resulting difficult situation is discussed in some detail. The author urges the energy industry to view its political difficulties in a positive manner, and to see them rather as a spur to effort than as merely an unwelcome obstacle to private enterprise. (C.J.O.G.)

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgässner, C; Schmitt, S; Borgström, A; Wittenbrink, M M

    2016-06-01

    Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. So far, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of B. hyodysenteriae in Switzerland have not been investigated. Therefore, a panel of 30 porcine B. hyodysenteriae isolates were tested against 6 antimicrobial agents by using the VetMIC Brachy panel, a broth microdilution test. Tiamulin and valnemulin showed high antimicrobial activity inhibiting all isolates at low concentrations. The susceptibility testing of doxycycline revealed values from ≤0.25 μg/ ml (47%) to 2 μg/ml (10%). The MIC values of lincomycin ranged between ≤0.5 μg/ml (30%) and 32 μg/ml (43%). For tylosin, 57% of the isolates could not be inhibited at the highest concentration of ≥128 μg/ml. The MIC values for tylvalosin were between ≤0.25 μg/ml (10%) and 8 μg/ml (20%). These findings reveal Switzerland's favourable situation compared to other European countries. Above all, tiamulin and valnemulin are still effective antimicrobial agents and can be further used for the treatment of SD.

  3. Nuclear energy and democracy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangger, C.

    1974-01-01

    Since nuclear energy is a question of international moment, critical citizens are today orienting the attention of the Swiss public more and more towards the international problems presented by the fuel cycle: problems about which a small country like Switzerland can do nothing without international co-operation and information. The most important concerns from the standpoint of the information which Swiss citizens ought to receive and about which I should like to make a few proposals. These are the problem of ultimate disposal of the high-level radioactive waste produced in irradiated fuel reprocessing plants; and the problem of diversion of plutonium by criminals. In conclusion, the last points I have made show quite clearly that the problems raised by the relationship between nuclear energy and democracy in Switzerland are going to be, more and more, problems connected with security and international solidarity. Member States should put International Atomic Energy Agency in a position where it can discharge effectively its tasks of standardization and information related to all sensitive stages of the nuclear fuel cycle

  4. Strain, Stress and Seismicity pattern in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlié, Nicolas; Woessner, Jochen; Villiger, Arturo; Deichmann, Nicholas; Rothacher, Markus; Giardini, Domenico; Geiger, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Switzerland lies across one of the most complex plate boundary in the world. With a 100 Ma of deformation history, and a wide diversity of deformation mechanism, it is an ideal place to study the link(s) between small strain rates measured at the surface and stress dissipated at depth. The link is of genuine interest for seismic hazard assessment as it provides an independent estimate for moment release within the seismogenic volume. We use geodetic (GPS velocities, shortening axes, strain maps) and seismic (anisotropy, P-axes, focal mechanisms) datasets in order to assess whether the stress accumulated at depth due to the continental collision reflects the deformation rates measured at the surface and correlates with the seismic activity as well as the stress directions deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms throughout the area - or not. While the deformation amplitudes of the area are small (less than 10-7 yr-1) in some areas of Switzerland, we can relate long- and short-term features of the tectonic processes occurring over the last 10+ Ma. Preliminary results suggest that while deformation rates measured by GPS are large in the Ticino compared to the Valais region - its seismic activity rate is lower. This implies other processes might play important roles in the generation of seismicity.

  5. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  6. Geomorphic controls on Pleistocene knickpoint migration in Alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Fox, Matt; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Brosda, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael; Loew, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Recent insights into sub-glacial bedrock stress conditions suggest that the erosional efficiency of glaciers may reduce markedly following a major erosional cycle [Leith et al., 2013]. This implies that the formation of large glacial valleys within the Alps is likely to have occurred shortly after the onset of 100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles (at the mid-Pleistocene Revolution (MPR)). The majority of landscape change since this time may have therefore been driven by sub-aerial processes. This hypothesis is supported by observations of hillslope and channel morphology within Canton Valais (Switzerland), where major tributary valleys display a common morphology along their length, hinting at a shared geomorphic history. Glaciers currently occupy the headwaters of many catchments, while the upper reaches of rivers flow across extensive alluvial planes before abruptly transitioning to steep channels consisting of mixed bedrock and talus fan deposits. The rivers then converge to flow out over the alluvial plane of the Rhone Valley. Characteristically rough topographies within the region are suggested to mark the progressive transition from a glacial to fluvially-dominated landscape, and correlate well with steepened river channel sections determined from a 2.5 m resolution LiDAR DEM. We envisage a landscape in which ongoing tectonic uplift drives the emergence of Alpine bedrock through massive sedimentary valley infills (currently concentrated in the Rhone Valley), whose elevation is fixed by the consistent fluvial baselevel at Lake Geneva. As fluvial incision ceases at the onset of glaciation, continued uplift causes the formation of knickpoints at the former transition from bedrock to sedimentary infill. These knickpoints will then propagate upstream during subsequent interglacial periods. By investigating channel morphologies using an approach based on the steady-state form of the stream power equation, we can correlate steepened channel reaches (degraded

  7. Information Centre Radioactivity Switzerland; Beratungsstelle Radioaktivitaet Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosimann, N.; Balsiger, B.; Burger, M. [Bundesamt fuer Bevoelkerungsschutz (Switzerland). LABOR SPIEZ

    2016-07-01

    The Information Centre Radioactivity Switzerland is meant to assess the radiological condition and serves for psychological-medical care of affected members of the Swiss public following an event of increased radioactivity in the environment. The Centre is structured in a modular way consisting of the following modules: ''Entry Measurement'': The visitors are registered and measured for contamination, ''Decontamination'': Contaminated visitors are decontaminated, ''Additional Measurements'': If required, thyroid and whole body measurements are performed, ''Information'': The visitors are informed about radioactivity, radiation protection, the current situation and their individual next steps, ''Exit'': Administrative release from the Information Centre.

  8. Small hydropower station in Schluein, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, F.; Thoeny, F.

    2007-04-01

    This preliminary study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a project concerning the building of a small-scale hydropower installation in Schluein in the Grisons, Switzerland. The requirements placed on the water intake point in this mountainous region are discussed. The installation includes a 1230 metre long pressurised conduit and uses a multi-jet Pelton turbine to provide 720 kW of electrical power, the hydraulic head amounting to 140 m. The paper discusses the amounts of water available over the year, production costs and the economic feasibility of the project. The power production is estimated to 3,150,000 kWh/y. Environmental aspects are examined and details still to be defined are briefly mentioned.

  9. JOB CENTRE FOR DOMESTIC STAFF IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; http://www.cern.ch/relations/

    2001-01-01

    The Permanent mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the Geneva Welcome Centre has set up an employment registration desk for the domestic staff of international civil servants. The aim of this pilot project is, on the one hand, to help international civil servants find domestic staff and, on the other hand, to help domestic staff holding an 'F'-type carte de légitimation find employment within 30 days after the expiry of a contract. For more information, please contact the Geneva Welcome Centre, La Pastorale, 106, route de Ferney, Case postale 103, 1211 Genève 20, tel. (+41.22) 918 02 70, fax (+41.22) 918 02 79), http://geneva-international.org/Welcome.E.html.

  10. PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES IN SWITZERLAND: PRACTICAL GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the "Practical Manual of the regime of privileges and immunities and other facilities" is available on its Web site: - in English (http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/e/home/guide.html); - in French (http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/f/home/guide.html). Comprising around ten chapters, each dealing with a different subject (insurance, real estate, customs, etc.), the guide is not exhaustive but will be regularly supplemented, expanded and updated. The Mission specifies that the information contained in the document is given only as guide and that it implies no legal commitment on the part of the Host State. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  11. PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES IN SWITZERLAND - PRACTICAL GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has just published a practical guide to the implementation of the system of privileges and immunities and other facilities on its Web site. The guide is currently available in French only but an English translation is in preparation. Comprising around ten chapters, each dealing with a different subject (insurance, real estate, customs, etc.), the guide is not exhaustive but will be regularly supplemented, expanded and updated. The Mission specifies that the information contained in the document is given only as guide and that it implies no legal commitment on the part of the Host State. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  12. Case law: Canada, France, Switzerland, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Canada: Appellate decision upholding nuclear regulatory licensing process and practices for consultation with aboriginal groups: Fond du Lac Denesuline First Nation v. Canada (Attorney General). France: Court of Appeal of Nimes regarding the SOCATRI incident in July 2008; Conseil d'Etat regarding the association Reseau 'Sortir du nucleaire'. Switzerland: Judgement of the Federal Administrative Court in the matter of Balmer-Schafroth a.o.v. BKW FMB Energy Ltd on the repeal of the time limitation with respect to the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. United States: Judgement of a US District Court granting a permanent injunction against the State of Vermont in order to prevent certain State laws from prohibiting Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant's continued operation

