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Sample records for validation irradiation experiment

  1. Ensemble of cell survival experiments after ion irradiation for validation of RBE models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Thomas; Scholz, Uwe; Scholz, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    There is persistent interest in understanding the systematics of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Models such as the Local Effect Model (LEM) or the Microdosimetric Kinetic Model have the goal to predict the RBE. For the validation of these models a collection of many in-vitro cell survival experiments is most appropriate. The set-up of an ensemble of in-vitro cell survival data comprising about 850 survival experiments after both ion and photon irradiation is reported. The survival curves have been taken out from publications. The experiments encompass survival curves obtained in different labs, using different ion species from protons to uranium, varying irradiation modalities (shaped or monoenergetic beam), various energies and linear energy transfers, and a whole variety of cell types (human or rodent; normal, mutagenic or tumor; radioresistant or -sensitive). Each cell survival curve has been parameterized by the linear-quadratic model. The photon parameters have been added to the data base to allow to calculate the experimental RBE to any survival level. We report on experimental trends found within the data ensemble. The data will serve as a testing ground for RBE models such as the LEM. Finally, a roadmap for further validation and first model results using the data base in combination with the LEM are presented.

  2. Validation of gamma irradiator controls for quality and regulatory compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, R.B.; Pinteric, F.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1978 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has had both the legal authority and the Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP) regulations in place to require irradiator owners who process medical devices to produce evidence of Irradiation Process Validation. One of the key components of Irradiation Process Validation is the validation of the irradiator controls. However, it is only recently that FDA audits have focused on this component of the process validation. What is Irradiator Control System Validation? What constitutes evidence of control? How do owners obtain evidence? What is the irradiator supplier's role in validation? How does the ISO 9000 Quality Standard relate to the FDA's CGMP requirement for evidence of Control System Validation? This paper presents answers to these questions based on the recent experiences of Nordion's engineering and product management staff who have worked with several US-based irradiator owners. This topic - Validation of Irradiator Controls - is a significant regulatory compliance and operations issues within the irradiator suppliers' and users' community. (author)

  3. Uranium and thorium loadings determined by chemical and nondestructive methods in HTGR fuel rods for the Fort St. Vrain Early Validation Irradiation Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Rushton, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Fort St. Vrain Early Validation Irradiation Experiment is an irradiation test of reference and of improved High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuels in the Fort St. Vrain Reactor. The irradiation test includes fuel rods fabricated at ORNL on an engineering scale fuel rod molding machine. Fuel rods were nondestructively assayed for 235 U content by a technique based on the detection of prompt-fission neutrons induced by thermal-neutron interrogation and were later chemically assayed by using the modified Davies Gray potentiometric titration method. The chemical analysis of the thorium content was determined by a volumetric titration method. The chemical assay method for uranium was evaluated and the results from the as-molded fuel rods agree with those from: (1) large samples of Triso-coated fissile particles, (2) physical mixtures of the three particle types, and (3) standard solutions to within 0.05%. Standard fuel rods were fabricated in order to evaluate and calibrate the nondestructive assay device. The agreement of the results from calibration methods was within 0.6%. The precision of the nondestructive assay device was established as approximately 0.6% by repeated measurements of standard rods. The precision was comparable to that estimated by Poisson statistics. A relative difference of 0.77 to 1.5% was found between the nondestructive and chemical determinations on the reactor grade fuel rods

  4. Validation of gamma irradiator controls for quality and regulatory compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, R.B.; Pinteric, F.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1978 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has had both the legal authority and the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations in progress to require irradiator owners who process medical devices to produce evidence of Irradiation Process Validation. One of the key components of Irradiation Process Validation is the validation of the irradiator controls. However it is only recently that FDA audits have focussed on this component of the process validation. (author)

  5. Irradiated food: validity of extrapolating wholesomeness data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taub, I.A.; Angelini, P.; Merritt, C. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Criteria are considered for validly extrapolating the conclusions reached on the wholesomeness of an irradiated food receiving high doses to the same food receiving a lower dose. A consideration first is made of the possible chemical mechanisms that could give rise to different functional dependences of radiolytic products on dose. It is shown that such products should increase linearly with dose and the ratio of products should be constant throughout the dose range considered. The assumption, generally accepted in pharmacology, then is made that if any adverse effects related to the food are discerned in the test animals, then the intensity of these effects would increase with the concentration of radiolytic products in the food. Lastly, the need to compare data from animal studies with foods irradiated to several doses against chemical evidence obtained over a comparable dose range is considered. It is concluded that if the products depend linearly on dose and if feeding studies indicate no adverse effects, then an extrapolation to lower doses is clearly valid. This approach is illustrated for irradiated codfish. The formation of selected volatile products in samples receiving between 0.1 and 3 Mrads was examined, and their concentrations were found to increase linearly at least up to 1 Mrad. These data were compared with results from animal feeding studies establishing the wholesomeness of codfish and haddock irradiated to 0.2, 0.6 and 2.8 Mrads. It is stated, therefore, that if ocean fish, currently under consideration for onboard processing, were irradiated to 0.1 Mrad, it would be correspondingly wholesome

  6. Overview of MIT, ADIP irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohse, G.; Harling, O.K.; Grant, N.J.

    1985-06-01

    Various rapidly solidified austenitic, ferritic and copper alloys have been produced at MIT for inclusion in ADIP neutron irradiation experiments. A brief summary of the alloys and their preparation and the achieved or projected irradiation parameters is provided

  7. Schedule and status of irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Robertson, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of reactor irradiation experiments is presented in tables summarizing the experimental objectives, conditions, and schedule. Currently, the program has four irradiation experiments in reactor, and five experiments in the design or construction stages. Postirradiation examination and testing is in progress on ten experiments

  8. Validation of a continuous-energy Monte Carlo burn-up code MVP-BURN and its application to analysis of post irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Kaneko, Kunio

    2000-01-01

    In order to confirm the reliability of a continuous-energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code MVP-BURN, it was applied to the burn-up benchmark problems for a high conversion LWR lattice and a BWR lattice with burnable poison rods. The results of MVP-BURN have shown good agreements with those of a deterministic code SRAC95 for burn-up changes of infinite neutron multiplication factor, conversion ratio, power distribution, and number densities of major fuel nuclides. Serious propagation of statistical errors along burn-up was not observed even in a highly heterogeneous lattice. MVP-BURN was applied to the analysis of a post irradiation experiment for a sample fuel irradiated up to 34.1 GWd/t, together with SRAC95 and SWAT. It was confirmed that the effect of statistical errors of MVP-BURN on a burned fuel composition was sufficiently small, and it could give a reference solution for other codes. In the analysis, the results of the three codes with JENDL-3.2 agreed with measured values within an error of 10% for most nuclides. However, large underestimation by about 20% was observed for 238 Pu, 242m Am and 244 Cm. It is probable that these discrepancies are a common problem for most current nuclear data files. (author)

  9. Fuel irradiation experience at Halden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanza, Carlo

    1996-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project is an international organisation devoted to improved safety and reliability of nuclear power station through an user-oriented experimental programme. A significant part of this programme consists of studies addressing fuel performance issues in a range of conditions realised in specialised irradiation. The key element of the irradiation carried out in the Halden reactor is the ability to monitor fuel performance parameters by means of in-pile instrumentation. The paper reviews some of the irradiation rigs and the related instrumentation and provides examples of experimental results on selected fuel performance items. In particular, current irradiation conducted on high/very high burn-up fuels are reviewed in some detail

  10. A Retailer's Experience with Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James P. Corrigan

    2000-01-01

    A food irradiation success story comes from Northbrook, Illinois, where Carrot Top, Inc., has been routinely carrying irradiated food for more than 7 yr. This paper presents the experiences of Carrot Top during those years, details the marketing approaches used, and summarizes the resulting sales figures

  11. Some general requirements for irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, H P; Skjoeldebrand, R

    1960-05-15

    This paper is limited to the interests of the EAES-symposium, namely the use of reactors for materials research and testing, for convenience we exclude consideration of chemical effects and problems of coolant technology. Its purpose is to try to define the general requirements for irradiation experiments and the reactors housing them; to see what facilities for irradiation experiments are available within the European Atomic Energy Society countries and finally, to point out possible limitations of these facilities.

  12. Emulation of neutron irradiation effects with protons: validation of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Was, G.S.; Busby, J.T.; Allen, T.; Kenik, E.A.; Jensson, A.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Edwards, A.D.; Scott, P.M.; Andreson, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    denuded zones were only observed in neutron-irradiated samples. No cavities were observed for either irradiating particle. For both irradiating particles, hardening increased with dose for both heats, showing a more rapid increase and approach to saturation for heat B. In normal oxygenated water chemistry (NWC) at 288 deg. C, stress corrosion cracking in the 304 alloy was first observed at about 1.0 dpa and increased with dose. The 316 alloy was remarkably resistant to IASCC for both particle types. In hydrogen treated, de-oxygenated water (HWC), proton-irradiated samples of the 304 alloy exhibited IG cracking at 1.0 dpa compared to about 3.0 dpa for neutron-irradiated samples, although differences in specimen geometry, test condition and test duration can account for this difference. Cracking in heat P in HWC occurred at about 5.0 dpa for both irradiating particles. Thus, in all aspects of radiation effects, including grain boundary microchemistry, dislocation loop microstructure, radiation hardening and SCC behavior, proton-irradiation results were in good agreement with neutron-irradiation results, providing validation of the premise that the totality of neutron-irradiation effects can be emulated by proton irradiation of appropriate energy

  13. Challenges in validating radiation sterilization with low energy electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.; Helt-Hansen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Low energy electron irradiation (80-300 keV) is used increasingly for sterilization or decontamination in connection with isolators for aseptic filling lines in the pharmaceutical industry. It is not defined how validation for this process shall be carried out. A method can be derived from the medical device standard for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137, because the principles described in this standard can be applied to almost any industrial irradiation process. The validations elements are: Process definition, concerning specification of the dose required for the process and the maximum acceptable dose for the product. Installation qualification, concerning acceptance the irradiation facility. Operational qualification, concerning characterization of the facility. Performance qualification, concerning setting up the process. Process control, concerning routine monitoring. The limited penetration of the low energy electrons leads to problems with respect to executing these validation steps. This paper discusses these problems, and shows with examples how they can be solved.

  14. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic’s Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  15. Operating experience with gamma ray irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, F.M.; Ouwerkerk, T.

    1980-01-01

    The experience of Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL) with radioisotopes dates back to the mid-1940s when radium was marketed for medical purposes. Cobalt-60 came on the scene in 1949 and within a few years a thriving business in cancer teletherapy machines and research irradiators was developed. AECL's first full-scale cobalt-60 gamma ray sterilizer for medical products was installed in 1964. AECL now has over 50 plants and 30 million curies in service around the world. Sixteen years of design experience in cobalt-60 sources, radiation shielding, safety interlock systems, and source pass mechanisms have made gamma irradiators safe, reliable, and easy to operate. This proven technology is being applied in promising new fields such as sludge treatment and food preservation. Cesium-137 is expected to be extensively utilized as the gamma radiation source for these applications

  16. Advanced Reactor Fuels Irradiation Experiment Design Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean; Hayes, Steven Lowe; Dempsey, Douglas; Harp, Jason Michael

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the objectives of the current irradiation testing activities being undertaken by the Advanced Fuels Campaign relative to supporting the development and demonstration of innovative design features for metallic fuels in order to realize reliable performance to ultra-high burnups. The AFC-3 and AFC-4 test series are nearing completion; the experiments in this test series that have been completed or are in progress are reviewed and the objectives and test matrices for the final experiments in these two series are defined. The objectives, testing strategy, and test parameters associated with a future AFC test series, AFC-5, are documented. Finally, the future intersections and/or synergies of the AFC irradiation testing program with those of the TREAT transient testing program, emerging needs of proposed Versatile Test Reactor concepts, and the Joint Fuel Cycle Study program’s Integrated Recycle Test are discussed.

  17. Advanced Reactor Fuels Irradiation Experiment Design Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hayes, Steven Lowe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dempsey, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes the objectives of the current irradiation testing activities being undertaken by the Advanced Fuels Campaign relative to supporting the development and demonstration of innovative design features for metallic fuels in order to realize reliable performance to ultra-high burnups. The AFC-3 and AFC-4 test series are nearing completion; the experiments in this test series that have been completed or are in progress are reviewed and the objectives and test matrices for the final experiments in these two series are defined. The objectives, testing strategy, and test parameters associated with a future AFC test series, AFC-5, are documented. Finally, the future intersections and/or synergies of the AFC irradiation testing program with those of the TREAT transient testing program, emerging needs of proposed Versatile Test Reactor concepts, and the Joint Fuel Cycle Study program’s Integrated Recycle Test are discussed.

  18. CFD validation experiments for hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    A roadmap for CFD code validation is introduced. The elements of the roadmap are consistent with air-breathing vehicle design requirements and related to the important flow path components: forebody, inlet, combustor, and nozzle. Building block and benchmark validation experiments are identified along with their test conditions and measurements. Based on an evaluation criteria, recommendations for an initial CFD validation data base are given and gaps identified where future experiments could provide new validation data.

  19. Validity - a matter of resonant experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    This paper is about doing interview analysis drawing on researcher’s own lived experience concerning the question of inquiry. The paper exemplifies analyzing case study participants’ experience from the resonant experience of researcher’s own life evoked while listening to recorded interview...... across researcher’s past experience from the case study and her own life. The autobiographic way of analyzing conventional interview material is exemplified with a case of a junior researcher researching newcomer innovation of others, drawing on her own experience of being newcomer in work community...... entry processes. The validity of doing interview analysis drawing on the resonant experience of researcher is argued from a pragmatist perspective....

  20. Food irradiation and Hungarian experiences with it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Jozsef; Kiss, Istvan

    1988-01-01

    Among the different types of food irradiation techniques using ionizing radiations the methods serving - in a direct or indirect way - the purposes of health protection are reviewed. Based on foreign and Hungarian examples radurization of vegetables (potatoes, onions, garlics) by low irradiation doses, radiosterilization of corn, tropic and subtropic fruits, radicidation of dry additivies (spice, medicinal herb) and foodstuffs of animal origin (meat, poultry, egg, fish, shrimp, etc.) are discussed. The general situation of food irradiation in Hungary inlcuding licensing procedures is evaluated. (V.N.) 32 refs.; 3 figs.

  1. The Thai multipurpose food irradiation and experience in food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banditsing, C; Pringsulka, V; Sutantawong, M [and others

    1986-12-31

    Losses of agricultural produce in Thailand are due to the hot climate accelerating the ripening of fruits and sprouting of vegetables, spoilage microorganisms, pathogenic microorganisms, and insect infestation. Losses amount to as much as 30%. Onion, garlic and potato which have a short shelf-life, for instance, cannot be stored long enough for off-season domestic consumption. The annual production and domestic consumption of onion in Thailand is approximately 50,000 and 30,000 tons respectively. However, about 50% of the harvest is discarded during storage because of rotting and sprouting. Fresh onion can be stored for only a few months under tropical conditions. Therefore during the scarce season of 1982, Thailand had to import 4,760 tons of onion at a cost of 56 million baht. Other major problems for fruit are short shelf-life and insect infestation. Food items for export may meet with rejection by importing countries due to insect infestation and microbial contamination. This can mean considerable economic loss. In order to solve these problems, the government of Thailand is interested in setting up a multi-purpose agricultural pilot plant demonstration facility for government-industry-consumer benefit. Since 1963, the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) has been responsible for carrying out research and development in food irradiation in the areas of extending shelf-life, insect disinfestation, radicidation, and inhibition of sprouting in food and agricultural produce. There are many well-trained scientists able to assist in the commercialization of food irradiation. The multi-purpose agricultural pilot plant demonstration facility in this project will be operated by the staff of OAEP. The service will be available for irradiation of eight selected food items, initially for 6,084 operating hours. These are onion, potato, and garlic at 6,000, 2,000, 6,000 tons respectively; salted and dried fish at 1,000 and mungbeans at 3,000 tons; fermented pork, Vietnam

  2. The Thai multipurpose food irradiation and experience in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banditsing, C.; Pringsulka, V.; Sutantawong, M.

    1985-01-01

    Losses of agricultural produce in Thailand are due to the hot climate accelerating the ripening of fruits and sprouting of vegetables, spoilage microorganisms, pathogenic microorganisms, and insect infestation. Losses amount to as much as 30%. Onion, garlic and potato which have a short shelf-life, for instance, cannot be stored long enough for off-season domestic consumption. The annual production and domestic consumption of onion in Thailand is approximately 50,000 and 30,000 tons respectively. However, about 50% of the harvest is discarded during storage because of rotting and sprouting. Fresh onion can be stored for only a few months under tropical conditions. Therefore during the scarce season of 1982, Thailand had to import 4,760 tons of onion at a cost of 56 million baht. Other major problems for fruit are short shelf-life and insect infestation. Food items for export may meet with rejection by importing countries due to insect infestation and microbial contamination. This can mean considerable economic loss. In order to solve these problems, the government of Thailand is interested in setting up a multi-purpose agricultural pilot plant demonstration facility for government-industry-consumer benefit. Since 1963, the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) has been responsible for carrying out research and development in food irradiation in the areas of extending shelf-life, insect disinfestation, radicidation, and inhibition of sprouting in food and agricultural produce. There are many well-trained scientists able to assist in the commercialization of food irradiation. The multi-purpose agricultural pilot plant demonstration facility in this project will be operated by the staff of OAEP. The service will be available for irradiation of eight selected food items, initially for 6,084 operating hours. These are onion, potato, and garlic at 6,000, 2,000, 6,000 tons respectively; salted and dried fish at 1,000 and mungbeans at 3,000 tons; fermented pork, Vietnam

  3. Philippines' experience in marketing irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustre, A. O.; Ang, L.; Dianco, A.

    1985-01-01

    The Food Terminal Inc. in Manila, in cooperation with the Philippine Atomic Energy Agency and with funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna has been conducting storage and marketing studies on onions, garlic and mangoes. The objective is to gather loss reduction data and consumer reaction information that can serve as a basis for evaluating the risks and benefits involved in the establishment of a commercial food irradiator in the country. These studies show that irradiation reduces low-temperature storage losses in onions and garlic by 10-40% and post-storage marketing losses at ambient conditions by 16-50% in onions. Post-storage marketing trials not only indicate a significant reduction in losses during shipping and retail sale but a large increase in the marketability of irradiated commodities as measured by the rate of sale of the commodity and the price which it commands during the selling period. No adverse consumer reaction occurred during the sale of irradiated foods labelled as such except for a few comments indicating fear, ignorance and/or curiosity. The importance of irradiation as a substitute quarantine treatment for mangoes and for eliminating Salmonella in frozen foods for export is discussed in relation to the growing importance of these commodities to the Philippines' non-traditional export markets. Other applications of irradiation that could result in a perceptible improvement in the marketability of food commodities in the Philippines are discussed. Marketing studies are invaluable in evaluating the potential benefits of a new technology as food irradiation. In view of this, there is great interest in the completion of a pilot plant for food irradiation by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. The design and capacity of this plant are discussed

  4. Neutron irradiation experiments for fusion reactor materials through JUPITER program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Namba, C.; Wiffen, F.W.; Jones, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    A Japan-USA program of irradiation experiments for fusion research, ''JUPITER'', has been established as a 6 year program from 1995 to 2000. The goal is to study ''the dynamic behavior of fusion reactor materials and their response to variable and complex irradiation environment''. This is phase-three of the collaborative program, which follows RTNS-II program (phase-1: 1982-1986) and FFTF/MOTA program (phase-2: 1987-1994). This program is to provide a scientific basis for application of materials performance data, generated by fission reactor experiments, to anticipated fusion environments. Following the systematic study on cumulative irradiation effects, done through FFTF/MOTA program. JUPITER is emphasizing the importance of dynamic irradiation effects on materials performance in fusion systems. The irradiation experiments in this program include low activation structural materials, functional ceramics and other innovative materials. The experimental data are analyzed by theoretical modeling and computer simulation to integrate the above effects. (orig.)

  5. Experiences of irradiation of species in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandowo, Nazly Hilmy; Maha, Munsiah

    1985-01-01

    Research activities on food irradiation have been conducted in Indonesia since 1968 with the main emphasis on the development of suitable post-harvest treatment for the conservation and quality improvement of food commodities intended for either domestic consumption or for export. There are three cobalt-60 irradiation facilities with the present source capacity of 1 k Ci, 30 k Ci and 157 k Ci at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation-National Atomic Energy Agency, where research is being carried out. These food items selected to be studied have been based on their economic significance, production volume and problems encountered. For irradiation of spices, research activities have been focused on inhibition of sprouting, disinfestation of insects, microbial reduction, elimination of pathogenic microbes and physico-chemical studies. The preservation of spices by irradiation should be combined with a suitable method of packaging and to avoid re infestation and recontamination. Studies on packaging material and inter country transportation have also been carried out to support commercial application. Studies on the extent of damage on spices and medical plants have been carried out on local commercial spices, namely nutmeg, black pepper, white pepper, maces, coriander, cardamom, fennel, ginger, turmeric, red pepper, and cinnamon. Results of the studies are presented in the paper. An inter country shipment trial between Jakarta and Wageningen (Holland) of irradiated spices has been carried out on whole nutmeg and whole pepper packed in polypropylene bags (with and without inner lining) and tin containers. The trial results showed that an irradiation dose of 5 kGy was sufficient to disinfest and decontaminate properly packed spices

  6. Economic viability and commercial experience with shihoro potato irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.

    1985-01-01

    A commercial potato irradiation plant was established in 1973 at Shihoro in Hokkaido, Japan, with a capacity of about 10,000 tons per month using large baskets containing 1.5 tons of potatoes. For twelve seasons potatoes have been irradiated and marketed by the plant. The paper will discuss the experience with the Shihoro potato irradiator from the technical and economic viewpoints. From the technical viewpoint, the following are the main factors that have contributed to the success of potato irradiation. First, the Japanese government initiated research on food irradiation as a national project and provided financial support. Second, the presence of the Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association which handles a large amount of potatoes; and third, the mock-up test for the conceptual design of irradiation was conducted using large baskets for storage and transportation. The cost of the irradiation plant was about 389 million yen, of which 253 million yen was provided by the government. The irradiation plant processes about 15,000 tons of potatoes a year and the costs are 2,000 to 4,500 yen per ton. This accounts for 2 to 3% of the potato price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price fluctuations during the off-season

  7. The difference between traditional experiments and CFD validation benchmark experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton L., E-mail: barton.smith@usu.edu

    2017-02-15

    Computation Fluid Dynamics provides attractive features for design, and perhaps licensing, of nuclear power plants. The most important of these features is low cost compared to experiments. However, uncertainty of CFD calculations must accompany these calculations in order for the results to be useful for important decision making. In order to properly assess the uncertainty of a CFD calculation, it must be “validated” against experimental data. Unfortunately, traditional “discovery” experiments are normally ill-suited to provide all of the information necessary for the validation exercise. Traditionally, experiments are performed to discover new physics, determine model parameters, or to test designs. This article will describe a new type of experiment; one that is designed and carried out with the specific purpose of providing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation benchmark data. We will demonstrate that the goals of traditional experiments and validation experiments are often in conflict, making use of traditional experimental results problematic and leading directly to larger predictive uncertainty of the CFD model.

  8. The difference between traditional experiments and CFD validation benchmark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Barton L.

    2017-01-01

    Computation Fluid Dynamics provides attractive features for design, and perhaps licensing, of nuclear power plants. The most important of these features is low cost compared to experiments. However, uncertainty of CFD calculations must accompany these calculations in order for the results to be useful for important decision making. In order to properly assess the uncertainty of a CFD calculation, it must be “validated” against experimental data. Unfortunately, traditional “discovery” experiments are normally ill-suited to provide all of the information necessary for the validation exercise. Traditionally, experiments are performed to discover new physics, determine model parameters, or to test designs. This article will describe a new type of experiment; one that is designed and carried out with the specific purpose of providing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation benchmark data. We will demonstrate that the goals of traditional experiments and validation experiments are often in conflict, making use of traditional experimental results problematic and leading directly to larger predictive uncertainty of the CFD model.

  9. Irradiance Observations of SMM, Spacelab 1, UARS, and ATLAS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Detection of intrinsic solar variability on the total flux level was made using results from the first active Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) experiment, launched on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM)in early 1980.

  10. In vitro irradiation system for radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesei, Anna; Zoli, Wainer; D’Errico, Vincenzo; Romeo, Antonino; Parisi, Elisabetta; Polico, Rolando; Sarnelli, Anna; Arienti, Chiara; Menghi, Enrico; Medri, Laura; Gabucci, Elisa; Pignatta, Sara; Falconi, Mirella; Silvestrini, Rosella

    2013-01-01

    Although two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer cell cultures provide important information on basic tumor biology and radiobiology, they are not representative of the complexity of three-dimensional (3-D) solid tumors. In particular, new models reproducing clinical conditions as closely as possible are needed for radiobiological studies to provide information that can be translated from bench to bedside. We developed a novel system for the irradiation, under sterile conditions, of 3-D tumor spheroids, the in vitro model considered as a bridge between the complex architectural organization of in vivo tumors and the very simple one of in vitro monolayer cell cultures. The system exploits the same equipment as that used for patient treatments, without the need for dedicated and highly expensive instruments. To mimic the passage of radiation beams through human tissues before they reach the target tumor mass, 96-multiwell plates containing the multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) are inserted into a custom-built phantom made of plexiglass, the material most similar to water, the main component of human tissue. The system was used to irradiate CAEP- and A549-derived MCTS, pre-treated or not with 20 μM cisplatin, with a dose of 20 Gy delivered in one session. We also tested the same treatment schemes on monolayer CAEP and A549 cells. Our preliminary results indicated a significant increment in radiotoxicity 20 days after the end of irradiation in the CAEP spheroids pre-treated with cisplatin compared to those treated with cisplatin or irradiation alone. Conversely, the effect of the radio- chemotherapy combination in A549-derived MCTS was similar to that induced by cisplatin or irradiation alone. Finally, the 20 Gy dose did not affect cell survival in monolayer CAEP and A549 cells, whereas cisplatin or cisplatin plus radiation caused 100% cell death, regardless of the type of cell line used. We set up a system for the irradiation, under sterile conditions, of tumor cells

  11. The achivements of Japanese fuel irradiation experiments in HBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Michio; Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Domoto, Kazunari

    1984-02-01

    OECD Halden Reactor Project celebrated the 25th anniversary in 1983. The JAERI has been participating in the Project since 1967 on behalf of Japanese Government. Since the participation, thirty-six Japanese instrumented fuel assemblies have been irradiated in HBWR. The irradiation experiments were either sponsored by JAERI or by domestic organizations under the joint research agreements with JAERI, beeing steered by the Committee for the Joint Research Programme. The cooperative efforts have attained significant contributions to the development of water reactor fuel technology in Japan. This report review the irradiation experiments of Japanese fuel assemblies. (author)

  12. High-water-base hydraulic fluid-irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.C.; Meacham, S.A.

    1981-10-01

    A remote system for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies is being designed under the direction of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The design incorporates a dual hydraulic fluid actuation system in which only one of the fluids, a high-water-base (HWBF), would be exposed to ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination. A commercially available synthetic, solution-type HWBF was selected as the reference. Single-sample irradiation experiments were conducted with three commercial fluids over a range of irradiation exposures. The physical and chemical properties of the irradiated HWBFs were analyzed and compared with unirradiated samples. In general, the results of the analyses showed increasing degradation of fluid properties with increasing irradiation dose. The results also indicated that a synthetic solution-type HWBF would perform satisfactorily in the remote shear system where irradiation doses up to 10 6 Gy (10 8 rad) are expected

  13. High-water-base hydraulic fluid-irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.C.; Meacham, S.A.

    1981-10-01

    A remote system for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies is being designed under the direction of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The design incorporates a dual hydraulic fluid actuation system in which only one of the fluids, a high-water-base (HWBF), would be exposed to ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination. A commercially available synthetic, solution-type HWBF was selected as the reference. Single-sample irradiation experiments were conducted with three commercial fluids over a range of irradiation exposures. The physical and chemical properties of the irradiated HWBFs were analyzed and compared with unirradiated samples. In general, the results of the analyses showed increasing degradation of fluid properties with increasing irradiation dose. The results also indicated that a synthetic solution-type HWBF would perform satisfactorily in the remote shear system where irradiation doses up to 10/sup 6/ Gy (10/sup 8/ rad) are expected.

  14. Validation of software components for the prediction of irradiation-induced damage of RPV steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, Frank; Birkenheuer, Uwe; Ulbricht, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    The modelling of irradiation-induced damage of RPV steels from primary cascades up to the change of mechanical properties bridging length scales from the atomic level up to the macro-scale and time scales up to years contributes essentially to an improved understanding of the phenomenon of neutron embrittlement. In future modelling may become a constituent of the procedure to evaluate RPV safety. The selected two-step approach is based upon the coupling of a rate-theory module aimed at simulating the evolution of the size distribution of defect-solute clusters with a hardening module aimed at predicting the yield stress increase. The scope of the investigation consists in the development and validation of corresponding numerical tools. In order to validate these tools, the output of representative simulations is compared with results from small-angle neutron scattering experiments and tensile tests performed for neutron-irradiated RPV steels. Using the developed rate-theory module it is possible to simulate the evolution of size, concentration and composition of mixed Cu-vacancy clusters over the relevant ranges of size up to 10.000 atoms and time up to tens of years. The connection between the rate-theory model and hardening is based upon both the mean spacing and the strength of obstacles for dislocation glide. As a result of the validation procedure of the numerical tools, we have found that essential trends of the irradiation-induced yield stress increase of Cu-bearing and low-Cu RPV steels are displayed correctly. First ideas on how to take into account the effect of Ni on both cluster evolution and hardening are worked out.

  15. Review of irradiation experiments for water reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobioka, Toshiaki

    1977-02-01

    A review is made of irradiation experiments for water reactor safety research under way in both commercial power plants and test reactors. Such experiments are grouped in two; first, LWR fuel performance under normal and abnormal operating conditions, and second, irradiation effects on fracture toughness in LWR vessels. In the former are fuel densification, swelling, and the influence of power ramp and cycling on fuel rod, and also fuel rod behavior under accident conditions in in-reactor experiment. In the latter are the effects of neutron exposure level on the ferritic steel of pressure vessels, etc.. (auth.)

  16. Winter wheat stimulation experiment with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozo, J.

    1979-01-01

    With respect to the conclusions drawn from this research it is necessary to emphasize that the results relate to one year, and even the statistically proved positive results are insufficient to establish tendencies without considering the aggregated results of one year and other effects. Tha analysis of crop yield shows that a dose of 500 rad is insufficient to induce higher yield. A dose of 1500 rad gave a definite response, and it would be desirable to observe the effects of larger doses, too. The reduction in internal fusarium infection of the grain yield was striking when the seed had been exposed to a dose of 1500 rad. The internal fusarium infection of the grain is a very important factor for both human nutrition and animal feeding. The maximum irradiation dose provided reliable immunity against fusarium infection. (author)

  17. ATHLET validation using accident management experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teschendorff, V.; Glaeser, H.; Steinhoff, F. [Gasellschaft fuer Anlagen - und Reaktorsicherheit (GSR) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    The computer code ATHLET is being developed as an advanced best-estimate code for the simulation of leaks and transients in PWRs and BWRs including beyond design basis accidents. The code has features that are of special interest for applications to small leaks and transients with accident management, e.g. initialisation by a steady-state calculation, full-range drift-flux model, and dynamic mixture level tracking. The General Control Simulation Module of ATHLET is a flexible tool for the simulation of the balance-of-plant and control systems including the various operator actions in the course of accident sequences with AM measures. The systematic validation of ATHLET is based on a well balanced set of integral and separate effect tests derived from the CSNI proposal emphasising, however, the German combined ECC injection system which was investigated in the UPTF, PKL and LOBI test facilities. PKL-III test B 2.1 simulates a cool-down procedure during an emergency power case with three steam generators isolated. Natural circulation under these conditions was investigated in detail in a pressure range of 4 to 2 MPa. The transient was calculated over 22000 s with complicated boundary conditions including manual control actions. The calculations demonstrations the capability to model the following processes successfully: (1) variation of the natural circulation caused by steam generator isolation, (2) vapour formation in the U-tubes of the isolated steam generators, (3) break-down of circulation in the loop containing the isolated steam generator following controlled cool-down of the secondary side, (4) accumulation of vapour in the pressure vessel dome. One conclusion with respect to the suitability of experiments simulating AM procedures for code validation purposes is that complete documentation of control actions during the experiment must be available. Special attention should be given to the documentation of operator actions in the course of the experiment.

  18. Industrial experience of irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delange, M.

    1981-01-01

    At the moment and during the next following years, France and La Hague plant particularly, own the greatest amount of industrial experience in the field of reprocessing, since this experience is referred to three types of reactors, either broadly spread all through the world (GCR and LWR) or ready to be greatly developed in the next future (FBR). Then, the description of processes and technologies used now in France, and the examination of the results obtained, on the production or on the security points of view, are a good approach of the actual industrial experience in the field of spent fuel reprocessing. (author)

  19. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Laurence C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). VHTR Technology Development Office

    2014-08-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear-grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC-3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. The report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data following MCP-2691. This report also documents whether AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data meet the requirements for data collection as specified in technical and functional requirements documents and quality assurance (QA) plans. Data handling is described showing how data are passed from the data collection experiment to the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) team. The data structure is described, including data batches, components, attributes, and response variables. The description of the approach to data qualification includes the steps taken to qualify the data and the specific tests used to verify that the data meet requirements. Finally, the current status of the data received by NDMAS from the AGC-3 experiment is presented with summarized information on test results and resolutions. This report addresses all of the irradiation monitoring data collected during the AGC-3 experiment.

  20. Shielding considerations for advanced fuel irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young-Hwan; Kim, Hee-Moon; Kim, Bong-Goo; Kim, Hark-Rho; Lee, Dong-Soo

    2008-01-01

    An in-pile test program for the development of a high burn-up fuel is planned for the HANARO reactor. The source term originates from a leakage of fission products from the anticipated failed fuels into the gas flow tubes and around the instrumentation and control system. In order to quantify the fuel composition in the event of a fuel failure, the isotope generation and depletion code ORIGEN 2.0 was used. The computer program Microshield 6.2 was used to calculate the doses from specific locations, where a high radioactivity is expected during an irradiation. The results indicate that the equivalent dose in the investigated working areas is less than the permitted dose rate of 6.25 μSv/hr. However, access to the area of a decay vessel may need to be limited, and the installation of a Pb wall with a 20.5 cm thickness is recommended. From the analysis of a radioactive decay with time, most of the concerned gaseous nuclides with short half-lives after 3 months, were decayed, with one exception which was Kr-85, thus it should be released in accordance with applicable government laws after measuring its activity in individual holding vessels. (author)

  1. Development and validation of constitutive equation of HBS irradiation swelling considering hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Lijun; Jiang Shengyao; Yu Jiyang; Chen Bingde; Xiao Zhong

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of hydrostatic pressure affecting the irradiation swelling of UO_2 high burnup structure was analyzed. Three basic assumptions used to develop the constitutive equation of irradiation swelling were made accordingly. It is concluded that hydrostatic pressure imposes an important impact on irradiation swelling mainly through compressing the UO_2 high burnup structure pores. Based on the already developed correlation of the irradiation swelling of UO_2 high burnup structure, pore shrinkage due to the application of hydrostatic pressure and thus the reduction of irradiation swelling of UO_2 high burnup structure were determined quantitatively, and the constitutive equation of irradiation swelling of UO_2 high burnup structure considering the hydrostatic pressure was constructed successfully. The constitutive equation is validated using available irradiation swelling data of UO_2 high burnup structure, which demonstrates its reasonability. (authors)

  2. Light water reactor mixed-oxide fuel irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.; Cowell, B.S.; Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is sponsoring and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading an irradiation experiment to test mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel made from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium. In this multiyear program, sealed capsules containing MOX fuel pellets fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The planned experiments will investigate the utilization of dry-processed plutonium, the effects of WG plutonium isotopics on MOX performance, and any material interactions of gallium with Zircaloy cladding

  3. Use of LiDAR for calculating solar irradiance on roofs and façades of buildings at city scale: Methodology, validation, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Xu, Hao; Li, Shuyi; Chen, Yanming; Zhang, Fangli; Li, Manchun

    2018-04-01

    As the rate of urbanization continues to accelerate, the utilization of solar energy in buildings plays an increasingly important role in sustainable urban development. For this purpose, we propose a LiDAR-based joint approach for calculating the solar irradiance incident on roofs and façades of buildings at city scale, which includes a methodology for calculating solar irradiance, the validation of the proposed method, and analysis of its application. The calculation of surface irradiance on buildings may then inform photovoltaic power generation simulations, architectural design, and urban energy planning. Application analyses of the proposed method in the experiment area found that: (1) Global and direct irradiations vary significantly by hour, day, month and season, both following the same trends; however, diffuse irradiance essentially remains unchanged over time. (2) Roof irradiation, but not façade irradiation, displays distinct time-dependent patterns. (3) Global and direct irradiations on roofs are highly correlated with roof aspect and slope, with high global and direct irradiations observed on roofs of aspect 100-250° and slopes of 0-60°, whereas diffuse irradiation on roofs is only affected by roof slope. (4) The façade of a building receives higher levels of global and direct irradiations if facing southeast, south, and southwest; however, diffuse irradiation remains constant regardless of façade orientation.

  4. Multi-physic simulations of irradiation experiments in a technological irradiation reactor; Modelisation pluridisciplinaire d'experiences d'irradiation dans un reacteur d'irradiation technologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonaccorsi, Th

    2007-09-15

    A Material Testing Reactor (MTR) makes it possible to irradiate material samples under intense neutron and photonic fluxes. These experiments are carried out in experimental devices localised in the reactor core or in periphery (reflector). Available physics simulation tools only treat, most of the time, one physics field in a very precise way. Multi-physic simulations of irradiation experiments therefore require a sequential use of several calculation codes and data exchanges between these codes: this corresponds to problems coupling. In order to facilitate multi-physic simulations, this thesis sets up a data model based on data-processing objects, called Technological Entities. This data model is common to all of the physics fields. It permits defining the geometry of an irradiation device in a parametric way and to associate information about materials to it. Numerical simulations are encapsulated into interfaces providing the ability to call specific functionalities with the same command (to initialize data, to launch calculations, to post-treat, to get results,... ). Thus, once encapsulated, numerical simulations can be re-used for various studies. This data model is developed in a SALOME platform component. The first application case made it possible to perform neutronic simulations (OSIRIS reactor and RJH) coupled with fuel behavior simulations. In a next step, thermal hydraulics could also be taken into account. In addition to the improvement of the calculation accuracy due to the physical phenomena coupling, the time spent in the development phase of the simulation is largely reduced and the possibilities of uncertainty treatment are under consideration. (author)

  5. Prostate cancer: experience with definitive irradiation in the aged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Bodner, H.; Broth, E.

    1985-01-01

    When considering therapeutic options for localized prostate cancer, stage and grade of disease have been the most important determinants. In the elderly, the nominal age has assumed increasing importance in the final decision. A balanced judgment must be reached between the patient's normal life expectancy and the rapidity with which the cancer may be expected to express its malignant potential. By careful attention to patient selection and the details of treatment, definitive irradiation can improve quality of life and survival. Of 63 patients aged seventy-three to ninety years referred for irradiation, 56 were found medically suitable for definitive treatment. A review of the authors experience is presented

  6. Brazilian Irradiation Project: CAFE-MOD1 validation experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de; Costa, Antonio Carlos L. da; Esteves, Fernando Avelar; Dias, Marcio Soares

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian Irradiation Project whose purpose is to provide Brazil with a minimal structure to qualify the design, fabrication and quality procedures of nuclear fuels, consists of three main facilities: IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP, CAFE-MOD1 irradiation device and a unit of hot cells. The CAFE-MOD1 is based on concepts successfully used for more than 20 years in the main nuclear institutes around the world. Despite these concepts are already proved it should be adapted to each reactor condition. For this purpose, there is an ongoing experimental program aiming at the certification of the criteria and operational limits of the CAFE-MOD1 in order to get the allowance for its installation at the IEA-R1 reactor. (author)

  7. Initial validations for pursuing irradiation using a gimbals tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Kenji; Mizowaki, Takashi; Kokubo, Masaki; Kawada, Noriyuki; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Narita, Yuichiro; Nagano, Kazuo; Kamino, Yuichiro; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Our newly designed image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system enables the dynamic tracking irradiation with a gimbaled X-ray head and a dual on-board kilovolt imaging subsystem for real-time target localization. Examinations using a computer-controlled three-dimensionally movable phantom demonstrated that our gimbals tracking system significantly reduced motion blurring effects in the dose distribution compared to the non-tracking state.

  8. Design experiences for medical irradiation field at the musashi reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Otohiko

    1994-01-01

    The design of the medical irradiation field at the Musashi reactor was carried out from 1974 to 1975, about 20 years ago. Various numerical analyses have been carried out recently, and it is astonishing to find out that the performance close to the optimum as a 100 kW reactor has been obtained. The reason for this is that the design was carried out by dividing into the stationary part and the moving part, and as for the moving part, the structure was determined by repeating trial and error and experiments. In this paper, the comparison of the analysis carried out later with the experimental data and the change of the absorbed dose at the time of medical irradiation accompanying the change of neutron energy spectra are reported. As the characteristics of the medical irradiation field at the Musashi reactor, the neutron energy spectra and the absorbed dose and mean medical irradiation time are shown. As the problems in boron neutron capture therapy, the neutron fluence required for the therapy, the way of thinking on background dose, and the problem of determining the irradiation time are discussed. The features of epithermal neutron beam are explained. (K.I.)

  9. Results of preliminary experiments on tritium decontamination by UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Shu, Wataru; O'hira, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takumi; Nishi, Masataka

    2000-03-01

    In the point of view of protection of workers from the radiation exposure and the limitation of the contamination with radioactive materials, it is important to decontaminate mobile tritium from plasma facing components of a nuclear fusion reactor at the beginning of their maintenance work. It is considered that the heating is the most effective method for decontamination. However, it is important to develop new decontamination method of adsorbed hydro-carbon based substances from the materials that cannot be heated or the inner pipe of double pipes. This report presents results of preliminary experiments performed for the development of the effective tritium decontamination technique pursuing under US/Japan collaborative program on technology for fusion-fuel processing (Annex IV). In the experiments, the effects of Ultra Violet (UV) irradiation on tritium removal from some kinds of materials, such as poly vinyl chloride -(CH 2 CHCl) n - film, polyethylene film and graphite samples coated by C 2 H 2 plasma were examined. As the result of UV irradiation, it was confined that hydrogen and carbon based compounds could be released from the specimen during UV irradiation. It is concluded that UV irradiation is one of the hopeful candidates for effective tritium decontamination. (author)

  10. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, S. Blaine

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy's lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world's premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In

  11. Patient Experiences with the Preoperative Assessment Clinic (PEPAC): validation of an instrument to measure patient experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edward, G. M.; Lemaire, L. C.; Preckel, B.; Oort, F. J.; Bucx, M. J. L.; Hollmann, M. W.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Presently, no comprehensive and validated questionnaire to measure patient experiences of the preoperative assessment clinic (PAC) is available. We developed and validated the Patient Experiences with the Preoperative Assessment Clinic (PEPAC) questionnaire, which can be used for

  12. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

    2007-01-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services-industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006

  13. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, L. M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov; Egle, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zenobia, S. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10{sup 14} ions/(cm{sup 2} s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  14. Validation of o-tyrosine as a marker for detection and dosimetry of irradiated chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; McDougall, T.E.; Guerrero, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The o-tyrosine has been proposed as a marker for postirradiation identification of food that contains protein. In this study, the validity of using o-tyrosine for this purpose has been tested and established. The validation process involved examination of background levels of o-tyrosine in unirradiated chicken, radiation dose yield, postirradiation storage, dose rate, radiation type, temperature during irradiation, and oxygen concentration during irradiation. The o-tyrosine is present in unirradiated chicken meat at variable levels. However, these background levels are low enough that o-tyrosine can serve to determine whether chicken has been irradiated or not at the commercially approved doses (3 kGy). The radiation dose response curve for the formation of o-tyrosine is linear. The apparent yields may vary with the analytical method used; however, it is independent of the dose rate, radiation type, atmosphere, and temperature (above freezing) during irradiation. It is also independent of the storage time and temperature after irradiation. It is concluded that this marker can be used to determine the absorbed dose in chicken meat irradiated with either gamma rays or electrons under normal or modified atmosphere

  15. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  16. Irradiation Experiments on Plutonium Fuels for Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, B. R.T.; Wait, E. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1967-09-15

    An assessment carried out some years ago indicated that cermet fuels might provide the high burn-up and integrity required for fast reactors. An irradiation programme was started at Harwell on (U, Pu)O{sub 2} -SS cermet plates and rods, mainly In thermal neutron fluxes, to gain experience of dimensional stability at temperatures typical of modern sodium-cooled fast reactor designs (600-650 Degree-Sign C). A subsequent assessment showed that cermets carried a large penalty as far as breeding was concerned and (U, Pu)C was chosen by Harwell for long-term study as an alternative, economic, fast reactor fuel. However, the results from the cermet experiments were of sufficient promise to proceed with parallel irradiation programmes on cermets and carbide. The studies of cermets showed that dimensional instability (swelling and cladding rupture) were caused by the pressures exerted on the steel matrix by the fuel particles, and that the initial density of the fuel particles was important in determining the burn-up at which failure occurred. Further, it was shown that cermets provided a useful vehicle for studying the changes occurring in oxide fuel particles with increasing burn-up. The disappearance of initial porosity and its replacement by fission gas bubbles and segregated solid fission products was studied in some detaiL No significant differences were observed between UO{sub 2} and(U,Pu)O{sub 2} particles. The initial studies of (U, Pu)C were concerned with the effect of varying composition and structure on swelling and fission gas release. A tantalum-lined nickel alloy cladding material was used to contain both pellet and powder specimens In an irradiation experiment in the core of the Dounreay fast reactor. This showed that the presence of a metal phase in the fuel led to a high swelling rate, that fission gas release was low up to {approx} 3% bum-up, and that a low density powder accommodated the swelling without excessive straining of the can. A subsequent

  17. Validation of wind loading codes by experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1997, full scale measurements of the wind and wind induced pressures were carried out on the main building of Eindhoven University of Technology. Simultaneously, a comparative wind tunnel experiment was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. In this paper, the

  18. Rules for the licensing of new experiments in BR2: application to the test irradiation of new MTR-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joppen, F.

    2000-01-01

    New types of MTR fuel elements are being developed and require a qualification before routine operation could be authorized. During the test irradiation the new fuel elements .are considered as experimental devices and their irradiation is allowed according to the procedures for experiments. Authorization is based on the advice .of a consultative committee on experiments. This procedure is valid as long as the irradiation is covered by the actual reactor license. An additional license or an amendment is only required if due to the experiment the risk for the workers or the environment is increased in a significant way. A few experimental fuel plates loaded in the primary loop of the reactor will not increase this risk. The source term for potential radioactive releases remains more or less the same. The probability for an accident can be limited by restricting the heat flux and surface temperature. (author)

  19. Study of the microstructure of neutron irradiated beryllium for the validation of the ANFIBE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaglino, E.; Ferrero, C.; Reimann, J.; Ronchi, C.; Schulenberg, T.

    2002-01-01

    The behaviour of beryllium under fast neutron irradiation is a key issue of the helium cooled pebble bed tritium breeding blanket, due to the production of large quantities of helium and of a non-negligible amount of tritium. To optimise the design, a reliable prediction of swelling due to helium bubbles and of tritium inventory during normal and off-normal operation of a fusion power reactor is needed. The ANFIBE code (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) is being developed to meet this need. The code has to be applied in a range of irradiation conditions where no experimental data are available, therefore a detailed gas kinetics model, and a specific and particularly careful validation strategy are needed. The validation procedure of the first version of the code was based on macroscopic data of swelling and tritium release. This approach is, however, incomplete, since a verification of the microscopic behaviour of the gas in the metal is necessary to obtain a reliable description of swelling. This paper discusses a general strategy for a thorough validation of the gas kinetics models in ANFIBE. The microstructure characterisation of weakly irradiated beryllium pebbles, with different visual examination techniques, is then presented as an example of the application of this strategy. In particular, the advantage of developing 3D techniques, such as X-ray microtomography, is demonstrated

  20. UARS Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) Level 3BS V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) Level 3BS data product consists of daily, 1 nm resolution, solar spectral irradiances and selected...

  1. [Validity of psychoprophylaxis in obstetrics. Authors' experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alfonso, A; Zaurito, V; Facchini, D; Di Stefano, L; Patacchiola, F; Cappa, F

    1990-12-01

    The Authors report the results based on 20 years of practice on obstetric psycho-prophylaxis (PPO). Data on presence at course, on frequency, on primipares/pluripares ratio, on labour, on timing and mode of delivery, are assembled. Moreover, neonatal status at birth and at 10th day of life, are investigated. The data obtained were compared with a control group, constituted by women without any treatment before delivery. The acquired experience confirm the utility of PPO in the ordinary clinical practice.

  2. Multi-physic simulations of irradiation experiments in a technological irradiation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaccorsi, Th.

    2007-09-01

    A Material Testing Reactor (MTR) makes it possible to irradiate material samples under intense neutron and photonic fluxes. These experiments are carried out in experimental devices localised in the reactor core or in periphery (reflector). Available physics simulation tools only treat, most of the time, one physics field in a very precise way. Multi-physic simulations of irradiation experiments therefore require a sequential use of several calculation codes and data exchanges between these codes: this corresponds to problems coupling. In order to facilitate multi-physic simulations, this thesis sets up a data model based on data-processing objects, called Technological Entities. This data model is common to all of the physics fields. It permits defining the geometry of an irradiation device in a parametric way and to associate information about materials to it. Numerical simulations are encapsulated into interfaces providing the ability to call specific functionalities with the same command (to initialize data, to launch calculations, to post-treat, to get results,... ). Thus, once encapsulated, numerical simulations can be re-used for various studies. This data model is developed in a SALOME platform component. The first application case made it possible to perform neutronic simulations (OSIRIS reactor and RJH) coupled with fuel behavior simulations. In a next step, thermal hydraulics could also be taken into account. In addition to the improvement of the calculation accuracy due to the physical phenomena coupling, the time spent in the development phase of the simulation is largely reduced and the possibilities of uncertainty treatment are under consideration. (author)

  3. CFD validation experiments at the Lockheed-Georgia Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John B.; Thomas, Andrew S. W.

    1987-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation experiments at the Lockheed-Georgia Company. Topics covered include validation experiments on a generic fighter configuration, a transport configuration, and a generic hypersonic vehicle configuration; computational procedures; surface and pressure measurements on wings; laser velocimeter measurements of a multi-element airfoil system; the flowfield around a stiffened airfoil; laser velocimeter surveys of a circulation control wing; circulation control for high lift; and high angle of attack aerodynamic evaluations.

  4. AGC-4 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, Laurence Charles

    2016-01-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program is running a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The fourth experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 4 (AGC 4), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) cycle 157D on May 30, 2015, and has been irradiated for two cycles. The capsule was removed from the reactor after ATR cycle 158A, which ended on January 2, 2016, due to interference with another experiment. Irradiation will resume when the interfering experiment is removed from the reactor. This report documents qualification of AGC 4 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first HTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements and provide no useable information. Trend data may not meet all requirements, but still provide some useable information. Use of Trend data requires assessment of how any deficiencies affect a particular use of the data. All thermocouples (TCs) have functioned throughout the AGC-4 experiment. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Discharge gas line moisture values were consistently low during cycle 157D. At the start of cycle 158A, gas moisture briefly spiked to over 600 ppmv and then declined throughout the cycle. Moisture values are within the measurement range of the instrument and are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Graphite creep specimens were subjected to one of three loads, 393, 491, or 589 lbf. For a brief period during cycle 157D between 12:19 on June 2, 2015 and 08:23 on June 11, 2015 the load cells were wired incorrectly resulting in missing

  5. AGC-4 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Laurence Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program is running a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The fourth experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 4 (AGC 4), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) cycle 157D on May 30, 2015, and has been irradiated for two cycles. The capsule was removed from the reactor after ATR cycle 158A, which ended on January 2, 2016, due to interference with another experiment. Irradiation will resume when the interfering experiment is removed from the reactor. This report documents qualification of AGC 4 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first HTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements and provide no useable information. Trend data may not meet all requirements, but still provide some useable information. Use of Trend data requires assessment of how any deficiencies affect a particular use of the data. All thermocouples (TCs) have functioned throughout the AGC-4 experiment. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Discharge gas line moisture values were consistently low during cycle 157D. At the start of cycle 158A, gas moisture briefly spiked to over 600 ppmv and then declined throughout the cycle. Moisture values are within the measurement range of the instrument and are Qualified for use by the ART TDO Program. Graphite creep specimens were subjected to one of three loads, 393, 491, or 589 lbf. For a brief period during cycle 157D between 12:19 on June 2, 2015 and 08:23 on June 11, 2015 the load cells were wired incorrectly resulting in missing

  6. Data acquisition system for light-ion irradiation creep experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrick, P.L.; Whitaker, T.J.

    1979-07-01

    Software was developed for a PDP11V/03-based data acquisition system to support the Light-Ion Irradiation Creep Experiment installed at the University of Washington Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator. The software consists of a real-time data acquisition and storage program, DAC04, written in assembly language. This program provides for the acquisition of up to 30 chennels at 100 Hz, data averaging before storage on disk, alarming, data table display, and automatic disk switching. All analog data are acquired via an analog-to-digital converter subsystem having a resolution of 14 bits, a maximum throughput of 20 kHz, and an overall system accuracy of +-0.01%. These specifications are considered essential for the long-term measurement of irradiation creep strains and temperatures during the light-ion bombardment of irradiation creep specimens. The software package developed also contains a collection of FORTRAN programs designed to monitor a test while in progress. These programs use the foreground/background feature of the RT-11 operating system. The background programs provide a variety of services. The program, GRAFTR, allows transient data (i.e., prior to averaging) to be graphed at the graphics terminal. The program, GRAFAV, allows averaged data to be read from disk and displayed graphically at the terminal. The program, TYPAV, reads averaged data from disk and displays it at the terminal in tabular form. Other programs allow text messages to be written to disk, read from disk, and allow access to DAC04 initialization data. 5 figures, 18 tables

  7. Isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments on irradiated commercial power VDMOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, A.B.; Pejovic, M.M.; Ristic, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents results of isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments on several types of gamma-ray irradiated commercial N- and P-channel power VDMOSFETs. Transistors were characterized for their threshold voltage shift and densities of radiation-induced oxide-trap charge and interface traps. The results show that the temperature enhances interface trap formation and oxide-trap charge decay rates, but also contributes to the passivation of interface traps. The study demonstrates that formation and passivation of interface traps are simultaneous processes. At certain conditions (lower temperature and/or positive bias) interface-trap formation dominates. Oppositely, at other conditions (higher temperature and/or negative bias) passivation is predominant. However at some conditions there is a complex interplay between formation and passivation of interface traps, resulting in interface traps increase followed by decrease at later annealing times. No model for interface trap post-irradiation behavior can explain this effect better than the recently proposed H-W model

  8. Electron microbeam specifications for use in cell irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.-H.; Choi, M.-C.; Lee, D.-H.; Chang, M.; Kang, C.-S.

    2003-01-01

    The microbeam irradiation system was devised originally to identify the hit and unhit cells by confining the beam within the target cell. The major achievement through the microbeam experiment studies has turned out to be the discovery of the 'bystander effect'. Microbeam experiments have been performed with alpha and proton beams in major and with soft x-rays in minor. The study with electron microbeam has been deferred mainly due to the difficulty in confining the electron tracks within a single target cell. In this paper, the electron microbeam irradiation system under development in Korea is introduced in terms of the beam specifications. The KIRAMS electron microbeam irradiation system consists of an electron gun, a vacuum chamber for beam collimation into 5 μm in diameter and a biology stage. The beam characteristics in terms of current and energy spectrum of the electrons entering a target cell and its neighbor cells were investigated by Monte Carlo simulation for the electron source energies of 25, 50, 75 and 100 keV. Energy depositions in the target cell and the neighbor cells were also calculated. The beam attenuation in current and energy occurs while electrons pass through the 2 μm-thick Mylar vacuum window, 100 μm-thick air gap and the 2 μm-thick Mylar bottom of cell dish. With 25 keV electron source, 80 % of decrease in current and 30 % of decrease in average energy were estimated before entering the target cell. With 75 keV electron source, on the other hand, 55 % of decrease in current and less than 1 % of decrease in average energy were estimated. Average dose per single collimated electron emission was 0.067 cGy to the target cell nucleus of 5 μm in diameter and 0.030 cGy to the cytoplasm of 2.5 μm in thickness with 25 keV electron source while they were 0.15 cGy and 0.019 cGy, respectively, with 75 keV electron source. The multiple scattering of electrons resulted in energy deposition in the neighbor cells as well. Dose to the first

  9. Progress report on irradiation experiment on small size specimens in high temperature flux module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, M.; Jacquet, P.; Chaouadi, R.

    2011-02-15

    This report describes the progress made in IFREC/DEMO Research and Development Program during the year 2010 at SCK/CEN. This task is part of demonstrating the possibility to irradiate small specimens in the HFTM modules that will be used in DEMO. Different small specimens of three candidate materials of DEMO fusion reactor will be irradiated with the objective of validating the specimen geometry and size to reliably characterize the mechanical properties of unirradiated and in future of irradiated materials.

