WorldWideScience

Sample records for validation associating fabp-1

  1. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels.

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    Xian-E Peng

    Full Text Available Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1, is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182 from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032.Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05. The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01. In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = -0.320, P = 0.003, while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014. Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans.

  2. FEMALE MICE ARE RESISTANT TO Fabp1 GENE ABLATION-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN ENDOCANNABINOID LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G.; Chung, Sarah; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Dangott, Lawrence J.; Peng, Xiaoxue; Kaczocha, Martin; Murphy, Eric J.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    Although liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP) is not detectable in brain, Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) markedly increases endocannabinoids (EC) in brains of male mice. Since the brain EC system of females differs significantly from that of males, it was important to determine if LKO differently impacted the brain EC system. LKO did not alter brain levels of arachidonic acid (ARA)-containing ECs, i.e arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but decreased non-ARA-containing N-acylethanolamides (OEA, PEA) and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) that potentiate the actions of AEA and 2-AG. These changes in brain potentiating EC levels were not associated with: i) a net decrease in levels of brain membrane proteins associated with fatty acid uptake and EC synthesis; ii) a net increase in brain protein levels of cytosolic EC chaperones and enzymes in EC degradation; or iii) increased brain protein levels of EC receptors (CB1, TRVP1). Instead, the reduced or opposite responsiveness of female brain EC levels to loss of FABP1 (LKO) correlated with intrinsically lower FABP1 level in livers of WT females than males. These data show that female mouse brain endocannabinoid levels were unchanged (AEA, 2-AG) or decreased (OEA, PEA, 2-OG) by complete loss of FABP1 (LKO). PMID:27450559

  3. Direct interaction between EgFABP1, a fatty acid binding protein from Echinococcus granulosus, and phospholipid membranes.

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    Jorge L Porfido

    Full Text Available Growth and maintenance of hydatid cysts produced by Echinococcus granulosus have a high requirement for host lipids for biosynthetic processes, membrane building and possibly cellular and developmental signalling. This requires a high degree of lipid trafficking facilitated by lipid transporter proteins. Members of the fatty acid binding protein (FABP family have been identified in Echinococcus granulosus, one of which, EgFABP1 is expressed at the tegumental level in the protoscoleces, but it has also been described in both hydatid cyst fluid and secretions of protoscoleces. In spite of a considerable amount of structural and biophysical information on the FABPs in general, their specific functions remain mysterious.We have investigated the way in which EgFABP1 may interact with membranes using a variety of fluorescence-based techniques and artificial small unilamellar vesicles. We first found that bacterial recombinant EgFABP1 is loaded with fatty acids from the synthesising bacteria, and that fatty acid binding increases its resistance to proteinases, possibly due to subtle conformational changes induced on EgFABP1. By manipulating the composition of lipid vesicles and the ionic environment, we found that EgFABP1 interacts with membranes in a direct contact, collisional, manner to exchange ligand, involving both ionic and hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, we observed that the protein can compete with cytochrome c for association with the surface of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs.This work constitutes a first approach to the understanding of protein-membrane interactions of EgFABP1. The results suggest that this protein may be actively involved in the exchange and transport of fatty acids between different membranes and cellular compartments within the parasite.

  4. Fabp1 gene ablation inhibits high-fat diet-induced increase in brain endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Chung, Sarah; Dangott, Lawrence J; Seeger, Drew R; Murphy, Eric J; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Impression Management by Association: Construction and Validation of a Scale.

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    Andrews, Martha C.; Kacmar, K. Michele

    2001-01-01

    Impression management (managing associations with others to create a favorable impression) using such tactics as boasting, blurring, blaring, and burying was examined using factor and validity analyses of data from the Image Management by Association Scale. The scale satisfactorily represented the four tactics, although burying and blaring needed…

  6. Intent inferencing by an intelligent operator's associate - A validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    1988-01-01

    In the supervisory control of a complex, dynamic system, one potential form of aiding for the human operator is a computer-based operator's associate. The design philosophy of the operator's associate is that of 'amplifying' rather than automating human skills. In particular, the associate possesses understanding and control properties. Understanding allows it to infer operator intentions and thus form the basis for context-dependent advice and reminders; control properties allow the human operator to dynamically delegate individual tasks or subfunctions to the associate. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and validation of the intent inferencing function. Two validation studies are described which empirically demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach to intent inferencing.

  7. Poor replication validity of biomedical association studies reported by newspapers.

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    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Smith, Andy; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, François

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the replication validity of biomedical association studies covered by newspapers. We used a database of 4723 primary studies included in 306 meta-analysis articles. These studies associated a risk factor with a disease in three biomedical domains, psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases. They were classified into a lifestyle category (e.g. smoking) and a non-lifestyle category (e.g. genetic risk). Using the database Dow Jones Factiva, we investigated the newspaper coverage of each study. Their replication validity was assessed using a comparison with their corresponding meta-analyses. Among the 5029 articles of our database, 156 primary studies (of which 63 were lifestyle studies) and 5 meta-analysis articles were reported in 1561 newspaper articles. The percentage of covered studies and the number of newspaper articles per study strongly increased with the impact factor of the journal that published each scientific study. Newspapers almost equally covered initial (5/39 12.8%) and subsequent (58/600 9.7%) lifestyle studies. In contrast, initial non-lifestyle studies were covered more often (48/366 13.1%) than subsequent ones (45/3718 1.2%). Newspapers never covered initial studies reporting null findings and rarely reported subsequent null observations. Only 48.7% of the 156 studies reported by newspapers were confirmed by the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial non-lifestyle studies were less often confirmed (16/48) than subsequent ones (29/45) and than lifestyle studies (31/63). Psychiatric studies covered by newspapers were less often confirmed (10/38) than the neurological (26/41) or somatic (40/77) ones. This is correlated to an even larger coverage of initial studies in psychiatry. Whereas 234 newspaper articles covered the 35 initial studies that were later disconfirmed, only four press articles covered a subsequent null finding and mentioned the refutation of an initial claim. Journalists preferentially cover initial findings

  8. Poor replication validity of biomedical association studies reported by newspapers.

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    Estelle Dumas-Mallet

    Full Text Available To investigate the replication validity of biomedical association studies covered by newspapers.We used a database of 4723 primary studies included in 306 meta-analysis articles. These studies associated a risk factor with a disease in three biomedical domains, psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases. They were classified into a lifestyle category (e.g. smoking and a non-lifestyle category (e.g. genetic risk. Using the database Dow Jones Factiva, we investigated the newspaper coverage of each study. Their replication validity was assessed using a comparison with their corresponding meta-analyses.Among the 5029 articles of our database, 156 primary studies (of which 63 were lifestyle studies and 5 meta-analysis articles were reported in 1561 newspaper articles. The percentage of covered studies and the number of newspaper articles per study strongly increased with the impact factor of the journal that published each scientific study. Newspapers almost equally covered initial (5/39 12.8% and subsequent (58/600 9.7% lifestyle studies. In contrast, initial non-lifestyle studies were covered more often (48/366 13.1% than subsequent ones (45/3718 1.2%. Newspapers never covered initial studies reporting null findings and rarely reported subsequent null observations. Only 48.7% of the 156 studies reported by newspapers were confirmed by the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial non-lifestyle studies were less often confirmed (16/48 than subsequent ones (29/45 and than lifestyle studies (31/63. Psychiatric studies covered by newspapers were less often confirmed (10/38 than the neurological (26/41 or somatic (40/77 ones. This is correlated to an even larger coverage of initial studies in psychiatry. Whereas 234 newspaper articles covered the 35 initial studies that were later disconfirmed, only four press articles covered a subsequent null finding and mentioned the refutation of an initial claim.Journalists preferentially cover initial findings

  9. Poor replication validity of biomedical association studies reported by newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andy; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, François

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the replication validity of biomedical association studies covered by newspapers. Methods We used a database of 4723 primary studies included in 306 meta-analysis articles. These studies associated a risk factor with a disease in three biomedical domains, psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases. They were classified into a lifestyle category (e.g. smoking) and a non-lifestyle category (e.g. genetic risk). Using the database Dow Jones Factiva, we investigated the newspaper coverage of each study. Their replication validity was assessed using a comparison with their corresponding meta-analyses. Results Among the 5029 articles of our database, 156 primary studies (of which 63 were lifestyle studies) and 5 meta-analysis articles were reported in 1561 newspaper articles. The percentage of covered studies and the number of newspaper articles per study strongly increased with the impact factor of the journal that published each scientific study. Newspapers almost equally covered initial (5/39 12.8%) and subsequent (58/600 9.7%) lifestyle studies. In contrast, initial non-lifestyle studies were covered more often (48/366 13.1%) than subsequent ones (45/3718 1.2%). Newspapers never covered initial studies reporting null findings and rarely reported subsequent null observations. Only 48.7% of the 156 studies reported by newspapers were confirmed by the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial non-lifestyle studies were less often confirmed (16/48) than subsequent ones (29/45) and than lifestyle studies (31/63). Psychiatric studies covered by newspapers were less often confirmed (10/38) than the neurological (26/41) or somatic (40/77) ones. This is correlated to an even larger coverage of initial studies in psychiatry. Whereas 234 newspaper articles covered the 35 initial studies that were later disconfirmed, only four press articles covered a subsequent null finding and mentioned the refutation of an initial claim. Conclusion Journalists

  10. Design of JT-60SA magnets and associated experimental validations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, L.; Barabaschi, P.; Peyrot, M.; Meunier, L.; Tomarchio, V.; Duglue, D.; Decool, P.; Torre, A.; Marechal, J.L.; Della Corte, A.; Di Zenobio, A.; Muzzi, L.; Cucchiaro, A.; Turtu, S.; Ishida, S.; Yoshida, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kizu, K.; Murakami, H.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the JT-60SA project, aiming at upgrading the present JT-60U tokamak toward a fully superconducting configuration, the detailed design phase led to adopt for the three main magnet systems a brand new design. Europe (EU) is expected to provide to Japan (JA) the totality of the toroidal field (TF) magnet system, while JA will provide both Equilibrium field (EF) and Central Solenoid (CS) systems. All magnet designs were optimized trough the past years and entered in parallel into extensive experimentally-based phases of concept validation, which came to maturation in the years 2009 and 2010. For this, all magnet systems were investigated by mean of dedicated samples, e.g. conductor and joint samples designed, manufactured and tested at full scale in ad hoc facilities either in EU or in JA. The present paper, after an overall description of magnet systems layouts, presents in a general approach the different experimental campaigns dedicated to qualification design and manufacture processes of either coils, conductors and electrical joints. The main results with the associated analyses are shown and the main conclusions presented, especially regarding their contribution to consolidate the triggering of magnet mass production. The status of respective manufacturing stages in EU and in JA are also evoked. (authors)

  11. Construct validity of the Big Five Implicit Association Test

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    Gaja Zager Kocjan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Psychology has recently seen a noticeable increase in interest for implicit measures of attitudes and personality characteristics. The far most known implicit measure is the Implicit Association Test – IAT. We adapted this test in order to assess the Big Five personality dimensions (B5 IAT. We examined B5 IAT measurement characteristics on two samples. Based on the findings of the first sample (N = 62, improvements were made in the B5 IAT, to be tested again on another sample (N = 75. The two studies have shown similar results. The reliabilities of the personality dimensions measured with the B5 IAT failed to achieve a satisfactory level in most cases. The reason probably lies in a lower adequacy of certain stimuli and in the considerable length of the test procedure. The convergent validity of the B5 IAT with explicit measures of personality was low, which may be due to different structures underlying implicit and explicit measures. Results obtained on the first sample have shown that the correlations between IAT adjectives are adequately explained by five latent dimensions. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to B5 IAT low reliabilities and small sample sizes. The second sample proved to be very unstable, thus the confirmatory factor analysis could not be conducted. Since this is the first attempt to adapt B5 IAT to Slovene language, it is hardly surprising that the results are not entirely consistent with the expectations. As implicit measures currently fail to meet relevant psychometric characteristics, they are not yet applicable in psychological practice. Nevertheless, they have great potential in exploring personality and individual differences, as they overcome many limitations of existing explicit measures.

  12. An in vitro efficacy validation of mangrove associates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aseer Manilal; Behailu Merdekios; Jose Paul Veliyath Paul; Akbar Idhayadhulla; Chinnaswamy Muthukumar; Mulugeta Melkie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of mangrove associates against a battery of human and shrimp pathogenic bacteria and to elucidate its antimicrobial principles.Methods:(southwest coast of India) vicinity were extracted in different organic solvents of increasing polarity. The resultant extracts obtained from the respective species were examined for the antimicrobial activity against a panel of shrimp and human pathogens by agar diffusion assay.Results:In the present study, 12 species of mangrove associates collected from the Kollam inophyllum (C. inophyllum), Cerbera odollam and Dalbergia candenatensis] were found to be active. The broadest and highest rank of activity was observed in the crude extract of C. inophyllum. Amongst the pathogens tested, shrimp pathogenic Vibrios were the most sensitive organisms while human pathogens were found to be a bit resistant. In the present study, ethyl acetate was found to be the best solvent for extracting antimicrobial metabolites. The bioactive principles present in the crude extract of C. inophyllum were chemically elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer studies revealed the presence of two principal compounds such as 1-Dimethyl(phenyl)silyloxyhexadecane (24.73%) and β-d-Mannofuranoside, O-geranyl (50%) which might play functional role in the chemical defense against microbial invasion.Conclusions:Of the 12 species evaluated, three species of mangrove associates [Calophyllum inophyllum is a promising candidate for the development of plant-based human and veterinary grade antibiotics in future. Based on the overall findings, it could be inferred that the mangrove associate C.

  13. Brief implicit association test: Validity and utility in prediction of voting behavior

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    Pavlović Maša D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We employed the Brief Implicit Association Test (a recently developed short version of IAT to measure implicit political attitudes toward four political parties running for Serbian parliament. To test its criterion validity, we measured voting intention and actual voting behavior. In addition, we introduced political involvement as a potential moderator of the BIAT’s predictive and incremental validity. The BIAT demonstrated good internal and predictive validity, but lacked incremental validity over self-report measures. Predictive power of the BIAT was moderated by political involvement - the BIAT scores were stronger predictors of voting intention and behavior among voters highly involved in politics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  14. Electronic implementation of a novel surveillance paradigm for ventilator-associated events. Feasibility and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M. C.; van Mourik, Maaike S. M.; Ong, David S. Y.; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J.; Cremer, Olaf L.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate surveillance of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is hampered by subjective diagnostic criteria. A novel surveillance paradigm for ventilator-associated events (VAEs) was introduced. To determine the validity of surveillance using the new VAE algorithm. Prospective cohort study in two

  15. Development and Validation of a Scale Assessing Mental Health Clinicians' Experiences of Associative Stigma.

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    Yanos, Philip T; Vayshenker, Beth; DeLuca, Joseph S; O'Connor, Lauren K

    2017-10-01

    Mental health professionals who work with people with serious mental illnesses are believed to experience associative stigma. Evidence suggests that associative stigma could play an important role in the erosion of empathy among professionals; however, no validated measure of the construct currently exists. This study examined the convergent and discriminant validity and factor structure of a new scale assessing the associative stigma experiences of clinicians working with people with serious mental illnesses. A total of 473 clinicians were recruited from professional associations in the United States and participated in an online study. Participants completed the Clinician Associative Stigma Scale (CASS) and measures of burnout, quality of care, expectations about recovery, and self-efficacy. Associative stigma experiences were commonly endorsed; eight items on the 18-item scale were endorsed as being experienced "sometimes" or "often" by over 50% of the sample. The new measure demonstrated a logical four-factor structure: "negative stereotypes about professional effectiveness," "discomfort with disclosure," "negative stereotypes about people with mental illness," and "stereotypes about professionals' mental health." The measure had good internal consistency. It was significantly related to measures of burnout and quality of care, but it was not related to measures of self-efficacy or expectations about recovery. Findings suggest that the CASS is internally consistent and shows evidence of convergent validity and that associative stigma is commonly experienced by mental health professionals who work with people with serious mental illnesses.

  16. Women's Mental Health Questionnaire (W-MHQ), Construction, Reliability, Validity: Father Parenting Associations

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    Perkins, Rose J. Merlino

    2018-01-01

    "Women's Mental Health Questionnaire" (W-MHQ) assesses females' adult mental health concerns, and examines their associations with specified father-daughter childhood relationships. Presented are W-MHQ item and scale development, and psychometric findings drawn from factor analyses, reliability assessments, and validation processes. For…

  17. Test-Retest Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Implicit Association Test in Children

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    Rae, James R.; Olson, Kristina R.

    2018-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many…

  18. Validation of genetic polymorphisms associated to the toxicity of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients

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    L. Cortejoso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To validate the associations previously found in three cohorts of patients from the General University Hospital Gregorio Marañón, between the polymorphisms rs1128503, rs2032582 and rs1045642 of the ABCB1 gene and the hand-foot syndrome and diarrhea in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy regimes containing Capecitabine and 5-Fluorouracil, respectively, and between the polymorphisms rs2297595 of the DPYD gene and nausea/vomiting, rs11615 of ERCC1 and neutropenia, and rs28399433 CYP2A6 and neutropenia, in colorectal cancer patients treated with FOLFOX or XELOX as adjuvant therapy. Method: Colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy regimes, containing Capecitabine (n = 157, 5-Fluorouracil (n = 99 were included in the study, as well as patients treated with XELOX or FOLFOX (n = 83 as adjuvant therapy. The patients included were recruited from the Doce de Octubre University Hospital and from the Gregorio Marañón General University Hospital, and signed the informed consent form. DNA was obtained from blood samples. Genotyping was carried out with SNaPshot. Contingency tables were created for analyzing the associations between the genotypes and the adverse reactions. Results: None of the associations previously identified was replicated in the validation cohort. Conclusions: Pharmacogenetic studies with a limited sample size must be validated with bigger cohorts, if possible by means of multicentre studies, reducing the variables to the maximum and should never be used in clinical practice without validation.

  19. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J

    2009-01-01

    The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had...... been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P... and risk of ovarian cancer suggests that this pathway may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional follow-up is warranted....

  20. Validation and discovery of genotype-phenotype associations in chronic diseases using linked data.

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    Pathak, Jyotishman; Kiefer, Richard; Freimuth, Robert; Chute, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates federated SPARQL queries over Linked Open Data (LOD) in the Semantic Web to validate existing, and potentially discover new genotype-phenotype associations from public datasets. In particular, we report our preliminary findings for identifying such associations for commonly occurring chronic diseases using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and Database for SNPs (dbSNP) within the LOD knowledgebase and compare them with Gene Wiki for coverage and completeness. Our results indicate that Semantic Web technologies can play an important role for in-silico identification of novel disease-gene-SNP associations, although additional verification is required before such information can be applied and used effectively.

  1. Test-retest reliability and predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R; Olson, Kristina R

    2018-02-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many factors simultaneously (lag-time between testing administrations, domain, etc.), it is difficult to discern what factors may explain variability in existing test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates. Across five studies (total N = 519; ages 6- to 11-years-old), we manipulated two factors that have varied in previous developmental research-lag-time and domain. An internal meta-analysis of these studies revealed that, across three different methods of analyzing the data, mean test-retest (rs of .48, .38, and .34) and predictive validity (rs of .46, .20, and .10) effect sizes were significantly greater than zero. While lag-time did not moderate the magnitude of test-retest coefficients, whether we observed domain differences in test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates was contingent on other factors, such as how we scored the IAT or whether we included estimates from a unique sample (i.e., a sample containing gender typical and gender diverse children). Recommendations are made for developmental researchers that utilize the IAT in their research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Validity and usability of a professional association's web-based knowledge translation portal: American Physical Therapy Association's PTNow.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Judith E; Romney, Wendy; Reynolds, Jan; Manal, Tara Jo

    2015-10-08

    PTNow.org is an evidence-based, on-line portal created by a professional membership association to promote use of evidence in practice and to help decrease unwarranted variation in practice. The site contains synthesis documents designed to promote efficient clinical reasoning. These documents were written and peer-reviewed by teams of content experts and master clinicians. The purpose of this paper is to report on the content and construct validity as well as usability of the site. Physical therapist participants used clinical summaries (available in 3 formats--as a full summary with hyperlinks, "quick takes" with hyperlinks, and a portable two-page version) on the PTNow.org site to answer knowledge acquisition and clinical reasoning questions related to four patient scenarios. They also responded to questions about ease of use related to website navigation and about format and completeness of information using a 1-5 Likert scale. Responses were coded to reflect how participants used the site and then were summarized descriptively. Preferences for clinical summary format were analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Dunnett T3 post hoc analysis. Seventeen participants completed the study. Clinical relevance and completeness ratings by experienced clinicians, which were used as the measure of content validity, ranged from 3.1 to 4.6 on a 5 point scale. Construct validity based on the information on the PTNow.org site was supported for knowledge acquisition questions 66 % of the time and for clinical reasoning questions 40 % of the time. Usability ratings for the full clinical summary were 4.6 (1.2); for the quick takes, 3.5 (.98); and for the portable clinical summary, 4.0 (.45). Participants preferred the full clinical summary over the other two formats (F = 5.908, P = 0.007). One hundred percent of the participants stated that they would recommend the PTNow site to their colleagues. Prelimary evidence supported both content validity and

  3. Development and Validation of a Food-Associated Olfactory Test (FAOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie Yvonne; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Freiherr, Jessica; Thuerauf, Norbert; Kornhuber, Johannes; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory tests are an important tool in human nutritional research for studying food preferences, yet comprehensive tests dedicated solely to food odors are currently lacking. Therefore, within this study, an innovative food-associated olfactory test (FAOT) system was developed. The FAOT comprises 16 odorant pens that contain representative food odors relating to different macronutrient classes. The test underwent a sensory validation based on identification rate, intensity, hedonic value, and food association scores. The accuracy of the test was further compared to the accuracy of the established Sniffin' Sticks identification test. The identification rates and intensities of this new FAOT were found to be comparable to the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory identification test. The odorant pens were also assessed chemo-analytically and were found to be chemically stable for at least 24 weeks. Overall, this new identification test for use in assessing olfaction in a food-associated context is valid both in terms of its use in sensory perception studies and its chemical stability. The FOAT is particularly suited to examinations of the sense of smell regarding food odors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Associations between religious behavior and attitude to Christianity among Australian Catholic adolescents: scale validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, J P

    2001-10-01

    In a sample of 1,166 Catholic high school students (age = 13-18 years), the author used confirmatory factor analysis to validate a 30-item instrument that assesses 6 dimensions of attitude to Christianity (viz., attitude to prayer, attitude to God, attitude to Jesus, attitude to the Bible, attitude to Christian practice, attitude to social justice). Goodness-of-fit indices for the proposed measurement model revealed that the model fitted the data very well, thus confirming the instrument's structure. A correlation analysis revealed associations between religious behavior and attitude to Christianity.