  13. Future of nuclear energy technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberini, A.; Brogli, R.; Jermann, M.; Alder, H.P.; Stratton, R.W.; Troyon, F.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the present gloom surrounding the nuclear option for electricity and heat generation, there are still people in Switzerland in industry, research, banking and even politics willing and capable to think in terms of long-range projections. The basis for these projections is the belief that a well-functioning and prosperous society always needs large and reliable sources of acceptably priced energy, which must be generated with a high respect for the necessity of a clean environment. Being aware of the current low acceptance level of the nuclear option, efforts to keep this option open are directed to achieving the following goals: to maintain and improve the country's capabilities to safely operate the four existing nuclear power plants of Beznau (twin units), Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt; to keep the capability of extending the applications of nuclear energy technology. In practice, this could be in the fields of district heating, fusion, and advanced power reactors

  14. Regime shift of snow days in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    The number of days with a snow depth above a certain threshold is the key factor for winter tourism in an Alpine country like Switzerland. An investigation of 34 long-term stations between 200 and 1800 m asl (above sea level) going back for at least the last 60 years (1948-2007) shows an unprecedented series of low snow winters in the last 20 years. The signal is uniform despite high regional differences. A shift detection analysis revealed a significant step-like decrease in snow days at the end of the 1980's with no clear trend since then. This abrupt change resulted in a loss of 20% to 60% of the total snow days. The stepwise increase of the mean winter temperature at the end of the 1980's and its close correlation with the snow day anomalies corroborate the sensitivity of the mid-latitude winter to the climate change induced temperature increase.

  15. Exposures to natural radiation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murith, Ch.; Gurtner, A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionising radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. There are two main sources that contribute to this exposure: high-energy cosmic-ray particles incident to the earth's atmosphere and radioactive nuclides that originated in the earth's crust and are present everywhere in the environment, including human body itself. Both external and internal exposures to humans arise from these sources. Exposures to natural radiation sources in Switzerland and some of their variations are here summarised and the resulting effective doses are compared to those from man-made sources exposures. It results that the natural background exposures are more significant for the population than most exposures to man-made sources. (authors)

  16. Status of burnup credit implementation and research in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, P.

    2001-01-01

    Burnup credit has recently been approved by the Swiss licensing authority for the spent-fuel storage pool of a PWR plant for fuel exceeding the originally licensed initial enrichment. The criticality safety assessment is based on a configuration consisting of a small number (approximately a reload batch) of fresh assemblies surrounded by assemblies having a burnup corresponding to the minimum value in the top 1 m section after one cycle of irradiation. The allowable initial enrichment in this configuration is about 0.5% higher than for all fresh fuel. A central storage facility for all types of radioactive wastes from Switzerland, including cask storage of spent fuel assemblies is being commissioned presently. The first applications for licenses for casks to be used in this facility have been submitted. Credit for burnup has not been requested in these applications (conforming to the original licenses of the casks in their countries of origin), but utilities are interested in burnup credit for fuel with higher initial enrichments. Reactivity worth measurements as well as chemical assays of spent fuel samples in the LWR-PROTEUS facility at PSI are in detailed planning currently. The experiments, scheduled to start in 2001, will be performed in cooperation with the Swiss utilities and their fuel vendors. Although the focus of interest of these partners is on validation of in-core fuel management tools, the same experiments are also applicable to burnup credit, and contacts with further potential partners interested in this field are underway. (author)

  17. Diffusion of green power products in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Markard, Jochen; Truffer, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    As in many other European countries, green electricity is an emerging product in Switzerland as well. Although the market is yet to be liberalised, more than 100 of the 1200 Swiss electric utilities offer some sort of green electricity product to their customers. Successful companies like the municipal utilities of the cities of Zurich and Berne have reached customer response rates of up to 4%, while still maintaining cost-based pricing, i.e. charging their customers price premiums of 400-700% per kWh. While most of the products still rely on mainly photovoltaics, some utilities have started to introduce mixed green electricity products also including wind power. With a share of 60% in the Swiss generation mix, hydropower's role in the green electricity mix was also an issue to emerge causing controversial debate. While being renewable, hydropower is not considered environmentally benign by all the stakeholders, and unlike new renewables (solar, wind, biomass), there is little room for new hydropower generation facilities in Switzerland. The green electricity labelling scheme 'Naturemade' tackles that issue. The labelling organisation has evolved from a process with broad stakeholder involvement, which included environmental NGOs, scientific institutions, green electricity providers, renewable energy advocates, government bodies and consumer organisations. The analysis in this paper is based on a diffusion theory framework. It identifies and characterises different phases of (past and future) market development, and stresses the importance of eco-labelling as a tool to facilitate the transition from niche to mass market. Finally, we also discuss conclusions that can be drawn from the Swiss case towards market development and labelling on a European level

  18. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufkin Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.. Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and

  19. Obesity framing for health policy development in Australia, France and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchett, Annabelle D; Yeatman, Heather R; Johnson, Keryn M

    2016-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is a consequence of the interaction of cultural, environmental, genetic and behavioural factors; framing the issue is central to determining appropriate solutions. This study used content and thematic framing analysis to explore portrayal of responsibility for obesity in policy documents in Australia, France and Switzerland. For Australia and France, obesity causality was a combination of individual and environmental factors, but for Switzerland, it was predominantly individual. The primary solutions for all countries were health promotion strategies and children's education. Industry groups proposed more school education while health advocates advised government intervention. Where France emphasized cultural attitudes towards taste, Australia focused on sport. The French were most keen on legislating against unhealthy foods compared with Switzerland where there was opposition towards regulation of individual's choices. To curb the increasing prevalence of obesity, allocation of responsibility needs to be considered and initiatives enacted accordingly. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley... analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238...

  1. Characterization And Classification Of The Inland Valley Soils Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six profiles located in the inland valley soils of central Cross River State were studied. The surface horizon colour of the first four were either dark Grey or dark brown. The last two profiles were grey. All subsurface horizons were either greyish or brownish and highly mottled. The structure of all the profiles were either blocky ...

  2. Quaternary glaciation of the Tashkurgan Valley, Southeast Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Chen, Jie; Hedrick, Kathyrn A.; Caffee, Marc W.; Robinson, Alexander C.; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Yuan, Zhaode; Li, Wenqiao; Imrecke, Daniel B.; Liu, Jinfeng

    2012-07-01

    The Quaternary glacial history of Tashkurgan valley, in the transition between the Pamir and Karakoram, in Xinjiang Province, China was examined using remote sensing, field mapping, geomorphic analysis of landforms and sediments, and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating. Moraines were assigned to four glacial stages: 1) the Dabudaer glacial stage that dates to the penultimate glacial cycle and/or earlier, and may represent one or more glaciations; 2) the Tashkurgan glacial stage that dates to early last glacial, most likely Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 4; 3) the Hangdi glacial stage that dates to MIS 2, possibly early MIS 2; and 4) the Kuzigun glacial stage that dates to the MIS 2, possibly the global Last Glacial Maximum, and is younger than the Hangdi glacial stage. Younger moraines and rock glaciers are present at the heads of tributary valleys; but these were inaccessible because they are located close to politically sensitive borders with Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Glaciers during the Dabudaer glacial stage advanced into the central part of the Tashkurgan valley. During the Tashkurgan glacial stages, glaciers advanced several kilometers beyond the mouths of the tributary valleys into the Tashkurgan valley. Glaciers during the Hangdi and Kuzigun glacial stages advanced just beyond the mouths of the tributary valleys. Glaciation in this part of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen is likely strongly controlled by northern hemisphere climate oscillations, although a monsoonal influence on glaciation cannot be ruled out entirely.

  3. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1983-07-01

    The commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 to 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source was assessed. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (IGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstocks for the production of ethanol.

  4. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.