  10. Reconceptualising the external validity of discrete choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancsar, Emily; Swait, Joffre

    2014-10-01

    External validity is a crucial but under-researched topic when considering using discrete choice experiment (DCE) results to inform decision making in clinical, commercial or policy contexts. We present the theory and tests traditionally used to explore external validity that focus on a comparison of final outcomes and review how this traditional definition has been empirically tested in health economics and other sectors (such as transport, environment and marketing) in which DCE methods are applied. While an important component, we argue that the investigation of external validity should be much broader than a comparison of final outcomes. In doing so, we introduce a new and more comprehensive conceptualisation of external validity, closely linked to process validity, that moves us from the simple characterisation of a model as being or not being externally valid on the basis of predictive performance, to the concept that external validity should be an objective pursued from the initial conceptualisation and design of any DCE. We discuss how such a broader definition of external validity can be fruitfully used and suggest innovative ways in which it can be explored in practice.

  11. SAS validation and analysis of in-pile TUCOP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morman, J.A.; Tentner, A.M.; Dever, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The validation of the SAS4A accident analysis code centers on its capability to calculate the wide range of tests performed in the TREAT (Transient Reactor Test Facility) in-pile experiments program. This paper presents the SAS4A analysis of a simulated TUCOP (Transient-Under-Cooled-Over-Power) experiment using seven full-length PFR mixed oxide fuel pins in a flowing sodium loop. Calculations agree well with measured thermal-hydraulic, pin failure time and post-failure fuel motion data. The extent of the agreement confirms the validity of the models used in the SAS4A code to describe TUCOP accidents

  12. Food irradiation: Technology transfer in Asia, practical experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.

    1993-10-01

    Nordion International Inc., in cooperation with the Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) recently completed a unique food irradiation technology transfer project in Thailand. This complete food irradiation technology transfer project included the design and construction of an automatic multipurpose irradiation facility as well as the services of construction and installation management and experts in facility operation, maintenance and training. This paper provides an insight into the many events that led to the succesful conclusion of the world's first complete food irradiation technology transfer project.

  13. Food irradiation: technology transfer in Asia, practical experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1993-01-01

    Nordion International Inc., in cooperation with the Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) recently completed a unique food irradiation technology transfer project in Thailand. This complete food irradiation technology transfer project included the design and construction of an automatic multipurpose irradiation facility as well as the services of construction and installation management and experts in facility operation, maintenance and training. This paper provides an insight into the many events that led to the successful conclusion of the world's first complete food irradiation technology transfer project. (Author)

  14. Construction and Initial Validation of the Multiracial Experiences Measure (MEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Jackson, Kelly; Guevarra, Rudy P.; Miller, Matthew J.; Harrington, Blair

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Multiracial Experiences Measure (MEM): a new measure that assesses uniquely racialized risks and resiliencies experienced by individuals of mixed racial heritage. Across two studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 25-item MEM with 5 subscales including Shifting Expressions, Perceived Racial Ambiguity, Creating Third Space, Multicultural Engagement, and Multiracial Discrimination. The 5-subscale structure of the MEM was supported by a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Evidence of criterion-related validity was partially supported with MEM subscales correlating with measures of racial diversity in one’s social network, color-blind racial attitude, psychological distress, and identity conflict. Evidence of discriminant validity was supported with MEM subscales not correlating with impression management. Implications for future research and suggestions for utilization of the MEM in clinical practice with multiracial adults are discussed. PMID:26460977

  15. Validation of a new design of tellurium dioide-irradiated target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fllaoui, Aziz; Ghamad, Younes; Zoubir, Brahim; Ayaz, Zinel Abidine; El Morabiti, Aissam; Amayoud, Hafid [Centre National de l' Energie des Sciences et des Techniques Nucleaires, Rabat (Morocco); Chakir, El Mahjoub [Nuclear Physics Department, University Ibn Toufail, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2016-10-15

    Production of iodine-131 by neutron activation of tellurium in tellurium dioxide (TeO{sub 2}) material requires a target that meets the safety requirements. In a radiopharmaceutical production unit, a new lid for a can was designed, which permits tight sealing of the target by using tungsten inert gas welding. The leakage rate of all prepared targets was assessed using a helium mass spectrometer. The accepted leakage rate is ≤ 10 - 4 mbr.L/s, according to the approved safety report related to iodine-131 production in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor (TRIGA: Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics). To confirm the resistance of the new design to the irradiation conditions in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor's central thimble, a study of heat effect on the sealed targets for 7 hours in an oven was conducted and the leakage rates were evaluated. The results show that the tightness of the targets is ensured up to 600 .deg. C with the appearance of deformations on lids beyond 450 .deg. C. The study of heat transfer through the target was conducted by adopting a one-dimensional approximation, under consideration of the three transfer modes-convection, conduction, and radiation. The quantities of heat generated by gamma and neutron heating were calculated by a validated computational model for the neutronic simulation of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code. Using the heat transfer equations according to the three modes of heat transfer, the thermal study of I-131 production by irradiation of the target in the central thimble showed that the temperatures of materials do not exceed the corresponding melting points. To validate this new design, several targets have been irradiated in the central thimble according to a preplanned irradiation program, going from 4 hours of irradiation at a power level of 0.5 MW up to 35 hours (7 h/d for 5 days a week) at 1.5 MW. The results show that the irradiated targets are

  16. Validation of a New Design of Tellurium Dioxide-Irradiated Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Fllaoui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of iodine-131 by neutron activation of tellurium in tellurium dioxide (TeO2 material requires a target that meets the safety requirements. In a radiopharmaceutical production unit, a new lid for a can was designed, which permits tight sealing of the target by using tungsten inert gas welding. The leakage rate of all prepared targets was assessed using a helium mass spectrometer. The accepted leakage rate is ≤ 10−4 mbr.L/s, according to the approved safety report related to iodine-131 production in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor (TRIGA: Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics. To confirm the resistance of the new design to the irradiation conditions in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor's central thimble, a study of heat effect on the sealed targets for 7 hours in an oven was conducted and the leakage rates were evaluated. The results show that the tightness of the targets is ensured up to 600°C with the appearance of deformations on lids beyond 450°C. The study of heat transfer through the target was conducted by adopting a one-dimensional approximation, under consideration of the three transfer modes—convection, conduction, and radiation. The quantities of heat generated by gamma and neutron heating were calculated by a validated computational model for the neutronic simulation of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code. Using the heat transfer equations according to the three modes of heat transfer, the thermal study of I-131 production by irradiation of the target in the central thimble showed that the temperatures of materials do not exceed the corresponding melting points. To validate this new design, several targets have been irradiated in the central thimble according to a preplanned irradiation program, going from 4 hours of irradiation at a power level of 0.5 MW up to 35 hours (7 h/d for 5 days a week at 1.5 MW. The results show that the irradiated targets are

  17. The Mistra experiment for field containment code validation first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron-Charles, M.; Blumenfeld, L.

    2001-01-01

    The MISTRA facility is a large scale experiment, designed for the purpose of thermal-hydraulics multi-D codes validation. A short description of the facility, the set up of the instrumentation and the test program are presented. Then, the first experimental results, studying helium injection in the containment and their calculations are detailed. (author)

  18. Validation of KENO V.a: Comparison with critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.C.; Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.

    1986-12-01

    Section 1 of this report documents the validation of KENO V.a against 258 critical experiments. Experiments considered were primarily high or low enriched uranium systems. The results indicate that the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Criticality Program accurately calculates a broad range of critical experiments. A substantial number of the calculations showed a positive or negative bias in excess of 1 1/2% in k-effective (k/sub eff/). Classes of criticals which show a bias include 3% enriched green blocks, highly enriched uranyl fluoride slab arrays, and highly enriched uranyl nitrate arrays. If these biases are properly taken into account, the KENO V.a code can be used with confidence for the design and criticality safety analysis of uranium-containing systems. Sections 2 of this report documents the results of investigation into the cause of the bias observed in Sect. 1. The results of this study indicate that the bias seen in Sect. 1 is caused by code bias, cross-section bias, reporting bias, and modeling bias. There is evidence that many of the experiments used in this validation and in previous validations are not adequately documented. The uncertainty in the experimental parameters overshadows bias caused by the code and cross sections and prohibits code validation to better than about 1% in k/sub eff/. 48 refs., 19 figs., 19 tabs

  19. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  20. Practical experiences with irradiation of laboratory animals' feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiker, D.

    1979-01-01

    The increasing need for well-defined, standardized experimental animals for research has led to the development of many new methods of keeping the animals free from pathogenic microorganisms. In this connection the problem of contaminated food has taken on ever greater significance. The methods most commonly used today, namely chemical treatment and heat treatment of the fodder, have many disadvantages and interest in the use of radiation sterilization has accordingly increased. The author discusses the various aspects of this method in relation to SPF animals and reports on the three years' experience of the Research Institute for Experimental Animal Breeding (University of Vienna) in Himberg with the use of exclusively radiation-treated diets in the rearing of rats and mice. The ease of handling irradiated fodder, the reliability of the method from the microbiological point of view and the excellent breeding results already obtained make this process - despite its somewhat higher cost - the best possible method of pasteurizing the feed of experimental animals. (author)

  1. Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Nuclear Science and Technology Dept.; Brown, N. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Nuclear Science and Technology Dept.; Baek, J. S [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Nuclear Science and Technology Dept.; Hanson, A. L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Nuclear Science and Technology Dept.; Cuadra, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Nuclear Science and Technology Dept.; Cheng, L. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Nuclear Science and Technology Dept.; Diamond, D. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Nuclear Science and Technology Dept.

    2014-04-30

    It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-Enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size-Plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). A summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented. Fuel element tolerance assumptions and hot channel factors used in the safety analysis are also given.

  2. Tritium extraction mechanisms from lithium aluminates during in pile irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briec, M.; Roth, E.

    1987-04-01

    The principal aim was to determine ranges of parameters governing tritium release from γ lithium aluminates within which acceptable rates for their contemplated usage as tritium breeder material in a fusion reactor blanket could be obtained. in the first place values of every quantity involved should be known as well as possible. Reproducible results should be a criterium of validity of the selected parameters. It is shown from a description of a series of experiments that processes limiting tritium release rates are not the same in different temperature ranges. By varying the composition of purge gases used for tritium extraction, the level of irradiation fluxes, and by studying simultaneously samples of different textures, results were obtained and an assignment of the respective role of defect formation, texture, surface effect is attempted to interpret them

  3. Irradiation experiments and materials testing capabilities in High Flux Reactor in Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzginova, N.; Blagoeva, D.; Hegeman, H.; Van der Laan, J.

    2011-01-01

    The text of publication follows: The High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten is a powerful multi-purpose research and materials testing reactor operating for about 280 Full Power Days per year. In combination with hot cells facilities, HFR provides irradiation and post-irradiation examination services requested by nuclear energy research and development programs, as well as by industry and research organizations. Using a variety of the custom developed irradiation devices and a large experience in executing irradiation experiments, the HFR is suitable for fuel, materials and components testing for different reactor types. Irradiation experiments carried out at the HFR are mainly focused on the understanding of the irradiation effects on materials; and providing databases for irradiation behavior of materials to feed into safety cases. The irradiation experiments and materials testing at the HFR include the following issues. First, materials irradiation to support the nuclear plant life extensions, for instance, characterization of the reactor pressure vessel stainless steel claddings to insure structural integrity of the vessel, as well as irradiation of the weld material coupons to neutron fluence levels that are representative for Light Water Reactors (LWR) internals applications. Secondly, development and qualification of the structural materials for next generation nuclear fission reactors as well as thermo-nuclear fusion machines. The main areas of interest are in both conventional stainless steel and advanced reduced activation steels and special alloys such as Ni-base alloys. For instance safety-relevant aspects of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) such as the integrity of fuel and structural materials with increasing neutron fluence at typical HTR operating conditions has been recently assessed. Thirdly, support of the fuel safety through several fuel irradiation experiments including testing of pre-irradiated LWR fuel rods containing UO 2 or MOX fuel. Fourthly

  4. The French post irradiation examination database for the validation of depletion calculation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roque, Benedicte; Marimbeau, Pierre; Bioux, Philippe; Toubon, Herve; Daudin, Lucien

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental programmes conducted in France by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in order to validate spent fuel inventory calculations for core studies as well as fuel cycle studies. This large experimental programme was obtained in collaboration with our French partners, Electricite de France (EDF), FRAMATOME-ANP and COGEMA. The experimental data are based on chemical analysis measurements from fuel rod cuts irradiated in French reactors for PWR-UOx and MOx fuels, then dissolved in CEA laboratories, and from full assembly dissolutions at the COGEMA/La Hague reprocessing plants for UOx fuels. This enables us to cover a large range of UOx fuels with various enrichments in 235 U, 3.1% to 4.5%, associated with burnups from 10 GWd/t to 60 GWd/t. Recently, MOx fuels have also been investigated, with an initial Pu amount in the central zone of 5.6% and a maximum burnup of 45 GWd/t. Uranium, Plutonium, Americium, Curium isotopes and some fission products were analysed. Furthermore, Fission Products involved in Burn up Credit studies were measured. The experimental database contains also data for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) with irradiated samples of BWR 9x9 and full BWR assemblies dissolutions. Furthermore some data exist for Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) with small samples irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. An overview of ongoing programmes is also presented. (author)

  5. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge; bacteriological and parasitological studies after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wizigmann, I.

    1976-01-01

    Reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge in a pilot plant ( 60 Co gamma-radiation 300 krad, 300 min.). The reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 23 sludge batches from digestor II, 21 were free of Salmonella after irradiation. Of 7 sludge batches from digester I with higher level of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonellae 5 batches still contained Salmonella after treatment. By making some alterations in the pipe system and reloading futher Cobalt 60-sources the duration of irradiation could be reduced to 65 min. while maintaining the dose level of 300 krad. Employing this altered procedure 16 batches from digestor II and 4 from digestor I were irradiated to date. Only in one of 60 samples was Salmonella detectable. The hygenic effects of the irradiation unit were confirmed by means of a model experiment with bacterial pure cultures. Microorganisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their radiation-sensitivity. Parasitological experiments were conducted with Ascaris suum ova. No embryonation was noted after radiation treatment at a dose of 300 krad. (author)

  6. Irradiation process validation in the new conveyor system installed at PISI: special dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantano, Barbara P.; Docters, Andrea S.

    2009-01-01

    Semi Industrial Irradiation Plant (PISI) is a multipurpose facility which uses 60 Co sources to treat different products with numerous purposes, such as sterilization of medical devices, pharmaceutical and veterinarian products; control of pathogenic microorganisms, shelf-life extension and insect disinfestation of food, among others. In order to achieve the desired effect, the product is carried inside the irradiation chamber by means of a conveyor system, and it is exposed to radiation following a pre-established path. The recent installation of a new conveyor system at PISI demands the execution of a thorough validation programme. The scope of this presentation is to describe the dose mapping tasks that will be performed in order to characterize the irradiator and its new conveyor system with respect to distribution and variability of dose, complying with international standards on good irradiation practices. Information about the distribution and variability of dose in a product irradiated under defined conditions will allow the obtaining of process parameters which will conform the process specifications in future routine irradiations. The initial stages of the Validation Programme are the Installation Qualification, the Operational Qualification (OQ) and the Performance Qualification (PQ). To accomplish the IQ diverse tests are being carried out at PISI in order to verify that the system has been installed and is operating according to its technical specifications. Both OQ and PQ require dose mapping on simulated and real product, respectively. Dose mapping consists on placing dosimeters on a process load of homogeneous material -under certain irradiator and process parameters- according to a three-dimensional pre-established placement pattern. Since the replacement of the conveyor system introduces a significant modification in the source-to-product geometry, therefore in dose distribution, there is no reference dosimetry data available, so a more exhaustive

  7. Validating the BISON fuel performance code to integral LWR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, R.L., E-mail: Richard.Williamson@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Gamble, K.A., E-mail: Kyle.Gamble@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Perez, D.M., E-mail: Danielle.Perez@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Novascone, S.R., E-mail: Stephen.Novascone@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Pastore, G., E-mail: Giovanni.Pastore@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Gardner, R.J., E-mail: Russell.Gardner@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Hales, J.D., E-mail: Jason.Hales@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Liu, W., E-mail: Wenfeng.Liu@anatech.com [ANATECH Corporation, 5435 Oberlin Dr., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Mai, A., E-mail: Anh.Mai@anatech.com [ANATECH Corporation, 5435 Oberlin Dr., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The BISON multidimensional fuel performance code is being validated to integral LWR experiments. • Code and solution verification are necessary prerequisites to validation. • Fuel centerline temperature comparisons through all phases of fuel life are very reasonable. • Accuracy in predicting fission gas release is consistent with state-of-the-art modeling and the involved uncertainties. • Rod diameter comparisons are not satisfactory and further investigation is underway. - Abstract: BISON is a modern finite element-based nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) since 2009. The code is applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior and has been used to analyze a variety of fuel forms in 1D spherical, 2D axisymmetric, or 3D geometries. Code validation is underway and is the subject of this study. A brief overview of BISON's computational framework, governing equations, and general material and behavioral models is provided. BISON code and solution verification procedures are described, followed by a summary of the experimental data used to date for validation of Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Validation comparisons focus on fuel centerline temperature, fission gas release, and rod diameter both before and following fuel-clad mechanical contact. Comparisons for 35 LWR rods are consolidated to provide an overall view of how the code is predicting physical behavior, with a few select validation cases discussed in greater detail. Results demonstrate that (1) fuel centerline temperature comparisons through all phases of fuel life are very reasonable with deviations between predictions and experimental data within ±10% for early life through high burnup fuel and only slightly out of these bounds for power ramp experiments, (2) accuracy in predicting fission gas release appears to be consistent with state-of-the-art modeling and with the involved uncertainties and (3) comparison

  8. Irradiation creep experiments on fusion reactor candidate structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, H.; Cundy, M.R.; Schuele, W.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation creep rates were determined for annealed and cold-worked AMCR- and 316-type steel alloys in the high flux reactor at Petten, for various irradiation temperatures, stresses and for neutron doses up to 4 dpa. Primary creep elongations were found in all annealed materials. A negative creep elongation was found in cold-worked materials for stresses equal to or below about 100 MPa. An increase of the negative creep elongation is found for decreasing irradiation temperatures and decreasing applied stresses. The stress exponent of the irradiation creep rate in annealed and cold-worked AMCR alloys is n = 1.85 and n = 1.1, respectively. The creep rates of cold-worked AMCR alloys are almost temperature independent over the range investigated (573-693 K). The results obtained in the HFR at Petten are compared with those obtained in ORR and EBR II. The smallest creep rates are found for cold-worked materials of AMCR- and US-PCA-type at Petten which are about a factor two smaller than the creep rates obtained of US-316 at Petten or for US-PCA at ORR or for 316L at EBR II. The scatter band factor for US-PCA, 316L, US-316 irradiated in ORR and EBR II is about 1.5 after a temperature and damage rate normalization

  9. Experience in Cuba in the licensing during import, commissioning and operation of an Irradiator LLCo ISOGAMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forteza, Yamil Lopez; Reyes, Yolanda Perez; Garcia, Jose R. Quevedo; Molina, Igor I. Sarabia; Gonzalez, Leonel Omarovich; Zubiaur, Omar Cruz

    2013-01-01

    This work presented the experiences during the process of licensing an irradiator ISOGAMMA LLCo model according to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy (IAEA). Aspects of the safety assessment are detailed, as well as control and verification requirements for radiation safety and security at different stages of the process (import, transportation, installation irradiator loading 60Co sources, commissioning and operation) of irradiator recently installed in Cuba. The results of the evaluation carried a source of reference and consultation necessary for the work of the regulator to consider for similar processes that lie ahead in other facilities irradiation

  10. Overview of the FUTURIX-FTA Irradiation Experiment in the Phénix Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heather J.M. Chichester; Steve L. Hayes; Kenneth J. McClellan; Jean-Luc Paul; Marc Masson; Stewart L. Voit; Fabienne Delage

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign utilizes the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) for most of its irradiation testing. Cadmium-shrouded baskets are used in ATR to modify the neutron spectrum to simulate a fast reactor environment for the fuel. FUTURIX-FTA is an irradiation experiment conducted in the Phenix fast reactor in France. Results from FUTURIX-FTA and irradiation tests in ATR using identical fuel compositions will be compared to identify and evaluate any differences in fuel behavior due to differences in the irradiation source.

  11. Experiences of an international trade action with irradiated onions between GDR and Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariev, G.; Kiss, I.; Luther, T.; Huebner, G.; Doellstaedt, R.

    1988-01-01

    Extensive work has been carried out in the field of food irradiation in the GDR and Hungary in recent years. The irradiation of onions for sprout inhibition has reached a commercial stage in the GDR of more than 5,000 tons in 1986. The export of onions is the first example of international trade in irradiated food between socialist countries. Experiences of this trade is presented in the paper. Results of quality control of the bulbs (losses in weight an quality) after an intermediate storage period are discussed. Hungarian consumer reactions to irradiated onions is also evaluated. (author)

  12. ORR irradiation experiment OF-1: accelerated testing of HTGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Long, E.L. Jr.; Kania, M.J.; Thoms, K.R.; Allen, E.J.

    1977-08-01

    The OF-1 capsule, the first in a series of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel irradiations in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor, was irradiated for more than 9300 hr at full reactor power (30 MW). Peak fluences of 1.08 x 10 22 neutrons/cm 2 (> 0.18 MeV) were achieved. General Atomic Company's magazine P13Q occupied the upper two-thirds of the test space and the ORNL magazine OF-1 the lower one-third. The ORNL portion tested various HTGR recycle particles and fuel bonding matrices at accelerated flux levels under reference HTGR irradiation conditions of temperature, temperature gradient, and fast fluence exposure

  13. Experiments on the superficial irradiation of spherical vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, B.; Kiraly, Z.

    1974-01-01

    A revolving facility was made for the homogeneous superficial irradiation of spherical vegetables and fruits (apricot, peach, tomato, apple, etc.) with fast electrons. After the building of the technological apparatus described in detail, dosimetrical measurements were carried out by a Van de Graff generator of 2 MV and it was proved, that the superficial irradiation had a smaller effect on the quality of the fresh fruits, than of the stored ones. The developed apparatus can be altered according to the ripe-rate of the products. (K.A.)

  14. Neutron irradiation of RPCs for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Belli, G; Bruno, G; Colaleo, A; Guida, R; Iaselli, G; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F

    2003-01-01

    All the CMS muon stations will be equipped with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs). They will be exposed to high neutron background environment during the LHC running. In order to verify the safe operation of these detectors, an irradiation test has been carried out with two RPCs at high neutron flux (about 10**8 n cm**-**2 s**- **1), integrating values of dose and fluence equivalent to 10 LHC- years. Before and after the irradiation, the performance of the detectors was studied with cosmic muons, showing no relevant aging effects. Moreover, no indication of damage or chemical changes were observed on the electrode surfaces.

  15. Neutron irradiation of RPCs for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G. E-mail: gabriella.pugliese@ba.infn.it; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Altieri, S.; Belli, G.; Bruno, G.; Guida, R.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P

    2003-08-01

    All the CMS muon stations will be equipped with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs). They will be exposed to high neutron background environment during the LHC running. In order to verify the safe operation of these detectors, an irradiation test has been carried out with two RPCs at high neutron flux (about 10{sup 8} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}), integrating values of dose and fluence equivalent to 10 LHC-years. Before and after the irradiation, the performance of the detectors was studied with cosmic muons, showing no relevant aging effects. Moreover, no indication of damage or chemical changes were observed on the electrode surfaces.

  16. Disruption Tolerant Networking Flight Validation Experiment on NASA's EPOXI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Jay; Burleigh, Scott; Jones, Ross; Torgerson, Leigh; Wissler, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In October and November of 2008, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. This experiment, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET), was performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. During DINET some 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. All transmitted bundles were successfully received, without corruption. The DINET experiment demonstrated DTN readiness for operational use in space missions. This activity was part of a larger NASA space DTN development program to mature DTN to flight readiness for a wide variety of mission types by the end of 2011. This paper describes the DTN protocols, the flight demo implementation, validation metrics which were created for the experiment, and validation results.

  17. Experience in marketing irradiated food in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, C.P.N.

    1983-01-01

    South Africa is acknowledged as being one of the leaders in the field of food irradiation. This paper will be divided into three major sections: 1. A background of South African radiation facilities, population demographics and the retail market. 2. Commercial marketing trials, reasons and consumer reaction. 3. The future of radiation for possible food processing and its safe introduction to society

  18. Experience with irradiation of table potatoes in the CSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the years 1976 to 1980 the effect of gamma radiation on potatoes was tested. The following parameters were monitored: weight losses of tubers, sprouting and weight of sprouts, changes in chemical composition of tubers, the development of storage diseases and the interest of consumers in irradiated potatoes. The tests were made on 5 potato species. Irradiation was carried out in three time intervals with 60 Gy, 100 Gy and 150 Gy applied from a source with an activity of 4.07x10 14 Bq. Weight losses were on average higher in irradiated potatoes than in the control group. Positive was the reduced sprouting rate at 100 Gy. No substantial changes were found in chemical composition. The development of storage diseases was found to be more dependent on previous gathering and sorting, in some species it increased after irradiation in others it dropped after the 100 Gy dose. The inquiry failed and the potatoes were sold without the buyers having expressed their views. (J.P.)

  19. Stereotactic gamma irradiation of basilar artery in cat. Preliminary experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, A; Wennerstrand, J; Leksell, D; Backlund, E O [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    Irradiation of the basilar artery of cats by stereotactic technique was performed with doses varying from 100 to 300 Gy in a gamma unit. Histologically, vascular lesions such as vacuolization, degeneration and desquamation of the endothelium and hyalinization and necrosis of the muscular coat predominated, whereas reparatory reactions were relatively sparse. Thrombosis was completely absent.

  20. Determination of effective cross sections and production rates for tritium in the irradiation experiment TRIDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, L.

    1986-04-01

    In the framework of the development of a fusion reactor blanket the irradiation experiment TRIDEX (Tritium Recovery Irradiation DIDO Experiment) takes place at the Juelich Research Reactor FRJ-2 (DIDO). For this equipment the required neutronic calculations have been performed. The aim was the determination of the neutron spectrum and several therefrom derived integral parameters for the irradiation positions in interest. From the calculated effective cross sections for the formation of Tritium resulting from irradiated Lithium samples on one hand and from measured neutron flux densities on the other hand, all needed quantities of the Tritium production could be determined. The calculation of the neutron spectrum has been performed in a two-dimensional x-y-geometry. The neutron flux densities have been gained by gamma-spectrometric measurement of the activities in irradiated activation samples. (orig.) [de

  1. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge: Bacteriological and parasitological studies after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wizigmann, I.; Wuersching, F.

    1975-01-01

    Comparative bacteriological studies of sewage sludge in a sewage plant have demonstrated that mechanical-biological sewage treatment reduced the total bacterial count and those of Enterococces by 2 log and the Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 log. Frequently Salmonella could be isolated from sewage sludge. A further reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge ( 60 Co, gamma-radiation, 260 krad, 210 min). This reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count, and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 40 samples investigated after irradiation, two contained Salmonella. The hygienic effects of the irradiation unit were demonstrated by means of a model experiment with bacterial pure cultures. Micro-organisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their sensitivity to irradiation. Parasitological experiments with eggs of Ascaris suum were carried out to test the inhibitory or killing ability of the gamma rays on the developing stages of parasites

  2. Actinide nitride ceramic transmutation fuels for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, St.; McClellan, K.; Stanek, Ch.; Maloy, St.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The transmutation of plutonium and other minor actinides is an important component of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is currently considering mono-nitrides as potential transmutation fuel material on account of the mutual solubility of actinide mono-nitrides as well as their desirable thermal characteristics. The feedstock is most commonly produced by a carbothermic reduction/nitridisation process, as it is for this programme. Fuel pellet fabrication is accomplished via a cold press/sinter approach. In order to allow for easier investigation of the synthesis and fabrication processes, surrogate material studies are used to compliment the actinide activities. Fuel compositions of particular interest denoted as low fertile (i.e. containing uranium) and non-fertile (i.e. not containing uranium) are (PuAmNp) 0.5 U 0.5 N and (PuAm) 0.42 Zr 0.58 N, respectively. The AFCI programme is investigating the validity of these fuel forms via Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and Phenix irradiations. Here, we report on the recent progress of actinide-nitride transmutation fuel development and production for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment. Furthermore, we highlight specific cases where the complimentary approach of surrogate studies and actinide development aid in the understanding complex material issues. In order to allow for easier investigation of the fundamental materials properties, surrogate materials have been used. The amount of surrogate in each compound was determined by comparing both molar concentration and lattice parameter mismatch via Vegard Law. Cerium was chosen to simultaneously substitute for Pu, Am and Np, while depleted U was chosen to substitute for enriched U. Another goal of this work was the optimisation of added graphite during carbothermic reduction in order to minimise the duration of the carbon removal step (i.e. heat treatment under H 2 containing gas). One proposed

  3. Validity of reciprocity rule on mouse skin thermal damage due to CO2 laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, P.; Dehghanpour, H. R.; Moghadam, M. S.; Daneshafrooz, V.

    2013-07-01

    CO2 laser (10.6 μm) is a well-known infrared coherent light source as a tool in surgery. At this wavelength there is a high absorbance coefficient (860 cm-1), because of vibration mode resonance of H2O molecules. Therefore, the majority of the irradiation energy is absorbed in the tissue and the temperature of the tissue rises as a function of power density and laser exposure duration. In this work, the tissue damage caused by CO2 laser (1-10 W, ˜40-400 W cm-2, 0.1-6 s) was measured using 30 mouse skin samples. Skin damage assessment was based on measurements of the depth of cut, mean diameter of the crater and the carbonized layer. The results show that tissue damage as assessed above parameters increased with laser fluence and saturated at 1000 J cm-2. Moreover, the damage effect due to high power density at short duration was not equivalent to that with low power density at longer irradiation time even though the energy delivered was identical. These results indicate the lack of validity of reciprocity (Bunsen-Roscoe) rule for the thermal damage.

  4. Site characterization and validation - Tracer migration experiment in the validation drift, report 2, part 1: performed experiments, results and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Neretnieks, I.; Moreno, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report is the second of the two reports describing the tracer migration experiment where water and tracer flow has been monitored in a drift at the 385 m level in the Stripa experimental mine. The tracer migration experiment is one of a large number of experiments performed within the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) project. The upper part of the 50 m long validation drift was covered with approximately 150 plastic sheets, in which the emerging water was collected. The water emerging into the lower part of the drift was collected in short boreholes, sumpholes. Sex different tracer mixtures were injected at distances between 10 and 25 m from the drift. The flowrate and tracer monitoring continued for ten months. Tracer breakthrough curves and flowrate distributions were used to study flow paths, velocities, hydraulic conductivities, dispersivities, interaction with the rock matrix and channelling effects within the rock. The present report describes the structure of the observations, the flowrate measurements and estimated hydraulic conductivities. The main part of this report addresses the interpretation of the tracer movement in fractured rock. The tracer movement as measured by the more than 150 individual tracer curves has been analysed with the traditional advection-dispersion model and a subset of the curves with the advection-dispersion-diffusion model. The tracer experiments have permitted the flow porosity, dispersion and interaction with the rock matrix to be studied. (57 refs.)

  5. Combining in situ transmission electron microscopy irradiation experiments with cluster dynamics modeling to study nanoscale defect agglomeration in structural metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Donghua; Wirth, Brian D.; Li Meimei; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a combinatorial approach that integrates state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in situ irradiation experiments and high-performance computing techniques to study irradiation defect dynamics in metals. Here, we have studied the evolution of visible defect clusters in nanometer-thick molybdenum foils under 1 MeV krypton ion irradiation at 80 °C through both cluster dynamics modeling and in situ TEM experiments. The experimental details are reported elsewhere; we focus here on the details of model construction and comparing the model with the experiments. The model incorporates continuous production of point defects and/or small clusters, and the accompanying interactions, which include clustering, recombination and loss to the surfaces that result from the diffusion of the mobile defects. To account for the strong surface effect in thin TEM foils, the model includes one-dimensional spatial dependence along the foil depth, and explicitly treats the surfaces as black sinks. The rich amount of data (cluster number density and size distribution at a variety of foil thickness, irradiation dose and dose rate) offered by the advanced in situ experiments has allowed close comparisons with computer modeling and permitted significant validation and optimization of the model in terms of both physical model construct (damage production mode, identities of mobile defects) and parameterization (diffusivities of mobile defects). The optimized model exhibits good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the in situ TEM experiments. The combinatorial approach is expected to bring a unique opportunity for the study of radiation damage in structural materials.

  6. Validation method training: nurses' experiences and ratings of work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Mona; Norberg, Astrid; Hansebo, Görel

    2014-03-01

    Training nursing staff in communication skills can impact on the quality of care for residents with dementia and contributes to nurses' job satisfaction. Changing attitudes and practices takes time and energy and can affect the entire nursing staff, not just the nurses directly involved in a training programme. Therefore, it seems important to study nurses' experiences of a training programme and any influence of the programme on work climate among the entire nursing staff. To explore nurses' experiences of a 1-year validation method training programme conducted in a nursing home for residents with dementia and to describe ratings of work climate before and after the programme. A mixed-methods approach. Twelve nurses participated in the training and were interviewed afterwards. These individual interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed, then analysed using qualitative content analysis. The Creative Climate Questionnaire was administered before (n = 53) and after (n = 56) the programme to the entire nursing staff in the participating nursing home wards and analysed with descriptive statistics. Analysis of the interviews resulted in four categories: being under extra strain, sharing experiences, improving confidence in care situations and feeling uncertain about continuing the validation method. The results of the questionnaire on work climate showed higher mean values in the assessment after the programme had ended. The training strengthened the participating nurses in caring for residents with dementia, but posed an extra strain on them. These nurses also described an extra strain on the entire nursing staff that was not reflected in the results from the questionnaire. The work climate at the nursing home wards might have made it easier to conduct this extensive training programme. Training in the validation method could develop nurses' communication skills and improve their handling of complex care situations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Achievements of Japanese fuel irradiation experiments in HBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    OECD NEA Halden Reactor Project started in 1958, and JAERI has been participated in the Project since 1967 on behalf of Japanese Government. During the participation period, not only JAERI but also many Japanese companies and PNC, which cooperated with JAERI, have carried out many irradiation tests of fuel at HBWR. The Committee of the Halden Joint Research Programme was organized by agencies and companies, which joined the cooperative researches, and the committee has worked to promote the cooperative researches. This report summarizes the achievements of the Halden Joint Research Programme on fuel irradiation tests between Jan. 1988 and Dec. 1990., as the Halden Project renews the agreement every three years. Some researches, which have not yet been completed in the period, are also included in this report. (author)

  8. Innovations on the workplace of the irradiation experiments group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamrad, B.

    1978-01-01

    EROS-76, the electronic control system for irradiation probes at UJV Rez is described. Irradiation probes of the CHOUCA-T type are used, each with a separate control system placed in a self-contained cabinet. Experimental parameters are automatically monitored in preset time intervals by an electric typewriter and are simultaneously punched on tape. Operating parameters are recorded by analog instruments and are used for equipment function checks. An operation log is part of the whole system. The EROS-76 system's operating capability and good function was well proven in experimental operation. Currently, stage two of the construction is under way named EROS-78. A brief description is given of the workplace construction including organization and personnel characteristics. (J.P.)

  9. Half-body irradiation-experience of size cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Carvalho, H. de; Aguilar, P.B.; Nadalin, W.; Weissberger, Y.; Scaff, L.A.M.; Lins, J.R.B.

    1990-01-01

    From 1983 to 1989, six patients with disseminated neoplastic disease non-responsive to conventional therapy were treated with palliative antialgic means. Three patients with breast cancer, two with prostate and one with Ewing's sarcoma received a total of eight treatments. The irradiation was first administered to the half-body presenting worst symptomatology. Total single dose of 800 cGy was delivered to the lower half-body and 600 cGy to the upper half-body. Pain relief was observed 24 to 48 hours after the irradiation in all patients. The haematological tolerance was good and deaths of these patients were not related to complications due to the radiation therapy. (author)

  10. Mock-up experiments for the project of high dose irradiation on the RPV concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdarek, J.; Brabec, P.; Frybort, O.; Lahodova, Z.; Vit, J.; Stemberk, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aging of NPP's concrete structures comes into growing interest in connection with solution of life extension programmes of operated units. Securing continued safe operation of NPPs calls for additional proofs of suitable long term behaviour of loaded reinforced concrete structures. An irradiation test of concrete samples was performed in the core of the LVR-15 reactor. The irradiation capsule was hung in the irradiation channel and the cooling of the capsule was ensured through direct contact of the capsule wall with the primary circuit water. Cylindrical, serpentine concrete samples (50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length), representing composition of WWER RPV cavity, was chosen as a compromise of mechanical properties testing needs and dimension limitations of reactor irradiation channel. Heating during irradiation test was maintained under 93 Celsius degrees by cooling and was controlled by embedded thermocouple. Design of the cooling management was supported by computational analysis. The dependencies of heated concrete samples to the neutron fluence and the gamma heating were obtained by changing the thermal power of the reactor and by changing the vertical position of the sample in the irradiation channel. The irradiation capsule was filled with inert gas (helium) to allow the measurement of generated gas. The determination of concrete samples activity for long-term irradiation was performed on the principles of the Neutron Activation Analysis. Preliminary mock-up tests have proved the ability to fulfill technical needs for planned high dose irradiation experiment

  11. Recovery of 233U from irradiated J rods - operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, K.; Natarajan, D.; Muthukumar, M.; Halder, Surajit; Jayakrishnan, G.; Selvarasan, M.; Kuppusamy, V.; Ganesan, V.; Vijayakumar, V.

    2000-01-01

    The first campaign of reprocessing was completed in 1988 and 233 U was delivered for fabrication of fuel for KAMINI. After revamping the facility, the second campaign was started in Dec 1998 and has processed some of the high density thoria rods from CIRUS successfully. Currently the campaign is in progress and it is planned to process the irradiated thorium rods from Dhruva. Interim 23 process selective to 233 U is adopted for separation of uranium from thorium and fission products

  12. Irradiation performance of HTGR fuel in HFIR experiment HRB-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-03-01

    Irradiation capsule HRB-13 tested High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel under accelerated conditions in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. The ORNL part of the capsule was designed to provide definitive results on how variously misshapen kernels affect the irradiation performance of weak-acid-resin (WAR)-derived fissile fuel particles. Two batches of WAR fissile fuel particles were Triso-coated and shape-separated into four different fractions according to their deviation from spericity, which ranged from 9.6 to 29.7%. The fissile particles were irradiated for 7721 h. Heavy-metal burnups ranged from 80 to 82.5% FIMA (fraction of initial heavy-metal atoms). Fast neutron fluences (>0.18 MeV) ranged from 4.9 x 10 25 neutrons/m 2 to 8.5 x 10 25 neutrons/m 2 . Postirradiation examination showed that the two batches of fissile particles contained chlorine, presumably introduced during deposition of the SiC coating

  13. Irradiation experience with HTGR fuels in the Peach Bottom Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, W.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1974-01-01

    Fuel performance in the Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is reviewed, including (1) the driver elements in the second core and (2) the test elements designed to test fuel for larger HTGR plants. Core 2 of this reactor, which is operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company, performed reliably with an average nuclear steam supply availability of 85 percent since its startup in July 1970. Core 2 had accumulated a total of 897.5 equivalent full power days (EFPD), almost exactly its design life-time of 900 EFPD, when the plant was shut down permanently on October 31, 1974. Gaseous fission product release and the activity of the main circulating loop remained significantly below the limits allowed by the technical specifications and the levels observed during operation of Core 1. The low circulating activity and postirradiation examination of driver fuel elements have demonstrated the improved irradiation stability of the coated fuel particles in Core 2. Irradiation data obtained from these tests substantiate the performance predictions based on accelerated tests and complement the fuel design effort by providing irradiation data in the low neutron fluence region

  14. Irradiation tests of THTR fuel elements in the DRAGON reactor (irradiation experiment DR-K3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burck, W.; Duwe, R.; Groos, E.; Mueller, H.

    1977-03-01

    Within the scope of the program 'Development of Spherical Fuel Elements for HTR', similar fuel elements (f.e.) have been irradiated in the DRAGON reactor. The f.e. were fabricated by NUKEM and were to be tested under HTR conditions to scrutinize their employability in the THTR. The fuel was in the form of coated particles moulded into A3 matrix. The kernels of the particles were made of mixed oxide of uranium and thorium with an U 235 enrichment of 90%. One aim of the post irradiation examination was the investigation of irradiation induced changes of mechanical properties (dimensional stability and elastic behaviour) and of the corrosion behaviour which were compared with the properties determined with unirradiated f.e. The measurement of the fission gas release in annealing tests and ceramografic examinations exhibited no damage of the coated particles. The measured concentration distribution of fission metals led to conclusions about their release. All results showed, that neither the coated particles nor the integral fuel spheres experienced any significant changes that could impair their utilization in the THTR. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict fission product release from tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of fission products in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of these fission products was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of about two, corresponding to an over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of about 100. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by an average of about an order of magnitude, which could additionally be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 30%. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-estimated by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release from intact particles varied considerably from compact to compact, making it difficult to assess the effective over-estimation of the diffusivities. Furthermore, the release of strontium from particles with failed SiC is difficult to observe experimentally due to the release from intact particles, preventing any conclusions to be made on the accuracy or validity of the

  16. Gamma streaming experiments for validation of Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilagam, L.; Mohapatra, D.K.; Subbaiah, K.V.; Iliyas Lone, M.; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2012-01-01

    In-homogeneities in shield structures lead to considerable amount of leakage radiation (streaming) increasing the radiation levels in accessible areas. Development works on experimental as well as computational methods for quantifying this streaming radiation are still continuing. Monte Carlo based radiation transport code, MCNP is usually a tool for modeling and analyzing such problems involving complex geometries. In order to validate this computational method for streaming analysis, it is necessary to carry out some experimental measurements simulating these inhomogeneities like ducts and voids present in the bulk shields for typical cases. The data thus generated will be analysed by simulating the experimental set up employing MCNP code and optimized input parameters for the code in finding solutions for similar radiation streaming problems will be formulated. Comparison of experimental data obtained from radiation streaming experiments through ducts will give a set of thumb rules and analytical fits for total radiation dose rates within and outside the duct. The present study highlights the validation of MCNP code through the gamma streaming experiments carried out with the ducts of various shapes and dimensions. Over all, the present study throws light on suitability of MCNP code for the analysis of gamma radiation streaming problems for all duct configurations considered. In the present study, only dose rate comparisons have been made. Studies on spectral comparison of streaming radiation are in process. Also, it is planned to repeat the experiments with various shield materials. Since the penetrations and ducts through bulk shields are unavoidable in an operating nuclear facility the results on this kind of radiation streaming simulations and experiments will be very useful in the shield structure optimization without compromising the radiation safety

  17. The behaviour of irradiated fuel under RIA transients: Interpretation of the CABRI experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, J.; Rigat, H.; Breton, J.P.; Schmitz, F.

    1996-01-01

    Paper presents the results of investigation of highly irradiated PWR fuel behaviour under fast power transients conducted in a sodium loop of CABRI reactor, as well as the results on development and validation of computer code SCANAIR. (author). 8 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Safety Assurance for Irradiating Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Tomberlin; S. B. Grover

    2004-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), was specifically designed to provide a high neutron flux test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. This paper addresses the safety assurance process for two general types of experiments conducted in the ATR facility and how the safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore, this type of experiment is addressed in more detail in the ATR safety basis. This allows the individual safety analysis for this type of experiment to be more standardized. The second type of experiment is defined in more general terms in the ATR safety basis and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, the individual safety analysis for the second type of experiment tends to be more unique and is tailored to each experiment.

  19. Safety Assurance for Irradiating Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. A. Tomberlin; S. B. Grover

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), was specifically designed to provide a high neutron flux test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. This paper addresses the safety assurance process for two general types of experiments conducted in the ATR facility and how the safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore, this type of experiment is addressed in more detail in the ATR safety basis. This allows the individual safety analysis for this type of experiment to be more standardized. The second type of experiment is defined in more general terms in the ATR safety basis and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, the individual safety analysis for the second type of experiment tends to be more unique and is tailored to each experiment

  20. Evaluation of the french test reactors irradiation embrittlement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miannay, D.; Dussarte, D.; Soulat, P.

    1988-07-01

    The shifts of CV 41J energy index temperatures due to irradiation measured in France have been stored in a data bank and are analysed. According to a simple physically based model which is here-after verified, correlations are proposed for Base Metal (BM) and Weld Metal (WM). The achemical and phosphorus components of the chemical factor are equivalent. However, nickel and copper play a leading part in BM and WM respectively. The copper nickel interaction is not evident. These correlations are for cleavage fracture and not for intergranular fracture. This work is subject to revision and extension

  1. Wholesomeness assessment of irradiated food and its radiolysis products. A review on history and validity of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    A brief history of food processes using irradiation is presented with focusing on such specific problems as possible induction of radioactivity by using high-energy X-rays or electron beams and possible formation of mutants or nutritive breakdown of the food. The basis of the argument is mainly the researches carried out in 1960's in USA and 1970's in UK and France, and also Food and Drug Administration (FDA) results on evaluation of wholesomeness of irradiated food using animal breeding during 1954 to 1980. An extensive study on safety test as food and qualifying test for nutrition carried out by the international project group (USA, France, West Germany, Netherlands, UK, and Japan) are also included as an important basis. The author concludes that the safety of food irradiation is well confirmed by continuous researches which have been widely done for these 60 years, as have been guaranteed by WHO. (S. Ohno)

  2. Design of an experiment to measure the decay heat of an irradiated PWR fuel: MERCI experiment; Conception d'une experience de mesure de la puissance residuelle d'un combustible irradie: l'experience MERCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourganel, St

    2002-11-01

    After a reactor shutdown, a significant quantity of energy known as 'decay heat' continues to be generated from the irradiated fuel. This heat source is due to the disintegration energy of fission products and actinides. Decay heat determination of an irradiated fuel is of the utmost importance for safety analysis as the design cooling systems, spent fuel transport, or handling. Furthermore, the uncertainty on decay heat has a straight economic impact. The unloading fuel spent time is an example. The purpose of MERCI experiment (irradiated fuel decay heat measurement) consists in qualifying computer codes, particularly the DARWIN code system developed by the CEA in relation to industrial organizations, as EDF, FRAMATOME and COGEMA. To achieve this goal, a UOX fuel is irradiated in the vicinity of the OSIRIS research reactor, and then the decay heat is measured by using a calorimeter. The objective is to reduce the decay heat uncertainties from 8% to 3 or 4% at short cooling times. A full simulation on computer of the MERCI experiment has been achieved: fuel irradiation analysis is performed using transport code TRIPOLI4 and evolution code DARWIN/PEPIN2, and heat transfer with CASTEM2000 code. The results obtained are used for the design of this experiment. Moreover, we propose a calibration procedure decreasing the influence of uncertainty measurements and an interpretation method of the experimental results and evaluation of associated uncertainties. (author)

  3. Design of an experiment to measure the decay heat of an irradiated PWR fuel: MERCI experiment; Conception d'une experience de mesure de la puissance residuelle d'un combustible irradie: l'experience MERCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourganel, St

    2002-11-01

    After a reactor shutdown, a significant quantity of energy known as 'decay heat' continues to be generated from the irradiated fuel. This heat source is due to the disintegration energy of fission products and actinides. Decay heat determination of an irradiated fuel is of the utmost importance for safety analysis as the design cooling systems, spent fuel transport, or handling. Furthermore, the uncertainty on decay heat has a straight economic impact. The unloading fuel spent time is an example. The purpose of MERCI experiment (irradiated fuel decay heat measurement) consists in qualifying computer codes, particularly the DARWIN code system developed by the CEA in relation to industrial organizations, as EDF, FRAMATOME and COGEMA. To achieve this goal, a UOX fuel is irradiated in the vicinity of the OSIRIS research reactor, and then the decay heat is measured by using a calorimeter. The objective is to reduce the decay heat uncertainties from 8% to 3 or 4% at short cooling times. A full simulation on computer of the MERCI experiment has been achieved: fuel irradiation analysis is performed using transport code TRIPOLI4 and evolution code DARWIN/PEPIN2, and heat transfer with CASTEM2000 code. The results obtained are used for the design of this experiment. Moreover, we propose a calibration procedure decreasing the influence of uncertainty measurements and an interpretation method of the experimental results and evaluation of associated uncertainties. (author)

  4. Irradiation-induced mutation experiments with eiploid and tetraploid tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tomato mutation experiments are described. The tomatoes used in the experiment were the diploid Reziszta and its autotetraploid variety. The experimental plants were exposed to an irradiation of 5000 rsd for 1-2 days, and after transplantation into the gamma field, to chronic irradiation during the whole growing season. The chronic treatment heavily reduced fertility in the generations of tetraploid tomato plants. Recurrent treatment of tetraploid led to further deterioration in fertility. Several berries were formed with few seeds or with no seeds at all. After three irradiations, the chlorophyll mutation frequency increased in the diploid and tetraploid tomato plants. For diploids, treatment applied at the seedling stage gave a lower chlorophyll mutation frequency. With tetraploids the same treatment induced similar chlorophyll mutation frequency. As regards to phenotypic variability of quantitative characteristics in diploid and tetraploid tomatoes, the single and repeated chronic irradiation induced no increase in the variability of properties like flowering time, weight, height etc. (author)

  5. Ceramography of Irradiated tristructural isotropic (TRISO) Fuel from the AGR-2 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Francine Joyce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Stempien, John Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Ceramography was performed on cross sections from four tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel compacts taken from the AGR-2 experiment, which was irradiated between June 2010 and October 2013 in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The fuel compacts examined in this study contained TRISO-coated particles with either uranium oxide (UO2) kernels or uranium oxide/uranium carbide (UCO) kernels that were irradiated to final burnup values between 9.0 and 11.1% FIMA. These examinations are intended to explore kernel and coating morphology evolution during irradiation. This includes kernel porosity, swelling, and migration, and irradiation-induced coating fracture and separation. Variations in behavior within a specific cross section, which could be related to temperature or burnup gradients within the fuel compact, are also explored. The criteria for categorizing post-irradiation particle morphologies developed for AGR-1 ceramographic exams, was applied to the particles in the AGR-2 compacts particles examined. Results are compared with similar investigations performed as part of the earlier AGR-1 irradiation experiment. This paper presents the results of the AGR-2 examinations and discusses the key implications for fuel irradiation performance.

  6. Irradiation capability of Japanese materials test reactor for water chemistry experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Satoshi; Hata, Kuniki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Nakamura, Takehiko

    2012-09-01

    Appropriate understanding of water chemistry in the core of LWRs is essential as chemical species generated due to water radiolysis by neutron and gamma-ray irradiation govern corrosive environment of structural materials in the core and its periphery, causing material degradation such as stress corrosion cracking. Theoretical model calculation such as water radiolysis calculation gives comprehensive understanding of water chemistry at irradiation field where we cannot directly monitor. For enhancement of the technology, accuracy verification of theoretical models under wide range of irradiation conditions, i.e. dose rate, temperature etc., with well quantified in-pile measurement data is essential. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has decided to launch water chemistry experiments for obtaining data that applicable to model verification as well as model benchmarking, by using an in-pile loop which will be installed in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). In order to clarify the irradiation capability of the JMTR for water chemistry experiments, preliminary investigations by water radiolysis / ECP model calculations were performed. One of the important irradiation conditions for the experiments, i.e. dose rate by neutron and gamma-ray, can be controlled by selecting irradiation position in the core. In this preliminary study, several representative irradiation positions that cover from highest to low absorption dose rate were chosen and absorption dose rate at the irradiation positions were evaluated by MCNP calculations. As a result of the calculations, it became clear that the JMTR could provide the irradiation conditions close to the BWR. The calculated absorption dose rate at each irradiation position was provided to water radiolysis calculations. The radiolysis calculations were performed under various conditions by changing absorption dose rate, water chemistry of feeding water etc. parametrically. Qualitatively, the concentration of H 2 O 2 , O 2 and

  7. Decay heat experiment and validation of calculation code systems for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro; Wada, Masayuki

    1999-10-01

    Although accurate estimation of decay heat value is essential for safety analyses of fusion reactors against loss of coolant accidents and so on, no experimental work has been devoted to validating the estimation. Hence, a decay heat measurement experiment was performed as a task (T-339) of ITER/EDA. A new detector, the Whole Energy Absorption Spectrometer (WEAS), was developed for accurate and efficient measurements of decay heat. Decay heat produced in the thirty-two sample materials which were irradiated by 14-MeV neutrons at FNS/JAERI were measured with WEAS for a wide cooling time period from 1 min to 400 days. The data presently obtained were the first experimental decay heat data in the field of fusion. Validity of decay heat calculation codes of ACT4 and CINAC-V4, activation cross section libraries of FENDL/A-2.0 and JENDL Activation File, and decay data was investigated through analyses of the experiment. As a result, several points that should be modified were found in the codes and data. After solving the problems, it was demonstrated that decay heat valued calculated for most of samples were in good agreement with the experimental data. Especially for stainless steel 316 and copper, which were important materials for ITER, decay heat could be predicted with accuracy of ±10%. (author)

  8. Decay heat experiment and validation of calculation code systems for fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Wada, Masayuki

    1999-10-01

    Although accurate estimation of decay heat value is essential for safety analyses of fusion reactors against loss of coolant accidents and so on, no experimental work has been devoted to validating the estimation. Hence, a decay heat measurement experiment was performed as a task (T-339) of ITER/EDA. A new detector, the Whole Energy Absorption Spectrometer (WEAS), was developed for accurate and efficient measurements of decay heat. Decay heat produced in the thirty-two sample materials which were irradiated by 14-MeV neutrons at FNS/JAERI were measured with WEAS for a wide cooling time period from 1 min to 400 days. The data presently obtained were the first experimental decay heat data in the field of fusion. Validity of decay heat calculation codes of ACT4 and CINAC-V4, activation cross section libraries of FENDL/A-2.0 and JENDL Activation File, and decay data was investigated through analyses of the experiment. As a result, several points that should be modified were found in the codes and data. After solving the problems, it was demonstrated that decay heat valued calculated for most of samples were in good agreement with the experimental data. Especially for stainless steel 316 and copper, which were important materials for ITER, decay heat could be predicted with accuracy of {+-}10%. (author)

  9. Validation of mechanistic models for gas precipitation in solids during postirradiation annealing experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rest, J.

    1989-12-01

    A number of different phenomenological models for gas precipitation in solids during postirradiation annealing experiments have been proposed. Validation of such mechanistic models for gas release and swelling is complicated by the use of data containing large systematic errors, and phenomena characterized by synergistic effects as well as uncertainties in materials properties. Statistical regression analysis is recommended for the selection of a reasonably well characterized data base for gas release from irradiated fuel under transient heating conditions. It is demonstrated that an appropriate data selection method is required in order to realistically examine the impact of differing descriptions of the phenomena, and uncertainties in selected materials properties, on the validation results. The results of the analysis show that the kinetics of gas precipitation in solids depend on bubble overpressurization effects and need to be accounted for during the heatup phase of isothermal heating experiments. It is shown that if only the total gas release values (as opposed to time-dependent data) were available, differentiation between different gas precipitation models would be ambiguous. The observed sustained increase in the fractional release curve at relatively high temperatures after the total precipitation of intragranular gas in fission gas bubbles is ascribed to the effects of a grain-growth/grain-boundary sweeping mechanism.

  10. Validation of mechanistic models for gas precipitation in solids during postirradiation annealing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1989-01-01

    A number of different phenomenological models for gas precipitation in solids during postirradiation annealing experiments have been proposed. Validation of such mechanistic models for gas release and swelling is complicated by the use of data containing large systematic errors, and phenomena characterized by synergistic effects as well as uncertainties in materials properties. Statistical regression analysis is recommended for the selection of a reasonably well characterized data base for gas release from irradiated fuel under transient heating conditions. It is demonstrated that an appropriate data selection method is required in order to realistically examine the impact of differing descriptions of the phenomena, and uncertainties in selected materials properties, on the validation results. The results of the analysis show that the kinetics of gas precipitation in solid depend on bubble overpressurization effects and need to be accounted for during the heatup phase of isothermal heating experiments. It is shown that if only the total gas release values (as opposed to time-dependent data) were available, differentiation between different gas precipitation models would be ambiguous. The observed sustained increase in the fractional release curve at relatively high temperatures after the total precipitation of intragranular gas in fission gas bubbles is ascribed to the effects of a grain-growth/grain-boundary sweeping mechanism. (orig.)

  11. TRIMS: Validating T2 Molecular Effects for Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Trims Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Tritium Recoil-Ion Mass Spectrometer (TRIMS) experiment examines the branching ratio of the molecular tritium (T2) beta decay to the bound state (3HeT+). Measuring this branching ratio helps to validate the current molecular final-state theory applied in neutrino mass experiments such as KATRIN and Project 8. TRIMS consists of a magnet-guided time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a detector located on each end. By measuring the kinetic energy and time-of-flight difference of the ions and beta particles reaching the detectors, we will be able to distinguish molecular ions from atomic ones and hence derive the ratio in question. We will give an update on the apparatus, simulation software, and analysis tools, including efforts to improve the resolution of our detectors and to characterize the stability and uniformity of our field sources. We will also share our commissioning results and prospects for physics data. The TRIMS experiment is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  12. Data formats design of laser irradiation experiments in view of data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Chunxiao; Yu Xiaoqi; Yang Cunbang; Guo Su; Chen Hongsu

    2002-01-01

    The designing rules of new data file formats of laser irradiation experiments are introduced. Object-oriented programs are designed in studying experimental data of the laser facilities. The new format data files are combinations of the experiment data and diagnostic configuration data, which are applied in data processing and analysis. The edit of diagnostic configuration data in data acquisition program is also described

  13. Tritium-doping enhancement of polystyrene by ultraviolet laser and hydrogen plasma irradiation for laser fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasa, Yuki, E-mail: iwasa-y@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamanoi, Kohei; Iwano, Keisuke; Empizo, Melvin John F.; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Masaru; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Noborio, Kazuyuki; Hara, Masanori; Matsuyama, Masao [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Organization for Promotion of Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Tritium-doped polystyrene films are fabricated by the Wilzbach method with UV laser and hydrogen plasma irradiation. • The 266-nm laser-irradiated, 355-nm laser-irradiated, and hydrogen plasma-irradiated polystyrene films exhibit higher PSL intensities and specific radioactivities than the non-irradiated sample. • Tritium doping by UV laser irradiation can be largely affected by the laser wavelength because of polystyrene’s absorption. • Hydrogen plasma irradiation results to a more uniform doping concentration even at low partial pressure and short irradiation time. • UV laser and plasma irradiations can be utilized to fabricate tritium-doped polystyrene shell targets for future laser fusion experiments. - Abstract: We investigate the tritium-doping enhancement of polystyrene by ultraviolet (UV) laser and hydrogen plasma irradiation. Tritium-doped polystyrene films are fabricated by the Wilzbach method with UV laser and hydrogen plasma. The 266-nm laser-irradiated, 355-nm laser-irradiated, and hydrogen plasma-irradiated polystyrene films exhibit higher PSL intensities and specific radioactivities than the non-irradiated sample. Tritium doping by UV laser irradiation can be largely affected by the laser wavelength because of polystyrene’s absorption. In addition, UV laser irradiation is more localized and concentrated at the spot of laser irradiation, while hydrogen plasma irradiation results to a more uniform doping concentration even at low partial pressure and short irradiation time. Both UV laser and plasma irradiations can nevertheless be utilized to fabricate tritium-doped polystyrene targets for future laser fusion experiments. With a high doping rate and efficiency, a 1% tritium-doped polystyrene shell target having 7.6 × 10{sup 11} Bq g{sup −1} specific radioactivity can be obtained at a short period of time thereby decreasing tritium consumption and safety management costs.