  5. Development and Validation of the Alcohol Identity Implicit Associations Test (AI-IAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Heather M.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Bannon, Brittany L.; Ambady, Nalini; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol identity is the extent to which an individual perceives drinking alcohol to be a defining characteristic of his or her self-identity. Although alcohol identity might play an important role in risky college drinking practices, there is currently no easily administered, implicit measure of this concept. Therefore we developed a computerized implicit measure of alcohol identity (the Alcohol Identity Implicit Associations Test; AI-IAT) and assessed its reliability and predictive validity in relation to risky college drinking practices. One hundred forty-one college students completed the AI-IAT. Again 3- and 6-months later, we administered the AI-IAT and indices of engagement in risky college drinking practices. A subset of participants also completed the previously-validated implicit measure of alcohol identity. Scores on the AI-IAT were stable over time, internally consistent, and positively correlated with the previously-validated measure of alcohol identity. Baseline AI-IAT scores predicted future engagement in risky college drinking practices, even after controlling for standard alcohol consumption measures. We conclude that the AI-IAT reliably measures alcohol identity, a concept that appears to play an important role in risky college drinking practices. PMID:21621924

  6. Factors associated with therapeutic inertia in hypertension: validation of a predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redón, Josep; Coca, Antonio; Lázaro, Pablo; Aguilar, Ma Dolores; Cabañas, Mercedes; Gil, Natividad; Sánchez-Zamorano, Miguel Angel; Aranda, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    To study factors associated with therapeutic inertia in treating hypertension and to develop a predictive model to estimate the probability of therapeutic inertia in a given medical consultation, based on variables related to the consultation, patient, physician, clinical characteristics, and level of care. National, multicentre, observational, cross-sectional study in primary care and specialist (hospital) physicians who each completed a questionnaire on therapeutic inertia, provided professional data and collected clinical data on four patients. Therapeutic inertia was defined as a consultation in which treatment change was indicated (i.e., SBP >or= 140 or DBP >or= 90 mmHg in all patients; SBP >or= 130 or DBP >or= 80 in patients with diabetes or stroke), but did not occur. A predictive model was constructed and validated according to the factors associated with therapeutic inertia. Data were collected on 2595 patients and 13,792 visits. Therapeutic inertia occurred in 7546 (75%) of the 10,041 consultations in which treatment change was indicated. Factors associated with therapeutic inertia were primary care setting, male sex, older age, SPB and/or DBP values close to normal, treatment with more than one antihypertensive drug, treatment with an ARB II, and more than six visits/year. Physician characteristics did not weigh heavily in the association. The predictive model was valid internally and externally, with acceptable calibration, discrimination and reproducibility, and explained one-third of the variability in therapeutic inertia. Although therapeutic inertia is frequent in the management of hypertension, the factors explaining it are not completely clear. Whereas some aspects of the consultations were associated with therapeutic inertia, physician characteristics were not a decisive factor.

  7. Association and Validation of Yield-Favored Alleles in Chinese Cultivars of Common Wheat (Triticumaestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Guo

    Full Text Available Common wheat is one of the most important crops in China, which is the largest producer in the world. A set of 230 cultivars was used to identify yield-related loci by association mapping. This set was tested for seven yield-related traits, viz. plant height (PH, spike length (SL, spikelet number per spike (SNPS, kernel number per spike (KNPS, thousand-kernel weight (TKW, kernel weight per spike (KWPS, and sterile spikelet number (SSN per plant in four environments. A total of 106 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers distributed on all 21 chromosomes were used to screen the set. Twenty-one and 19 of them were associated with KNPS and TKW, respectively. Association mapping detected 73 significant associations across 50 SSRs, and the phenotypic variation explained (R2 by the associations ranged from 1.54 to 23.93%. The associated loci were distributed on all chromosomes except 4A, 7A, and 7D. Significant and potentially new alleles were present on 8 chromosomes, namely 1A, 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 4B, 5B, and 6B. Further analysis showed that genetic effects of associated loci were greatly influenced by association panels, and the R2 of crucial loci were lower in modern cultivars than in the mini core collection, probably caused by strong selection in wheat breeding. In order to confirm the results of association analysis, yield-related favorable alleles Xgwm135-1A138, Xgwm337-1D186, Xgwm102-2D144, and Xgwm132-6B128 were evaluated in a double haploid (DH population derived from Hanxuan10 xLumai14.These favorable alleles that were validated in various populations might be valuable in breeding for high-yield.

  8. The student resilience survey: psychometric validation and associations with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Humphrey, Neil; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda; Böhnke, Jan R; Macdougall, Amy; Deighton, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Policies, designed to promote resilience, and research, to understand the determinants and correlates of resilience, require reliable and valid measures to ensure data quality. The student resilience survey (SRS) covers a range of external supports and internal characteristics which can potentially be viewed as protective factors and can be crucial in exploring the mechanisms between protective factors and risk factors, and to design intervention and prevention strategies. This study examines the validity of the SRS. 7663 children (aged 11-15 years) from 12 local areas across England completed the SRS, and questionnaires regarding mental and physical health. Psychometric properties of 10 subscales of the SRS (family connection, school connection, community connection, participation in home and school life, participation in community life, peer support, self-esteem, empathy, problem solving, and goals and aspirations) were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), differential item functioning (DIF), differential test functioning (DTF), Cronbach's α and McDonald's ω . The associations between the SRS scales, mental and physical health outcomes were examined. The results supported the construct validity of the 10 factors of the scale and provided evidence for acceptable reliability of all the subscales. Our DIF analysis indicated differences between boys and girls, between primary and secondary school children, between children with or without special educational needs (SEN) and between children with or without English as an additional language (EAL) in terms of how they answered the peer support subscale of the SRS. Analyses did not indicate any DIF based on free school meals (FSM) eligibility. All subscales, except the peer support subscale, showed small DTF whereas the peer support subscale showed moderate DTF. Correlations showed that all the student resilience subscales were negatively associated with mental health difficulties, global subjective

  9. A validation study of the BURNUP and associated options of the MONTE CARLO neutronics code MONK5W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, E.A.

    1985-11-01

    This is a report on the validation of the burnup option of the Monte Carlo Neutronics Code MONK5W, together with the associated facilities which allow for control rod movements and power changes. The validation uses reference solutions produced by the Deterministic Neutronics Code LWR-WIMS for a 2D model which represents a whole reactor calculation with control rod movements. (author)

  10. Validation of statistical models for estimating hospitalization associated with influenza and other respiratory viruses.

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    Lin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of disease burden associated with respiratory viruses are keys to deployment of preventive strategies such as vaccination and resource allocation. Such estimates are particularly needed in tropical and subtropical regions where some methods commonly used in temperate regions are not applicable. While a number of alternative approaches to assess the influenza associated disease burden have been recently reported, none of these models have been validated with virologically confirmed data. Even fewer methods have been developed for other common respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We had recently conducted a prospective population-based study of virologically confirmed hospitalization for acute respiratory illnesses in persons <18 years residing in Hong Kong Island. Here we used this dataset to validate two commonly used models for estimation of influenza disease burden, namely the rate difference model and Poisson regression model, and also explored the applicability of these models to estimate the disease burden of other respiratory viruses. The Poisson regression models with different link functions all yielded estimates well correlated with the virologically confirmed influenza associated hospitalization, especially in children older than two years. The disease burden estimates for RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus were less reliable with wide confidence intervals. The rate difference model was not applicable to RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus and grossly underestimated the true burden of influenza associated hospitalization. CONCLUSION: The Poisson regression model generally produced satisfactory estimates in calculating the disease burden of respiratory viruses in a subtropical region such as Hong Kong.

  11. Validation of a new questionnaire to assess the impact of Whiplash Associated Disorders: The Whiplash Activity and participation List (WAL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenneberg, Martijn S.; Schmitt, Maarten A.; van Trijffel, Emiel; Schröder, Carin D.; Lindeboom, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Valid questionnaires for measuring functional limitations in patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) are lacking, since existing measures are not suitable for addressing the specific limitations of these patients and because of cross contamination between theoretical constructs. The

  12. Physical validation issue of the NEPTUNE two-phase modelling: validation plan to be adopted, experimental programs to be set up and associated instrumentation techniques developed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre Peturaud; Eric Hervieu

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A long-term joint development program for the next generation of nuclear reactors simulation tools has been launched in 2001 by EDF (Electricite de France) and CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique). The NEPTUNE Project constitutes the Thermal-Hydraulics part of this comprehensive program. Along with the underway development of this new two-phase flow software platform, the physical validation of the involved modelling is a crucial issue, whatever the modelling scale is, and the present paper deals with this issue. After a brief recall about the NEPTUNE platform, the general validation strategy to be adopted is first of all clarified by means of three major features: (i) physical validation in close connection with the concerned industrial applications, (ii) involving (as far as possible) a two-step process successively focusing on dominant separate models and assessing the whole modelling capability, (iii) thanks to the use of relevant data with respect to the validation aims. Based on this general validation process, a four-step generic work approach has been defined; it includes: (i) a thorough analysis of the concerned industrial applications to identify the key physical phenomena involved and associated dominant basic models, (ii) an assessment of these models against the available validation pieces of information, to specify the additional validation needs and define dedicated validation plans, (iii) an inventory and assessment of existing validation data (with respect to the requirements specified in the previous task) to identify the actual needs for new validation data, (iv) the specification of the new experimental programs to be set up to provide the needed new data. This work approach has been applied to the NEPTUNE software, focusing on 8 high priority industrial applications, and it has resulted in the definition of (i) the validation plan and experimental programs to be set up for the open medium 3D modelling

  13. Effectiveness of strategies to increase the validity of findings from association studies: size vs. replication

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    Kallischnigg Gerd

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The capacity of multiple comparisons to produce false positive findings in genetic association studies is abundantly clear. To address this issue, the concept of false positive report probability (FPRP measures "the probability of no true association between a genetic variant and disease given a statistically significant finding". This concept involves the notion of prior probability of an association between a genetic variant and a disease, making it difficult to achieve acceptable levels for the FPRP when the prior probability is low. Increasing the sample size is of limited efficiency to improve the situation. Methods To further clarify this problem, the concept of true report probability (TRP is introduced by analogy to the positive predictive value (PPV of diagnostic testing. The approach is extended to consider the effects of replication studies. The formula for the TRP after k replication studies is mathematically derived and shown to be only dependent on prior probability, alpha, power, and number of replication studies. Results Case-control association studies are used to illustrate the TRP concept for replication strategies. Based on power considerations, a relationship is derived between TRP after k replication studies and sample size of each individual study. That relationship enables study designers optimization of study plans. Further, it is demonstrated that replication is efficient in increasing the TRP even in the case of low prior probability of an association and without requiring very large sample sizes for each individual study. Conclusions True report probability is a comprehensive and straightforward concept for assessing the validity of positive statistical testing results in association studies. By its extension to replication strategies it can be demonstrated in a transparent manner that replication is highly effective in distinguishing spurious from true associations. Based on the generalized TRP

  14. Addiction-Like Mobile Phone Behavior – Validation and Association With Problem Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fransson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD, and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T-tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905, and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research.

  15. Addiction-Like Mobile Phone Behavior – Validation and Association With Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Andreas; Chóliz, Mariano; Håkansson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD), and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP) together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T-tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men) answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905), and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research. PMID:29780345

  16. Addiction-Like Mobile Phone Behavior - Validation and Association With Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Andreas; Chóliz, Mariano; Håkansson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD), and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP) together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T -tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men) answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905), and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research.

  17. [Validity of self-perceived dental caries as a diagnostic test and associated factors in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Roberto, Luana Leal; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista de; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E

    2017-08-21

    This study aimed to analyze the validity of self-perceived dental caries and associated factors in a sample of 795 adults (35-44 years). The dependent variable was self-perceived dental caries, and the independent variables were combined in blocks. Three logistic models were performed: (1) all adults; (2) adults with a formal diagnosis of caries; and (3) adults without such caries. Self-perceived dental caries showed 77.7% sensitivity, 58% specificity, 65% accuracy, 52% positive predictive value, and 81% negative predictive value. In Model 1, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, access to information, flossing, formal diagnosis of caries, self-perceived need for treatment, toothache, and dissatisfaction with oral health and general health. In Model 2, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, self-perceived need for treatment, and dissatisfaction with oral health and general health. In Model 3, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, access to information, flossing, self-perceived need for treatment, and dissatisfaction with oral health. Self-perceived dental caries showed limited utility as a diagnostic method.

  18. Predictive Validity of National Basketball Association Draft Combine on Future Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Masaru; Cross, Chad L; Rieger, Randall H; Maak, Travis G; Willick, Stuart E

    2018-02-01

    Teramoto, M, Cross, CL, Rieger, RH, Maak, TG, and Willick, SE. Predictive validity of national basketball association draft combine on future performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 396-408, 2018-The National Basketball Association (NBA) Draft Combine is an annual event where prospective players are evaluated in terms of their athletic abilities and basketball skills. Data collected at the Combine should help NBA teams select right the players for the upcoming NBA draft; however, its value for predicting future performance of players has not been examined. This study investigated predictive validity of the NBA Draft Combine on future performance of basketball players. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA) on the 2010-2015 Combine data to reduce correlated variables (N = 234), a correlation analysis on the Combine data and future on-court performance to examine relationships (maximum pairwise N = 217), and a robust principal component regression (PCR) analysis to predict first-year and 3-year on-court performance from the Combine measures (N = 148 and 127, respectively). Three components were identified within the Combine data through PCA (= Combine subscales): length-size, power-quickness, and upper-body strength. As per the correlation analysis, the individual Combine items for anthropometrics, including height without shoes, standing reach, weight, wingspan, and hand length, as well as the Combine subscale of length-size, had positive, medium-to-large-sized correlations (r = 0.313-0.545) with defensive performance quantified by Defensive Box Plus/Minus. The robust PCR analysis showed that the Combine subscale of length-size was a predictor most significantly associated with future on-court performance (p ≤ 0.05), including Win Shares, Box Plus/Minus, and Value Over Replacement Player, followed by upper-body strength. In conclusion, the NBA Draft Combine has value for predicting future performance of players.

  19. Validating of Atmospheric Signals Associated with some of the Major Earthquakes in Asia (2003-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D. P.; Pulinets, S.; Liu, J. Y.; Hattori, K.; Oarritm N,; Taylor, P. T.

    2010-01-01

    The recent catastrophic earthquake in Haiti (January 2010) has provided and renewed interest in the important question of the existence of precursory signals related to strong earthquakes. Latest studies (VESTO workshop in Japan 2009) have shown that there were precursory atmospheric signals observed on the ground and in space associated with several recent earthquakes. The major question, still widely debated in the scientific community is whether such signals systematically precede major earthquakes. To address this problem we have started to validate the anomalous atmospheric signals during the occurrence of large earthquakes. Our approach is based on integration analysis of several physical and environmental parameters (thermal infrared radiation, electron concentration in the ionosphere, Radon/ion activities, air temperature and seismicity) that were found to be associated with earthquakes. We performed hind-cast detection over three different regions with high seismicity Taiwan, Japan and Kamchatka for the period of 2003-2009. We are using existing thermal satellite data (Aqua and POES); in situ atmospheric data (NOAA/NCEP); and ionospheric variability data (GPS/TEC and DEMETER). The first part of this validation included 42 major earthquakes (M greater than 5.9): 10 events in Taiwan, 15 events in Japan, 15 events in Kamchatka and four most recent events for M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake (May 2008) in China and M7.9 Samoa earthquakes (Sep 2009). Our initial results suggest a systematic appearance of atmospheric anomalies near the epicentral area, 1 to 5 days prior to the largest earthquakes, that could be explained by a coupling process between the observed physical parameters, and the earthquake preparation processes.

  20. Genomewide association study of methane emissions in Angus beef cattle with validation in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; De Haas, Y; Hayes, B J; Veerkamp, R F; Khansefid, M; Donoghue, K A; Arthur, P F; Pryce, J E

    2016-10-01

    Methane (CH) is a product of enteric fermentation in ruminants, and it represents around 17% of global CH emissions. There has been substantial effort from the livestock scientific community toward tools that can help reduce this percentage. One approach is to select for lower emitting animals. To achieve this, accurate genetic parameters and identification of the genomic basis of CH traits are required. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to perform a genomewide association study to identify SNP associated with several CH traits in Angus beef cattle (1,020 animals) and validate them in a lactating Holstein population (population 1 [POP1]; 205 animals); 2) to validate significant SNP for DMI and weight at test (WT) from a second Holstein population, from a previous study (population 2 [POP2]; 903 animals), in an Angus population; and 3) to evaluate 2 different residual CH traits and determine if the genes associated with CH also control residual CH traits. Phenotypes calculated for the genotyped Angus population included CH production (MeP), CH yield (MeY), CH intensity (MI), DMI, and WT. The Holstein population (POP1) was multiparous, with phenotypes on CH traits (MeP, MeY, and MI) plus genotypes. Additionally, 2 CH traits, residual genetic CH (RGM) and residual phenotypic CH (RPM), were calculated by adjusting MeP for DMI and WT. Estimated heritabilities in the Angus population were 0.30, 0.19, and 0.15 for MeP, RGM, and RPM, respectively, and genetic correlations of MeP with DMI and WT were 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. Estimated heritabilities in Holstein POP1 were 0.23, 0.30, and 0.42 for MeP, MeY, and MI, respectively. Strong associations with MeP were found on chromosomes 4, 12, 14, 20, and 30 at Angus population, the number of significant SNP for MeP at Angus population was used to estimate genetic parameters for MeP and MeY in Holstein POP1, the genetic variance and, consequently, the heritability slightly increased, meaning that most of the

  1. German validation of Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) assessment and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Real, Ruben G L; Sasse, Nadine; Wilson, Lindsay; Otto, Christiane; Mullins, Ryan; Behr, Robert; Deinsberger, Wolfgang; Martinez-Olivera, Ramon; Puschendorf, Wolfgang; Petereit, Werner; Rohde, Veit; Schmidt, Holger; Sehmisch, Stephan; Stürmer, Klaus Michael; von Wild, Klaus; Gibbons, Henning

    2017-01-01

    The consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are still poorly understood, and no TBI-specific instrument has hitherto been available. This paper describes in detail the psychometrics and validity of the German version of an internationally developed, self-rated HRQoL tool after TBI-the QOLIBRI (Quality of Life after Brain Injury). Factors associated with HRQoL, such as the impact of cognitive status and awareness, are specifically reported. One-hundred seventy-two participants after TBI were recruited from the records of acute clinics, most of whom having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 24-hour worst score and a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) score. Participants had severe (24%), moderate (11%) and mild (56%) injuries as assessed on the GCS, 3 months to 15 years post-injury. The QOLIBRI uses 37 items to measure "satisfaction" in the areas of "Cognition", "Self", "Daily Life and Autonomy", and "Social Relationships", and "feeling bothered" by "Emotions"and "Physical Problems". The scales meet standard psychometric criteria (α = .84 to .96; intra-class correlation-ICC = .72 to .91). ICCs (0.68 to 0.90) and αs (.83 to .96) were also good in a subgroup of participants with lower cognitive performance. The six-subscale structure of the international sample was reproduced for the German version using confirmatory factor analyses and Rasch analysis. Scale validity was supported by systematic relationships observed between the QOLIBRI and the GOSE, Patient Competency Rating Scale for Neurorehabilitation (PCRS-NR), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Short Form 36 (SF-36), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). The German QOLIBRI contains novel information not provided by other currently available measures and has good psychometric criteria. It is potentially useful for clinicians and researchers, in post-acute and rehabilitation studies, on a group and individual level.

  2. German validation of Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI assessment and associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole von Steinbüchel

    Full Text Available The consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI for health-related quality of life (HRQoL are still poorly understood, and no TBI-specific instrument has hitherto been available. This paper describes in detail the psychometrics and validity of the German version of an internationally developed, self-rated HRQoL tool after TBI-the QOLIBRI (Quality of Life after Brain Injury. Factors associated with HRQoL, such as the impact of cognitive status and awareness, are specifically reported. One-hundred seventy-two participants after TBI were recruited from the records of acute clinics, most of whom having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS 24-hour worst score and a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE score. Participants had severe (24%, moderate (11% and mild (56% injuries as assessed on the GCS, 3 months to 15 years post-injury. The QOLIBRI uses 37 items to measure "satisfaction" in the areas of "Cognition", "Self", "Daily Life and Autonomy", and "Social Relationships", and "feeling bothered" by "Emotions"and "Physical Problems". The scales meet standard psychometric criteria (α = .84 to .96; intra-class correlation-ICC = .72 to .91. ICCs (0.68 to 0.90 and αs (.83 to .96 were also good in a subgroup of participants with lower cognitive performance. The six-subscale structure of the international sample was reproduced for the German version using confirmatory factor analyses and Rasch analysis. Scale validity was supported by systematic relationships observed between the QOLIBRI and the GOSE, Patient Competency Rating Scale for Neurorehabilitation (PCRS-NR, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Profile of Mood States (POMS, Short Form 36 (SF-36, and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. The German QOLIBRI contains novel information not provided by other currently available measures and has good psychometric criteria. It is potentially useful for clinicians and researchers, in post-acute and rehabilitation studies, on a group and individual level.