  5. The shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in Switzerland - A first assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, W. [Geoform Ltd, Villeneuve (Switzerland); Gautschi, A. [NAGRA, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    There has been recent interest in the shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale (Middle and Lower Jurassic) below the Swiss Molasse Basin in the light of the future role of domestic gas production within the expected future energy shift of Switzerland and possible conflicts in underground use. The Opalinus Clay of northern Switzerland is a potential host rock for repositories of both high-level and low-to-intermediate level radioactive waste and the exploitation of shale gas resources within or below this formation would represent a serious conflict of use. Well data from northern Switzerland shows that these two formations are unsuitable for future shale gas recovery. They never reached the gas window during their burial history (maturity values are ≤ 0.6% R{sub o}) and as a consequence never generated significant quantities of thermogenic gas. Geochemical data further shows that the average TOC values are in the range of 0.7%, i.e. clearly below accepted values of more than 1.5% for prospective shales. A review of available exploration data for the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in the deeper and western part of the Swiss Molasse Basin indicate that their shale gas potential may be substantial. The gross Posidonia Shale thickness increases from central Switzerland from less than 10 m to over 100 m in the Yverdon-Geneva area and is characterised by numerous bituminous intervals. A simplified shale gas resource calculation results for a geologically likely scenario in a technically recoverable gas volume of ∼120 billions m{sup 3}. The current database for such estimates is small and as a consequence, the uncertainties are large. However, these first encouraging results support a more detailed exploration phase with specific geochemical and petrophysical analysis of existing rock and well log data. (authors)

  6. The shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in Switzerland - A first assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leu, W.; Gautschi, A.

    2014-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale (Middle and Lower Jurassic) below the Swiss Molasse Basin in the light of the future role of domestic gas production within the expected future energy shift of Switzerland and possible conflicts in underground use. The Opalinus Clay of northern Switzerland is a potential host rock for repositories of both high-level and low-to-intermediate level radioactive waste and the exploitation of shale gas resources within or below this formation would represent a serious conflict of use. Well data from northern Switzerland shows that these two formations are unsuitable for future shale gas recovery. They never reached the gas window during their burial history (maturity values are ≤ 0.6% R o ) and as a consequence never generated significant quantities of thermogenic gas. Geochemical data further shows that the average TOC values are in the range of 0.7%, i.e. clearly below accepted values of more than 1.5% for prospective shales. A review of available exploration data for the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in the deeper and western part of the Swiss Molasse Basin indicate that their shale gas potential may be substantial. The gross Posidonia Shale thickness increases from central Switzerland from less than 10 m to over 100 m in the Yverdon-Geneva area and is characterised by numerous bituminous intervals. A simplified shale gas resource calculation results for a geologically likely scenario in a technically recoverable gas volume of ∼120 billions m 3 . The current database for such estimates is small and as a consequence, the uncertainties are large. However, these first encouraging results support a more detailed exploration phase with specific geochemical and petrophysical analysis of existing rock and well log data. (authors)

  7. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  8. Graphene valley pseudospin filter using an extended line defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunlycke, Daniel; White, Carter

    2011-03-01

    Although graphene exhibits excellent electron and thermal transport properties, it does not have an intrinsic band gap, required to use graphene as a replacement material for silicon and other semiconductors in conventional electronics. The band structure of graphene with its two cones near the Fermi level, however, offers opportunities to develop non-traditional applications. One such avenue is to exploit the valley degeneracy in graphene to develop valleytronics. A central component in valleytronics is the valley filter, just as the spin filter is central in spintronics. Herein, we present a two-dimensional valley filter based on scattering of electrons and holes off a recently observed extended line defect [Nat. Nanotech.5, 326 (2010)] within graphene. The transmission probability depends strongly on the valley pseudospin and the angle of incidence of the incident quasiparticles. Quasiparticles arriving at the line defect at a high angle of incidence lead to a valley polarization of the transmitted beam that is near 100 percent. This work was supported by ONR, directly and through NRL.

  9. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fault zone architecture of a major oblique-slip fault in the Rawil depression, Western Helvetic nappes, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, D.; Mancktelow, N. S.

    2009-04-01

    The Helvetic nappes in the Swiss Alps form a classic fold-and-thrust belt related to overall NNW-directed transport. In western Switzerland, the plunge of nappe fold axes and the regional distribution of units define a broad depression, the Rawil depression, between the culminations of Aiguilles Rouge massif to the SW and Aar massif to the NE. A compilation of data from the literature establishes that, in addition to thrusts related to nappe stacking, the Rawil depression is cross-cut by four sets of brittle faults: (1) SW-NE striking normal faults that strike parallel to the regional fold axis trend, (2) NW-SE striking normal faults and joints that strike perpendicular to the regional fold axis trend, and (3) WNW-ESE striking normal plus dextral oblique-slip faults as well as (4) WSW-ENE striking normal plus dextral oblique-slip faults that both strike oblique to the regional fold axis trend. We studied in detail a beautifully exposed fault from set 3, the Rezli fault zone (RFZ) in the central Wildhorn nappe. The RFZ is a shallow to moderately-dipping (ca. 30-60˚) fault zone with an oblique-slip displacement vector, combining both dextral and normal components. It must have formed in approximately this orientation, because the local orientation of fold axes corresponds to the regional one, as does the generally vertical orientation of extensional joints and veins associated with the regional fault set 2. The fault zone crosscuts four different lithologies: limestone, intercalated marl and limestone, marl and sandstone, and it has a maximum horizontal dextral offset component of ~300 m and a maximum vertical normal offset component of ~200 m. Its internal architecture strongly depends on the lithology in which it developed. In the limestone, it consists of veins, stylolites, cataclasites and cemented gouge, in the intercalated marls and limestones of anastomosing shear zones, brittle fractures, veins and folds, in the marls of anastomosing shear zones, pressure

  11. Aburra Valley: Quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    2008-01-01

    These paper intents a brief description of the evolution that characterised natural risk prevention in the area surrounding the city of Medellin, Colombia, called the Aburra Valley. Both the lithological and structural composition of the Valle and its topographic and climatic conditions contribute to the abundance of destructive natural phenomena as earthquakes, slope movements, flash floods and, in a lower proportion, to floods. The population increase, which reaches now 3.5 millions inhabitants and the frequent occupation of sites exposed to natural hazards have resulted in numerous disasters. At present two entities called SIMPAD and DAPARD work on risk prevention, on city and department scale respectively. The amount of knowledge about physical environment is considered to be insufficient, together with regulations which should direct land use in accordance to restrictions related to natural hazards. Several seminars on this topic have already been carried out and the organisers of the present one, destined to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Villatina disaster, should make the decision to meet each two years. Furthermore, the creation of a permanent commission dedicated to study past events, to foster information broadcasting and to seek a better knowledge of the Aburra Valley, should be considered

  12. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wetter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers. The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE, the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP, and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss, which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local

  13. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers). The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)), which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local historical

  14. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers). The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)), which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local historical

  15. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Oliver [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Section of Economic, Social and Environmental History (WSU)

    2017-07-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers). The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)), which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local historical

  16. Assessing river health in Europe and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Marianne; Chèvre, Nathalie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    River conditions and welfare of aquatic ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic and climatic changes. The release of personal-care products, pharmaceuticals and crop protection products is increasing and climate change is likely to cause significant changes in hydrological regimes affecting water resources' capacity to dissolve pollutants. Assessing river health, i.e. the ability of a river to support and maintain a balanced ecosystem close to the natural habitat, is thus of major concern to ensure the development of ecosystems and to provide enough clean useable water to users. Such studies involve physical, chemical and biological processes and characteristics. In Europe and Switzerland, standardized procedures have been developed to assess the hydromorphological, ecological and toxicological status of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive sets ecological requirements and chemical guidelines while the Swiss Modular Stepwise Procedure suggests methods to apprehend ecological deficits and promote water management plans. In this study, both procedures were applied and compared in order (i) to address their capacity to follow-up the spatial and temporal variability of the river's water quality and (ii) to identify challenges that still need to be addressed to assess river's health. Applied on the Boiron River (canton of Vaud, Switzerland) for a 11-year period (2005-2015), both frameworks highlight that no section of the river currently meets a good environmental state. This river flows through a diversified agricultural area causing a progressive deterioration of its chemical and biological quality. The two methods also identify two periods of time with significant changes of the river's water quality. The 2009-2011 period is characterized by a significant deterioration of the river's ecological and toxicological state due to severe low flows and an increased use of pesticides. However, since 2013, an improvement in water quality is identified in

  17. Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Calogero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  18. Inca expansion and parasitism in the lluta valley: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Calogero; Vinton, Sheila Dorsey; Reinhard, Karl J

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  19. Simulation of channel sandstone architecture in an incised valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Johannessen, P.; Andsbjerg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The present report describes a geostatistical modelling study that is aimed at reflecting the architecture of the channel sandstones in an incised valley fill. The example used for this study is a part of the Middle Jurassic sandy succession of the Bryne Formation in the Danish central Graben. The succession consists mainly of fluvial sediments in the lower part, overlain by tidal influenced sediments, which again is overlain by shallow marine sediments. The modelling study has been performed on a sequence of incised valley sediments in the upper part of the Bryne Formation overlying fluvial sediments. (au) EFP-96. 19 refs.