  14. Validation of the new filters configuration for the RPC gas systems at LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are widely employed as muon trigger systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. Their large detector volume and the use of a relatively expensive gas mixture make a closed-loop gas circulation unavoidable. The return gas of RPCs operated in conditions similar to the experimental background foreseen at LHC contains large amount of impurities potentially dangerous for long-term operation. Several gas-cleaning agents, characterized during the past years, are currently in use. New test allowed understanding of the properties and performance of a large number of purifiers. On that basis, an optimal combination of different filters consisting of Molecular Sieve (MS) 5Å and 4Å, and a Cu catalyst R11 has been chosen and validated irradiating a set of RPCs at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) for several years. A very important feature of this new configuration is the increase of the cycle duration for each purifier, which results in better system stabilit...

  15. Electron beam irradiation experiments of monoblock divertor mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kazuyoshi; Akiba, Masato; Araki, Masanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Smid, I.; Cardella, A.; Duwe, R.; Di Pietro, E.

    1993-03-01

    It is one of the key issues for ITER to develop the divertor plate. Electron beam irradiation tests were carried out on a NET divertor mock-up using JEBIS at JAERI under a collaboration between The NET team, JAERI and KFA Juelich. Screening tests (maximum heat flux of 23 MW/m 2 ) and thermal cycling tests (18 MW/m 2 , 30s, 1000cycle) were carried out. As a result of the screening tests, the erosion caused by sublimation of C/C was observed on the surface of armor tile. No serious damage such as cracks or detachments, however, were found. As a result of the thermal cycling tests, no major damage was detected on the C/C surface. However cooling time constant of the divertor mock-up increased over 600cycle. Therefore it implies that some defects would occur at the brazing interface of the divertor mock-up. (author)

  16. Explicating Experience: Development of a Valid Scale of Past Hazard Experience for Tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Julie L

    2018-03-23

    People's past experiences with a hazard theoretically influence how they approach future risks. Yet, past hazard experience has been conceptualized and measured in wide-ranging, often simplistic, ways, resulting in mixed findings about its relationship with risk perception. This study develops a scale of past hazard experiences, in the context of tornadoes, that is content and construct valid. A conceptual definition was developed, a set of items were created to measure one's most memorable and multiple tornado experiences, and the measures were evaluated through two surveys of the public who reside in tornado-prone areas. Four dimensions emerged of people's most memorable experience, reflecting their awareness of the tornado risk that day, their personalization of the risk, the intrusive impacts on them personally, and impacts experienced vicariously through others. Two dimensions emerged of people's multiple experiences, reflecting common types of communication received and negative emotional responses. These six dimensions are novel in that they capture people's experience across the timeline of a hazard as well as intangible experiences that are both direct and indirect. The six tornado experience dimensions were correlated with tornado risk perceptions measured as cognitive-affective and as perceived probability of consequences. The varied experience-risk perception results suggest that it is important to understand the nuances of these concepts and their relationships. This study provides a foundation for future work to continue explicating past hazard experience, across different risk contexts, and for understanding its effect on risk assessment and responses. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Computational analysis of modern HTGR fuel performance and fission product release during the HFR-EU1 irradiation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl, E-mail: k.verfondern@fz-juelich.de [Research Center Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Xhonneux, André, E-mail: xhonneux@lrst.rwth-aachen.de [Research Center Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Nabielek, Heinz, E-mail: heinznabielek@me.com [Research Center Jülich, Monschauerstrasse 61, 52355 Düren (Germany); Allelein, Hans-Josef, E-mail: h.j.allelein@fz-juelich.de [Research Center Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, 52425 Jülich (Germany); RWTH Aachen, Chair for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • HFR-EU1 irradiation test demonstrates high quality of HTGR spherical fuel elements. • Irradiation performance is in good agreement with German fuel performance modeling. • International benchmark exercise expected first particle to fail at ∼13–17% FIMA. • EOL silver release is predicted to be in the percentage range. • EOL cesium and strontium are expected to remain at a low level. - Abstract: Various countries engaged in the development and fabrication of modern HTGR fuel have initiated activities of modeling the fuel and fission product release behavior with the aim of predicting the fuel performance under HTGR operating and accident conditions. Verification and validation studies are conducted by code-to-code benchmarking and code-to-experiment comparisons as part of international exercises. The methodology developed in Germany since the 1980s represents valuable and efficient tools to describe fission product release from spherical fuel elements and TRISO fuel performance, respectively, under given conditions. Continued application to new results of irradiation and accident simulation testing demonstrates the appropriateness of the models in terms of a conservative estimation of the source term as part of interactions with HTGR licensing authorities. Within the European irradiation testing program for HTGR fuel and as part of the former EU RAPHAEL project, the HFR-EU1 irradiation experiment explores the potential for high performance of the presently existing German and newly produced Chinese fuel spheres under defined conditions up to high burnups. The fuel irradiation was completed in 2010. Test samples are prepared for further postirradiation examinations (PIE) including heatup simulation testing in the KÜFA-II furnace at the JRC-ITU, Karlsruhe, to be conducted within the on-going ARCHER Project of the European Commission. The paper will describe the application of the German computer models to the HFR-EU1 irradiation test and

  18. Benchmark validation by means of pulsed sphere experiment at OKTAVIAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Chihiro [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Hayashi, Shu A.; Kimura, Itsuro; Yamamoto, Junji; Takahashi, Akito

    1998-03-01

    In order to make benchmark validation of the existing evaluated nuclear data for fusion related material, neutron leakage spectra from spherical piles were measured with a time-of-flight technique using the intense 14 MeV neutron source, OKTAVIAN in the energy range from 0.1 to 15 MeV. The neutron energy spectra were obtained as the absolute value normalized per the source neutron. The measured spectra were compared with those by theoretical calculation using a Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MCNP with several libraries processed from the evaluated nuclear data files. Comparison has been made with the spectrum shape, the C/E values of neutron numbers integrated in 4 energy regions and the calculated spectra unfolded by the number of collisions, especially those after a single collision. The new libraries predicted the experiment fairly well for Li, Cr, Mn, Cu and Mo. For Al, Si, Zr, Nb and W, new data files could give fair prediction. However, C/E differed more than 20% for several regions. For LiF, CF{sub 2}, Ti and Co, no calculation could predict the experiment. The detailed discussion has been given for Cr, Mn and Cu samples. EFF-2 calculation overestimated by 24% for the Cr experiment between 1 and 5-MeV neutron energy region, presumably because of overestimation of inelastic cross section and {sup 52}Cr(n,2n) cross section and the problem in energy and angular distribution of secondary neutrons in EFF-2. For Cu, ENDF/B-VI and EFF-2 overestimated the experiment by about 20 to 30-% in the energy range between 5 and 12-MeV, presumably from the problem in inelastic scattering cross section. (author)

  19. Irradiation experiment on fast reactor metal fuels containing minor actinides up to 7 at.% burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, H.; Yokoo, T.; Ogata, T.; Inoue, T.; Ougier, M.; Glatz, J.P.; Fontaine, B.; Breton, L.

    2007-01-01

    Fast reactor metal fuels containing minor actinides (MAs: Np, Am, Cm) and rare earths (REs) have been irradiated in the fast reactor PHENIX. In this experiment, four types of fuel alloys, U-19Pu-10Zr, U-19Pu-10Zr-2MA-2RE, U-19Pu-10Zr-5MA-5RE and U-19Pu-10Zr-5MA (wt.%), are loaded into part of standard metal fuel stacks. The postirradiation examinations will be conducted at ∼2.4, ∼7 and ∼11 at.% burnup. As for the low-burnup fuel pins, nondestructive postirradiation tests have already been performed and the fuel integrity was confirmed. Furthermore, the irradiation experiment for the intermediate burnup goal of ∼7 at.% was completed in July 2006. For the irradiation period of 356.63 equivalent full-power days, the neutron flux level remained in the range of 3.5-3.6 x 10 15 n/cm 2 /s at the axial peak position. On the other hand, the maximum linear power of fuel alloys decreased gradually from 305-315 W/cm (beginning of irradiation) to 250-260 W/cm (end of irradiation). The discharged peak burnup was estimated to be 6.59-7.23 at.%. The irradiation behavior of MA-containing metal fuels up to 7 at.% burnup was predicted using the ALFUS code, which was developed for U-Pu-Zr ternary fuel performance analysis. As a result, it was evaluated that the fuel temperature is distributed between ∼410 deg. C and ∼645 deg. C at the end of the irradiation experiment. From the stress-strain analysis based on the preliminarily employed cladding irradiation properties and the FCMI stress distribution history, it was predicted that a cladding strain of not more than 0.9% would appear. (authors)

  20. Multi-physic simulations of irradiation experiments in a technological irradiation reactor; Modelisation pluridisciplinaire d'experiences d'irradiation dans un reacteur d'irradiation technologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonaccorsi, Th

    2007-09-15

    A Material Testing Reactor (MTR) makes it possible to irradiate material samples under intense neutron and photonic fluxes. These experiments are carried out in experimental devices localised in the reactor core or in periphery (reflector). Available physics simulation tools only treat, most of the time, one physics field in a very precise way. Multi-physic simulations of irradiation experiments therefore require a sequential use of several calculation codes and data exchanges between these codes: this corresponds to problems coupling. In order to facilitate multi-physic simulations, this thesis sets up a data model based on data-processing objects, called Technological Entities. This data model is common to all of the physics fields. It permits defining the geometry of an irradiation device in a parametric way and to associate information about materials to it. Numerical simulations are encapsulated into interfaces providing the ability to call specific functionalities with the same command (to initialize data, to launch calculations, to post-treat, to get results,... ). Thus, once encapsulated, numerical simulations can be re-used for various studies. This data model is developed in a SALOME platform component. The first application case made it possible to perform neutronic simulations (OSIRIS reactor and RJH) coupled with fuel behavior simulations. In a next step, thermal hydraulics could also be taken into account. In addition to the improvement of the calculation accuracy due to the physical phenomena coupling, the time spent in the development phase of the simulation is largely reduced and the possibilities of uncertainty treatment are under consideration. (author)

  1. The post irradiation examination of three fuel rods from the IFA 429 experiment irradiated in the Halden Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    1979-11-01

    A series of fuel rod irradiation experiments were performed in the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor in Norway. These were designed to provide a range of fuel property data as a function of burn-up. One of these experiments was the IFA-429. This was designed to study the absorption of helium filling gas by the UO 2 fuel pellets, steady state and transient fission gas release and fuel thermal behaviour to high burn-up. This data was to be obtained as a function of fuel density, fuel grain size, initial fuel/cladding gap, average linear heat rating, burn-up and overpower transients. All the fuel is in the form of pressed and sintered UO 2 pellets enriched to 13 weight percent 235 U. All the rods were clad in Zircaloy 4 tube. The details of the experiment are given. The post irradiation examination included: visual examination, neutron radiography, dimensional measurements, gamma scanning, measurement of gases in fuel rods and internal free volume, burn-up analysis, metallographic examination, measurement of retained gas in UO 2 pellets, measurement of bulk density of UO 2 . The results are given and discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Answers to the questions about food irradiation. Concerning results of animal experiments in the specified integrated research. Data carrying a problem in human health were obtained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Experts of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/ World Health Organization (WHO) committee obtained their conclusion in 1980 that food irradiated with <10 kGy of radiation is safe for human health, which is now globally approved. However, in Japan, there have been still opposite opinions based on the doubt in the title on the safety of irradiated food. In this paper, the author answers those questions as he was a member to arrange the Research in the title for food irradiation. Described are data presentation and explanation about results of toxicity studies of diets added with irradiated materials of: weight reductions in rat ovary by irradiated potato (ip) in chronic studies, and in mouse testicle and ovary of F3 generation from the ancestor mice kept on diet with irradiated onion (io); bone malformation in mice by io; and reduction of body weight gain in female rats by ip and increase of mortality of male rats by ip. These are analyzed on the aspects of radiation dose-response, sustained tendency of results throughout the living period or generation, and apparent abnormality by other factors; and normal variation due to individual difference is pointed out to contribute to these findings. The safety test of irradiated food has been conducted valid not only in animal experiments but also other tests like genotoxicity and analysis of radiation-degraded products. (R.T.)

  3. Discrete fracture modelling for the Stripa tracer validation experiment predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, W.; Wallmann, P.

    1992-02-01

    Groundwater flow and transport through three-dimensional networks of discrete fractures was modeled to predict the recovery of tracer from tracer injection experiments conducted during phase 3 of the Stripa site characterization and validation protect. Predictions were made on the basis of an updated version of the site scale discrete fracture conceptual model used for flow predictions and preliminary transport modelling. In this model, individual fractures were treated as stochastic features described by probability distributions of geometric and hydrologic properties. Fractures were divided into three populations: Fractures in fracture zones near the drift, non-fracture zone fractures within 31 m of the drift, and fractures in fracture zones over 31 meters from the drift axis. Fractures outside fracture zones are not modelled beyond 31 meters from the drift axis. Transport predictions were produced using the FracMan discrete fracture modelling package for each of five tracer experiments. Output was produced in the seven formats specified by the Stripa task force on fracture flow modelling. (au)

  4. Modeling injected interstitial effects on void swelling in self-ion irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, M.P., E-mail: hereiam@mit.edu [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Gaston, D.R. [Idaho National Laboratory (United States); Jin, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Shao, L. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University (United States); Garner, F.A. [Radiation Effects Consulting, LLC (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Heavy ion irradiations at high dose rates are often used to simulate slow and expensive neutron irradiation experiments. However, many differences in the resultant modes of damage arise due to unique aspects of heavy ion irradiation. One such difference was recently shown in pure iron to manifest itself as a double peak in void swelling, with both peaks located away from the region of highest displacement damage. In other cases involving a variety of ferritic alloys there is often only a single peak in swelling vs. depth that is located very near the ion-incident surface. We show that these behaviors arise due to a combination of two separate effects: 1) suppression of void swelling due to injected interstitials, and 2) preferential sinking of interstitials to the ion-incident surface, which are very sensitive to the irradiation temperature and displacement rate. Care should therefore be used in collection and interpretation of data from the depth range outside the Bragg peak of ion irradiation experiments, as it is shown to be more complex than previously envisioned. - Highlights: • A model of the spatially dependent point defect kinetics equations with injected interstitials has been implemented. • The results predict a double peak in the void nucleation rate, helping to explain a recent experiment. • The double peak is predicted to be evident within a narrow (+/− 30 °C) temperature window for self-irradiation of pure iron. • The ballistic damage profile may not match the resultant void swelling profile from ion irradiation experiments.

  5. Photo irradiation Systems for In-Vitro Cultured Cells Phototherapy and Photobiology Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Navarro, Joel; Morales Lopez, Orestes M.; Hernandez Quintanas, Luis F.; Lopez Silva, Y.; Fabila Bustos, Diego A.; De la Rosa Vazquez, Jose M.; Valor Reed, Alma; Stolik Isakina, Suren; Brodin, Patrik N.; Guha, Chandan; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2016-01-01

    The increase in research and application of various phototherapy methods, especially photodynamic therapy (PDT) has created the need to study in depth the mechanisms of interaction of light with biological tissue using a photosensitizing drug in order to increase the therapeutic effectiveness. In this issue, two systems for controlled irradiation of in-vitro cell culture and temperature monitoring of the culture are presented. The first system was designed to irradiate 24 wells in a 96-well microplate. The second one was constructed for the irradiation and control of a 24-well microplate using larger volumes of cultured cells. Both systems can independently irradiate and control the temperature of each well. The systems include a module for contactless measurement of the temperature in each well. Light sources are located in an interchangeable module, so that it can be replaced to irradiate with different wavelengths. These prototypes count with various operation modes, controlled by a computer, which permits establishing specific settings in accordance with the desired experiment. The systems allow the automated experiment execution with precise control of dosimetry, irradiation and temperature, which reduces the sample-handling while, saves time. (Author)

  6. Electron irradiation experiments in support of fusion materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.; Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H.; Matsui, H.; Kohno, Y.

    1991-11-01

    Microstructural evolution in response to 1 MeV irradiation has been investigated for three simple ferritic alloys, pure beryllium, pure vanadium, and two simple vanadium alloys over a range of temperatures and doses. Microstructural evolution in Fe-3, -9, and -18Cr ferritic alloys is found to consist of crenulated, faulted a loops and circular, unfaulted a/2 loops at low temperatures, but with only unfaulted loops at high temperatures. The complex dislocation evolution is attributed to sigma phase precipifaults arising from chromium segregation to point defect sinks. Beryllium is found to be resistant to electron damage; the only effect observed was enhanced dislocation mobility. Pure vanadium, V-5Fe, and V-1Ni microstructural response was complicated by precipitation on heating to 400 degrees C and above, but dislocation evolution was investigated in the range of room temperature to 300 degrees C and at 600 degrees C. The three materials behaved similarly, except that pure vanadium showed more rapid dislocation evolution. This difference does not explain the enhanced swelling observed in vanadium alloys

  7. NMR experiments on ion permeation in irradiated model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprinz, H.; Winkler, E.; Schaefer, H.

    1981-01-01

    In aqueous solutions of egg-lecithin vesicles treated with ultrasonics the 1 H NMR parameters line width, area, and chemical shift of the signal of the (CH 3 ) 3 N + group were determined as a function of the gamma dose (0 ... 12 kGy). Using europium and the line shape analysis, it has been possible to calculate these parameters for the inside as well as for the outside lipid layer. Increasing 60 Co radiation dose leads to linear increases of the line widths, which are significantly more rapid for the outer than for the inner layer. From that it can be concluded that the outside lipid layer has been more damaged by irradiation. The asymmetry may be the consequence of a radiation effect induced by the radicals of water radiolysis. From the temporal changes of the NMR parameters information can be obtained about the radiation effect on transport processes in the vesicles. Beginning at a threshold (approx. 5 kGy) the permeation of Eu +++ ions to the (CH 3 ) 3 N + head groups, previously not accessible, increases significantly. (author)

  8. Experiences in selling irradiated produce at the retail level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    A background discussion of how marketing groups, in particular, the produce industry, presents their product to the consumer and how they deal with the controversial issues. This will contain information about the current '5 A Day' program in the United States contrasted with the issues that are facing the industry. I will begin with the way we approached the introduction of the irradiation process to our customers. We started with an informal survey in our company's newsletter. The findings indicated a high degree of interest and lack of information. In succeeding newsletters we provided as much information as possible; always careful to present both sides of the issue. During this time the questions and comments we received in the store indicated a growing interest. With the news that Vindicator opened in Florida we arranged for and announced the arrival of product, again through our newsletter. I will then discuss the various merchandising efforts we undertook. (Ie., Taste-samplings, Buy one get one free, a wide variety of product, etc.) (author)

  9. Experiments on the proof of the repair of the DNA-damage in human fibroblasts in vitro, induced by PUVA-conditions and after UVC-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silla, R.

    1979-01-01

    Within the frame of the present study we tried to investigate in vitro the course of repair of DNA-damage which had been provoked by UV C-irradiation and by PUVA-conditions. In a preliminary test series the suppression of the semiconservative DNA-replication by hydroxyurea was investigated. It resulted that there is a four-fold suppression of the programmed DNA-synthesis. In the standard experiments 5 groups with 8-MOP plus various UV A-irradiation energies were compared with the not irradiated control groups, with the groups with 8-MOP, with UV A in two different doses, and with the UV C group. The test samples were marked with /sup 3/H-thymidine, whilst hydroxurea was added after a certain period of time (0, 1, 2, 4 hours). In each case the uptake of /sup 3/H-thymidine into the DNS - as expression of repair activity - was measured after one hour by the liquid scintigraphic method. These experiments proved an obvious repair activity of the groups, which had received UV C-irradiation, and of those under PUVA-conditions with low UV A-irradiation energies. The maximum values were found after one hour or after two hours respectively. The /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake is blocked by PUVA-conditions with increasing UV A-irradiation energies. Apparently this is also valid for 8-MOP only and for high UV A-doses only.

  10. Model animal experiments on UV-c irradiation of blood and isolated cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, H.; Scherf, H.P.; Wiesner, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cellular and molecular basis of the therapeutically used effect of reinjected ultraviolet (UVC) irradiated blood is unknown. First approaches to that problem were made in this study by aid of model experiments. Neither the spontaneous degranulation nor the antigen-induced histamine release from rat connective tissue mast cells (in vivo) was influenced by the injection (i.v.) of UV-irradiated blood or blood lymphocytes. By comparison of the effect of UV light on blood lymphocytes (number of dead cells, strength of chemoluminescence) after irradiation of the isolated cells and the unfractionated blood, respectively, it was shown that the strong light absorption within the blood sample prevents damage or functional alterations of the blood lymphocytes. The compound 48/80 - induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells can be completely inhibited by UV irradiation (0.6 mJ/cm 2 ) without increasing the spontaneous histamine release. (author)

  11. Design and Construction of Experiment for Direct Electron Irradiation of Uranyl Sulfate Solution: Bubble Formation and Thermal Hydraulics Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakho [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sun, Zaijing [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wardle, Kent E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies in developing SHINE, a system for producing fission-product 99Mo using a D/T-accelerator to produce fission in a non-critical target solution of aqueous uranyl sulfate. We have developed an experimental setup for studying thermal-hydraulics and bubble formation in the uranyl sulfate solution to simulate conditions expected in the SHINE target solution during irradiation. A direct electron beam from the linac accelerator will be used to irradiate a 20 L solution (sector of the solution vessel). Because the solution will undergo radiolytic decomposition, we will be able to study bubble formation and dynamics and effects of convection and temperature on bubble behavior. These experiments will serve as a verification/ validation tool for the thermal-hydraulic model. Utilization of the direct electron beam for irradiation allows homogeneous heating of a large solution volume and simplifies observation of the bubble dynamics simultaneously with thermal-hydraulic data collection, which will complement data collected during operation of the miniSHINE experiment. Irradiation will be conducted using a 30-40 MeV electron beam from the high-power linac accelerator. The total electron-beam power will be 20 kW, which will yield a power density on the order of 1 kW/L. The solution volume will be cooled on the front and back surfaces and central tube to mimic the geometry of the proposed SHINE solution vessel. Also, multiple thermocouples will be inserted into the solution vessel to map thermal profiles. The experimental design is now complete, and installation and testing are in progress.

  12. Control of helium effects in irradiated materials based on theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Lee, E.H.; Maziasz, P.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Helium produced in materials by (n,α) transmutation reactions during neutron irradiations or subjected in ion bombardment experiments causes substantial changes in the response to displacement damage. In particular, swelling, phase transformations and embrittlement are strongly affected. Present understanding of the mechanisms underlying these effects is reviewed. Key theoretical relationships describing helium effects on swelling and helium diffusion are described. Experimental data in the areas of helium effects on swelling and precipitation is reviewed with emphasis on critical experiments that have been designed and evaluated in conjunction with theory. Confirmed principles for alloy design to control irradiation performance are described

  13. Benchmark validation by means of pulsed sphere experiment at OKTAVIAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Chihiro [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Hayashi, S.A.; Kimura, Itsuro; Yamamoto, Junji; Takahashi, Akito

    1997-03-01

    The new version of Japanese nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 has recently been released. JENDL Fusion File which adopted DDX representations for secondary neutrons was also improved with the new evaluation method. On the other hand, FENDL nuclear data project to compile nuclear data library for fusion related research has been conducted partly under auspices of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The first version FENDL-1 consists of JENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-VI, BROND-2 and EFF-1 and has been released in 1995. The work for the second version FENDL-2 is now ongoing. The Bench mark validation of the nuclear data libraries have been performed to help selecting the candidate for the FENDL-2. The benchmark experiment have been conducted at OKTAVIAN of Osaka university. The sample spheres were constructed by filling the spherical shells with sample. The leakage neutron spectra from sphere piles were measured with a time-of-flight method. The measured spectra were compared with the theoretical calculation using MCNP 4A and the processed libraries from JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2, JENDL Fusion File, and FENDL-1. JENDL Fusion File and JENDL-3.2 gave almost the same prediction for the experiment. And both prediction are almost satisfying for Li, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zr, Nb and Mo, whereas for Al, LiF, CF2, Si, Ti, Co and W there is some discrepancy. However, they gave better prediction than the calculations using the library from FENDL-1, except for W. (author)

  14. [Animal experiment study of anastomosis healing after partial resection of the pre-irradiated thoracic esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C; Nilles-Schendera, A; Frommhold, H

    2000-01-01

    Multimodal therapeutic concepts in cases of neoplasms of the intestinal tract entail the risk of undesirable complications with respect to healing of wounds and anastomoses. The separate steps of a combined treatment consisting radiation therapy and partial resection of the thoracic esophagus were performed in animal experiments to study the effect of radiation therapy on the healing of anastomoses. Adult non-purebred dogs were irradiated in a defined thoracic field with a Betatron (42 MeV) and subsequently underwent esophagectomy. After resection of a 2 cm segment of the esophagus end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Different methods of irradiation and postoperative observation times resulted in a total of 8 groups of 3 animals each. Fractionated irradiation was definitely better tolerated than irradiation with a high single doses. The temporary delay of the anastomotic healing was documented histologically. Only one case of anastomotic leakage occurred, and impaired wound healing was observed in only one animal. The mode of irradiation must be regarded as important for the clinical course. Fractionated preoperative irradiation in the area of the thoracic esophagus does not lead to any relevant disturbance of wound and anastomotic healing with meticulous surgical technique and adequate intensive postoperative care. The basic feasibility of surgical therapy combined with preoperative radiotherapy in tumors of the upper digestive tract was confirmed by our experimental work.

  15. EPIC Calibration/Validation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Steven E [National Severe Storm Laboratory/NOAA; Chilson, Phillip [University of Oklahoma; Argrow, Brian [University of Colorado

    2017-03-15

    A field exercise involving several different kinds of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and supporting instrumentation systems provided by DOE/ARM and NOAA/NSSL was conducted at the ARM SGP site in Lamont, Oklahoma on 29-30 October 2016. This campaign was part of a larger National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) UAS Program Office program awarded to the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). named Environmental Profiling and Initiation of Convection (EPIC). The EPIC Field Campaign (Test and Calibration/Validation) proposed to ARM was a test or “dry-run” for a follow-up campaign to be requested for spring/summer 2017. The EPIC project addresses NOAA’s objective to “evaluate options for UAS profiling of the lower atmosphere with applications for severe weather.” The project goal is to demonstrate that fixed-wing and rotary-wing small UAS have the combined potential to provide a unique observing system capable of providing detailed profiles of temperature, moisture, and winds within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to help determine the potential for severe weather development. Specific project objectives are: 1) to develop small UAS capable of acquiring needed wind and thermodynamic profiles and transects of the ABL using one fixed-wing UAS operating in tandem with two different fixed rotary-wing UAS pairs; 2) adapt and test miniaturized, high-precision, and fast-response atmospheric sensors with high accuracy in strong winds characteristic of the pre-convective ABL in Oklahoma; 3) conduct targeted short-duration experiments at the ARM Southern Great Plains site in northern Oklahoma concurrently with a second site to be chosen in “real-time” from the Oklahoma Mesonet in coordination with the (National Weather Service (NWS)-Norman Forecast Office; and 4) gain valuable experience in pursuit of NOAA’s goals for determining the value of airborne, mobile observing systems for monitoring rapidly evolving high-impact severe weather

  16. Total body irradiation and marrow transplantation for acute leukaemia. The Royal Marsden Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, A; Barrett, A J; Powles, R L [Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (UK). Surrey Branch; Royal Marsden Hospital, London (UK))

    1979-06-01

    The experience with total body irradiation at the Royal Marsden Hospital is described for an elective program of transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in first remission. Dose rate appears to be a critical factor in the reduction of radiation-associated damage and careful monitoring of the actual dose distribution and dose received is mandatory.

  17. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.; Rosopulo, A.; Borchert, H.; Beck, T.; Bauchhenss, J.; Schurmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    Since hygienization of sewage sludge will be important for an agricultural application, it is necessary to study the effect of differently treated sewage sludge to plants and soil. In bean- and maize experiments in 1973 and 1974 it was found that treatment of sewage sludge is less important than soil properties and water capacity. Analysis on the efficiency of nutrients, minor elements and heavy metals from differently treated sewage sludge to plants were performed. Microbiological greenhouse studies indicated that there is a distinct tendency for different reactions that irradiated sewage sludge gives a slightly better effect than untreated one. In the field experiments there were nearly no differences between untreated and irradiated sewage sludge. Studies on soil fauna in the performed field trials indicate influences of abiotic factors on the different locations. Besides these influences there is a decrease of the number of Collemboles and Mites on the plots with 800 m 3 /ha treated sewage sludge. There is a remarkable high decrease in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge after an application of 800 m 3 /ha. Physical and chemical studies indicated, depending on the soil type, an increase in the effective field capacity after the application of sewage sludge, while there were sometimes the best effects with irradiated sewage sludge. Relative high aggregate values were observed in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wizigmann, I.

    1976-01-01

    Reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge in a pilot plant ( 60 Co gamma-radiation 300 krad, 300 min.). The reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 23 sludge batches from digestor II, 21 were free of Salmonella after irradiation. Of 7 sludge batches from digestor I with a higher level of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonellae, 5 batches still contained Salmonella after treatment. By making some alterations in the pipe system and reloading further cobalt 60-sources, the duration of irradiation could be reduced to 65 min. while maintaining the dose level of 300 krad. Employing this altered procedure, 16 batches from digestor II and 4 from digestor I were irradiated to date. Only in one of 60 samples were Salmonellae detectable. The hygienic effects of the irradiation plant were confirmed by means of model experiment with pure bacterial cultures. Microorganisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their radiosensitivity. Parasitological experiments were conducted with Ascaris suum ova. No embryonation was noted after radiation treatment at a dose of 300 krad. (orig./HK) [de

  19. Validation of large-angle scattering data via shadow-bar experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, S., E-mail: ohnishi@nmri.go.jp [National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004 (Japan); Tamaki, S.; Murata, I. [Osaka University, 1-14-16-1, Yamadaoka, Suita-si, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An experiment to validate large-angle scattering cross section is conducted. • Pieces of Nb foil are set behind a shadow bar to obtain the {sup 92m}Nb production rates. • The results calculated using ENDF/B-VI library data exhibit a 57% overestimation. • The adjustment of cross section in large-angle region makes the C/E close to 1. - Abstract: An experiment emphasizing the influence of large-angle scattering on nuclear data was conducted, in which a Fe shadow bar and a Fe slab target were placed before a deuterium–tritium fusion (DT) neutron source. Two Nb foils were set on both sides of the shadow bar in order to monitor the neutron source intensity and to measure the neutrons scattered from the slab target. The {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92m}Nb reaction rate of the foil was measured following the DT neutron irradiation and calculated using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transportation code. The {sup 92m}Nb production rates calculated using data from the JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries agreed with that measured in the experiment, while the result calculated using data from the ENDF/B-VI library exhibited a 57% overestimation. Because the sensitivity of the {sup 92m}Nb production rate to the scattering angular distribution was large in the angular region between scattering direction cosines of −0.9 and −0.4, the scattering angular distribution was adjusted in that region. This adjustment resulted in a calculation-to-experiment ratio close to 1, but had little influence on the existing integral benchmark experiment.

  20. Investigation of reactivity between SiC and Nb-1Zr in planned irradiation creep experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, C.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Jones, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Thermodynamic calculations and diffusion couple experiments showed that SiC and Nb-1Zr were reactive at the upper range of temperatures anticipated in the planned irradiation creep experiment. Sputter-deposited aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was selected as a diffusion barrier coating. Experiments showed that although the coating coarsened at high temperature it was an effective barrier for diffusion of silicon from SiC into Nb-1Zr. Therefore, to avoid detrimental reactions between the SiC composite and the Nb-1Zr pressurized bladder during the planned irradiation creep experiment, a coating of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} will be required on the Nb-1Zr bladder.

  1. The Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) - validation of its use in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boie, Sidsel; Glavind, Julie; Uldbjerg, Niels

    experience is lacking. The Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) was developed in Sweden in 2010 and validated in Swedish women, but never validated in a Danish setting, and population. The purpose of our study was to validate the CEQ as a reliable tool for measuring the childbirth experience in Danish......Title The Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) - validation the use in a Danish population Introduction Childbirth experience is arguably as important as measuring birth outcomes such as mode of delivery or perinatal morbidity. A robust, validated, Danish tool for evaluating childbirth...... index of agreement between the two scores. Case description (mandatory for Clinical Report) Results (mandatory for Original Research) Face validity: All respondents stated that it was easy to understand and complete the questionnaire. Construct validity: Statistically significant higher CEQ scores were...

  2. Monitoring Building Deformation with InSAR: Experiments and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kui; Yan, Li; Huang, Guoman; Chen, Chu; Wu, Zhengpeng

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) techniques are increasingly applied for monitoring land subsidence. The advantages of InSAR include high accuracy and the ability to cover large areas; nevertheless, research validating the use of InSAR on building deformation is limited. In this paper, we test the monitoring capability of the InSAR in experiments using two landmark buildings; the Bohai Building and the China Theater, located in Tianjin, China. They were selected as real examples to compare InSAR and leveling approaches for building deformation. Ten TerraSAR-X images spanning half a year were used in Permanent Scatterer InSAR processing. These extracted InSAR results were processed considering the diversity in both direction and spatial distribution, and were compared with true leveling values in both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and measurement of error analyses. The detailed experimental results for the Bohai Building and the China Theater showed a high correlation between InSAR results and the leveling values. At the same time, the two Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) indexes had values of approximately 1 mm. These analyses show that a millimeter level of accuracy can be achieved by means of InSAR technique when measuring building deformation. We discuss the differences in accuracy between OLS regression and measurement of error analyses, and compare the accuracy index of leveling in order to propose InSAR accuracy levels appropriate for monitoring buildings deformation. After assessing the advantages and limitations of InSAR techniques in monitoring buildings, further applications are evaluated. PMID:27999403

  3. Monitoring Building Deformation with InSAR: Experiments and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR techniques are increasingly applied for monitoring land subsidence. The advantages of InSAR include high accuracy and the ability to cover large areas; nevertheless, research validating the use of InSAR on building deformation is limited. In this paper, we test the monitoring capability of the InSAR in experiments using two landmark buildings; the Bohai Building and the China Theater, located in Tianjin, China. They were selected as real examples to compare InSAR and leveling approaches for building deformation. Ten TerraSAR-X images spanning half a year were used in Permanent Scatterer InSAR processing. These extracted InSAR results were processed considering the diversity in both direction and spatial distribution, and were compared with true leveling values in both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression and measurement of error analyses. The detailed experimental results for the Bohai Building and the China Theater showed a high correlation between InSAR results and the leveling values. At the same time, the two Root Mean Square Error (RMSE indexes had values of approximately 1 mm. These analyses show that a millimeter level of accuracy can be achieved by means of InSAR technique when measuring building deformation. We discuss the differences in accuracy between OLS regression and measurement of error analyses, and compare the accuracy index of leveling in order to propose InSAR accuracy levels appropriate for monitoring buildings deformation. After assessing the advantages and limitations of InSAR techniques in monitoring buildings, further applications are evaluated.

  4. Validation of NEPTUNE-CFD on ULPU-V experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamet, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.jamet@edf.fr; Lavieville, Jerome; Atkhen, Kresna; Mechitoua, Namane

    2015-11-15

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of molten corium through external cooling of the reactor pressure vessel is one possible means of severe accident mitigation for a class of nuclear power plants. The aim is to successfully terminate the progression of a core melt within the reactor vessel. The probability of success depends on the efficacy of the cooling strategy; hence one of the key aspects of an IVR demonstration relates to the heat removal capability through the vessel wall by convection and boiling in the external water flow. This is only possible if the in-vessel thermal loading is lower than the local critical heat flux expected along the outer wall of the vessel, which is in turn highly dependent on the flow characteristics between the vessel and the insulator. The NEPTUNE-CFD multiphase flow solver is used to obtain a better understanding at local scale of the thermal hydraulics involved in this situation. The validation of the NEPTUNE-CFD code on the ULPU-V facility experiments carried out at the University of California Santa Barbara is presented as a first attempt of using CFD codes at EDF to address such an issue. Two types of computation are performed. On the one hand, a steady state algorithm is used to compute natural circulation flow rates and differential pressures and, on the other, a transient algorithm computation reveals the oscillatory nature of the pressure data recorded in the ULPU facility. Several dominant frequencies are highlighted. In both cases, the CFD simulations reproduce reasonably well the experimental data for these quantities.

  5. HTCAP-1: a program for calcuating operating temperatures in HFIR target irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, M.J.; Howard, A.M.

    1980-06-01

    The thermal modeling code, HTCAP-1, calculates in-reactor operating temperatures of fueled specimens contained in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target irradiation experiments (HT-series). Temperature calculations are made for loose particle and bonded fuel rod specimens. Maximum particle surface temperatures are calculated for the loose particles and centerline and surface temperatures for the fuel rods. Three computational models are employed to determine fission heat generation rates, capsule heat transfer analysis, and specimen temperatures. This report is also intended to be a users' manual, and the application of HTCAP-1 to the HT-34 irradiation capsule is presented

  6. Irradiation experiments on materials for core internals, pressure vessel and fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Materials degradation due to the aging phenomena is one of the key issues for the life assessment and extension of the light water reactors (LWRs). This presentation introduces JAERI`s activities in the field of LWR material researches which utilize the research and testing reactors for irradiation experiments. The activities are including the material studies for the core internals, pressure vessel and fuel cladding. These materials are exposed to the neutron/gamma radiation and high temperature water environments so that it is worth reviewing their degradation phenomena as the continuum. Three topics are presented; For the core internal materials, the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels is the present major concern. At JAERI the effects of alloying elements on IASCC have been investigated through the post-irradiation stress corrosion cracking tests in high-temperature water. The radiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels is still a significant issue for LWR safety, and at JAERI some factors affecting the embrittlement behavior such as a dose rate have been investigated. Waterside corrosion of Zircaloy fuel cladding is one of the limiting factors in fuel rod performance and an in-situ measurement of the corrosion rate in high-temperature water was performed in JMTR. To improve the reliability of experiments and to extent the applicability of experimental techniques, a mutual utilization of the technical achievements in those irradiation experiments is desired. (author)

  7. Irradiation performance of HTGR Biso fertile particles in HFIR experiments HT-17, -18, and -19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.L. Jr.; Beatty, R.L.; Robbins, J.M.; Kania, M.J.; Eatherly, W.P.

    1978-11-01

    A series of Biso-coated fertile particles was irradiated in the target facility of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor. The primary objectives of this experiment were to relate the fast-neutron stability of dense propylene-derived pyrocarbons to preferred orientation and to relate irradiation performance to preirradiation characterization values. Coating characterization included x-ray BAF, optical anisotropy, gaseous permeability, small-angle x-ray scattering, and thickness and density determinations. Other objectives were to test Biso-coated large-diameter ThO 2 kernels and coatings derived from propylene diluted with CO 2 rather than argon. Visual examination of the irradiated particles showed that the majority had failed as a result of fast-neutron damage

  8. Post-Irradiation Non-Destructive Analyses of the AFIP-7 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W. J.; Robinson, A. B.; Rabin, B. H.

    2017-12-01

    This article reports the results and interpretation of post-irradiation non-destructive examinations performed on four curved full-size fuel plates that comprise the AFIP-7 experiment. These fuel plates, having a U-10 wt.%Mo monolithic design, were irradiated under moderate operating conditions in the Advanced Test Reactor to assess fuel performance for geometries that are prototypic of research reactor fuel assemblies. Non-destructive examinations include visual examination, neutron radiography, profilometry, and precision gamma scanning. This article evaluates the qualitative and quantitative data taken for each plate, compares corresponding data sets, and presents the results of swelling analyses. These characterization results demonstrate that the fuel meets established irradiation performance requirements for mechanical integrity, geometric stability, and stable and predictable behavior.

  9. Validation of the cyclobutanone protocol for detection of irradiated lipid containing foods by interlaboratory trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Following the positive conclusion of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)/International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/World Health Organisation (WHO) Joint Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food (JECFI) in 1981 that ''the irradiation treatment of any food commodity up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy presents no toxicological hazard and introduces no special nutritional or microbiological problems'' there was renewed interest in the use of irradiation for the preservation of food. As a result of the progress made in commercialisation of the process, greater international trade in irradiated foods, differing regulations relating to the use of the technology in many countries and consumer demand for clear labelling of the treated food, the need arose for reliable and routine tests to confirm that food had been irradiated. Although not essential for management of the process, it was envisaged that the availability of such tests would encourage world-wide acceptance of food irradiation and may help in the enforcement of labelling regulations. (author)

  10. Tritium release and retention properties of highly neutron-irradiated beryllium pebbles from HIDOBE-01 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V., E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R.; Moeslang, A.; Klimenkov, M.; Kolb, M.; Vladimirov, P.; Kurinskiy, P.; Schneider, H.-C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Til, S. van; Magielsen, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The current helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) tritium breeding blanket concept for fusion reactors includes a bed of 1 mm diameter beryllium pebbles to act as a neutron multiplier. Beryllium pebbles, fabricated by the rotating electrode method, were neutron irradiated in the HFR in Petten within the HIDOBE-01 experiment. This study presents tritium release and retention properties and data on microstructure evolution of beryllium pebbles irradiated at 630, 740, 873, 948 K up to a damage dose of 18 dpa, corresponding to a helium accumulation of about 3000 appm. The measured cumulative released activity from the beryllium pebbles irradiated at 948 K was found to be significantly lower than the calculated value. After irradiation at 873 and 948 K scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed large pores or bubbles in the bulk and oxide films with a thickness of up to 8 μm at the surface of the beryllium pebbles. The radiation-enhanced diffusion of tritium and the formation of open porosity networks accelerate the tritium release from the beryllium pebbles during the high-flux neutron irradiation.

  11. Irradiated Concrete in Nuclear Power Plants: Bridging the Gap in Operational Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmann, Brian P.; Esselman, Thomas C.; Wall, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The world's fleet of operating nuclear power plants (NPP) has been in-service for more than 20 years. In order to support the increasing demand for inexpensive power, many plants will be required to operate beyond 40 years, which was the original licensing period for existing NPPs. Improved knowledge of the performance of irradiated concrete is required to form a technical basis for long term operation (operation to 80+ years) of nuclear plants around the world. To date, operating experience (OE) of concrete subjected to irradiation has been acceptable, but there is an absence of data on this topic for extended periods of operation. The lack of empirical data has contributed to the difficulty of quantifying the long term behavior of concrete that is experiencing irradiation. Programs are in place that address other degradation mechanisms of concrete, but a clear and focused program is required on the effects of radiation. This paper presents a review of the available literature on the topic of the long-term irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of concrete, and provides a proposed methodology for the characterization of irradiated concrete removed from shut down or decommissioned commercial plants. (author)

  12. Assessment of differences between X and γ rays in order to validate a new generation of irradiators for insect sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Walder, Julio M.M.; Parker, Andrew G.; Jessup, Andrew; Orozco-Davila, Dina; Islam, Amirul; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Pereira, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Recent fears of terrorism provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing energy from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. In order to validate a novel Xray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24 to 48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of γ radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. There were no significant differences between X and γ radiation regarding mating indices. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and γ radiation, and X-rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as γ rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X-ray irradiators for pest control programs in UN Member States. (author)

  13. Parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy for validation of dysphageal symptoms during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt-Mainz, K.; Eising, E.G.; Bockisch, A. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Mallek, D. von; Poettgen, C.; Stuschke, M.; Sack, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate dysphageal symptoms and to measure the effect of local analgesic treatment using parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy (PES) during external beam irradiation of the mediastinal region. Fifteen patients (most with lung cancer) with dysphagia grade II underwent PES during external beam radiotherapy of the mediastinum before and after application of local analgesics. Dynamic parametric condensed images were recorded. The intensity of clinical symptoms was correlated with the emptying rate at 10 s (ER-10 s) and the mean transit time (MTT). Visual analysis of the images was performed and the results were correlated with the fields of irradiation portals. Of the 15 patients, 12 showed a correlation between irradiation portals and the region of oesophageal motility disorder. Concordant results of clinical symptoms and PES data were found. In nine patients with a decrease in dysphagia following local analgesia, an increase in mean ER-10 s and a decrease in MTT were observed. In three patients with deterioration in clinical symptoms after analgesic treatment, a similar decrease in mean ER-10 s was found, though MTT remained constant. In three patients with normal values, motility disorders were detected in the dynamic study. In conclusion, PES was found to be a sensitive tool for the validation of dysphageal symptoms in patients during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours and for the evaluation and quantification of the efficacy of local analgesic treatment. Additional visual analysis of the dynamic study is helpful in diagnosing minimal disorders. (orig.)

  14. Parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy for validation of dysphageal symptoms during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt-Mainz, K.; Eising, E.G.; Bockisch, A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate dysphageal symptoms and to measure the effect of local analgesic treatment using parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy (PES) during external beam irradiation of the mediastinal region. Fifteen patients (most with lung cancer) with dysphagia grade II underwent PES during external beam radiotherapy of the mediastinum before and after application of local analgesics. Dynamic parametric condensed images were recorded. The intensity of clinical symptoms was correlated with the emptying rate at 10 s (ER-10 s) and the mean transit time (MTT). Visual analysis of the images was performed and the results were correlated with the fields of irradiation portals. Of the 15 patients, 12 showed a correlation between irradiation portals and the region of oesophageal motility disorder. Concordant results of clinical symptoms and PES data were found. In nine patients with a decrease in dysphagia following local analgesia, an increase in mean ER-10 s and a decrease in MTT were observed. In three patients with deterioration in clinical symptoms after analgesic treatment, a similar decrease in mean ER-10 s was found, though MTT remained constant. In three patients with normal values, motility disorders were detected in the dynamic study. In conclusion, PES was found to be a sensitive tool for the validation of dysphageal symptoms in patients during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours and for the evaluation and quantification of the efficacy of local analgesic treatment. Additional visual analysis of the dynamic study is helpful in diagnosing minimal disorders. (orig.)

  15. Validation of the Danish language Injustice Experience Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Schultz, Rikke; Smith, Anne Agerskov

    2017-01-01

    /somatoform symptoms. These patients also completed questionnaires concerning sociodemographics, anxiety and depression, subjective well-being, and overall physical and mental functioning. Our results showed satisfactory interpretability and face validity, and high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .90...

  16. Fractionated stereotactic irradiation by Cyberknife of choroid melanomas: repositioning validation, closed eyelids; Irradiation stereotaxique fractionnee par Cyberknife des melanomes choroidiens: validation du repositionnement, paupieres fermees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, S.; Rezvoy, N.; Lacornerie, T.; Mirabel, X.; Labalette, P.; Lartigau, E. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Service de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2009-10-15

    The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife is an option in the treatment of eyes tumors. The advantages of the Cyberknife in the choroid melanomas are in its infra-millimetric precision, to the automated repositioning on the skull bones and to the conformity brought by the stereotaxy. The objective of this study was to validate the quality of repositioning and the immobility of the eyes with closed eyelids. Conclusion: the reproducibility of the eye positioning with closed eyelids seems enough to consider the conservative treatment of choroid melanomas by fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife without implementation of fiducials nor retrobulbar anaesthesia. (N.C.)

  17. Some UK experience and practice in the packaging and transport of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edney, C.J.; Rutter, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The origin and growth of irradiated fuel transport within and to the U.K. is described and the role of the organisations presently carrying out transport operations is explained. An explanation of the relevant U.K. regulations and laws affecting irradiated fuel transport and the role of the controlling body, the Department of the Environment is given. An explanation is given of the technical requirements for the transport of irradiated Magnox fuel and of the type of flask used, and the transport arrangements, both within the U.K. and to the U.K., from overseas is discussed. The technical requirements for the transport of C.A.G.R. fuel are outlined and the flask and transport arrangements are discussed. The transport requirements of oxide fuel from water reactors is outlined and the flask and shipping arrangements under which this fuel is brought to the U.K. from overseas is explained. The shipping arrangements are explained with particular reference to current international and national requirements. The requirements of the transport of M.T.R. fuel are discussed and the flask type explained. The expected future expansion of the transport of irradiated fuel within and to the U.K. is outlined and the proposed operating methods are briefly discussed. A summary is given of the U.K. experience and the lessons to be drawn from that experience

  18. Strategies for protection and experiments on repair of irradiated sulfhydryl enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durchschlag, H.; Zipper, P.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation of sulfur-containing biomolecules, especially of sulfhydryl proteins, is of particular interest in radiation biology. Sulfhydryl enzymes are useful objects for studying both structural and functional changes caused by radiation. In this context oxidation of enzyme sulfhydryl, inactivation (continuing in the post-irradiation phase), subunit cross-linking, enzyme aggregation, fragmentation, unfolding etc. may be mentioned. For their studies the authors used primarily malate synthase (MS), an enzyme with essential sulfhydryl, which was X-irradiated in aqueous solution in the absence or presence of a variety of additives (thiols, antioxienzymes, typical radical scavengers, inorganic salts, buffer components, substrates, products, substrate and product analogues). Radiation-induced effects were registered during irradiation, after stop of irradiation, and in the post-radiation (p.r.) phase 30 or 60 h p.r. using, e.g., small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses (PAGEs), and activity measurements. Repair experiments were initiated by p.r. addition of dithiothreitol (DTT). For comparison, some of the experiments were also carried out with two additional sulfhydryl enzymes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) and two disulfide containing proteins (ribonuclease A, serum albumin). 9 refs., 6 figs

  19. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.; Nocera, P.; Zwaska, R.; Mokhov, N.

    2017-01-01

    In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140–180 MeV, to peak fluence of ~6.1×10"2"0 p/cm"2 and irradiation temperatures between 120–200 °C. The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a) comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b) understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young’s modulus. The proton fluence level of ~10"2"0 cm"-"2 where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite revealed for the first time the similarity in

  20. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, N.; Nocera, P.; Zhong, Z.; Zwaska, R.; Mokhov, N.; Misek, J.; Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Kotsina, Z.

    2017-07-01

    In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140-180 MeV, to peak fluence of ˜6.1 ×1020 p /cm2 and irradiation temperatures between 120 - 200 °C . The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a) comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b) understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young's modulus. The proton fluence level of ˜1020 cm-2 where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite revealed for the first time the similarity in

  1. Measuring the experience of hospitality : Scale development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls-Hoekstra, Ruth; Groen, Brenda H.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies what customers experience as hospitality and subsequently presents a novel and compact assessment scale for measuring customers’ experience of hospitality at any kind of service organization. The Experience of Hospitality Scale (EH-Scale) takes a broader perspective compared to

  2. UK irradiation experience relevant to advanced carbide fuel concepts for LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, K.Q.; Batey, W.; Paris, R.; Sloss, W.M.; Snape, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Despite discouraging prognoses of fabrication and reprocessing problems, it is recognized that the quest for a carbide fuel pin design which fully exploits the favourable density and thermal conductivity of (U,Pu) monocarbide must be maintained. Studies in aid of carbide fuel development have, therefore, continued in the UK in parallel with those on oxide, albeit at a substantially lower level of effort, and a sufficient body of irradiation experience has been accumulated to allow discrimination of realistic fuel pin designs

  3. The Edinburgh experience of treating sarcomas of soft tissues and bone with neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.; Arnott, S.J.; Jack, W.J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The experience of treating 30 patients with sarcomas of soft tissue and bone with d(15)+Be neutron irradiation is reported. The local control of measurable soft-tissue sarcomas was 38.5% (minimum follow-up 2 years), which is similar to that expected after photon therapy. The radiation morbidity was unacceptably high (50%). Bone tumours did not respond well; in only one out of nine was lasting local tumour control achieved. (author)

  4. High temperature graphite irradiation creep experiment in the Dragon Reactor. Dragon Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzel, R.; Everett, M. R.; Graham, L. W.

    1971-05-15

    The irradiation induced creep of pressed Gilsocarbon graphite under constant tensile stress has been investigated in an experiment carried out in FE 317 of the OECD High Temperature Gass Cooled Reactor ''Dragon'' at Winfrith (England). The experiment covered a temperature range of 850 dec C to 1240 deg C and reached a maximum fast neutron dose of 1.19 x 1021 n cm-2 NDE (Nickel Dose DIDO Equivalent). Irradiation induced dimensional changes of a string of unrestrained graphite specimens are compared with the dimensional changes of three strings of restrained graphite specimens stressed to 40%, 58%, and 70% of the initial ultimate tensile strength of pressed Gilsocarbon graphite. Total creep strains ranging from 0.18% to 1.25% have been measured and a linear dependence of creep strain on applied stress was observed. Mechanical property measurements carried out before and after irradiation demonstrate that Gilsocarbon graphite can accommodate significant creep strains without failure or structural deterioration. Total creep strains are in excellent agreement with other data, however the results indicate a relatively large temperature dependent primary creep component which at 1200 deg C approaches a value which is three times larger than the normally assumed initial elastic strain. Secondary creep constants derived from the experiment show a temperature dependence and are in fair agreement with data reported elsewhere. A possible determination of the results is given.

  5. Dosimetric validation of planning system Eclipse 10 in partial breast irradiation treatments with IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez T, J. J.; Gutierrez M, J. G.; Ortiz A, C. S.; Chagoya G, A.; Gutierrez C, J. G.

    2015-10-01

    Partial breast irradiation is a new type of external radiation therapy to treat breast cancer in early clinical stages. Consist of administering to the channel surgical high doses of radiation in few treatment sessions. In this paper the dose calculations of the planning system Eclipse version 10 for a treatment of partial breast irradiation with X-rays beams (6 MV) intensity modulated were compared against the measurements made with OSL dosimeters and radio-chromic dye film. An anthropomorphic mannequin was used in which OSL dosimeters were collocated near the surface, an inside the radio-chromic dye film one plate; with this latest one dimensional dose distribution was measured. Previously dosimeters were calibrated irradiating them with a beam of X-rays 6 MV under the conditions specified in the IAEA-398 protocol. The OSL dosimeters were read in the Micro star Landauer equipment, the radio-chromic dye films were read with a scanner Epson 10000-Xl and analyzed with FilmCal and PTW Verisoft programs. The differences between measured and calculated dose were as follows: 3.6±1% for the OSL dosimeter and 96.3±1% of the analyzed points approved the gamma index criterion (3%, 3m m) when comparing the matrices of calculated dose and measured with the radio-chromic dye film. These results confirm the good dosimetric performance of planning system used under specific conditions used in the partial breast irradiation technique. (Author)

  6. Summary report on the fuel performance modeling of the AFC-2A, 2B irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel G. Medvedev

    2013-09-01

    The primary objective of this work at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to determine the fuel and cladding temperature history during irradiation of the AFC-2A, 2B transmutation metallic fuel alloy irradiation experiments containing transuranic and rare earth elements. Addition of the rare earth elements intends to simulate potential fission product carry-over from pyro-metallurgical reprocessing. Post irradiation examination of the AFC-2A, 2B rodlets revealed breaches in the rodlets and fuel melting which was attributed to the release of the fission gas into the helium gap between the rodlet cladding and the capsule which houses six individually encapsulated rodlets. This release is not anticipated during nominal operation of the AFC irradiation vehicle that features a double encapsulated design in which sodium bonded metallic fuel is separated from the ATR coolant by the cladding and the capsule walls. The modeling effort is focused on assessing effects of this unanticipated event on the fuel and cladding temperature with an objective to compare calculated results with the temperature limits of the fuel and the cladding.

  7. A 20 keV electron gun system for the electron irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, S.K.; Dhole, S.D.; Bhoraskar, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    An electron gun consisting of cathode, focusing electrode, control electrode and anode has been designed and fabricated for the electron irradiation experiments. This electron gun can provide electrons of any energy over the range 1-20 keV, with current upto 50 μA. This electron gun and a Faraday cup are mounted in the cylindrical chamber. The samples are fixed on the Faraday cup and irradiated with electrons at a pressure ∼10 -7 mbar. The special features of this electron gun system are that, at any electron energy above 1 keV, the electron beam diameter can be varied from 5 to 120 mm on the Faraday cup mounted at a distance of 200 mm from the anode in the chamber. The variation in the electron current over the beam spot of 120 mm diameter is less than 15% and the beam current stability is better than 5%. This system is being used for studying the irradiation effects of 1-20 keV energy electrons on the space quality materials in which the irradiation time may vary from a few tens of seconds to hours

  8. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Marshall, R. D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-04-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/ c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5×10 15 p/cm 2. We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1×10 15 p/cm 2 and decreases by ≈40% at 5×10 15 p/cm 2. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/ c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1×10 15p/cm 2 without signal loss.