  3. Anti-signal recognition particle autoantibody ELISA validation and clinical associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rohit; Oddis, Chester V; Goudeau, Danielle; Fertig, Noreen; Metes, Ilinca; Stephens, Chad; Qi, Zengbiao; Koontz, Diane; Levesque, Marc C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) autoantibody serum ELISA in patients with myositis and longitudinal association with myositis disease activity. We developed a serum ELISA using recombinant purified full-length human SRP coated on ELISA plates and a secondary antibody that bound human IgG to detect anti-SRP binding. Protein immunoprecipitation was used as the gold standard for the presence of anti-SRP. Serum samples from three groups were analysed: SRP(+) myositis subjects by immunoprecipitation, SRP(-) myositis subjects by immunoprecipitation and non-myositis controls. The ELISA's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were evaluated. Percentage agreement and test-retest reliability were assessed. Serial samples from seven SRP immunoprecipitation-positive subjects were also tested, along with serum muscle enzymes and manual muscle testing. Using immunoprecipitation, we identified 26 SRP(+) myositis patients and 77 SRP(-) controls (including 38 patients with necrotizing myopathy). Non-myositis control patients included SLE (n = 4) and SSc (n = 7) patients. Anti-SRP positivity by ELISA showed strong agreement (97.1%) with immunoprecipitation (κ = 0.94). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the anti-SRP ELISA were 88, 100, 100 and 96, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.94, and test-retest reliability was strong (r = 0.91, P < 0.001). Serial samples showed that anti-SRP levels paralleled changes in muscle enzymes and manual muscle testing. We developed a quantitative ELISA for detecting serum anti-SRP autoantibodies and validated the assay in myositis. Longitudinal assessment of SRP levels by ELISA may be a useful biomarker for disease activity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  4. Replication Validity of Initial Association Studies: A Comparison between Psychiatry, Neurology and Four Somatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine; Boraud, Thomas; Munafo, Marcus; Gonon, François

    2016-01-01

    Context There are growing concerns about effect size inflation and replication validity of association studies, but few observational investigations have explored the extent of these problems. Objective Using meta-analyses to measure the reliability of initial studies and explore whether this varies across biomedical domains and study types (cognitive/behavioral, brain imaging, genetic and “others”). Methods We analyzed 663 meta-analyses describing associations between markers or risk factors and 12 pathologies within three biomedical domains (psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases). We collected the effect size, sample size, publication year and Impact Factor of initial studies, largest studies (i.e., with the largest sample size) and the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial studies were considered as replicated if they were in nominal agreement with meta-analyses and if their effect size inflation was below 100%. Results Nominal agreement between initial studies and meta-analyses regarding the presence of a significant effect was not better than chance in psychiatry, whereas it was somewhat better in neurology and somatic diseases. Whereas effect sizes reported by largest studies and meta-analyses were similar, most of those reported by initial studies were inflated. Among the 256 initial studies reporting a significant effect (p<0.05) and paired with significant meta-analyses, 97 effect sizes were inflated by more than 100%. Nominal agreement and effect size inflation varied with the biomedical domain and study type. Indeed, the replication rate of initial studies reporting a significant effect ranged from 6.3% for genetic studies in psychiatry to 86.4% for cognitive/behavioral studies. Comparison between eight subgroups shows that replication rate decreases with sample size and “true” effect size. We observed no evidence of association between replication rate and publication year or Impact Factor. Conclusion The differences in reliability

  5. Is the presence of a validated malnutrition screening tool associated with better nutritional care in hospitalized patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseer, Doris; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between the use of clinical guidelines and the use of validated screening tools, evaluate the nutritional screening policy in hospitals, and examine the association between the use of validated screening tools and the prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional interventions in hospitalized patients. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire on three levels: institution (presence of a guideline for malnutrition), department (use of a validated screening tool), and patient (e.g., malnutrition prevalence). In all, 53 hospitals with 5255 patients participated. About 45% of the hospitals indicated that they have guidelines for malnutrition. Of the departments surveyed, 38.6% used validated screening tools as part of a standard procedure. The nutritional status of 74.5% of the patients was screened during admission, mostly on the basis of clinical observation and patient weight. A validated screening tool was used for 21.2% of the patients. Significant differences between wards with and without validated screening tools were found with regard to malnutrition prevalence (P = 0.002) and the following interventions: referral to a dietitian (P malnutrition screening tools is associated with better nutritional care and lower malnutrition prevalence rates in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Turkish validation of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, E C; Cimen, H I; Ozdemir, A T; Symonds, T; Berktas, M; Balbay, M D

    2009-01-01

    There are uncertain issues on the diagnostic methods of premature ejaculation (PE). The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria in diagnosing PE and the aim of this study is to carry out the Turkish validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). A total of 94 patients with a self-reported complaint of PE and 88 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the nine-item PEDT, which was translated into Turkish. The patients were also requested to measure IELT. All participants were requested to come for a second visit to assess the PEDT's retest reliability; data from 78 men in the PE group and 69 men in the control group were collected. The IELT data of 35 patients were also recorded. The mean age of the PE group and the control group were 39.4+/-9.7 (24-65) and 30.1+/-5.7 (20-56), respectively, (P=0.068). Among the patients in the PE group, 24 (68.5%) reported life-long PE, whereas 11 (31.5%) reported acquired PE. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 59.7+/-46.2 (6.5-197.7) s. The number of men reporting IELTs of 2 min were 20 (57.1%), 11 (31.5) and 4 (11.4%), respectively. The factor analysis assessment showed that the five-item combination (questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8) explained 74.4% of the variance, there were no other combinations that explained the variance more effectively. Cronbach's alpha score of five-item combination was calculated as 0.77, showing adequate internal consistency. The overall Cronbach's alpha score did not increase if any item combination was deleted. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.80 and the correlation coefficient of the total score was 0.90. The PEDT and IELT showed an adequate correlation (rho=0.44). As a conclusion, the validated five-item Turkish version of PEDT is a

  7. Mining, Validation, and Clinical Significance of Colorectal Cancer (CRC)-Associated lncRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangwei; Hu, Yingying; Zhang, Liang; Hu, Changyuan; Guo, Gangqiang; Mao, Chenchen; Xu, Jianfeng; Ye, Sisi; Huang, Guanli; Xue, Xiangyang; Guo, Aizhen; Shen, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the deadliest tumours, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. The involvement of differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in CRC tumorigenesis makes them suitable tumour biomarkers. Here, we screened 150 cases of CRC and 85 cases of paracancerous tissues in the GEO database for differentially expressed lncRNAs. The levels of lncRNA candidates in 84 CRC and paracancerous tissue samples were validated by qRT-PCR and their clinical significance was analyzed. We identified 15 lncRNAs with differential expression in CRC tumours; among them, AK098081 was significantly up-regulated, whereas AK025209, BC040303, BC037331, AK026659, and CR749831 were down-regulated in CRC. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve for the six lncRNAs was 0.914. High expression of AK098081 and low expression of BC040303, CR749831, and BC037331 indicated poor CRC differentiation. CRC patients with lymph node metastasis had lower expression of BC037331. In addition, the group with high AK098081 expression presented significantly lower overall survival and disease-free survival rates than the low-expression group, confirming AK098081 as an independent risk factor for CRC patients. In conclusion, we have identified multiple CRC-associated lncRNAs from microarray expression profiles that can serve as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of CRC.

  8. On the validity of within-nuclear-family genetic association analysis in samples of extended families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Alexandre; Duchesne, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Splitting extended families into their component nuclear families to apply a genetic association method designed for nuclear families is a widespread practice in familial genetic studies. Dependence among genotypes and phenotypes of nuclear families from the same extended family arises because of genetic linkage of the tested marker with a risk variant or because of familial specificity of genetic effects due to gene-environment interaction. This raises concerns about the validity of inference conducted under the assumption of independence of the nuclear families. We indeed prove theoretically that, in a conditional logistic regression analysis applicable to disease cases and their genotyped parents, the naive model-based estimator of the variance of the coefficient estimates underestimates the true variance. However, simulations with realistic effect sizes of risk variants and variation of this effect from family to family reveal that the underestimation is negligible. The simulations also show the greater efficiency of the model-based variance estimator compared to a robust empirical estimator. Our recommendation is therefore, to use the model-based estimator of variance for inference on effects of genetic variants.

  9. Psychophysiological Associations between Chronic Tinnitus and Sleep: A Cross Validation of Tinnitus and Insomnia Questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schecklmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of insomnia in chronic tinnitus and the association of tinnitus distress and sleep disturbance. Methods. We retrospectively analysed data of 182 patients with chronic tinnitus who completed the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and the Regensburg Insomnia Scale (RIS. Descriptive comparisons with the validation sample of the RIS including exclusively patients with primary/psychophysiological insomnia, correlation analyses of the RIS with TQ scales, and principal component analyses (PCA in the tinnitus sample were performed. TQ total score was corrected for the TQ sleep items. Results. Prevalence of insomnia was high in tinnitus patients (76% and tinnitus distress correlated with sleep disturbance (r=0.558. TQ sleep subscore correlated with the RIS sum score (r=0.690. PCA with all TQ and RIS items showed one sleep factor consisting of all RIS and the TQ sleep items. PCA with only TQ sleep and RIS items showed sleep- and tinnitus-specific factors. The sleep factors (only RIS items were sleep depth and fearful focusing. The TQ sleep items represented tinnitus-related sleep problems. Discussion. Chronic tinnitus and primary insomnia are highly related and might share similar psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms leading to impaired sleep quality.

  10. German validation of Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) assessment and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Nadine; Wilson, Lindsay; Otto, Christiane; Mullins, Ryan; Behr, Robert; Deinsberger, Wolfgang; Martinez-Olivera, Ramon; Puschendorf, Wolfgang; Petereit, Werner; Rohde, Veit; Schmidt, Holger; Sehmisch, Stephan; Stürmer, Klaus Michael; von Wild, Klaus; Gibbons, Henning

    2017-01-01

    The consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are still poorly understood, and no TBI-specific instrument has hitherto been available. This paper describes in detail the psychometrics and validity of the German version of an internationally developed, self-rated HRQoL tool after TBI—the QOLIBRI (Quality of Life after Brain Injury). Factors associated with HRQoL, such as the impact of cognitive status and awareness, are specifically reported. One-hundred seventy-two participants after TBI were recruited from the records of acute clinics, most of whom having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 24-hour worst score and a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) score. Participants had severe (24%), moderate (11%) and mild (56%) injuries as assessed on the GCS, 3 months to 15 years post-injury. The QOLIBRI uses 37 items to measure “satisfaction” in the areas of “Cognition”, “Self”, “Daily Life and Autonomy”, and “Social Relationships”, and “feeling bothered” by “Emotions”and “Physical Problems”. The scales meet standard psychometric criteria (α = .84 to .96; intra-class correlation—ICC = .72 to .91). ICCs (0.68 to 0.90) and αs (.83 to .96) were also good in a subgroup of participants with lower cognitive performance. The six-subscale structure of the international sample was reproduced for the German version using confirmatory factor analyses and Rasch analysis. Scale validity was supported by systematic relationships observed between the QOLIBRI and the GOSE, Patient Competency Rating Scale for Neurorehabilitation (PCRS-NR), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Short Form 36 (SF-36), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). The German QOLIBRI contains novel information not provided by other currently available measures and has good psychometric criteria. It is potentially useful for clinicians and researchers, in post-acute and rehabilitation studies, on a group and

  11. Validating the Western Trauma Association algorithm for managing patients with anterior abdominal stab wounds: a Western Trauma Association multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffl, Walter L; Kaups, Krista L; Pham, Tam N; Rowell, Susan E; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Elterman, J; Moore, Ernest E

    2011-12-01

    The optimal management of stable patients with anterior abdominal stab wounds (AASWs) remains a matter of debate. A recent Western Trauma Association (WTA) multicenter trial found that exclusion of peritoneal penetration by local wound exploration (LWE) allowed immediate discharge (D/C) of 41% of patients with AASWs. Performance of computed tomography (CT) scanning or diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) did not improve the D/C rate; however, these tests led to nontherapeutic (NONTHER) laparotomy (LAP) in 24% and 31% of cases, respectively. An algorithm was proposed that included LWE, followed by either D/C or admission for serial clinical assessments, without further imaging or invasive testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the algorithm in providing timely interventions for significant injuries. A multicenter, institutional review board-approved study enrolled patients with AASWs. Management was guided by the WTA AASW algorithm. Data on the presentation, evaluation, and clinical course were recorded prospectively. Two hundred twenty-two patients (94% men, age, 34.7 years ± 0.3 years) were enrolled. Sixty-two (28%) had immediate LAP, of which 87% were therapeutic (THER). Three (1%) died and the mean length of stay (LOS) was 6.9 days. One hundred sixty patients were stable and asymptomatic, and 81 of them (51%) were managed entirely per protocol. Twenty (25%) were D/C'ed from the emergency department after (-) LWE, and 11 (14%) were taken to the operating room (OR) for LAP when their clinical condition changed. Two (2%) of the protocol group underwent NONTHER LAP, and no patient experienced morbidity or mortality related to delay in treatment. Seventy-nine (49%) patients had deviations from protocol. There were 47 CT scans, 11 DPLs, and 9 laparoscopic explorations performed. In addition to the laparoscopic procedures, 38 (48%) patients were taken to the OR based on test results rather than a change in the patient's clinical

  12. Identification and validation of cetuximab resistance associated long noncoding RNA biomarkers in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ke; Liu, Ruiqi; Yu, Yiyi; Liang, Li; Yu, Shan; Xu, Xiaojing; Liu, Tianshu

    2018-01-01

    Cetuximab is one of the most widely used epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors to treat patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) harboring wild-type of RAS/RAF status. However, primary and acquired resistance to cetuximab is often found during target therapy. To gain insights into the functions of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in cetuximab resistance, we used a lncRNA-mining approach to distinguish lncRNA specific probes in Affymetrix HG-U133A 2.0 arrays. Then we performed lncRNA expression profiling in a cetuximab treated mCRC cohort from Gene Expression Ominus (GEO). The potential lncRNAs were further validated in acquired cetuximab resistant cell lines and clinical samples of our hospital. The functions and associated pathways of the prognostic lncRNA were predicted by GO and KEGG analyses. 249 lncRNA-specific probe sets (corresponding to 212 lncRNAs) were represented in Affymetrix HG-U133A 2.0 arrays. We found that 9 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between disease control group (DCG) and non-responders, and 5 of these 9 lncRNAs were significantly related with the progression-free survival (PFS) of the patients. Among those 5 lncRNAs, POU5F1P4 was also down-regulated in acquired cetuximab resistant cells, as well as in cetuximab resistant patients. Downregulation of POU5F1P4 decreased the sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to cetuximab. Our findings indicate the potential roles of lncRNAs in cetuximab resistance, and may provide the useful information for discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merma Molina, Gladys; Peña Alfaro, Hilda; Peña Alfaro González, Silvia Rosa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the "American Psychological Association" (APA). The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific…

  14. Urinary excretion of fatty acid-binding protein 4 is associated with albuminuria and renal dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Okazaki

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is expressed in not only adipocytes and macrophages but also peritubular capillaries in the normal kidney. We recently demonstrated that ectopic expression of FABP4, but not FABP1 known as liver FABP (L-FABP, in the glomerulus is associated with progression of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. However, urinary excretion of FABP4 has not been investigated.Subjects who participated in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a study with a population-based cohort design, in 2011 (n = 392, male/female: 166/226 were enrolled. Urinary FABP4 (U-FABP4 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR were measured. Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was followed up one year later.In 93 (23.7% of the 392 subjects, U-FABP4 level was below the sensitivity of the assay. Subjects with undetectable U-FABP4 were younger and had lower UACR and higher eGFR levels than subjects with measurable U-FABP4. U-FABP4 level was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure and levels of serum FABP4 (S-FABP4, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, urinary FABP1 (U-FABP1 and UACR (r = 0.360, p<0.001. Age, S-FABP4, U-FABP1 and UACR were independent predictors of U-FABP4. On the other hand, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and U-FABP4 were independently correlated with UACR. Reduction in eGFR after one year was significantly larger in a group with the highest tertile of baseline U-FABP4 than a group with the lowest tertile.Urinary FABP4 level is independently correlated with level of albuminuria and possibly predicts yearly decline of eGFR. U-FABP4 would be a novel biomarker of glomerular damage.

  15. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland: association with disease severity and risk markers in cardiac patients

    OpenAIRE

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D.; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Olason, Daniel T.; Thorgilsson, Hordur; Sigtryggsdottir, Unnur; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    textabstractType D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. Th...

  16. Validity of the neck disability index, Northwick Park neck pain questionnaire, and problem elicitation technique for measuring disability associated with whiplash-associated disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Jan Lucas; O'Leary, Elizabeth F.; Niere, Ken R.; Green, Sally; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2003-01-01

    The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) were developed to measure self-perceived disability from neck pain, including that which may arise from whiplash injury. However, there is little data specifically concerning their validity for whiplash-associated

  17. Structural and construct validity of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire in adults with acute whiplash-associated disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupar, Maja; Côté, Pierre; Beaton, Dorcas E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Few instruments are available to measure disability associated with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) was developed to measure disability resulting from WAD, but its validity is unknown for acute WAD. PURPOSE: The aim...... included insurance claimants who were aged 18 years or older and diagnosed with acute WAD Grades I to III. All participants completed the WDQ, a 13-item questionnaire scored from 0 (no disability) to 130 (complete disability). We assessed the factor structure of the WDQ and tested its construct validity...... against self-perceived recovery, neck pain (Numerical Rating Scale [NRS]), neck disability (Neck Disability Index [NDI] and Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire), health-related quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]), and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale...

  18. Diagnostic Validity of Clinical Signs Associated with a Large Exophoria at Near

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Cacho-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the diagnostic validity of accommodative and binocular tests in a sample of patients with a large near exophoria with moderate to severe symptoms. Methods. Two groups of patients between 19 and 35 years were recruited from a university clinic: 33 subjects with large exophoria at near vision and moderate or high visual discomfort and 33 patients with normal heterophoria and low visual discomfort. Visual discomfort was defined using the Conlon survey. A refractive exam and an exhaustive evaluation of accommodation and vergence were assessed. Diagnostic validity by means of receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves, sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR− were assessed. This analysis was also carried out considering multiple tests as serial testing strategy. Results. ROC analysis showed the best diagnostic accuracy for receded near point of convergence (NPC recovery (area = 0.929 and binocular accommodative facility (BAF (area = 0.886. Using the cut-offs obtained with ROC analysis, the best diagnostic validity was obtained for the combination of NPC recovery and BAF (S  =  0.77, Sp = 1, LR+ = value tending to infinity, LR− = 0.23 and the combination of NPC break and recovery with BAF (S  =  0.73, Sp = 1, LR+ = tending to infinity, LR− = 0.27. Conclusions. NPC and BAF tests were the tests with the best diagnostic accuracy for subjects with large near exophoria and moderate to severe symptoms.

  19. Validation of a Theory of Planned Behavior-Based Questionnaire to Examine Factors Associated With Milk Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon K; Dinour, Lauren M

    2017-11-01

    A proper assessment of multidimensional needs for breastfeeding mothers in various settings is crucial to facilitate and support breastfeeding and its exclusivity. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been used frequently to measure factors associated with breastfeeding. Full utility of the TPB requires accurate measurement of theory constructs. Research aim: This study aimed to develop and confirm the psychometric properties of an instrument, Milk Expression on Campus, based on the TPB and to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument. In spring 2015, 218 breastfeeding (current or in the recent past) employees and students at one university campus in northern New Jersey completed the online questionnaire containing demography and theory-based items. Internal consistency (α) and split-half reliability ( r) tests and factor analyses established and confirmed the reliability and construct validity of this instrument. Milk Expression on Campus showed strong and significant reliabilities as a full scale (α = .78, r = .74, p theory construct subscales. Validity was confirmed as psychometric properties corresponded to the factors extracted from the scale. Four factors extracted from the direct construct subscales accounted for 79.49% of the total variability. Four distinct factors from the indirect construct subscales accounted for 73.68% of the total variability. Milk Expression on Campus can serve as a model TPB-based instrument to examine factors associated with women's milk expression behavior. The utility of this instrument extends to designing effective promotion programs to foster breastfeeding and milk expression behaviors in diverse settings.

  20. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Merma Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the American Psychological Association (APA. The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific article is coherent with these rules. Overall, the rubric will concentrate on General Aspects of the article and on the Citation System. To do this, 10 articles that were published within 2012-2016 and included in the Journal Citation Report will be analyzed using technical expertise. After doing 5 pilot studies, the results showed the validity and the reliability of the instrument. Furthermore, the process showed the evidence of the possibilities of the rubric to contribute to uniform criteria that can be used as a didactic tool in different scenarios.

  1. Validity and power of association testing in family-based sampling designs: evidence for and against the common wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Stacey; Camp, Nicola J

    2011-04-01

    Current common wisdom posits that association analyses using family-based designs have inflated type 1 error rates (if relationships are ignored) and independent controls are more powerful than familial controls. We explore these suppositions. We show theoretically that family-based designs can have deflated type-error rates. Through simulation, we examine the validity and power of family designs for several scenarios: cases from randomly or selectively ascertained pedigrees; and familial or independent controls. Family structures considered are as follows: sibships, nuclear families, moderate-sized and extended pedigrees. Three methods were considered with the χ(2) test for trend: variance correction (VC), weighted (weights assigned to account for genetic similarity), and naïve (ignoring relatedness) as well as the Modified Quasi-likelihood Score (MQLS) test. Selectively ascertained pedigrees had similar levels of disease enrichment; random ascertainment had no such restriction. Data for 1,000 cases and 1,000 controls were created under the null and alternate models. The VC and MQLS methods were always valid. The naïve method was anti-conservative if independent controls were used and valid or conservative in designs with familial controls. The weighted association method was generally valid for independent controls, and was conservative for familial controls. With regard to power, independent controls were more powerful for small-to-moderate selectively ascertained pedigrees, but familial and independent controls were equivalent in the extended pedigrees and familial controls were consistently more powerful for all randomly ascertained pedigrees. These results suggest a more complex situation than previously assumed, which has important implications for study design and analysis. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Development and validation of a patient symptom questionnaire to facilitate early diagnosis of thyroid-associated orbitopathy in graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaseb, Kam; Linder, Mark; Rootman, Jack; Wilkins, G E; Schechter, Martin T; Dolman, Peter J; Singer, Joel

    2008-01-01

    To construct a patient-based symptom questionnaire to facilitate early referral of thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) in Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH). Phase I of our study involved developing a symptomatology-based questionnaire for the self-reporting of TAO symptoms in patients recently diagnosed with GH. Phase II involved administering the questionnaire along with a standard ophthalmic examination to a screening cohort of patients newly diagnosed with GH. Symptoms highly associated with the clinical diagnosis of TAO were used to construct a tool with the highest possible sensitivity. Phase III involved validation of this tool in a new cohort of patients recently diagnosed with GH. For each patient, the diagnosis of TAO was made by both a standardized orbital ophthalmic exam and the questionnaire. Results from the questionnaire were then compared to the clinical examination. The questionnaire was compared to the standardized examination and found to have a sensitivity of 0.76 and a specificity of 0.82 in the validation phase of the study. This questionnaire may be a useful tool in clinical practice to allow identification of patients with TAO secondary to GH. Future studies using this questionnaire are needed to determine whether earlier identification and management of these patients is associated with reduced morbidity from TAO.

  3. A validated genome wide association study to breed cattle adapted to an environment altered by climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Hayes

    Full Text Available Continued production of food in areas predicted to be most affected by climate change, such as dairy farming regions of Australia, will be a major challenge in coming decades. Along with rising temperatures and water shortages, scarcity of inputs such as high energy feeds is predicted. With the motivation of selecting cattle adapted to these changing environments, we conducted a genome wide association study to detect DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the sensitivity of milk production to environmental conditions. To do this we combined historical milk production and weather records with dense marker genotypes on dairy sires with many daughters milking across a wide range of production environments in Australia. Markers associated with sensitivity of milk production to feeding level and sensitivity of milk production to temperature humidity index on chromosome nine and twenty nine respectively were validated in two independent populations, one a different breed of cattle. As the extent of linkage disequilibrium across cattle breeds is limited, the underlying causative mutations have been mapped to a small genomic interval containing two promising candidate genes. The validated marker panels we have reported here will aid selection for high milk production under anticipated climate change scenarios, for example selection of sires whose daughters will be most productive at low levels of feeding.

  4. Associations between MMPI-2-RF validity scale scores and extra-test measures of personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D; Lee, Tayla T C; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Arbisi, Paul A; Gartland, Diane

    2013-08-01

    The current study explored associations between two potentially invalidating self-report styles detected by the Validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), over-reporting and under-reporting, and scores on the MMPI-2-RF substantive, as well as eight collateral self-report measures administered either at the same time or within 1 to 10 days of MMPI-2-RF administration. Analyses were conducted with data provided by college students, male prisoners, and male psychiatric outpatients from a Veterans Administration facility. Results indicated that if either an over- or under-reporting response style was suggested by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales, scores on the majority of the MMPI-2-RF substantive scales, as well as a number of collateral measures, were significantly affected in all three groups in the expected directions. Test takers who were identified as potentially engaging in an over- or under-reporting response style by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales appeared to approach extra-test measures similarly regardless of when these measures were administered in relation to the MMPI-2-RF. Limitations and suggestions for future study are discussed.