  20. The water vapour flux above Switzerland and its role in the August 2005 extreme precipitation and flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Dri Koffi, Ernest; Maetzler, Christian [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; Graham, Edward [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; University of the Highlands and Islands, Stornoway, Scotland (United Kingdom). Lews Castle College

    2013-10-15

    The water budget approach is applied to an atmospheric box above Switzerland (hereafter referred to as the 'Swiss box') to quantify the atmospheric water vapour flux using ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses. The results confirm that the water vapour flux through the Swiss box is highly temporally variable, ranging from 1 to 5 x 10{sup 7} kg/s during settled anticyclonic weather, but increasing in size by a factor of ten or more during high speed currents of water vapour. Overall, Switzerland and the Swiss box 'import' more water vapour than it 'exports', but the amount gained remains only a small fraction (1% to 5%) of the total available water vapour passing by. High inward water vapour fluxes are not necessarily linked to high precipitation episodes. The water vapour flux during the August 2005 floods, which caused severe damage in central Switzerland, is examined and an assessment is made of the computed water vapour fluxes compared to high spatio-temporal rain gauge and radar observations. About 25% of the incoming water vapour flux was stored in Switzerland. The computed water vapour fluxes from ECMWF data compare well with the mean rain gauge observations and the combined rain-gauge radar precipitation products. (orig.)

  1. Internalisation of external costs in Switzerland and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, U.

    1995-01-01

    Plans and resistance for internalising the external costs are discussed taking the conditions in Switzerland and in other countries of Europe into account. Internalisation is seen as signpost to regressive development. (author) 5 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Switzerland - its position within a liberalised European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at the situation in Switzerland shortly before parliamentary discussions on the liberalisation of Switzerland's electricity market. In particular the interconnection of Switzerland's electricity supply system with that of the rest of Europe is discussed. The power black-out that occurred in Italy in September 2003 is looked at. In particular, its relevance to power supply infrastructures is discussed and the fast-changing international configurations that are resulting from the liberalisation of electricity markets are looked at. Questions of international power transfer capacities and their allocation are looked at in detail in the light of the occurrences in 2003. The lessons that must be learned from the blackout are discussed and Switzerland's geographical position as an important hub of the European power transfer system are considered

  3. The changing international linkages of Switzerland: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Tille, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the economic linkages between Switzerland and the rest of the world have been transformed. First, merchanting and the chemical industry account for an increasing share of international trade, with chemicals exports expanding robustly in recent years despite the European crisis and the strong Swiss franc. Second, the nature of international financial integration has changed. While private investors drove Switzerland's financial flows and net foreign assets before the fina...

  4. Nuclear safety and radiation protection surveillance in different countries. Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The information and historical review on the Nuclear Surveillance in Switzerland has been presented. Special attention has been paid on: general tasks and responsibility of the Nuclear Surveillance, its organization structures, legal aspects, regulations and recommendations governing all nuclear activities in Switzerland, licensing processes and their procedures, inspections and control functions as well as international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety and environment protection

  5. Best strategy through Marketing Alliances for Switzerland Tourism North America

    OpenAIRE

    Bourquin, Charlotte; Holleran, James

    2014-01-01

    Having partnerships with Marketing Alliances has been proved to be an effective way for Switzerland Tourism North America to push the Destination promotion and sales as well as increase the awareness of Switzerland with the network. The two existing partnerships are with Virtuoso and Signature Travel Network, both luxury/leisure focused companies. Particularly successful results have been observed with Virtuoso. The process of choosing the right partnership has to be carefully defined ...

  6. Chagas disease in Switzerland: history and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Y; Chappuis, F

    2011-09-15

    Chagas disease, endemic in Latin America, is an emerging health problem in Europe affecting an estimated 80,000 persons. Around 60,000 Latin American migrants live in Switzerland, and cases of Chagas disease have been reported since 1979. As of June 2011, 258 cases have been diagnosed, mostly adults in the indeterminate phase of the chronic stage of the disease. Vertical transmission has been identified and there is a high potential for blood- and organ-borne transmission in the absence of systematic screening. Major challenges include (i) raising awareness among migrants and healthcare professionals, (ii) developing national protocols for screening and treatment targeting high-risk groups such as pregnant woman, newborns, migrants from highly endemic areas (e.g. Bolivia), and immunocompromised migrants, (iii) preventing blood- and organ-borne transmission by appropriate screening strategies, (iv) taking into account the social vulnerability of individuals at risk in the design and implementation of public health programmes, and (v) facilitating contacts with the communities at risk through outreach programmes, for example in churches and cultural groups.

  7. Women in surgery: a survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderli, Reto; Guller, Ulrich; Muff, Brigitte; Stefenelli, Ulrich; Businger, Adrian

    2010-11-01

    An increasing proportion of women work in medicine; however, only few choose surgical specialties. The objective of this study was to analyze the current situation of female surgeons and surgical residents in Switzerland concerning their personal and professional fulfillment. Of 318 female surgeons and surgical residents included in our study, 189 (59.4%) returned the anonymous questionnaire. Mentor-mentee relationships were mentioned by 110 (58.2%) of the 189 respondents. On the basis of a 7-point Likert scale, these women responded that they were moderately satisfied with their professional (mean score [SD], 2.7 [1.3]) and personal (mean score [SD], 3.0 [1.7]) lives. Of the 189 respondents, 113 (59.8%) mentioned that they felt underappreciated. The most important ways suggested for increasing the attractiveness of a surgical career for women were a reduction in workload (49 respondents [25.9%]), more flexible working hours (38 respondents [20.1%]), and better structured residency programs (23 respondents [12.2%]).

  8. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  9. Molten salt reactor related research in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepel, Jiri; Hombourger, Boris; Fiorina, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Switzerland represented by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a member of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). In the past, the research at PSI focused mainly on HTR, SFR, and GFR. Currently, a research program was established also for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR). Safety is the key point and main interest of the MSR research at the Nuclear Energy and Safety (NES) department of PSI. However, it cannot be evaluated without knowing the system design, fuel chemistry, salt thermal-hydraulics features, safety and fuel cycle approach, and the relevant material and chemical limits. Accordingly, sufficient knowledge should be acquired in the other individual fields before the safety can be evaluated. The MSR research at NES may be divided into four working packages (WP): WP1: MSR core design and fuel cycle, WP2: MSR fuel behavior at nominal and accidental conditions, WP3: MSR thermal-hydraulics and decay heat removal system, WP4: MSR safety, fuel stream, and relevant limits. The WPs are proposed so that there are research topics which can be independently studied within each of them. The work plan of the four WPs is based on several ongoing or past national and international projects relevant to MSR, where NES/PSI participates. At the current stage, the program focuses on several specific and design independent studies. The safety is the key point and main long-term interest of the MSR research at NES. (author)

  10. Effects of vernal equinox solar eclipse on temperature and wind direction in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Werner; Emmel, Carmen; Wolf, Sebastian; Buchmann, Nina; McFadden, Joseph P.; Whiteman, Charles David

    2017-12-01

    The vernal equinox total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 produced a maximum occultation of 65.8-70.1 % over Switzerland during the morning hours (09:22 to 11:48 CET). Skies were generally clear over the Swiss Alps due to a persistent high-pressure band between the UK and Russia associated with a rather weak pressure gradient over the continent. To assess the effects of penumbral shading on near-surface meteorology across Switzerland, air temperature data measured at 10 min intervals at 184 MeteoSwiss weather stations were used. Wind speed and direction data were available from 165 of these stations. Additionally, six Swiss FluxNet eddy covariance flux (ECF) sites provided turbulent measurements at 20 Hz resolution. During maximum occultation, the temperature drop was up to 5.8 K at a mountain site where cold air can pool in a topographic depression. The bootstrapped average of the maximum temperature drops of all 184 MeteoSwiss sites during the solar eclipse was 1.51 ± 0.02 K (mean ± SE). A detailed comparison with literature values since 1834 showed a temperature decrease of 2.6 ± 1.7 K (average of all reports), with extreme values up to 11 K. On fair weather days under weak larger-scale pressure gradients, local thermo-topographic wind systems develop that are driven by small-scale pressure and temperature gradients. At one ECF site, the penumbral shading delayed the morning transition from down-valley to up-valley wind conditions. At another site, it prevented this transition from occurring at all. Data from the 165 MeteoSwiss sites measuring wind direction did not show a consistent pattern of wind direction response to the passing of the penumbral shadow. These results suggest that the local topographic setting had an important influence on the temperature drop and the wind flow patterns during the eclipse. A significant cyclonic effect of the passing penumbral shadow was found in the elevation range ≈ 1700-2700 m a. s. l., but not at lower