  9. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Marshall, R.D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-04-21

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}. We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2} and decreases by {approx}40% at 5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1x10{sup 15}p/cm{sup 2} without signal loss.

  10. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, D.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Marshall, R.D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5x10 15 p/cm 2 . We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1x10 15 p/cm 2 and decreases by ∼40% at 5x10 15 p/cm 2 . Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1x10 15 p/cm 2 without signal loss

  11. Proton Irradiation of CVD Diamond Detectors for High Luminosity Experiments at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, D; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jany, C; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Marshall, R D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardn ess of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24~GeV/$c$ and 500~MeV protons up to a fluence of $5\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$. We measured the charge collection distance, the ave rage distance electron hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to $1\\ times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$ and decreases by $\\approx$40~\\% at $5\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1~pA before and after irradiation. The particle indu ced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage curren t. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radia...

  12. A 20 keV electron gun system for the electron irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, S.K. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)]. E-mail: vnb@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2005-01-01

    An electron gun consisting of cathode, focusing electrode, control electrode and anode has been designed and fabricated for the electron irradiation experiments. This electron gun can provide electrons of any energy over the range 1-20 keV, with current upto 50 {mu}A. This electron gun and a Faraday cup are mounted in the cylindrical chamber. The samples are fixed on the Faraday cup and irradiated with electrons at a pressure {approx}10{sup -7} mbar. The special features of this electron gun system are that, at any electron energy above 1 keV, the electron beam diameter can be varied from 5 to 120 mm on the Faraday cup mounted at a distance of 200 mm from the anode in the chamber. The variation in the electron current over the beam spot of 120 mm diameter is less than 15% and the beam current stability is better than 5%. This system is being used for studying the irradiation effects of 1-20 keV energy electrons on the space quality materials in which the irradiation time may vary from a few tens of seconds to hours.

  13. Measuring experience of hospitality : scale development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls-Hoekstra, Ruth; Groen, Brenda H.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    This paper describes the development of the Experience of Hospitality Scale (EH-Scale) for assessing hospitality in service environments from a guest point of view. In contrast to other scales, which focus specifically on staff behaviour, the present scale focuses on the experience of hospitality

  14. A validation of DRAGON based on lattice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marleau, G.

    1996-01-01

    Here we address the validation of DRAGON using the Chalk River Laboratory experimental database which has already been used for the validation of other codes. Because of the large variety of information for different fuel and moderator types compiled on this database, the most basic modules of DRAGON are thoroughly tested. The general behaviour observed with DRAGON is very good. Its main weakness is seen in the self-shielding ,calculation where the correction applied to the inner fuel pin seems to be overevaluated with respect to the outer fuel pins. One question which is left open this paper concerns the need for inserting end-regions in the DRAGON cells when the heterogeneous B, leakage model is used. (author)

  15. Blast Load Simulator Experiments for Computational Model Validation: Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    simulations of these explosive events and their effects . These codes are continuously improving, but still require validation against experimental data to...contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an...12 Figure 18. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals on measured peak pressure. ............................ 14 Figure 19. Ninety-five percent

  16. Blast Load Simulator Experiments for Computational Model Validation Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    the effect of the contact surface on the measurement . For gauge locations where a clearly defined initial peak is not present, Figure 24 for example...these explosive events and their effects . These codes are continuously improving, but still require validation against experimental data to...DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not

  17. Measures of agreement between computation and experiment:validation metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Oberkampf, William Louis

    2005-08-01

    With the increasing role of computational modeling in engineering design, performance estimation, and safety assessment, improved methods are needed for comparing computational results and experimental measurements. Traditional methods of graphically comparing computational and experimental results, though valuable, are essentially qualitative. Computable measures are needed that can quantitatively compare computational and experimental results over a range of input, or control, variables and sharpen assessment of computational accuracy. This type of measure has been recently referred to as a validation metric. We discuss various features that we believe should be incorporated in a validation metric and also features that should be excluded. We develop a new validation metric that is based on the statistical concept of confidence intervals. Using this fundamental concept, we construct two specific metrics: one that requires interpolation of experimental data and one that requires regression (curve fitting) of experimental data. We apply the metrics to three example problems: thermal decomposition of a polyurethane foam, a turbulent buoyant plume of helium, and compressibility effects on the growth rate of a turbulent free-shear layer. We discuss how the present metrics are easily interpretable for assessing computational model accuracy, as well as the impact of experimental measurement uncertainty on the accuracy assessment.

  18. Comparison of silver release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-2 irradiation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Harp, Jason M.; Hunn, John D.

    2016-11-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict silver release from tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and compacts during the second irradiation experiment (AGR-2) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-2 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 559 days of irradiation to calculate the release of fission product silver from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-2 compacts and individual fuel particles containing either mixed uranium carbide/oxide (UCO) or 100% uranium dioxide (UO2) kernels. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements were performed to provide data on release of silver from these compacts and individual fuel particles. The available experimental fractional releases of silver were compared to their corresponding PARFUME predictions. Preliminary comparisons show that PARFUME under-predicts the PIE results in UCO compacts and is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for UO2 compacts. The accuracy of PARFUME predictions is impacted by the code limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature across the compacts. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie within the same order of magnitude.

  19. Experience of European LWR irradiated fuel transport: the first five hundred tonnes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the service provided by an international company specializing in the transport of LWR irradiated fuel throughout Europe. Methods of transport used to the reprocessing plants at La Hague and Windscale include road transport of 38 te flasks over the whole route; transport of flasks between 55 and 105 te by rail, with rail-head and the reprocessing plant, where required, performed by road using heavy trailers; roll-on, roll-off sea ferries; and charter ships. Different modes of transport have been developed to cater for the various limitations on access to reactor sites arising from geographical and routing considerations. The experience of transporting more than 500 tonnes of irradiated uranium from twenty-one power reactors is used to illustrate the flexibility which the transport organization requires when the access and handling facilities are different at almost every reactor. Variations in fuel cross sections and lengths of fuel elements used in first generation reactors created the need for first generation flasks with sufficient variants to accommodate all reactor fuels but the trend now is towards standardization of flasks to perhaps two basic types. The safety record of irradiated fuel transport is examined with explanation of the means whereby this has been achieved. The problems of programming the movement of a pool of eighteen flasks for twenty-one reactors in eight countries are discussed together with the steps taken to ensure that the service operates fairly to give priority to those reactors with the greatest problems. The transport of irradiated fuel across several national frontiers is an international task which requires an international company. The transport of European irradiated fuel can be presented as an example of international collaboration which works

  20. Tritium release from beryllium pebbles after high temperature irradiation up to 3000 appm He in the HIDOBE-01 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Til, S. van, E-mail: vantil@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fedorov, A.V.; Stijkel, M.P.; Cobussen, H.L.; Mutnuru, R.K.; Idsert, P. van der [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Postbus 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and The Development of Fusion Energy, c/ Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    In the HIDOBE (HIgh DOse irradiation of BEryllium) irradiation program, various grades of constrained and unconstrained beryllium pebbles, beryllium pellets and titanium-beryllide samples are irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten at four different temperatures (between 698 K and 1023 K) for 649 days [1]. The first of two HIDOBE irradiation experiments, HIDOBE-01, was completed after achieving a DEMO relevant helium production level of 3000 appm and the samples are retrieved for postirradiation examination (PIE). This work shows preliminary results of the out-of-pile tritium release analysis performed on different grades of irradiated beryllium pebbles (different in size). Relationships between irradiation temperature, tritium inventory and microstructural evolution have been observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Progress Report on Disassembly and Post-Irradiation Experiments for UCSB ATR-2 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanstad, Randy K [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odette, G. R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Robertson, Janet Pawel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, T [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations that govern the operation of commercial nuclear power plants require conservative margins of fracture toughness, both during normal operation and under accident scenarios. In the unirradiated condition, the RPV has sufficient fracture toughness such that failure is implausible under any postulated condition, including pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in pressurized water reactors (PWR). In the irradiated condition, however, the fracture toughness of the RPV may be severely degraded, with the degree of toughness loss dependent on the radiation sensitivity of the materials. As stated in previous progress reports, the available embrittlement predictive models, e.g. [1], and our present understanding of radiation damage are not fully quantitative, and do not treat all potentially significant variables and issues, particularly considering extension of operation to 80y.

  2. Validation experience with the core calculation program karate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, Gy.; Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Makai, M.; Maraczy, Cs.

    1995-01-01

    A relatively fast and easy-to-handle modular code system named KARATE-440 has been elaborated for steady-state operational calculations of VVER-440 type reactors. It is built up from cell, assembly and global calculations. In the frame of the program neutron physical and thermohydraulic process of the core at normal startup, steady and slow transient can be simulated. The verification and validation of the global code have been prepared recently. The test cases include mathematical benchmark and measurements on operating VVER-440 units. Summary of the results, such as startup parameters, boron letdown curves, radial and axial power distributions of some cycles of Paks NPP is presented. (author)

  3. Ten year experience in operation of a sewage sludge treatment plant using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessel, T [Abwasserverband Ampergruppe, Eichenau/Muenchen (Germany, F.R.); Suess, A [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Bodenkultur und Pflanzenbau, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1984-01-01

    The first sewage sludge gamma irradiation plant in a technical scale, using Co-60 has been successfully working in Geiselbullach near Munich, FRG, since July 1973. More than 250,000 m/sup 3/ of liquid sludge has been disinfected during that time. Very simple plant design, fully automatic operation over 24 hours and high availability proved the practical applicability of such a facility in a sewage water purification plant without any specially skilled personnel. Beside wide investigations for hygienic aspects, changing of the physical sludge characteristics, effect of irradiated sludge on soil and plants the economic considerations were regarded as important. Experiments were undertaken to optimize the flexibility of the plant operation and to reduce the necessary radiation dose for minimizing the operation costs.

  4. The FUBR-1B experiment, irradiation of lithium ceramics to high burnups under large temperature gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Knight, R.C.; Densley, P.J.; Pember, L.A.; Johnson, C.E.; Poeppel, R.B.; Yang, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid breeder materials used for supplying the tritium for fueling fusion power reactors will be required to withstand a variety of severe environmental conditions such as irradiation damage, thermal stresses and chemical reactions while continuing to produce tritium and not interfering with other essential components in the complex blanket region. In the FUBR-1B experiment several solid breeder candidates are being subjected to the most hostile conditions foreseen in a fusion reactor's blanket. Some material, such as Li 2 O, Li 8 ZrO 6 , and Li 4 SiO 4 , possess high lithium atom densities which are reflected in high tritium breeding ratios. Other material, such as LiAlO 2 and Li 2 ZrO 3 , appear to have exceptional irradiation stability. Verifying the magnitude of these differences will allow national selection between design options

  5. BNFL's experience in the sea transport of irradiated research reactor fuel to the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, I.A.; Porter, I.

    2000-01-01

    BNFL provides worldwide transport for a wide range of nuclear materials. BNFL Transport manages an unique fleet of vessels, designed, built, and operated to the highest safety standards, including the highest rating within the INF Code recommended by the International Maritime Organisation. The company has some 20 years of experience of transporting irradiated research reactor fuel in support of the United States' programme for returning US obligated fuel from around the world. Between 1977 and 1988 BNFL performed 11 shipments of irradiated research reactor fuel from the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to the US. Since 1997, a further 3 shipments have been performed as part of an ongoing programme for Japanese research reactor operators. Where possible, shipments of fuel from European countries such as Sweden and Spain have been combined with those from Japan for delivery to the US. (author)

  6. Warm pre-stress experiments on highly irradiated reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landron, C.; Ait-Bachir, M.; Moinereau, D.; Molinie, E.; Garbay, E.

    2015-01-01

    In the aim to justify in-service integrity of reactor pressure vessel beyond 40 years, experimental warm pre-stress (WPS) tests were performed on irradiated materials representative of RPV steels corresponding to 40 operating years. Different types of WPS loading path have been considered to cover typical postulated accidental transients. These results confirmed the beneficial effect of WPS on the cleavage fracture resistance of the irradiated materials. No fracture occurred during the cooling phase of the loading path and the fracture toughness values are higher than that measured with conventional isothermal tests. The analyses of the experiments, conducted using either simplified engineering models or more refined fracture models based on local approach to cleavage fracture, are in agreement with the experimental results. (authors)

  7. Ten year experience in operation of a sewage sludge treatment plant using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessel, T.; Suess, A.

    1984-01-01

    The first sewage sludge gamma irradiation plant in a technical scale, using Co-60 has been successfully working in Geiselbullach near Munich, FRG, since July 1973. More than 250,000 m 3 of liquid sludge has been disinfected during that time. Very simple plant design, fully automatic operation over 24 hours and high availability proved the practical applicability of such a facility in a sewage water purification plant without any specially skilled personnel. Beside wide investigations for hygienic aspects, changing of the physical sludge characteristics, effect of irradiated sludge on soil and plants the economic considerations were regarded as important. Experiments were undertaken to optimize the flexibility of the plant operation and to reduce the necessary radiation dose for minimizing the operation costs. (author)

  8. Importance of dosimetry of irradiators for pre-clinical radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2014-01-01

    Importance of radiation dose in radiation biology has been increasingly recognized due to translational use of beyond 2Gy dose is in current practice. Hence, accurate dosimetry of biological irradiators is warranted. To address these problems and propose recommendations, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) along with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) as well as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) highlighted a number of recommendations that will be presented in this talk that includes creating dosimetry standard operating procedures (SOPs) for both in-vitro as well as in-vivo experiments. Other recommendations include for journals (as well as to funding agencies) mandating the reporting of dosimetry of biological irradiators. (author)

  9. Properties of vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H. M.; Loomis, B. A.; Smith, D. L.

    1996-10-01

    One property of vanadium-base alloys that is not well understood in terms of their potential use a fusion reactor structural materials, is the effect of simultaneous generation of helium and neutron damage. In the present Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE), helium was produced uniformly in the specimen at linear rates of ≈ 0.4 to 4.2 appm helium/dpa by the decay of tritium during irradiation to 18-31 dpa at 425-600°C in Li-filled capsules in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. This paper presents results of postirradiation examination and tests of microstructure and mechanical properties of V5Ti, V3Ti1Si, V8Cr6Ti, and V4Cr4Ti (the latter alloy has been identified as the most promising candidate vanadium alloy). Effects of helium on tensile strength and ductility were insignificant after irradiation and testing at > 420°C. However, postirradiation ductilities at irradiation. Ductile—brittle transition behavior of the DHCE specimens was also determined from bend tests and fracture appearance of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks and broken tensile specimens. No brittle behavior was observed at temperatures > - 150°C in DHCE specimens. Predominantly brittle-cleavage fracture morphologies were observed only at - 196°C in some specimens that were irradiated to 31 dpa at 425°C during the DHCE. For the helium generation rates in this experiment (≈ 0.4-4.2 appm He/dpa), grain-boundary coalescence of helium microcavities was negligible and intergranular fracture was not observed.

  10. Experience of European irradiated fuel transport - the first four hundred tonnes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the successful integration of the experience of its three shareholders into an international company providing an irradiated fuel transport service throughout Europe. The experience of transporting more than 400 tonnes of irradiated uranium from fifteen power reactors is used to illustrate the flexibility which the transport organisation requires when the access and handling facilities are different at almost every reactor. Variations in fuel cross sections and lengths of fuel elements used in first generation reactors created the need for first generation flasks with sufficient variants to accommodate all reactor fuels but the trend now is towards standardisation of flasks to perhaps two basic types. Increases in fuel rating have raised the flask shielding and heat dissipation requirements and have influenced the design of later flasks. More stringent criticality acceptance criteria have tended to reduce the flask capacity below the maximum number of elements which could physically be contained. Reprocessing plant acceptance criteria initiated because of the presence of substantial quantities of loose crud released in the flask and the need to transport substantial numbers of failed elements have also reduced the flask capacity. Different modes of transport have been developed to cater for the various limitations on access to reactor sites arising from geographical and routing considerations. The safety record of irradiated fuel transport is examined with explanation of the means whereby this has been achieved. The problems of programming the movement of a pool of flasks for fifteen reactors in eight countries are discussed together with the steps taken to ensure that the service operates fairly to give priority to those reactors with the greatest problems. The transport of European irradiated fuel can be presented as an example of international collaboration which works

  11. Light-ion irradiation experiments in National Research Institute for Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Naoki; Nagakawa, Johsei; Shiraishi, Haruki

    1987-01-01

    National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM) has primarily focused in the mechanical testings under ion bombardment. (creep, fatigue, and fracture toughness are planned). For the purpose of carrying out those objectives, light ion cyclotron is thought one of the most suitable as an accelerator. NRIM installed AVF-type cyclotron with some modification accomodating to the irradiation testing. From the characteristics of produced particles, NRIM's cyclotron is expected to simulate fusion irradiation environment properly. Irradiation creep experiment was started in 1986. An important and difficult point for the creep measurement is the control of specimen temperature under flucturing beam heating. The problem of this fluctuation was solved by employing forced convection of helium and DC. heating. Fe-25Ni-15Cr and 316 SS have been preliminarily investigated concerning mechanism of the phase stability and the post-helium-implantation creep, etc. Fe-25Ni-15Cr was made into platelets of 0.087 x 2.5 x 20 mm 3 and 316 SS was drawn into wire of 0.8 mm in diameter. Results of preliminary experiments are as follows. For Fe-25Ni-15Cr, 1) Ni of 25 % does not improve creep resistance, 2) Minor element like Ti is important in suppressing the creep, 3) SIPA and PAG model explain the stress dependence of creep qualitatively, and for 316 SS, 4) 0.025 dpa is required to reach steady-state creep, at 2.5 x 10 -7 dpa/s, 300 deg C and 50 MPa, 5) The evolution of irradiation creep is sensitive to the damage rate, particularly in the low dpa range. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  12. Electrically Driven Thermal Management: Flight Validation, Experiment Development, Future Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2018-01-01

    Electrically Driven Thermal Management is an active research and technology development initiative incorporating ISS technology flight demonstrations (STP-H5), development of Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) flight experiment, and laboratory-based investigations of electrically based thermal management techniques. The program targets integrated thermal management for future generations of RF electronics and power electronic devices. This presentation reviews four program elements: i.) results from the Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Long Term Flight Demonstration launched in February 2017 ii.) development of the Electrically Driven Liquid Film Boiling Experiment iii.) two University based research efforts iv.) development of Oscillating Heat Pipe evaluation at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  13. Copper benchmark experiment at the Frascati Neutron Generator for nuclear data validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelone, M., E-mail: maurizio.angelone@enea.it; Flammini, D.; Loreti, S.; Moro, F.; Pillon, M.; Villari, R.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A benchmark experiment was performed using pure copper with 14 MeV neutrons. • The experiment was performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG). • Activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters and scintillators were used to measure reactions rates (RR), nuclear heating and neutron spectra. • The paper presents the RR measurements and the post analysis using MCNP5 and JEFF-3.1.1, JEFF-3.2 and FENDL-3.1 libraries. • C/Es are presented showing the need for deep revision of Cu cross sections. - Abstract: A neutronics benchmark experiment on a pure Copper block (dimensions 60 × 70 × 60 cm{sup 3}), aimed at testing and validating the recent nuclear data libraries for fusion applications, was performed at the 14-MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) as part of a F4E specific grant (F4E-FPA-395-01) assigned to the European Consortium on Nuclear Data and Experimental Techniques. The relevant neutronics quantities (e.g., reaction rates, neutron flux spectra, doses, etc.) were measured using different experimental techniques and the results were compared to the calculated quantities using fusion relevant nuclear data libraries. This paper focuses on the analyses carried-out by ENEA through the activation foils techniques. {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au, {sup 186}W(n,γ){sup 187}W, {sup 115}In(n,n′){sup 115}In, {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co, {sup 27}Al(n,α){sup 24}Na, {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} activation reactions were used. The foils were placed at eight different positions along the Cu block and irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons. Activation measurements were performed by means of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Detailed simulation of the experiment was carried-out using MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the European JEFF-3.1.1 and 3.2 nuclear cross-sections data files for neutron transport and IRDFF-v1.05 library for the reaction rates in activation foils. The calculated reaction rates (C) were compared to the experimental quantities (E) and

  14. Validation of a label dosimeter for food irradiation applications by subjective and objective means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1997-01-01

    A new label dosimeter was tested for reliability and reproducibility. For the nominal absorbed dose values of 70, 125, and 300 Gy a sharp transition from bright red to black occurs. This was confirmed by instrumental tri-chromatic measurement of colour and by visual judgment in triangle and ranking tests. As for its dosimetric properties, the device proved suitable for the intended purpose as a label dosimeter. The question as to whether or not any dose indication specific only to the outside of an irradiated unit is sufficiently informative about the minimum dose somewhere inside the consignment remains to be resolved. (author)

  15. Preliminary analysis of surface displacement results in the creepdown irradiation experiment HOBBIE-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, D.O.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the results of the eddy-current surface displacement measurements of Zircaloy cladding obtained during the HOBBIE-1 irradiation experiment in the HFR at ECN-Petten, the Netherlands. Raw creepdown data from the test were corrected through the use of reference coils incorporated in the eddy-current coil block in the experiment capsule. The corrected displacement results are compared with out-of-reactor results obtained under nominally identical conditions of pressure and temperature. Experiment HOBBIE-1 was run at 371 0 C and 13.1 MPa specimen external pressure for a total time of approximately 950 h. No gross cladding ovalization was obtained. This result differed from the relatively simple ovality found in the out-of-reactor test. Contact with the internal mandrel occurred between 400 and 500 h, compared with 375 h for a comparable out-of-reactor test. Average diameter decreases for both tests were similar. These results are discussed in detail

  16. NRC data base for power reactor surveillance programs and for irradiation experiments results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation damage of pressure vessel materials in nuclear reactors depends on many different factors, primarily fluence, fluence spectrum, fluence rate, irradiation temperature, and chemistry. These factors and, possibly, others such as heat treatment and type of flux used in weldments must be considered to reliably predict the pressure vessel embrittlement and to assure the safe operation of the reactor. Based on embrittlement predictions, decisions must be made concerning operating parameters, low-leakage fuel management, possible life extension, and the need for annealing of the pressure vessel. Large numbers of data obtained from surveillance capsules and test reactor experiments are needed, comprising many different materials and different irradiation conditions, to develop generally applicable damage prediction models that can be used for industry standards and regulatory guides. The US Nuclear Regulatory Agency has, therefore, sponsored a project to construct an Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) for a comprehensive collection of data concerning changes in material properties of pressure vessel steels due to neutron irradiation. A first version containing data from surveillance capsules of commercial power reactors, the Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB) Version 1, has been completed and is available to authorized users from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document provides a discussion of the features of the current database. 1 fig

  17. Reactivity loss validation of high burn-up PWR fuels with pile-oscillation experiments in MINERVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leconte, P.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Eschbach, R.; Di-Salvo, J.; Antony, M.; Pepino, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    The ALIX experimental program relies on the experimental validation of the spent fuel inventory, by chemical analysis of samples irradiated in a PWR between 5 and 7 cycles, and also on the experimental validation of the spent fuel reactivity loss with bum-up, obtained by pile-oscillation measurements in the MINERVE reactor. These latter experiments provide an overall validation of both the fuel inventory and of the nuclear data responsible for the reactivity loss. This program offers also unique experimental data for fuels with a burn-up reaching 85 GWd/t, as spent fuels in French PWRs never exceeds 70 GWd/t up to now. The analysis of these experiments is done in two steps with the APOLLO2/SHEM-MOC/CEA2005v4 package. In the first one, the fuel inventory of each sample is obtained by assembly calculations. The calculation route consists in the self-shielding of cross sections on the 281 energy group SHEM mesh, followed by the flux calculation by the Method Of Characteristics in a 2D-exact heterogeneous geometry of the assembly, and finally a depletion calculation by an iterative resolution of the Bateman equations. In the second step, the fuel inventory is used in the analysis of pile-oscillation experiments in which the reactivity of the ALIX spent fuel samples is compared to the reactivity of fresh fuel samples. The comparison between Experiment and Calculation shows satisfactory results with the JEFF3.1.1 library which predicts the reactivity loss within 2% for burn-up of {approx}75 GWd/t and within 4% for burn-up of {approx}85 GWd/t. (authors)

  18. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Simos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140–180 MeV, to peak fluence of ∼6.1×10^{20}  p/cm^{2} and irradiation temperatures between 120–200 °C. The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young’s modulus. The proton fluence level of ∼10^{20}  cm^{−2} where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite

  19. Effects of γ-irradiation on caprolactam level from multilayer PA-6 films for food packaging: Development and validation of a gas chromatographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Henrique Peres; Felix, Juliana Silva; Manzoli, Jose Eduardo; Padula, Marisa; Monteiro, Magali

    2008-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method to determine caprolactam in multilayer PA-6 films used for meat foodstuffs and cheese was developed and validated. A wide linear range (0.8-400 μg/ml), RSD≤4.1% and recovery higher than 90.0% were obtained for the chromatographic system, while precision and accuracy of the method showed RSD≤3.8%, recovery from 95.5-100.0% and LOQ of 32 μg/g. Irradiated (3, 7 and 12 kGy) and non-irradiated commercial films were analyzed. Most of them increased caprolactam levels with the increase of irradiation doses

  20. Effects of {gamma}-irradiation on caprolactam level from multilayer PA-6 films for food packaging: Development and validation of a gas chromatographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Henrique Peres; Felix, Juliana Silva [Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sao Paulo State University, PO Box 502, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Manzoli, Jose Eduardo [Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Padula, Marisa [Packaging Technology Center/Food Technology Institute (CETEA/ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Monteiro, Magali [Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sao Paulo State University, PO Box 502, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: monteiro@fcfar.unesp.br

    2008-07-15

    A gas chromatographic method to determine caprolactam in multilayer PA-6 films used for meat foodstuffs and cheese was developed and validated. A wide linear range (0.8-400 {mu}g/ml), RSD{<=}4.1% and recovery higher than 90.0% were obtained for the chromatographic system, while precision and accuracy of the method showed RSD{<=}3.8%, recovery from 95.5-100.0% and LOQ of 32 {mu}g/g. Irradiated (3, 7 and 12 kGy) and non-irradiated commercial films were analyzed. Most of them increased caprolactam levels with the increase of irradiation doses.

  1. Characterisation of neutron irradiation damage in zirconium alloys - a 'Round Robin' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, P.M.; Blake, R.G.; Jostsons, A.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of the damage structure in the neutron-irradiated zirconium specimens supplied as part of an international 'Round Robin' experiment has been studied using transmission electron microscopy. The damage structure consists entirely of a/3 dislocation loops and no evidence has been found for c component loops. Both vacancy and interstitial loops were found in specimens where inside/outside contrast analysis was possible. Quantitative measurements of loop size distributions and loop concentrations are reported. All specimens exhibited corduroy contrast to varying degress. (author)

  2. Review of direct electrical heating experiments on irradiated mixed-oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Bandyopadhyay, G.

    1982-01-01

    Results of approximately 50 out-of-reactor experiments that simulated various stages of a loss-of-flow event with irradiated fuel are presented. The tests, which utilized the direct electrical heating technique to simulate nuclear heating, were performed either on fuel segments with their original cladding intact or on fuel segments that were extruded into quartz tubes. The test results demonstrated that the macro- and microscopic fuel behavior was dependent on a number of variables including fuel heating rate, thermal history prior to a transient, the number of heating cycles, type of cladding (quartz vs stainless steel), and fuel burnup

  3. The investigation of fast reactor fuel pin start up behaviour in the irradiation experiment DUELL II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, D.; Geithoff, D.

    1988-04-01

    The irradiation experiments DUELL-II within the SNR-300 operational Transient Experimental Program deal with the investigation of fresh mixed oxide fuel behaviour at start-up. The irradiation has been carried out in the HFR Petten in four so-called DUELL capsules with two fuel pin samples each. The fuel pins with a total length of 453 mm contained a fuel column of 150 mm length, consisting of high dense (U,Pu)O 2-x fuel with an initial porosity of 4%, a Pu-content of 20.9%, and an O/Me ratio of 1.96. The fuel pellet diameter was 6.37 mm, the outer diameter of the SS cladding, material No. 1.4970, was 7.6 mm. The irradiation included four phases, consisting of preconditioning at 85% nominal power (corresponds to 550 W/cm), a following increase to full power, and two following full power periods of 1 and 10 days, respectively. Post irradiation examination showed incomplete fuel restructuring in the first capsules with central void diameters of 800 μm in the hot plane, complete restructuring in the last capsule, leading to central voids of approximately 1 mm diameter. The residual gaps between fuel and clad varied between 25 and 44 μm. The clad inner surface did not show any corrosion attack. The analysis of fuel restructuring has been carried out with the computer code SATURN-S showing good agreement with the PIE results. The analysis led to a series of model improvements, especially for crack volume and relocation modelling. (orig./GL) [de

  4. Design Studies for a Multiple Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation Experiments (MATRIX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Michael A.; Gougar, Hans D.; Ryskamp, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density test reactor specializing in fuel and materials irradiation. For more than 45 years, the ATR has provided irradiations of materials and fuels testing along with radioisotope production. Should unforeseen circumstances lead to the decommissioning of ATR, the U.S. Government would be left without a large-scale materials irradiation capability to meet the needs of its nuclear energy and naval reactor missions. In anticipation of this possibility, work was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate test reactor concepts that could satisfy the current missions of the ATR along with an expanded set of secondary missions. A survey was conducted in order to catalogue the anticipated needs of potential customers. Then, concepts were evaluated to fill the role for this reactor, dubbed the Multi-Application Thermal Reactor Irradiation eXperiments (MATRIX). The baseline MATRIX design is expected to be capable of longer cycle lengths than ATR given a particular batch scheme. The volume of test space in In-Pile-Tubes (IPTs) is larger in MATRIX than in ATR with comparable magnitude of neutron flux. Furthermore, MATRIX has more locations of greater volume having high fast neutron flux than ATR. From the analyses performed in this work, it appears that the lead MATRIX design can be designed to meet the anticipated needs of the ATR replacement reactor. However, this design is quite immature, and therefore any requirements currently met must be re-evaluated as the design is developed further.

  5. Synthesis of clad motion experiments interpretation: codes and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, J.; Fortunato, M.; Seiler, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    This communication deals with clad melting and relocation phenomena related to LMFBR safety analysis of loss of flow accidents. We present: - the physical models developed at DSN/CEN Cadarache in single channel and bundle geometry. The interpretation with these models of experiments performed by the STT (CEN Grenoble). It comes out that we have now obtained a good understanding of the involved phenomena in single channel geometry. On the other hand, further studies are necessary for a better knowledge of clad motion phenomena in bundle cases with conditions close to reactor ones

  6. Validation of the ABBN/CONSYST constants system. Part 1: Validation through the critical experiments on compact metallic cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, T.T.; Manturov, G.N.; Nikolaev, M.N.; Rozhikhin, E.V.; Semenov, M.Yu.; Tsiboulia, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide compilation of criticality safety benchmark experiments, evaluated due to an activity of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), discovers new possibilities for validation of the ABBN-93.1 cross section library for criticality safety analysis. Results of calculations of small assemblies with metal-fuelled cores are presented in this paper. It is concluded that ABBN-93.1 predicts criticality of such systems with required accuracy

  7. Validation of photon-heating calculations in irradiation reactor with the experimental AMMON program and the CARMEN device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    The temperature in the different core structures of Material-Testing Reactors (MTR) is a key physical parameter for MTRs' performance and safety. In nuclear reactors, where neutron and photon flux are sustained by fission chain reactions, neutrons and photons steadily deposit energy in the structures they cross and lead to a temperature rise in these structures. In non-fissile core structures (such as material samples, experimental devices, control rods, fuel claddings, and so on), the main part of nuclear heating is induced by photon interactions. This photon heating must therefore be well calculated as it is a key input parameter for MTR thermal studies, whose purpose is for instance to help determine the proper sizing of cooling power, electrical heaters and insulation gaps in MTR irradiation devices. The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is the next international MTR under construction in the south of France at CEA Cadarache research center (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission). The JHR will be a major research infrastructure for the test of structural material and fuel behavior under irradiation. It will also produce from 25% to 50% of the European demand of medical radioisotopes for diagnostic purposes. High levels of nuclear heating are expected in the JHR core, with an absorbed-dose rate up to 20 watts per hafnium gram at nominal power (100 MW). Compared to a Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR), the JHR is made of a specific array of materials (aluminum rack, beryllium reflector, hafnium control rods) and the feedback on photon-heating calculations with these features is limited. It is therefore necessary to validate photon-heating calculation tools (calculation codes and the European nuclear-data JEFF3.1.1 library) for use in the JHR, that is, it is necessary to determine the biases and uncertainties that are relevant for the photon-heating values calculated with these tools in the JHR. This topic constitutes the core of the present

  8. Validity of PRV margins around lung and heart during left breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovski, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Planning organ at risk volumes (PRV) has a minor use in radiotherapy treatment planning. During left breast irradiation two critical volumes are of special importance the lung and the heart. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in volume doses after adding appropriate margins around these organs at risk and compare them with the effect that the systematic positioning error has on the volume doses. Methods: Treatment plans for 44 patients with left breast cancer were analyzed. Two changes for each plan were made, and dose-volume histogram values for hearts and lungs volumes were recorded. In the first case margins of 5 mm to hearts and lungs were added. Volumes that were enclosed by 30% isodose for hearts and volumes that were enclosed by 20% isodose of lungs were recorded. In the second case plans were made with a systematic error of 5 mm employed, depicting a translation of isocenter posterior and to the right. In this second case, monitor units were taken from the original plan. The critical volumes for hearts and lungs were recorded as in the first case. Results: Our policy for breast cancer irradiation demands that the lung volume receiving 20 Gy should be kept under 25% of the whole left-lung volume, and no more than 10% of the heart volume should receive more than 30 Gy. The first case simulation showed that 23% of the patients have a heart overdose while 11% of them have a lung overdose according to the criteria above. Simulation of the second kind showed that the systematic error in isocenter positioning of 5 mm gives bigger a volume of the heart (in average 0.69% of heart volume) to be enclosed in critical isodose than in PRV case. For the lung the situation was opposite; namely in PRV case the lung volume that is encompassed with critical isodose is greater (in average 1.47% of lung volume) than in a case of displaced isocenter. Conclusions: Adding PRV margins around the heart and the lung does not give straightforward and unambiguous result

  9. A novel challenge test incorporating irradiation (60Co) of compost sub-samples to validate thermal lethality towards pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, Andrew; Cherie Millar, B; Rao, Juluri R

    2009-01-01

    Maturing compost heaps normally attaining temperatures ranging from 55 to 65 degrees C is generally regarded to conform to recommended biological risks and sanitation standards for composts stipulated by either EU or US-EPA. Composted products derived from animal sources are further required by EU biohazard safety regulatory legislation that such composts either attain 70 degrees C for over 3h during maturation or via treatment at 70 degrees C for 1h before being considered for dispensation on land. The setting of the upper limit of thermal lethality at 70 degrees C/1h for achieving biosecurity of the animal waste composted products (e.g. pelleted fertilizer formulations) is not properly substantiated by specific validation tests, comprising a 'wipe-out' step (usually via autoclaving) followed by inoculation of a prescribed bacterium, exposure to 70 degrees C/1h and the lethality determined. Pelleted formulations of composts are not amenable for wet methods (autoclaving) for wipe-out sterilization step as this is detrimental to the pellet and compromises sample integrity. This study describes a laboratory method involving the employment of ((60)Co) irradiation 'wipe-out' step to: (a) compost sub-samples drawn from compost formulation heaps and (b) pelleted products derived from composted animal products while determining the thermal lethality of a given time/temperature (70 degrees C/1h) treatment process and by challenging the irradiated sample (not just with one bacterium but), out with 10 potential food-poisoning organisms from the bacterial genera (Campylobacter, Escherichia, Listeria, Salmonella, Yersinia) frequently detected in pig and poultry farm wastes. This challenge test on compost sub-samples can be a useful intervention ploy for 'inspection and validation' technique for composters during the compost maturity process, whose attainment of temperatures of 55-65 degrees C is presumed sufficient for attainment of sanitation. Stringent measures are further

  10. Argentine nuclear fuels MOX irradiated in the Petten reactor: Analysis of experience with the BACO code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, A C; Perez, E; Adelfang, P [Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-08-01

    The irradiation of our first prototypes of MOX nuclear fuels fabricated in Argentina began in 1986. These experiences had been made in the HFR-Petten reactor, Holland. The six rods were fabricated in the {alpha} Facility (GAID-CNEA-Argentina). The first rod has been used for destructive pre-irradiation analysis in the KFK (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe), Germany. The second one was a pathfinder for calibrating systems in the HFR. Another two rods included doped pellets based on iodine. One of them included CsI and auxiliary components. The second one included elemental iodine. The concentration of iodine was intended to simulate 15 MWd/ton(M) of burnup. We defined the power histories with the BACO code. We assumed a cycle of 15 days that included interaction treatments of cladding and pellet due to the power cycling. The last ramp is let run until stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is induced. The experience named BU15 was done with the last two rods. The final burnup was 15 MWd/ton(M), and a final ramp test was arranged for one of them. This burnup is the same as the previous two rods. The power level during irradiation was low and without major solicitations, only the normal shutdowns of the HFR. The ramp was similar to that used for the iodine test. We attempt to see the correct correspondence between the BU15 and the doping test. The pathfinder had an excellent behavior in the HFR reactor. The presence of microcracks inside the cladding was observed in the iodine test as we predicted with the BACO code. The post-irradiation tests of the BU15 experience has just ended. The development of the ramp was interrupted due to an increase of activity in the system. We presumed the presence of a failure in the rod. The visual inspection of the rod shows an atypical failure for this kind of fuel, i.e. they found a small circular hole. We use the BACO code for the behavior analysis of the fuel rods. 23 refs, 29 figs, 5 tabs.

  11. Argentine nuclear fuels MOX irradiated in the Petten reactor: Analysis of experience with the BACO code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, A.C.; Perez, E.; Adelfang, P.

    1997-01-01

    The irradiation of our first prototypes of MOX nuclear fuels fabricated in Argentina began in 1986. These experiences had been made in the HFR-Petten reactor, Holland. The six rods were fabricated in the α Facility (GAID-CNEA-Argentina). The first rod has been used for destructive pre-irradiation analysis in the KFK (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe), Germany. The second one was a pathfinder for calibrating systems in the HFR. Another two rods included doped pellets based on iodine. One of them included CsI and auxiliary components. The second one included elemental iodine. The concentration of iodine was intended to simulate 15 MWd/ton(M) of burnup. We defined the power histories with the BACO code. We assumed a cycle of 15 days that included interaction treatments of cladding and pellet due to the power cycling. The last ramp is let run until stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is induced. The experience named BU15 was done with the last two rods. The final burnup was 15 MWd/ton(M), and a final ramp test was arranged for one of them. This burnup is the same as the previous two rods. The power level during irradiation was low and without major solicitations, only the normal shutdowns of the HFR. The ramp was similar to that used for the iodine test. We attempt to see the correct correspondence between the BU15 and the doping test. The pathfinder had an excellent behavior in the HFR reactor. The presence of microcracks inside the cladding was observed in the iodine test as we predicted with the BACO code. The post-irradiation tests of the BU15 experience has just ended. The development of the ramp was interrupted due to an increase of activity in the system. We presumed the presence of a failure in the rod. The visual inspection of the rod shows an atypical failure for this kind of fuel, i.e. they found a small circular hole. We use the BACO code for the behavior analysis of the fuel rods. 23 refs, 29 figs, 5 tabs

  12. The second Euratom sponsored 9000C HTR fuel irradiation experiment in the HFR Petten Project E 96.02: Pt.2. Post-irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettger, R.; Bueger, J. de; Schoots, T.

    1977-01-01

    A large variety of HTR fuel specimens, loose coated particles, coupons and compacts provided by Belgonucleaire, the Dragon Project and the KFA Juelich have been irradiated in the HFR at Petten at about 900 0 C up to a maximum fast neutron fluence of about 7x10 21 cm -2 (EDN) as a Euratom sponsored experiment. The maximum burn-ups were between 11 and 18.5% FIMA. The results of the post-irradiation examinations, comprising visual inspection, dimensional measurements, microradiography, metallography, and burn-up determinations are presented in this part 2 of the final report. The examinations have shown that the endurance limit of most of the tested fuel varieties is beyond the reached irradiation values

  13. Experience with Aero- and Fluid-Dynamic Testing for Engineering and CFD Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Ever since computations have been used to simulate aerodynamics the need to ensure that the computations adequately represent real life has followed. Many experiments have been performed specifically for validation and as computational methods have improved, so have the validation experiments. Validation is also a moving target because computational methods improve requiring validation for the new aspect of flow physics that the computations aim to capture. Concurrently, new measurement techniques are being developed that can help capture more detailed flow features pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) come to mind. This paper will present various wind-tunnel tests the author has been involved with and how they were used for validation of various kinds of CFD. A particular focus is the application of advanced measurement techniques to flow fields (and geometries) that had proven to be difficult to predict computationally. Many of these difficult flow problems arose from engineering and development problems that needed to be solved for a particular vehicle or research program. In some cases the experiments required to solve the engineering problems were refined to provide valuable CFD validation data in addition to the primary engineering data. All of these experiments have provided physical insight and validation data for a wide range of aerodynamic and acoustic phenomena for vehicles ranging from tractor-trailers to crewed spacecraft.

  14. Distribution and Validation of CERES Irradiance Global Data Products Via Web Based Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, David; Mitrescu, Cristian; Doelling, David; Kato, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    The CERES SYN1deg product provides climate quality 3-hourly globally gridded and temporally complete maps of top of atmosphere, in atmosphere, and surface fluxes. This product requires efficient release to the public and validation to maintain quality assurance. The CERES team developed web-tools for the distribution of both the global gridded products and grid boxes that contain long term validation sites that maintain high quality flux observations at the Earth's surface. These are found at: http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/order_data.php. In this poster we explore the various tools available to users to sub-set, download, and validate using surface observations the SYN1Deg and Surface-EBAF products. We also analyze differences found in long-term records from well-maintained land surface sites such as the ARM central facility and high quality buoy radiometers, which due to their isolated nature cannot be maintained in a similar manner to their land based counterparts.

  15. Computer simulation of void formation in residual gas atom free metals by dual beam irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Nishiguchi, R.; La Rubia, T.D. de; Guinan, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In our recent experiments (1), we found that voids nucleate at vacancy clusters which trap gas atoms such as hydrogen and helium in ion- and neutron-irradiated copper. A molecular dynamics computer simulation, which implements an empirical embedded atom method to calculate forces that act on atoms in metals, suggests that a void nucleation occurs in pure copper at six and seven vacancy clusters. The structure of six and seven vacancy clusters in copper fluctuates between a stacking fault tetrahedron and a void. When a hydrogen is trapped at voids of six and seven vacancy, a void can keep their structure for appreciably long time; that is, the void do not relax to a stacking fault tetrahedron and grows to a large void. In order to explore the detailed atomics of void formation, it is emphasized that dual-beam irradiation experiments that utilize beams of gas atoms and self-ions should be carried out with residual gas atom free metal specimens. (author)

  16. Signal generation in highly irradiated silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2003-01-01

    Silicon detectors are the most diffused tracking devices in High Energy Physics (HEP). The reason of such success can be found in the characteristics of the material together with the existing advanced technology for the fabrication of these devices. Nevertheless in many modem HEP experiments the observation of vary rare events require data taking at high luminosity with a consequent extremely intense hadron radiation field that damages the silicon and degrades the performance of these devices. In this thesis work a detailed study of the signal generation in microstrip detectors has been produced with a special care for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker geometry. This has required a development of an appropriate setup to perform measurements with Transient Current/ Charge Technique. This has allowed studying the evolution of the signal in several microstrips detector samples irradiated at fluences covering the range expected in the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. For a better understanding of these measurements a powerful software package that simulates the signal generation in these devices has been developed. Moreover in this thesis it has been also shown that the degradation due to radiation in silicon detectors can be strongly reduced if the data taking is done with detectors operated at 130 K. This makes low temperature operation that benefits of the recovery of the charge collection efficiency in highly irradiated silicon detectors (also known as Lazarus effect) an optimal option for future high luminosity experiments. (author)

  17. Full-sized plates irradiation with high UMo fuel loading. Final results of IRIS 1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, F.; Marelle, V.; Noirot, J.; Sacristan, P.; Lemoine, P.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the French UMo Group qualification program, IRIS 1 experiment contained full-sized plates with high uranium loading in the meat of 8 g.cm -3 . The fuel particles consisted of 7 and 9 wt% Mo-uranium alloys ground powders. The plate were irradiated at OSIRIS reactor in IRIS device up to 67.5% peak burnup within the range of 136 W.cm - '2 for the heat flux and 72 deg. C for the cladding temperature. After each reactor cycle the plates thickness were measured. The results show no swelling behaviour differences versus burnup between UMo7 and UMo9 plates. The maximum plate swelling for peak burnup location remains lower than 6%. The wide set of PIE has shown that, within the studied irradiation conditions, the interaction product have a global formulation of '(U-Mo)Al -7 ' and that there is no aluminium dissolution in UMo particles. IRIS1 experiment, as the first step of the UMo fuel qualification for research reactor, has established the good behaviour of UMo7 and UMo9 high uranium loading full-sized plate within the tested conditions. (author)

  18. Dosimetry of laser-accelerated electron beams used for in vitro cell irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, C.; Kaluza, M.; Karsch, L.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schürer, M.; Sobiella, M.; Woithe, J.; Pawelke, J.

    2011-01-01

    The dosimetric characterization of laser-accelerated electrons applied for the worldwide first systematic radiobiological in vitro cell irradiation will be presented. The laser-accelerated electron beam at the JeTi laser system has been optimized, monitored and controlled in terms of dose homogeneity, stability and absolute dose delivery. A combination of different dosimetric components were used to provide both an online beam as well as dose monitoring and a precise absolute dosimetry. In detail, the electron beam was controlled and monitored by means of an ionization chamber and an in-house produced Faraday cup for a defined delivery of the prescribed dose. Moreover, the precise absolute dose delivered to each cell sample was determined by an radiochromic EBT film positioned in front of the cell sample. Furthermore, the energy spectrum of the laser-accelerated electron beam was determined. As presented in a previous work of the authors, also for laser-accelerated protons a precise dosimetric characterization was performed that enabled initial radiobiological cell irradiation experiments with laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, a precise dosimetric characterization, optimization and control of laser-accelerated and therefore ultra-short pulsed, intense particle beams for both electrons and protons is possible, allowing radiobiological experiments and meeting all necessary requirements like homogeneity, stability and precise dose delivery. In order to fulfill the much higher dosimetric requirements for clinical application, several improvements concerning, i.e., particle energy and spectral shaping as well as patient safety are necessary.

  19. Irradiation induced aerosol formation in flue gas: experiments on low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on irradiation induced aerosol formation from gaseous sulphur dioxide in humid air are presented. This work is connected to the aerosol particle formation process in the electron beam technique for cleaning flue gas. As a partial process of this method primary products of the radiolysis of water vapour convert sulphur dioxide into gaseous sulphuric acid which then nucleates with water vapour forming small acid droplets. This experimental work has been performed on relatively low absorbed doses. Aerosol particle formation is strongly dependent on dose. In the experiments, the first aerosol particles were detected already on absorbed doses of 0.1-10 mGy. The particle size in these cases is in the so-called ultrafine size range (1-20 nm). In this article three experimental set-ups with some characteristic results are presented. (Author)

  20. User`s guide for the irradiation of experiments in the FTR. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This document provides Revision 3 updates the FTR Users Guide. Revision 3 updates Appendix 1 (FFTF Technical Specifications) to include the following: Documentation of the acceptability of handling metal fuel assemblies in the Closed Loop Ex-Vessel Handling Machine (CLEM) and storing them in the Interim Decay Storage (IDS) vessel. Reactivity limit version (utilizing existing FSAR analysis bounds) to allow for the larger beta-effective associated with the addition of enriched uranium metal and oxide experiments to the core. Operational temperature limits for Open Test Assemblies (OTAs) have been expanded to differentiate between 40-foot experiment test articles, 28-foot Post Irradiation Open Test Assemblies (PIOTAs) and the 28-foot Loose Parts Monitor Assemblies (LMPAs) operating under FFTF core Engineering cognizance.

  1. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  2. Designing the KNK II-TOAST irradiation experiment with the saturn-FS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, H.J.; Elbel, H.; Heck, M.

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the existing specification of FBR fuel with respect to allowable fabrication tolerances with the objective to reduce the expense of fabrication and quality control, the TOAST irradiation experiment will be carried out in the 3 rd core of the KNK II. This experiment shall investigate the influence of the following fuel specification parameters on the operational behaviour: - Fuel diameter - Stoichiometry - Sintering atmosphere - Fill gas in the fuel pin. The combination of these test parameters led to a fabrication of 6 types of fuel pellets, giving together with two fill gas mixtures a total of 9 fuel pin types. Design calculations in the frame of the standard licensing procedure have been performed with the SATURN-FS fuel pin behaviour code. These calculations have been done for the steady-state behaviour as well as for some defined design transients, such as startup procedures and overpower ramps

  3. Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dupuy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents extensive {bias determination} analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO instrument. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from nearly 20 satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the average values of the mean relative differences are nearly all within +1 to +8%. At higher altitudes (45–60 km, the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments, with mean relative differences of up to +40% (about +20% on average. For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, mean relative differences are within ±10% (average values within ±6% between 18 and 40 km for both the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes (~35–55 km, systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (with mean relative differences down to −10%, the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS, indicating a large positive bias (mean relative differences within +10 to +30% in the 45–55 km altitude range. In contrast, there is no significant systematic difference in bias found for the ACE-FTS sunrise and sunset measurements.

  4. Repair behavior of He+-irradiated W-Y2O3 composites after different temperature-isochronal annealing experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Tan, Xiao-Yue; Luo, Lai-Ma; Zan, Xiang; Liu, Jia-Qin; Xu, Qiu; Zhu, Xifao-Yong; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    W-2%Y2O3 composites were prepared by wet chemical and powder metallurgy. Commercial roll tungsten was selected as a comparative sample in the He+ irradiation experiment. The experiment was conducted under He+ beam energy of 50 eV, irradiation dose of approximately 9.9 × 1024 ions/m2, and temperature of 1503-1553 K. The samples were annealed at 1173, 1373, and 1573 K for 1 h. The irradiation surface was observed in situ. The W-2%Y2O3 composites and pure tungsten displayed different grain orientation damage morphologies. In addition, the fuzzy structure was more likely to converge densely at the phase interface. Annealing repairs material surface irradiation damage, whereas the phase interface acts as a He+ migration channel.

  5. Six years working experience of the Marcoule plant for treatment of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouannaud, C.

    1964-01-01

    The irradiated fuel treatment plant at Marcoule began treating rods from the pile G 1 in July 1958. These six years experience of the plant in operation have led to the confirmation or revision of the original ideas concerning the process as well as the technology or methods of exploitation. The process as a whole has suffered little modification, the performances having proved better than originally foreseen; the only alterations made were justified by greater simplicity of operation, better nuclear security (criticality) or for technological reasons. The processes of plutonium reduction from valency IV to valency III by uranium IV, and of concentration of fission product solutions in the presence of formaldehyde, have always given complete satisfaction. The initial concept of direct maintenance of the installations has been justified by experience. Certain maintenance jobs, originally considered impossible after the start of operations, have proved feasible and have been carried out under acceptable conditions; a number of examples are given. From experience it has been possible to define optimal conditions for the design of these installations such as to provide a maximum in robustness and ease of maintenance. The advantages of continuously-operating equipment have been shown. Certain installations have been altered in accordance with these new ideas. Analytical checking in the laboratory has been profoundly modified, and the plans adopted are such that complete safety in work on radioactive solutions is compatible with a very good working speed. Experience has also shown the advantages of having a group on the spot to carry out short-term applied studies. Finally, a strict working discipline and excellent collaboration with the radiation protection service have enabled us to reach the end of these six years, during some of which the exploitation was intensive, without irradiation accident. (authors) [fr

  6. Well-founded cost estimation validated by experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    to build consistency into its cost estimates. A standardized list of decommissioning activities needs to be adopted internationally so estimates can be prepared on a consistent basis, and to facilitate tracking of actual costs against the estimate. The OECD/NEA Standardized List incorporates the consensus of international experts as to the elements of cost and activities that should be included in the estimate. A significant effort was made several years ago to promote universal adoption of this standard. Using the standardized list of activities as a template, a questionnaire was distributed to gather actual decommissioning costs (and other parameters) from international projects. The results of cost estimate contributions from many countries were analyzed and evaluated as to reactor types, decommissioning strategies, cost drivers, and waste disposal quantities. The results were reported in the literature A standardized list of activities will only be valuable if the underlying cost elements and methodology is clearly identified in the estimate. While no one would expect perfect correlation of every element of cost in a large project estimate versus actual cost comparison, the variants should be visible so the basis for the difference can be examined and evaluated. For the nuclear power industry to grow to meet the increasing demand for electricity, the investors, regulators and the public must understand the total cost of the nuclear fuel cycle. The costs for decommissioning and the funding requirements to provide for safe closure and dismantling of these units are well recognized to represent a significant liability to the owner utilities and governmental agencies. Owners and government regulatory agencies need benchmarked decommissioning costs to test the validity of each proposed cost and funding request. The benchmarking process requires the oversight of decommissioning experts to evaluate contributed cost data in a meaningful manner. An international

  7. Fractionated stereotactic irradiation by Cyberknife of choroid melanomas: repositioning validation, closed eyelids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, S.; Rezvoy, N.; Lacornerie, T.; Mirabel, X.; Labalette, P.; Lartigau, E.

    2009-01-01

    The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife is an option in the treatment of eyes tumors. The advantages of the Cyberknife in the choroid melanomas are in its infra-millimetric precision, to the automated repositioning on the skull bones and to the conformity brought by the stereotaxy. The objective of this study was to validate the quality of repositioning and the immobility of the eyes with closed eyelids. Conclusion: the reproducibility of the eye positioning with closed eyelids seems enough to consider the conservative treatment of choroid melanomas by fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy by Cyberknife without implementation of fiducials nor retrobulbar anaesthesia. (N.C.)

  8. Validation of the revised Mystical Experience Questionnaire in experimental sessions with psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Frederick S; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2015-11-01

    The 30-item revised Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ30) was previously developed within an online survey of mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin-containing mushrooms. The rated experiences occurred on average eight years before completion of the questionnaire. The current paper validates the MEQ30 using data from experimental studies with controlled doses of psilocybin. Data were pooled and analyzed from five laboratory experiments in which participants (n=184) received a moderate to high oral dose of psilocybin (at least 20 mg/70 kg). Results of confirmatory factor analysis demonstrate the reliability and internal validity of the MEQ30. Structural equation models demonstrate the external and convergent validity of the MEQ30 by showing that latent variable scores on the MEQ30 positively predict persisting change in attitudes, behavior, and well-being attributed to experiences with psilocybin while controlling for the contribution of the participant-rated intensity of drug effects. These findings support the use of the MEQ30 as an efficient measure of individual mystical experiences. A method to score a "complete mystical experience" that was used in previous versions of the mystical experience questionnaire is validated in the MEQ30, and a stand-alone version of the MEQ30 is provided for use in future research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Validation Experiments for Spent-Fuel Dry-Cask In-Basket Convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Barton L.

    2016-01-01

    This work consisted of the following major efforts; 1. Literature survey on validation of external natural convection; 2. Design the experiment; 3. Build the experiment; 4. Run the experiment; 5. Collect results; 6. Disseminate results; and 7. Perform a CFD validation study using the results. We note that while all tasks are complete, some deviations from the original plan were made. Specifically, geometrical changes in the parameter space were skipped in favor of flow condition changes, which were found to be much more practical to implement. Changing the geometry required new as-built measurements, which proved extremely costly and impractical given the time and funds available

  10. Validation Experiments for Spent-Fuel Dry-Cask In-Basket Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2016-08-16

    This work consisted of the following major efforts; 1. Literature survey on validation of external natural convection; 2. Design the experiment; 3. Build the experiment; 4. Run the experiment; 5. Collect results; 6. Disseminate results; and 7. Perform a CFD validation study using the results. We note that while all tasks are complete, some deviations from the original plan were made. Specifically, geometrical changes in the parameter space were skipped in favor of flow condition changes, which were found to be much more practical to implement. Changing the geometry required new as-built measurements, which proved extremely costly and impractical given the time and funds available

  11. EXQ: development and validation of a multiple-item scale for assessing customer experience quality

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Positioned in the deliberations related to service marketing, the conceptualisation of service quality, current service quality measurements, and the importance of the evolving construct of customer experience, this thesis develops and validates a measurement for customer experience quality (EXQ) in the context of repeat purchases of mortgage buyers in the United Kingdom. The thesis explores the relationship between the customer experience quality and the important marketing ou...

  12. Advanced Electron Microscopy and Micro analytical technique development and application for Irradiated TRISO Coated Particles from the AGR-1 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rooyen, Isabella Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wen, Haiming [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Karen Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Madden, James Wayne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Aguiar, Jeffery Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A series of up to seven irradiation experiments are planned for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Quantification Program, with irradiation completed at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the first experiment (i.e., AGR-1) in November 2009 for an effective 620 full power days. The objective of the AGR-1 experiment was primarily to provide lessons learned on the multi-capsule test train design and to provide early data on fuel performance for use in fuel fabrication process development and post-irradiation safety testing data at high temperatures. This report describes the advanced microscopy and micro-analysis results on selected AGR-1 coated particles.