  5. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F C; Spaan, Pauline E J; Majoie, Charles B L M; Nederveen, Aart J; Walstra, Gerard J M; de Jonghe, Jos F M; van Gool, Willem A; Olabarriaga, Silvia D; Korkhov, Vladimir V; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in a memory clinic sample and its effect on the associations between hippocampal volume and memory performance. Eleven of 170 consecutive patients (6.5%; 13% of patients younger than 65 years) referred to memory clinics showed noncredible performance on symptom validity tests (SVTs, viz. Word Memory Test and Test of Memory Malingering). They were compared to a demographically matched group (n = 57) selected from the remaining patients. Hippocampal volume, measured by an automated volumetric method (Freesurfer), was correlated with scores on six verbal memory tests. The median correlation was r = .49 in the matched group. However, the relation was absent (median r = -.11) in patients who failed SVTs. Memory clinic samples may include patients who show noncredible performance, which invalidates their MCI diagnosis. This underscores the importance of applying SVTs in evaluating patients with cognitive complaints that may signify a predementia stage, especially when these patients are relatively young.

  6. Structural and construct validity of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire in adults with acute whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupar, Maja; Côté, Pierre; Beaton, Dorcas E; Boyle, Eleanor; Cassidy, J David

    2015-11-01

    Few instruments are available to measure disability associated with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) was developed to measure disability resulting from WAD, but its validity is unknown for acute WAD. The aim was to determine the structural and construct validity of the WDQ in individuals with acute WAD. This was a cohort study. Ontario adults with WAD were enrolled within 3 weeks of their motor vehicle collision. The outcome measure was the WDQ. We included insurance claimants who were aged 18 years or older and diagnosed with acute WAD Grades I to III. All participants completed the WDQ, a 13-item questionnaire scored from 0 (no disability) to 130 (complete disability). We assessed the factor structure of the WDQ and tested its construct validity against self-perceived recovery, neck pain (Numerical Rating Scale [NRS]), neck disability (Neck Disability Index [NDI] and Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire), health-related quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]), and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]). The mean age of the 130 participants was 42.1 years (standard deviation [SD]=13.2), and 70% were women. Twenty-six percent had WAD I, 73.1% had WAD II, and 0.8% had WAD III. Mean time since injury was 6.5 days (SD=4.9). The mean WDQ score was 49.8 (SD=29.1). Our analysis suggested that the WDQ includes two factors: daily activities and emotional status. This factor structure remained stable in sensitivity analyses (eg, zeros imputed for missing values, and the item with the most missing values or resulting in complex loading excluded). Strong correlations were found between the total WDQ score and the NDI, the Bournemouth questionnaire, the SF-36 physical function, and the NRS (for the neck, shoulder, mid and low back pain) satisfying a priori hypotheses. We found a priori hypothesized moderate correlations between the WDQ, and the CES-D and SF-36 mental function

  7. Experimental validation of decay heat calculation codes and associated nuclear data libraries for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Wada, Masayuki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    Validity of decay heat calculations for safety designs of fusion reactors was investigated by using decay heat experimental data on thirty-two fusion reactor relevant materials obtained at the 14-MeV neutron source facility of FNS in JAERI. Calculation codes developed in Japan, ACT4 and CINAC version 4, and nuclear data bases such as JENDL/Act-96, FENDL/A-2.0 and Lib90 were used for the calculation. Although several corrections in algorithms for both the calculation codes were needed, it was shown by comparing calculated results with the experimental data that most of activation cross sections and decay data were adequate. In cases of type 316 stainless steel and copper which were important for ITER, prediction accuracy of decay heat within ±10% was confirmed. However, it was pointed out that there were some problems in parts of data such as improper activation cross sections, e,g., the 92 Mo(n, 2n) 91g Mo reaction in FENDL, and lack of activation cross section data, e.g., the 138 Ba(n, 2n) 137m Ba reaction in JENDL. Modifications of cross section data were recommended for 19 reactions in JENDL and FENDL. It was also pointed out that X-ray and conversion electron energies should be included in decay data. (author)

  8. Experimental validation of decay heat calculation codes and associated nuclear data libraries for fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Wada, Masayuki; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    Validity of decay heat calculations for safety designs of fusion reactors was investigated by using decay heat experimental data on thirty-two fusion reactor relevant materials obtained at the 14-MeV neutron source facility of FNS in JAERI. Calculation codes developed in Japan, ACT4 and CINAC version 4, and nuclear data bases such as JENDL/Act-96, FENDL/A-2.0 and Lib90 were used for the calculation. Although several corrections in algorithms for both the calculation codes were needed, it was shown by comparing calculated results with the experimental data that most of activation cross sections and decay data were adequate. In cases of type 316 stainless steel and copper which were important for ITER, prediction accuracy of decay heat within {+-}10% was confirmed. However, it was pointed out that there were some problems in parts of data such as improper activation cross sections, e,g., the {sup 92}Mo(n, 2n){sup 91g}Mo reaction in FENDL, and lack of activation cross section data, e.g., the {sup 138}Ba(n, 2n){sup 137m}Ba reaction in JENDL. Modifications of cross section data were recommended for 19 reactions in JENDL and FENDL. It was also pointed out that X-ray and conversion electron energies should be included in decay data. (author)

  9. Semiautomatic regional segmentation to measure orbital fat volumes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerci, M; Elefante, A; Strianese, D; Senese, R; Bonavolontà, P; Alfano, B; Bonavolontà, B; Brunetti, A

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to validate a novel semi-automated segmentation method to measure regional intra-orbital fat tissue volume in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Twenty-four orbits from 12 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, 24 orbits from 12 controls, ten orbits from five MRI study simulations and two orbits from a digital model were used. Following manual region of interest definition of the orbital volumes performed by two operators with different levels of expertise, an automated procedure calculated intra-orbital fat tissue volumes (global and regional, with automated definition of four quadrants). In patients with Graves' disease, clinical activity score and degree of exophthalmos were measured and correlated with intra-orbital fat volumes. Operator performance was evaluated and statistical analysis of the measurements was performed. Accurate intra-orbital fat volume measurements were obtained with coefficients of variation below 5%. The mean operator difference in total fat volume measurements was 0.56%. Patients had significantly higher intra-orbital fat volumes than controls (p<0.001 using Student's t test). Fat volumes and clinical score were significantly correlated (p<0.001). The semi-automated method described here can provide accurate, reproducible intra-orbital fat measurements with low inter-operator variation and good correlation with clinical data.

  10. Analysis of genetic association using hierarchical clustering and cluster validation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnuco, Inti A; Pastore, Juan I; Abras, Guillermo; Brun, Marcel; Ballarin, Virginia L

    2017-10-01

    It is usually assumed that co-expressed genes suggest co-regulation in the underlying regulatory network. Determining sets of co-expressed genes is an important task, based on some criteria of similarity. This task is usually performed by clustering algorithms, where the genes are clustered into meaningful groups based on their expression values in a set of experiment. In this work, we propose a method to find sets of co-expressed genes, based on cluster validation indices as a measure of similarity for individual gene groups, and a combination of variants of hierarchical clustering to generate the candidate groups. We evaluated its ability to retrieve significant sets on simulated correlated and real genomics data, where the performance is measured based on its detection ability of co-regulated sets against a full search. Additionally, we analyzed the quality of the best ranked groups using an online bioinformatics tool that provides network information for the selected genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Challenging the validity of the association between oversleeping and overeating in atypical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used a strict definition of hypersomnia and tested if the association between overeating-hypersomnia remained positive and significant. Hypersomnia was present if the total sleep time was close to 10h per day or was at least 2h longer than in normothymic periods. Cross-sectional study using the adult general population of California and New York. The sample was composed of 6694 individuals aged between 18 and 96years. Participants were interviewed by telephone using the Sleep-EVAL system. The interviews included various sleep and health topics and the assessment of DSM-IV sleep and psychiatric disorders. The one-month prevalence of major depressive episode was 6.1%, including a one-month prevalence of atypical depression of 1.6%, in this sample. Atypical depression subjects had a greater number of depressive symptoms and a longer duration of the current depressive episode than the other depressive subjects. Depressive subjects with hypersomnia slept longer (8h, 29min) than the other depressive subjects (6h, 36min) and longer than the subjects "getting too much sleep" (6h, 48min). Furthermore, hypersomnia was not associated with overeating while "getting too much sleep" showed a positive association with overeating. Hypersomnia needs to be evaluated using a strict definition. Otherwise, it leads to an overestimation of this symptom in major depressive episode subjects and to a false association with overeating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Association of Social Work Boards' Licensure Examinations: A Review of Reliability and Validity Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Stephen M.; DeAngelis, Donna; Mittal, Nisha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to create transparency for the psychometric methods employed for the development of the Association of Social Work Boards' (ASWB) exams. Results: The article includes an assessment of the macro (political) and micro (statistical) environments of testing social work competence. The seven-step process used…

  13. Where are weather-suicide associations valid? An examination of nine US counties with varying seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P. Grady; Kalkstein, Adam J.

    2018-05-01

    There has been much research on the associations between weather variables and suicide rates. However, the state of understanding has remained rather stagnant due to many contradictory findings. The purpose of this project is to examine a larger database of suicides that includes a longer and more recent period of record (1975-2010) across numerous locations in the USA. In all, we examine nine total counties (and the primary city associated with them) with a special effort made to compare locations with varying degrees of temperature seasonality: Cook (Chicago), Fulton (Atlanta), King (Seattle), Los Angeles (Los Angeles), Maricopa (Phoenix), Miami-Dade (Miami), Philadelphia (Philadelphia), Salt Lake (Salt Lake City), and St. Louis (St. Louis). We first examine the unique seasonal cycle in suicides evident in each locale and then use distributed lag nonlinear modeling (DLNM) to relate the suicide data to daily surface temperatures. Results suggest that a late spring/summer peak generally exists in suicide rates, and above average temperatures are associated with increased suicide risk in almost all study counties. Further, it appears that these associations can be found in both mid-latitude and sub-tropical climate types.

  14. Validation of a new questionnaire to assess the impact of Whiplash Associated Disorders: The Whiplash Activity and participation List (WAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenneberg, Martijn S; Schmitt, Maarten A; van Trijffel, Emiel; Schröder, Carin D; Lindeboom, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Valid questionnaires for measuring functional limitations in patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) are lacking, since existing measures are not suitable for addressing the specific limitations of these patients and because of cross contamination between theoretical constructs. The objective of this study was to evaluate dimensionality, test-retest reliability, measurement error, construct validity, and responsiveness of a new condition-specific questionnaire for WAD as well as to estimate the minimally important change score. Patients with WAD grade I or II were recruited from physical therapy practices and rehabilitation centers. Dimensionality was examined by internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha) and factor analysis. Test-retest reliability was estimated by intraclass correlations and measurement error was calculated by the minimal detectable change (MDC) scores. Construct validity was investigated by testing predefined hypotheses on correlations of the WAL scores with generic health measures and by using the known group method. Responsiveness was expressed as the minimal clinically important change (MCIC) score. 73 patients (53 women) were included. Cronbach's alpha was high (0.95) and unidimensionality was plausible because factor analysis showed 40.3% variance explained by one dominant factor, which was more than 4.5 times larger than the second largest factor. Test-retest reliability was excellent (0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.95). Construct validity was supported by 14 out of 15 confirmed hypotheses and the WAL showed statistically significant differences between known groups. MDC was 16 points while the MCIC was 18 points. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the WAL has adequate measurement properties, but additional research is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computer-assisted quantification of interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis: Preliminary technical validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.; Dicken, V.; Kneitz, C.; Hoehmann, M.; Kenn, W.; Hahn, D.; Engelke, C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a threshold-based prototype software application (MeVis PULMO 3D) for quantification of chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using variable threshold settings for segmentation of diseased lung areas. Methods: Twenty-two patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included and underwent thin-section CT (4 x 1.25 mm collimation). CT scans were assessed by two observers for extent of ILD (EoILD), and twice by MeVis PULMO 3D for each protocol. MeVis PULMO 3D used four segmentation threshold (ST) settings (ST = -740, -780, -800 and -840 HU). Pulmonary function tests were obtained in all patients. Statistical evaluation used 95% limits of agreement (LoA) and linear regression analysis. Results: There was total concordance between the software measurements. Interobserver agreement was good (LoA = -28.36 to 17.58%). EoILD by readers correlated strongly with DL CO (r = -0.702, p CO at ST of -800 HU (r = -0.44, -0.49, -0.58 and -0.57 for ST = -740, -780, -800 and -840, respectively; p = 0.007-0.05) and moderately with FVC (r = -0.44, -0.51, -0.59 and -0.45 for ST = -740, -780, -800 and -840), respectively; p = 0.007-0.05). Conclusion: The MeVis PULMO 3D system used holds promise to become a valuable instrument for quantification of chronic ILD in patients with RA when using the threshold value of -800 HU, with evidence of the closest correlations, both with human observers and physiologic impairment.

  16. Development and validation of a prediction model for insulin-associated hypoglycemia in non-critically ill hospitalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathioudakis, Nestoras Nicolas; Everett, Estelle; Routh, Shuvodra; Pronovost, Peter J; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Golden, Sherita Hill; Saria, Suchi

    2018-01-01

    To develop and validate a multivariable prediction model for insulin-associated hypoglycemia in non-critically ill hospitalized adults. We collected pharmacologic, demographic, laboratory, and diagnostic data from 128 657 inpatient days in which at least 1 unit of subcutaneous insulin was administered in the absence of intravenous insulin, total parenteral nutrition, or insulin pump use (index days). These data were used to develop multivariable prediction models for biochemical and clinically significant hypoglycemia (blood glucose (BG) of ≤70 mg/dL and model development and validation, respectively. Using predictors of age, weight, admitting service, insulin doses, mean BG, nadir BG, BG coefficient of variation (CV BG ), diet status, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease (CKD), liver disease, and digestive disease, our model achieved a c-statistic of 0.77 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.78), positive likelihood ratio (+LR) of 3.5 (95% CI 3.4 to 3.6) and negative likelihood ratio (-LR) of 0.32 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.35) for prediction of biochemical hypoglycemia. Using predictors of sex, weight, insulin doses, mean BG, nadir BG, CV BG , diet status, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, CKD stage, and steroid use, our model achieved a c-statistic of 0.80 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.82), +LR of 3.8 (95% CI 3.7 to 4.0) and -LR of 0.2 (95% CI 0.2 to 0.3) for prediction of clinically significant hypoglycemia. Hospitalized patients at risk of insulin-associated hypoglycemia can be identified using validated prediction models, which may support the development of real-time preventive interventions.

  17. Validation and diagnostic accuracy of predictive curves for age-associated longitudinal cognitive decline in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Patrick J.; Gourdeau, Christian; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Beauchemin, Jean-Pierre; Verreault, René; Bouchard, Rémi W.; Kröger, Edeltraut; Laforce, Robert

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Mini-Mental State Examination continues to be used frequently to screen for cognitive impairment in older adults, but it remains unclear how to interpret changes in its score over time to distinguish age-associated cognitive decline from an early degenerative process. We aimed to generate cognitive charts for use in clinical practice for longitudinal evaluation of age-associated cognitive decline. METHODS: We used data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging from 7569 participants aged 65 years or older who completed a Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline, and at 5 and 10 years later to develop a linear regression model for the Mini-Mental State Examination score as a function of age and education. Based on this model, we generated cognitive charts designed to optimize accuracy for distinguishing participants with dementia from healthy controls. We validated our model using a separate data set of 6501 participants from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s Uniform Data Set. RESULTS: For baseline measurement, the cognitive charts had a sensitivity of 80% (95% confidence interval [CI] 75% to 84%) and a specificity of 89% (95% CI 88% to 90%) for distinguishing healthy controls from participants with dementia. Similar sensitivities and specificities were observed for a decline over time greater than 1 percentile zone from the first measurement. Results in the validation sample were comparable, albeit with lower sensitivities. Negative predictive value was 99%. INTERPRETATION: Our innovative model, which factors in age and education, showed validity and diagnostic accuracy for determining whether older patients show abnormal performance on serial Mini-Mental State Examination measurements. Similar to growth curves used in pediatrics, cognitive charts allow longitudinal cognitive evaluation and enable prompt initiation of investigation and treatment when appropriate. PMID:29203616

  18. Criterion Validation Testing of Clinical Metrology Instruments for Measuring Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Mobility Impairment in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Margaret E; Griffith, Emily H; Thomson, Andrea E; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (pdegenerative joint disease.

  19. The validation of Implicit Association Test measures for smartphone and Internet addiction in at-risk children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Daeyoung; Bhang, Soo-Young; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kweon, Yong Sil; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-03-01

    Background Potential concerns are increasing that smartphone and Internet addictions may have deleterious effects on the mental health. Despite the recognition of the important role that implicit associations may have over explicit processes in addiction, such implicit associations have not been comprehensively investigated with respect to Internet addiction. Therefore, we modified the Implicit Association Test (IAT) for smartphone and Internet addictions and investigated its validity in children and adolescents. Methods In this experimental study, 78 at-risk children and adolescents ranging in age from 7 to 17 years completed an IAT modified with pictures captured from the most popular Internet games among youth. Furthermore, measures of Internet and smartphone addictions, mental health and problem behaviors, impulsive tendencies, self-esteem, daily stress, and quality of life were assessed simultaneously. Results Significant correlations were found between IAT D2SD scores and standardized scales for Internet (r = .28, p smartphone (r = .33, p addictions. There were no significant correlations between IAT parameters and other scales measuring the constructs that are less relevant to the features of addiction, such as daily stress levels, impulsivity, and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the IAT D2SD was independently and positively associated with smartphone addiction (p = .03) after controlling for other clinical correlates. Conclusions This study demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity of this IAT as a novel measurement relating to Internet and smartphone addictions. Further longitudinal and prospective studies are needed to evaluate its potential utility in clinical and community settings.

  20. Validation of a published case definition for tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Lewis J; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S; Easterbrook, Philippa J

    2010-01-02

    To evaluate the International Network for the Study of HIV-associated IRIS (INSHI) case definitions for tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a South African cohort. Prospective cohort of 498 adult HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients were followed up for 24 weeks and all clinical events were recorded. Events with TB-IRIS as possible cause were assessed by consensus expert opinion and INSHI case definition. Positive, negative, and chance-corrected agreement (kappa) were calculated, and reasons for disagreement were assessed. One hundred and two (20%) patients were receiving TB therapy at antiretroviral therapy initiation. Three hundred and thirty-three events were evaluated (74 potential paradoxical IRIS, 259 potential unmasking IRIS). Based on expert opinion, there were 18 cases of paradoxical IRIS associated with TB and/or other opportunistic disease. The INSHI criteria for TB-IRIS agreed in 13 paradoxical cases, giving positive agreement of 72.2%, negative agreement in 52/56 non-TB-IRIS events (92.9%), and kappa of 0.66. There were 19 unmasking TB-IRIS cases based on expert opinion, of which 12 were considered IRIS using the INSHI definition (positive agreement 63.2%). There was agreement in all 240 non-TB-IRIS events (negative agreement 100%) and kappa was 0.76. There was good agreement between the INSHI case definition for both paradoxical and unmasking TB-IRIS and consensus expert opinion. These results support the use of this definition in clinical and research practice, with minor caveats in its application.

  1. [Smartphone addiction: French validation of the Internet Addiction Test-Smartphone version (IAT-smartphone) and associated psychopathological features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrault, S; Durousseau, F; Ballon, N; Réveillère, C; Brunault, P

    2018-02-02

    Since their first appearance in 1992 smartphones have improved constantly, and their use, combined with the rapid spread of the Internet, has increased dramatically. The recent emergence of this technology raises new issues, at both individual and societal levels. Several studies have investigated the physical and psychological harm that may be caused by smartphones. The issue of excessive smartphone use as an addictive disorder is frequently raised and debated, although it is not acknowledged in international classifications. In France, there is no validated assessment tool for smartphone addiction. Therefore, the aims of this research were: to validate a French translation of the Internet Addiction Test-smartphone version (IAT-smartphone); to study the links between smartphone addiction, Internet addiction, depression, anxiety and impulsivity. Two hundred and sixteen participants from the general population were included in the study (January to February 2016), which was available online using Sphinx software. We assessed smartphone addiction (French version of the Internet Addiction Scale - smartphone version, IAT-smartphone), specificity of smartphone use (time spent, types of activity), Internet addiction (Internet Addiction Test, IAT), impulsivity (UPPS Impulsiveness Behavior Scale), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HAD). We tested the construct validity of the IAT-smartphone (exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency, non-parametric correlation tests for convergent validity). We also carried out multiple linear regressions to determine the factors associated with IAT-smartphone. Mean age was 32.4±12.2 years; 75.5% of the participants were women. The IAT-smartphone had a one-factor structure (explaining 42 % of the variance), excellent internal consistency (α=0.93) and satisfactory convergent validity. Smartphone addiction was associated with Internet addiction (ρ=0.85), depression (ρ=0.31), anxiety (ρ=0

  2. Validation of candidate genes associated with cardiovascular risk factors in psychiatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windemuth, Andreas; de Leon, Jose; Goethe, John W.; Schwartz, Harold I.; Woolley, Stephen; Susce, Margaret; Kocherla, Mohan; Bogaard, Kali; Holford, Theodore R.; Seip, Richard L.; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants predictive of cardiovascular risk factors in a psychiatric population treated with second generation antipsychotics (SGA). 924 patients undergoing treatment for severe mental illness at four US hospitals were genotyped at 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Patients were assessed for fasting serum lipid (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDLc], high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDLc], and triglycerides) and obesity phenotypes (body mass index, BMI). Thirteen candidate genes from previous studies of the same phenotypes in non-psychiatric populations were tested for association. We confirmed 8 of the 13 candidate genes at the 95% confidence level. An increased genetic effect size was observed for triglycerides in the psychiatric population compared to that in the cardiovascular population. PMID:21851846

  3. THE VALIDATION OF THE RESULTS OF MICROARRAY STUDIES OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GENE POLYMORPHISMS AND THE FREQUENCY OF RADIATION EXPOSURE MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Khalyuzova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results from the selective validation research into the association between genetic polymorphisms and the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities on a large independent sample are analyzed. These polymorphisms have been identified previously during own microarray studies. It has been shown an association with the frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes induced by radiation exposure. The study was conducted among Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises healthy employees (n = 573 exposed to professional irradiation in a dose range of 40–400 mSv. We have found that 5 SNP are confirmed to be associated with the frequency of dicentric and ring: INSR rs1051690 – insulin receptor gene; WRNrs2725349 – Werner syndrome gene, RecQ helicase-like; VCAM1 rs1041163 – vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 gene; PCTP rs2114443 – phosphatidylcholine transfer protein gene; TNKS rs7462102 – tankyrase gene; TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase. IGF1 rs2373721 – insulin-like growth factor 1 gene has not confirmed to be associated with the frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes.