  11. Effects of vernal equinox solar eclipse on temperature and wind direction in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Eugster

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The vernal equinox total solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 produced a maximum occultation of 65.8–70.1 % over Switzerland during the morning hours (09:22 to 11:48 CET. Skies were generally clear over the Swiss Alps due to a persistent high-pressure band between the UK and Russia associated with a rather weak pressure gradient over the continent. To assess the effects of penumbral shading on near-surface meteorology across Switzerland, air temperature data measured at 10 min intervals at 184 MeteoSwiss weather stations were used. Wind speed and direction data were available from 165 of these stations. Additionally, six Swiss FluxNet eddy covariance flux (ECF sites provided turbulent measurements at 20 Hz resolution. During maximum occultation, the temperature drop was up to 5.8 K at a mountain site where cold air can pool in a topographic depression. The bootstrapped average of the maximum temperature drops of all 184 MeteoSwiss sites during the solar eclipse was 1.51 ± 0.02 K (mean ± SE. A detailed comparison with literature values since 1834 showed a temperature decrease of 2.6 ± 1.7 K (average of all reports, with extreme values up to 11 K. On fair weather days under weak larger-scale pressure gradients, local thermo-topographic wind systems develop that are driven by small-scale pressure and temperature gradients. At one ECF site, the penumbral shading delayed the morning transition from down-valley to up-valley wind conditions. At another site, it prevented this transition from occurring at all. Data from the 165 MeteoSwiss sites measuring wind direction did not show a consistent pattern of wind direction response to the passing of the penumbral shadow. These results suggest that the local topographic setting had an important influence on the temperature drop and the wind flow patterns during the eclipse. A significant cyclonic effect of the passing penumbral shadow was found in the elevation range

  12. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  13. Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in Quetta Valley, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeebullah Kakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence is affecting several metropolitan cities in developing as well as developed countries around the world such as Nagoya (Japan, Shanghai (China, Venice (Italy and San Joaquin valley (United States. This phenomenon is attributed to natural as well as anthropogenic activities that include extensive groundwater withdrawals. Quetta is the largest city of Balochistan province in Pakistan. This valley is mostly dry and ground water is the major source for domestic and agricultural consumption. The unplanned use of ground water resources has led to the deterioration of water quality and quantity in the Quetta valley. Water shortage in the region was further aggravated by the drought during (1998-2004 that hit the area forcing people to migrate from rural to urban areas. Refugees from the war torn neighboring Afghanistan also contributed to rapid increase in population of Quetta valley that has increased from 0.26 million in 1975 to 3.0 million in 2016. The objective of this study was to measure the land subsidence in Quetta valley and identify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on land subsidence. To achieve this goal, data from five Global Positioning System (GPS stations were acquired and processed. Furthermore the groundwater decline data from 41 observation wells during 2010 to 2015 were calculated and compared with the land deformation. The results of this study revealed that the land of Quetta valley is subsiding from 30mm/y on the flanks to 120 mm/y in the central part. 1.5-5.0 m/y of groundwater level drop was recorded in the area where the rate of subsidence is highest. So the extensive groundwater withdrawals in Quetta valley is considered to be the driving force behind land subsidence.

  14. Geohydrology of the Unconsolidated Valley-Fill Aquifer in the Meads Creek Valley, Schuyler and Steuben Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.; Reddy, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The Meads Creek valley encompasses 70 square miles of predominantly forested uplands in the upper Susquehanna River drainage basin. The valley, which was listed as a Priority Waterbody by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 2004, is prone to periodic flooding, mostly in its downstream end, where development is occurring most rapidly. Hydraulic characteristics of the unconsolidated valley-fill aquifer were evaluated, and seepage rates in losing and gaining tributaries were calculated or estimated, in an effort to delineate the aquifer geometry and identify the factors that contribute to flooding. Results indicated that (1) Meads Creek gained about 61 cubic feet of flow per second (about 6.0 cubic feet per second per mile of stream channel) from ground-water discharge and inflow from tributaries in its 10.2-mile reach between the northernmost and southernmost measurement sites; (2) major tributaries in the northern part of the valley are not significant sources of recharge to the aquifer; and (3) major tributaries in the central and southern part of the valley provide recharge to the aquifer. The ground-water portion of streamflow in Meads Creek (excluding tributary inflow) was 11.3 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) in the central part of the valley and 17.2 ft3/s in the southern part - a total of 28.5 ft3/s. Ground-water levels were measured in 29 wells finished in unconfined deposits for construction of a potentiometric-surface map to depict directions of ground-water flow within the valley. In general, ground water flows from the edges of the valley toward Meads Creek and ultimately discharges to it. The horizontal hydraulic gradient for the entire 12-mile-long aquifer averages about 30 feet per mile, whereas the gradient in the southern fourth of the valley averages about half that - about 17 feet per mile. A water budget for the aquifer indicated that 28 percent of recharge was derived from precipitation that falls on the aquifer, 32

  15. Evaluating wildlife mortality hotspots, habitat connectivity and potential mitigation along US 287 and MT 87 in the Madison Valley, Montana : project summary report: 8217-001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Madison Valley is situated in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and plays a key role in connecting this ecologicallyintact ecosystem to other intact areas of the Central Rockies, particularly the wildlands of central Idaho and the Selway-Bi...

  16. Mentoring in general surgery in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto M. Kaderli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mentorship has been found as a key factor for a successful and satisfying career in academic medicine and surgery. The present study was conducted to describe the current situation of mentoring in the surgical community in Switzerland and to evaluate sex differences regarding the impact of mentoring on career success and professional satisfaction. Methods: The study was designed as an anonymous national survey to all members of the Swiss Surgical Society in 2011 (820 ordinary and 49 junior members. It was a 25-item questionnaire addressing mentor–mentee relationships and their impact on the professional front. Results: Of the 869 mailed surveys, 512 responses were received (response rate: 58.9%. Mentor–mentee relationships were reported by 344 respondents (68.1% and structured mentoring programs were noted in 23 respondents (6.7%. Compared to individuals without mentors, male mentees exhibited significantly higher subjective career advancement (5.4±1.2 vs. 5.0±1.3; p=0.03 and career development (3.3±1.9 vs. 2.5±1.7; p<0.01 scores, but the differences for female mentees were not statistically significant (4.7±1.1 vs. 4.3±1.2, p=0.16; 2.5±1.6 vs. 1.9±1.4, p=0.26; respectively. The pursuit of an academic career was not influenced by the presence of a mentor–mentee relationship for female (p=0.14 or male participants (p=0.22. Conclusions: Mentor–mentee relationships are important for the career advancement of male surgeons. The reason for the lack of an impact on the careers of female surgeons is difficult to ascertain. However, mentoring also provides lifelong learning and personal development. Thus, specific attention should be paid to the development of more structured mentoring programs for both sexes.

  17. The industrial waste landfill of Bonfol (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, C.G.; Bentz, R. [Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc., Basel (Switzerland); Fischer, M.; Huerzeler, R.A.; Matter, B.; Munz, C.D.

    2003-07-01

    The landfill for industrial waste in Bonfol (Switzerland) was installed in 1961 in an waterproof clay pit and was run until 1976 by the bci, the Basel chemical industry, to dispose off their industrial waste originating from chemical production. For the first time in Europe chemical wastes were deposited in a special area selected according to geological criteria. Groundwater and surface waters have been continuously supervised since the beginning of the activities in Bonfol in 1961. After the landfill was totally filled up, it was covered by a clay layer. In the years 1980/81 the monitoring program discovered that the cover of the landfill was leaking and that the pit was slowly filled up with water. Some exfiltrations resulted. It was important to overcome the critical situation by the implementation of immediate measures, e.g. pumping and removal of leachate. Different remediation options were studied at that time, among other the excavation and final disposal of the contents of the landfill. On October 17, 2000 a voluntary agreement between the authorities and bci ws signed. On May 15, 2001, bci presented the result of the study of remedial options. Excavation / incineration in European incinerators or in-situ vitrification, with a suboption excavation/on-site vitrification, were seen as the most promising ones. At the end of 2001 the option of the in-situ vitrification was dropped because of the resulting public and political resistance towards this technology. The remaining options are being evaluated thoroughly at the moment to prepare the basis for a decision on the clean-up project. (orig.)