  13. Validation of MORET 4 perturbation against 'physical' type fission products experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Jacques; Jacquet, Olivier; Miss, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    After shortly recalling one among the many pertinent recent features of the French criticality CRISTAL package i.e. the perturbation algorithm (so called MORET 4 'Perturbation' or MP), this paper presents original MP validations. Numerical and experimental validations are made using close fission products (FP) experiments. As results, it is shown that, all being equal, MP can detect FP's absorption cross-section variations in the range 0.3-1.2%. (author)

  14. Comparison of Calculated and Measured Neutron Fluence in Fuel/Cladding Irradiation Experiments in HFIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Ronald James

    2011-01-01

    A recently-designed thermal neutron irradiation facility has been used for a first series of irradiations of PWR fuel pellets in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Since June 2010, irradiations of PWR fuel pellets made of UN or UO 2 , clad in SiC, have been ongoing in the outer small VXF sites in the beryllium reflector region of the HFIR, as seen in Fig. 1. HFIR is a versatile, 85 MW isotope production and test reactor with the capability and facilities for performing a wide variety of irradiation experiments. HFIR is a beryllium-reflected, light-water-cooled and -moderated, flux-trap type reactor that uses highly enriched (in 235 U) uranium (HEU) as the fuel. The reactor core consists of a series of concentric annular regions, each about 2 ft (0.61 m) high. A 5-in. (12.70-cm)-diam hole, referred to as the flux trap, forms the center of the core. The fuel region is composed of two concentric fuel elements made up of many involute-shaped fuel plates: an inner element that contains 171 fuel plates, and an outer element that contains 369 fuel plates. The fuel plates are curved in the shape of an involute, which provides constant coolant channel width between plates. The fuel (U 3 O 8 -Al cermet) is nonuniformly distributed along the arc of the involute to minimize the radial peak-to-average power density ratio. A burnable poison (B 4 C) is included in the inner fuel element primarily to reduce the negative reactivity requirements of the reactor control plates. A typical HEU core loading in HFIR is 9.4 kg of 235 U and 2.8 g of 10 B. The thermal neutron flux in the flux trap region can exceed 2.5 x 10 15 n/cm 2 · s while the fast flux in this region exceeds 1 x 10 15 n/cm 2 · s. The inner and outer fuel elements are in turn surrounded by a concentric ring of beryllium reflector approximately 1 ft (0.30 m) thick. The beryllium reflector consists of three regions: the removable reflector, the semi-permanent reflector, and the

  15. Final report on development and operation of instrumented irradiation capsules for creep experiments on nuclear fuels at FR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, H.E.; Philipp, K.; Blumhofer, M.

    1980-02-01

    The capsule test rig No. 154 removed from FR2 in April 1979 was the last irradiation rig in a long series of creep experiments. The target of the irradiation tests, started exactly ten years ago, was to investigate the creep behaviour of various ceramic nuclear fuels under different in-pile irradiation conditions. An irradiation test rig had been developed for this purpose which allowed the continuous measurement of changes in length of fuel specimens. A total of 28 capsule test rigs each containing two packages of creep specimens have been irradiated in FR2 during this decade. They included 23 specimen stacks of UO 2 , 16 specimen stacks of UO 2 -PuO 2 , 4 specimen stacks of UN, 10 specimen stacks of (U,Pu) C, and 13 reference specimens of molybdenum. Besides the description of the test facility, the report provides above all a survey of the operation data applicable to the specimens and of the operating experience gathered as well as of the findings obtained in post-irradiation examinations. (orig.) [de

  16. Control of the ORR-PSF pressure-vessel surveillance irradiation experiment temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    Control of the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Pool Side Facility (ORR-PSF) pressure vessel surveillance irradiation experiment temperature is implemented by digital computer control of electrical heaters under fixed cooling conditions. Cooling is accomplished with continuous flows of water in pipes between specimen sets and of helium-neon gas in the specimen set housings. Control laws are obtained from solutions of the discrete-time Riccati equation and are implemented with direct digital control of solid state relays in the electrical heater circuit. Power dissipated by the heaters is determined by variac settings and the percent of time that the solid state relays allow power to be supplied to the heaters. Control demands are updated every forty seconds

  17. SU-E-T-371: Validation of Organ Doses Delivered During Craniospinal Irradiation with Helical Tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Andujar, A; Chen, J; Garcia, A; Haas-Kogan, D [University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: New techniques have been developed to deliver more conformal treatments to the craniospinal axis. One concern, however, is the widespread low dose delivered and implications for possible late effects. The purpose of this work is for the first time to validate the organ doses calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS), including out-of-field doses for a pediatric craniospinal treatment (CSI). Methods: A CSI plan prescribed to 23.4 Gy and a posterior fossa boost plan to 30.6 Gy (total dose 54.0 Gy) was developed for a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom representing a 13 yearold- child. For the CSI plan, the planning target volumes (PTV) consisted of the brain and spinal cord with 2 mm and 5 mm expansions, respectively. Organs at risk (OAR) were contoured and included in the plan optimization. The plans were delivered on a helical tomotherapy unit. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to measure the dose at 54 positions within the PTV and OARs. Results: For the CSI treatment, the mean percent difference between TPS dose calculations and measurements was 5% for the PTV and 10% for the OARs. For the boost, the average was 3% for the PTV. The percent difference for the OARs, which lie outside the field and received a small fraction of the prescription dose, varied from 15% to 200%. However in terms of absolute dose, the average difference between measurement and TPS per treatment Gy was 2 cGy/Gy and 3 mGy/Gy for the CSI and boost plans, respectively. Conclusion: There was good agreement between doses calculated by the TPS and measurements for the CSI treatment. Higher percent differences were observed for out-of-field doses in the boost plan, but absolute dose differences were very small compared to the prescription dose. These findings can help in the estimation of late effects after radiotherapy for pediatric patients.

  18. Improving thermal model prediction through statistical analysis of irradiation and post-irradiation data from AGR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Binh T.; Hawkes, Grant L.; Einerson, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the High Temperature Reactors (HTR) R and D program, a series of irradiation tests, designated as Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR), have been defined to support development and qualification of fuel design, fabrication process, and fuel performance under normal operation and accident conditions. The AGR tests employ fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel capsule and instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in graphite blocks enabling temperature control. While not possible to obtain by direct measurements in the tests, crucial fuel conditions (e.g., temperature, neutron fast fluence, and burnup) are calculated using core physics and thermal modeling codes. This paper is focused on AGR test fuel temperature predicted by the ABAQUS code's finite element-based thermal models. The work follows up on a previous study, in which several statistical analysis methods were adapted, implemented in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS), and applied for qualification of AGR-1 thermocouple data. Abnormal trends in measured data revealed by the statistical analysis are traced to either measuring instrument deterioration or physical mechanisms in capsules that may have shifted the system thermal response. The main thrust of this work is to exploit the variety of data obtained in irradiation and post-irradiation examination (PIE) for assessment of modeling assumptions. As an example, the uneven reduction of the control gas gap in Capsule 5 found in the capsule metrology measurements in PIE helps identify mechanisms other than TC drift causing the decrease in TC readings. This suggests a more physics-based modification of the thermal model that leads to a better fit with experimental data, thus reducing model uncertainty and increasing confidence in the calculated fuel temperatures of the AGR-1 test

  19. Improving thermal model prediction through statistical analysis of irradiation and post-irradiation data from AGR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Binh T., E-mail: Binh.Pham@inl.gov [Human Factor, Controls and Statistics Department, Nuclear Science and Technology, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Hawkes, Grant L. [Thermal Science and Safety Analysis Department, Nuclear Science and Technology, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Einerson, Jeffrey J. [Human Factor, Controls and Statistics Department, Nuclear Science and Technology, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    As part of the High Temperature Reactors (HTR) R and D program, a series of irradiation tests, designated as Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR), have been defined to support development and qualification of fuel design, fabrication process, and fuel performance under normal operation and accident conditions. The AGR tests employ fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel capsule and instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in graphite blocks enabling temperature control. While not possible to obtain by direct measurements in the tests, crucial fuel conditions (e.g., temperature, neutron fast fluence, and burnup) are calculated using core physics and thermal modeling codes. This paper is focused on AGR test fuel temperature predicted by the ABAQUS code's finite element-based thermal models. The work follows up on a previous study, in which several statistical analysis methods were adapted, implemented in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS), and applied for qualification of AGR-1 thermocouple data. Abnormal trends in measured data revealed by the statistical analysis are traced to either measuring instrument deterioration or physical mechanisms in capsules that may have shifted the system thermal response. The main thrust of this work is to exploit the variety of data obtained in irradiation and post-irradiation examination (PIE) for assessment of modeling assumptions. As an example, the uneven reduction of the control gas gap in Capsule 5 found in the capsule metrology measurements in PIE helps identify mechanisms other than TC drift causing the decrease in TC readings. This suggests a more physics-based modification of the thermal model that leads to a better fit with experimental data, thus reducing model uncertainty and increasing confidence in the calculated fuel temperatures of the AGR-1 test.

  20. ASPIRE: An automated sample positioning and irradiation system for radiation biology experiments at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Ashok; Barua, P.; Archunan, M.; Rani, Kusum; Subramanian, E.T.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Kaur, Harminder; Satyanarayanan, V.V.V.; Sarma, Asitikantha; Avasthi, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    An automated irradiation setup for biology samples has been built at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. It can automatically load and unload 20 biology samples in a run of experiment. It takes about 20 min [2% of the cell doubling time] to irradiate all the 20 samples. Cell doubling time is the time taken by the cells (kept in the medium) to grow double in numbers. The cells in the samples keep growing during entire of the experiment. The fluence irradiated to the samples is measured with two silicon surface barrier detectors. Tests show that the uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions reaches to 2% at the sample area in diameter of 40 mm. The accuracy of mean fluence at the center of the target area is within 1%. The irradiation setup can be used to the studies of radiation therapy, radiation dosimetry and molecular biology at the heavy ion accelerator. - Highlights: • Automated positioning and irradiation setup for biology samples at IUAC is built. • Loading and unloading of 20 biology samples can be automatically carried out. • Biologicals cells keep growing during entire experiment. • Fluence and dose of heavy ions are measured by two silicon barrier detectors. • Uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions at sample position reaches to 2%

  1. Post-irradiation examination of a 13000C-HTR fuel experiment Project J 96.M3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueger, J. de; Roettger, H.

    1977-01-01

    A large variety of loose coated fuel particles have been irradiated in the BR2 at Mol/Belgium at temperatures between 1200 0 C and 1400 0 C and up to a fast neutron fluence of 1.2x1022 cm -2 (E>0.1 MeV) as a Euratom sponsored experiment for the advanced testing of HTR fuel. The specimens have been provided by Belgonucleaire and the Dragon Project. A short description of the experiment as well as the results of post-irradiation examination mainly carried out at Petten (N.H.), The Netherlands, are presented here. The post-irradiation examination has shown that the required performance can be achieved by a number of the tested fuel specimens without serious damage

  2. Methodological developments and materials in salt-rock preparation for irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Celma, A.; Van Wees, H.; Miralles, L.

    1991-01-01

    For the first time synthetic salt-rock samples have been produced. Production and preparation of those samples and of other types of rock-salt for experiments and observation require many special handlings. We applied technical knowledge already developed by the HPT Laboratory of the Geology Department of the Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (high pressure techniques, salt-rock preparation), and by the workshops of the ECN, Petten, and FDO, Amsterdam (mechanical precision). Procedures have been applied and/or modified to solve specific problems. Many of them were never reported before. Moreover, new techniques have been developed. Rock-salt samples have been machined, sawn, ground, glued, etc., with a maximum of precision, a minimum of damage and in dry conditions (without water). Etching, peeling and thin section production has been carried out on irradiated and unirradiated samples. Valves, end pieces, jackets, etc. have been tested and/or produced. These handlings were directed to produce samples for the HAW experiment. Their development required not only knowledge, but also a lot of trial, failures and time. To avoid repetition of this effort, the procedures, materials, instruments and their characteristics are described in detail in this report

  3. The inventory for déjà vu experiences assessment. Development, utility, reliability, and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sno, H. N.; Schalken, H. F.; de Jonghe, F.; Koeter, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    In this article the development, utility, reliability, and validity of the Inventory for Déjà vu Experiences Assessment (IDEA) are described. The IDEA is a 23-item self-administered questionnaire consisting of a general section of nine questions and qualitative section of 14 questions. The latter

  4. An Examination and Validation of an Adapted Youth Experience Scale for University Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathwell, Scott; Young, Bradley W.

    2016-01-01

    Limited tools assess positive development through university sport. Such a tool was validated in this investigation using two independent samples of Canadian university athletes. In Study 1, 605 athletes completed 99 survey items drawn from the Youth Experience Scale (YES 2.0), and separate a priori measurement models were evaluated (i.e., 99…

  5. Service validity and service reliability of search, experience and credence services. A scenario study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to add to our understanding of the antecedents of customer satisfaction by examining the effects of service reliability (Is the service “correctly” produced?) and service validity (Is the “correct” service produced?) of search, experience and credence services.

  6. Identification of irradiated foods. Experiences from the ten years' control in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnioja, S.; Jernstroem, J.; Arponen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The official control of irradiated foods has been performed since the year 1991 in Finland. The national legislation on food irradiation was similar as the new European directive allowing treatment of herbs, spices and seasonings for the purpose of decreasing the microbe content in foods. Irradiation treatment needs to be labelled. The Finnish degree allowed a five weight percent maximum amount of irradiated spice portion when labelling of radiation treatment was not needed. The official control of irradiated foods belongs to the Finnish Food Administration, who has given the practical control responsibility to the Finnish Customs Laboratory. Prescreening of food samples for identification of radiation treatment is performed at the Customs Laboratory. Those samples resulting a positive or moderate signal for irradiation will be sent to the Laboratory of Radiochemistry at the University of Helsinki for the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis. During the five first control years the prescreening was performed based on the total microbe content and the determination of fumigation residues from food samples. Since 1995 prescreening has been performed with a photostimulated luminescence (PSL) instrument. Control of irradiated foods has been applied mostly to herbs, spices and seasonings, and products containing these. Different seafood products, fresh berry, mushroom, herbal products and some animal products have been analysed during the ten years period. The amount of irradiated food imported in Finland is not high. Less than 3% of herbs and spices were found to have been irradiated. During the early years of the control irradiated seafood was found; about 5% of seafood products analysed by the TL analysis were found to have been irradiated. During the past two years only one seafood sample was irradiated. Irradiated berries or mushrooms have not been found so far

  7. Electron spin resonance in neutron-irradiated graphite. Dependence on temperature and effect of annealing; Resonance paramagnetique du graphite irradie aux neutrons. Variation en fonction de la temperature et experiences de recuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Laboratoire de resonance magnetique

    1967-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the electron spin resonance signal from neutron irradiated graphite has been studied. The results lead to an interpretation of the nature of the paramagnetic centers created by irradiation. In annealing experiments on graphite samples, which had been irradiated at low temperature, two annealing peaks and one anti-annealing peak were found. Interpretations are proposed for these peaks. (author) [French] Le graphite irradie aux neutrons a ete etudie par resonance paramagnetique electronique en fonction de la temperature. La nature des centres paramagnetiques crees par irradiation est interpretee a l'aide des resultats. Des experiences de recuit sur des echantillons de graphite irradie a 77 deg. K ont permis de mettre en evidence deux pics de recuit et un pic d'anti-recuit, pour lesquels des interpretations sont proposees. (auteur)

  8. Design considerations and operating experience with wet storage of Ontario Hydro's irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.R.; Naqvi, S.J.; McEachran, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of Ontario Hydro's fuel and at-reactor irradiated fuel storage water pools (or irradiated fuel bays) are described. There are two types of bay known respectively as primary bays and auxiliary bays, used for at-reactor irradiated fuel storage. Irradiated fuel is discharged remotely from Ontario Hydro's reactors to the primary bays for initial storage and cooling. The auxiliary bays are used to receive and store fuel after its initial cooling in the primary bay, and provide additional storage capacity as needed. The major considerations in irradiated fuel bay design, including site-specific requirements, reliability and quality assurance, are discussed. The monitoring of critical fuel bay components, such as bay liners, the development of high storage density fuel containers, and the use of several irradiated fuel bays at each reactor site have all contributed to the safe handling of the large quantities of irradiated fuel over a period of about 25 years. Routine operation of the irradiated fuel bays and some unusual bay operational events are described. For safety considerations, the irradiated fuel in storage must retain its integrity. Also, as fuel storage is an interim process, likely for 50 years or more, the irradiated fuel should be retrievable for downstream fuel management phases such as reprocessing or disposal. A long-term experimental program is being used to monitor the integrity of irradiated fuel in long-term wet storage. The well characterized fuel, some of which has been in wet storage since 1962 is periodically examined for possible deterioration. The evidence from this program indicates that there will be no significant change in irradiated fuel integrity (and retrievability) over a 50 year wet storage period

  9. Monte Carlo modelling and comparison with experiment of the nuclide production in thick stony targets isotropically irradiated with 600 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aylmer, D.; Herzog, G.F.; Kruse, T.H.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Moniot, R.K.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.; Tuniz, C.

    1987-05-01

    Depth profiles for the production of stable and radioactive nuclides have been measured for a large variety of target elements in three thick spherical stony targets with radii of 5, 15 and 26 cm isotropically irradiated with 600 MeV protons at the CERN synchrocyclotron. These irradiation experiments (CERN SC96) were intended to simulate the irradiation of meteoroids by galactic cosmic ray protons. In order to combine this experimental approach with a theoretical one the intra- and internuclear cascades were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques via the high energy transport code HET/KFA 1. Together with transport calculations for low energy neutrons by the MORSE-CG code the depth dependent spectra of primary and secondary protons and of secondary neutrons were derived. On the basis of these spectra and a set of evaluated experimental excitation functions for p-induced reactions and of theoretical ones for n-induced reactions, calculated by the code ALICE LIVERMORE 82, theoretical depth profiles for the production of stable and radioactive nuclides in the three thick targets were calculated. This report is a comprehensive survey on all those target/product combination for which both experimental and theoretical data are available. It provides the basis for a detailed discussion of the various production modes of residual nuclides and on the depth and size dependence of their production rates in thick stony targets, serving as a simulation of the galactic cosmic ray irradiation of meteoroids in space. On the other hand the comparison of the experimental and theoretical depth profiles validates the high energy transport calculations, making them a promissing tool for further model calculations of the interactions of cosmic rays with matter. (orig.)

  10. Validation and Scaling of Soil Moisture in a Semi-Arid Environment: SMAP Validation Experiment 2015 (SMAPVEX15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, Andreas; Cosh, Michael H.; Misra, Sidharth; Jackson, Thomas J.; Crow, Wade T.; Chan, Steven; Bindlish, Rajat; Chae, Chun; Holifield Collins, Chandra; Yueh, Simon H.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission conducted the SMAP Validation Experiment 2015 (SMAPVEX15) in order to support the calibration and validation activities of SMAP soil moisture data products. The main goals of the experiment were to address issues regarding the spatial disaggregation methodologies for improvement of soil moisture products and validation of the in situ measurement upscaling techniques. To support these objectives high-resolution soil moisture maps were acquired with the airborne PALS (Passive Active L-band Sensor) instrument over an area in southeast Arizona that includes the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW), and intensive ground sampling was carried out to augment the permanent in situ instrumentation. The objective of the paper was to establish the correspondence and relationship between the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of soil moisture on the ground and the coarse resolution radiometer-based soil moisture retrievals of SMAP. The high-resolution mapping conducted with PALS provided the required connection between the in situ measurements and SMAP retrievals. The in situ measurements were used to validate the PALS soil moisture acquired at 1-km resolution. Based on the information from a dense network of rain gauges in the study area, the in situ soil moisture measurements did not capture all the precipitation events accurately. That is, the PALS and SMAP soil moisture estimates responded to precipitation events detected by rain gauges, which were in some cases not detected by the in situ soil moisture sensors. It was also concluded that the spatial distribution of the soil moisture resulted from the relatively small spatial extents of the typical convective storms in this region was not completely captured with the in situ stations. After removing those cases (approximately10 of the observations) the following metrics were obtained: RMSD (root mean square difference) of0.016m3m3 and correlation of 0.83. The

  11. Status of IVO-FR2-Vg7 experiment for irradiation of fast reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbel, H.; Kummerer, K.; Bojarsky, K.; Lopez Jimenez, J.; Otero de la Gandara, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Report on the Seminar celebrated in Madrid between KfK (Karlsruhe) and JEN (Madrid) concerning a Joint Irradiation Program of Fast Reactor Fuel Rods. The design of fuel rods in general is defined, and, in particular of those with a density 94% DT and diameter 7.6 mm up to a burn-up of 7% FIMA, to be irradiated in the FR2 Reactor (Karlsruhe). Together with the design of NaK and single-wall capsules used in this irradiation, other possibilities of irradiation in the reactor will also be described. (auth.)

  12. Neutron irradiation of V-Cr-Ti alloys in the BOR-60 fast reactor: Description of the fusion-1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Tsai, H.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The FUSION-1 irradiation capsule was inserted in Row 5 of the BOR-60 fast reactor in June 1995. The capsule contains a collaborative RF/U.S. experiment to investigate the irradiation performance of V-Cr-Ti alloys in the temperature range 310 to 350{degrees}C. This report describes the capsule layout, specimen fabrication history, and the detailed test matrix for the U.S. specimens. A description of the operating history and neutronics will be presented in the next semiannual report.

  13. Chemometric and biological validation of a capillary electrophoresis metabolomic experiment of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Angulo, Santiago; Utzinger, Jürg; Holmes, Elaine; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Barbas, Coral

    2010-07-01

    Metabonomic and metabolomic studies are increasingly utilized for biomarker identification in different fields, including biology of infection. The confluence of improved analytical platforms and the availability of powerful multivariate analysis software have rendered the multiparameter profiles generated by these omics platforms a user-friendly alternative to the established analysis methods where the quality and practice of a procedure is well defined. However, unlike traditional assays, validation methods for these new multivariate profiling tools have yet to be established. We propose a validation for models obtained by CE fingerprinting of urine from mice infected with the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. We have analysed urine samples from two sets of mice infected in an inter-laboratory experiment where different infection methods and animal husbandry procedures were employed in order to establish the core biological response to a S. mansoni infection. CE data were analysed using principal component analysis. Validation of the scores consisted of permutation scrambling (100 repetitions) and a manual validation method, using a third of the samples (not included in the model) as a test or prediction set. The validation yielded 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity, demonstrating the robustness of these models with respect to deciphering metabolic perturbations in the mouse due to a S. mansoni infection. A total of 20 metabolites across the two experiments were identified that significantly discriminated between S. mansoni-infected and noninfected control samples. Only one of these metabolites, allantoin, was identified as manifesting different behaviour in the two experiments. This study shows the reproducibility of CE-based metabolic profiling methods for disease characterization and screening and highlights the importance of much needed validation strategies in the emerging field of metabolomics.

  14. The Development and Validation of the Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Mikki H; Keebler, Joseph R; Chaparro, Barbara S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically validate a new instrument that comprehensively measures video game satisfaction based on key factors. Playtesting is often conducted in the video game industry to help game developers build better games by providing insight into the players' attitudes and preferences. However, quality feedback is difficult to obtain from playtesting sessions without a quality gaming assessment tool. There is a need for a psychometrically validated and comprehensive gaming scale that is appropriate for playtesting and game evaluation purposes. The process of developing and validating this new scale followed current best practices of scale development and validation. As a result, a mixed-method design that consisted of item pool generation, expert review, questionnaire pilot study, exploratory factor analysis (N = 629), and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 729) was implemented. A new instrument measuring video game satisfaction, called the Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS), with nine subscales emerged. The GUESS was demonstrated to have content validity, internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity. The GUESS was developed and validated based on the assessments of over 450 unique video game titles across many popular genres. Thus, it can be applied across many types of video games in the industry both as a way to assess what aspects of a game contribute to user satisfaction and as a tool to aid in debriefing users on their gaming experience. The GUESS can be administered to evaluate user satisfaction of different types of video games by a variety of users. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2011-03-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  16. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  17. Development of lithium target system in engineering validation and engineering design activity of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF/EVEDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakai, Eiichi; Kondo, Hiroo; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Ida, Mizuho; Kanemura, Takuji; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Fujishiro, Kouji; Edao, Yuuki; Niitsuma, Shigeto; Kimura, Haruyuki; Fukada, Satoshi; Hiromoto, Tetsushi; Shigeharu, Satoshi; Yagi, Jyuro; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki; Horiike, Hiroshi; Hoashi, Eiji; Suzuki, Sachiko; Yamaoka, Nobuo; Serizawa, Hisashi; Kawahito, Yosuke; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Takeo, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Engineering validation and engineering design activity (EVEDA) for the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) has been conducted since 2007. Research and development of the Lithium target facility is an important part of this activity. We constructed a world largest liquid Lithium test loop with a capacity of 5000 L in 2010 and successfully completed the first stage validation tests (functional tests of components and Lithium flow test (flow velocity 15 m/s at the target). In the present article, recent results of the EVEDA activity for the Lithium target facility and related technologies on liquid Lithium are reviewed. (author)

  18. Characterization of a CLYC detector and validation of the Monte Carlo Simulation by measurement experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Suk; Ye, Sung Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Smith, Martin B.; Koslowsky, Martin R. [Bubble Technology Industries Inc., Chalk River (Canada); Kwak, Sung Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim Gee Hyun [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays have become much more practicable, by taking advantage of good gamma-ray discrimination properties using pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique. Recently, we introduced a commercial CLYC system in Korea, and performed an initial characterization and simulation studies for the CLYC detector system to provide references for the future implementation of the dual-mode scintillator system in various studies and applications. We evaluated a CLYC detector with 95% 6Li enrichment using various gamma-ray sources and a 252Cf neutron source, with validation of our Monte Carlo simulation results via measurement experiments. Absolute full-energy peak efficiency values were calculated for gamma-ray sources and neutron source using MCNP6 and compared with measurement experiments of the calibration sources. In addition, behavioral characteristics of neutrons were validated by comparing simulations and experiments on neutron moderation with various polyethylene (PE) moderator thicknesses. Both results showed good agreements in overall characteristics of the gamma and neutron detection efficiencies, with consistent ⁓20% discrepancy. Furthermore, moderation of neutrons emitted from {sup 252}Cf showed similarities between the simulation and the experiment, in terms of their relative ratios depending on the thickness of the PE moderator. A CLYC detector system was characterized for its energy resolution and detection efficiency, and Monte Carlo simulations on the detector system was validated experimentally. Validation of the simulation results in overall trend of the CLYC detector behavior will provide the fundamental basis and validity of follow-up Monte Carlo simulation studies for the development of our dual-particle imager using a rotational modulation collimator.

  19. The structural validity of the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire (WLQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Best practice frameworks suggest that an assessment practitioner’s choice of an assessment tool should be based on scientific evidence that underpins the appropriate and just use of the instrument. This is a context-specific validity study involving a classified psychological instrument against the background of South African regulatory frameworks and contemporary validity theory principles. Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the structural validity of the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire (WLQ administered to employees in the automotive assembly plant of a South African automotive manufacturing company. Motivation for the study: Although the WLQ has been used by registered health practitioners and numerous researchers, evidence to support the structural validity is lacking. This study, therefore, addressed the need for context-specific empirical support for the validity of score inferences in respect of employees in a South African automotive manufacturing plant. Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted using a convenience sample (N = 217 taken from the automotive manufacturing company where the instrument was used. Reliability and factor analyses were carried out to explore the structural validity of the WLQ. Main findings: The reliability of the WLQ appeared to be acceptable, and the assumptions made about unidimensionality were mostly confirmed. One of the proposed higher-order structural models of the said questionnaire administered to the sample group was confirmed, whereas the other one was partially confirmed. Practical/managerial implications: The conclusion reached was that preliminary empirical grounds existed for considering the continued use of the WLQ (with some suggested refinements by the relevant company, provided the process of accumulating a body of validity evidence continued. Contribution/value-add: This study identified some of the difficulties

  20. Electron Microscopic Examination of Irradiated TRISO Coated Particles of Compact 6-3-2 of AGR-1 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rooyen, Isabella Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Demkowicz, Paul Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riesterer, Jessica Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, Brandon Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Janney, Dawn Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ploger, Scott Arden [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The electron microscopic examination of selected irradiated TRISO coated particles of the AGR-1 experiment of fuel compact 6-3-2 are presented in this report. Compact 6-3-2 refers to the compact in Capsule 6 at level 3 of Stack 2. The fuel used in capsule 6 compacts, are called the “baseline” fuel as it is fabricated with refined coating process conditions used to fabricate historic German fuel, because of its excellent irradiation performance with UO2 kernels. The AGR-1 fuel is however made of low-enriched uranium oxycarbide (UCO). Kernel diameters are approximately 350 µm with a U-235 enrichment of approximately 19.7%. Compact 6-3-2 has been irradiated to 11.3% FIMA compact average burn-up with a time average, volume average temperature of 1070.2°C and with a compact average fast fluence of 2.38E21 n/cm

  1. Autologous Fat Grafting Reduces Pain in Irradiated Breast: A Review of Our Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caviggioli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pain syndromes affect women after conservative and radical breast oncological procedures. Radiation therapy influences their development. We report autologous fat grafting therapeutical role in treating chronic pain in irradiated patients. Materials and Methods. From February 2006 to November 2014, we collect a total of 209 patients who meet the definition of “Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome” (PMPS and had undergone mastectomy with axillary dissection (113 patients or quadrantectomy (96 patients. Both procedures were followed by radiotherapy. We performed fat grafting following Coleman’s procedure. Mean amount of adipose tissue injected was 52 cc (±8.9 cc per breast. Seventy-eight in 209 patients were not treated surgically and were considered as control group. Data were gathered through preoperative and postoperative VAS questionnaires; analgesic drug intake was recorded. Results. The follow-up was at 12 months (range 11.7–13.5 months. In 120 treated patients we detected pain decrease (mean ± SD point reduction, 3.19 ± 2.86. Forty-eight in 59 patients stopped their analgesic drug therapy. Controls reported a mean ± SD decrease of pain of 1.14 ± 2.72. Results showed that pain decreased significantly in patients treated (p<0.005, Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Conclusion. Our 8-year experience confirms fat grafting effectiveness in decreasing neuropathic pain.

  2. Surface contamination of the LIL optical components and their evolution after laser irradiation (3. series of experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmier, St.; Garcia, S.; Lamaignere, L.; Rullier, J.L.; Tovena, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of the Laser Mega-Joule (LMJ) project, the third series of experiments achieved the particle contamination characterization found in the Laser Integration Line (LIL) environment. This study is focused on 2 zones: the frequency conversion crystals and beam focusing area and the amplification zone. In each zone, the particles have the same chemical nature. The irradiation of samples contaminated in these zones does not create any critical damage, as already observed in the first and second series of experiments. In this third series of experiments, an interesting phenomenon is quantified: the cleaning laser effect. In the best configuration studied (particles in the backward, fluence of 10 J/cm 2 , 355 nm wavelength and 2.5 ns), 95% of the particles larger than 3 μm are eliminated after one single irradiation. (authors)

  3. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY OF DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang H.; Kim, Eung S.

    2010-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory performed air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics code (CFD). An isothermal stratified flow experiment was designed and set to understand stratified flow phenomena in the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) and to provide experimental data for validating computer codes. The isothermal experiment focused on three flow characteristics unique in the VHTR air-ingress accident: stratified flow in the horizontal pipe, stratified flow expansion at the pipe and vessel junction, and stratified flow around supporting structures. Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids and water was used as light fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between heavy and light fluids is generated even for very small density differences. The code was validated by conducting blind CFD simulations and comparing the results to the experimental data. A grid sensitivity study was also performed based on the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for modeling confidence. As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  4. Experience of the irradiation method under mixed gas (95% O2 plus 5% CO2) inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Michio; Tazaki, Eio

    1978-01-01

    The irradiation method under mixed gas of 95% O 2 plus CO 2 inhalation at one atomosphere was discussed to improve therapeutic results, in malignant tumors which are not greatly sensitive to irradiation. Randomized study was done in each attending institute, with common protocols. As a result, no positive effect was recognized in irradiation method under mixed gas inhalation with daily dose of 200 rad and 5 fractions per week, which is widely used clinically. But when irradiation dose was increased up to 500 to 600 rad per fraction, effect of the mixed gas was remarkable. But against this, observing for years, results in irradiation under mixed gas inhalation were not always related to the improvement of the long term survival. (author)

  5. Caries experience among adults exposed to low to moderate doses of ionizing irradiation in childhood - the Tinea Capitis Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval eVered

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While the impact of therapeutic levels of ionizing radiation during childhood on dental defects has been documented, the possible effect of low doses on dental health is unknown. The study aims were to assess the association between childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of therapeutic radiation and caries experience among a cohort of adults 50 years following the exposure.The analysis was based on a sample of 253 irradiated (in the treatment of Tinea Capitis and 162 non-irradiated subjects. The DMFT (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth index was assessed during a clinical dental examination and questions regarding dental care services utilization, oral hygiene behavior, current self-perceived mouth dryness, socio-demographic parameters and health behavior variables were obtained through a face to face interview.An ordered multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association of the main independent variable (irradiation status and other relevant independent variables on the increase in DMFT.Mean caries experience levels (DMFT were 18.6+7.5 for irradiated subjects compared to 16.4+7.2 for the non-irradiated (p=0.002. Controlling for gender, age, education, income, smoking, dental visit in the last year and brushing teeth behavior, irradiation was associated with a 72% increased risk for higher DMFT level (95% CI 1.19-2.50. A quantification of the risk by dose absorbed in the salivary gland and in the thyroid gland showed adjusted ORs of 2.21 per 1Gy (95% CI 1.40-3.50 and 1.05 per 1cGy (95% CI 1.01-1.09, respectively.Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation (0.2-0.4Gy might be associated with late outcomes of dental health. In line with the guidelines of the American Dental Association, these results call for caution when using dental radiographs.

  6. Validation of dispersion model of RTARC-DSS based on ''KIT'' field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the performance of the Gaussian dispersion model RTARC-DSS (Real Time Accident Release Consequences - Decision Support System) at the 'Kit' field experiments. The Model Validation Kit is a collection of three experimental data sets from Kincaid, Copenhagen, Lillestrom and supplementary Indianopolis experimental campaigns accompanied by software for model evaluation. The validation of the model has been performed on the basis of the maximum arc-wise concentrations using the Bootstrap resampling procedure the variation of the model residuals. Validation was performed for the short-range distances (about 1 - 10 km, maximum for Kincaid data set - 50 km from source). Model evaluation procedure and amount of relative over- or under-prediction are discussed and compared with the model. (author)

  7. Non-destructive measurements of nuclear wastes. Validation and industrial operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Tchemitciieff, E.

    1993-01-01

    After a short survey of the means employed for the non-destructive measurement of specific activities (γ and X-ray) in waste packages and raw waste, the performances of the device and the ANDRA requirements are presented. The validation of the γ and X-ray measurements on packages is obtained through determining, by destructive means, the same activity on coring samples. The same procedure is used for validating the homogeneity measurements on packages (either homogeneous or heterogeneous). Different operating experiences are then exposed for several kinds of packages and waste. Up to now, about twenty different types of packages have been examined and more than 200 packages have allowed the calibration, validation, and control

  8. Sterilization experiment of crocidolomia binotalis zeller by gamma ray irradiation and its control application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno, Singgih

    1986-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study C. binotalis control initiated with the rearing method and ended with the release of sterile irradiated insects. Rearing of cabbage pest using modified artificial diet of Pieris rapae gave better result compared to that with natural diet. The larval viability was 58% and 25.9% from the artificial and the natural diet respectively. Gamma ray doses of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4 and 0.45 kGy were introduced to six-day-old sexed pupae in nitrogen and air atmosphere. A 100% sterility on males was obtained at 0.45 kGy in both air and nitrogen atmosphere. 100% sterility on females was found at 0.25 kGy in nitrogen and 0.2 kGy in air atmosphere. The effect of dose on the percentage of sterile and mating competitiveness were not significantly different (P ≥0.05). A significant correlation (r=0.8774) was found between the percentage of fertility and the mating competitiveness of irradiated insects. The lower the fertility of the insects the less mating competitiveness they have. 0.4 kGy was considered to be adequate for sterilization of C. binotalis. It produced a high percentage of sterility besides moderate mating competitiveness, 84.52% and 0.57% respectively. 0.4 kGy seemed to give 3 days shorter longevity of moth than the normal one. The number of F 1 larval population was not significantly different if the released insects were either females or males or mixed sexes. The ratio of 9:1 of the sterile and normal insects under laboratory, field-cage, and in the field indicated that the sterile insect technique has the potential to suppress F 1 population by about 50% due to the mating competitiveness of the radiosterilized insect still maintained at the level of 0.57. (author). 17 refs

  9. Neutronics experiments for uncertainty assessment of tritium breeding in HCPB and HCLL blanket mock-ups irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, P.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Villari, R.; Fischer, U.; Klix, A.; Leichtle, D.; Kodeli, I.; Pohorecki, W.

    2012-01-01

    Two neutronics experiments have been carried out at 14 MeV neutron sources on mock-ups of the helium cooled pebble bed (HCBP) and the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) variants of ITER test blanket modules (TBMs). These experiments have provided an experimental validation of the calculations of the tritium production rate (TPR) in the two blanket concepts and an assessment of the uncertainties due to the uncertainties on nuclear data. This paper provides a brief summary of the HCPB experiment and then focuses in particular on the final results of the HCLL experiment. The TPR has been measured in the HCLL mock-up irradiated for long times at the Frascati 14 MeV Neutron Generator (FNG). Redundant and well-assessed experimental techniques have been used to measure the TPR by different teams for inter-comparison. Measurements of the neutron and gamma-ray spectra have also been performed. The analysis of the experiment, carried out by the MCNP code with FENDL-2.1 and JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data libraries, and also including sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, shows good agreement between measurements and calculations, within the total uncertainty of 5.9% at 1σ level. (paper)

  10. Generation and validation of a prognostic score to predict outcome after re-irradiation of recurrent glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Juergen [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: Stephanie.combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Edler, Lutz; Rausch, Renate [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Dept. of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Wick, Wolfgang [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Neurooncology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Re-irradiation using high-precision radiation techniques has been established within the clinical routine for patients with recurrent gliomas. In the present work, we developed a practical prognostic score to predict survival outcome after re-irradiation. Patients and methods. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) was applied in 233 patients. Primary histology included glioblastoma (n = 89; 38%), WHO Grade III gliomas (n = 52; 22%) and low-grade glioma (n = 92; 40%). FSRT was applied with a median dose of 36 Gy in 2 Gy single fractions. We evaluated survival after re-irradiation as well as progression-free survival after re-irradiation; prognostic factors analyzed included age, tumor volume at re-irradiation, histology, time between initial radiotherapy and re-irradiation, age and Karnofsky Performance Score. Results. Median survival after FSRT was 8 months for glioblastoma, 20 months for anaplastic gliomas, and 24 months for recurrent low-grade patients. The strongest prognostic factors significantly impacting survival after re-irradiation were histology (p <0.0001) and age (<50 vs. ={>=}50, p < 0.0001) at diagnosis and the time between initial radiotherapy and re-irradiation {<=}12 vs. >12 months (p < 0.0001). We generated a four-class prognostic score to distinguish patients with excellent (0 points), good (1 point), moderate (2 points) and poor (3-4 points) survival after re-irradiation. The difference in outcome was highly significant (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. We generated a practical prognostic score index based on three clinically relevant factors to predict the benefit of patients from re-irradiation. This score index can be helpful in patient counseling, and for the design of further clinical trials. However, individual treatment decisions may include other patient-related factors not directly influencing outcome.

  11. Examining students' views about validity of experiments: From introductory to Ph.D. students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehui; Zwickl, Benjamin M.

    2018-06-01

    We investigated physics students' epistemological views on measurements and validity of experimental results. The roles of experiments in physics have been underemphasized in previous research on students' personal epistemology, and there is a need for a broader view of personal epistemology that incorporates experiments. An epistemological framework incorporating the structure, methodology, and validity of scientific knowledge guided the development of an open-ended survey. The survey was administered to students in algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses, upper-division physics labs, and physics Ph.D. students. Within our sample, we identified several differences in students' ideas about validity and uncertainty in measurement. The majority of introductory students justified the validity of results through agreement with theory or with results from others. Alternatively, Ph.D. students frequently justified the validity of results based on the quality of the experimental process and repeatability of results. When asked about the role of uncertainty analysis, introductory students tended to focus on the representational roles (e.g., describing imperfections, data variability, and human mistakes). However, advanced students focused on the inferential roles of uncertainty analysis (e.g., quantifying reliability, making comparisons, and guiding refinements). The findings suggest that lab courses could emphasize a variety of approaches to establish validity, such as by valuing documentation of the experimental process when evaluating the quality of student work. In order to emphasize the role of uncertainty in an authentic way, labs could provide opportunities to iterate, make repeated comparisons, and make decisions based on those comparisons.

  12. [Caregiver's health: adaption and validation in a Spanish population of the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Maraver, Mariacruz; Doval, Eduardo; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Giménez-Salinas, Jordi; Prat, Gemma; Bonet, Pere

    2018-04-04

    To adapt and to validate the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI) in a Spanish population, providing empirical evidence of its internal consistency, internal structure and validity. Psychometric validation of the adapted version of the ECI. One hundred and seventy-two caregivers (69.2% women), mean age 57.51 years (range: 21-89) participated. Demographic and clinical data, standardized measures (ECI, suffering scale of SCL-90-R, Zarit burden scale) were used. The two scales of negative evaluation of the ECI most related to serious mental disorders (disruptive behaviours [DB] and negative symptoms [NS]) and the two scales of positive appreciation (positive personal experiences [PPE], and good aspects of the relationship [GAR]) were analyzed. Exploratory structural equation modelling was used to analyze the internal structure. The relationship between the ECI scales and the SCL-90-R and Zarit scores was also studied. The four-factor model presented a good fit. Cronbach's alpha (DB: 0.873; NS: 0.825; PPE: 0.720; GAR: 0.578) showed a higher homogeneity in the negative scales. The SCL-90-R scores correlated with the negative ECI scales, and none of the ECI scales correlated with the Zarit scale. The Spanish version of the ECI can be considered a valid, reliable, understandable and feasible self-report measure for its administration in the health and community context. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Experiment of Laser Pointing Stability on Different Surfaces to validate Micrometric Positioning Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)721924; Mainaud Durand, Helene; Piedigrossi, Didier; Sandomierski, Jacek; Sosin, Mateusz; Geiger, Alain; Guillaume, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    CLIC requires 10 μm precision and accuracy over 200m for the pre-alignment of beam related components. A solution based on laser beam as straight line reference is being studied at CERN. It involves camera/shutter assemblies as micrometric positioning sensors. To validate the sensors, it is necessary to determine an appropriate material for the shutter in terms of laser pointing stability. Experiments are carried out with paper, metal and ceramic surfaces. This paper presents the standard deviations of the laser spot coordinates obtained on the different surfaces, as well as the measurement error. Our experiments validate the choice of paper and ceramic for the shutter of the micrometric positioning sensor. It also provides an estimate of the achievable precision and accuracy of the determination of the laser spot centre with respect to the shutter coordinate system defined by reference targets.

  14. The Role of Laboratory Experiments in the Validation of Field Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouneyrac, Catherine; Lagarde, Fabienne; Chatel, Amelie

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence and persistency of microplastics (MPs) in aquatic environments are of particular concern, since they constitute a potential threat to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, evaluating this threat and the impacts of MP on aquatic organisms is challenging. MPs form a very...... and to what degree these complexities are addressed in the current literature, to: (1) evaluate how well laboratory studies, investigated so far, represent environmentally relevant processes and scenarios and (2) suggest directions for future research The Role of Laboratory Experiments in the Validation...... of Field Data | Request PDF. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310360438_The_Role_of_Laboratory_Experiments_in_the_Validation_of_Field_Data [accessed Jan 15 2018]....

  15. Validation of neutronic methods applied to the analysis of fast subcritical systems. The MUSE-2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soule, R.; Salvatores, M.; Jacqmin, R.; Martini, M.; Lebrat, J.F.; Bertrand, P.; Broccoli, U.; Peluso, V.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the French SPIN program devoted to the separation and the transmutation of radioactive wastes, the CEA has launched the ISAAC program to investigate the potential of accelerator-driven systems and to provide an experimental validation of the physics characteristics of these systems. The neutronics of the subcritical core needs experimental validation. This can be done by decoupling the problem of the neutron source from the problem of the subcritical medium. Experiments with a well known external source placed in a subcritical medium have been performed in the MASURCA facility. The results confirm the high accuracy achievable with such experiments and the good quality of the ERANOS code system predictions. (author)

  16. Validation of neutronic methods applied to the analysis of fast subcritical systems. The MUSE-2 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soule, R; Salvatores, M; Jacqmin, R; Martini, M; Lebrat, J F; Bertrand, P [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, Service de Physique des Reacteurs et du Cycle, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Broccoli, U; Peluso, V

    1998-12-31

    In the framework of the French SPIN program devoted to the separation and the transmutation of radioactive wastes, the CEA has launched the ISAAC program to investigate the potential of accelerator-driven systems and to provide an experimental validation of the physics characteristics of these systems. The neutronics of the subcritical core needs experimental validation. This can be done by decoupling the problem of the neutron source from the problem of the subcritical medium. Experiments with a well known external source placed in a subcritical medium have been performed in the MASURCA facility. The results confirm the high accuracy achievable with such experiments and the good quality of the ERANOS code system predictions. (author)

  17. Validation of a numerical FSI simulation of an aortic BMHV by in vitro PIV experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerel, S; Claessens, T; Degroote, J; Segers, P; Vierendeels, J

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a validation of a recently developed fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling algorithm to simulate numerically the dynamics of an aortic bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) is performed. This validation is done by comparing the numerical simulation results with in vitro experiments. For the in vitro experiments, the leaflet kinematics and flow fields are obtained via the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Subsequently, the same case is numerically simulated by the coupling algorithm and the resulting leaflet kinematics and flow fields are obtained. Finally, the results are compared, revealing great similarity in leaflet motion and flow fields between the numerical simulation and the experimental test. Therefore, it is concluded that the developed algorithm is able to capture very accurately all the major leaflet kinematics and dynamics and can be used to study and optimize the design of BMHVs. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The RaDIATE High-Energy Proton Materials Irradiation Experiment at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, Kavin; et al.

    2017-05-01

    The RaDIATE collaboration (Radiation Damage In Accelerator Target Environments) was founded in 2012 to bring together the high-energy accelerator target and nuclear materials communities to address the challenging issue of radiation damage effects in beam-intercepting materials. Success of current and future high intensity accelerator target facilities requires a fundamental understanding of these effects including measurement of materials property data. Toward this goal, the RaDIATE collaboration organized and carried out a materials irradiation run at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer facility (BLIP). The experiment utilized a 181 MeV proton beam to irradiate several capsules, each containing many candidate material samples for various accelerator components. Materials included various grades/alloys of beryllium, graphite, silicon, iridium, titanium, TZM, CuCrZr, and aluminum. Attainable peak damage from an 8-week irradiation run ranges from 0.03 DPA (Be) to 7 DPA (Ir). Helium production is expected to range from 5 appm/DPA (Ir) to 3,000 appm/DPA (Be). The motivation, experimental parameters, as well as the post-irradiation examination plans of this experiment are described.

  19. Mini-channel flow experiments and CFD validation analyses with the IFMIF Thermo- Hydraulic Experimental facility (ITHEX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeiter, F.; Heinzel, V.; Leichtle, D.; Stratmanns, E.; Gordeev, S.

    2006-01-01

    The design of the IFMIF High Flux Test Module (HFTM) is based on the predictions for the heat transfer in narrow channels conducting helium flow of 50 o C inlet temperature at 0.3 MPa. The emerging helium flow conditions are in the transition regime of laminar to turbulent flow. The rectangular cooling channels are too short for the full development of the coolant flow. Relaminarization along the cooling passage is expected. At the shorter sides of the channels secondary flow occurs, which may have an impact on the temperature field inside the irradiation specimen's stack. As those conditions are not covered by available experimental data, the dedicated gas loop ITHEX has been constructed to operate up to a pressure of 0.42 MPa and temperatures of 200 o C. It's objective is to conduct experiments for the validation of the STAR-CD CFD code used for the design of the HFTM. As a first stage, two annular test-sections with hydraulic diameter of 1.2 mm have been used, where the experiments have been varied with respect to gas species (N 2 , He), inlet pressure, dimensionless heating span and Reynolds number encompassing the range of operational parameters of the HFTM. Local friction factors and Nusselt numbers have been obtained giving evidence that the transition regime will extend to Reynolds 10,000. For heating rates comparable to the HFTM filled with RAFM steels, local heat transfer coefficients are in consistence with the measured friction data. To validate local velocity profiles the ITHEX facility was further equipped with a flat rectangular test-section and a Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system. An appropriate optical system has been developed and tested for the tiny observation volume of 40 μm diameter. Velocity profiles as induced by the transition of a wide inlet plenum to the flat mini-channels have been measured. Whereas the CFD models were able to reproduce the patterns far away from the nozzle, they show some disagreement for the conditions at the

  20. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogi, Y., E-mail: kogi@fit.ac.jp; Higashi, T.; Matsukawa, S. [Department of Information Electronics, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Mase, A. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-0811 (Japan); Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5202 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image.

  1. Validation of the containment code Sirius: interpretation of an explosion experiment on a scale model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Y.; Obry, P.; Louvet, J.; Deshayes, M.; Phalip, C.

    1979-01-01

    The explicit 2-D axisymmetric Langrangian code SIRIUS, developed at the CEA/DRNR, Cadarache, deals with transient compressive flows in deformable primary tanks with more or less complex internal component geometries. This code has been subjected to a two-year intensive validation program on scale model experiments and a number of improvements have been incorporated. This paper presents a recent calculation of one of these experiments using the SIRIUS code, and the comparison with experimental results shows the encouraging possibilities of this Lagrangian code

  2. Dose mapping using MCNP code and experiment for SVST-Co-60/B irradiator in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Hung; Tran, Khac An

    2010-06-01

    By using MCNP code and ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB) dosimeters the simulations and measurements of absorbed dose distribution in a tote-box of the Cobalt-60 irradiator, SVST-Co60/B at VINAGAMMA have been done. Based on the results Dose Uniformity Ratios (DUR), positions and values of minimum and maximum dose extremes in a tote-box, and efficiency of the irradiator for the different dummy densities have been gained. There is a good agreement between simulation and experimental results in comparison and they have valuable meanings for operation of the irradiator. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Generation and validation of a prognostic score to predict outcome after re-irradiation of recurrent glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Juergen; Edler, Lutz; Rausch, Renate; Wick, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Re-irradiation using high-precision radiation techniques has been established within the clinical routine for patients with recurrent gliomas. In the present work, we developed a practical prognostic score to predict survival outcome after re-irradiation. Patients and methods. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) was applied in 233 patients. Primary histology included glioblastoma (n = 89; 38%), WHO Grade III gliomas (n = 52; 22%) and low-grade glioma (n = 92; 40%). FSRT was applied with a median dose of 36 Gy in 2 Gy single fractions. We evaluated survival after re-irradiation as well as progression-free survival after re-irradiation; prognostic factors analyzed included age, tumor volume at re-irradiation, histology, time between initial radiotherapy and re-irradiation, age and Karnofsky Performance Score. Results. Median survival after FSRT was 8 months for glioblastoma, 20 months for anaplastic gliomas, and 24 months for recurrent low-grade patients. The strongest prognostic factors significantly impacting survival after re-irradiation were histology (p 12 months (p < 0.0001). We generated a four-class prognostic score to distinguish patients with excellent (0 points), good (1 point), moderate (2 points) and poor (3-4 points) survival after re-irradiation. The difference in outcome was highly significant (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. We generated a practical prognostic score index based on three clinically relevant factors to predict the benefit of patients from re-irradiation. This score index can be helpful in patient counseling, and for the design of further clinical trials. However, individual treatment decisions may include other patient-related factors not directly influencing outcome.

  4. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing Patient Experience of Chronic Illness Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín Mira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The experience of chronic patients with the care they receive, fuelled by the focus on patient-centeredness and the increasing evidence on its positive relation with other dimensions of quality, is being acknowledged as a key element in improving the quality of care. There are a dearth of accepted tools and metrics to assess patient experience from the patient’s perspective that have been adapted to the new chronic care context: continued, systemic, with multidisciplinary teams and new technologies. Methods: Development and validation of a scale conducting a literature review, expert panel, pilot and field studies with 356 chronic primary care patients, to assess content and face validities and reliability. Results: IEXPAC is an 11+1 item scale with adequate metric properties measured by Alpha Chronbach, Goodness of fit index, and satisfactory convergence validity around three factors named: productive interactions, new relational model and person’s self-management. Conclusions: IEXPAC allows measurement of the patient experience of chronic illness care. Together with other indicators, IEXPAC can determine the quality of care provided according to the Triple Aim framework, facilitating health systems reorientation towards integrated patient-centred care.

  5. Development and Validation of a Scale Assessing Mental Health Clinicians' Experiences of Associative Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Vayshenker, Beth; DeLuca, Joseph S; O'Connor, Lauren K

    2017-10-01

    Mental health professionals who work with people with serious mental illnesses are believed to experience associative stigma. Evidence suggests that associative stigma could play an important role in the erosion of empathy among professionals; however, no validated measure of the construct currently exists. This study examined the convergent and discriminant validity and factor structure of a new scale assessing the associative stigma experiences of clinicians working with people with serious mental illnesses. A total of 473 clinicians were recruited from professional associations in the United States and participated in an online study. Participants completed the Clinician Associative Stigma Scale (CASS) and measures of burnout, quality of care, expectations about recovery, and self-efficacy. Associative stigma experiences were commonly endorsed; eight items on the 18-item scale were endorsed as being experienced "sometimes" or "often" by over 50% of the sample. The new measure demonstrated a logical four-factor structure: "negative stereotypes about professional effectiveness," "discomfort with disclosure," "negative stereotypes about people with mental illness," and "stereotypes about professionals' mental health." The measure had good internal consistency. It was significantly related to measures of burnout and quality of care, but it was not related to measures of self-efficacy or expectations about recovery. Findings suggest that the CASS is internally consistent and shows evidence of convergent validity and that associative stigma is commonly experienced by mental health professionals who work with people with serious mental illnesses.

  6. Validation experiments of nuclear characteristics of the fast-thermal system HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Zavaljevski, N.; Marinkovic, P.; Stefanovis, D.; Nikolic, D.; Avdic, S.

    1992-01-01

    In 1988/90 a coupled fast-thermal system HERBE at RB reactor, based on similar facilities, is designed and realized. Fast core of HERBE is built of natural U fuel in RB reactor center surrounded by the neutron filter and neutron converter located in an independent Al tank. Fast zone is surrounded by thermal neutron core driver. Designed nuclear characteristics of HERBE core are validated in the experiments described in the paper. HERBE cell parameters were calculated with developed computer codes: VESNA and DENEB. HERBE system criticality calculation are performed with 4G 2D RZ computer codes GALER and TWENTY GRAND, 1D multi-group AVERY code and 3D XYZ few-group TRITON computer code. The experiments for determination of critical level, dρ/dH, and reactivity of safety rods are accomplished in order to validate calculation results. Specific safety experiment is performed in aim to determine reactivity of flooded fast zone in possible accident. A very good agreements with calculation results are obtained and the validation procedures are presented. It is expected that HERBE will offer qualitative new opportunities for work with fast neutrons at RB reactor including nuclear data determination. (author)

  7. Panamanian women׳s experience of vaginal examination in labour: A questionnaire validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Rojas-Mirquez, Johanna C; Ortega-Loubon, Christian

    2016-05-01

    to validate a tool that allows healthcare providers to obtain accurate information regarding Panamanian women׳s thoughts and feelings about vaginal examination during labour that can be used in other Latin-American countries. validation study based on a database from a cross-sectional study carried out in two tertiary care hospitals in Panama City, Panama. Women in the immediate postpartum period who had spontaneous labour onset and uncomplicated deliveries were included in the study from April to August 2008. Researchers used a survey designed by Lewin et al. that included 20 questions related to a patient׳s experience during a vaginal examination. five constructs (factors) related to a patient׳s experience of vaginal examination during labour were identified: Approval (Alpha Cronbach׳s 0.72), Perception (0.67), Rejection (0.40), Consent (0.51), and Stress (0.20). it was demonstrated the validity of the scale and its constructs used to obtain information related to vaginal examination during labour, including patients' experiences with examination and healthcare staff performance. utilisation of the scale will allow institutions to identify items that need improvement and address these areas in order to promote the best care for patients in labour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on integral experiment covariance data for critical safety validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuke, Maik (ed.)

    2016-04-15

    For some time, attempts to quantify the statistical dependencies of critical experiments and to account for them properly in validation procedures were discussed in the literature by various groups. Besides the development of suitable methods especially the quality and modeling issues of the freely available experimental data are in the focus of current discussions, carried out for example in the Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment (UACSA) of the OECD-NEA Nuclear Science Committee. The same committee compiles and publishes also the freely available experimental data in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Most of these experiments were performed as series and might share parts of experimental setups leading to correlated results. The quality of the determination of these correlations and the underlying covariance data depend strongly on the quality of the documentation of experiments.

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on integral experiment covariance data for critical safety validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuke, Maik

    2016-04-01

    For some time, attempts to quantify the statistical dependencies of critical experiments and to account for them properly in validation procedures were discussed in the literature by various groups. Besides the development of suitable methods especially the quality and modeling issues of the freely available experimental data are in the focus of current discussions, carried out for example in the Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment (UACSA) of the OECD-NEA Nuclear Science Committee. The same committee compiles and publishes also the freely available experimental data in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Most of these experiments were performed as series and might share parts of experimental setups leading to correlated results. The quality of the determination of these correlations and the underlying covariance data depend strongly on the quality of the documentation of experiments.