  4. Validity of Medical Student Questionnaire Data in Prediction of Rural Practice Choice and Its Association With Service Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, C Ken; Jackson, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    The validity of medical student projection of, and predictors for, rural practice and the association of a measure of service orientation, projected practice accessibility to the indigent, were investigated. West Virginia (WV) medical student online pre- and postrural rotation questionnaire data were collected during the time period 2001-2009. Of the 1,517 respondent students, submissions by 1,271 met the time interval criterion for inclusion in analyses. Subsequent WV licensing data were available for 461 in 2013. These 2 databases were used to assess for validity of projection of rural practice, for predictors of rural practice, and for student projected accessibility of the future practice to indigent patients. There were statistically significant associations between both pre- and postrotation projections of rural practice and subsequent rural practice. The most significant independent predictors of rural practice were student rural background, reported primary care intent, prediction of rural practice and projection of greater accessibility of the future practice to indigent patients. For scoring of practice access, there were trends for higher scoring by rural students and rural practitioners, with greater pre-post increases for those with urban hometowns. This study demonstrates the utility of medical student questionnaires for projections of numbers of future rural physicians. It suggests that students with a rural background, rural practice intent, or greater service orientation are more likely to enter rural practice. It also suggests that students, particularly those with urban hometowns, are influenced by rural rotation experiences in forecasting greater practice accessibility and in entering rural practice. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  5. A validation of the first genome-wide association study of calcaneus ultrasound parameters in the European Male Ageing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Thang S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA and speed of sound (SOS as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS at the calcaneus in the Framingham 100K genome-wide association study (GWAS but have not been validated in independent studies. The aim of this analysis was to determine if these SNPs are associated with QUS measurements assessed in a large independent population of European middle-aged and elderly men. The association between these SNPs and bone mineral density (BMD measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was also tested. Methods Men aged 40-79 years (N = 2960 were recruited from population registers in seven European centres for participation in an observational study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS. QUS at the calcaneus was measured in all subjects and blood was taken for genetic analysis. Lumbar spine (LS, femoral neck (FN and total hip (TH BMD were measured by DXA in a subsample of 620 men in two centres. SNPs associated with BUA or SOS in the Framingham study with p -4 were selected and genotyped using SEQUENOM technology. Linear regression was used to test for the association between SNPs and standardised (SD bone outcomes under an additive genetic model adjusting for centre. The same direction of effect and p Results Thirty-four of 38 selected SNPs were successfully genotyped in 2377 men. Suggestive evidence of replication was observed for a single SNP, rs3754032, which was associated with a higher SOS (β(SD = 0.07, p = 0.032 but not BUA (β(SD = 0.02, p = 0.505 and is located in the 3'UTR of WDR77 (WD repeat domain 77 also known as androgen receptor cofactor p44. A single SNP, rs238358, was associated with BMD at the LS (β(SD = -0.22, p = 0.014, FN (β(SD = -0.31,p = 0.001 and TH (β(SD = -0.36, p = 0.002 in a locus previously associated with LS BMD in large-scale GWAS, incorporating AKAP11 and RANKL

  6. Exploration, Development, and Validation of Patient-reported Outcomes in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody–associated Vasculitis Using the OMERACT Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Joanna C.; Milman, Nataliya; Tomasson, Gunnar; Dawson, Jill; Cronholm, Peter F.; Kellom, Katherine; Shea, Judy; Ashdown, Susan; Boers, Maarten; Boonen, Annelies; Casey, George C.; Farrar, John T.; Gebhart, Don; Krischer, Jeffrey; Lanier, Georgia; McAlear, Carol A.; Peck, Jacqueline; Sreih, Antoine G.; Tugwell, Peter; Luqmani, Raashid A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of linked multisystem life- and organ-threatening diseases. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) vasculitis working group has been at the forefront of outcome development in the field and has achieved OMERACT endorsement of a core set of outcomes for AAV. Patients with AAV report as important some manifestations of disease not routinely collected through physician-completed outcome tools; and they rate common manifestations differently from investigators. The core set includes the domain of patient-reported outcomes (PRO). However, PRO currently used in clinical trials of AAV do not fully characterize patients’ perspectives on their burden of disease. The OMERACT vasculitis working group is addressing the unmet needs for PRO in AAV. Methods Current activities of the working group include (1) evaluating the feasibility and construct validity of instruments within the PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System) to record components of the disease experience among patients with AAV; (2) creating a disease-specific PRO measure for AAV; and (3) applying The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to examine the scope of outcome measures used in AAV. Results The working group has developed a comprehensive research strategy, organized an investigative team, included patient research partners, obtained peer-reviewed funding, and is using a considerable research infrastructure to complete these interrelated projects to develop evidence-based validated outcome instruments that meet the OMERACT filter of truth, discrimination, and feasibility. Conclusion The OMERACT vasculitis working group is on schedule to achieve its goals of developing validated PRO for use in clinical trials of AAV. (First Release September 1 2015; J Rheumatol 2015;42:2204–9; doi:10.3899/jrheum.141143) PMID:26329344

  7. Validation of a Sampling Method to Collect Exposure Data for Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Naïma; Mertens, Karl; Overholser, Rosanna; Goetghebeur, Els; Catry, Boudewijn; Lambert, Marie-Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of central-line-associated bloodstream infections requires the labor-intensive counting of central-line days (CLDs). This workload could be reduced by sampling. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of various sampling strategies in the estimation of CLDs in intensive care units (ICUs) and to establish a set of rules to identify optimal sampling strategies depending on ICU characteristics. Analyses of existing data collected according to the European protocol for patient-based surveillance of ICU-acquired infections in Belgium between 2004 and 2012. CLD data were reported by 56 ICUs in 39 hospitals during 364 trimesters. We compared estimated CLD data obtained from weekly and monthly sampling schemes with the observed exhaustive CLD data over the trimester by assessing the CLD percentage error (ie, observed CLDs - estimated CLDs/observed CLDs). We identified predictors of improved accuracy using linear mixed models. When sampling once per week or 3 times per month, 80% of ICU trimesters had a CLD percentage error within 10%. When sampling twice per week, this was >90% of ICU trimesters. Sampling on Tuesdays provided the best estimations. In the linear mixed model, the observed CLD count was the best predictor for a smaller percentage error. The following sampling strategies provided an estimate within 10% of the actual CLD for 97% of the ICU trimesters with 90% confidence: 3 times per month in an ICU with >650 CLDs per trimester or each Tuesday in an ICU with >480 CLDs per trimester. Sampling of CLDs provides an acceptable alternative to daily collection of CLD data.

  8. Building and Validating a Computerized Algorithm for Surveillance of Ventilator-Associated Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Tal; Ellsworth, Joseph; Huda, Najia; Neelakanta, Anupama; Chevalier, Thomas; Sims, Kristin L; Dhar, Sorabh; Robinson, Mary E; Kaye, Keith S

    2015-09-01

    To develop an automated method for ventilator-associated condition (VAC) surveillance and to compare its accuracy and efficiency with manual VAC surveillance The intensive care units (ICUs) of 4 hospitals This study was conducted at Detroit Medical Center, a tertiary care center in metropolitan Detroit. A total of 128 ICU beds in 4 acute care hospitals were included during the study period from August to October 2013. The automated VAC algorithm was implemented and utilized for 1 month by all study hospitals. Simultaneous manual VAC surveillance was conducted by 2 infection preventionists and 1 infection control fellow who were blinded to each another's findings and to the automated VAC algorithm results. The VACs identified by the 2 surveillance processes were compared. During the study period, 110 patients from all the included hospitals were mechanically ventilated and were evaluated for VAC for a total of 992 mechanical ventilation days. The automated VAC algorithm identified 39 VACs with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. In comparison, the combined efforts of the IPs and the infection control fellow detected 58.9% of VACs, with 59% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 91% PPV, and 92% NPV. Moreover, the automated VAC algorithm was extremely efficient, requiring only 1 minute to detect VACs over a 1-month period, compared to 60.7 minutes using manual surveillance. The automated VAC algorithm is efficient and accurate and is ready to be used routinely for VAC surveillance. Furthermore, its implementation can optimize the sensitivity and specificity of VAC identification.

  9. Inverse Associations between a Locally Validated Mediterranean Diet Index, Overweight/Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Chilean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Guadalupe; McGee, Emma E; Urquiaga, Inés; Jiménez, Paulina; D'Acuña, Sonia; Villarroel, Luis; Velasco, Nicolás; Leighton, Federico; Rigotti, Attilio

    2017-08-11

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are key risk factors for chronic disease. Dietary patterns are critical in the incidence and persistence of obesity and MetS, yet there is few data linking diet to obesity and MetS in Chile. Our objective was to use a locally validated diet index to evaluate adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its correlations with overweight/obesity (OW/O) and MetS prevalence in Chilean adults. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional online survey of Chilean adults with complete self-reported diet and body mass index data ( n = 24,882). A subsample of 4348 users (17.5%) had valid MetS data. An inverse association was observed between adherence to Mediterranean diet and OW/O and MetS prevalence. As diet quality decreased from healthy, to moderately-healthy, to unhealthy, prevalence increased from 44.8, 51.1, to 60.9% for OW/O and from 13.4, 18.5, to 28.9% for MetS ( p -values diet groups in comparison to the healthy diet group. This study represents the first report on the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic disease risk in Chile. It suggests that the Mediterranean diet may be applied to manage chronic disease risk beyond the Mediterranean basin.

  10. Interpretation of custom designed Illumina genotype cluster plots for targeted association studies and next-generation sequence validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tindall Elizabeth A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput custom designed genotyping arrays are a valuable resource for biologically focused research studies and increasingly for validation of variation predicted by next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies. We investigate the Illumina GoldenGate chemistry using custom designed VeraCode and sentrix array matrix (SAM assays for each of these applications, respectively. We highlight applications for interpretation of Illumina generated genotype cluster plots to maximise data inclusion and reduce genotyping errors. Findings We illustrate the dramatic effect of outliers in genotype calling and data interpretation, as well as suggest simple means to avoid genotyping errors. Furthermore we present this platform as a successful method for two-cluster rare or non-autosomal variant calling. The success of high-throughput technologies to accurately call rare variants will become an essential feature for future association studies. Finally, we highlight additional advantages of the Illumina GoldenGate chemistry in generating unusually segregated cluster plots that identify potential NGS generated sequencing error resulting from minimal coverage. Conclusions We demonstrate the importance of visually inspecting genotype cluster plots generated by the Illumina software and issue warnings regarding commonly accepted quality control parameters. In addition to suggesting applications to minimise data exclusion, we propose that the Illumina cluster plots may be helpful in identifying potential in-put sequence errors, particularly important for studies to validate NGS generated variation.

  11. Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥ 3 days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. External Validation of the ISAN, A2DS2, and AIS-APS Scores for Predicting Stroke-Associated Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Arriaza, Elena; Moniche, Francisco; Blanca, Pardo-Galiana; Bustamante, Alejandro; Escudero-Martínez, Irene; Uclés, Oscar; Ollero-Ortiz, Ángela; Sánchez-García, Jose Antonio; Gamero, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ángeles; Vidal De Francisco, Diana; Romera, Mercedes; De la Cruz, Carlos; Sanz, Gema; Montaner, Joan

    2018-03-01

    The Prestroke Independence, Sex, Age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (ISAN), Age, Atrial Fibrillation, Dysphagia, male sex, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (A2DS2), and acute ischemic stroke-associated pneumonia score (AIS-APS) scores were created to predict stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP), one of the most important medical stroke complications. External validation of all such scores in an acute stroke population was the aim of our study. Patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were prospectively enrolled in the multicenter Stroke-Induced Pneumonia in Andalucía project between October 2014 and May 2016. Receiver operating characteristic curves and linear regression analyses were used to determine discrimination ability of the scores. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and the plot of observed versus predicted SAP risk were used to assess model calibration. Among 201 included patients, SAP rate was 15.5% (31). Higher ISAN, A2DS2, and AIS-APS scores were related to SAP (all P manage SAP. The AIS-APS score would be recommendable for the development of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic value of tumor markers for lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion: a validation study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mei; Zhu, Jing; Liang, Liqun; Zeng, Ni; Wu, Yanqiu; Wan, Chun; Shen, Yongchun; Wen, Fuqiang

    2017-04-01

    Pleural effusion is one of the most common complications of lung adenocarcinoma and is diagnostically challenging. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA) 21-1, and cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 for lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion (MPE) through a validation study and meta-analysis. Pleural effusion samples were collected from 81 lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPEs and 96 benign pleural effusions. CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The capacity of tumor markers was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic studies were used to summarize the diagnostic performance of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 for lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE. The pleural levels of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were significantly increased in lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE compared to benign pleural effusion. The cut-off points for CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were optimally set at 4.55 ng/ml, 43.10 μg/ml, and 12.89 U/ml, and corresponding AUCs were 0.93, 0.85, and 0.81, respectively. The combination of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 increased the sensitivity to 95.06%, with an AUC of 0.95. Eight studies were included in this meta-analysis. CEA showed the best diagnostic performance with pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio of 0.75, 0.96, 16.01, 0.23, and 81.49, respectively. The AUC was 0.93. CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 play a role in the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE. The combination of these tumor markers increases the diagnostic accuracy.

  14. Genetic assessment of age-associated Alzheimer disease risk: Development and validation of a polygenic hazard score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul S Desikan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying individuals at risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD is of utmost importance. Although genetic studies have identified AD-associated SNPs in APOE and other genes, genetic information has not been integrated into an epidemiological framework for risk prediction.Using genotype data from 17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP Stage 1, we identified AD-associated SNPs (at p < 10-5. We then integrated these AD-associated SNPs into a Cox proportional hazard model using genotype data from a subset of 6,409 AD patients and 9,386 older controls from Phase 1 of the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC, providing a polygenic hazard score (PHS for each participant. By combining population-based incidence rates and the genotype-derived PHS for each individual, we derived estimates of instantaneous risk for developing AD, based on genotype and age, and tested replication in multiple independent cohorts (ADGC Phase 2, National Institute on Aging Alzheimer's Disease Center [NIA ADC], and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [ADNI], total n = 20,680. Within the ADGC Phase 1 cohort, individuals in the highest PHS quartile developed AD at a considerably lower age and had the highest yearly AD incidence rate. Among APOE ε3/3 individuals, the PHS modified expected age of AD onset by more than 10 y between the lowest and highest deciles (hazard ratio 3.34, 95% CI 2.62-4.24, p = 1.0 × 10-22. In independent cohorts, the PHS strongly predicted empirical age of AD onset (ADGC Phase 2, r = 0.90, p = 1.1 × 10-26 and longitudinal progression from normal aging to AD (NIA ADC, Cochran-Armitage trend test, p = 1.5 × 10-10, and was associated with neuropathology (NIA ADC, Braak stage of neurofibrillary tangles, p = 3.9 × 10-6, and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease score for neuritic plaques, p = 6.8 × 10-6 and in vivo markers of AD neurodegeneration (ADNI

  15. Validation of Analysis Method of pesticides in fresh tomatoes by Gas Chromatography associated to a liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhib, Ahlem

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are nowadays considered as toxic for human health. The maximum residues levels (MRL) in foodstuff are more and more strict. Therefore, selective analytical techniques are necessary for their identification and their quantification. The aim of this study is to set up a multi residue method for the determination of pesticides in tomatoes by gas chromatography with μECD detector (GC/μECD) associated to liquid scintillation counting. A global analytical protocol consisting of a QuECHERS version of the extraction step followed by purification step of the resulting extract on a polymeric sorbent was set up. The 14 C-chloropyrifos used as an internal standard proved excellent to control the different steps needed for the sample preparation. The method optimized is specific, selective with a recovery averaged more than 70 pour cent, repetitive and reproducible. Although some others criteria need to be checked regarding validation before its use in routine analysis, the potential of the method has been demonstrated.

  16. Proactive, reactive, and romantic relational aggression in adulthood: measurement, predictive validity, gender differences, and association with Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M; Nelson, David A; Crick, Nicki R; Coccaro, Emil F

    2010-04-01

    The psychometric properties of a recently introduced adult self-report of relational aggression are presented. Specifically, the predictive utility of proactive and reactive peer-directed relational aggression, as well as romantic relational aggression, are explored in a large (N=1387) study of adults. The measure had adequate reliability and validity and the subscales demonstrated unique predictive abilities for a number of dependent variables. In particular, reactive but not proactive relational aggression was uniquely associated with history of abuse, hostile attribution biases, and feelings of distress regarding relational provocation situations. Reactive relational aggression was also more strongly related to anger and hostility than proactive aggression. In addition, relational aggression in the context of romantic relationships was uniquely related to anger, hostility, impulsivity, history of abuse, hostile attribution biases, and emotional sensitivity to relational provocations, even when controlling for peer-directed relational aggression. Gender differences in overall levels of relational aggression were not observed; however, males were most likely to engage in peer-directed proactive and reactive relational aggression whereas females were most likely to engage in romantic relational aggression. In a second study (N=150), relational aggression was higher in a sample of adults with Intermittent Explosive Disorder than in a sample of healthy controls or psychiatric controls. The findings highlight the importance of assessing subtypes of relational aggression in adult samples. Ways in which this measure may extend research in psychology and psychiatry are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of systems biology derived molecular markers of renal donor organ status associated with long term allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perco, Paul; Heinzel, Andreas; Leierer, Johannes; Schneeberger, Stefan; Bösmüller, Claudia; Oberhuber, Rupert; Wagner, Silvia; Engler, Franziska; Mayer, Gert

    2018-05-03

    Donor organ quality affects long term outcome after renal transplantation. A variety of prognostic molecular markers is available, yet their validity often remains undetermined. A network-based molecular model reflecting donor kidney status based on transcriptomics data and molecular features reported in scientific literature to be associated with chronic allograft nephropathy was created. Significantly enriched biological processes were identified and representative markers were selected. An independent kidney pre-implantation transcriptomics dataset of 76 organs was used to predict estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values twelve months after transplantation using available clinical data and marker expression values. The best-performing regression model solely based on the clinical parameters donor age, donor gender, and recipient gender explained 17% of variance in post-transplant eGFR values. The five molecular markers EGF, CD2BP2, RALBP1, SF3B1, and DDX19B representing key molecular processes of the constructed renal donor organ status molecular model in addition to the clinical parameters significantly improved model performance (p-value = 0.0007) explaining around 33% of the variability of eGFR values twelve months after transplantation. Collectively, molecular markers reflecting donor organ status significantly add to prediction of post-transplant renal function when added to the clinical parameters donor age and gender.

  18. Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Henn Birgit

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism. Methods Archived blood samples, collected from 332 Mexican women at delivery, were analyzed for manganese. We evaluated associations of manganese with functional variants in three candidate iron metabolism genes: HFE [hemochromatosis], TF [transferrin], and ALAD [δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase]. We used a knockout mouse model to parallel our significant results as a novel method of validating the observed associations between genotype and blood manganese in our epidemiologic data. Results Percentage of participants carrying at least one copy of HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, TF P570S, and ALAD K59N variant alleles was 2.4%, 17.7%, 20.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Percentage carrying at least one copy of either C282Y or H63D allele in HFE gene was 19.6%. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation manganese concentrations were 17.0 (1.5 μg/l. Women with any HFE variant allele had 12% lower blood manganese concentrations than women with no variant alleles (β = -0.12 [95% CI = -0.23 to -0.01]. TF and ALAD variants were not significant predictors of blood manganese. In animal models, Hfe-/- mice displayed a significant reduction in blood manganese compared with Hfe+/+ mice, replicating the altered manganese metabolism found in our human research. Conclusions Our study suggests that genetic variants in iron metabolism genes may contribute to variability in manganese exposure by affecting manganese absorption, distribution, or excretion. Genetic background may be critical to consider in studies that rely on environmental manganese measurements.

  19. Measuring Anatomic Severity in Pediatric Appendicitis: Validation of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Appendicitis Severity Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Matthew C; Polites, Stephanie F; Aho, Johnathon M; Haddad, Nadeem N; Kong, Victor Y; Saleem, Humza; Bruce, John L; Laing, Grant L; Clarke, Damian L; Zielinski, Martin D

    2018-01-01

    To assess whether the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system accurately corresponds with appendicitis outcomes in a US pediatric population. This single-institution retrospective review included patients appendicitis from 2008 to 2012. Demographic, clinical, procedural, and follow-up data (primary outcome was measured as Clavien-Dindo grade of complication severity) were abstracted. AAST grades were generated based on intraoperative findings. Summary, univariate, and multivariable regression analyses were performed to compare AAST grade and outcomes. Overall, 331 patients (46% female) were identified with a median age of 12 (IQR, 8-15) years. Appendectomy was laparoscopic in 90% and open in 10%. AAST grades included: Normal (n = 13, 4%), I (n = 152, 46%), II (n = 90, 27%), III (n = 43, 13%), IV (n = 24 7.3%), and V (n = 9 2.7%). Increased AAST grade was associated with increased Clavien-Dindo severity, P =.001. The overall complication rate was 13.6% and was comprised by superficial surgical site infection (n = 13, 3.9%), organ space infection (n = 15, 4.5%), and readmission (n = 17, 5.1%). Median duration of stay increased with AAST grade (P appendicitis grading system is valid in a single-institution pediatric population. Increasing AAST grade incrementally corresponds with patient outcomes including increased risk of complications and severity of complications. Determination of the generalizability of this grading system is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) and association of PSST scores with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Rachel de A; Köhler, Cristiano A; Frey, Benicio N; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Carvalho, André F

    2017-01-01

    To develop and validate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST), a questionnaire used for the screening of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and of the most severe form of PMS, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). The PSST also rates the impact of premenstrual symptoms on daily activities. A consecutive sample of 801 women aged ≥ 18 years completed the study protocol. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and content validity of the Brazilian PSST were determined. The independent association of a positive screen for PMS or PMDD and quality of life determined by the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Abbreviated version (WHOQOL-Bref) was also assessed. Of 801 participants, 132 (16.5%) had a positive screening for PMDD. The Brazilian PSST had adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91) and test-retest reliability. The PSST also had adequate convergent/discriminant validity, without redundancy. Content validity ratio and content validity index were 0.61 and 0.94 respectively. Finally, a positive screen for PMS/PMDD was associated with worse WHOQOL-Bref scores. These findings suggest that PSST is a reliable and valid instrument to screen for PMS/PMDD in Brazilian women.