  18. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment of Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in responsible to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lines concrete vault, replacing and existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. New scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation

  19. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (central off-gas scrubber facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lined concrete vault, replacing an existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. Ne scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation. A formal design certification statement is included herein on Page 53, a certification covering the installation shall be executed prior to placing the modified facility into service

  20. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  1. Central New York's New Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for an Urban Future, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Conducted in late 2008 in partnership with the Greater Syracuse Chamber of Commerce and the Mohawk Valley Chamber of Commerce, this is the largest survey ever taken of Central New York businesses regarding the English language skills of the area workforce. The online survey was emailed to several hundred local businesses; 126 responses were…

  2. Managed care in Germany and Switzerland. Two approaches to a common problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, P

    1998-01-01

    The point of departure for this contribution is a problem common to all Western healthcare systems, namely the deficiency of their basic building block, the physician-patient relationship. This deficiency opens up a market for complementary agents in healthcare, ranging from medical associations to the central government. While Germany has traditionally put the emphasis on medical associations as the dominant complementary agent (DCA), it is shifting towards the central government. Switzerland, on the other hand, traditionally has relied on the cantonal governments and is now moving towards competing (quasi-) private health insurers that would function as DCAs. Thus, managed care, which is a means through which to reshape the physician-patient relationship, is used quite differently in the 2 countries, with differing expected outcomes and different consequences for the pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: Clarifying Liberties and Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A; Mauron, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Assisting suicide is legal in Switzerland if it is offered without selfish motive to a person with decision-making capacity. Although the 'Swiss model' for suicide assistance has been extensively described in the literature, the formally and informally protected liberties and claims of assistors and recipients of suicide assistance in Switzerland are incompletely captured in the literature. In this article, we describe the package of rights involved in the 'Swiss model' using the framework of Hohfeldian rights as modified by Wenar. After outlining this framework, we dissect the rights involved in suicide assistance in Switzerland, and compare it with the situation in England and Germany. Based on this approach, we conclude that in Switzerland, claim rights exist for those requesting suicide assistance, and for those who are considering providing such assistance, even though no entitlements exist toward suicide assistance. We then describe the implementation of the 'Swiss model' and difficulties arising within it. Clarifying these issues is important to understand the Swiss situation, to evaluate what features of it may or may not be worth correcting or emulating, and to understand how it can impact requests for suicide assistance in other countries due to 'suicide tourism'. It is also important to understand exactly what sets Switzerland apart from other countries with different legislations regarding suicide assistance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Fair and efficient prices in traffic. Propositions on price policy for the sustainable development of traffic in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibach, M.; Ott, W.; Schreyer, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Fair and efficient prices are a central topic in traffic policy, both at the EU level and in Switzerland. They should allow the efficient use of the infrastructure, set up fair terms of competition between road and rail traffic and reduce traffic loading. At the same time, they should also make it possible to finance traffic in a sustainable manner. One of the main directions of attack is letting those responsible pay the external costs which result from traffic jams, accidents and environmental pollution. With the planned introduction of the usage-dependent heavy traffic levy, Switzerland has made an important step in the direction of true cost-allocation for goods vehicles. As for the rest of road traffic, however, considerable external costs are still not covered. On the other hand, rail traffic is not able to cover its infrastructure costs itself in spite of compensation it receives for the provision of public services

  5. Fair and efficient prices in traffic. Propositions on price policy for the sustainable development of traffic in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibach, M.; Ott, W.; Schreyer, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    Fair and efficient prices are a central topic in traffic policy, both at the European Union level and in Switzerland. They should allow the efficient use of the infrastructure, set up fair terms of competition between road and rail traffic and reduce traffic loading. At the same time, they should also make it possible to finance traffic in a sustainable manner. One of the main directions of attack is letting those responsible pay the external costs which result from traffic jams, accidents and environmental pollution. With the planned introduction of the usage-dependent heavy traffic levy, Switzerland has made an important step in the direction of true cost-allocation for goods vehicles. As for the rest of road traffic, however, considerable external costs are still not covered. On the other hand, rail traffic is not able to cover its infrastructure costs itself in spite of compensation it receives for the provision of public services [de

  6. Monthly forecasting of agricultural pests in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Samietz, J.; Calanca, P.; Weigel, A. P.; Fischer, A. M.; Rotach, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    Given the repercussions of pests and diseases on agricultural production, detailed forecasting tools have been developed to simulate the degree of infestation depending on actual weather conditions. The life cycle of pests is most successfully predicted if the micro-climate of the immediate environment (habitat) of the causative organisms can be simulated. Sub-seasonal pest forecasts therefore require weather information for the relevant habitats and the appropriate time scale. The pest forecasting system SOPRA (www.sopra.info) currently in operation in Switzerland relies on such detailed weather information, using hourly weather observations up to the day the forecast is issued, but only a climatology for the forecasting period. Here, we aim at improving the skill of SOPRA forecasts by transforming the weekly information provided by ECMWF monthly forecasts (MOFCs) into hourly weather series as required for the prediction of upcoming life phases of the codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. Due to the probabilistic nature of operational monthly forecasts and the limited spatial and temporal resolution, their information needs to be post-processed for use in a pest model. In this study, we developed a statistical downscaling approach for MOFCs that includes the following steps: (i) application of a stochastic weather generator to generate a large pool of daily weather series consistent with the climate at a specific location, (ii) a subsequent re-sampling of weather series from this pool to optimally represent the evolution of the weekly MOFC anomalies, and (iii) a final extension to hourly weather series suitable for the pest forecasting model. Results show a clear improvement in the forecast skill of occurrences of upcoming codling moth life phases when incorporating MOFCs as compared to the operational pest forecasting system. This is true both in terms of root mean squared errors and of the continuous rank probability scores of the

  7. Bioindication in Urban Soils in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amossé, J.; Le Bayon, C.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Gobat, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Urban development leads to profound changes in ecosystem structure (e.g. biodiversity) and functioning (e.g. ecosystem services). While above-ground diversity is reasonably well studied much less is known about soil diversity, soil processes and more generally soil health in urban settings. Soil invertebrates are key actors of soil processes at different spatial and temporal scales and provide essential ecosystem services. These functions may be even more vital in stressed environments such as urban ecosystems. Despite the general recognition of the importance of soil organisms in ecosystems, soil trophic food webs are still poorly known and this is especially the case in urban settings. As urban soils are characterised by high fragmentation and stress (e.g. drought, pollution) the structure and functioning of soil communities is likely to be markedly different from that of natural soils. It is for example unclear if earthworms, whose roles in organic matter transformation and soil structuration is well documented in natural and semi-natural soils, are also widespread and active in urban soils. Bioindication is a powerful tool to assess the quality of the environment. It is complementary to classical physicochemical soil analysis or can be used as sole diagnostic tool in cases where these analyses cannot be performed. However little is known about the potential use of bioindicators in urban settings and especially it is unclear if methods developped in agriculture can be applied to urban soils. The development of reliable methods for assessing the quality of urban soils has been identified as a priority for policy making and urban management in Switzerland, a high-urbanized country. We therefore initiated a research project (Bioindication in Urban Soil - BUS). The project is organised around four parts: (i) typology of urban soils in a study Region (Neuchâtel), (ii) sampling of soil fauna and analysis of soil physicochemical properties, (iii) comparison of the

  8. Hydrogeological, hydrochemical and isotope-hydrological investigations of surface and crevice waters in the Grimsel area (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, A.