  10. Validation results of satellite mock-up capturing experiment using nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Alberto; Cercós, Lorenzo; Stefanescu, Raluca M.; Benvenuto, Riccardo; Pesce, Vincenzo; Marcon, Marco; Lavagna, Michèle; González, Iván; Rodríguez López, Nuria; Wormnes, Kjetil

    2017-05-01

    The PATENDER activity (Net parametric characterization and parabolic flight), funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) via its Clean Space initiative, was aiming to validate a simulation tool for designing nets for capturing space debris. This validation has been performed through a set of different experiments under microgravity conditions where a net was launched capturing and wrapping a satellite mock-up. This paper presents the architecture of the thrown-net dynamics simulator together with the set-up of the deployment experiment and its trajectory reconstruction results on a parabolic flight (Novespace A-310, June 2015). The simulator has been implemented within the Blender framework in order to provide a highly configurable tool, able to reproduce different scenarios for Active Debris Removal missions. The experiment has been performed over thirty parabolas offering around 22 s of zero-g conditions. Flexible meshed fabric structure (the net) ejected from a container and propelled by corner masses (the bullets) arranged around its circumference have been launched at different initial velocities and launching angles using a pneumatic-based dedicated mechanism (representing the chaser satellite) against a target mock-up (the target satellite). High-speed motion cameras were recording the experiment allowing 3D reconstruction of the net motion. The net knots have been coloured to allow the images post-process using colour segmentation, stereo matching and iterative closest point (ICP) for knots tracking. The final objective of the activity was the validation of the net deployment and wrapping simulator using images recorded during the parabolic flight. The high-resolution images acquired have been post-processed to determine accurately the initial conditions and generate the reference data (position and velocity of all knots of the net along its deployment and wrapping of the target mock-up) for the simulator validation. The simulator has been properly

  11. Design practice and operational experience of highly irradiated, high-performance normal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1982-09-01

    The limitations of high performance magnets are discussed in terms of mechanical, temperature, and electrical limits. The limitations of magnets that are highly irradiated by neutrons, gamma radiation, or x radiation are discussed

  12. A simple irradiation facility for radiobiological experiments with low energy protons from a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental facility for irradiation of small biological targets with low-energy protons has been developed. The depth-dose distribution in soft-tissue is calculated from the proton energy spectrum. (orig.)

  13. An experience of electron beam (EB) irradiated gemstones in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, Sarada, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hairaldin, Siti Zulaiha, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Tajau, Rida, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Karim, Jamilah, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Jusoh, Suhaimi, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ghazali, Zulkafli, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Shamshad [School of Chemicals and Material Engineering, NUST Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-02-12

    In Nuclear Malaysia, a study on gemstone irradiation using beta particle is conducted. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the gemstone colour enhancement by using different kind of precious and non-precious gemstones. By using irradiation technique, selected gemstones are exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate colour centres culminating in the introduction of deeper colours. The colour centres may be stable or unstable depending on the nature of colour centre produced. The colour change of irradiated stones were measured by HunterLab colour measurement. At 50 kGy, Topaz shows changes colour from colourless to golden. Meanwhile pearl shows changes from pale colour to grey. Kunzite and amethyst shows colour changes from colorless to green and pale colour to purple. Gamma survey meter measurement confirmed that irradiation treatment with 3 MeV electron beam machine does not render any activation that activate the gems to become radioactive.

  14. An experience of electron beam (EB) irradiated gemstones in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Sarada; Hairaldin, Siti Zulaiha; Tajau, Rida; Karim, Jamilah; Jusoh, Suhaimi; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Ahmad, Shamshad

    2014-02-01

    In Nuclear Malaysia, a study on gemstone irradiation using beta particle is conducted. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the gemstone colour enhancement by using different kind of precious and non-precious gemstones. By using irradiation technique, selected gemstones are exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate colour centres culminating in the introduction of deeper colours. The colour centres may be stable or unstable depending on the nature of colour centre produced. The colour change of irradiated stones were measured by HunterLab colour measurement. At 50 kGy, Topaz shows changes colour from colourless to golden. Meanwhile pearl shows changes from pale colour to grey. Kunzite and amethyst shows colour changes from colorless to green and pale colour to purple. Gamma survey meter measurement confirmed that irradiation treatment with 3 MeV electron beam machine does not render any activation that activate the gems to become radioactive.

  15. New temperature monitoring devices for high-temperature irradiation experiments in the high flux reactor Petten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, M.; Futterer, M. A.; Lapetite, J. M. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fourrez, S. [THERMOCOAX SAS, BP 26, Planquivon, 61438 Flers Cedex (France); Morice, R. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75724 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Within the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN) and related projects a number of HTR fuel irradiations are planned in the High Flux Reactor Petten (HFR), The Netherlands, with the objective to explore the potential of recently produced fuel for even higher temperature and burn-up. Irradiating fuel under defined conditions to extremely high burn-ups will provide a better understanding of fission product release and failure mechanisms if particle failure occurs. After an overview of the irradiation rigs used in the HFR, this paper sums up data collected from previous irradiation tests in terms of thermocouple data. Some research and development work for further improvement of thermocouples and other on-line instrumentation will be outlined. (authors)

  16. An experience of electron beam (EB) irradiated gemstones in Malaysian nuclear agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Sarada; Hairaldin, Siti Zulaiha; Tajau, Rida; Karim, Jamilah; Jusoh, Suhaimi; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Ahmad, Shamshad

    2014-01-01

    In Nuclear Malaysia, a study on gemstone irradiation using beta particle is conducted. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the gemstone colour enhancement by using different kind of precious and non-precious gemstones. By using irradiation technique, selected gemstones are exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate colour centres culminating in the introduction of deeper colours. The colour centres may be stable or unstable depending on the nature of colour centre produced. The colour change of irradiated stones were measured by HunterLab colour measurement. At 50 kGy, Topaz shows changes colour from colourless to golden. Meanwhile pearl shows changes from pale colour to grey. Kunzite and amethyst shows colour changes from colorless to green and pale colour to purple. Gamma survey meter measurement confirmed that irradiation treatment with 3 MeV electron beam machine does not render any activation that activate the gems to become radioactive

  17. A four-color beam smoothing irradiation system for laser-plasma interaction experiments at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, D.M.; Henesian, M.A.; Wilcox, R.B.; Weiland, T.L.; Eimerl, D.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Laumann, C.W.; Miller, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    A novel four-color beam smoothing scheme with a capability similar to that planned for the proposed National Ignition Facility has been deployed on the Nova laser, and has been successfully used for laser fusion experiments. Wavefront aberrations in high power laser systems produce nonuniformities in the energy distribution of the focal spot that can significantly degrade the coupling of the energy into a fusion target, driving various plasma instabilities. The introduction of temporal and spatial incoherence over the face of the beam using techniques such as smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) can reduce these variation in the focal irradiance when averaged over a finite time interval. We developed a multiple frequency source that is spatially separated into four quadrants, each containing a different central frequency. Each quadrant is independently converted to the third harmonic in a four-segment Type I/ Type II KDP crystal array with independent phase-matching for efficient frequency conversion. Up to 2.3 kJ of third harmonic light is generated in a 1 ns pulse, corresponding to up to 65% conversion efficiency. SSD is implemented by adding limited frequency modulated bandwidth to each frequency component. Smoothing by spectral dispersion is implemented during the spatial separation of the FM modulated beams to provide additional smoothing, reaching a 16% rms intensity variation level. The four- color system was successfully used to probe NIF-like plasmas, producing 2x10 15 W/cm 2 . This paper discusses the detailed implementation and performance of the segmented four-color system on the Nova laser system

  18. Raman spectroscopy of femtosecond multipulse irradiation of vitreous silica: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheblanov, N. S.; Povarnitsyn, M. E.; Mishchik, K. N.; Tanguy, A.

    2018-02-01

    We report an experimental and numerical study of femtosecond multipulse laser-induced densification in vitreous silica (v -SiO2 ) and its signature in Raman spectra. We compare the experimental findings to the recently developed molecular dynamics (MD) approach accounting for bond breaking due to laser irradiation, together with a dynamical matrix approach and bond polarizability model based on first-principles calculations for the estimation of Raman spectra. We observe two stages of the laser-induced densification and Raman spectrum evolution: growth during several hundreds of pulses followed by further saturation. At the medium range, the network connectivity change in v -SiO2 is expressed in reduction of the major ring fractions leading to more compacted structure. With the help of the Sen and Thorpe model, we also study the short-range order transformation and derive the interbonding Si-O-Si angle change from the Raman measurements. Experimental findings are in excellent agreement with our MD simulations and hence support a bond-breaking mechanism of laser-induced densification. Thus, our modeling explains well the laser-induced changes both in the short-range order caused by the appearance of Si coordination defects and medium-range order connected to evolution of the ring distribution. Finally, our findings disclose similarities between sheared, permanently densified, and laser-induced glass and suggest interesting future experiments in order to clarify the impact of the thermomechanical history on glasses under shear, cold and hot compression, and laser-induced densification.

  19. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using proton beams: Initial clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Smith, Barbara L.; Adams, Judith C.; Kornmehl, Ellen; Katz, Angela; Gadd, Michele; Specht, Michelle; Hughes, Kevin; Gioioso, Valeria; Lu, H.-M.; Braaten, Kristina; Recht, Abram; Powell, Simon N.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We present our initial clinical experience with proton, three-dimensional, conformal, external beam, partial-breast irradiation (3D-CPBI). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with Stage I breast cancer were treated with proton 3D-CPBI in a Phase I/II clinical trial. Patients were followed at 3 to 4 weeks, 6 to 8 weeks, 6 months, and every 6 months thereafter for recurrent disease, cosmetic outcome, toxicity, and patient satisfaction. Results: With a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 8-22 months), no recurrent disease has been detected. Global breast cosmesis was judged by physicians to be good or excellent in 89% and 100% of cases at 6 months and 12 months, respectively. Patients rated global breast cosmesis as good or excellent in 100% of cases at both 6 and 12 months. Proton 3D-CPBI produced significant acute skin toxicity with moderate to severe skin color changes in 79% of patients at 3 to 4 weeks and moderate to severe moist desquamation in 22% of patients at 6 to 8 weeks. Telangiectasia was noted in 3 patients. Three patients reported rib tenderness in the treated area, and one rib fracture was documented. At last follow-up, 95% of patients reported total satisfaction with proton 3D-CPBI. Conclusions: Based on our study results, proton 3D-CPBI offers good-to-excellent cosmetic outcomes in 89% to 100% of patients at 6-month and 12-month follow-up and nearly universal patient satisfaction. However, proton 3D-CPBI, as used in this study, does result in significant acute skin toxicity and may potentially be associated with late skin (telangiectasia) and rib toxicity. Because of the dosimetric advantages of proton 3D-CPBI, technique modifications are being explored to improve acute skin tolerance

  20. More than 2 years' experience with computer-aided irradiation planning in clinical routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, H.; Rathje, J.

    1976-01-01

    This is a report on an irradiation planning system which has been used for about 2 years in the department of radiotherapy in the general hospital in Altona. Hard- and software as well as the mathematical model for the description of the dose distribution are described. The compromise between the required accuray of the irradiation plan and the investment in computer-technical activities and computer time is discussed. (orig./LN) [de

  1. Conclusions from the last five years of experiments in the field of food irradiation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálmán, B.

    For the beginning of the eighties Hungary was ready to introduce the radiation technology in the food industry and the authority of the country decided to establish a joint venture to use this technology in large scale. AGROSTER Co started to irradiate food packaging material and some type of spices for the meat industry. The policy of the AGROSTER was to increase the irradiated food items very slowly from one year to another and the same time using a good, marketing to convince of the all interested persons about the benefit of the food irradiation technology in Hungary. A gamma irradiator is used by this company which was built for application research since this plant was very useful in this initial stage in spite of the low source efficiency. It can be said the used step by step strategy of AGROSTER was very success because in the last year the radiation capacity of its gamma facility was used as much as possible to irradiate food items and the government of Hungary recognized the benefit of this technology and gives financial assistance to establish a large commercial gamma irradiator in Budapest.

  2. Fundamentals for the evaluation of irradiation experiments on enrichment reduction in the FRJ-2 (AF-Programme)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchardt, G.; Krug, W.; Weise, L.

    1984-01-01

    For the evaluation of irradiation experiments in the framework of the AF-Programme (Enrichment Reduction for Research Reactors) a computer code for the determination of burn-up was developed. The energy-integral cross-sections, which were needed for this purpose, has been determined appropriate to the specific problem in question. First results of an evaluation are reported in this paper. (orig.) [de

  3. Locally advanced prostatic cancer: experience with combined pelvic external beam irradiation and interstitial thermobrachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, Steven L; Kapp, Daniel S; Goffinet, Don R; Prionas, Stavros; Cox, Richard S; Bagshaw, Malcolm A

    1995-07-01

    Purpose: Recurrence of prostatic carcinoma within the prostate gland remains a significant problem for patients who present with locally advanced disease. In an attempt to improve the local control of such tumors, an iridium-192 transperineal, template-guided prostatic implant was combined wit radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia after external beam irradiation of the pelvic lymph nodes and prostate gland. This study evaluates the influence of pre-treatment patient characteristics and treatment parameters upon outcome. Materials and Methods: Between July 1987 and April 1992 33 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were selected for treatment: 28 of these patients had extensive local disease on clinical examination (AJCC-4 stages T2b or c: 9 patients; T3: 19 patients); two patients with T2a tumors had Gleason grade 5 + 4 disease or disproportionately high prostate specific antigen (PSA) values and a mass encroaching upon the bladder on computerized tomographic scan. Three patients with more clinically limited T2a or T2b involvement elected implantation in lieu of an external beam irradiation boost. The mean pre-treatment serum PSA value was 25.6 ng/ml (Hybritech scale), with values of above 19 ng/ml for 17 of the patients. Treatment consisted of 50 Gy of external beam irradiation to the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes followed by a transperineal needle implant of the prostate gland. Thirty-two patients had no evidence of pelvic nodal involvement during exploration at laparotomy performed after external irradiation, and 25 of these had lymph node samplings that were histologically negative for metastasis. Perineal template oriented needles were placed by inspection and palpation at laparotomy; 2 were performed closed under ultrasound guidance. Needles were afterloaded with {sup 192}Ir to provide a dose of 30 Gy to the periphery of the prostate gland. Interstitial radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia treatments were given in conjunction with the implant, one just

  4. Experiments for the validation of computer codes uses to assess the protection factors afforded by dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y.; Kerlau, G.

    1988-09-01

    Two experimental campaigns were carried out to verify: 1) the method of assessing the mean kerma in a household used in the computer code BILL calculating the protection factor afforded by dwellings; 2) in what conditions the kerma calculated in cubic meshes of a given size (code PIECE) agreed with TLD measurements. To that purpose, a house was built near the caesium 137 source of the Ecosystem irradiator located at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center. During the first campaign, four experiments with different house characteristics were conducted. Some 50 TLSs locations describing the inhabitable volume were defined in order to obtain the mean kerma. 16 locations were considered outside the house. During the second campaign a cobalt 60 source was installed on the side. Only five measurement locations were defined, each with 6 TLDs. The results of dosimetric measurements are presented and compared with the calculations of the two computer codes. The effects of wall heterogeneity were also studied [fr

  5. CFD Validation Experiment of a Mach 2.5 Axisymmetric Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, David O.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental investigations of specific flow phenomena, e.g., Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interactions (SWBLI), provide great insight to the flow behavior but often lack the necessary details to be useful as CFD validation experiments. Reasons include: 1.Undefined boundary conditions Inconsistent results 2.Undocumented 3D effects (CL only measurements) 3.Lack of uncertainty analysis While there are a number of good subsonic experimental investigations that are sufficiently documented to be considered test cases for CFD and turbulence model validation, the number of supersonic and hypersonic cases is much less. This was highlighted by Settles and Dodsons [1] comprehensive review of available supersonic and hypersonic experimental studies. In all, several hundred studies were considered for their database.Of these, over a hundred were subjected to rigorous acceptance criteria. Based on their criteria, only 19 (12 supersonic, 7 hypersonic) were considered of sufficient quality to be used for validation purposes. Aeschliman and Oberkampf [2] recognized the need to develop a specific methodology for experimental studies intended specifically for validation purposes.

  6. Validation of ASTEC v2.0 corium jet fragmentation model using FARO experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsmeyer, S.; Pla, P.; Sangiorgi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Model validation base extended to six FARO experiments. • Focus on the calculation of the fragmented particle diameter. • Capability and limits of the ASTEC fragmentation model. • Sensitivity analysis of model outputs. - Abstract: ASTEC is an integral code for the prediction of Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants. As such, it needs to cover all physical processes that could occur during accident progression, yet keeping its models simple enough for the ensemble to stay manageable and produce results within an acceptable time. The present paper is concerned with the validation of the Corium jet fragmentation model of ASTEC v2.0 rev3 by means of a selection of six experiments carried out within the FARO facility. The different conditions applied within these six experiments help to analyse the model behaviour in different situations and to expose model limits. In addition to comparing model outputs with experimental measurements, sensitivity analyses are applied to investigate the model. Results of the paper are (i) validation runs, accompanied by an identification of situations where the implemented fragmentation model does not match the experiments well, and discussion of results; (ii) its special attention to the models calculating the diameter of fragmented particles, the identification of a fault in one model implemented, and the discussion of simplification and ad hoc modification to improve the model fit; and, (iii) an investigation of the sensitivity of predictions towards inputs and parameters. In this way, the paper offers a thorough investigation of the merit and limitation of the fragmentation model used in ASTEC

  7. BACCHUS 2: an in situ backfill hydration experiment for model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volckaert, G.; Bernier, F.; Alonso, E.; Gens, A.

    1995-01-01

    The BACCHUS 2 experiment is an in situ backfill hydration test performed in the HADES underground research facility situated in the plastic Boom clay layer at 220 m depth. The experiment aims at the optimization and demonstration of an installation procedure for a clay based backfill material. The instrumentation has been optimized in such a way that the results of the experiments can be used for the validation of hydro-mechanical codes such a NOSAT developed at the University of Catalunya Spain (UPC). The experimental set-up consists in a bottom flange and a central filter around which the backfill material was applied. The backfill material consist of a mixture of high density clay pellets and clay powder. The experimental set-up and its instrumentation are described in detail. The results of the hydro-mechanical characterization of the backfill material is summarized. (authors). 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  8. Post-irradiation examination of fifteen UO2/PuO2-fuel pins from the experiment DFR-350

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geithoff, D.

    1975-06-01

    Within the framework of the fuel pin development for a sodium-cooled fast reactor a subassembly containing 77 fuel pins has been irradiated up to 5.65% fima in the Dounreay fast reactor. The pins were prototypes in terms of fuel and cladding material. The fuel consisted of mechanically mixed UO 2 (80%) and PuO 2 (20%) pressed into pellets whereas austenitic steels (W.-No. 1,4961 and 1,4988) were used as cladding material. Furthermore a blanket column of UO 2 pellets and a gas plenum were incorporated in the pin. For irradiation the conditions in a fast breeder were simulated by a linear rod power of 450 W/cm and a maximum cladding temperature of 630 0 C. After the successful completion of the irradiation, the subassembly was dismantled and fifteen pins were selected for a nondestructive and destructive examination. The tests included visual control, measurement of external dimensions, γ-spectroscopy, X-ray radiography, fission gas measurement, ceramography, radiochemical burn-up measurement. The results are presented. The most important results of the examinations seem to be the migration of fission product cesium and the fact that no signs of impending pin failure have been found. Thus the pin specification tested in this experiment is capable of achieving higher burnups under the irradiation conditions described above. (orig./AK) [de

  9. Is pollen morphology of Salix polaris affected by enhanced UV-B irradiation? Results from a field experiment in high Arctic tundra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, Dan; Blokker, Peter; Boelen, Peter; Rozema, Jelte

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the thickness of the pollen wall will increase in response to enhanced UV-B irradiation, by examining, the effect of enhanced UV-B irradiance on the pollen morphology of Sali-v polaris Wahlem. grown in a Field experiment on the Arctic tundra of Svalbard.

  10. Twenty-six years experience of commercialization on potato irradiation at Shihoro, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, K.; Ito, H.

    2000-03-01

    The township of Shihoro is Japan's biggest and most advanced dairy and field farming district which has been producing potatoes as a key crop. The potato irradiation plant was built at Shihoro in 1973 with a potato processing complex and has been shipping some 15,000 tons of sprout-inhibited potatoes a year during the sprouting season. From a technical viewpoint, the radiation efficiency of the Shihoro irradiator is lower than that of the usual irradiation facility using a carton box. The success of the Shihoro irradiator is shown in that radiation processing has been effectively included into one of the storage systems of a huge potato distribution facility. The sprout-inhibited potatoes as such are no guarantee of better business derived from potatoes, but producers see the merit of this process, because it makes possible year-round plant operations and planned shipments, keeps employees in year-round service and prevents rural depopulation, with an increase in the volume of business by expanding the area under crop. Recently in Japan, many companies have interests in commercial irradiation of spices, medical herbs and farm animal feeds before application to common foods.

  11. Twenty-six years experience of commercialization on potato irradiation at Shihoro, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, K.; Ito, H.

    2000-01-01

    The township of Shihoro is Japan's biggest and most advanced dairy and field farming district which has been producing potatoes as a key crop. The potato irradiation plant was built at Shihoro in 1973 with a potato processing complex and has been shipping some 15,000 tons of sprout-inhibited potatoes a year during the sprouting season. From a technical viewpoint, the radiation efficiency of the Shihoro irradiator is lower than that of the usual irradiation facility using a carton box. The success of the Shihoro irradiator is shown in that radiation processing has been effectively included into one of the storage systems of a huge potato distribution facility. The sprout-inhibited potatoes as such are no guarantee of better business derived from potatoes, but producers see the merit of this process, because it makes possible year-round plant operations and planned shipments, keeps employees in year-round service and prevents rural depopulation, with an increase in the volume of business by expanding the area under crop. Recently in Japan, many companies have interests in commercial irradiation of spices, medical herbs and farm animal feeds before application to common foods. (author)

  12. Strain gauge validation experiments for the Sandia 34-meter VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    1988-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has erected a research oriented, 34- meter diameter, Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine near Bushland, Texas. This machine, designated the Sandia 34-m VAWT Test Bed, is equipped with a large array of strain gauges that have been placed at critical positions about the blades. This manuscript details a series of four-point bend experiments that were conducted to validate the output of the blade strain gauge circuits. The output of a particular gauge circuit is validated by comparing its output to equivalent gauge circuits (in this stress state) and to theoretical predictions. With only a few exceptions, the difference between measured and predicted strain values for a gauge circuit was found to be of the order of the estimated repeatability for the measurement system.

  13. Validation experiments of the chimney model for the operational simulation of hydrogen recombiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Berno

    2013-01-01

    The calculation program REKO-DIREKT allows the simulation of the operational behavior of a hydrogen recombiner during accidents with hydrogen release. The interest is focused on the interaction between the catalyst insertion and the chimney that influences the natural ventilation and thus the throughput through the recombiner significantly. For validation experiments were performed with a small-scale recombiner model in the test facility REKO-4. The results show the correlation between the hydrogen concentration at the recombiner entrance, the temperature on catalyst sheets and the entrance velocity using different chimney heights. The entrance velocity increases with the heights of the installed chimney that influences the natural ventilation significantly. The results allow the generation of a wide data base for validation of the computer code REKO-DIREKT.

  14. Towards program theory validation: Crowdsourcing the qualitative analysis of participant experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Elena; Azzam, Tarek

    2018-02-01

    This exploratory study examines a novel tool for validating program theory through crowdsourced qualitative analysis. It combines a quantitative pattern matching framework traditionally used in theory-driven evaluation with crowdsourcing to analyze qualitative interview data. A sample of crowdsourced participants are asked to read an interview transcript and identify whether program theory components (Activities and Outcomes) are discussed and to highlight the most relevant passage about that component. The findings indicate that using crowdsourcing to analyze qualitative data can differentiate between program theory components that are supported by a participant's experience and those that are not. This approach expands the range of tools available to validate program theory using qualitative data, thus strengthening the theory-driven approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of experiments in medical physics: Application to the AAA beam model validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufreneix, S; Legrand, C; Di Bartolo, C; Bremaud, M; Mesgouez, J; Tiplica, T; Autret, D

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the design of experiments in the analysis of multiparametric problems related to the quality assurance in radiotherapy. The main motivation is to use this statistical method to optimize the quality assurance processes in the validation of beam models. Considering the Varian Eclipse system, eight parameters with several levels were selected: energy, MLC, depth, X, Y 1 and Y 2 jaw dimensions, wedge and wedge jaw. A Taguchi table was used to define 72 validation tests. Measurements were conducted in water using a CC04 on a TrueBeam STx, a TrueBeam Tx, a Trilogy and a 2300IX accelerator matched by the vendor. Dose was computed using the AAA algorithm. The same raw data was used for all accelerators during the beam modelling. The mean difference between computed and measured doses was 0.1±0.5% for all beams and all accelerators with a maximum difference of 2.4% (under the 3% tolerance level). For all beams, the measured doses were within 0.6% for all accelerators. The energy was found to be an influencing parameter but the deviations observed were smaller than 1% and not considered clinically significant. Designs of experiment can help define the optimal measurement set to validate a beam model. The proposed method can be used to identify the prognostic factors of dose accuracy. The beam models were validated for the 4 accelerators which were found dosimetrically equivalent even though the accelerator characteristics differ. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The post irradiation examination of a sphere-pac (UPu)C fuel pin irradiated in the BR-2 reactor (MFBS 7 experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.; Aerne, E.T.; Buergisser, B.; Flueckiger, U.; Hofer, R.; Petrik, F.

    1979-09-01

    A pin fuelled with Swiss made (UPu)C microspheres has been successfully irradiated to a peak burn-up of 6% fima in the Belgian BR2 Reactor. The pin, rated up to 95 kW/m, was intact after irradiation and exhibited a peak strain of just over 0.5%. The results of the post irradiation examination are reported. (Auth.)

  17. Prediction of the brittle-ductile transition temperature shift, from irradiation experiments obtained in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miannay, D.; Dussarte, D.; Soulat, P.

    1988-10-01

    In integrety - evaluation studies of the nuclear-reactor vessel, the toughness of component materials is given by a reference curve, which represents the lowest level of the toughness possible values, as a function of the temperature. Its temperature-scale position is given by the null ductility temperature. In non-irradiated conditions, the temperature of the vessel materials is experimentally obtained. To take into account the irradiation effect, a shift of this temperature, given by the correlations where chemical composition and neutronic dose are included, is considered. Up to date correlations, settled for materials brittler than those applied in the French program, are called in question again. A correlation between results obtained in France since 1973, for base metals and welded joints is given. The behavior of CHOOZ vessel, under irradiation conditions, is discussed [fr

  18. Post irradiation examinations on UMo full-sized plates - IRIS2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, F.; Noirot, J.; Marelle, V.; Dubois, S.; Boulcourt, P.; Sacristan, P.; Naury, S.; Lemoine, P.

    2005-01-01

    IRIS2 irradiation was the last irradiation of 4 full sized plates launched by CEA for the French UMo group to test in which operating conditions the coarse porosity forms in the UMo/Al interaction product. IRIS2 consists in four plates with high uranium loading and U-7wt%Mo atomised powder irradiated up to 60 days at OSIRIS reactor in IRIS device at a peak power of 238 W.cm -2 . The results show that in the tested conditions pillowing of the plate started from a fission density over 2.10 21 fission.cm -3 . Moreover, they show that the fission products and impurities have a key-role in the origin of the excessive plate swelling. (author)

  19. [Questionnaire on dissociative symptoms. German adaptation, reliability and validity of the American Dissociative Experience Scale (DES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberger, H J; Spitzer, C; Stieglitz, R D; Kuhn, G; Magdeburg, N; Bernstein-Carlson, E

    1998-06-01

    The "Fragebogen zu dissoziativen Symptomen (FDS)" represents the authorised German translation and adaptation of the "Dissociative Experience Scale" (DES; Bernstein and Putnam 1986). The original scale comprises 28 items covering dissociative experiences with regard to memory, identity, awareness and cognition according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV. For the German version, 16 items were added to cover dissociative phenomena according to ICD-10, mainly pseudoneurological conversion symptoms. Reliability and validity of the German version were studied in a total sample of 813 persons and were compared to the results of the original version. Test-retest reliability of the FDS was rtt = 0.88 and Cronbach's consistency coefficient was alpha = 0.93, which is comparable to the results of the DES. The instrument differentiates between different samples (healthy control subjects, students, unselected neurological and psychiatric inpatients, neurological and psychiatric patients with a dissociative disorder and schizophrenics). The FDS is an easily applicable, reliable and valid measure to quantify dissociative experiences.

  20. Validation of a CFD Analysis Model for Predicting CANDU-6 Moderator Temperature Against SPEL Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churl Yoon; Bo Wook Rhee; Byung-Joo Min

    2002-01-01

    A validation of a 3D CFD model for predicting local subcooling of the moderator in the vicinity of calandria tubes in a CANDU-6 reactor is performed. The small scale moderator experiments performed at Sheridan Park Experimental Laboratory (SPEL) in Ontario, Canada[1] is used for the validation. Also a comparison is made between previous CFD analyses based on 2DMOTH and PHOENICS, and the current analysis for the same SPEL experiment. For the current model, a set of grid structures for the same geometry as the experimental test section is generated and the momentum, heat and continuity equations are solved by CFX-4.3, a CFD code developed by AEA technology. The matrix of calandria tubes is simplified by the porous media approach. The standard k-ε turbulence model associated with logarithmic wall treatment and SIMPLEC algorithm on the body fitted grid are used. Buoyancy effects are accounted for by the Boussinesq approximation. For the test conditions simulated in this study, the flow pattern identified is the buoyancy-dominated flow, which is generated by the interaction between the dominant buoyancy force by heating and inertial momentum forces by the inlet jets. As a result, the current CFD moderator analysis model predicts the moderator temperature reasonably, and the maximum error against the experimental data is kept at less than 2.0 deg. C over the whole domain. The simulated velocity field matches with the visualization of SPEL experiments quite well. (authors)

  1. Experiences using IAEA Code of practice for radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: Validation and routine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N. [Batan Research Tissue Bank (BRTB), Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, P.O. Box 7002, JKSKL, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia)], E-mail: nazly@batan.go.id; Febrida, A.; Basril, A. [Batan Research Tissue Bank (BRTB), Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, P.O. Box 7002, JKSKL, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia)

    2007-11-15

    Problems of tissue allografts in using International Standard (ISO) 11137 for validation of radiation sterilization dose (RSD) are limited and low numbers of uniform samples per production batch, those are products obtained from one donor. Allograft is a graft transplanted between two different individuals of the same species. The minimum number of uniform samples needed for verification dose (VD) experiment at the selected sterility assurance level (SAL) per production batch according to the IAEA Code is 20, i.e., 10 for bio-burden determination and the remaining 10 for sterilization test. Three methods of the IAEA Code have been used for validation of RSD, i.e., method A1 that is a modification of method 1 of ISO 11137:1995, method B (ISO 13409:1996), and method C (AAMI TIR 27:2001). This paper describes VD experiments using uniform products obtained from one cadaver donor, i.e., cancellous bones, demineralized bone powders and amnion grafts from one life donor. Results of the verification dose experiments show that RSD is 15.4 kGy for cancellous and demineralized bone grafts and 19.2 kGy for amnion grafts according to method A1 and 25 kGy according to methods B and C.

  2. Experiments of Laser Pointing Stability in Air and in Vacuum to Validate Micrometric Positioning Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, G; Piedigrossi, D; Sandomierski, J; Sosin, M; Geiger, A; Guillaume, S

    2014-01-01

    Aligning accelerator components over 200m with 10 μm accuracy is a challenging task within the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study. A solution based on laser beam in vacuum as straight line reference is proposed. The positions of the accelerator’s components are measured with respect to the laser beam by sensors made of camera/shutter assemblies. To validate these sensors, laser pointing stability has to be studied over 200m. We perform experiments in air and in vacuum in order to know how laser pointing stability varies with the distance of propagation and with the environment. The experiments show that the standard deviations of the laser spot coordinates increase with the distance of propagation. They also show that the standard deviations are much smaller in vacuum (8 μm at 35m) than in air (2000 μm at 200m). Our experiment validates the concept of laser beam in vacuum with camera/shutter assembly for micrometric positioning over 35m. It also gives an estimation of the achievable precision.

  3. International integral experiments databases in support of nuclear data and code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J. Blair; Gado, Janos; Hunter, Hamilton; Kodeli, Ivan; Salvatores, Massimo; Sartori, Enrico

    2002-01-01

    The OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) has identified the need to establish international databases containing all the important experiments that are available for sharing among the specialists. The NSC has set up or sponsored specific activities to achieve this. The aim is to preserve them in an agreed standard format in computer accessible form, to use them for international activities involving validation of current and new calculational schemes including computer codes and nuclear data libraries, for assessing uncertainties, confidence bounds and safety margins, and to record measurement methods and techniques. The databases so far established or in preparation related to nuclear data validation cover the following areas: SINBAD - A Radiation Shielding Experiments database encompassing reactor shielding, fusion blanket neutronics, and accelerator shielding. ICSBEP - International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments Project Handbook, with more than 2500 critical configurations with different combination of materials and spectral indices. IRPhEP - International Reactor Physics Experimental Benchmarks Evaluation Project. The different projects are described in the following including results achieved, work in progress and planned. (author)

  4. Irradiated large segment allografts in limb saving surgery for extremity tumor - Philippine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.H.M.; Agcaoili, N.; Turqueza, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Limb saving surgery has only recently become an option in the Phillipines. This has given a better comprehension of oncologic principles and from the refinement of bone-reconstruction procedures. Foremost among the latter is the use of large segment bone allografts. Large-segment allografts (LSA) are available from the Tissue and Bone Bank of the University of the Philippines (UP). After harvest, these bones are processed at the Bank, radiation-sterilized at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, and then stored in a -80 degree C deep freezer. We present our 4-year experience (Jan 93 - Dec 96) with LSA for limb saving surgery in musculoskeletal tumors. All patients included had: (1) malignant or aggressive extremity tumors; (2) surgery performed by the UP - Musculoskeletal Tumor Unit (UP-MUST Unit); (3) reconstructions utilizing irradiated large-segment allografts from the UP Tissue and Bone Bank; and (4) follow-up of at least one year or until death. Tumors included osteosarcoma (6) giant cell tumors (11), and metastatic lesions (3). Age ranged from 16-64 years old; 13 males and 7 females. Bones involved were the femur (12) tibia (5) and humerus (3). Average defect length was 15 cm and surgeries performed were intercalary replacement (5), resection arthrodesis (11), hemicondylar allograft (3), and allograft-prosthesis-composite (1). Follow-up ranged was from 17- 60 months or until death. Fifteen (1 5) were alive with NED (no evidence of disease), 3 were dead (2 of disease 1 of other causes), and 2 were AWED (alive with evidence of disease). Functional evaluation using the criteria of the International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS) was performed on 18 patients. This averaged 27.5 out of 30 points (92%) for 15 patients. Many having returned to their previous work and recreation. The 3 failures were due to infections in 2 cases (both of whom opted for amputations but who have not been fit with prostheses), and a fracture (secondary to a fall) in one case. Limb

  5. Peculiarities of lipid metabolism after intrauterine low dosed irradiation in experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogov, Yu.I.; Danil'chik, V.S.; Zubovskaya, E.T.; Korosteleva, L.B.; Cpivak, L.V.; Rubenya, I.N.; Amvros'eva, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Four months old female rates (mass 200 gr) were divided into the control and the experimental groups, ten animals in each group, after cupping and pregnancy station. The experimental animals were exposed to irradiation during the entire period of pregnancy. The reduced levels of choline phospholipids (CP), of the CP/Ch and NEFA/FC rations and the increased levels 4-αm-δ7-Cl and the the EC/Ch ratio were determined to be sensitive to irradiation. In addition the analysis showed that in male rates changes were more pronounced in the erythrocytes and in female rates - in the blood plasma (authors)

  6. Generation of integral experiment covariance data and their impact on criticality safety validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuke, Maik; Peters, Elisabeth; Sommer, Fabian

    2016-11-15

    The quantification of statistical dependencies in data of critical experiments and how to account for them properly in validation procedures has been discussed in the literature by various groups. However, these subjects are still an active topic in the Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment (UACSA) of the OECDNEA Nuclear Science Committee. The latter compiles and publishes the freely available experimental data collection, the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, ICSBEP. Most of the experiments were performed as series and share parts of experimental setups, consequently leading to correlation effects in the results. The correct consideration of correlated data seems to be inevitable if the experimental data in a validation procedure is limited or one cannot rely on a sufficient number of uncorrelated data sets, e.g. from different laboratories using different setups. The general determination of correlations and the underlying covariance data as well as the consideration of them in a validation procedure is the focus of the following work. We discuss and demonstrate possible effects on calculated k{sub eff}'s, their uncertainties, and the corresponding covariance matrices due to interpretation of evaluated experimental data and its translation into calculation models. The work shows effects of various modeling approaches, varying distribution functions of parameters and compares and discusses results from the applied Monte-Carlo sampling method with available data on correlations. Our findings indicate that for the reliable determination of integral experimental covariance matrices or the correlation coefficients a detailed study of the underlying experimental data, the modeling approach and assumptions made, and the resulting sensitivity analysis seems to be inevitable. Further, a Bayesian method is discussed to include integral experimental covariance data when estimating an

  7. Generation of integral experiment covariance data and their impact on criticality safety validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuke, Maik; Peters, Elisabeth; Sommer, Fabian

    2016-11-01

    The quantification of statistical dependencies in data of critical experiments and how to account for them properly in validation procedures has been discussed in the literature by various groups. However, these subjects are still an active topic in the Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment (UACSA) of the OECDNEA Nuclear Science Committee. The latter compiles and publishes the freely available experimental data collection, the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, ICSBEP. Most of the experiments were performed as series and share parts of experimental setups, consequently leading to correlation effects in the results. The correct consideration of correlated data seems to be inevitable if the experimental data in a validation procedure is limited or one cannot rely on a sufficient number of uncorrelated data sets, e.g. from different laboratories using different setups. The general determination of correlations and the underlying covariance data as well as the consideration of them in a validation procedure is the focus of the following work. We discuss and demonstrate possible effects on calculated k eff 's, their uncertainties, and the corresponding covariance matrices due to interpretation of evaluated experimental data and its translation into calculation models. The work shows effects of various modeling approaches, varying distribution functions of parameters and compares and discusses results from the applied Monte-Carlo sampling method with available data on correlations. Our findings indicate that for the reliable determination of integral experimental covariance matrices or the correlation coefficients a detailed study of the underlying experimental data, the modeling approach and assumptions made, and the resulting sensitivity analysis seems to be inevitable. Further, a Bayesian method is discussed to include integral experimental covariance data when estimating an application

  8. First experience from in-core sensor validation based on correlation and neuro-fuzzy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figedy, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work new types of nuclear reactor in-core sensor validation methods are outlined. The first one is based on combination of correlation coefficients and mutual information indices, which reflect the correlation of signals in linear and nonlinear regions. The method may be supplemented by wavelet transform based signal features extraction and pattern recognition by artificial neural networks and also fuzzy logic based decision making. The second one is based on neuro-fuzzy modeling of residuals between experimental values and their theoretical counterparts obtained from the reactor core simulator calculations. The first experience with this approach is described and further improvements to enhance the outcome reliability are proposed (Author)

  9. Multiple Irradiation Capsule Experiment (MICE)-3B Irradiation Test of Space Fuel Specimens in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) - Close Out Documentation for Naval Reactors (NR) Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Chen; CM Regan; D. Noe

    2006-01-09

    Few data exist for UO{sub 2} or UN within the notional design space for the Prometheus-1 reactor (low fission rate, high temperature, long duration). As such, basic testing is required to validate predictions (and in some cases determine) performance aspects of these fuels. Therefore, the MICE-3B test of UO{sub 2} pellets was designed to provide data on gas release, unrestrained swelling, and restrained swelling at the upper range of fission rates expected for a space reactor. These data would be compared with model predictions and used to determine adequacy of a space reactor design basis relative to fission gas release and swelling of UO{sub 2} fuel and to assess potential pellet-clad interactions. A primary goal of an irradiation test for UN fuel was to assess performance issues currently associated with this fuel type such as gas release, swelling and transient performance. Information learned from this effort may have enabled use of UN fuel for future applications.

  10. Analysis of Fresh Fuel Critical Experiments Appropriate for Burnup Credit Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The ANS/ANS-8.1 standard requires that calculational methods used in determining criticality safety limits for applications outside reactors be validated by comparison with appropriate critical experiments. This report provides a detailed description of 34 fresh fuel critical experiments and their analyses using the SCALE-4.2 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. The 34 critical experiments were selected based on geometry, material, and neutron interaction characteristics that are applicable to a transportation cask loaded with pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel. These 34 experiments are a representative subset of a much larger data base of low-enriched uranium and mixed-oxide critical experiments. A statistical approach is described and used to obtain an estimate of the bias and uncertainty in the calculational methods and to predict a confidence limit for a calculated neutron multiplication factor. The SCALE-4.2 results for a superset of approximately 100 criticals are included in uncertainty analyses, but descriptions of the individual criticals are not included

  11. Development and validation of the Consumer Quality index instrument to measure the experience and priority of chronic dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Sabine N.; Jager, Kitty J.; Visserman, Ella; Beekman, Robert J.; Boeschoten, Els W.; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; Heuveling, Lara; Stronks, Karien; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2012-01-01

    Patient experience is an established indicator of quality of care. Validated tools that measure both experiences and priorities are lacking for chronic dialysis care, hampering identification of negative experiences that patients actually rate important. We developed two Consumer Quality (CQ) index

  12. Irradiation experiments of recycled PuO2-UO2 fuels by SAXTON reactor, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Ryozo; Akutsu, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    Seventy two mixed oxide fuel rods made by PNC were irradiated in Saxton Core 3. This paper generally describes the fuel specifications, the power history of the fuel and the post-irradiation examination of the PNC fuel. The specifications of the 4.0 w/o and 5.0 w/o enriched PuO 2 fuel rods with zircaloy-4 cladding are presented in a table and a figure. The positions of PNC fuel rods in the Saxton reactor are shown in a figure. Sixty eight 5.0 w/o PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel rods were assembled in a 9 x 9 rod array together with zircaloy-4 bars, a flux thimble, and a Sb-Be source. The power history of the Saxton Core 3 and the irradiation history of the PNC fuel rods are summarized in tables. The peak power and burnup of each fuel rod and the axial power profile are also presented. The maximum linear power rate and burnup attained were 512W/cm and 8700 MWD/T, respectively. As for the post irradiation examination, the items of nondestructive test, destructive test, and cladding test are presented together with the working flow diagram of the examination. It is concluded that the performance of all fuel rods was safe and satisfactory throughout the power history. (Aoki, K.)

  13. Experience with the biofragmentable anastomotic ring (BAR) in bowel preoperatively irradiated with 6000 rad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croston, J.K.; Jacobs, D.M.; Kelly, P.H.; Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Strom, R.L.; Bubrick, M.P. (Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Previous studies from the authors' laboratory using the biodegradable anastomotic ring (BAR) have demonstrated the safety of this device in animals irradiated preoperatively with the equivalent of 5000 rad; sutured, stapled, and BAR anastomoses all had leak rates of 10 percent or less in this setting. This study was undertaken to assess the safety of the BAR after irradiation with the equivalent of 6000 rad. Thirteen mongrel dogs underwent preoperative irradiation to the rectum and rectosigmoid, receiving 6000 rad according to the nominal standard dose equation. After a three-week rest period, each dog underwent anterior resection of the rectosigmoid and anastomosis with the BAR. The anastomoses were evaluated for early and late healing and anastomotic leaks. The results were compared with previous data from the authors' laboratory using an identical model. Radiographic leaks were found in 7 of 10 sutured anastomoses, 8 of 10 stapled anastomoses, and 3 of 13 BAR anastomoses (P less than 0.01). Comparative clinical leaks were 5 of 10 for sutured, 5 of 10 for stapled, and 3 of 13 for BAR anastomoses. These data suggest that the BAR may offer added safety to an anastomosis after preoperative irradiation. Whether this effect is due to the atraumatic technique of placing the device, improved blood flow to the anastomotic margins, or other factors, is still underdetermined.

  14. Experience with the biofragmentable anastomotic ring (BAR) in bowel preoperatively irradiated with 6000 rad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croston, J.K.; Jacobs, D.M.; Kelly, P.H.; Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Strom, R.L.; Bubrick, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies from the authors' laboratory using the biodegradable anastomotic ring (BAR) have demonstrated the safety of this device in animals irradiated preoperatively with the equivalent of 5000 rad; sutured, stapled, and BAR anastomoses all had leak rates of 10 percent or less in this setting. This study was undertaken to assess the safety of the BAR after irradiation with the equivalent of 6000 rad. Thirteen mongrel dogs underwent preoperative irradiation to the rectum and rectosigmoid, receiving 6000 rad according to the nominal standard dose equation. After a three-week rest period, each dog underwent anterior resection of the rectosigmoid and anastomosis with the BAR. The anastomoses were evaluated for early and late healing and anastomotic leaks. The results were compared with previous data from the authors' laboratory using an identical model. Radiographic leaks were found in 7 of 10 sutured anastomoses, 8 of 10 stapled anastomoses, and 3 of 13 BAR anastomoses (P less than 0.01). Comparative clinical leaks were 5 of 10 for sutured, 5 of 10 for stapled, and 3 of 13 for BAR anastomoses. These data suggest that the BAR may offer added safety to an anastomosis after preoperative irradiation. Whether this effect is due to the atraumatic technique of placing the device, improved blood flow to the anastomotic margins, or other factors, is still underdetermined

  15. The pilot plant in Geiselbullach for the gamma irradiation of sewage sludge - design, operation experience and cost calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessel, T.; Hennig, E.

    1976-01-01

    The pilot plant for sewage sludge irradiation in Geiselbullach near Munich has been in operation from July '73 to October '75 with a capacity of 30 m 3 per day. Successful experiences during this period resulted in an increase of the installed radiation energy and in several improvements for the technique and the efficiency. From December 1975 on the plant has been operating with a daily capacity of 120 m 3 of sludge per day. The experience with this plant brought several problems which caused interruptions of the continuous operation and that had to be solved with new measures. But although the facility at Geiselbullach is a pilot plant the availability was more than 350 days per year. Due to the simple design of the plant and of the fully automatic operation no special trained personal is necessary for the maintenance. Beside the effect of the hygienization the irradiation caused improved sedimentation properties of the sludge. Presently investigations are undertaken to prove better mechanical sludge dewatering properties. Cost calculations resulted in about DM 2.30 for operating expenses and DM 2.25 for capital costs per m 3 of sludge for the fully charged plant. The capital costs will be less in commercial plants. The conditioning effect on the sludge by the irradiation means savings of about DM 1.00 per m 3 . The irradiation of sewage sludge proved to be possible at about equal costs compared to the wellknown heat treatment (pasteurization at 70 0 C during 30 minutes.). Further investigations have to be done to overcome the contrary development of the plant capacity, limited by the decaying radiation energy and the normally rising sludge quantities of a sewage water treatment plant. (author)

  16. High energy irradiation treatment of dye containing wastewater. Steady state gamma radiolysis experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solpan, D.; Gueven, O.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The degradation and decoloration of three textile (JGB, Janus Green B, RB5, Reactive Black 5 and AR, Apollofix Red) dyes by gamma irradiation have been studied. Colour and pH of the dye solutions were found to decrease with irradiation, The change of absorption spectra, the degree of decoloration, the change of pH, COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biological oxygen demand) were measured as a function of irradiation dose, dose rate and dye concentration. In all cases the absorbance of the dye compounds was found to decrease with the increase of the dose. The effect of pH, N2, N2O on the degradation and decoloration process was studied. The degradation and decoloration in the presence of nitrous oxide occurred faster than in air and nitrogen-saturated solutions. The degree of decoloration for AR and RB5 increased with the increasing irradiation dose and dose rate but above 2 kGy/h dose rate, the degree of decoloration is independent of the dose rate and irradiation dose. The degree of decoloration increased up to 100% for the nitrous oxide-saturated RB5 solution from 80% for the nitrogen-saturated RB5 solution at 0.8 kGy irradiation dose and at 2 kGy/h dose rate. For AR aqueous solution in air and nitrogen-saturated and nitrous oxide-saturated AR solution, the degrees of decoloration were very similar to each other. Although the absorptions at maximum wavelength (596 nm) decreased with increasing irradiation dose for nitrogen-saturated RB5 aqueous solutions, for nitrous oxide-saturated RB5 aqueous solutions they decreased and shifted to lower wavelength. This suggests that the skeleton of the RB5 molecule is mainly destroyed by the attack of the OH radicals. AR and RB5 dyes are destroyed in the pH range from 7 to 4 with a reduced sensitivity at lower and higher pH range

  17. Integral large scale experiments on hydrogen combustion for severe accident code validation-HYCOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitung, W.; Dorofeev, S.; Kotchourko, A.; Redlinger, R.; Scholtyssek, W.; Bentaib, A.; L'Heriteau, J.-P.; Pailhories, P.; Eyink, J.; Movahed, M.; Petzold, K.-G.; Heitsch, M.; Alekseev, V.; Denkevits, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Efimenko, A.; Okun, M.V.; Huld, T.; Baraldi, D.

    2005-01-01

    A joint research project was carried out in the EU Fifth Framework Programme, concerning hydrogen risk in a nuclear power plant. The goals were: Firstly, to create a new data base of results on hydrogen combustion experiments in the slow to turbulent combustion regimes. Secondly, to validate the partners CFD and lumped parameter codes on the experimental data, and to evaluate suitable parameter sets for application calculations. Thirdly, to conduct a benchmark exercise by applying the codes to the full scale analysis of a postulated hydrogen combustion scenario in a light water reactor containment after a core melt accident. The paper describes the work programme of the project and the partners activities. Significant progress has been made in the experimental area, where test series in medium and large scale facilities have been carried out with the focus on specific effects of scale, multi-compartent geometry, heat losses and venting. The data were used for the validation of the partners CFD and lumped parameter codes, which included blind predictive calculations and pre- and post-test intercomparison exercises. Finally, a benchmark exercise was conducted by applying the codes to the full scale analysis of a hydrogen combustion scenario. The comparison and assessment of the results of the validation phase and of the challenging containment calculation exercise allows a deep insight in the quality, capabilities and limits of the CFD and the lumped parameter tools which are currently in use at various research laboratories

  18. Numerical studies and metric development for validation of magnetohydrodynamic models on the HIT-SI experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, C., E-mail: hansec@uw.edu [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Victor, B.; Morgan, K.; Hossack, A.; Sutherland, D. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Jarboe, T.; Nelson, B. A. [HIT-SI Group, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Marklin, G. [PSI-Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We present application of three scalar metrics derived from the Biorthogonal Decomposition (BD) technique to evaluate the level of agreement between macroscopic plasma dynamics in different data sets. BD decomposes large data sets, as produced by distributed diagnostic arrays, into principal mode structures without assumptions on spatial or temporal structure. These metrics have been applied to validation of the Hall-MHD model using experimental data from the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection experiment. Each metric provides a measure of correlation between mode structures extracted from experimental data and simulations for an array of 192 surface-mounted magnetic probes. Numerical validation studies have been performed using the NIMROD code, where the injectors are modeled as boundary conditions on the flux conserver, and the PSI-TET code, where the entire plasma volume is treated. Initial results from a comprehensive validation study of high performance operation with different injector frequencies are presented, illustrating application of the BD method. Using a simplified (constant, uniform density and temperature) Hall-MHD model, simulation results agree with experimental observation for two of the three defined metrics when the injectors are driven with a frequency of 14.5 kHz.

  19. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M; Lawson, P; Hallar, G; McCubbin, I; Marchand, R; Orr, B; Coulter, R; Sedlacek, A; Avallone, L; Long, C

    2010-09-29

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phase will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.

  20. Analysis and evaluation of critical experiments for validation of neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzana, S.; Blaumann, H; Marquez Damian, J.I

    2009-01-01

    The calculation schemes, computational codes and nuclear data used in neutronic design require validation to obtain reliable results. In the nuclear criticality safety field this reliability also translates into a higher level of safety in procedures involving fissile material. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project is an OECD/NEA activity led by the United States, in which participants from over 20 countries evaluate and publish criticality safety benchmarks. The product of this project is a set of benchmark experiment evaluations that are published annually in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. With the recent participation of Argentina, this information is now available for use by the neutron calculation and criticality safety groups in Argentina. This work presents the methodology used for the evaluation of experimental data, some results obtained by the application of these methods, and some examples of the data available in the Handbook. [es

  1. Optimal Design and Model Validation for Combustion Experiments in a Shock Tube

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2014-01-06

    We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation energies in the reaction rate functions. The control parameters are the initial hydrogen concentration and the temperature. First, we build a polynomial based surrogate model for the observable related to the reactions in the shock tube. Second, we use a novel MAP based approach to estimate the expected information gain in the proposed experiments and select the best experimental set-ups corresponding to the optimal expected information gains. Third, we use the synthetic data to carry out virtual validation of our methodology.

  2. Computational Design and Discovery of Ni-Based Alloys and Coatings: Thermodynamic Approaches Validated by Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zi-Kui [Pennsylvania State University; Gleeson, Brian [University of Pittsburgh; Shang, Shunli [Pennsylvania State University; Gheno, Thomas [University of Pittsburgh; Lindwall, Greta [Pennsylvania State University; Zhou, Bi-Cheng [Pennsylvania State University; Liu, Xuan [Pennsylvania State University; Ross, Austin [Pennsylvania State University

    2018-04-23

    This project developed computational tools that can complement and support experimental efforts in order to enable discovery and more efficient development of Ni-base structural materials and coatings. The project goal was reached through an integrated computation-predictive and experimental-validation approach, including first-principles calculations, thermodynamic CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram), and experimental investigations on compositions relevant to Ni-base superalloys and coatings in terms of oxide layer growth and microstructure stabilities. The developed description included composition ranges typical for coating alloys and, hence, allow for prediction of thermodynamic properties for these material systems. The calculation of phase compositions, phase fraction, and phase stabilities, which are directly related to properties such as ductility and strength, was a valuable contribution, along with the collection of computational tools that are required to meet the increasing demands for strong, ductile and environmentally-protective coatings. Specifically, a suitable thermodynamic description for the Ni-Al-Cr-Co-Si-Hf-Y system was developed for bulk alloy and coating compositions. Experiments were performed to validate and refine the thermodynamics from the CALPHAD modeling approach. Additionally, alloys produced using predictions from the current computational models were studied in terms of their oxidation performance. Finally, results obtained from experiments aided in the development of a thermodynamic modeling automation tool called ESPEI/pycalphad - for more rapid discovery and development of new materials.

  3. Validation of two-phase flow code THYC on VATICAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, F.; Portesse, A.; Rimbert, P.; Thomas, B.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive program for THYC validation (THYC is a 3-dimensional two-phase flow computer code for PWR core configuration), an experimental project > has been initiated by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches of Electricite de France. Two mock-ups tested in Refrigerant-114, VATICAN-1 (with simple space grids) and VATICAN-2 (with mixing grids) were set up to investigate void fraction distributions using a single beam gamma densitometer. First, experiments were conducted with the VATICAN-1 mock-up. A set of constitutive laws to be used in rod bundles was determined but some doubts still remain for friction losses closure laws for oblique flow over tubes. From VATICAN-2 tests, calculations were performed using the standard set of correlations. Comparison with the experimental data shows an underprediction of void fraction by THYC in disturbed regions. Analyses highlight the poor treatment of axial relative velocity in these regions. A fitting of the radial and axial relative velocity values in the disturbed region improves the prediction of void fraction by the code but without any physical explanation. More analytical experiments should be carried out to validate friction losses closure laws for oblique flows and relative velocity downstream of a mixing grid. (author)

  4. Validation of two-phase flow code THYC on VATICAN experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurel, F.; Portesse, A.; Rimbert, P.; Thomas, B. [EDF/DER, Dept. TTA, 78 - Chatou (France)

    1997-12-31

    As part of a comprehensive program for THYC validation (THYC is a 3-dimensional two-phase flow computer code for PWR core configuration), an experimental project <> has been initiated by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches of Electricite de France. Two mock-ups tested in Refrigerant-114, VATICAN-1 (with simple space grids) and VATICAN-2 (with mixing grids) were set up to investigate void fraction distributions using a single beam gamma densitometer. First, experiments were conducted with the VATICAN-1 mock-up. A set of constitutive laws to be used in rod bundles was determined but some doubts still remain for friction losses closure laws for oblique flow over tubes. From VATICAN-2 tests, calculations were performed using the standard set of correlations. Comparison with the experimental data shows an underprediction of void fraction by THYC in disturbed regions. Analyses highlight the poor treatment of axial relative velocity in these regions. A fitting of the radial and axial relative velocity values in the disturbed region improves the prediction of void fraction by the code but without any physical explanation. More analytical experiments should be carried out to validate friction losses closure laws for oblique flows and relative velocity downstream of a mixing grid. (author)

  5. Design of an intermediate-scale experiment to validate unsaturated- zone transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.D.; Hopkins, P.L.; Glass, R.J.; Ward, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out to evaluate instrumentation and models that might be used for transport-model validation for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The experimental test bed is a 6-m high x 3-m diameter caisson filled with quartz sand with a sorbing layer at an intermediate depth. The experiment involves the detection and prediction of the migration of fluid and tracers through an unsaturated porous medium. Pre-test design requires estimation of physical properties of the porous medium such as the relative permeability, saturation/pressure relations, porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity as well as geochemical properties such as surface complexation constants and empircial K d 'S. The pre-test characterization data will be used as input to several computer codes to predict the fluid flow and tracer migration. These include a coupled chemical-reaction/transport model, a stochastic model, and a deterministic model using retardation factors. The calculations will be completed prior to elution of the tracers, providing a basis for validation by comparing the predictions to observed moisture and tracer behavior

  6. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) Manual v.1.2 The capability of an inspection system is established by applications of various methodologies to determine the probability of detection (POD). One accepted metric of an adequate inspection system is that there is 95% confidence that the POD is greater than 90% (90/95 POD). Design of experiments for validating probability of detection capability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems (DOEPOD) is a methodology that is implemented via software to serve as a diagnostic tool providing detailed analysis of POD test data, guidance on establishing data distribution requirements, and resolving test issues. DOEPOD demands utilization of observance of occurrences. The DOEPOD capability has been developed to provide an efficient and accurate methodology that yields observed POD and confidence bounds for both Hit-Miss or signal amplitude testing. DOEPOD does not assume prescribed POD logarithmic or similar functions with assumed adequacy over a wide range of flaw sizes and inspection system technologies, so that multi-parameter curve fitting or model optimization approaches to generate a POD curve are not required. DOEPOD applications for supporting inspector qualifications is included.