  1. Validation of Atmosphere/Ionosphere Signals Associated with Major Earthquakes by Multi-Instrument Space-Borne and Ground Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Hattori, Katsumi; Parrot, Michel; Liu, J. Y.; Yang, T. F.; Arellano-Baeza, Alonso; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The latest catastrophic earthquake in Japan (March 2011) has renewed interest in the important question of the existence of pre-earthquake anomalous signals related to strong earthquakes. Recent studies have shown that there were precursory atmospheric/ionospheric signals observed in space associated with major earthquakes. The critical question, still widely debated in the scientific community, is whether such ionospheric/atmospheric signals systematically precede large earthquakes. To address this problem we have started to investigate anomalous ionospheric / atmospheric signals occurring prior to large earthquakes. We are studying the Earth's atmospheric electromagnetic environment by developing a multisensor model for monitoring the signals related to active tectonic faulting and earthquake processes. The integrated satellite and terrestrial framework (ISTF) is our method for validation and is based on a joint analysis of several physical and environmental parameters (thermal infrared radiation, electron concentration in the ionosphere, lineament analysis, radon/ion activities, air temperature and seismicity) that were found to be associated with earthquakes. A physical link between these parameters and earthquake processes has been provided by the recent version of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model. Our experimental measurements have supported the new theoretical estimates of LAIC hypothesis for an increase in the surface latent heat flux, integrated variability of outgoing long wave radiation (OLR) and anomalous variations of the total electron content (TEC) registered over the epicenters. Some of the major earthquakes are accompanied by an intensification of gas migration to the surface, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic processes of transformation of latent heat into thermal energy and with vertical transport of charged aerosols in the lower atmosphere. These processes lead to the generation of external electric currents in specific

  2. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F. C.; Spaan, Pauline E. J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Walstra, Gerard J. M.; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.; van Gool, Willem A.; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; Korkhov, Vladimir V.; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in

  3. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Evaluate Perceived Wellbeing Associated with the Ingestion of Water: The Water Ingestion-Related Wellbeing Instrument (WIRWI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Espinosa-Montero

    Full Text Available Ingestion of water has been associated with general wellbeing. When water intake is insufficient, symptoms such as thirst, fatigue and impaired memory result. Currently there are no instruments to assess water consumption associated with wellbeing. The objective of our study was to develop and validate such an instrument in urban, low socioeconomic, adult Mexican population.To construct the Water Ingestion-Related Wellbeing Instrument (WIRWI, a qualitative study in which wellbeing related to everyday practices and experiences in water consumption were investigated. To validate the WIRWI a formal, five-process procedure was used. Face and content validation were addressed, consistency was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory psychometric factor analyses, repeatability, reproducibility and concurrent validity were assessed by conducting correlation tests with other measures of wellbeing such as a quality of life instrument, the SF-36, and objective parameters such as urine osmolality, 24-hour urine total volume and others.The final WIRWI is composed of 17 items assessing physical and mental dimensions. Items were selected based on their content and face validity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded Cronbach's alpha of 0.87 and 0.86, respectively. The final confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the model estimates were satisfactory for the constructs. Statistically significant correlations with the SF-36, total liquid consumption and simple water consumption were observed.The resulting WIRWI is a reliable tool for assessing wellbeing associated with consumption of plain water in Mexican adults and could be useful for similar groups.

  4. Validation of Association of Genetic Variants at 10q with PSA Levels in Men at High Risk for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Li; Hughes, Lucinda; Chen, David Y. T.; Gross, Laura; Ruth, Karen; Giri, Veda N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Men with a family history of prostate cancer and African American men are at increased risk for prostate cancer and stand to benefit from individualized interpretation of PSA to guide screening strategies. The purpose of this study was to validate six previously identified markers among high-risk men enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program - a prostate cancer screening study. Patients and Methods Eligibility for PRAP includes men ages 35–69 years with a family history of prostate cancer, any African American male regardless of family history, and men with known BRCA gene mutations. GWAS markers assessed included rs2736098 (5p15.33), rs10993994 (10q11), rs10788160 (10q26), rs11067228 (12q24), rs4430796 (17q12), and rs17632542 (19q13.33). Genotyping methods included either Taqman® SNP Genotyping Assay (Applied Biosystems) or pyrosequencing. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between individual markers and log-transformed baseline PSA levels, while adjusting for potential confounders. Results 707 participants (37% Caucasian, 63% African American) with clinical and genotype data were included in the analysis. Rs10788160 (10q26) strongly associated with PSA levels among high-risk Caucasian participants (p<0.01), with a 33.2% increase in PSA level with each A-allele carried. Furthermore, rs10993994 (10q11) demonstrated an association to PSA level (p=0.03) in high-risk Caucasian men, with a 15% increase in PSA with each T-allele carried. A PSA adjustment model based on allele carrier status at rs10788160 and rs10993994 is proposed specific to high-risk Caucasian men. Conclusion Genetic variation at 10q may be particularly important in personalizing interpretation of PSA for high-risk Caucasian men. Such information may have clinical relevance in shared decision-making and individualized prostate cancer screening strategies for high-risk Caucasian men. Further study is warranted. PMID:23937305

  5. Validation of American Thyroid Association Ultrasound Risk Assessment of Thyroid Nodules Selected for Ultrasound Fine-Needle Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alice L; Falciglia, Mercedes; Yang, Huaitao; Mark, Jonathan R; Steward, David L

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the American Thyroid Association (ATA) sonographic risk assessment of thyroid nodules. The ATA sonographic risk assessment was prospectively applied to 206 thyroid nodules selected for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA), and analyzed with The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC), as well as surgical pathology for the subset undergoing surgical excision. The analysis included 206 thyroid nodules averaging 2.4 cm (range 1-7 cm; standard error of the mean 0.07). Using the ATA US pattern risk assessment, nodules were classified as high (4%), intermediate (31%), low (38%), and very low (26%) risk of malignancy. Nodule size was inversely correlated with sonographic risk assessment, as lower risk nodules were larger on average (p risk estimates (high 70-90%, intermediate 10-20%, low 5-10%, and very low 3%). ATA US pattern risk assessment also appropriately predicted the proportion of nodules classified as malignant or suspicious for malignancy through TBSRTC classification-high (77%), intermediate (6%), low (1%), and very low 0%-as well as benign TBSRTC classification-high (0%), intermediate (47%), low (61%), and very low (70%) (p risk stratification (high 100%, intermediate 21%, low 17%, and very low 12%; p = 0.003). This prospective study supports the new ATA sonographic pattern risk assessment for selection of thyroid nodules for US-FNA based upon TBSRTC and surgical pathology results. In the setting of indeterminate cytopathology, nodules categorized as atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance with ATA high-risk sonographic patterns have a high likelihood of being malignant.

  6. Reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospital for Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire (5-18 years of age)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, Margriet E.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Oen, Irma M. M. H.; Dokter, Jan; Boxma, Han; Hinson, Michelle I.; van Loey, Nancy E. E.; Faber, Albertus W.; van Beeck, Ed F.

    2006-01-01

    The American Burn Association/Shriners Hospital for Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire (BOQ) is a self-administered questionnaire to monitor functional outcome after burns in children and adolescents. This study aimed to assess feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Dutch BOQ. The BOQ was

  7. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  8. Convergent validity of the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA+Plus): associations with working memory, processing speed, and behavioral ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, Eamonn; Kuentzel, Jeffrey; Barnett, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    Though the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA + Plus) is commonly used by researchers and clinicians, few investigations have assessed its convergent and discriminant validity, especially with regard to its use with children. The present study details correlates of the IVA + Plus using measures of cognitive ability and ratings of child behavior (parent and teacher), drawing upon a sample of 90 psychoeducational evaluations. Scores from the IVA + Plus correlated significantly with the Working Memory and Processing Speed Indexes from the Fourth Edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), though fewer and weaker significant correlations were seen with behavior ratings scales, and significant associations also occurred with WISC-IV Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning. The overall pattern of relations is supportive of the validity of the IVA + Plus; however, general cognitive ability was associated with better performance on most of the primary scores of the IVA + Plus, suggesting that interpretation should take intelligence into account.

  9. Proactive, Reactive, and Romantic Relational Aggression in Adulthood: Measurement, Predictive Validity, Gender Differences, and Association with Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Nelson, David A.; Crick, Nicki R.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a recently introduced adult self-report of relational aggression are presented. Specifically, the predictive utility of proactive and reactive peer-directed relational aggression, as well as romantic relational aggression, are explored in a large (N = 1387) study of adults. The measure had adequate reliability and validity and the subscales demonstrated unique predictive abilities for a number of dependent variables. In particular, reactive but not proactive rel...

  10. Validation of candidate genes putatively associated with resistance to SCMV and MDMV in maize (Zea mays L.) by expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzarowska, Anna; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Sarholz, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background The potyviruses sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) are major pathogens of maize worldwide. Two loci, Scmv1 and Scmv2, have ealier been shown to confer complete resistance to SCMV. Custom-made microarrays containing previously identified SCMV resistance...... the effectiveness and reliability of the combination of different expression profiling approaches for the identification and validation of candidate genes. Genes identified in this study represent possible future targets for manipulation of SCMV resistance in maize....

  11. The Ostomy-Q: Development and Psychometric Validation of an Instrument to Evaluate Outcomes Associated with Ostomy Appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Beenish; Rasmussen, Mikkel; LLoyd, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Using an ostomy appliance can affect many aspects of a person's health-related quality of life (HRQL). A 2-part, descrip- tive study was designed to develop and validate an instrument to assess quality-of-life outcomes related to ostomy ap- pliance use. Study inclusion/exclusion criteria stipulated participants should be 18 to 85 years of age, have an ileostomy or colostomy, used an appliance for a minimum of 3 months without assistance, and able to complete an online survey. All participants provided sociodemographic and clinical information. In phase 1, a literature search was conducted and existing instruments used to measure HRQL in persons with an ostomy were assessed. Subsequently, the Ostomy-Q, a 23-item, Likert-response type questionnaire, divided into 4 domains (Discreetness, Comfort, Confidence, and Social Life), was developed based on published evidence and existing ostomy-related HRQL tools. Seven (7) participants re- cruited from a manufacturer user panel took part in exploratory/cognitive qualitative interviews to refine the new quality- of-life questionnaire. In phase 2, the instrument was tested to assess item variability and conceptual structure, item-total correlation, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, sensitivity, and minimal important difference (MID) in an online validation study among 200 participants from the manufacturer's user panel (equally divided by gender, 125 [62.5%] >50 years old, 128 [64%] with an ileostomy). This exercise also included completion of the Stoma Quality of Life Question- naire and 2 domains from the Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 to assess convergent validity. Eighty-two (82) participants recompleted these study instruments 2 weeks later to assess test-retest reliability. Sociodemographic and clinical data were assessed using descriptive statistics; Cronbach's alpha was used for internal consistency (minimum 0.70), principle component analysis for item variability/conceptual structure, and item

  12. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target: Experimental program associated to validation of CFD simulations of the mercury loop

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Laure; Kadi, Yacine; Samec, Karel; Lindroos, Mats

    At the core of the Eurisol project facility, the neutron source produces spallation neutrons from a proton beam impacting dense liquid. The liquid circulates at high speed inside the source, a closed vessel with beam windows.This technical note summarises the needed of the hydraulic METEX 1 and METEX 2 data tests to contribute to validate CFD turbulent simulation of liquid metal with the LES model and FEM structural model as well as a-dimensional analysis of Laser Dopplet Velocimetry for cavitation measurements.

  13. Associations of leisure-time physical activity with balance and lower extremity strength: a validation of the neuromuscular part of the Physical Activity Pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Paula J; Suni, Jaana H; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2009-07-01

    The importance of neuromuscular-type exercise (NME) has been recognized in recent recommendations for public health. However, the knowledge on associations and dose response of different types of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with musculoskeletal fitness and health is incomplete. This study evaluated the validity of the NME recommendation for public health introduced by the Physical Activity Pie. Engagement in LTPA and health-related fitness were assessed in 2 consecutive studies with the same adult population age 30 to 69 years (n = 575). Cross-sectional associations between different LTPA types and motor and musculoskeletal fitness were examined by logistic-regression models. Engagement in NME was associated with good static and dynamic balance and lower extremity strength. The highest odds ratios (OR) were found between brisk NME and static balance (most vs least fit OR = 2.39, moderate vs least fit OR = 1.94) and brisk NME and leg strength (more vs least fit OR = 2.10). Some associations were also found between brisk aerobic exercise and good balance. This cross-sectional study suggests that the recommendation for NME in the Physical Activity Pie is valid in terms of balance and leg strength, the 2 major fitness factors related to mobility functioning, especially among aging adults.

  14. Capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice are associated with application of EBP and research use: validation of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Lars; Boström, Anne-Marie; Gustavsson, J Petter

    2012-08-01

    Beliefs about capabilities, or self-efficacy, is a construct originating in social cognitive psychology. Capability beliefs have been found to be positively associated with intention and healthcare practice behaviour. A measure of an individual's beliefs about his/her capability to apply the components of evidence-based practice (EBP) has potential to be useful in implementation research. To evaluate the concurrent validity and internal structure of a new scale measuring nurses' capability beliefs regarding EBP. Data were taken from a prospective longitudinal study in Sweden (the Longitudinal Analyses of Nursing Education and Entry in Worklife [LANE]). A cohort of nursing students who graduated in the autumn of 2004 that was followed up 2 years after their graduation was used (n= 1,256). Concurrent validity was tested relating different levels of capability beliefs to extent of research use and application of EBP. An item-response approach was applied in the evaluation of internal structure of the proposed scale (six items). The psychometric analyses indicated that the six items could be summed to reflect a one-dimensional scale. Nurses with the highest level of capability beliefs reported that they used research findings in clinical practice more than twice as often as those with lower levels of capability beliefs. They also participated in the implementation of evidence seven times more often. There is a need for further studies of the construct and predictive validity of the scale. It should also be validated in other groups of health professionals. Learning including mastery experiences, role modelling, social persuasion, and manageable stress could be used in undergraduate education as well as practice development to increase beliefs about capabilities which might open the way to increased application of EBP in healthcare practice. This new measure is well grounded in social cognitive theory, functions as a one-dimensional scale and possesses promising

  15. Discovery, validation and characterization of Erbb4 and Nrg1 haplotypes using data from three genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Sena Agim

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most common and complex neuropsychiatric disorders, which is contributed both by genetic and environmental exposures. Recently, it is shown that NRG1-mediated ErbB4 signalling regulates many important cellular and molecular processes such as cellular growth, differentiation and death, particularly in myelin-producing cells, glia and neurons. Recent association studies have revealed genomic regions of NRG1 and ERBB4, which are significantly associated with risk of developing schizophrenia; however, inconsistencies exist in terms of validation of findings between distinct populations. In this study, we aim to validate the previously identified regions and to discover novel haplotypes of NRG1 and ERBB4 using logistic regression models and Haploview analyses in three independent datasets from GWAS conducted on European subjects, namely, CATIE, GAIN and nonGAIN. We identified a significant 6-kb block in ERBB4 between chromosome locations 212,156,823 and 212,162,848 in CATIE and GAIN datasets (p = 0.0206 and 0.0095, respectively. In NRG1, a significant 25-kb block, between 32,291,552 and 32,317,192, was associated with risk of schizophrenia in all CATIE, GAIN, and nonGAIN datasets (p = 0.0005, 0.0589, and 0.0143, respectively. Fine mapping and FastSNP analysis of genetic variation located within significantly associated regions proved the presence of binding sites for several transcription factors such as SRY, SOX5, CEPB, and ETS1. In this study, we have discovered and validated haplotypes of ERBB4 and NRG1 in three independent European populations. These findings suggest that these haplotypes play an important role in the development of schizophrenia by affecting transcription factor binding affinity.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Studies and Comparison of Models and Cross-Validation Strategies for Genomic Prediction of Quality Traits in Advanced Winter Wheat Breeding Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Kristensen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the this study was to identify SNP markers associated with five important wheat quality traits (grain protein content, Zeleny sedimentation, test weight, thousand-kernel weight, and falling number, and to investigate the predictive abilities of GBLUP and Bayesian Power Lasso models for genomic prediction of these traits. In total, 635 winter wheat lines from two breeding cycles in the Danish plant breeding company Nordic Seed A/S were phenotyped for the quality traits and genotyped for 10,802 SNPs. GWAS were performed using single marker regression and Bayesian Power Lasso models. SNPs with large effects on Zeleny sedimentation were found on chromosome 1B, 1D, and 5D. However, GWAS failed to identify single SNPs with significant effects on the other traits, indicating that these traits were controlled by many QTL with small effects. The predictive abilities of the models for genomic prediction were studied using different cross-validation strategies. Leave-One-Out cross-validations resulted in correlations between observed phenotypes corrected for fixed effects and genomic estimated breeding values of 0.50 for grain protein content, 0.66 for thousand-kernel weight, 0.70 for falling number, 0.71 for test weight, and 0.79 for Zeleny sedimentation. Alternative cross-validations showed that the genetic relationship between lines in training and validation sets had a bigger impact on predictive abilities than the number of lines included in the training set. Using Bayesian Power Lasso instead of GBLUP models, gave similar or slightly higher predictive abilities. Genomic prediction based on all SNPs was more effective than prediction based on few associated SNPs.

  17. Construct validity of the parent-child sleep interactions scale (PSIS): associations with parenting, family stress, and maternal and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Victoria C; Leppert, Katherine A; Alfano, Candice A; Dougherty, Lea R

    2014-08-01

    Using a multi-method design, this study examined the construct validity of the Parent-Child Sleep Interactions Scale (PSIS; Alfano et al., 2013), which measures sleep-related parenting behaviors and interactions that contribute to preschoolers' sleep problems. Participants included a community sample of 155 preschoolers (ages 3-5years; 51.6% female). Primary caregivers completed the PSIS. Parenting styles and behaviors were assessed with laboratory observations and parent reports. Parent and child psychopathology and family life stress were assessed with clinical interviews and parent reports. Bivariate correlations revealed significant associations between the PSIS and a number of variables, including lower observed parental support and quality of instruction; higher observed parental intrusiveness; authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles; current maternal depressive and/or anxiety disorders and depressive symptomatology; increased stressful life events; lower marital satisfaction; and higher child depressive, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms. The patterns of association varied based on the specific PSIS scale. The PSIS demonstrates meaningful associations with parenting, maternal psychopathology, family stress, and child psychopathology and functioning. Findings suggest that the PSIS is a valid measure for assessing sleep-related parent/child behaviors and interactions among preschoolers, suited to real-world settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM) Scale in Chilean Adolescents and Its Association with School-Related Outcomes and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A.; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    School membership appears to be an important factor in explaining the relationship between students and schools, including school staff. School membership is associated with several school-related outcomes, such as academic performance and expectations. Most studies on school membership have been conducted in developed countries. The Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM) scale (18 items: 13 positively worded items, 5 negatively worded items) has been widely used to measure this construct, but no studies regarding its validity and reliability have been conducted in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. This study investigates the psychometric properties, factor structure and reliability of this scale in a sample of 1250 early adolescents in Chile. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provide evidence of an excellent fit for a one-factor solution after removing the negatively worded items. The internal consistency of this new abbreviated version was 0.92. The association analyses demonstrated that high school membership was associated with better academic performance, stronger school bonding, a reduced likelihood of school misbehavior, and reduced likelihood of substance use. Analyses showed support for the reliability and validity of the PSSM among Chilean adolescents. PMID:27999554

  19. Validation of the Spanish version of the Psychological Sense of School Membership Scale (PSSM in Chilean adolescents and its association with school-related outcomes and substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gaete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School membership appears to be an important factor in explaining the relationship between students and schools, including school staff. School membership is associated with several school-related outcomes, such as academic performance and expectations. Most studies on school membership have been conducted in developed countries. The Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM scale (18 items: 13 positively worded items, 5 negatively worded items has been widely used to measure this construct, but no studies regarding its validity and reliability have been conducted in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. This study investigates the psychometric properties, factor structure and reliability of this scale in a sample of 1250 early adolescents in Chile. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provide evidence of an excellent fit for a one-factor solution after removing the negatively worded items. The internal consistency of this new abbreviated version was 0.92. The association analyses demonstrated that high school membership was associated with better academic performance, stronger school bonding, a reduced likelihood of school misbehavior and reduced likelihood of substance use. Analyses showed support for the reliability and validity of the PSSM among Chilean adolescents.

  20. Self-reported eating rate is associated with weight status in a Dutch population: a validation study and a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Janet H W; Kranendonk, Jentina; van de Wiel, Anne; Feskens, Edith J M; Geelen, Anouk; Mars, Monica

    2017-09-08

    Observational studies performed in Asian populations suggest that eating rate is related to BMI. This paper investigates the association between self-reported eating rate (SRER) and body mass index (BMI) in a Dutch population, after having validated SRER against actual eating rate. Two studies were performed; a validation and a cross-sectional study. In the validation study SRER (i.e., 'slow', 'average', or 'fast') was obtained from 57 participants (men/women = 16/41, age: mean ± SD = 22.6 ± 2.8 yrs., BMI: mean ± SD = 22.1 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ) and in these participants actual eating rate was measured for three food products. Using analysis of variance the association between SRER and actual eating rate was studied. The association between SRER and BMI was investigated in cross-sectional data from the NQplus cohort (i.e., 1473 Dutch adults; men/women = 741/732, age: mean ± SD = 54.6 ± 11.7 yrs., BMI: mean ± SD = 25.9 ± 4.0 kg/m 2 ) using (multiple) linear regression analysis. In the validation study actual eating rate increased proportionally with SRER (for all three food products P men and women (P = 0.03 and P men; self-reported fast-eating men had a 0.29 kg/m 2 (95% CI -0.22, 0.80) higher BMI compared to average-speed-eating men, after adjusting for confounders. These studies show that self-reported eating rate reflects actual eating rate on a group-level, and that a high self-reported eating rate is associated with a higher BMI in this Dutch population.

  1. Design and validation of a questionnaire to examine the quality of public sport service employees of Association of Municipalities in Extremadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Blázquez Manzano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes the design and validation of a specific questionnaire to know the views of managers and sports facilitators on the elements and purposes should focus quality activities of associations of municipalities in Extremadura in the area of ​ ​dynamic sports and the degree of usefulness, and difficulty beneficiaries in the development and implementation of service charters in place. The results showed an adaptation of the content and wording of questions and items as appropriate in both the average (> .81 and the value of V Aiken (> .88.

  2. Sex-specific associations between particulate matter exposure and gene expression in independent discovery and validation cohorts of middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijens, Karen; Winckelmans, Ellen; Tsamou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) exposure leads to premature death, mainly due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: Identification of transcriptomic biomarkers of air pollution exposure and effect in a healthy adult population. Methods: Microarray analyses were performed in 98...... healthy volunteers (48 men, 50 women). The expression of eight sex-specific candidate biomarker genes (significantly associated with PM10 in the discovery cohort and with a reported link to air pollution-related disease) was measured with qPCR in an independent validation cohort (75 men, 94 women...

  3. Validated Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index (ANU-ADRI) is associated with smaller volumes in the default mode network in the early 60s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherbuin, Nicolas; Shaw, Marnie E; Walsh, Erin; Sachdev, Perminder; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2017-12-14

    Strong evidence is available suggesting that effective reduction of exposure to demonstrated modifiable risk factors in mid-life or before could significantly decrease the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and delay its onset. A key ingredient to achieving this goal is the reliable identification of individuals at risk well before they develop clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to provide further neuroimaging evidence of the effectiveness of a validated tool, the ANU Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index, for the assessment of future risk of cognitive decline. Participants were 461 (60-64 years, 48% female) community-living individuals free of dementia at baseline. Associations between risk estimates obtained with the ANU-ADRI, total and regional brain volumes including in the default mode network (DMN) measured at the same assessment and diagnosis of MCI/dementia over a 12-year follow-up were tested in a large sample of community-living individuals free of dementia at baseline. Higher risk estimates on the ANU-ADRI were associated with lower cortical gray matter and particularly in the DMN. Importantly, difference in participants with high and low risk scores explained 7-9% of the observed difference in gray matter volume. In this sample, every one additional risk point on the ANU-ADRI was associated with an 8% increased risk of developing MCI/dementia over a 12-year follow-up and this association was partly mediated by a sub-region of the DMN. Risk of cognitive decline assessed with a validated instrument is associated with gray matter volume, particularly in the DMN, a region known to be implicated in the pathological process of the disease.