    1995-12-01

    The Grimsel rock laboratory (Hasli valley, Berner Oberland, Switzerland) has been used since 1984 by NAGRA (Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle, Wettingen, Switzerland). It is about 450 metres deep under the Juchli ridge in the crystalline rock basement of the Aar massif. Within the framework of an international cooperation, a great many research topics in connection with the underground storage of radioactive waste are being studied at this location. Their focus is, inter alia, on the following: hydrogeological investigations of crevice water movement, investigations of geophysical structures and rock tension measurements, migration of radionuclides in an individual crevice. So far, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical conditions have only been studied as far as they related to the needs of individual investigations, and systematic information on global waterways in the Juchli basement was scarce. By contrast, this work aimed at the chemical characterization of surface and spring waters in the catchment area of the rock laboratory as well as the crevice waters in the day-drift system, the description of the chemical development of the waters during their passage through the crevice system, and the assessment of the mean underground retention time of crevice waters by means of different stable and radioactive isotopes. In addition, hydrogeological mapping of the system of waters above ground and crevice water accesses underground was carried out. (orig./SR) [de

  9. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  10. Fuel management for the Beznau nuclear power plant in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Beznau nuclear power plant consists of two 350 MW(e) PWRs of Westinghouse design. A number of special features characterize the nuclear industry in Switzerland: there is no fuel cycle industry; nuclear materials must be moved through several countries before they arrive in our country, it is therefore important that agreements are in place between those countries and Switzerland; nearly all of the materials and services required have to be paid in foreign currencies; the interest rate in Switzerland is traditionally low. Aspects of fuel management at the Beznau plant discussed against this background are: the procurement of natural uranium, its conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication, in-core management, reprocessing and plutonium recycling; and fuel cycle costs. (author)

  11. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  12. Venture Capital Investment in the Life Sciences in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosang, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Innovation is one of the main driving factors for continuous and healthy economic growth and welfare. Switzerland as a resource-poor country is particularly dependent on innovation, and the life sciences, which comprise biotechnologies, (bio)pharmaceuticals, medical technologies and diagnostics, are one of the key areas of innovative strength of Switzerland. Venture capital financing and venture capitalists (frequently called 'VCs') and investors in public equities have played and still play a pivotal role in financing the Swiss biotechnology industry. In the following some general features of venture capital investment in life sciences as well as some opportunities and challenges which venture capital investors in Switzerland are facing are highlighted. In addition certain means to counteract these challenges including the 'Zukunftsfonds Schweiz' are discussed.

  13. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P

    2005-03-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  14. The Valley without Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    Describes cooperative campaign by central Chilean farmers to reduce use of dangerous chemicals. Describes cooperative's rural extension program targeting misuse of pesticides. Describes concern of chemical danger to local and foreign consumers. Cooperative's effort described as balancing short-term economic gains with long-term health and…

  15. Electricity and gas market in Switzerland - concepts and rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, A.

    2003-01-01

    The political process to introduce the opening of the market in Switzerland is slow, but in movement. The preparation allows to participate in the experience of other countries and to adapt the system to the particularities of the industries and the country. The principle of subsidiarity allows the utilities to organise the technical and organisational realisation and to keep the legal rules to a minimum. The high technical integration in the European interconnection network asks for an EU compatible, but not identical, system in Switzerland.(author)

  16. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M.; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano; Hunt, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO 2 -tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  17. State of the nuclear waste management in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerzeler, P.

    1988-01-01

    A deficiency in the realization of repositories in Switzerland is not a deficiency due to lack of knowledge or responsibility, even if not solely an execution deficiency. Our mode of legislation, i.e. laws, should be made with due consideration of citizen rights so that forthcoming tasks can be solved within a reasonable period. The energy policy is being presently reviewed in Switzerland and the renewal of the nuclear energy legislation is imminent. Let us contribute to the retention of nuclear energy as an alternative also the aspect of waste management. 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION FUNCTIONING PATTERNS OF TOURISM SPHERE SPECIALISTS IN SWITZERLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Закордонець

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Functioning patterns of postgraduate education of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been established. The competences of tourism sphere specialist, the formation of which programs of postgraduate education are focused on have been considered. The benefits of educational qualification of Masters in Business Administration with a major specialization in tourism have been outlined. The characteristics of the core curriculum of the Doctor of Management of leading universities in the field of tourism education have been determined. The performance criteria of postgraduate education system functioning of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been revealed.

  19. CENSUS OF THE POPULATION, BUILDINGS AND HOUSING IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relation with the Host States Service; Tel. 72848

    2000-01-01

    A census of the population, buildings and housing is to be conducted on the whole territory of the Swiss Confederation on 5 December 2000. For this purpose, those residing in Switzerland will receive a personal questionnaire at their place of residence plus a questionnaire on buildings and housing if they own real estate in Switzerland. The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva has requested CERN to invite members of its personnel to complete these questionnaires and either to hand them to the census agents when they call at their places of residence on 5 December 2000 or to post them to the address indicated on the questionnaire.

  20. Nuclear phase-out in Switzerland. Rationality first

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Just a few months ago, the Swiss voters have rejected the initiative of the Green Party to accelerate the nuclear phase-out in Switzerland with an impressive majority. Once again, it becomes clear that in Switzerland on issues of energy policy rationality and not ideology is leading. With their vote against an accelerated nuclear phase-out, the Swiss citizens underlined that they have no sympathy for radical, ideologically proposals for solutions, which on closer inspection are expensive, risky and immature. The majority has understood that the extensive expansion of renewable energies and power grids is burdened with numerous risks and uncertainties.

  1. Implementation of the BDFGEOTHERM Database (Geothermal Fluids in Switzerland) on Google Earth - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonney, R.; Vuataz, F.-D.; Cattin, S.

    2008-12-15

    The database BDFGeotherm compiled in 2007 on ACCESS code was modified to improve its availability and attractivity by using Google Earth free software and the CREGE web site. This database allows gathering existing geothermal data, generally widely dispersed and often difficult to reach, towards a user's friendly tool. Downloading the file 'BDFGeotherm.kmz' from the CREGE web site makes possible to visualize a total of 84 geothermal sites from Switzerland and neighbouring areas. Each one is represented with a pinpoint of different colour, for different temperature ranges. A large majority of sites is located in the northern part of the Jura Mountain and in the upper Rhone Valley. General information about water use, geology, flow rate, temperature and mineralization are given in a small window by clicking on the desired pinpoint. Moreover, two links to an Internet address are available for each site in each window, allowing returning to the CREGE web site and providing more details on each sampling point such as: geographical description, reservoir geology, hydraulics, hydrochemistry, isotopes and geothermal parameters. For a limited number of sites, photos and a geological log can be viewed and exported. (author)

  2. Hydrogeological reconnaissance study: Dyfi Valley, Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendining, S.J.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes work carried out for the Department of the Environment as part of its research programme into radioactive waste management. It presents an account of a hydrogeological reconnaissance study in the Dyfi Valley area of Central Wales. Initially the purposes of such a study are given and the assumptions used in deriving parameters such as flow volume, path length and transit time in areas of massive fractured rocks are described. Using these assumptions with geological, topographic and hydrometeorological data the potential ranges in properties such as bulk hydraulic conductivity, path lengths, hydraulic gradients and volumes of groundwater flow have been determined. These ranges have been used to estimate solute transport model parameters. The limitations and usefulness of the reconnaissance study in planning research and siting exploratory boreholes in the Dyfi area are discussed. (author)

  3. A new primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches (Middle Eocene, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Becker, Damien; Costeur, Loïc

    2017-12-01

    Primates reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, favored by warm temperatures and by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Here we describe new primate material from La Verrerie de Roches, a Middle Eocene karstic infill situated in the Jura Region (Switzerland), consisting of more than 80 dental remains. The primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches includes five different taxa. The best represented primate is Necrolemur aff. anadoni, similar in size and overall morphology to Necrolemur anadoni but resembling in some features the younger species Necrolemur antiquus. Microchoerines are also represented by two species of Pseudoloris, P. pyrenaicus and Pseudoloris parvulus, constituting the unique joint record of these two species known up to now. Remains of Adapiformes are limited to one isolated tooth of a large anchomomyin and another tooth belonging to the small adapine Microadapis cf. sciureus. The studied primate association allows assigning La Verrerie de Roches to the Robiacian Land Mammal Age. More specifically, this site can be confidently situated between the MP15 and MP16 reference levels, although the primate assemblage probably indicates some degree of temporal mixing. This is the first record of P. pyrenaicus and a form closely related to N. anadoni out of the Iberian Peninsula. The identification of these microchoerines in Switzerland gives further support to the connection of NE Spain and Central Europe during the Middle Eocene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. First results with the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.; Frei, C.