  7. The cross-cultural validity of the Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ) among Danish mothers with preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røhder, Katrine; George, Carol; Brennan, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The present study explored the Danish cross-cultural validity of the Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ), a new measure of caregiving representations in parent-child relationships. Low-risk Danish mothers (N = 159) with children aged 1.5–5 years completed the CEQ and predictive validity...

  8. Assessing decentering: validation, psychometric properties, and clinical usefulness of the Experiences Questionnaire in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Franquesa, Alba; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Cebolla, Ausias; García-Campayo, Javier; Tejedor, Rosa; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa; Pascual, Juan Carlos; Portella, Maria J

    2014-11-01

    Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one's thoughts and feelings in a detached manner. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) is a self-report instrument that originally assessed decentering and rumination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of EQ-Decentering and to explore its clinical usefulness. The 11-item EQ-Decentering subscale was translated into Spanish and psychometric properties were examined in a sample of 921 adult individuals, 231 with psychiatric disorders and 690 without. The subsample of nonpsychiatric participants was also split according to their previous meditative experience (meditative participants, n=341; and nonmeditative participants, n=349). Additionally, differences among these three subgroups were explored to determine clinical validity of the scale. Finally, EQ-Decentering was administered twice in a group of borderline personality disorder, before and after a 10-week mindfulness intervention. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable model fit, sbχ(2)=243.8836 (p.46; and divergent validity: r<-.35). The scale detected changes in decentering after a 10-session intervention in mindfulness (t=-4.692, p<.00001). Differences among groups were significant (F=134.8, p<.000001), where psychiatric participants showed the lowest scores compared to nonpsychiatric meditative and nonmeditative participants. The Spanish version of the EQ-Decentering is a valid and reliable instrument to assess decentering either in clinical and nonclinical samples. In addition, the findings show that EQ-Decentering seems an adequate outcome instrument to detect changes after mindfulness-based interventions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. SCALE Validation Experience Using an Expanded Isotopic Assay Database for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauld, Ian C.; Radulescu, Georgeta; Ilas, Germina

    2009-01-01

    The availability of measured isotopic assay data to validate computer code predictions of spent fuel compositions applied in burnup-credit criticality calculations is an essential component for bias and uncertainty determination in safety and licensing analyses. In recent years, as many countries move closer to implementing or expanding the use of burnup credit in criticality safety for licensing, there has been growing interest in acquiring additional high-quality assay data. The well-known open sources of assay data are viewed as potentially limiting for validating depletion calculations for burnup credit due to the relatively small number of isotopes measured (primarily actinides with relatively few fission products), sometimes large measurement uncertainties, incomplete documentation, and the limited burnup and enrichment range of the fuel samples. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently initiated an extensive isotopic validation study that includes most of the public data archived in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) electronic database, SFCOMPO, and new datasets obtained through participation in commercial experimental programs. To date, ORNL has analyzed approximately 120 different spent fuel samples from pressurized-water reactors that span a wide enrichment and burnup range and represent a broad class of assembly designs. The validation studies, completed using SCALE 5.1, are being used to support a technical basis for expanded implementation of burnup credit for spent fuel storage facilities, and other spent fuel analyses including radiation source term, dose assessment, decay heat, and waste repository safety analyses. This paper summarizes the isotopic assay data selected for this study, presents validation results obtained with SCALE 5.1, and discusses some of the challenges and experience associated with evaluating the results. Preliminary results obtained using SCALE 6 and ENDF

  10. Experiment designs offered for discussion preliminary to an LLNL field scale validation experiment in the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Shaft Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, B.; Keller, C.

    1988-01-01

    It has been proposed (''Progress Report on Experiment Rationale for Validation of LLNL Models of Ground Water Behavior Near Nuclear Waste Canisters,'' Keller and Lowry, Dec. 7, 1988) that a heat generating spent fuel canister emplaced in unsaturated tuff, in a ventilated hole, will cause a net flux of water into the borehole during the heating cycle of the spent fuel. Accompanying this mass flux will be the formation of mineral deposits near the borehole wall as the water evaporates and leaves behind its dissolved solids. The net effect of this process upon the containment of radioactive wastes is a function of (1) where and how much solid material is deposited in the tuff matrix and cracks, and (2) the resultant effect on the medium flow characteristics. Experimental concepts described in this report are designed to quantify the magnitude and relative location of solid mineral deposit formation due to a heated and vented borehole environment. The most simple tests address matrix effects only; after the process is understood in the homogeneous matrix, fracture effects would be investigated. Three experiment concepts have been proposed. Each has unique advantages and allows investigation of specific aspects of the precipitate formation process. All could be done in reasonable time (less than a year) and none of them are extremely expensive (the most expensive is probably the structurally loaded block test). The calculational ability exists to analyze the ''real'' situation and each of the experiment designs, and produce a credible series of tests. None of the designs requires the acquisition of material property data beyond current capabilities. The tests could be extended, if our understanding is consistent with the data produced, to analyze fracture effects. 7 figs

  11. Validation analysis of pool fire experiment (Run-F7) using SPHINCS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Tajima, Yuji

    1998-04-01

    SPHINCS (Sodium Fire Phenomenology IN multi-Cell System) code has been developed for the safety analysis of sodium fire accident in a Fast Breeder Reactor. The main features of the SPHINCS code with respect to the sodium pool fire phenomena are multi-dimensional modeling of the thermal behavior in sodium pool and steel liner, modeling of the extension of sodium pool area based on the sodium mass conservation, and equilibrium model for the chemical reaction of pool fire on the flame sheet at the surface of sodium pool during. Therefore, the SPHINCS code is capable of temperature evaluation of the steel liner in detail during the small and/or medium scale sodium leakage accidents. In this study, Run-F7 experiment in which the sodium leakage rate is 11.8 kg/hour has been analyzed. In the experiment the diameter of the sodium pool is approximately 60 cm and the maximum steel liner temperature was 616 degree C. The analytical results tell us the agreement between the SPHINCS analysis and the experiment is excellent with respect to the time history and spatial distribution of the liner temperature, sodium pool extension behavior, as well as atmosphere gas temperature. It is concluded that the pool fire modeling of the SPHINCS code has been validated for this experiment. The SPHINCS code is currently applicable to the sodium pool fire phenomena and the temperature evaluation of the steel liner. The experiment series are continued to check some parameters, i.e., sodium leakage rate and the height of sodium leakage. Thus, the author will analyze the subsequent experiments to check the influence of the parameters and applies SPHINCS to the sodium fire consequence analysis of fast reactor. (author)

  12. DOMPAC dosimetry experiment. Neutronic simulation of the thickness of a PWR pressure vessel. Irradiation damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberman, A.; Faure, M.; Thierry, M.; Hoclet, O.; Le Dieu de Ville, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Soulat, P.

    1979-01-01

    For suitable extrapolation of irradiated PWR ferritic steel results, proper irradiation of the pressure vessel has been 'simulated' in test reactor. For this purpose, a huge steel block (20 cm in depth) was loaded with Saclay's graphite (GAMIN) and tungsten damage detectors. Core-block water gap was optimized through spectrum indexes method, by ANISN and SABINE codes so that spectrum in 1/4 thickness matches with ANISN computations for PWR Fessenheim 1. A good experimental agreement is found with calculated dpa damage gradient. 3D Monte Carlo computation (TRIPOLI), was performed on the DOMPAC device, and spectrum indexes evolution was found consistent with experimental results. Surveillance rigs behind a 'thermal shield' were also simulated, including damage and activation monitors. Dosimetry results give an order of magnitude of accuracies involved in projecting steel sample embrittlement to the pressure vessel [fr

  13. Animal experiments with rats as a contribution to the question of whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraub, A.; Doell, G.; Jonas, H.; Kindt, A.; Sattler, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    Recovery after sublethal radiation damage was studied in the white blood count which shows a fast reaction to attacks caused by radiation. The so-called 'fractionated-dose method' was used. This method detrmines to what extent the total dose must be raised for two partial doses given at different times to produce the same amount of damage as a single irradiation. The second dose was applied after 7. days. A dose reduction by protraction of the first dose over 2 days was only found after doses of 300 to 400 rad. Regarding the anorexia connected with the radiation syndrome, no differences were found at low doses between protracted and one-time irradiation. This suggests that there is no repair. (MG) [de

  14. Experience with an ultrasonic sealing system for nuclear safeguards in irradiated fuel bay demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.F.; Smith, M.T.

    1985-07-01

    The development of the irradiated fuel safeguards containment assembly for CANDU nuclear generating stations has stimulated the development of the AECL Random Coil Sealing System. The ARC seal combines the identity and integrity elements in an ultrasonically-determined signature. This is verified in situ, in real time with the seal reading system. The maturation of this technology has been facilitated with demonstration trials in the NRU and NPD irradiated fuel bays. The NPD demonstration includes operation of the systems tooling by Ontario Hydro staff. It provides the opportunity for IAEA inspectors from Toronto and Vienna to direct the operational procedures and to perform the data acquisition. The procedures and systems developed in these trials are reviewed. The estimation of the system performance characteristics from the observations is presented. A minimum frequency of reading for individual seals is recommended to be once per annum following initial deployment

  15. Experiments with polymer coated microspheres irradiated by the Shiva laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, J.M.; Manes, K.R.; Matthews, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Polymer coated spherical targets have been irradiated by the Shiva laser system in an effort to compress the contained 10 mg/cc DT fuel to super liquid densities. Glass microspheres of 140 μm ID and 5 μm wall thickness with polymer coatings 15 μm to 100 μm thick have been irradiated with laser pulses of 4 kilojoules in 200 psec FWHM. Target performance was diagnosed with neutron yield measurements, radiochemistry, Argon line imaging, and x-ray imaging techniques. Ball in plate targets achieved greater implosion symmetry than free-standing ball targets. With yields of 10 7 to 10 8 neutrons, targets reached DT fuel compressions of several times liquid density

  16. Electron Microscopic Examination of Irradiated TRISO Coated Particles of Compact 6-3-2 of AGR-1 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rooyen, Isabella Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Demkowicz, Paul Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riesterer, Jessica Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, Brandon Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Janney, Dawn Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ploger, Scott Arden [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The electron microscopic examination of selected irradiated TRISO coated particles of the AGR-1 experiment of fuel compact 6-3-2 are presented in this report. Compact 6-3-2 refers to the compact in Capsule 6 at level 3 of Stack 2. The fuel used in capsule 6 compacts, are called the “baseline” fuel as it is fabricated with refined coating process conditions used to fabricate historic German fuel, because of its excellent irradiation performance with UO2 kernels. The AGR-1 fuel is however made of low-enriched uranium oxycarbide (UCO). Kernel diameters are approximately 350 µm with a U-235 enrichment of approximately 19.7%. Compact 6-3-2 has been irradiated to 11.3% FIMA compact average burn-up with a time average, volume average temperature of 1070.2°C and with a compact average fast fluence of 2.38E21 n/cm

  17. Study of the impact of food irradiation on preventing losses: Experience in Africa. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    There have been positive developments on food irradiation in different regions of the world, especially in the United States of America and several Asian and Latin American countries. In some countries in Africa, this technology has been studied in the past few decades with encouraging results. To assist these countries in conducting pilot scale research and development on irradiation of specific commodities of interest to them including market testing and feasibility to establish commercial irradiators for multi-purpose application, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Impact of Irradiation to Prevent Food Losses in Africa was carried out between 1995 and 1999. This CRP demonstrated that food irradiation has a potential to reduce losses of basic staple food crops including yams, dried and smoked fish, potatoes and onions through pilot scale experiments carried out in some African countries. Small scale market testing of such irradiated food such as spices, potatoes and onions showed encouraging results. In some countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Senegal and South Africa), it is feasible to establish commercial irradiation facilities for treating food. In Morocco, irradiation shows a potential to meet quarantine requirements in international food trade. It should be noted that commercial scale application of irradiation of some food products has been carried out in South Africa since the 1980s

  18. Study of the impact of food irradiation on preventing losses: Experience in Africa. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    There have been positive developments on food irradiation in different regions of the world, especially in the United States of America and several Asian and Latin American countries. In some countries in Africa, this technology has been studied in the past few decades with encouraging results. To assist these countries in conducting pilot scale research and development on irradiation of specific commodities of interest to them including market testing and feasibility to establish commercial irradiators for multi-purpose application, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Impact of Irradiation to Prevent Food Losses in Africa was carried out between 1995 and 1999. This CRP demonstrated that food irradiation has a potential to reduce losses of basic staple food crops including yams, dried and smoked fish, potatoes and onions through pilot scale experiments carried out in some African countries. Small scale market testing of such irradiated food such as spices, potatoes and onions showed encouraging results. In some countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Senegal and South Africa), it is feasible to establish commercial irradiation facilities for treating food. In Morocco, irradiation shows a potential to meet quarantine requirements in international food trade. It should be noted that commercial scale application of irradiation of some food products has been carried out in South Africa since the 1980s.

  19. In vitro co-culture experiments on prostate cancer and small intestine cells irradiated with carbon ions and x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubeck, C. von; Weyrather, W.-K.; Durante, M.

    2009-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivers the dose in many small irradiation fields of different beam direction to achieve a 3 dimensional tumour conformal dose overlapping with a maximum of normal tissue protection. In 2006 a study was started at GSI to treat prostate cancer patients with a boost irradiation of carbon ions in combination with an IMRT treatment administered at the Uniklinikum Heidelberg. The carbon ions are delivered in two opposing fields. So IMRT irradiation includes more normal tissue than carbon ion treatment but even here parts of the rectum and the bladder are in the irradiated field. This raises the question whether the irradiated tumor cells influence the normal cells (irradiated/ unirradiated) but also whether the normal irradiated cells influences normal tissue in a different way for carbon and photon irradiation. To study this problem, we established an in vitro co-culture model of prostate cancer and small intestine cells of the rat to simulate the patient treatment situation for analyzing tissue reaction exemplary. For characterization of the cells lines the parameters alpha and beta (linear quadratic model) for clonogenic survival were determined for x-rays and for carbon ions of different energies. For co-culture experiments unirradiated and irradiated cells were seeded together and the survival was analyzed

  20. Experience with processing irradiated fuel at the Savannah River Plant (1954--1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, E.B.

    1977-09-01

    The processing facilities for recovery of uranium and plutonium from irradiated fuel elements have operated since 1954 without major unplanned interruptions. The operation has comprised capaigns ranging from a few weeks to two years, with no prolonged outages except for a period of about two years when one of the two processing facilities was remodeled to increase its capacity. Over the 23-year period 1954-1976, approximately 30,000 metric tons of irradiated uranium were processed. Since 1958, in addition to recovery of uranium and weapons-grade 239 Pu, the plant has produced 238 Pu, which is used principally as a heat source. Through June 1976, a total of 320 kg of 238 Pu has been shipped offsite. There have been no lost-time injuries due to radiation and no criticality accidents in these or other Savannah River Plant (SRP) facilities. Radiation exposures to individual workers in fuel reprocessing at SRP have averaged 0.3 to 0.7 rem per year. Releases of radioactivity to the atmosphere and to plant streams and environmental levels of radionuclides have been monitored since startup. Fuel irradiated in SRP reactors is stored in a water-filled basin at each reactor for a period of time to permit decay of short-lived radioactivity before shipment to the reprocessing areas. Currently that storage period is a minimum of 200 days. In addition to its fuel processing activities, SRP stores a number of special ERDA-irradiated fuels which require shear-leach dissolution or other major processes not available at SRP. These fuels, containing a total of 2500 kg of 235 U, are stored underwater in the RBOF facility. A number have been in storage since 1968. Storage in RBOF has been without significant incident

  1. Gamma irradiation protects oleic acid from oxidation: an experiment in Lactarius deliciosus wild mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ângela; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers [1]. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation and a particular interest arises for wild species. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully i...

  2. Irradiation performance of HTGR fuel rods in HFIR experiments HRB-11 and -12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Tiegs, T.N.; Kania, M.J.; Long, E.L. Jr.; Thoms, K.R.; Robbins, J.M.; Wagner, P.

    1980-06-01

    Capsules HRB-11 and -12 were irradiated in support of development of weak-acid-resin-derived recycle fuel for the high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel cycle for the HTGR. Fissil fuel particles with initial oxygen-to-metal ratios between 1.0 and 1.7 performed acceptably to full burnup for HEU fuel. Particles with ratios below 1.0 showed excessive chemical interaction between rare earth fission products and the SiC layer

  3. Irradiation experience of IPEN fuel at IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose A.; Neto, Adolfo; Durazzo, Michelangelo; Souza, Jose A.B. de; Frajndlich, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    IPEN/CNEN-SP produces, for its IEA-R1 Research Reactor, MTR fuel assemblies based on U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuel type. Since 1985 a qualification program on these fuel assemblies has been performed. Average 235 U burnup of 30% and peak burnup of 50% was already achieved by these fuel assemblies. This paper presents some results acquire, by these fuel assemblies, under irradiation at IEA-R1 Research Reactor. (author)

  4. Microbeam facility extension for single-cell irradiation experiments. Investigations about bystander effect and reactive oxygen species impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanot, M.; Khodja, H.; Daudin, L.; Hoarau, J.; Carriere, M.; Gouget, B.

    2006-01-01

    , thus limiting the throughput to the mechanical performances of the XY culture dish stage. A piezo actuator stage will be used to promptly locate the collimator under the selected cells in order to enhance considerably the irradiation speed. A fluorescence in situ microscope (Olympus BX FM) is mounted on an anti vibration table surrounding the exit port. It is equipped with a CCD camera (Rope r Scientific) and images are acquired using Image Pro Plus software. Beam extraction is performed using a 100 nm Si 3 N 4 window and culture dishes are based on standard plastic Petri dishes with a 1 mm 2, 100 nm thick Si 3 N 4 insert at the centre. Ion detection is performed using a photo multiplier tube (Hamamatsu R7400 ) collecting photons emitted by a 9 pm BC400 foil inserted between the exit window and the culture dish. A fast signal is generated after ion traversal that triggers an electrostatic shutter based on a high voltage amplifier (Fisher GmbH). Result and discussion: For first microbeam experiments we used ROS17/2.8 osteoblastic cells. Cell: were grown in DMEM with supplements. One day before irradiation, cells were seeded on the 100 nm thick membrane with help of poly-lysine. Just one hour prior to the irradiation, cells were stained using Hoechst 33342 (0,2 pg/ml) to allow their spatial location using blue nuclear fluorescence. During irradiation, cells were maintained in their medium and the Petri dish was closed constantly. A 2 MeV alpha beam was extracted and current was reduced to few ions per second, and the Petri dish was placed over the exit window on different locations, thus covering a cumulated area limited to 5% of the Si 3 N 4 insert. Each irradiated cell received approximately 10 ions during the experiment, inducing a dose deposition estimated to 1 Gy/cell. (author)

  5. Tailored total lymphoid irradiation in heart transplant patients: 10-years experience of one center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Joos, Daniela; Martinelli, Michele; Hullin, Roger; Zwahlen, Marcel; Lössl, Kristina; Carrel, Thierry; Aebersold, Daniel M; Mohacsi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    To assess safety and efficacy of tailored total lymphoid irradiation (tTLI) in cardiac transplant patients. A total of seven patients, of which five had recalcitrant cellular cardiac allograft rejection (RCCAR), confirmed by endomyocardial biopsies, and two had side effects of immunosuppressive drug therapy, were all treated with tTLI. tTLI was defined by the adjustment of both the fraction interval and the final irradiation dosage both being dependent on the patients general condition, irradiation-dependent response, and the white blood and platelet counts. A mean dose of 6.4 Gy (range, 1.6 - 8.8 Gy) was given. Median follow-up was 7 years (range, 1.8 - 12.2 years). tTLI was well tolerated. Two patients experienced a severe infection during tTLI (pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, urosepsis and generalized herpes zoster) and one patient developed a lymphoproliferative disorder after tTLI. The rate of rejection episodes before tTLI was 0.43 episodes/patient/month and decreased to 0.02 episodes/patient/month after tTLI (P < .001). At the end of the observation time, all patients except one were alive. tTLI is a useful treatment strategy for the management of RCCAR and in patients with significant side effects of immunosuppressive drug therapy. In this series tTLI demonstrated significantly decreased rejection rates without causing relevant treatment-related toxicity

  6. Fluid-structure interaction in non-rigid pipeline systems - large scale validation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinsbroek, A.G.T.J.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The fluid-structure interaction computer code FLUSTRIN, developed by DELFT HYDRAULICS, enables the user to determine dynamic fluid pressures, structural stresses and displacements in a liquid-filled pipeline system under transient conditions. As such, the code is a useful tool to process and mechanical engineers in the safe design and operation of pipeline systems in nuclear power plants. To validate FLUSTRIN, experiments have been performed in a large scale 3D test facility. The test facility consists of a flexible pipeline system which is suspended by wires, bearings and anchors. Pressure surges, which excite the system, are generated by a fast acting shut-off valve. Dynamic pressures, structural displacements and strains (in total 70 signals) have been measured under well determined initial and boundary conditions. The experiments have been simulated with FLUSTRIN, which solves the acoustic equations using the method of characteristics (fluid) and the finite element method (structure). The agreement between experiments and simulations is shown to be good: frequencies, amplitudes and wave phenomena are well predicted by the numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that an uncoupled water hammer computation would render unreliable and useless results. (author)

  7. CFD Validation with a Multi-Block Experiment to Evaluate the Core Bypass Flow in VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Su Jong; Lee, Jeong Hun; Park, Goon Cherl; Kim, Min Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Core bypass flow of Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is defined as the ineffective coolant which passes through the bypass gaps between the block columns and the crossflow gaps between the stacked blocks. This flows lead to the variation of the flow distribution in the core and affect the core thermal margin and the safety of VHTR. Therefore, bypass flow should be investigated and quantified. However, it is not a simple question, because the flow path of VHTR core is very complex. In particular, since dimensions of the bypass gap and the crossflow gap are of the order of few millimeters, it is very difficult to measure and to analyze the flow field at those gaps. Seoul National University (SNU) multi-block experiment was carried out to evaluate the bypass flow distribution and the flow characteristics. The coolant flow rate through outlet of each block column was measured, but the local flow field was measured restrictively in the experiment. Instead, CFD analysis was carried out to investigate the local phenomena of the experiment. A commercial CFD code CFX-12 was validated by comparing the simulation results and the experimental data

  8. Reactivity worth measurements on the CALIBAN reactor: interpretation of integral experiments for the nuclear data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, B.

    2012-01-01

    The good knowledge of nuclear data, input parameters for the neutron transport calculation codes, is necessary to support the advances of the nuclear industry. The purpose of this work is to bring pertinent information regarding the nuclear data integral validation process. Reactivity worth measurements have been performed on the Caliban reactor, they concern four materials of interest for the nuclear industry: gold, lutetium, plutonium and uranium 238. Experiments which have been conducted in order to improve the characterization of the core are also described and discussed, the latter are necessary to the good interpretation of reactivity worth measurements. The experimental procedures are described with their associated uncertainties, measurements are then compared to numerical results. The methods used in numerical calculations are reported, especially the multigroup cross sections generation for deterministic codes. The modeling of the experiments is presented along with the associated uncertainties. This comparison led to an interpretation concerning the qualification of nuclear data libraries. Discrepancies are reported, discussed and justify the need of such experiments. (author) [fr

  9. Validation of the Child HCAHPS survey to measure pediatric inpatient experience of care in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyneel, Luk; Coeckelberghs, Ellen; Buyse, Gunnar; Casteels, Kristina; Lommers, Barbara; Vandersmissen, Jo; Van Eldere, Johan; Van Geet, Chris; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2017-07-01

    The recently developed Child HCAHPS provides a standard to measure US hospitals' performance on pediatric inpatient experiences of care. We field-tested Child HCAHPS in Belgium to instigate international comparison. In the development stage, forward/backward translation was conducted and patients assessed content validity index as excellent. The draft Flemish Child HCAHPS included 63 items: 38 items for five topics hypothesized to be similar to those proposed in the US (communication with parent, communication with child, attention to safety and comfort, hospital environment, and global rating), 10 screeners, a 14-item demographic and descriptive section, and one open-ended item. A 6-week pilot test was subsequently performed in three pediatric wards (general ward, hematology and oncology ward, infant and toddler ward) at a JCI-accredited university hospital. An overall response rate of 90.99% (303/333) was achieved and was consistent across wards. Confirmatory factor analysis largely confirmed the configuration of the proposed composites. Composite and single-item measures related well to patients' global rating of the hospital. Interpretation of different patient experiences across types of wards merits further investigation. Child HCAHPS provides an opportunity for systematic and cross-national assessment of pediatric inpatient experiences. Sharing and implementing international best practices are the next logical step. What is Known: • Patient experience surveys are increasingly used to reflect on the quality, safety, and centeredness of patient care. • While adult inpatient experience surveys are routinely used across countries around the world, the measurement of pediatric inpatient experiences is a young field of research that is essential to reflect on family-centered care. What is New: • We demonstrate that the US-developed Child HCAHPS provides an opportunity for international benchmarking of pediatric inpatient experiences with care through parents

  10. Validation of the TRACR3D code for soil water flow under saturated/unsaturated conditions in three experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.; Travis, B.; DePoorter, G.

    1985-01-01

    Validation of the TRACR3D code in a one-dimensional form was obtained for flow of soil water in three experiments. In the first experiment, a pulse of water entered a crushed-tuff soil and initially moved under conditions of saturated flow, quickly followed by unsaturated flow. In the second experiment, steady-state unsaturated flow took place. In the final experiment, two slugs of water entered crushed tuff under field conditions. In all three experiments, experimentally measured data for volumetric water content agreed, within experimental errors, with the volumetric water content predicted by the code simulations. The experiments and simulations indicated the need for accurate knowledge of boundary and initial conditions, amount and duration of moisture input, and relevant material properties as input into the computer code. During the validation experiments, limitations on monitoring of water movement in waste burial sites were also noted. 5 references, 34 figures, 9 tables

  11. The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire: validity and psychological correlates in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, W T; McCranie, E W

    1990-01-01

    This study sought to compare the original and revised scoring systems of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) and to assess the construct validity of the Dependent and Self-Critical subscales of the DEQ in a clinically depressed sample. Subjects were 103 depressed inpatients who completed the DEQ, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hopelessness Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ), the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The original and revised scoring systems of the DEQ evidenced good concurrent validity for each factor scale, but the revised system did not sufficiently discriminate dependent and self-critical dimensions. Using the original scoring system, self-criticism was significantly and positively related to severity of depression, whereas dependency was not, particularly for males. Factor analysis of the DEQ scales and the other scales used in this study supported the dependent and self-critical dimensions. For men, the correlation of the DEQ with the MMPI scales indicated that self-criticism was associated with psychotic symptoms, hostility/conflict, and a distress/exaggerated response set, whereas dependency did not correlate significantly with any MMPI scales. Females, however, did not exhibit a differential pattern of correlations between either the Dependency or the Self-Criticism scales and the MMPI. These findings suggest possible gender differences in the clinical characteristics of male and female dependent and self-critical depressive subtypes.

  12. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  13. Advanced electron microscopic techniques applied to the characterization of irradiation effects and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Lillo, T.M.; Trowbridge, T.L.; Madden, J.M.; Wu, Y.Q.; Goran, D.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary electron microscopy of coated fuel particles from the AGR-1 experiment was conducted using characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). Microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates was performed. Although numerous micro- and nano-sized precipitates observed in the coating layers during initial SEM characterization of the cross-sections, and in subsequent TEM diffraction patterns, were indexed as UPd 2 Si 2 , no Ag was conclusively found. Additionally, characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentrations of Ag in precipitates in the presence of significantly higher concentrations of Pd and U. The electron microscopy team followed a multi-directional and phased approach in the identification of fission products in irradiated TRISO fuel. The advanced electron microscopy techniques discussed in this paper, not only demonstrate the usefulness of the equipment (methods) as relevant research tools, but also provide relevant scientific results which increase the knowledge about TRISO fuel particles microstructure and fission products transport

  14. Development of a monitoring tool to validate trigger level analysis in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Artur

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes my thirteen week summer student project at CERN from June 30th until September 26th of 2014. My task was to contribute to a monitoring tool for the ATLAS experiment, comparing jets reconstructed by the trigger to fully offline reconstructed and saved events by creating a set of insightful histograms to be used during run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider, planned to start in early 2015. The motivation behind this project is to validate the use of data taken solely from the high level trigger for analysis purposes. Once the code generating the plots was completed, it was tested on data collected during run 1 up to the year 2012 and Monte Carlo simulated events with center-of-mass energies ps = 8TeV and ps = 14TeV.

  15. Continuously revised assurance cases with stakeholders’ cross-validation: a DEOS experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimio Kuramitsu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, assurance cases have received much attention in the field of software-based computer systems and IT services. However, software changes very often, and there are no strong regulations for software. These facts are two main challenges to be addressed in the development of software assurance cases. We propose a method of developing assurance cases by means of continuous revision at every stage of the system life cycle, including in operation and service recovery in failure cases. Instead of a regulator, dependability arguments are validated by multiple stakeholders competing with each other. This paper reported our experience with the proposed method in the case of Aspen education service. The case study demonstrates that continuous revisions enable stakeholders to share dependability problems across software life cycle stages, which will lead to the long-term improvement of service dependability.

  16. The COSIMA-experiments, a data base for validation of two-phase flow computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.; Meyder, R.; Stratmanns, E.

    1985-12-01

    The report presents an overview on the large data base generated with COSIMA. The data base is to be used to validate and develop computer codes for two-phase flow. In terms of fuel rod behavior it was found that during blowdown under realistic conditions only small strains are reached. For clad rupture extremely high rod internal pressure is necessary. Additionally important results were found in the behavior of a fuel rod simulator and on the effect of thermocouples attached on the cladding outer surface. Post-test calculations, performed with the codes RELAP and DRUFAN show a good agreement with the experiments. This however can be improved if the phase separation models in the codes would be updated. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Monte Carlo validation experiments for the gas Cherenkov detectors at the National Ignition Facility and Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J. [Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Herrmann, H.; Kim, Y.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; McEvoy, A.; Caldwell, S. E. [Plasma Physics Department, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Grafil, E.; Stoeffl, W. [Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Milnes, J. S. [Photek Limited UK, 26 Castleham Road, St. Leonards-on-sea TN38 9NS (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    The gas Cherenkov detectors at NIF and Omega measure several ICF burn characteristics by detecting multi-MeV nuclear γ emissions from the implosion. Of primary interest are γ bang-time (GBT) and burn width defined as the time between initial laser-plasma interaction and peak in the fusion reaction history and the FWHM of the reaction history respectively. To accurately calculate such parameters the collaboration relies on Monte Carlo codes, such as GEANT4 and ACCEPT, for diagnostic properties that cannot be measured directly. This paper describes a series of experiments performed at the High Intensity γ Source (HIγS) facility at Duke University to validate the geometries and material data used in the Monte Carlo simulations. Results published here show that model-driven parameters such as intensity and temporal response can be used with less than 50% uncertainty for all diagnostics and facilities.

  18. Preliminary characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.D.; Ward, D.B.; Cheng, W.C.; Bryant, C.; Chocas, C.S.; Reynolds, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    The geochemical properties of a porous sand and several tracers (Ni, Br, and Li) have been characterized for use in a caisson experiment designed to validate sorption models used in models of inactive transport. The surfaces of the sand grains have been examined by a combination of techniques including potentiometric titration, acid leaching, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The surface studies indicate the presence of small amounts of carbonate, kaolinite and iron-oxyhydroxides. Adsorption of nickel, lithium and bromide by the sand was measured using batch techniques. Bromide was not sorbed by the sand. A linear (K d ) or an isotherm sorption model may adequately describe transport of Li; however, a model describing the changes of pH and the concentrations of other solution species as a function of time and position within the caisson and the concomitant effects on Ni sorption may be required for accurate predictions of nickel transport

  19. Recent validation experience with multigroup cross-section libraries and scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Wright, R.Q.; DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss the results obtained and lessons learned from an extensive validation of new ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI multigroup cross-section libraries using analyses of critical experiments. The KENO V. a Monte Carlo code in version 4.3 of the SCALE computer code system was used to perform the critical benchmark calculations via the automated SCALE sequence CSAS25. The cross-section data were processed by the SCALE automated problem-dependent resonance-processing procedure included in this sequence. Prior to calling KENO V.a, CSAS25 accesses BONAMI to perform resonance self-shielding for nuclides with Bondarenko factors and NITAWL-II to process nuclides with resonance parameter data via the Nordheim Integral Treatment

  20. First experiences with super fractionated skin irradiations using large afterloading molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Peter; Hensley, Frank W.; Berns, Christiane; Schraube, Peter; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer requires large radiation fields and high doses. This report examines the effectiveness and sequelae of super fractionated irradiation of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer with afterloading molds on preirradiated and nonirradiated skin. Methods and Materials: A flexible reusable skin mold was developed for use with a pulsed (PDR) after loader. An array of 18 parallel catheters was sewn between two foam rubber slabs 5 mm in thickness to provide a defined constant distance to the skin. By selection of appropriate dwell positions, arbitrarily shaped skin areas can be irradiated up to a maximal field size of 17 x 23.5 cm 2 . Irradiations are performed with a nominal 37 GBq 192 Ir stepping source in pulses of 1 Gy/h at the skin surface. The dose distribution is geometrically optimized. The 80 and 50% dose levels lie 5 and 27 mm below the skin surface. Sixteen patients suffering from metastases at the thoracic wall were treated with 18 fields (78-798 cm 2 ) and total doses of 40-50 Gy applying two PDR split courses with a pause of 4-6 weeks. Eleven of the fields had been previously irradiated with external beam therapy to doses of 50-60 Gy at 7-22 months in advance. Results: For preirradiated fields (n = 10) the results were as follows: follow-up 4.5-28.5 months (median 17); local control (LC): 8 of 10; acute skin reactions: Grade 2 (moist desquamation) 2 of 10; intermediate/late skin reactions after minimum follow-up of 3 months: Grade 1 (atrophy/pigmentation): 2 of 10, Grade 2-3a (minimal/marked telangiectasia): 7 of 10, Grade 4 (ulcer): 1 of 10; recurrencies: 2 of 10. For newly irradiated fields (n = 7) results were: follow-up: 2-20 months (median 5); LC: 6 of 7; acute reactions: Grade 1:4 of 7, Grade 2:3 of 7; intermediate/late skin reactions after minimum follow-up of 3 months (n = 5): Grade 2-3a: 2 of 5; recurrencies: 0 of 7. Local control could be achieved in 82% of the mold fields. Geometric

  1. Monitoring Ground Subsidence in Hong Kong via Spaceborne Radar: Experiments and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiao Qin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI technique is gradually becoming known for its capability of providing up to millimeter accuracy of measurement on ground displacement. Nevertheless, there is still quite a good amount of doubt regarding its correctness or accuracy. In this paper, we carried out an experiment corroborating the capability of the PSI technique with the help of a traditional survey method in the urban area of Hong Kong, China. Seventy three TerraSAR-X (TSX and TanDEM-X (TDX images spanning over four years are used for the data process. There are three aims of this study. The first is to generate a displacement map of urban Hong Kong and to check for spots with possible ground movements. This information will be provided to the local surveyors so that they can check these specific locations. The second is to validate if the accuracy of the PSI technique can indeed reach the millimeter level in this real application scenario. For validating the accuracy of PSI, four corner reflectors (CR were installed at a construction site on reclaimed land in Hong Kong. They were manually moved up or down by a few to tens of millimeters, and the value derived from the PSI analysis was compared to the true value. The experiment, carried out in unideal conditions, nevertheless proved undoubtedly that millimeter accuracy can be achieved by the PSI technique. The last is to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the PSI technique. Overall, the PSI technique can be extremely useful if used in collaboration with other techniques, so that the advantages can be highlighted and the drawbacks avoided.

  2. Alexandre - a multi-project, multi-material and multi-technique action for an irradiation experiment in Osiris and post irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averty, X.; Brachet, J.C.; Bertin, J.L.; Pizzanelli, J.P.; Rozenblum, F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the data obtained on different classes of steels neutron irradiated at 325 deg C in pressurized water with a PWR-type chemistry. This irradiation, nicknamed 'Alexandre', took place in the OSIRIS reactor and finished in November 1999, for a maximum irradiation damage of ∼9 dpa. The preliminary results (up to 3.4 dpa), discussed in relation to chemical composition and initial metallurgical conditions, are listed below: - Evolution of the mechanical properties as a function of irradiation dose including the measurements of the Reduction-in-Area to failure by image analysis. - Comparison between out-of-pile and in-pile uniform corrosion. - Microstructural aspects (fractography, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Small Angle Neutron Scattering measurements). - Post-irradiation evolution of residual. activity. (authors)

  3. European experience in the transport of irradiated light-water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Various methods of transport of irradiated fuel flasks in Europe are described. While many problems in the transport of heavy flasks have been solved some remain and new ones have appeared. Some of these problems are the accumulation of crud on the surface of fuel elements, the problems of failed fuel, stringent criticality criteria, the ''sweating out'' of contaminated flasks, the access, road or rail, to reactor sites, and the maintenance of the transport vehicles. Some future trends in the direction of heavy flasks in the range of 75 to 100 tonnes are indicated

  4. Influences on target irradiation symmetry in CO2 laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The existence of very steep density profiles and high upper shelf densities imply that the CO 2 laser deposits its energy spatially quite close to the ablation surface where calculations indicate that a high degree of symmetry must exist in order to achieve the necessary high compression ratios. Thus, energy transport provides only limited improvement in the ablative symmetry over that achieved in the irradiation symmetry. Current data suggests that a balance between radiation pressure and hydrodynamic pressure underestimates the density to which the CO 2 laser light penetrates for early times

  5. Closing the patient experience chasm: A two-level validation of the Consumer Quality Index Inpatient Hospital Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnova, A.; Lombarts, K.; Arah, O.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of patients' health care experiences is central to measuring patient-centred care. However, different instruments tend to be used at the hospital or departmental level but rarely both, leading to a lack of standardization of patient experience measures. OBJECTIVE: To validate

  6. Closing the patient experience chasm: A two-level validation of the Consumer Quality Index Inpatient Hospital Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnova, Alina; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundEvaluation of patients' health care experiences is central to measuring patient-centred care. However, different instruments tend to be used at the hospital or departmental level but rarely both, leading to a lack of standardization of patient experience measures. ObjectiveTo validate the

  7. Summary of thermocouple performance during advanced gas reactor fuel irradiation experiments in the advanced test reactor and out-of-pile thermocouple testing in support of such experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. J.; Haggard, DC; Herter, J. W.; Swank, W. D.; Knudson, D. L.; Cherry, R. S. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 4112, Idaho Falls, ID, (United States); Scervini, M. [University of Cambridge, Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS, Cambridge, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple-based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time-dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time-dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B) and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Type C). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with Type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly, Type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluence. Currently, the use of these nickel-based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past 10 years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700 deg. C - 1200 deg. C. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out-of-pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150 deg. C and 1200 deg. C for 2,000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250 deg. C and 200 hours at 1300 deg. C. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity, crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including a Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly

  8. Summary of Thermocouple Performance During Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor and Out-of-Pile Thermocouple Testing in Support of Such Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Palmer; DC Haggard; J. W. Herter; M. Scervini; W. D. Swank; D. L. Knudson; R. S. Cherry

    2011-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B); and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Types C and W). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of these Nickel based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000°C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past ten years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700oC – 1200oC. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out of pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150oC and 1200oC for 2000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250oC, and 200 hours at 1300oC. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl2O4) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly thermocouple with hard fired alumina

  9. Caramel fuel for research reactors: experience acquired in the fabrication, monitoring and irradiation of Osiris core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contenson, Ghislain de; Foulquier, Henri; Trotabas, Maria; Vignesoult, Nicole; Cerles, J.-M.; Delafosse, Jacques.

    1981-06-01

    A plate type nuclear fuel (Caramel fuel) has been developed in France in the framework of the various activities pursued in the design, fabrication and development of nuclear fuels by the CEA. This fuel can be adapted to various different categories of water cooled reactor (power reactors, marine propulsion reactors, urbain heating reactors, research reactors). The successful work conducted in this field led the realization of a complete core and reloads for the high performance research reactor, Osiris, at Saclay. The existing highly enriched U-Al alloy fuel was replaced by a non-proliferating low enrichment (7%) caramel fuel. This new core has been operating successfully since january 1980. A brief description of Caramel and its main advantages is given. The way in which it is fabricated is described together with the quality controls to which it is subjected. The qualification program and the main results deduced from it are also presented. The program used to monitor its in-pile behavior is described. The essential purpose of this program is to ensure the high performance of the fuel under irradiation. The successful operation of Osiris, which terminated 11 irradiation cycles on the 21st of April 1981 confirmed the correctness of the decisions made and the excellent performance that could be achieved with these fuel elements under the severe conditions encountered in a high performance research reactor [fr

  10. Experiment-based modelling of hardening and localized plasticity in metals irradiated under cascade damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Trinkaus, H.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the available experimental observations shows that the occurrence of a sudden yield drop and the associated plastic flow localization are the major concerns regarding the performance and lifetime of materials exposed to fission or fusion neutrons. In the light of the known mechanical properties and microstructures of the as-irradiated and irradiated and deformed materials, it has been argued that the increase in the upper yield stress, the sudden yield drop and the initiation of plastic flow localization, can be rationalized in terms of the cascade induced source hardening (CISH) model. Various aspects of the model (main assumptions and predictions) have been investigated using analytical calculations, 3-D dislocation dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations. The main results and conclusions are briefly summarized. Finally, it is pointed out that even though the formation of cleared channels may be rationalized in terms of climb-controlled glide of the source dislocation, a number of problems regarding the initiation and the evolution of these channels remain unsolved

  11. Experiment-based modelling of hardening and localized plasticity in metals irradiated under cascade damage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N. E-mail: bachu.singh@risoe.dk; Ghoniem, N.M.; Trinkaus, H

    2002-12-01

    The analysis of the available experimental observations shows that the occurrence of a sudden yield drop and the associated plastic flow localization are the major concerns regarding the performance and lifetime of materials exposed to fission or fusion neutrons. In the light of the known mechanical properties and microstructures of the as-irradiated and irradiated and deformed materials, it has been argued that the increase in the upper yield stress, the sudden yield drop and the initiation of plastic flow localization, can be rationalized in terms of the cascade induced source hardening (CISH) model. Various aspects of the model (main assumptions and predictions) have been investigated using analytical calculations, 3-D dislocation dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations. The main results and conclusions are briefly summarized. Finally, it is pointed out that even though the formation of cleared channels may be rationalized in terms of climb-controlled glide of the source dislocation, a number of problems regarding the initiation and the evolution of these channels remain unsolved.

  12. Analysis of Core Physics Experiments on Irradiated BWR MOX Fuel in REBUS Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toru; Ando, Yoshihira; Hayashi, Yamato

    2008-01-01

    As part of analyses of experimental data of a critical core containing a irradiated BWR MOX test bundle in the REBUS program, depletion calculations was performed for the BWR MOX fuel assemblies from that the MOX test rods were selected by using a general purpose neutronics code system SRAC. The core analyses were carried out using SRAC and a continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP. The calculated k eff s were compared with those of the core containing a fresh MOX fuel bundle in the program. The SRAC-diffusion calculation underestimates k eff s of the both cores by 1.0 to 1.3 %dk and the k eff s of MVP are 1.001. The difference in k eff between the irradiated BWR MOX test bundle core and the fresh MOX one is 0.4 %dk in the SRAC-diffusion calculation and 0.0 %dk in the MVP calculation. The calculated fission rate distributions are in good agreement with the measurement in the SRAC-diffusion and MVP calculations. The calculated neutron flux distributions are also in good agreement with the measurement. The calculated burnup reactivity in the both calculations well reproduce the measurements. (authors)

  13. Food preservation experiment by irradiation in the south zone of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, Vladimir; Santos, Ari S.; Foes, Altair D.R.; Vaniel, Ana P.; Louzada, Ana R.; Silveira, Cristina M.; Jardim, Lisandra F.; Mesko, Marcia F.

    2000-01-01

    The south zone of the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized as an area of great food production as fruits, vegetables, meats, fish among others. In Brazil, the state RS is the producing greater of onion and peach. It was intended to study the use of the irradiation for the propose of preservation of peaches and onions, relating the diverse doses with the capacity of conservation of the peaches and retardation in the process of budding of onions. It was objective also to follow the changes in the properties of the peaches and onions radiated related to the physic-chemical and nutritional parameters, as well as determining the dose of radiation that is more efficient in the preservation and that provokes minor number of alterations in the sensorial and nutritional properties of these foods. In the process of preservation for irradiation the foods are submitted to a field of ionizing radiation in rigorously burst conditions in mode that the food receives the amount from necessary and enough energy for the intended handling. Different doses of gamma radiation of 60 Co had been used and the reached results show to the effectiveness of this technique in the preservation of studied foods

  14. Irradiation experiment conceptual design parameters for MURR LEU U-Mo fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, J.; Feldman, E.; Stevens, J.; Wilson, E.

    2013-03-01

    This report contains the results of reactor design and performance calculations for conversion of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by staff members of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Reactor Conversion Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the MURR Facility. The core conversion to LEU is being performed with financial support from the U. S. government. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context most research and test reactors, both domestic and international, have started a program of conversion to the use of LEU fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (U-Mo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like MURR. This report presents the nominal steady-state irradiation conditions of a key set of plates containing peak irradiation parameters found in MURR cores fueled with the LEU monolithic U-Mo alloy fuel with 10 wt% Mo.

  15. Validation of CBZ code system for post-irradiation examination analysis and sensitivity analysis of (n,γ) branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yosuke; Chiba, Go; Tsuji, Masashi; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    A code system CBZ is being developed in Hokkaido University. In order to validate it, PIE data, which are nuclide composition data of a spent fuel, have been analyzed with CBZ. The validity is evaluated as ratios of the calculation values to the experimental ones (C/E ratios). Differences between experimental values and calculation ones are smaller than 20% except some nuclides. Thus this code system is validated. Additionally, we evaluate influence of change of (n,γ) branching ratio on inventories of fission products and actinides. As a result, branching ratios of Sb-121, Pm-147, and Am-241 influence inventories of several nuclides. We perform PIE analysis using different (n,γ) branching ratio data from the ORIGEN-2 library, JNDC-Ver.2, and JEFF-3.1A, and find that differences in (n,γ) branching ratios between different nuclear libraries have a non-negligible influence on inventories of several nuclides. (author)

  16. Establishment and validation of a method for multi-dose irradiation of cells in 96-well microplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abatzoglou, Ioannis; Zois, Christos E.; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Koukourakis, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a method for multi-dose irradiation of cell cultures within a 96-well plate. ► Equations to adjust to preferable dose levels are produced and provided. ► Up to eight different dose levels can be tested in one microplate. ► This method results in fast and reliable estimation of radiation dose–response curves. -- Abstract: Microplates are useful tools in chemistry, biotechnology and molecular biology. In radiobiology research, these can be also applied to assess the effect of a certain radiation dose delivered to the whole microplate, to test radio-sensitivity, radio-sensitization or radio-protection. Whether different radiation doses can be accurately applied to a single 96-well plate to further facilitate and accelerated research by one hand and spare funds on the other, is a question dealt in the current paper. Following repeated ion-chamber, TLD and radiotherapy planning dosimetry we established a method for multi-dose irradiation of cell cultures within a 96-well plate, which allows an accurate delivery of desired doses in sequential columns of the microplate. Up to eight different dose levels can be tested in one microplate. This method results in fast and reliable estimation of radiation dose–response curves

  17. Validation of the U-238 inelastic scattering neutron cross section through the EXCALIBUR dedicated experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leconte Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EXCALIBUR is an integral transmission experiment based on the fast neutron source produced by the bare highly enriched fast burst reactor CALIBAN, located in CEA/DAM Valduc (France. Two experimental campaigns have been performed, one using a sphere of diameter 17 cm and one using two cylinders of 17 cm diameter 9 cm height, both made of metallic Uranium 238. A set of 15 different dosimeters with specific threshold energies have been employed to provide information on the neutron flux attenuation as a function of incident energy. Measurements uncertainties are typically in the range of 0.5–3% (1σ. The analysis of these experiments is performed with the TRIPOLI4 continuous energy Monte Carlo code. A calculation benchmark with validated simplifications is defined in order to improve the statistical convergence under 2%. Various 238U evaluations have been tested: JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.1 and the IB36 evaluation from IAEA. A sensitivity analysis is presented to identify the contribution of each reaction cross section to the integral transmission rate. This feedback may be of interest for the international effort on 238U, through the CIELO project.

  18. An enhanced fire hazard assessment model and validation experiments for vertical cable trays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lu; Huang, Xianjia; Bi, Kun; Liu, Xiaoshuang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced model was developed for vertical cable fire hazard assessment in NPP. • The validated experiments on vertical cable tray fires were conducted. • The capability of the model for cable tray with different cable spacing were tested. - Abstract: The model, referred to as FLASH-CAT (Flame Spread over Horizontal Cable Trays), was developed to estimate the heat release rate for vertical cable tray fire. The focus of this work is to investigate the application of an enhanced model to the single vertical cable tray fires with different cable spacing. The experiments on vertical cable tray fires with three typical cable spacing were conducted. The histories of mass loss rate and flame length were recorded during the cable fire. From the experimental results, it is found that the space between cable lines intensifies the cable combustion and accelerates the flame spread. The predictions by the enhanced model show good agreements with the experimental data. At the same time, it is shown that the enhanced model is capable of predicting the different behaviors of cable fires with different cable spacing by adjusting the flame spread speed only.

  19. An enhanced fire hazard assessment model and validation experiments for vertical cable trays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lu [Sate Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Huang, Xianjia, E-mail: huangxianjia@gziit.ac.cn [Joint Laboratory of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants, Institute of Industry Technology Guangzhou & Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Bi, Kun; Liu, Xiaoshuang [China Nuclear Power Design Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518045 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • An enhanced model was developed for vertical cable fire hazard assessment in NPP. • The validated experiments on vertical cable tray fires were conducted. • The capability of the model for cable tray with different cable spacing were tested. - Abstract: The model, referred to as FLASH-CAT (Flame Spread over Horizontal Cable Trays), was developed to estimate the heat release rate for vertical cable tray fire. The focus of this work is to investigate the application of an enhanced model to the single vertical cable tray fires with different cable spacing. The experiments on vertical cable tray fires with three typical cable spacing were conducted. The histories of mass loss rate and flame length were recorded during the cable fire. From the experimental results, it is found that the space between cable lines intensifies the cable combustion and accelerates the flame spread. The predictions by the enhanced model show good agreements with the experimental data. At the same time, it is shown that the enhanced model is capable of predicting the different behaviors of cable fires with different cable spacing by adjusting the flame spread speed only.

  20. Validation of the U-238 inelastic scattering neutron cross section through the EXCALIBUR dedicated experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Pierre; Bernard, David

    2017-09-01

    EXCALIBUR is an integral transmission experiment based on the fast neutron source produced by the bare highly enriched fast burst reactor CALIBAN, located in CEA/DAM Valduc (France). Two experimental campaigns have been performed, one using a sphere of diameter 17 cm and one using two cylinders of 17 cm diameter 9 cm height, both made of metallic Uranium 238. A set of 15 different dosimeters with specific threshold energies have been employed to provide information on the neutron flux attenuation as a function of incident energy. Measurements uncertainties are typically in the range of 0.5-3% (1σ). The analysis of these experiments is performed with the TRIPOLI4 continuous energy Monte Carlo code. A calculation benchmark with validated simplifications is defined in order to improve the statistical convergence under 2%. Various 238U evaluations have been tested: JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.1 and the IB36 evaluation from IAEA. A sensitivity analysis is presented to identify the contribution of each reaction cross section to the integral transmission rate. This feedback may be of interest for the international effort on 238U, through the CIELO project.

  1. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam. BKC 44306 PMDI-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rao, Rekha Ranjana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shelden, Bion [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Hern, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Celina, Mathias C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wyatt, Nicholas B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Russick, Edward Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hileman, Michael Bryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, Kyle Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, David Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  2. Six years working experience of the Marcoule plant for treatment of irradiated fuel; Experience de 6 annees de fonctionnement de l'usine de retraitement de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouannaud, C [CEA Marcoule, Centre de Production de Plutonium, 30 (France)

    1964-07-01

    The irradiated fuel treatment plant at Marcoule began treating rods from the pile G 1 in July 1958. These six years experience of the plant in operation have led to the confirmation or revision of the original ideas concerning the process as well as the technology or methods of exploitation. The process as a whole has suffered little modification, the performances having proved better than originally foreseen; the only alterations made were justified by greater simplicity of operation, better nuclear security (criticality) or for technological reasons. The processes of plutonium reduction from valency IV to valency III by uranium IV, and of concentration of fission product solutions in the presence of formaldehyde, have always given complete satisfaction. The initial concept of direct maintenance of the installations has been justified by experience. Certain maintenance jobs, originally considered impossible after the start of operations, have proved feasible and have been carried out under acceptable conditions; a number of examples are given. From experience it has been possible to define optimal conditions for the design of these installations such as to provide a maximum in robustness and ease of maintenance. The advantages of continuously-operating equipment have been shown. Certain installations have been altered in accordance with these new ideas. Analytical checking in the laboratory has been profoundly modified, and the plans adopted are such that complete safety in work on radioactive solutions is compatible with a very good working speed. Experience has also shown the advantages of having a group on the spot to carry out short-term applied studies. Finally, a strict working discipline and excellent collaboration with the radiation protection service have enabled us to reach the end of these six years, during some of which the exploitation was intensive, without irradiation accident. (authors) [French] L'usine de traitement des combustibles irradies de

  3. Status Update on the GPM Ground Validation Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Krajewski, Witold

    2013-04-01

    The overarching objective of integrated hydrologic ground validation activities supporting the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is to provide better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the satellite products, in the context of hydrologic applications. To this end, the GPM Ground Validation (GV) program is conducting the first of several hydrology-oriented field efforts: the Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) experiment. IFloodS will be conducted in the central to northeastern part of Iowa in Midwestern United States during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives and related goals for the IFloodS experiment can be summarized as follows: 1. Quantify the physical characteristics and space/time variability of rain (rates, DSD, process/"regime") and map to satellite rainfall retrieval uncertainty. 2. Assess satellite rainfall retrieval uncertainties at instantaneous to daily time scales and evaluate propagation/impact of uncertainty in flood-prediction. 3. Assess hydrologic predictive skill as a function of space/time scales, basin morphology, and land use/cover. 4. Discern the relative roles of rainfall quantities such as rate and accumulation as compared to other factors (e.g. transport of water in the drainage network) in flood genesis. 5. Refine approaches to "integrated hydrologic GV" concept based on IFloodS experiences and apply to future GPM Integrated GV field efforts. These objectives will be achieved via the deployment of the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms with attendant soil moisture and temperature probes, a large network of both 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers, and USDA-ARS gauge and soil-moisture measurements (in collaboration with the NASA SMAP mission). The aforementioned measurements will be used to complement existing operational WSR-88D S-band polarimetric radar measurements

  4. Elaboration of amniotic membrane dressing dried by air and irradiated - Peruvian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamero, E.C.; Perez Caballero, N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to prepare dressings from the amniotic membrane to be used in cases of skin damage principally due to superficial and intermediate second-degree burns. The amnion is a transparent membrane that lines the chorion. It is resistant and rich in collagen. Due to these characteristics it can be well used as biological dressing as it diminishes the loss of fluids, electrolytes and proteins, it also protects the growing epithelium and adheres well to the surface of the wound, improves mobility of the patient, diminishing pain and stimulating neovascularization. The ISN-IPEN Tissue Bank promoted by IAEA has processed amniotic membrane since July 1997. Initially dressings were prepared using antibiotics, after IAEA training at the MINT of Malaysia, it is processed dried by air, lyophylized and in both presentations, sterilized by gamma-rays. Amniotic membranes are procured from Lima Maternity. Tissues must comply with VDRL, HIV, Hepatitis B and C exclusion tests. The process is held in a laminar flow hood and amnion already separated from the chorion is washed with sterile distilled water, a solution of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite, and normal saline. Then it is cut into appropriate sizes and double packed in PE films. The dressings are then carried to the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy for irradiation, depending on the number of samples either irradiated with gamma-rays at the Gammacell 220 or at the Irradiation Facility located in Santa Anita. The delivered dose is 25 kGy. The product is only released if it complies with the end product quality controls. Meanwhile, microbiological tests are carried out during all the processing stages, in order to monitor the microbial load during production. In conclusion we can state that dressings prepared as above mentioned have the following advantages: not complicated preparation; reliable and safe for clinical use; diminish infection rates and days spent in the hospital; easy to storage; and can be

  5. SU-C-BRB-03: Cross-Institutional Validation of An Ultrafast Automatic Planning Platform for Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T; Lockamy, V; Anne, P; Simone, N; Yu, Y; Sheng, Y; Wu, QJ

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recently an ultrafast automatic planning system for breast irradiation using tangential beams was developed by modeling relationships between patient anatomy and achieved dose distribution. This study evaluates the performance of this system when applied to a different patient population and dose calculation algorithm. Methods: The system and its anatomy-to-dose models was developed at institution A based on 20 cases, which were planned using manual fluence painting technique and calculated WITH heterogeneity correction. Institution B uses field-in-field planning technique and dose calculation WITHOUT heterogeneity correction. 11 breast cases treated at Institution B were randomly selected for retrospective study, including left and right sides, and different breast size (irradiated volumes defined by Jaw/MLC opening range from 875cc to 3516cc). Comparisons between plans generated automatically (Auto-Plans) and those used for treatment (Clinical-Plans) included: energy choice (single/mixed), volumes receiving 95%/100%/105%/110% Rx dose (V95%/V100%/V105%/V100%) relative to irradiated volume, D1cc, and LungV20Gy. Results: In 9 out of 11 cases single/mixed energy choice made by the software agreed with Clinical-Plans. For the remaining 2 cases software recommended using mixed energy and dosimetric improvements were observed. V100% were similar (p=0.223, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test) between Auto-Plans and Clinical-Plans (57.6±8.9% vs. 54.8±9.5%). V95% is 2.3±3.0% higher for Auto-Plans (p=0.027), indicating reduced cold areas. Hot spot volume V105% were significantly reduced in Auto-Plan by 14.4±7.2% (p=0.004). Absolute V105% was reduced from 395.6±359.9cc for Clinical-Plans to 108.7±163cc for Auto-Plans. D1cc was 107.4±2.8% for Auto-Plans, and 109.2±2.4% for Clinical-Plans (p=0.056). LungV20Gy were 13.6±4.0% for Auto-Plan vs. 14.0±4.1% for Clinical-Plans (p=0.043). All optimizations were finished within 1.5min. Conclusion: The performance of this

  6. SU-C-BRB-03: Cross-Institutional Validation of An Ultrafast Automatic Planning Platform for Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T; Lockamy, V; Anne, P; Simone, N; Yu, Y [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sheng, Y; Wu, QJ [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Recently an ultrafast automatic planning system for breast irradiation using tangential beams was developed by modeling relationships between patient anatomy and achieved dose distribution. This study evaluates the performance of this system when applied to a different patient population and dose calculation algorithm. Methods: The system and its anatomy-to-dose models was developed at institution A based on 20 cases, which were planned using manual fluence painting technique and calculated WITH heterogeneity correction. Institution B uses field-in-field planning technique and dose calculation WITHOUT heterogeneity correction. 11 breast cases treated at Institution B were randomly selected for retrospective study, including left and right sides, and different breast size (irradiated volumes defined by Jaw/MLC opening range from 875cc to 3516cc). Comparisons between plans generated automatically (Auto-Plans) and those used for treatment (Clinical-Plans) included: energy choice (single/mixed), volumes receiving 95%/100%/105%/110% Rx dose (V95%/V100%/V105%/V100%) relative to irradiated volume, D1cc, and LungV20Gy. Results: In 9 out of 11 cases single/mixed energy choice made by the software agreed with Clinical-Plans. For the remaining 2 cases software recommended using mixed energy and dosimetric improvements were observed. V100% were similar (p=0.223, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test) between Auto-Plans and Clinical-Plans (57.6±8.9% vs. 54.8±9.5%). V95% is 2.3±3.0% higher for Auto-Plans (p=0.027), indicating reduced cold areas. Hot spot volume V105% were significantly reduced in Auto-Plan by 14.4±7.2% (p=0.004). Absolute V105% was reduced from 395.6±359.9cc for Clinical-Plans to 108.7±163cc for Auto-Plans. D1cc was 107.4±2.8% for Auto-Plans, and 109.2±2.4% for Clinical-Plans (p=0.056). LungV20Gy were 13.6±4.0% for Auto-Plan vs. 14.0±4.1% for Clinical-Plans (p=0.043). All optimizations were finished within 1.5min. Conclusion: The performance of this

  7. Site characterization and validation - Tracer migration experiment in the validation drift, report 2, Part 2: breakthrough curves in the validation drift appendices 5-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Neretnieks, I.; Moreno, L.