  4. Validity of the toddler feeding questionnaire for measuring parent authoritative and indulgent feeding practices which are associated with stress and health literacy among Latino parents of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Lounds-Taylor, Julie; Mitchell, Stephanie; Barkin, Shari L

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of parental feeding practices to childhood obesity among Latino children is a solution-oriented approach that can lead to interventions supporting healthy childhood growth and lowering rates of obesity. The purpose of this study was to confirm the reliability and validity of the Toddler Feeding Questionnaire (TFQ) to measure parental feeding practices among a sample of Spanish-speaking parent-preschool child pairs (n = 529), and to test the hypothesis that parent characteristics of body mass index (BMI), stress, and health literacy are associated with more indulgent and less authoritative feeding practices. Standardized parent-report questionnaires were completed during baseline interviews in a randomized controlled trial of an obesity prevention intervention. The TFQ includes subscales for indulgent practices (11 items), authoritative practices (7 items), and environmental influences (6 items) with response options scored on a 5-point Likert scale and averaged. Factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Internal consistency was good for indulgent (α = 0.66) and authoritative (α = 0.65) practices but lower for environmental (α = 0.48). Spearman correlation showed indulgent practices and environmental influences were associated with unhealthy child diet patterns, whereas authoritative practices were associated with a healthier child diet. Multivariate linear regression showed higher parent stress was associated with higher indulgent and lower authoritative scores; higher parent health literacy was positively associated with indulgent scores. These results indicate the TFQ is a valid measure of authoritative and indulgent parent feeding practices among Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children and that stress and health literacy, potentially modifiable parent characteristics, could be targeted to support healthy feeding practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and validation of rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging inflammation thresholds associated with lack of damage progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Joshua F.; Østergaard, Mikkel; Emery, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine thresholds for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) magnetic resonance imaging scores (RAMRIS) associated with a low risk of structural damage progression. Methods MRI of the dominant hand was performed and RAMRIS scores determined at weeks 0, 24, and 52. X-rays were performed and van...

  6. Validation of a sensitive PCR assay for the detection of Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus in latent turtle infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfaro Nuñez, Luis Alonso; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    The Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV) is hypothesized to be the causative agent of fibropapillomatosis, a neoplastic disease in sea turtles, given its consistent detection by PCR in fibropapilloma tumours. CFPHV has also been detected recently by PCR in tissue samples from...

  7. Associate Degree Nursing: Model Prerequisites Validation Study. California Community College Associate Degree Programs by The Center for Student Success, A Health Care Initiative Sponsored Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brad C.; Spurling, Steven; Armstrong, William A.

    California faces a severe nursing shortage, with the number of registered nurses far below what is required to avert a potential state health care crisis. The Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Project is a joint project involving scholars, educational researchers, and analysts from the Center for Student Success (CSS) housed at City College of San…

  8. Explicating Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    How we choose to use a term depends on what we want to do with it. If "validity" is to be used to support a score interpretation, validation would require an analysis of the plausibility of that interpretation. If validity is to be used to support score uses, validation would require an analysis of the appropriateness of the proposed…

  9. Quality of Life among Persons with HIV/AIDS in Iran: Internal Reliability and Validity of an International Instrument and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Razavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional study on 191 HIV/AIDS patient was to prepare the first Persian translation of complete WHOQOL-HIV instrument, evaluate its reliability and validity, and apply it to determine quality of life and its associated factors in Tehran, Iran. Student's t-test was used to compare quality of life between groups. Mean Cronbach’s α of facets in all six domains of instrument were more than 0.6 indicating good reliability. Item/total corrected correlations coefficients had a lower limit of more than 0.5 in all facets except for association between energy and fatigue facet and physical domain. Compared to younger participants, patients older than 35 years had significantly lower scores in overall quality of life (P = 0.003, social relationships (P = 0.021, and spirituality/religion/personal beliefs (P = 0.024. Unemployed patients had significantly lower scores in overall quality of life (P = 0.01, level of independence (P = 0.004, and environment (P = 0.001 compared to employed participants. This study demonstrated that the standard, complete WHOQOL-HIV 120 instrument translated into Farsi and evaluated among Iranian participants provides a reliable and valid basis for future research on quality of life for HIV and other patients in Iran.

  10. Preliminary development and validation of an Australian community participation questionnaire: types of participation and associations with distress in a coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Helen Louise; Rodgers, Bryan; Dear, Keith B G

    2007-04-01

    Participating in the social and civic life of communities is protectively associated with the onset and course of physical and mental disorders, and is considered important in achieving health promotion goals. Despite its importance in health research, there is no systematically developed measure of community participation. Our aim was to undertake the preliminary development of a community participation questionnaire, including validating it against an external reference, general psychological distress. Participants were 963 randomly selected community members, aged 19-97, from coastal New South Wales, Australia, who completed an anonymous postal survey. There were 14 types of community participation, most of which were characterised by personal involvement, initiative and effort. Frequency of participation varied across types and between women and men. Based on multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic factors, nine types of participation were independently and significantly associated with general psychological distress. Unexpectedly, for two of these, "expressing opinions publicly" and "political protest", higher levels of participation were associated with higher levels of distress. The other seven were: contact with immediate household, extended family, friends, and neighbours; participating in organised community activities; taking an active interest in current affairs; and religious observance. We called these the "Big 7". Higher levels of participation in the Big 7 were associated with lower levels of distress. Participating in an increasing number of the Big 7 types of participation was strongly associated in linear fashion with decreasing distress.

  11. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire: factorial validity and association with Body Mass Index in Dutch children aged 6–7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremers Stef PJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a parent-report measure designed to assess variation in eating style among children. In the present study we translated the CEBQ and examined its factor structure in a sample of parents of 6- and 7-year-old children in the Netherlands. Additionally, associations between the mean scale scores of the instrument and children's body mass index (BMI were assessed. Methods In total, 135 parents of primary school children aged 6 and 7 completed the questionnaire (response rate 41.9%. Children's BMI was converted into standardised z-scores, adjusted for child gender and age to examine the association between mean scale scores and child weight status. Results Results generally confirmed the theoretical factor structure, with acceptable internal reliability and between-subscale correlations. Linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were positively associated with the 'food approach' subscales of the CEBQ (food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating (β's 0.15 to 0.22 and negatively with 'food avoidant' subscales (satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, emotional undereating, and food fussiness (β's -0.09 to -0.25. Significant relations with child BMI z-scores were found for food responsiveness (p = 0.02, enjoyment of food (p = 0.03, satiety responsiveness (p = 0.01 and slowness in eating (p = 0.01. Conclusion The results support the use of the CEBQ as a psychometrically sound tool for assessing children's eating behaviours in Dutch children and the study demonstrates its applicability in overweight-related studies.

  12. Questionable validity of the catheter-associated urinary tract infection metric used for value-based purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Lindsay E; Kavanagh, Kevin T; Rice, Mara K

    2015-10-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) occur in 290,000 US hospital patients annually, with an estimated cost of $290 million. Two different measurement systems are being used to track the US health care system's performance in lowering the rate of CAUTIs. Since 2010, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) metric has shown a 28.2% decrease in CAUTI, whereas the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention metric has shown a 3%-6% increase in CAUTI since 2009. Differences in data acquisition and the definition of the denominator may explain this discrepancy. The AHRQ metric analyzes chart-audited data and reflects both catheter use and care. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention metric analyzes self-reported data and primarily reflects catheter care. Because analysis of the AHRQ metric showed a progressive change in performance over time and the scientific literature supports the importance of catheter use in the prevention of CAUTI, it is suggested that risk-adjusted catheter-use data be incorporated into metrics that are used for determining facility performance and for value-based purchasing initiatives. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Micro - Focused Phototherapy Associated To Janus Kinase Inhibitor: A Promising Valid Therapeutic Option for Patients with Localized Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Gianfaldoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary cutaneous disease, characterised by the progressive loss of melanocytes, resulting in hypopigmented skin areas which progressively become amelanotic. Classically, vitiligo treatments are unsatisfactory and challenging. Despite the continuous introduction of new therapies, phototherapy is still the mainstay for vitiligo repigmentation. AIM: The aim of this multicenter observational retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the nb - UVB micro - phototherapy (BIOSKIN EVOLUTION®, used alone or in associations with an oral Janus kinase inhibitor (Tofacitinib citrate, in the treatment of stable or active forms of localised vitiligo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty eight patients had been treated with n-UVB micro-photootherapy (Group A; 9 patients had been treated with phototherapy plus Tofacitinb citrate (Group B. RESULTS: Among Group A, 42 patients (72% obtained a re-pigmentation rate higher than 75%, with a medium value of 77%. 11 patients (19% achieved a marked improvement of the clinical findings with a repigmentation rate between 50-75%; 4 patients (8% showed a moderate response with a lesional repigmentation of 25-50%. Only one patient (1% had a poor response to the phototherapeutic treatment CONCLUSION: Nb - UVB micro-focused phototherapy is one of the most effective therapeutic options for vitiligo treatment. The association of micro-focused phototherapy to Tofacitinib citrate seems to provide better clinical results in term of repigmentation rate.

  14. Concordant association validates MGMT methylation and protein expression as favorable prognostic factors in glioma patients on alkylating chemotherapy (Temozolomide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Arshad A; Qasim, Iqbal; Zahoor, Wani; Shah, Parveen; Bhat, Abdul R; Sanadhya, Dheera; Shah, Zafar A; Naikoo, Niyaz A

    2018-04-30

    O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and its subsequent loss of protein expression has been identified to have a variable impact on clinical outcome of glioma patients indicated for chemotherapy with alkylating agents (Temozolomide). This study investigated methylation status of MGMT gene along with in situ protein expression in malignant glioma patients of different histological types to evaluate the associated clinical outcome vis-a-vis use of alkylating drugs and radiotherapy. Sixty three cases of glioma were evaluated for MGMT promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) and protein expression by immunostaining (IHC). Methylation status of MGMT and loss of protein expression showed a very high concordant association with better survival and progression free survival (PFS) (p < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed both MGMT methylation and loss of protein as significant independent prognostic factors in glioma patients with respect to lower Hazard Ratio (HR) for better OS and PFS) [p < 0.05]. Interestingly concordant MGMT methylation and lack of protein showed better response in TMZ therapy treated patient subgroups with HR of 2.02 and 0.76 (p < 0.05). We found the merits of prognostication of MGMT parameters, methylation as well as loss of its protein as predictive factors for favorable outcome in terms of better survival for TMZ therapy.

  15. Validation of work pressure and associated factors influencing hospital nurse turnover: a cross-sectional investigation in Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiyun; Lv, Jingwen; Zhou, Xi; Liu, Huitong; Mi, Baibing

    2017-02-03

    Nurses' turnover is a major contributor to nursing shortages, strongly influenced by nurses' intentions to leave. Several factors influencing the turnover intention have been well identified in Western countries and large cities in China. However, whether these factors also contribute to nurses' work stress in Midwest China are still unclear. The main purpose of this study was to examine the work pressure and associated factors influencing the nurses' intent to leave. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey with multistage sampling was conducted by recruiting 800 employed registered nurses with >1 year of work experience. Chi-square test and multi-factor logistic regression were applied to attain the relative comparisons. Sub-group analysis was conducted to explore the different turnover intention patterns in different age groups. The turnover intention was classified as strong/very-strong (19%), weak (62%), and very-weak (19%). Among the factors influencing the nurses' desire to leave the profession, work pressure was the most prominent. The predominantly associated factors contributing the work stress were age, experience, and workload. However, the scale of income did not affect the intent to leave decision. Pediatrics was identified to be the highest tormented department with a significant (P stress, age, job duty, and career commitment in Shaanxi Province. The intent to leave is dynamically multifactorial, and effective managements and supportive strategies are needed to reduce the nurses work stress accordingly.

  16. Validity of subjective assessment as screening tool for dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R Bhatnagar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the role of subjective assessment using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire in diagnosing dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests. METHODS: There were 500 patients screened for dry eye using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire between May to October 2013 at the outpatient Department of Ophthalmology of a medical college hospital. All 500 patients were subjected to clinical tests. Dry eye was defined as having one or more symptoms often or all the time. Positive signs were if one or both eyes revealed tear film breakup time (TBUT of ≤10s, a Schirmer test score of ≤10 mm, a Rose Bengal staining score of ≥1, a Lissamine green staining score of ≥1 or existence of meibomian gland disease (≥grade 1. Statistical analysis was performed to describe the distribution of symptoms and signs, to assess the correlations between McMonnies score (MS and variable clinical signs of dry eye, and to explore the association between dry eye symptoms and variable clinical signs. Analysis was performed using software package Epi info. A Probability (P value using Chi-square test of RESULTS: Dry eye prevalence with symptoms (questionnaire, Schirmer test, TBUT, Rose Bengal staining and Lissamine green staining was 25.6%, 15.20%, 20.80%, 23.60%, and 22.60% respectively. Among those with severe symptoms (MS>20, 75.86% had a low TBUT (CONCLUSION: Subjective assessment plays an important role in diagnosing dry eye disease. There is strong correlation between MS and Schirmer test, TBUT, Rose Bengal staining and Lissamine green staining in normal as well as marginal and pathological dry eye.

  17. Identification and validation of a logistic regression model for predicting serious injuries associated with motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononen, Douglas W; Flannagan, Carol A C; Wang, Stewart C

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate logistic regression model, based upon National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data for calendar years 1999-2008, was developed to predict the probability that a crash-involved vehicle will contain one or more occupants with serious or incapacitating injuries. These vehicles were defined as containing at least one occupant coded with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than or equal to 15, in planar, non-rollover crash events involving Model Year 2000 and newer cars, light trucks, and vans. The target injury outcome measure was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led National Expert Panel on Field Triage in their recent revision of the Field Triage Decision Scheme (American College of Surgeons, 2006). The parameters to be used for crash injury prediction were subsequently specified by the National Expert Panel. Model input parameters included: crash direction (front, left, right, and rear), change in velocity (delta-V), multiple vs. single impacts, belt use, presence of at least one older occupant (≥ 55 years old), presence of at least one female in the vehicle, and vehicle type (car, pickup truck, van, and sport utility). The model was developed using predictor variables that may be readily available, post-crash, from OnStar-like telematics systems. Model sensitivity and specificity were 40% and 98%, respectively, using a probability cutpoint of 0.20. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the final model was 0.84. Delta-V (mph), seat belt use and crash direction were the most important predictors of serious injury. Due to the complexity of factors associated with rollover-related injuries, a separate screening algorithm is needed to model injuries associated with this crash mode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study for Identification and Validation of Novel SNP Markers for Sr6 Stem Rust Resistance Gene in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Amira M I; Sallam, Ahmed; Belamkar, Vikas; Wegulo, Stephen; Bowden, Robert; Jin, Yue; Mahdy, Ezzat; Bakheit, Bahy; El-Wafaa, Atif A; Poland, Jesse; Baenziger, Peter S

    2018-01-01

    Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn.), is a major disease in wheat ( Triticum aestivium L.). However, in recent years it occurs rarely in Nebraska due to weather and the effective selection and gene pyramiding of resistance genes. To understand the genetic basis of stem rust resistance in Nebraska winter wheat, we applied genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a set of 270 winter wheat genotypes (A-set). Genotyping was carried out using genotyping-by-sequencing and ∼35,000 high-quality SNPs were identified. The tested genotypes were evaluated for their resistance to the common stem rust race in Nebraska (QFCSC) in two replications. Marker-trait association identified 32 SNP markers, which were significantly (Bonferroni corrected P < 0.05) associated with the resistance on chromosome 2D. The chromosomal location of the significant SNPs (chromosome 2D) matched the location of Sr6 gene which was expected in these genotypes based on pedigree information. A highly significant linkage disequilibrium (LD, r 2 ) was found between the significant SNPs and the specific SSR marker for the Sr6 gene ( Xcfd43 ). This suggests the significant SNP markers are tagging Sr6 gene. Out of the 32 significant SNPs, eight SNPs were in six genes that are annotated as being linked to disease resistance in the IWGSC RefSeq v1.0. The 32 significant SNP markers were located in nine haplotype blocks. All the 32 significant SNPs were validated in a set of 60 different genotypes (V-set) using single marker analysis. SNP markers identified in this study can be used in marker-assisted selection, genomic selection, and to develop KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) marker for the Sr6 gene. Novel SNPs for Sr6 gene, an important stem rust resistant gene, were identified and validated in this study. These SNPs can be used to improve stem rust resistance in wheat.

  19. Validity of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with International Index of Erectile Function-15 in Chinese men with evidence-based-defined premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Dong Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT is a brief diagnostic measure to assess premature ejaculation (PE. However, there is insufficient evidence regarding its validity in the new evidence-based-defined PE. This study was performed to evaluate the validity of PEDT and its association with IIEF-15 in different types of evidence-based-defined PE. From June 2015 to January 2016, a total of 260 men complaining of PE and defined as lifelong PE (LPE/acquired PE (APE according to the evidence-based definition from Andrology Clinic of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, along with 104 male healthy controls without PE from a medical examination center, were enrolled in this study. All individuals completed questionnaires including demographics, medical and sexual history, as well as PEDT and IIEF-15. After statistical analysis, it was found that men with PE reported higher PEDT scores (14.28 ± 3.05 and lower IIEF-15 (41.26 ± 8.20 than men without PE (PEDT: 5.32 ± 3.42, IIEF-15: 52.66 ± 6.86, P < 0.001 for both. It was suggested that a score of ≥9 indicated PE in both LPE and APE by sensitivity and specificity analyses (sensitivity: 0.875, 0.913; specificity: 0.865, 0.865, respectively. In addition, IIEF-15 were higher in men with LPE (42.64 ± 8.11 than APE (39.43 ± 7.84, P < 0.001. After adjusting for age, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with LPE (adjust r = −0.225, P < 0.001 and APE (adjust r = −0.378, P < 0.001. In this study, we concluded that PEDT was valid in the diagnosis of evidenced-based-defined PE. Furthermore, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with different types of PE.

  20. Reliability and validity of selected measures associated with increased fall risk in females over the age of 45 years with distal radius fracture - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; MacDermid, Joy C; Richardson, Julie; MacIntyre, Norma J; Grewal, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Clinical measurement. This study examined test-retest reliability and convergent/divergent construct validity of selected tests and measures that assess balance impairment, fear of falling (FOF), impaired physical activity (PA), and lower extremity muscle strength (LEMS) in females >45 years of age after the distal radius fracture (DRF) population. Twenty one female participants with DRF were assessed on two occasions. Timed Up and Go, Functional Reach, and One Leg Standing tests assessed balance impairment. Shortened Falls Efficacy Scale, Activity-specific Balance Confidence scale, and Fall Risk Perception Questionnaire assessed FOF. International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity were administered to assess PA level. Chair stand test and isometric muscle strength testing for hip and knee assessed LEMS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) examined the test-retest reliability of the measures. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) examined concurrent relationships between the measures. The results demonstrated fair to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC between 0.50 and 0.96) and low to moderate concordance between the measures (low if r ≤ 0.4; moderate if r = 0.4-0.7). The results provide preliminary estimates of test-retest reliability and convergent/divergent construct validity of selected measures associated with increased risk for falling in the females >45 years of age after DRF. Further research directions to advance knowledge regarding fall risk assessment in DRF population have been identified. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Weight bias internalization in treatment-seeking overweight adults: Psychometric validation and associations with self-esteem, body image, and mood symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Laura E; Latner, Janet D; Ciao, Anna C

    2016-04-01

    Internalized weight bias has been previously associated with impairments in eating behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning. The present study explored the psychological correlates and psychometric properties of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) among overweight adults enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program. Questionnaires assessing internalized weight bias, anti-fat attitudes, self-esteem, body image concern, and mood symptoms were administered to 90 obese or overweight men and women between the ages of 21 and 73. Reliability statistics suggested revisions to the WBIS. The resulting 9-item scale was shown to be positively associated with body image concern, depressive symptoms, and stress, and negatively associated with self-esteem. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated that WBIS scores were significant and independent predictors of body image concern, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. These results support the use of the revised 9-item WBIS in treatment-seeking samples as a reliable and valid measure of internalized weight bias. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Association between perceived social stigma against mental disorders and use of health services for psychological distress symptoms in the older adult population: validity of the STIG scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2015-01-01

    To document the reliability, construct and nomological validity of the perceived Social Stigmatisation (STIG) scale in the older adult population. Cross-sectional survey. Primary medical health services clinics. Probabilistic sample of older adults aged 65 years and over waiting for medical services in the general medical sector (n = 1765). Perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem was measured using the STIG scale composed of seven indicators. A second-order measurement model of perceived social stigma fitted adequately the observed data. The reliability of the STIG scale was 0.83. According to our results, 39.6% of older adults had a significant level of perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem. RESULTS showed that the perception of social stigma against mental health problems was not significantly associated with a respondent gender and age. RESULTS also showed that the perception of social stigma against the mental health problems was directly associated with the respondents' need for improved mental health (b = -0.10) and indirectly associated with their use of primary medical health services for psychological distress symptoms (b = -0.07). RESULTS lead us to conclude that social stigma against mental disorders perceived by older adults may limit help-seeking behaviours and warrants greater public health and public policy attention. Also, results lead us to conclude that physicians should pay greater attention to their patients' attitudes against mental disorders in order to identify possible hidden mental health problems.

  3. Eating behaviour patterns in Chinese children aged 12-18 months and association with relative weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

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    Cao Ying-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ in Chinese children aged 12-18 months. We examined factor structure and the reliability of the Chinese version of the CEBQ, the associations between children's eating behaviours and children's weight (BMI SDS were assessed. Methods 219 questionnaires were filled out by the caregivers, approached in community health care centers in two cities in China. BMI of each child was calculated and converted to BMI SDS. Factor validation (Principal Component Analysis, exploratory factor analysis on all CEBQ items was performed and gender difference in eating behaviours was examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analyzed by linear regression analysis controlling for gender, parental combined weight, and education. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven-factor solution, with factor 'food responsiveness' (FR split into two. 'Satiety responsiveness' (SR and 'Enjoyment of food' (EF factors were not detected. Interestingly, boys scored higher than girls in the FR scales, whereas girls had a higher score in 'food fussiness' (FF scale. Conclusions We conclude that although a valuable psychometric instrument, CEBQ might be affected by age and cultural differences. Therefore, adjusting it in order to fit the Chinese population was suggested. We did not find an association between eating behaviours and children's BMI SDS, when it was controlled for gender and parental weight.

  4. Factors associated with knowledge of diabetes in patients with type 2 diabetes using the Diabetes Knowledge Test validated with Rasch analysis.