    2000-01-01

    The GEM-E3 model has been implemented and applied for Switzerland. It has been in particular used to assess an ecological tax reform in Switzerland. Results of this analysis are presented here. (author)

  5. A first attempt to derive soil erosion rates from 137Cs airborne gamma measurements in two Alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bucher, Benno; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers is currently one of the most promising and effective approach for evaluating soil erosion magnitudes in mountainous grasslands. Conventional assessment or measurement methods are laborious and constrained by the topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. The 137Cs (half-life = 30.2 years) is the most frequently used FRN to study soil redistribution. However the application of 137Cs in alpine grasslands is compromised by the high heterogeneity of the fallout due to the origin of 137Cs fallout in the Alps, which is linked to single rain events occurring just after the Chernobyl accident when most of the Alpine soils were still covered by snow. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the 137Cs distribution in two study areas in the Central Swiss Alps: the Ursern valley (Canton Uri), and the Piora valley (Canton Ticino). In June 2015, a helicopter equipped with a NaI gamma detector flew over the two study sites and screened the 137Cs activity of the top soil. The use of airborne gamma measurements is particularly efficient in case of higher 137Cs concentration in the soil. Due to their high altitude and high precipitation rates, the Swiss Alps are expected to be more contaminated by 137Cs fallout than other parts of Switzerland. The airborne gamma measurements have been related to several key parameters which characterize the areas, such as soil properties, slopes, expositions and land uses. The ground truthing of the airborne measurements (i.e. the 137Cs laboratory measurements of the soil samples collected at the same points) returned a good fit. The obtained results offer an overview of the 137Cs concentration in the study areas, which allowed us to identify suitable reference sites, and to analyse the relationship between the 137Cs distribution and the above cited parameters. The authors also derived a preliminary qualitative and a quantitative assessment of soil redistribution

  6. Radon - how Switzerland does react to the potential danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piller, G.; Horvath, S.

    2005-01-01

    First of all, the Radon investigations in Switzerland are dealt with as a basis for praxis oriented regulations. Then the establishment of limit and guiding values as well as measures for protection of concerned people are discussed and the present state is given. (orig.)

  7. Sociodemographic and Behavioural Determinants of a Healthy Diet in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Guessous, Idris

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of a healthy diet have not been studied in Switzerland. This study aimed at assessing the individual and behavioural factors associated with a healthy diet in a Swiss city. Cross-sectional, population-based study conducted between 2009 and 2013 (n = 4,439, 2,383 women, mean age 57.5 ± 10.3 years) in Lausanne. Food consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Two Mediterranean diet scores (classic score and specific for Switzerland) and the Harvard School of Public Health alternate healthy eating index were computed. For all three dietary scores considered, living in couple or having a high education were associated with a healthier diet. An unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, sedentary behaviour) or a high body mass index were associated with an unhealthier diet. Participants born in Italy, Portugal and Spain had healthier diets than participants born in France or Switzerland. Women and elderly participants had healthier diets than men and young participants according to 2 scores, while no differences were found for the Swiss-specific Mediterranean score. In Switzerland, healthy eating is associated with high education, a healthy lifestyle, marital status and country of origin. The associations with gender and age depend on the dietary score considered. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. From the history of radiation protection in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poretti, G.

    1991-01-01

    The first part of this contribution describes the development of medical radiation protection in Switzerland, grouped into X-ray diagnostics, radiation therapy, and nuclear medicine. The second part gives a detailed chronology of Swiss radiation protection for nuclear engineering and industry, laws and regulations, authorities and government institutions, and unions and societies. (orig.) [de

  9. Determinants of sheep and goat meat consumption in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aepli, M.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the

  10. Indications of neotectonic crust motion in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldimann, P.

    1987-01-01

    Indications of possible Pleistocene and Holocene tectonic activity in northern Switzerland have been found by an analysis of irregular erosional forms in the subcrop, abnormal gradients of accumulative gravel terraces and particular developments of the river course. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. One health in Switzerland: a visionary concept at a crossroads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisser, Andrea; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2011-05-13

    One Health stands for the health of humans, animals and the environment. There is only one health in our entire ecosystem, and the equation for its promotion is in interdisciplinary cooperation. One Health benefits from synergies to generate added value and is a promising strategy to strengthen health systems. A growing number of One Health conferences worldwide bear witness to a spirit of optimism which should result in the implementation of a sustainable One Health policy globally, regionally, nationally and locally. The purpose of this study was to investigate the opportunities for implementation of the One Health concept in Switzerland. Between April and August 2010, semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 key experts selected from among the leading personalities in the Swiss health system. The experts confirmed the potential of the One Health concept for Switzerland. Barriers such as cultural differences, absence of evidence, federal structures and a relatively low degree of suffering were identified and a road map established, including research activities, capacity-building and a stakeholder approach to joint preparation and tailored implementation of the One Health concept in Switzerland. These data suggest that One Health can support the opinion leaders in their quest for solutions. The detailed and unbiased description of potential barriers and a clear guide for a step-by-step action plan represent suggestions for a realistic way forward. Experience gained and lessons learnt in Switzerland may be of interest to other countries and help communicate and promote the One Health concept.

  12. Comparative Studies of Spinal Celes in Switzerland, Jamaica, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Methods and Materials: From 1975 to 2008,17 spinal celes (including 2 meningoceles) were routinely repaired in Imo and Ebonyi States of Nigeria, and 5 in Jamaica,the West Indies; none in Basel, Switzerland. All 20 meningomyeloceles were incontinent of urine and faeces, had severe paraparesis to paraplegia, ...

  13. Healthcare quality management in Switzerland--a survey among providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderli, Reto; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Businger, Adrian P

    2012-04-27

    In the last decade assessing the quality of healthcare has become increasingly important across the world. Switzerland lacks a detailed overview of how quality management is implemented and of its effects on medical procedures and patients' concerns. This study aimed to examine the systematics of quality management in Switzerland by assessing the providers and collected parameters of current quality initiatives. In summer 2011 we contacted all of the medical societies in Switzerland, the Federal Office of Public Health, the Swiss Medical Association (FMH) and the head of Swiss medical insurance providers, to obtain detailed information on current quality initiatives. All quality initiatives featuring standardised parameter assessment were included. Of the current 45 initiatives, 19 were powered by medical societies, five by hospitals, 11 by non-medical societies, two by the government, two by insurance companies or related institutions and six by unspecified institutions. In all, 24 medical registers, five seals of quality, five circles of quality, two self-assessment tools, seven superior entities, one checklist and one combined project existed. The cost of treatment was evaluated by four initiatives. A data report was released by 24 quality initiatives. The wide variety and the large number of 45 recorded quality initiatives provides a promising basis for effective healthcare quality management in Switzerland. However, an independent national supervisory authority should be appointed to provide an effective review of all quality initiatives and their transparency and coordination.

  14. Monitoring and control of occupational radiation exposure in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, M.

    1997-01-01

    Occupational exposure is the most prominent example for the prolonged exposure to low level ionizing radiation characterized by low doses and dose rates. In this paper the occupational exposure in Switzerland is presented and the regulatory control of this exposure in the framework of the new radiation protection regulations is discussed. (author)

  15. The importance of nuclear power to energy supply in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of nuclear power is a matter of dispute also in Switzerland. The first opposition to plans for the Kaiseraugst nuclear power station near Basel sprang up in the seventies. In Switzerland, referenda are a popular expression of political disputes. On a federal level, a total of six referenda have been conducted about nuclear power since 1979. As a rule, antinuclear projects were rejected by a slim majority, except for the 1990 moratorium initiative. As a consequence, there was a ten-year ban on the construction of new nuclear power plants. Despite efforts by many parties it was not possible to develop a general consensus on an energy supply strategy. Because of the considerable importance to the power economy, and the economy at large, of nuclear power in Switzerland, where the five nuclear power plants in operation generate approx. 38% of the country's electricity, while 58% is produced in hydroelectric plants, a new Nuclear Power Act was adopted by Parliament in late February 2001. It constitutes the framework for the continued safe operation of nuclear power plants, keeps the nuclear option open for future planning, and handles spent fuel and waste management, final storage, and decommissioning. Also possible international solutions of final storage outside of Switzerland are taken into account. In this way, the Swiss government and parliament have advocated the continued use of nuclear power as one element of energy supply. (orig.) [de

  16. "Ich kam unter die Schweizer": Teaching Switzerland as a Multi-Ethnic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Karin

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a five-week module on "Switzerland as a multi-ethnic society" intended to counteract the popular image of Switzerland as a homogenous country concerned mostly with tourism, chocolate, and watches. Instead, the module treats Switzerland through topics such as the definition of identity in a multi-ethnic society, the…

  17. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  18. Excess mortality during the warm summer of 2015 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Ragettli, Martina S; Schindler, Christian; Röösli, Martin

    2016