    1992-01-01

    Flowrate curves for the 53 sampling areas in the validation drift with measureable flowrates are given. The sampling area 267 is treated as three separate sampling areas; 267:1, 267:2 and 267:3. The total flowrate for these three sampling areas is given in a separate plot. The flowrates are given in ml/h. The time is given in hours since April 27 00:00, 1990. Disturbances in flowrates are observed after 8500 hours due to opening of boreholes C1 and W1. Results from flowrate measurements after 8500 hours are therefore excluded. The tracer breakthrough curves for 38 sampling areas in the validation drift are given as concentration values versus time. The sampling area 267 is treated as three separate sampling areas; 267:1, 267:2 and 267:3. This gives a total of 40 breakthrough curves for each tracer. (au)

  8. Validation of the ABBN/CONSYST constants system. Part 2: Validation through the critical experiments on cores with uranium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, T.T.; Manturov, G.N.; Nikolaev, M.N.; Rozhikhin, E.V.; Semenov, M.Yu.; Tsiboulia, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Results of calculations of critical assemblies with the cores of uranium solutions for the considered series of the experiments are presented in this paper. The conclusions about acceptability of the ABBN-93.1 cross sections for the calculations of such systems are made. (author)

  9. An experiment to examine the mechanistic behaviour of irradiated CANDU fuel stored under dry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldaker, I.E.; Crosthwaite, J.L.; Keltie, R.J.; Truss, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A program has begun to use the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment dry-storage canisters to store some selected CANDU irradiated fuel bundles in an 'easily retrievable basket.' The object of the experimental program is to study the long-term stability of the Zircaloy-sheathed UO 2 and UC fuel elements when stored in air. Bundles were loaded into a canister in October 1979 following detailed examination and removal of up to three complete elements from most bundles. These elements are currently being subjected to detailed destructive examinations, including metallography and scanning electron micrography, to fully characterize their pre-storage condition. After four years, and every five years thereafter, further elements will be examined similarly to study the effects of the storage environment on the stability of the Zircaloy sheathing, and on its continued ability to contain the fuel safely in an interim storage facility. (author)

  10. Supine Craniospinal Irradiation Using Intrafractional Junction Shifts and Field-in-Field Dose Shaping: Early Experience at Methodist Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, Michael C.; Chiu, J. Kam; Teh, Bin S.; Bloch, Charles; Schroeder, Thomas M.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe our preliminary experience with supine craniospinal irradiation. The advantages of the supine position for craniospinal irradiation include patient comfort, easier access to maintain an airway for anesthesia, and reduced variability of the head tilt in the face mask. Methods and Materials: The cranial fields were treated with near lateral fields and a table angle to match their divergence to the superior edge of the spinal field. The collimator was rotated to match the divergence from the superior spinal field. The spinal fields were treated using a source to surface distance (SSD) technique with the couch top at 100 cm. When a second spinal field was required, the table and collimator were rotated 90 o to allow for the use of the multileaf collimator and so the gantry could be rotated to match the divergence of the superior spinal field. The multileaf collimator was used for daily dynamic featherings and field-in-field dose control. Results: With a median follow-up of 20.2 months, five documented failures and no cases of radiation myelitis occurred in 23 consecutive patients. No failures occurred in the junctions of the spine-spine or brain-spine fields. Two failures occurred in the primary site alone, two in the spinal axis alone, and one primary site failure plus distant metastasis. The median time to recurrence was 17 months. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that supine approach for delivering craniospinal irradiation is not associated with increased relapses at the field junctions. To date, no cases of radiation myelitis have developed

  11. Facts about food irradiation: Chemical changes in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet addresses the safety of irradiated food. The irradiation process produces very little chemical change in food, and laboratory experiments have shown no harmful effects in animals fed with irradiated milk powder. 3 refs

  12. Investigation of the Feasibility of Utilizing Gamma Emission Computed Tomography in Evaluating Fission Product Migration in Irradiated TRISO Fuel Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) the TRISO particle fuel serves as the primary fission product containment. However the large number of TRISO particles present in proposed HTGRs dictates that there will be a small fraction (~10"-"4 to 10"-"5) of as manufactured defects and in-pile particle failures that will lead to some fission product release. The matrix material surrounding the TRISO particles in fuel compacts and the structural graphite holding the TRISO particles in place can also serve as sinks for containing any released fission products. However data on the migration of solid fission products through these materials is lacking. One of the primary goals of the AGR-3/4 experiment is to study fission product migration from intentionally failed TRISO particles in prototypic HTGR components such as structural graphite and compact matrix material. In this work, the potential for a Gamma Emission Computed Tomography (GECT) technique to non-destructively examine the fission product distribution in AGR-3/4 components and other irradiation experiments is explored. Specifically, the feasibility of using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS) system for this GECT application was considered. Previous experience utilizing similar techniques, the expected activities in AGR-3/4 rings, and analysis of this work indicate using GECT to evaluate AGR-3/4 will be feasible. The GECT technique was also applied to other irradiated nuclear fuel systems currently available in the HFEF hot cell, including oxide fuel pins, metallic fuel pins, and monolithic plate fuel. Results indicate GECT with the HFEF PGS is effective. (author)

  13. Validation of ASTECV2.1 based on the QUENCH-08 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-García-Toraño, Ignacio, E-mail: ignacio.torano@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sánchez-Espinoza, Víctor-Hugo; Stieglitz, Robert [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Stuckert, Juri [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials-Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Laborde, Laurent; Belon, Sébastien [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Nuclear Safety Division/Safety Research/Severe Accident Department, Saint Paul Lez Durance 13115 (France)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • ASTECV2.1 can reproduce QUENCH-08 experimental trends e.g. hydrogen generation. • Radial temperature gradient and heat transfer through argon gap are underestimated. • Mesh sizes lower than 55 mm needed to capture the strong axial temperature gradient. • Minor variations of external electrical resistance strongly affect bundle heat-up. • Modelling of a bypass and inclusion of currents partially overcome discrepancies. - Abstract: The Fukushima accidents have shown that further improvements of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs) are still necessary. Hence, the enhancement of severe accident codes and their validation based on integral experiments is pursued worldwide. In particular, the capabilities of the European integral severe accident ASTECV2.1 code are being extended within the CESAM project through the improvement of physical models, code numerics and an extensive code validation. Among the different strategies encompassed in the plant SAMGs, one of the most important ones to prevent core damage is the injection of water into the overheated core (reflooding). However, under certain conditions, reflooding may trigger a sharp hydrogen generation that may jeopardize the containment. Within this work, ASTECV2.1 models describing the early in-vessel phase of the severe accident and its termination by core reflooding are validated against data from the QUENCH test facility. The QUENCH-08, involving the injection of 15 g/s (about 0.6 g/s/rod) of saturated steam at a bundle temperature of 2073 K, has been selected for this comparison. Results show that ASTECV2.1 is able to reproduce the experimental temperatures and oxide thicknesses at representative bundle locations. The predicted total hydrogen generation (76 g) is similar to the experimental one (84 g). In addition, the choices of an axial mesh size lower than 55 mm and of an external electrical resistance of a 7 mΩ/rod have been justified with parametric analyses. Finally, new

  14. Target-plasma production by laser irradiation of a pellet in the Baseball II-T experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, C.C.; Foote, J.H.; Futch, A.H.; Goodman, R.K.; Hornady, R.S.; Osher, J.E.; Porter, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    One way to generate a plasma target that can be used in conjunction with an injected neutral beam to initiate a high-energy plasma in a steady-state, magnetic-mirror field is by the laser irradiation of a solid pellet located within the confinement region. In the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Baseball II-T experiment, a CO 2 laser was used to provide a two-sided irradiation of an ammonia pellet; the maximum laser intensity on the pellet was approximately 4 x 10 12 W/cm 2 . The 150-μm-dia pellets were guided to the laser focal spot in the Baseball II-T magnetic field using steering voltages controlled by a microcomputer-based system. Diagnostics showed complete ionization of the pellet, average ion energies in the keV range, synchronized triggering of the laser and the neutral beam, and rapid expansion of the plasma to a diameter that was a good match to the diameter of the neutral beam. Predictions obtained from the LASNEX code compared well with measured results. Although the laser-pellet approach was proven usable as a target-plasma startup system, it would be much more complicated and expensive than the method in which streaming plasma is used to trap the neutal beams

  15. Simulated Irradiation of Samples in HFIR for use as Possible Test Materials in the MPEX (Material Plasma Exposure Experiment) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Rapp, Juergen [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The importance of Plasma Material Interaction (PMI) is a major concern in fusion reactor design and analysis. The Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) facility will explore PMI under fusion reactor plasma conditions. Samples with accumulated displacements per atom (DPA) damage produced by irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be studied in the MPEX facility. The project presented in this paper involved performing assessments of the induced radioactivity and resulting radiation fields of a variety of potential fusion reactor materials. The scientific code packages MCNP and SCALE were used to simulate irradiation of the samples in HFIR; generation and depletion of nuclides in the material and the subsequent composition, activity levels, gamma radiation fields, and resultant dose rates as a function of cooling time. These state-of-the-art simulation methods were used in addressing the challenge of the MPEX project to minimize the radioactive inventory in the preparation of the samples for inclusion in the MPEX facility.

  16. Initial dosimetric experience using simple three-dimensional conformal external-beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghian, Alphonse G.; Kozak, Kevin R.; Doppke, Karen P.; Katz, Angela; Smith, Barbara L.; Gadd, Michele; Specht, Michelle; Hughes, Kevin; Braaten, Kristina; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Recht, Abram; Powell, Simon N.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Several accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) techniques are being investigated in patients with early-stage breast cancer. We present our initial experience using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with tumors of 2 cm or less and negative axillary nodes were treated with 3D-CRT accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) between August 2003 and March 2005. The prescribed radiation dose was 32 Gy in 4-Gy fractions given twice daily. Efforts were made to minimize the number of beams required to achieve adequate planning target volume (PTV) coverage. Results: A combination of photons and electrons was used in 85% of patients. A three-field technique that consisted of opposed, conformal tangential photons and enface electrons was employed in 43 patients (70%). Nine patients (15%) were treated with a four-field arrangement, which consisted of three photon fields and enface electrons. Mean PTV volumes that received 100%, 95%, and 90% of the prescribed dose were 93% ± 7%, 97% ± 4%, and 98% ± 2%, respectively. Dose inhomogeneity exceeded 10% in only 7 patients (11%). Mean doses to the ipsilateral lung and heart were 1.8 Gy and 0.8 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Simple 3D-CRT techniques of APBI can achieve appropriate PTV coverage while offering significant normal-tissue sparing. Therefore, this noninvasive approach may increase the availability of APBI to patients with early-stage breast cancer

  17. Validation of scaffold design optimization in bone tissue engineering: finite element modeling versus designed experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uth, Nicholas; Mueller, Jens; Smucker, Byran; Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra

    2017-02-21

    This study reports the development of biological/synthetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (TE) via 3D bioplotting. These scaffolds were composed of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), type I collagen, and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) in an attempt to mimic the extracellular matrix of bone. The solvent used for processing the scaffolds was 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The produced scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, microcomputed tomography, thermogravimetric analysis, and unconfined compression test. This study also sought to validate the use of finite-element optimization in COMSOL Multiphysics for scaffold design. Scaffold topology was simplified to three factors: nHA content, strand diameter, and strand spacing. These factors affect the ability of the scaffold to bear mechanical loads and how porous the structure can be. Twenty four scaffolds were constructed according to an I-optimal, split-plot designed experiment (DE) in order to generate experimental models of the factor-response relationships. Within the design region, the DE and COMSOL models agreed in their recommended optimal nHA (30%) and strand diameter (460 μm). However, the two methods disagreed by more than 30% in strand spacing (908 μm for DE; 601 μm for COMSOL). Seven scaffolds were 3D-bioplotted to validate the predictions of DE and COMSOL models (4.5-9.9 MPa measured moduli). The predictions for these scaffolds showed relative agreement for scaffold porosity (mean absolute percentage error of 4% for DE and 13% for COMSOL), but were substantially poorer for scaffold modulus (51% for DE; 21% for COMSOL), partly due to some simplifying assumptions made by the models. Expanding the design region in future experiments (e.g., higher nHA content and strand diameter), developing an efficient solvent evaporation method, and exerting a greater control over layer overlap could allow developing PLGA-nHA-collagen scaffolds to meet the mechanical requirements for

  18. Surface contamination of the LIL optical components and their evolution after laser irradiation (1. series of experiments); La pollution surfacique de la LIL et son evolution sur un composant optique soumis a une irradiation laser (1. serie d'experiences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmier, St.; Garcia, S.; Lamaignere, L.; Manac' h, P.; Rullier, J.L.; Tovena, I

    2006-07-01

    In the context of the Laser Megajoule project, a study has been carried out to observe the correlation between particle contamination at the surface of the optical components and laser irradiation. The experiments consist in placing silica samples in the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) environment more precisely around the frequency conversion crystals and beam focusing area. Particle contamination at the surface samples is characterized and quantified. Then its behaviour under 1064 nm laser irradiation is observed. From the results of this first series of experiments, it appears that on irradiated silica samples treated with anti reflection coatings, surface particles or contamination can induce a surface defect. (author)

  19. Optimization of the Severe Accident Management Strategy for Domestic Plants and Validation Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.; Koo, K. M.; Park, R. J.; Hong, S. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. T.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, K. H.

    2007-04-01

    nuclear power plants, a technical basis report and computational aid tools were developed in parallel with the experimental and analytical works for the resolution of the uncertain safety issues. ELIAS experiments were carried out to quantify the boiling heat removal rate at the upper surface of a metallic layer for precise evaluations on the effect of a late in-vessel coolant injection. T-HERMES experiments were performed to examine the two-phase natural circulation phenomena through the gap between the reactor vessel and the insulator in the APR1400. Detailed analyses on the hydrogen control in the APR1400 containment were performed focused on the effect of spray system actuation on the hydrogen burning and the evaluation of the hydrogen behavior in the IRWST. To develop the technical basis report for the severe accident management, analyses using SCDAP/RELAP5 code were performed for the accident sequences of the OPR1000. Based on the experimental and analytical results performed in this study, the computational aids for the evaluations of hydrogen flammability in the containment, criteria of the in-vessel corium cooling, criteria of the external reactor vessel cooling were developed. An ASSA code was developed to validate the signal from the instrumentations during the severe accidents and to process the abnormal signal. Since ASSA can perform the signal processing from the direct input of the nuclear power plant during the severe accident, it can be platform of the computational aids. In this study, the ASSA was linked with the computaional aids for the hydrogen flammability

  20. Validation of VHTRC calculation benchmark of critical experiment using the MCB code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisz Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation benchmark problem Very High Temperature Reactor Critical (VHTR a pin-in-block type core critical assembly has been investigated with the Monte Carlo Burnup (MCB code in order to validate the latest version of Nuclear Data Library based on ENDF format. Executed benchmark has been made on the basis of VHTR benchmark available from the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments. This benchmark is useful for verifying the discrepancies in keff values between various libraries and experimental values. This allows to improve accuracy of the neutron transport calculations that may help in designing the high performance commercial VHTRs. Almost all safety parameters depend on the accuracy of neutron transport calculation results that, in turn depend on the accuracy of nuclear data libraries. Thus, evaluation of the libraries applicability to VHTR modelling is one of the important subjects. We compared the numerical experiment results with experimental measurements using two versions of available nuclear data (ENDF-B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 prepared for required temperatures. Calculations have been performed with the MCB code which allows to obtain very precise representation of complex VHTR geometry, including the double heterogeneity of a fuel element. In this paper, together with impact of nuclear data, we discuss also the impact of different lattice modelling inside the fuel pins. The discrepancies of keff have been successfully observed and show good agreement with each other and with the experimental data within the 1 σ range of the experimental uncertainty. Because some propagated discrepancies observed, we proposed appropriate corrections in experimental constants which can improve the reactivity coefficient dependency. Obtained results confirm the accuracy of the new Nuclear Data Libraries.

  1. Optimization of the Severe Accident Management Strategy for Domestic Plants and Validation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.; Koo, K. M.; Park, R. J.; Hong, S. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. T.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, K. H

    2007-04-15

    nuclear power plants, a technical basis report and computational aid tools were developed in parallel with the experimental and analytical works for the resolution of the uncertain safety issues. ELIAS experiments were carried out to quantify the boiling heat removal rate at the upper surface of a metallic layer for precise evaluations on the effect of a late in-vessel coolant injection. T-HERMES experiments were performed to examine the two-phase natural circulation phenomena through the gap between the reactor vessel and the insulator in the APR1400. Detailed analyses on the hydrogen control in the APR1400 containment were performed focused on the effect of spray system actuation on the hydrogen burning and the evaluation of the hydrogen behavior in the IRWST. To develop the technical basis report for the severe accident management, analyses using SCDAP/RELAP5 code were performed for the accident sequences of the OPR1000. Based on the experimental and analytical results performed in this study, the computational aids for the evaluations of hydrogen flammability in the containment, criteria of the in-vessel corium cooling, criteria of the external reactor vessel cooling were developed. An ASSA code was developed to validate the signal from the instrumentations during the severe accidents and to process the abnormal signal. Since ASSA can perform the signal processing from the direct input of the nuclear power plant during the severe accident, it can be platform of the computational aids. In this study, the ASSA was linked with the computaional aids for the hydrogen flammability.

  2. The Basel experience with total body irradiation for conditioning patients with acute leukemia for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, B.; Cornu, P.; Nissen, C.; Gratwohl, A.; Sartorius, J.

    1979-01-01

    We are reporting our experience with 13 patients suffering from end stage acute leukemia that were prepared for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by combined chemotherapy followed by high dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI). Only one patient became a long term survivor. Of the evaluable 12 patients, 6 died of interstitial pneumonia, 4 of GvH and 1 of recurrent leukemia. We conclude that adding combined chemotherapy to the standard conditioning program with Cy and TBI probably increases the risk of developing fatal interstitial pneumonia without eliminating the risk of recurrent leukemia. We suggest that allogenic marrow grafts should be performed earlier in the course of refractory acute leukemias, because in patients with end stage disease its chances of being curative are small

  3. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, J; Kehoe, M; Sasiadek, W; Hacking, D; Calvert, P

    2014-03-01

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is used to prevent the development of brain metastases in small cell lung carcinoma. PCI confers an overall survival (OS) benefit in both limited and extensive stage disease. We analyze the incidence of symptomatic brain metastases, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS in a cohort of patients who received PCI, in a 5-year period. A retrospective review of all patients who had received PCI between 2006 and 2011 at the Whitfield Clinic was completed. Patient- and disease-related characteristics, the number of patients who developed brain metastases, PFS and OS data were collected. 24 patients were identified. 14 (58.3 %) patients were male, 10 (41.7 %) were female, with a mean age of 62.5 years (range 31-78). All patients were smokers. 12 (50 %) patients had limited stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 12 (50 %) had extensive stage disease. 2 (8.2 %) patients developed brain metastases post PCI (p = 0.478.) The median PFS for limited stage SCLC was 13 months (range 3-20) and 10 months (range 5-18) for extensive stage SCLC. Median OS was 15 months (range 4-29) in limited stage SCLC, and 11 months (range 5-29) in extensive stage SCLC. Our study demonstrated a low incidence of symptomatic brain metastases and favourable median PFS and OS in the patients that received PCI, when compared to published phase III data.

  4. Mixed logic style adder circuit designed and fabricated using SOI substrate for irradiation-hardened experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shoucai; Liu, Yamei

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposed a rail to rail swing, mixed logic style 28-transistor 1-bit full adder circuit which is designed and fabricated using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate with 90 nm gate length technology. The main goal of our design is space application where circuits may be damaged by outer space radiation; so the irradiation-hardened technique such as SOI structure should be used. The circuit's delay, power and power-delay product (PDP) of our proposed gate diffusion input (GDI)-based adder are HSPICE simulated and compared with other reported high-performance 1-bit adder. The GDI-based 1-bit adder has 21.61% improvement in delay and 18.85% improvement in PDP, over the reported 1-bit adder. However, its power dissipation is larger than that reported with 3.56% increased but is still comparable. The worst case performance of proposed 1-bit adder circuit is also seen to be less sensitive to variations in power supply voltage (VDD) and capacitance load (CL), over a wide range from 0.6 to 1.8 V and 0 to 200 fF, respectively. The proposed and reported 1-bit full adders are all layout designed and wafer fabricated with other circuits/systems together on one chip. The chip measurement and analysis has been done at VDD = 1.2 V, CL = 20 fF, and 200 MHz maximum input signal frequency with temperature of 300 K.

  5. Contralateral breast dose from chest wall and breast irradiation: local experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzoubi, A.; Kandaiya, S.; Shukri, A.; Elsherbieny, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Second cancer induction in the contralateral breast (CB) is an issue of some concern in breast radiotherapy especially for women under the age of 45 years at the time of treatment. The CB dose from 2-field and 3-field techniques in post-mastectomy chest wall irradiations in an anthropomorphic phantom as well as in patients were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) at the local radiotherapy center. Breast and chest wall radiotherapy treatments were planned conformally (3D-CRT) and delivered using 6-MV photons. The measured CB dose at the surface fell sharply with distance from the field edge. However, the average ratio of the measured to the calculated CB dose using the pencil beam algorithm at the surface was approximately 53%. The mean and median measured internal dose at the posterior border of CB in a phantom was 5.47 ± 0.22 c G y and 5.44 c G y, respectively. The internal CB dose was relatively independent of depth. In the present study the internal CB dose is 2.1-4.1 % of the prescribed dose which is comparable to the values reported by other authors.

  6. Total body irradiation in the bone marrow transplantation in leukemia:an experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatero, A.; Martin de Vidales, C.; Pinar, B.; Marin, A.; Cerezo, L.; Dominguez, P.; Perez, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate long-term survival and morbidity of fractioned total body irradiation (TBI) prior to allogeneicbone marrow transplantation (BMT) for leukemia. From June 1985 to May 1992, 94 patients with acute leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), were treated with high dose cyclophosphamide(CY) and fractionated TBI to a total dose of 12 Gy in six fractions prior to allogeneic BMT. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 53% +-6 and 48%+- respectively for patients with standard risk disease (first remission of acute leukemia and first chronic phase of CML), and 24%+-7 and 21%+-6 for patients with more advanced disease (p=3D0.01). The incidence of interstitial pneumonitis (IP), venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) and grade=3D>II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were respectively 15%, 29% and 51%. Fractionated TBI combined with high dose CY before allogeneic BMT for leukemia is an effective treatment in prolonging relapse-free survival witha low incidence of lung toxicity. (Author) 13 refs

  7. Experience with Exacin ointment for erosive dermatitis arising after X-ray and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    An ointment containing Exacin (isepamicin sulfate) was used to prevent infection in 12 female patients with erosive (acute) or chronic dermatitis caused by X-ray and electron irradiation. Underlying diseases were skin metastasis from breast cancer (n=3), advanced cervical cancer (n=3), positive margin of cervical cancer (n=2), vaginal cancer (n=2), recurrence of rectal cancer (n=one), and vulvar cancer (n=one). Exacin ointment (a daily dose of approximately 6 g) was applied in two or more divided doses to lesions in the vulva (n=9), axillary chest wall (n=one), and chest wall (n=2) for 16-65 days in the group of erosive radiodermatitis (n=10) and for 3-10 months in the group of chronic radiodermatitis (n=2). In the group of erosive radiodermatitis, 8 were evaluated as remarkably improved; in the group of chronic radiodermatitis, one was evaluated as slightly improved and one as unchanged. Exacin ointment was considered to be effective for erosive dermatitis to prevent infection. (N.K.)

  8. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge: Experiments on the inactivation of viruses in sewage sludge after radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, C.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations examining the virus inactivating effect of a 60 Co-plant have up to now been limited to attempts to isolate virus from sludge samples taken from sewage sludge before and after irradiation with 300 krad. As in these sludge samples the presence of virus could be proved only on a rather irregular basis, an experiment was carried out in which defined virus quantities were packed into capsules and mixed with the digested sludge. At the end of the hygienization process these capsules were removed from the sludge and examined for virus content. In addition one radiation volume (5.6 m 3 ) was infected with attenuated polio virus type I and the virus content of the sludge titrated before and after the radiation treatment. (author)

  9. Investigation of the uncertainty of a validation experiment due to uncertainty in its boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.; Nani, D.; Jones, K.; Khodier, M.; Smith, B.L.

    2011-01-01

    Elements contributing to uncertainty in experimental repeatability are quantified for data acquisition in a bank of cylinders. The cylinder bank resembles the lower plenum of a high temperature reactor with cylinders arranged on equilateral triangles with a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.7. The 3-D as-built geometry was measured by imaging reflections off the internal surfaces of the facility. This information is useful for building CFD grids for Validation studies. Time-averaged Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were acquired daily over several months along with the pressure drop between two cylinders. The atmospheric pressure was measured along with the data set. The PIV data and pressure drop were correlated with atmospheric conditions and changes in experimental setup. It was found that atmospheric conditions play little role in the channel velocity, but impact the pressure drop significantly. The adjustments made to the experiment setup did not change the results. However, in some cases, the wake behind a cylinder was shifted significantly from one day to the next. These changes did not correlate with ambient pressure, room temperature, nor tear down/rebuilds of the facility. (author)

  10. Validation Study of Unnotched Charpy and Taylor-Anvil Impact Experiments using Kayenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamojjala, Krishna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lacy, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chu, Henry S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brannon, Rebecca [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Validation of a single computational model with multiple available strain-to-failure fracture theories is presented through experimental tests and numerical simulations of the standardized unnotched Charpy and Taylor-anvil impact tests, both run using the same material model (Kayenta). Unnotched Charpy tests are performed on rolled homogeneous armor steel. The fracture patterns using Kayenta’s various failure options that include aleatory uncertainty and scale effects are compared against the experiments. Other quantities of interest include the average value of the absorbed energy and bend angle of the specimen. Taylor-anvil impact tests are performed on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The impact speeds of the specimen are 321 m/s and 393 m/s. The goal of the numerical work is to reproduce the damage patterns observed in the laboratory. For the numerical study, the Johnson-Cook failure model is used as the ductile fracture criterion, and aleatory uncertainty is applied to rate-dependence parameters to explore its effect on the fracture patterns.

  11. The reactor kinetics code tank: a validation against selected SPERT-1b experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The two-dimensional space-time analysis code TANK is being developed for the simulation of transient behaviour in the MAPLE class of research reactors. MAPLE research reactor cores are compact, light-water-cooled and -moderated, with a high degree of forced subcooling. The SPERT-1B(24/32) reactor core had many similarities to MAPLE-X10, and the results of the SPERT transient experiments are well documented. As a validation of TANK, a series of simulations of certain SPERT reactor transients was undertaken. Special features were added to the TANK code to model reactors with plate-type fuel and to allow for the simulation of rapid void production. The results of a series of super-prompt-critical reactivity step-insertion transient simulations are presented. The selected SPERT transients were all initiated from low power, at ambient temperatures, and with negligible coolant flow. Th results of the TANK simulations are in good agreement with the trends in the experimental SPERT data

  12. The List of Threatening Experiences: the reliability and validity of a brief life events questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugha, T S; Cragg, D

    1990-07-01

    During the 23 years since the original work of Holmes & Rahe, research into stressful life events on human subjects has tended towards the development of longer and more complex inventories. The List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) of Brugha et al., by virtue of its brevity, overcomes difficulties of clinical application. In a study of 50 psychiatric patients and informants, the questionnaire version of the list (LTE-Q) was shown to have high test-retest reliability, and good agreement with informant information. Concurrent validity, based on the criterion of independently rated adversity derived from a semistructured life events interview, making use of the Life Events and Difficulties Scales (LEDS) method developed by Brown & Harris, showed both high specificity and sensitivity. The LTE-Q is particularly recommended for use in psychiatric, psychological and social studies in which other intervening variables such as social support, coping, and cognitive variables are of interest, and resources do not allow for the use of extensive interview measures of stress.

  13. Fission product release from nuclear fuel II. Validation of ASTEC/ELSA on analytical and large scale experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A wide range of experiments is presented for the ASTEC/ELSA code validation. • Analytical tests such as AECL, ORNL and VERCORS are considered. • A large-scale experiment, PHEBUS FPT1, is considered. • The good agreement with measurements shows the efficiency of the ASTEC modelling. • Improvements concern the FP release modelling from MOX and high burn-up UO 2 fuels. - Abstract: This article is the second of two articles dedicated to the mechanisms of fission product release from a degraded core. The models of fission product release from nuclear fuel in the ASTEC code have been described in detail in the first part of this work (Brillant et al., this issue). In this contribution, the validation of ELSA, the module of ASTEC that deals with fission product and structural material release from a degraded core, is presented. A large range of experimental tests, with various temperature and conditions for the fuel surrounding atmosphere (oxidising and reducing), is thus simulated with the ASTEC code. The validation database includes several analytical experiments with both bare fuel (e.g. MCE1 experiments) and cladded fuel (e.g. HCE3, VERCORS). Furthermore, the PHEBUS large-scale experiments are used for the validation of ASTEC. The rather satisfactory comparison between ELSA calculations and experimental measurements demonstrates the efficiency of the analytical models to describe fission product release in severe accident conditions

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  15. Elements of a pragmatic approach for dealing with bias and uncertainty in experiments through predictions : experiment design and data conditioning; %22real space%22 model validation and conditioning; hierarchical modeling and extrapolative prediction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente Jose

    2011-11-01

    This report explores some important considerations in devising a practical and consistent framework and methodology for utilizing experiments and experimental data to support modeling and prediction. A pragmatic and versatile 'Real Space' approach is outlined for confronting experimental and modeling bias and uncertainty to mitigate risk in modeling and prediction. The elements of experiment design and data analysis, data conditioning, model conditioning, model validation, hierarchical modeling, and extrapolative prediction under uncertainty are examined. An appreciation can be gained for the constraints and difficulties at play in devising a viable end-to-end methodology. Rationale is given for the various choices underlying the Real Space end-to-end approach. The approach adopts and refines some elements and constructs from the literature and adds pivotal new elements and constructs. Crucially, the approach reflects a pragmatism and versatility derived from working many industrial-scale problems involving complex physics and constitutive models, steady-state and time-varying nonlinear behavior and boundary conditions, and various types of uncertainty in experiments and models. The framework benefits from a broad exposure to integrated experimental and modeling activities in the areas of heat transfer, solid and structural mechanics, irradiated electronics, and combustion in fluids and solids.

  16. Validation of RNAi Silencing Efficiency Using Gene Array Data shows 18.5% Failure Rate across 429 Independent Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyöngyi Munkácsy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No independent cross-validation of success rate for studies utilizing small interfering RNA (siRNA for gene silencing has been completed before. To assess the influence of experimental parameters like cell line, transfection technique, validation method, and type of control, we have to validate these in a large set of studies. We utilized gene chip data published for siRNA experiments to assess success rate and to compare methods used in these experiments. We searched NCBI GEO for samples with whole transcriptome analysis before and after gene silencing and evaluated the efficiency for the target and off-target genes using the array-based expression data. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess silencing efficacy and Kruskal–Wallis tests and Spearman rank correlation were used to evaluate study parameters. All together 1,643 samples representing 429 experiments published in 207 studies were evaluated. The fold change (FC of down-regulation of the target gene was above 0.7 in 18.5% and was above 0.5 in 38.7% of experiments. Silencing efficiency was lowest in MCF7 and highest in SW480 cells (FC = 0.59 and FC = 0.30, respectively, P = 9.3E−06. Studies utilizing Western blot for validation performed better than those with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR or microarray (FC = 0.43, FC = 0.47, and FC = 0.55, respectively, P = 2.8E−04. There was no correlation between type of control, transfection method, publication year, and silencing efficiency. Although gene silencing is a robust feature successfully cross-validated in the majority of experiments, efficiency remained insufficient in a significant proportion of studies. Selection of cell line model and validation method had the highest influence on silencing proficiency.

  17. Development of a filtered neutron field in KUR. In behalf of biological irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Utsuro, Masahiko; Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1995-07-01

    Very little direct measurements have been made of the biological effects of neutrons below 100keV. Recently, an iron-filtered 24keV neutron beam of Harwell Materials Testing Reactor, PLUTO, was reported to be highly efficient in inducing chromosome aberrations; the efficiency being comparable to that of fission neutrons. This results could have serious repercussions for radiation protection standards as the ICRP assume a decrease in neutron RBE below 100keV. The investigations reported here have as their primary purpose the production of neutron beams at the 24keV iron window energy, using the B-1 experimental facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI). The filtered neutron filed for biomedical applications is designed to maximized the contributions of neutrons with other energies and gamma-rays. The characteristics of the radiation field were obtained by the simple transmission calculations for Fe(45cm) and Al(35cm) filters, by using the Monte Carlo code MCN P, and by the measurement of nuclear heating for Fe and Al filter pieces. The 24keV neutron flux and gamma-ray dose rate were measured using a proton recoil counter and TLDs, respectively. The measured findings are as follows: The 24keV neutron flux at the irradiation field was approximately 1x10 6 n/cm 2 /s, and the gamma-ray dose rate was 1.0Gy/h at the surface of the B-1 plug. Nuclear heating of the filter materials was 5.2mW/g for Fe and 4mW/g for Al, in maximum. (author)

  18. New pellet compression schemes by indirect irradiation of REB and related preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.; Tazima, T.; Yonezu, H.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary experiments on a proposed scheme for pellet compression is carried out with a Point Pinch Diode. A high current density of ion beam is observed, and its value corresponds to 13.5 kA/cm 2 from the anode to the cathode. (author)

  19. Use of CT scans and treatment planning software for validation of the dose component of food irradiation protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsa, Joseph; Chu, Rod; Sun Jiansheng; Linton, Nick; Hunter, Craig

    2002-01-01

    The challenging problem of estimating the dose delivered to heterogeneous products by radiation modalities of limited penetration can be readily handled by using technologies developed for, and widely used in, radiation therapy applications. In particular, combining CT scanning with radiation treatment planning programs can simulate radiation processing with either photons or electrons, and can provide detailed, high resolution and accurate dose maps for any arbitrary product and package configuration. Such dose maps are an essential part of process validation. Comparison of the simulated dose distributions with measured dose maps verifies the soundness of this approach. The present communication presents results obtained with the simulation technique for a variety of common food items which are likely candidates for radiation processing

  20. Improving the quality of discrete-choice experiments in health: how can we assess validity and reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ellen M; Marshall, Deborah A; Hauber, A Brett; Bridges, John F P

    2017-12-01

    The recent endorsement of discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) and other stated-preference methods by regulatory and health technology assessment (HTA) agencies has placed a greater focus on demonstrating the validity and reliability of preference results. Areas covered: We present a practical overview of tests of validity and reliability that have been applied in the health DCE literature and explore other study qualities of DCEs. From the published literature, we identify a variety of methods to assess the validity and reliability of DCEs. We conceptualize these methods to create a conceptual model with four domains: measurement validity, measurement reliability, choice validity, and choice reliability. Each domain consists of three categories that can be assessed using one to four procedures (for a total of 24 tests). We present how these tests have been applied in the literature and direct readers to applications of these tests in the health DCE literature. Based on a stakeholder engagement exercise, we consider the importance of study characteristics beyond traditional concepts of validity and reliability. Expert commentary: We discuss study design considerations to assess the validity and reliability of a DCE, consider limitations to the current application of tests, and discuss future work to consider the quality of DCEs in healthcare.

  1. A systematic review of the reliability and validity of discrete choice experiments in valuing non-market environmental goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonarivo, O Sarobidy; Schaafsma, Marije; Hockley, Neal

    2016-12-01

    While discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used in the field of environmental valuation, they remain controversial because of their hypothetical nature and the contested reliability and validity of their results. We systematically reviewed evidence on the validity and reliability of environmental DCEs from the past thirteen years (Jan 2003-February 2016). 107 articles met our inclusion criteria. These studies provide limited and mixed evidence of the reliability and validity of DCE. Valuation results were susceptible to small changes in survey design in 45% of outcomes reporting reliability measures. DCE results were generally consistent with those of other stated preference techniques (convergent validity), but hypothetical bias was common. Evidence supporting theoretical validity (consistency with assumptions of rational choice theory) was limited. In content validity tests, 2-90% of respondents protested against a feature of the survey, and a considerable proportion found DCEs to be incomprehensible or inconsequential (17-40% and 10-62% respectively). DCE remains useful for non-market valuation, but its results should be used with caution. Given the sparse and inconclusive evidence base, we recommend that tests of reliability and validity are more routinely integrated into DCE studies and suggest how this might be achieved. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The Development of the Functional Literacy Experience Scale Based upon Ecological Theory (FLESBUET) and Validity-Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özenç, Emine Gül; Dogan, M. Cihangir

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to perform a validity-reliability test by developing the Functional Literacy Experience Scale based upon Ecological Theory (FLESBUET) for primary education students. The study group includes 209 fifth grade students at Sabri Taskin Primary School in the Kartal District of Istanbul, Turkey during the 2010-2011 academic year.…

  3. Examining the Internal Validity and Statistical Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design by Comparison with a Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Clair, Travis; Cook, Thomas D.; Hallberg, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Although evaluators often use an interrupted time series (ITS) design to test hypotheses about program effects, there are few empirical tests of the design's validity. We take a randomized experiment on an educational topic and compare its effects to those from a comparative ITS (CITS) design that uses the same treatment group as the experiment…

  4. EVLncRNAs: a manually curated database for long non-coding RNAs validated by low-throughput experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huiying; Yu, Jiafeng; Guo, Chengang; Dou, Xianghua; Song, Feng; Hu, Guodong; Cao, Zanxia; Qu, Yuanxu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important functional roles in various biological processes. Early databases were utilized to deposit all lncRNA candidates produced by high-throughput experimental and/or computational techniques to facilitate classification, assessment and validation. As more lncRNAs are validated by low-throughput experiments, several databases were established for experimentally validated lncRNAs. However, these databases are small in scale (with a few hundreds of lncRNAs only) and specific in their focuses (plants, diseases or interactions). Thus, it is highly desirable to have a comprehensive dataset for experimentally validated lncRNAs as a central repository for all of their structures, functions and phenotypes. Here, we established EVLncRNAs by curating lncRNAs validated by low-throughput experiments (up to 1 May 2016) and integrating specific databases (lncRNAdb, LncRANDisease, Lnc2Cancer and PLNIncRBase) with additional functional and disease-specific information not covered previously. The current version of EVLncRNAs contains 1543 lncRNAs from 77 species that is 2.9 times larger than the current largest database for experimentally validated lncRNAs. Seventy-four percent lncRNA entries are partially or completely new, comparing to all existing experimentally validated databases. The established database allows users to browse, search and download as well as to submit experimentally validated lncRNAs. The database is available at http://biophy.dzu.edu.cn/EVLncRNAs. PMID:28985416

  5. Report of experience with large dose single upper and lower half-body irradiation. 3. Hematological and serological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalluege, K H; Eichhorn, H J; Grunau, H [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Krebsforschung

    1981-08-01

    The reaction of hematological and serological parameters in 47 patients having received a large dose single irradiation of the upper and the parvicellular bronchial carcinoma, resp., of the upper and of the lower half of the body with 8.4 Gy for the mid-line is reported. Different positions of the patients during irradiation and different fractionations were compared. Subdivision of the half-body irradiation dose, anteroposterior direction of irradiation and partial sparing of the extremities during treatment proved to be the most careful method for the leukopoietic system because the leukocytes reached their initial values 6 weeks and the lymphocytes 2 months after irradiation. Serum aldolase is a suitable parameter for tumor response and for the demonstration of eventually not yet known metastases in the irradiated half of the body with an increase of the values above 8 IU per liter after irradiation. Creatine kinase is an indicator of the radiation response of the muscles.

  6. [Validation of knowledge acquired from experience: opportunity or threat for nurses working in operating theatres?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvat-Bouëdec, Cécile

    2005-06-01

    The law n 2002-73, dated 17 January 2002, of social modernisation, as it is called, reformed continuing professional training in France. It established a new system of professional certification, the validation of the knowledge acquired from experience (VAE in French). Since 2003, the Health Ministry has been studying a project to set up the VAE for health professions, among which, in particular, the profession of the state registered nurse working in operating theatres (IBODES in French). A state diploma sanctions the training enabling to practise this profession. In the future, the VAE will open a new access way to this diploma. Does this evolution constitute a threat for the profession, and a risk or an opportunity for individual people? The aim of this thesis is to characterise the impacts of the VAE on the IBODE profession and its current system of training. Two sociological and educational approaches are comforted by a field survey. A historical background of the IBODE profession develops the evolution of the caring practices, and presents the evolution of the training systems. A sociological approach enables to analyse the vocational focus of the IBODE on looking at functionalist theories. Therefore, the study enables to think that the VAE will have no consequences on the vocational focus of the IBODE. The VAE is then the object of an educational approach within the context of continuing professional training. The topics on which it could apply and the resistances it causes are studied. Some examples are taken within other Ministries. This study shows that the VAE involves an adaptation of training centres. The VAE constitutes a genuine opportunity for the IBODE profession. However, to manage its setting up in a delicate human context, the field professionals should be involved as early as possible in the reflection initiated by the Ministry.

  7. Model validation of GAMMA code with heat transfer experiment for KO TBM in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, Soo Been; Lee, Eo Hwak; Lee, Dong Won; Park, Goon Cherl

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study, helium supplying system was constructed. ► Preparation for heat transfer experiment in KO TBM condition using helium supplying system was progressed. ► To get more applicable results, test matrix was made to cover the condition for KO TBM. ► Using CFD code; CFX 11, validation and modification for system code GAMMA was performed. -- Abstract: By considering the requirements for a DEMO-relevant blanket concept, Korea (KO) has proposed a He cooled molten lithium (HCML) test blanket module (TBM) for testing in ITER. A performance analysis for the thermal–hydraulics and a safety analysis for the KO TBM have been carried out using a commercial CFD code, ANSYS-CFX, and a system code, GAMMA (GAs multicomponent mixture analysis), which was developed by the gas cooled reactor in Korea. To verify the codes, a preliminary study was performed by Lee using a single TBM first wall (FW) mock-up made from the same material as the KO TBM, ferritic martensitic steel, using a 6 MPa nitrogen gas loop. The test was performed at pressures of 1.1, 1.9 and 2.9 MPa, and under various ranges of flow rate from 0.0105 to 0.0407 kg/s with a constant wall temperature condition. In the present study, a thermal–hydraulic test was performed with the newly constructed helium supplying system, in which the design pressure and temperature were 9 MPa and 500 °C, respectively. In the experiment, the same mock-up was used, and the test was performed under the conditions of 3 MPa pressure, 30 °C inlet temperature and 70 m/s helium velocity, which are almost same conditions of the KO TBM FW. One side of the mock-up was heated with a constant heat flux of 0.3–0.5 MW/m 2 using a graphite heating system, KoHLT-2 (Korea heat load test facility-2). Because the comparison result between CFX 11 and GAMMA showed a difference tendency, the modification of heat transfer correlation included in GAMMA was performed. And the modified GAMMA showed the strong parity with CFX

  8. Applying the Mixed Methods Instrument Development and Construct Validation Process: the Transformative Experience Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Stewart, Victoria C.; Pugh, Kevin J.

    2018-01-01

    Onwuegbuzie and colleagues proposed the Instrument Development and Construct Validation (IDCV) process as a mixed methods framework for creating and validating measures. Examples applying IDCV are lacking. We provide an illustrative case integrating the Rasch model and cognitive interviews applied to the development of the Transformative…

  9. Characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment: Interim report on the caisson experiment. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.D.; Cheng, W.C.; Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R.

    1995-08-01

    Models used in performance assessment and site characterization activities related to nuclear waste disposal rely on simplified representations of solute/rock interactions, hydrologic flow field and the material properties of the rock layers surrounding the repository. A crucial element in the design of these models is the validity of these simplifying assumptions. An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out at the Experimental Engineered Test Facility at Los Alamos Laboratory by the Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories to develop a strategy to validate key geochemical and hydrological assumptions in performance assessment models used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

  10. Characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment: Interim report on the caisson experiment. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.D.; Cheng, W.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1995-08-01

    Models used in performance assessment and site characterization activities related to nuclear waste disposal rely on simplified representations of solute/rock interactions, hydrologic flow field and the material properties of the rock layers surrounding the repository. A crucial element in the design of these models is the validity of these simplifying assumptions. An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out at the Experimental Engineered Test Facility at Los Alamos Laboratory by the Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories to develop a strategy to validate key geochemical and hydrological assumptions in performance assessment models used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  11. Development and validation of the Consumer Quality index instrument to measure the experience and priority of chronic dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Sabine N; Jager, Kitty J; Visserman, Ella; Beekman, Robert J; Boeschoten, Els W; de Keizer, Nicolette F; Heuveling, Lara; Stronks, Karien; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2012-08-01

    Patient experience is an established indicator of quality of care. Validated tools that measure both experiences and priorities are lacking for chronic dialysis care, hampering identification of negative experiences that patients actually rate important. We developed two Consumer Quality (CQ) index questionnaires, one for in-centre haemodialysis (CHD) and the other for peritoneal dialysis and home haemodialysis (PHHD) care. The instruments were validated using exploratory factor analyses, reliability analysis of identified scales and assessing the association between reliable scales and global ratings. We investigated opportunities for improvement by combining suboptimal experience with patient priority. Sixteen dialysis centres participated in our study. The pilot CQ index for CHD care consisted of 71 questions. Based on data of 592 respondents, we identified 42 core experience items in 10 scales with Cronbach's α ranging from 0.38 to 0.88; five were reliable (α ≥ 0.70). The instrument identified information on centres' fire procedures as the aspect of care exhibiting the biggest opportunity for improvement. The pilot CQ index PHHD comprised 56 questions. The response of 248 patients yielded 31 core experience items in nine scales with Cronbach's α ranging between 0.53 and 0.85; six were reliable. Information on kidney transplantation during pre-dialysis showed most room for improvement. However, for both types of care, opportunities for improvement were mostly limited. The CQ index reliably and validly captures dialysis patient experience. Overall, most care aspects showed limited room for improvement, mainly because patients participating in our study rated their experience to be optimal. To evaluate items with high priority, but with which relatively few patients have experience, more qualitative instruments should be considered.

  12. Belgian class II nuclear facilities such as irradiators and accelerators. Regulatory Body attention points and operating experience feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minne, Etienne; Peters, Christelle; Mommaert, Chantal; Kennes, Christian; Cortenbosch, Geert; Schmitz, Frederic; Haesendonck, Michel van [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Carlier, Pascal; Schrayen, Virginie; Wertelaers, An [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to present the Regulatory Body attention points and the operating experience feedback from Belgian ''class IIA'' facilities such as industrial and research irradiators, bulk radionuclides producers and conditioners. Reinforcement of the nuclear safety and radiation protection has been promoted by the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) since 2009. This paper is clearly a continuation of the former paper [1] presenting the evolution in the regulatory framework relative to the creation of Bel V, the subsidiary of the FANC, and to the new ''class IIA'' covering heavy installations such as those mentioned above. Some lessons learnt are extracted from the operating experience feedback based on the events declared to the authorities. Even though a real willingness to meet the new safety requirements is observed among the ''class IIA'' licensees, promoting the safety culture, the nuclear safety and radiation protection remains an endless challenge for the Regulatory Body.

  13. Irradiation performance of HTGR fuel rods in HFIR experiments HRB-7 and -8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, K.H.; Homan, F.J.; Long, E.L. Jr.; Tiegs, T.N.; Montgomery, B.H.; Hamner, R.L.; Beatty, R.L.

    1977-05-01

    The HRB-7 and -8 experiments were designed as a comprehensive test of mixed thorium-uranium oxide fissile particles with Th:U ratios from 0 to 8 for HTGR recycle application. In addition, fissile particles derived from Weak-Acid Resin (WAR) were tested as a potential backup type of fissile particle for HTGR recycle. These experiments were conducted at two temperatures (1250 and 1500 0 C) to determine the influence of operating temperature on the performance parameters studied. The minor objectives were comparison of advanced coating designs where ZrC replaced SiC in the Triso design, testing of fuel coated in laboratory-scale equipment with fuel coated in production-scale coaters, comparison of the performance of 233 U-bearing particles with that of 235 U-bearing particles, comparison of the performance of Biso coatings with Triso coatings for particles containing the same type of kernel, and testing of multijunction tungsten-rhenium thermocouples. All objectives were accomplished. As a result of these experiments the mixed thorium-uranium oxide fissile kernel was replaced by a WAR-derived particle in the reference recycle design. A tentative decision to make this change had been reached before the HRB-7 and -8 capsules were examined, and the results of the examination confirmed the accuracy of the previous decision. Even maximum dilution (Th/U approximately equal to 8) of the mixed thorium-uranium oxide kernel was insufficient to prevent amoeba of the kernels at rates that are unacceptable in a large HTGR. Other results showed the performance of 233 U-bearing particles to be identical to that of 235 U-bearing particles, the performance of fuel coated in production-scale equipment to be at least as good as that of fuel coated in laboratory-scale coaters, the performance of ZrC coatings to be very promising, and Biso coatings to be inferior to Triso coatings relative to fission product retention

  14. A comparison of FEMAXI-III code calculations with irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Sogame, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Nakajima, T.

    1981-01-01

    The FEMAXI-III code calculations were compared with in-pile diameter measurements in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor, in order to check the ability to analyse the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction. The results showed generally good agreement between calculations and measurements. The Studsvik INTER-RAMP Experiments were also analysed to examine the predictability of fuel rod failures. Good agreement was obtained between calculated and measured fission gas x release. The threshold stress to cause failure was estimated by means of FEMAXI-III. (author)

  15. A validation study for the gas migration modelling of the compacted bentonite using existing experiment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Y.; Mori, K.; Tada, K.; Shimura, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Hayashi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After the field-scaled Gas Migration Test (GMT) was carried out at Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland from 1997 through 2005, a study on advanced gas migration modelling has been conducted as a part of R and D programs of the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management funding and Research Center) to evaluate long-term behaviour of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) for the TRU waste disposal system in Japan. One of main objectives of this modelling study is to provide the qualified models and parameters in order to predict long-term gas migration behaviour in compacted bentonite. In addition, from a perspective of coupled THMC (Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical and Chemical) processes, the specific processes which may have considerable impact to the gas migration behaviour are discussed by means of scoping calculations. Literature survey was conducted to collect experimental data related to gas migration in compacted bentonite in order to discuss an applicability of the existing gas migration models in the bentonite. The well-known flow rate controlled-gas injection experiment by Horseman, et al. and the pressure-controlled-gas injection test using several data with wide range of clay density and water content by Graham, et al, were selected. These literatures show the following characteristic behaviour of gas migration in high compacted and water-saturated bentonite. The observed gas flow rate from the outlet in the experiment by Horseman et al. was numerically reproduced by using the different conceptual models and computer codes, and then an applicability of the models and the identified key parameters such as relative permeability and capillary pressure were discussed. Helium gas was repeatedly injected into fully water-saturated and isotropically consolidated MX-80 bentonite (dry density: 1.6 Mg/m 3 ) in the experiment. One of the most important conclusions from this experiment is that it's impossible for

  16. The BG18, a B(U)F type package used for the transport of irradiated fuel rods - return of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen, S.; Herman, S. [Transnubel, Dessel (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to share the return of experience of Transnubel after a period of nearly 3 years operation of the BG18 package in several nuclear power plants and hot cell facilities. This package has been used mainly for the shipment of full scale as well as samples of irradiated fuel rods - UOX or MOX, PWR or BWR.

  17. Two-Photon Irradiation of an Intracellular Singlet Oxygen Photosensitizer: Achieving Localized Sub-Cellular Excitation in Spatially-Resolved Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Wett; Breitenbach, Thomas; Redmond, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The response of a given cell to spatially-resolved sub-cellular irradiation of a singlet oxygen photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) using a focused laser was assessed. In these experiments, incident light was scattered over a volume greater than that defi ned by the dimensions of the laser...

  18. The BG18, a B(U)F type package used for the transport of irradiated fuel rods - return of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juergen, S.; Herman, S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to share the return of experience of Transnubel after a period of nearly 3 years operation of the BG18 package in several nuclear power plants and hot cell facilities. This package has been used mainly for the shipment of full scale as well as samples of irradiated fuel rods - UOX or MOX, PWR or BWR

  19. Use of integral experiments in support to the validation of JEFF-3.2 nuclear data evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Nicolas; Cochet, Bertrand; Jinaphanh, Alexis; Haeck, Wim

    2017-09-01

    For many years now, IRSN has developed its own Monte Carlo continuous energy capability, which allows testing various nuclear data libraries. In that prospect, a validation database of 1136 experiments was built from cases used for the validation of the APOLLO2-MORET 5 multigroup route of the CRISTAL V2.0 package. In this paper, the keff obtained for more than 200 benchmarks using the JEFF-3.1.1 and JEFF-3.2 libraries are compared to benchmark keff values and main discrepancies are analyzed regarding the neutron spectrum. Special attention is paid on benchmarks for which the results have been highly modified between both JEFF-3 versions.

  20. Use of Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis to Select Benchmark Experiments for the Validation of Computer Codes and Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, K.R.; Rearden, B.T.

    2003-01-01

    Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methodologies under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were applied to determine whether existing benchmark experiments adequately cover the area of applicability for the criticality code and data validation of PuO 2 and mixed-oxide (MOX) powder systems. The study examined three PuO 2 powder systems and four MOX powder systems that would be useful for establishing mass limits for a MOX fuel fabrication facility. Using traditional methods to choose experiments for criticality analysis validation, 46 benchmark critical experiments were identified as applicable to the PuO 2 powder systems. However, only 14 experiments were thought to be within the area of applicability for dry MOX powder systems.The applicability of 318 benchmark critical experiments, including the 60 experiments initially identified, was assessed. Each benchmark and powder system was analyzed using the Tools for Sensitivity and UNcertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation (TSUNAMI) one-dimensional (TSUNAMI-1D) or TSUNAMI three-dimensional (TSUNAMI-3D) sensitivity analysis sequences, which will be included in the next release of the SCALE code system. This sensitivity data and cross-section uncertainty data were then processed with TSUNAMI-IP to determine the correlation of each application to each experiment in the benchmarking set. Correlation coefficients are used to assess the similarity between systems and determine the applicability of one system for the code and data validation of another.The applicability of most of the experiments identified using traditional methods was confirmed by the TSUNAMI analysis. In addition, some PuO 2 and MOX powder systems were determined to be within the area of applicability of several other benchmarks that would not have been considered using traditional methods. Therefore, the number of benchmark experiments useful for the validation of these systems exceeds the number previously expected. The TSUNAMI analysis