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    Eva K Fenwick

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In patients with Type 2 diabetes, to determine the factors associated with diabetes knowledge, derived from Rasch analysis, and compare results with a traditional raw scoring method. RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent a comprehensive clinical and biochemical assessment. Diabetes knowledge (main outcome was assessed using the Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT which was psychometrically validated using Rasch analysis. The relationship between diabetes knowledge and risk factors identified during univariate analyses was examined using multivariable linear regression. The results using raw and Rasch-transformed methods were descriptively compared. RESULTS: 181 patients (mean age±standard deviation = 66.97±9.17 years; 113 (62% male were included. Using Rasch-derived DKT scores, those with greater education (β = 1.14; CI: 0.25,2.04, p = 0.013; had seen an ophthalmologist (β = 1.65; CI: 0.63,2.66, p = 0.002, and spoke English at home (β = 1.37; CI: 0.43,2.31, p = 0.005 had significantly better diabetes knowledge than those with less education, had not seen an ophthalmologist and spoke a language other than English, respectively. Patients who were members of the National Diabetes Service Scheme (NDSS and had seen a diabetes educator also had better diabetes knowledge than their counterparts. Higher HbA1c level was independently associated with worse diabetes knowledge. Using raw measures, access to an ophthalmologist and NDSS membership were not independently associated with diabetes knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic, clinical and service use factors were independently associated with diabetes knowledge based on both raw scores and Rasch-derived scores, which supports the implementation of targeted interventions to improve patients' knowledge. Choice of psychometric analytical method can affect study outcomes and should be considered during intervention

  5. Factors Associated with Knowledge of Diabetes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Diabetes Knowledge Test Validated with Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Eva K.; Xie, Jing; Rees, Gwyn; Finger, Robert P.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In patients with Type 2 diabetes, to determine the factors associated with diabetes knowledge, derived from Rasch analysis, and compare results with a traditional raw scoring method. Research Design & Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent a comprehensive clinical and biochemical assessment. Diabetes knowledge (main outcome) was assessed using the Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT) which was psychometrically validated using Rasch analysis. The relationship between diabetes knowledge and risk factors identified during univariate analyses was examined using multivariable linear regression. The results using raw and Rasch-transformed methods were descriptively compared. Results 181 patients (mean age±standard deviation = 66.97±9.17 years; 113 (62%) male) were included. Using Rasch-derived DKT scores, those with greater education (β = 1.14; CI: 0.25,2.04, p = 0.013); had seen an ophthalmologist (β = 1.65; CI: 0.63,2.66, p = 0.002), and spoke English at home (β = 1.37; CI: 0.43,2.31, p = 0.005) had significantly better diabetes knowledge than those with less education, had not seen an ophthalmologist and spoke a language other than English, respectively. Patients who were members of the National Diabetes Service Scheme (NDSS) and had seen a diabetes educator also had better diabetes knowledge than their counterparts. Higher HbA1c level was independently associated with worse diabetes knowledge. Using raw measures, access to an ophthalmologist and NDSS membership were not independently associated with diabetes knowledge. Conclusions Sociodemographic, clinical and service use factors were independently associated with diabetes knowledge based on both raw scores and Rasch-derived scores, which supports the implementation of targeted interventions to improve patients' knowledge. Choice of psychometric analytical method can affect study outcomes and should be considered during intervention development. PMID:24312484

  6. Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magarey Anthea M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1. Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2 following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability and (b Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency. Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134 occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p 0.05 for 10/12 (test-retest reliability and 3/7 (validity scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in

  7. Cognitive Enhancement in Infants Associated with Increased Maternal Fruit Intake During Pregnancy: Results from a Birth Cohort Study with Validation in an Animal Model

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    Francois V. Bolduc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In-utero nutrition is an under-studied aspect of cognitive development. Fruit has been an important dietary constituent for early hominins and humans. Among 808 eligible CHILD-Edmonton sub-cohort subjects, 688 (85% had 1-year cognitive outcome data. We found that each maternal daily serving of fruit (sum of fruit plus 100% fruit juice consumed during pregnancy was associated with a 2.38 point increase in 1-year cognitive development (95% CI 0.39, 4.37; p < 0.05. Consistent with this, we found 30% higher learning Performance index (PI scores in Drosophila offspring from parents who consumed 30% fruit juice supplementation prenatally (PI: 85.7; SE 1.8; p < 0.05 compared to the offspring of standard diet parents (PI: 65.0 SE 3.4. Using the Drosophila model, we also show that the cyclic adenylate monophosphate (cAMP pathway may be a major regulator of this effect, as prenatal fruit associated cognitive enhancement was blocked in Drosophila rutabaga mutants with reduced Ca2+-Calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclase. Moreover, gestation is a critical time for this effect as postnatal fruit intake did not enhance cognitive performance in either humans or Drosophila. Our study supports increased fruit consumption during pregnancy with significant increases in infant cognitive performance. Validation in Drosophila helps control for potential participant bias or unmeasured confounders.

  8. FACTAR validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.B.; Wadsworth, S.L.; Rock, R.C.; Sills, H.E.; Langman, V.J.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed strategy to validate fuel channel thermal mechanical behaviour codes for use of current power reactor safety analysis is presented. The strategy is derived from a validation process that has been recently adopted industry wide. Focus of the discussion is on the validation plan for a code, FACTAR, for application in assessing fuel channel integrity safety concerns during a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). (author)

  9. Parental feeding practices and associations with child weight status. Swedish validation of the Child Feeding Questionnaire finds parents of 4-year-olds less restrictive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S

    2014-10-01

    The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) assesses parental feeding attitudes, beliefs and practices concerned with child feeding and obesity proneness. The questionnaire has been developed in the U.S., and validation studies in other countries are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CFQ in Sweden and the associations between parenting practices and children's weight status. Based on records from the Swedish population register, all mothers of 4-year-olds (n = 3007) from the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö, were contacted by mail. Those who returned the CFQ together with a background questionnaire (n = 876) received the CFQ again to enable test-retest evaluation; 564 mothers completed the CFQ twice. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the original 7-factor model was supported. Good fit (CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04, SRMR = 0.05) was obtained after minor modifications such as dropping 2 items on restriction and adding 3 error covariances. The internal reliability and the 2-week test-retest reliability were good. The scores on restriction were the lowest ever reported. When the influence of parenting practices on child BMI (dependent variable) was examined in a structural equation model (SEM), child BMI had a positive association with restriction and a negative association with pressure to eat. Restriction was positively influenced by concern about child weight. The second SEM treated parenting practices as dependent variables. Parental foreign origin and child BMI had direct effects on restriction, while pressure to eat was also influenced by parental education. While the results of the study support the usefulness of the CFQ in Sweden, carefully designed cross-cultural comparisons are needed to explain why the levels of restrictive feeding in Swedish families are the lowest reported. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight--factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Viktoria; Lundborg, Linda; Cao, Yingting; Nowicka, Paulina; Marcus, Claude; Sobko, Tanja

    2011-12-08

    The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a

  11. Reliability and validity of the student stress inventory-stress manifestations questionnaire and its association with personal and academic factors in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli-Muñoz, Agustín J; Balanza, Serafín; Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Vera-Catalán, Tomás; Lorente, Ana María; Gallego-Gómez, Juana I

    2018-05-01

    Stress affects us in every environment and it is also present in the educational sphere. Previous studies have reported a high prevalence of stress in university students. The Student Stress Inventory-Stress Manifestations (SSI-SM), identify stressors and evaluate stress manifestations in adolescents but its validity in university students remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the internal consistency and validity of an adapted version of the Student Stress Inventory-Stress Manifestations (SSI-SM) for university students and to investigate if high stress levels are associated with personal and academic factors. In this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study, we included 115 university students of the Nursing Degree during the second semester of the 2014/2015 academic year. Information about personal issues, lifestyle and academic performance was recorded and the stress was evaluated with the SSI-SM questionnaire. The internal consistency and homogeneity of the SSI-SM questionnaire was tested and a factorial analysis was performed. After the homogeneity analysis, the final version of the SSI-SM questionnaire included 19 items, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.924. In the factorial analysis, 4 factors were found ('Self-concept', 'Sociability', 'Uncertainty' and 'Somatization'; all Cronbach's alpha >0.700). Students with higher values on the SSI-SM were, in overall, women (41.0 ± 12.7 vs. 33.2 ± 9.5; p = 0.001) and had significantly more family conflicts (47.6 ± 13.8 vs. 35.2 ± 9.6; p < 0.001), consumed less alcohol (R = -0.184, p = 0.048), slept less hours (R = -0.193, p = 0.038) and had worse academic performance in Clinical Nursing (36.3 ± 10.4 vs. 41.2 ± 13.3, p = 0.039). After exclude three items of the original SSI-SM, higher scores in the SSI-SM are correlated with stress level in a cohort of university students of the Nursing Degree. Family conflicts, female gender, absence of alcohol

  12. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson Viktoria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years, recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47. Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status

  13. An empirically derived dietary pattern associated with breast cancer risk is validated in a nested case-control cohort from a randomized primary prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Brandon H; Kimler, Bruce F; Fabian, Carol J; Carlson, Susan E

    2017-02-01

    We reported an association between cytologic atypia, a reversible biomarker of breast cancer risk, and lower omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratio in blood and breast tissue. Our goal was to develop and validate a dietary pattern index in this high-risk sample of U.S. women, and test its capacity to predict incidence in a nested case-control cohort of Canadian women from a randomized trial of a low-fat dietary intervention for primary prevention of breast cancer. Food intake was measured by food frequency questionnaire in the U.S. sample (n = 65) and multiple dietary recalls in the Canadian sample (n = 220 cases; 440 controls). Principal component analysis identified a dietary pattern associated with atypia. We measured differences among dietary pattern tertiles in (a) fatty acid composition in blood lipids and breast tissue in the U.S. sample, and (b) risk of breast cancer subtypes in the Canadian cohort. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00148057. A Modern diet was characterized as consuming more grains, dairy, and sugar and less vegetables, fish and poultry; these women had lower tissue omega-3 fatty acids and higher omega-6 and trans fatty acids. The low-fat intervention increased the likelihood of a Modern diet after randomization. A Modern diet at baseline and post-randomization was associated with estrogen-receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer risk among those at least 160 cm tall. A Traditional diet (the reciprocal of Modern) at baseline was associated with lower ER-positive (ER+) risk in the comparison group, but not the low-fat intervention group. A Modern diet (high in grains, dairy, and sugar and low in vegetables, fish, and poultry) is associated with ER- breast cancer risk among taller women. Recommending dietary fat reduction may have untoward effects on breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation and Application of the Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U): Identifying Factors Associated with Valuing Important Workplace Skills among Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly; Thompson, Katerina V.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel assessment tool for measuring biology students’ values and experiences across their undergraduate degree program. Our Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U) assesses the extent to which students value skills needed for the workplace (e.g., ability to work in groups) and their experiences with teaching practices purported to promote such skills (e.g., group work). The survey was validated through factor analyses in a large sample of biology seniors (n = 1389) and through response process analyses (five interviewees). The STEP-U skills items were characterized by two underlying factors: retention (e.g., memorization) and transfer (e.g., knowledge application). Multiple linear regression models were used to examine relationships between classroom experiences, values, and student characteristics (e.g., gender, cumulative grade point average [GPA], and research experience). Student demographic and experiential factors predicted the extent to which students valued particular skills. Students with lower GPAs valued retention skills more than those with higher GPAs. Students with research experience placed greater value on scientific writing and interdisciplinary understanding. Greater experience with specific teaching practices was associated with valuing the corresponding skills more highly. The STEP-U can provide feedback vital for designing curricula that better prepare students for their intended postgraduate careers. PMID:27856547

  15. Sponge-associated actinobacterial diversity: validation of the methods of actinobacterial DNA extraction and optimization of 16S rRNA gene amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Franco, Christopher M M; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Experiments were designed to validate the two common DNA extraction protocols (CTAB-based method and DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit) used to effectively recover actinobacterial DNA from sponge samples in order to study the sponge-associated actinobacterial diversity. This was done by artificially spiking sponge samples with actinobacteria (spores, mycelia and a combination of the two). Our results demonstrated that both DNA extraction methods were effective in obtaining DNA from the sponge samples as well as the sponge samples spiked with different amounts of actinobacteria. However, it was noted that in the presence of the sponge, the bacterial 16S rRNA gene could not be amplified unless the combined DNA template was diluted. To test the hypothesis that the extracted sponge DNA contained inhibitors, dilutions of the DNA extracts were tested for six sponge species representing five orders. The results suggested that the inhibitors were co-extracted with the sponge DNA, and a high dilution of this DNA was required for the successful PCR amplification for most of the samples. The optimized PCR conditions, including primer selection, PCR reaction system and program optimization, further improved the PCR performance. However, no single PCR condition was found to be suitable for the diverse sponge samples using various primer sets. These results highlight for the first time that the DNA extraction methods used are effective in obtaining actinobacterial DNA and that the presence of inhibitors in the sponge DNA requires high dilution coupled with fine tuning of the PCR conditions to achieve success in the study of sponge-associated actinobacterial diversity.

  16. Positive Response Distortion by Police Officer Applicants: Association of Paulhus Deception Scales with MMPI-2 and Inwald Personality Inventory Validity Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of positive response distortion (socially desirable responding) in employment evaluations is an important validity issue. This study of police officer applicants examined the construct validity of the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS)--Moralistic Bias (MB; exaggerated adjustment/agreeableness) and Egoistic Bias (EB; exaggerated…

  17. Reliability and validity of clinical tests to assess the anatomical integrity of the cervical spine in adults with neck pain and its associated disorders: Part 1-A systematic review from the Cervical Assessment and Diagnosis Research Evaluation (CADRE) Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeunier, Nadège; da Silva-Oolup, S; Chow, N; Southerst, D; Carroll, L; Wong, J J; Shearer, H; Mastragostino, P; Cox, J; Côté, E; Murnaghan, K; Sutton, D; Côté, P

    2017-09-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of clinical tests to assess the anatomical integrity of the cervical spine in adults with neck pain and its associated disorders. We updated the systematic review of the 2000-2010 Bone and Joint Decade Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders. We also searched the literature to identify studies on the reliability and validity of Doppler velocimetry for the evaluation of cervical arteries. Two independent reviewers screened and critically appraised studies. We conducted a best evidence synthesis of low risk of bias studies and ranked the phases of investigations using the classification proposed by Sackett and Haynes. We screened 9022 articles and critically appraised 8 studies; all 8 studies had low risk of bias (three reliability and five validity Phase II-III studies). Preliminary evidence suggests that the extension-rotation test may be reliable and has adequate validity to rule out pain arising from facet joints. The evidence suggests variable reliability and preliminary validity for the evaluation of cervical radiculopathy including neurological examination (manual motor testing, dermatomal sensory testing, deep tendon reflexes, and pathological reflex testing), Spurling's and the upper limb neurodynamic tests. No evidence was found for doppler velocimetry. Little evidence exists to support the use of clinical tests to evaluate the anatomical integrity of the cervical spine in adults with neck pain and its associated disorders. We found preliminary evidence to support the use of the extension-rotation test, neurological examination, Spurling's and the upper limb neurodynamic tests.

  18. Validation of the International HIV Dementia Scale as a Screening Tool for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in a German-Speaking HIV Outpatient Clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Marin-Webb

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND, remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS has until now been a well-established screening tool in African and American countries, however these populations' demographics defer significantly from ours, so using the same parameters could be ineffective.To calculate the prevalence of this condition among people attending an HIV outpatient clinic in Berlin and to validate the use of the IHDS as a screening tool for HAND in a German-speaking population.We screened 480 HIV-infected patients using the IHDS, 89% of them were on a stable antiretroviral treatment. Ninety of them completed a standardised neuropsychological battery of tests and a specific cognitive complaints questionnaire. The same procedure was applied to a control group of 30 HIV-negative participants. HAND diagnosis was established according to the Frascati criteria.The overall prevalence of HAND in our cohort was 43% (20% ANI, 17% MND and 6% HIV-associated dementia. The optimal cut-off on the IHDS for detecting HAND cases was set at 11 and achieved both a sensitivity and a specificity of 80%. When specifically screening for the more severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia, a cut-off value of 10 offered an increase in both sensitivity (94% and specificity (86%. The Youden Index for diagnostic accuracy was 0.6 and 0.8, respectively.The prevalence of HAND was comparable to the reported by recent studies performed in countries with a similar economic development. The study

  19. Validation of the International HIV Dementia Scale as a Screening Tool for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in a German-Speaking HIV Outpatient Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Webb, Victor; Jessen, Heiko; Kopp, Ute; Jessen, Arne B; Hahn, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) has until now been a well-established screening tool in African and American countries, however these populations' demographics defer significantly from ours, so using the same parameters could be ineffective. To calculate the prevalence of this condition among people attending an HIV outpatient clinic in Berlin and to validate the use of the IHDS as a screening tool for HAND in a German-speaking population. We screened 480 HIV-infected patients using the IHDS, 89% of them were on a stable antiretroviral treatment. Ninety of them completed a standardised neuropsychological battery of tests and a specific cognitive complaints questionnaire. The same procedure was applied to a control group of 30 HIV-negative participants. HAND diagnosis was established according to the Frascati criteria. The overall prevalence of HAND in our cohort was 43% (20% ANI, 17% MND and 6% HIV-associated dementia). The optimal cut-off on the IHDS for detecting HAND cases was set at 11 and achieved both a sensitivity and a specificity of 80%. When specifically screening for the more severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia, a cut-off value of 10 offered an increase in both sensitivity (94%) and specificity (86%). The Youden Index for diagnostic accuracy was 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. The prevalence of HAND was comparable to the reported by recent studies performed in countries with a similar economic development. The study confirms

  20. eCOMPAGT integrates mtDNA: import, validation and export of mitochondrial DNA profiles for population genetics, tumour dynamics and genotype-phenotype association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Specht Günther

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is widely being used for population genetics, forensic DNA fingerprinting and clinical disease association studies. The recent past has uncovered severe problems with mtDNA genotyping, not only due to the genotyping method itself, but mainly to the post-lab transcription, storage and report of mtDNA genotypes. Description eCOMPAGT, a system to store, administer and connect phenotype data to all kinds of genotype data is now enhanced by the possibility of storing mtDNA profiles and allowing their validation, linking to phenotypes and export as numerous formats. mtDNA profiles can be imported from different sequence evaluation programs, compared between evaluations and their haplogroup affiliations stored. Furthermore, eCOMPAGT has been improved in its sophisticated transparency (support of MySQL and Oracle, security aspects (by using database technology and the option to import, manage and store genotypes derived from various genotyping methods (SNPlex, TaqMan, and STRs. It is a software solution designed for project management, laboratory work and the evaluation process all-in-one. Conclusions The extended mtDNA version of eCOMPAGT was designed to enable error-free post-laboratory data handling of human mtDNA profiles. This software is suited for small to medium-sized human genetic, forensic and clinical genetic laboratories. The direct support of MySQL and the improved database security options render eCOMPAGT a powerful tool to build an automated workflow architecture for several genotyping methods. eCOMPAGT is freely available at http://dbis-informatik.uibk.ac.at/ecompagt.

  1. eCOMPAGT integrates mtDNA: import, validation and export of mitochondrial DNA profiles for population genetics, tumour dynamics and genotype-phenotype association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissensteiner, Hansi; Schönherr, Sebastian; Specht, Günther; Kronenberg, Florian; Brandstätter, Anita

    2010-03-09

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is widely being used for population genetics, forensic DNA fingerprinting and clinical disease association studies. The recent past has uncovered severe problems with mtDNA genotyping, not only due to the genotyping method itself, but mainly to the post-lab transcription, storage and report of mtDNA genotypes. eCOMPAGT, a system to store, administer and connect phenotype data to all kinds of genotype data is now enhanced by the possibility of storing mtDNA profiles and allowing their validation, linking to phenotypes and export as numerous formats. mtDNA profiles can be imported from different sequence evaluation programs, compared between evaluations and their haplogroup affiliations stored. Furthermore, eCOMPAGT has been improved in its sophisticated transparency (support of MySQL and Oracle), security aspects (by using database technology) and the option to import, manage and store genotypes derived from various genotyping methods (SNPlex, TaqMan, and STRs). It is a software solution designed for project management, laboratory work and the evaluation process all-in-one. The extended mtDNA version of eCOMPAGT was designed to enable error-free post-laboratory data handling of human mtDNA profiles. This software is suited for small to medium-sized human genetic, forensic and clinical genetic laboratories. The direct support of MySQL and the improved database security options render eCOMPAGT a powerful tool to build an automated workflow architecture for several genotyping methods. eCOMPAGT is freely available at http://dbis-informatik.uibk.ac.at/ecompagt.

  2. Validation and Application of the Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U): Identifying Factors Associated with Valuing Important Workplace Skills among Biology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly; Thompson, Katerina V

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel assessment tool for measuring biology students' values and experiences across their undergraduate degree program. Our Survey of Teaching Beliefs and Practices for Undergraduates (STEP-U) assesses the extent to which students value skills needed for the workplace (e.g., ability to work in groups) and their experiences with teaching practices purported to promote such skills (e.g., group work). The survey was validated through factor analyses in a large sample of biology seniors (n = 1389) and through response process analyses (five interviewees). The STEP-U skills items were characterized by two underlying factors: retention (e.g., memorization) and transfer (e.g., knowledge application). Multiple linear regression models were used to examine relationships between classroom experiences, values, and student characteristics (e.g., gender, cumulative grade point average [GPA], and research experience). Student demographic and experiential factors predicted the extent to which students valued particular skills. Students with lower GPAs valued retention skills more than those with higher GPAs. Students with research experience placed greater value on scientific writing and interdisciplinary understanding. Greater experience with specific teaching practices was associated with valuing the corresponding skills more highly. The STEP-U can provide feedback vital for designing curricula that better prepare students for their intended postgraduate careers. © 2016 G. Marbach-Ad et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. A Universal Standard for the Validation of Blood Pressure Measuring Devices: Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/European Society of Hypertension/International Organization for Standardization (AAMI/ESH/ISO) Collaboration Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Alpert, Bruce; Mieke, Stephan; Asmar, Roland; Atkins, Neil; Eckert, Siegfried; Frick, Gerhard; Friedman, Bruce; Graßl, Thomas; Ichikawa, Tsutomu; Ioannidis, John P; Lacy, Peter; McManus, Richard; Murray, Alan; Myers, Martin; Palatini, Paolo; Parati, Gianfranco; Quinn, David; Sarkis, Josh; Shennan, Andrew; Usuda, Takashi; Wang, Jiguang; Wu, Colin O; O'Brien, Eoin

    2018-03-01

    In the past 30 years, several organizations, such as the US Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), the British Hypertension Society, the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) Working Group on Blood Pressure (BP) Monitoring, and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), have developed protocols for clinical validation of BP measuring devices. However, it is recognized that science, as well as patients, consumers, and manufacturers, would be best served if all BP measuring devices were assessed for accuracy according to an agreed single validation protocol that had global acceptance. Therefore, an international initiative was taken by the AAMI, ESH, and ISO experts who agreed to develop a universal standard for device validation. This statement presents the key aspects of a validation procedure, which were agreed by the AAMI, ESH, and ISO representatives as the basis for a single universal validation protocol. As soon as the AAMI/ESH/ISO standard is fully developed, this will be regarded as the single universal standard and will replace all other previous standards/protocols. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc., and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

  4. Validation philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornehm, D.

    1994-01-01

    To determine when a set of calculations falls within an umbrella of an existing validation documentation, it is necessary to generate a quantitative definition of range of applicability (our definition is only qualitative) for two reasons: (1) the current trend in our regulatory environment will soon make it impossible to support the legitimacy of a validation without quantitative guidelines; and (2) in my opinion, the lack of support by DOE for further critical experiment work is directly tied to our inability to draw a quantitative open-quotes line-in-the-sandclose quotes beyond which we will not use computer-generated values

  5. Psychosocial impact of Parkinson's disease-associated dysarthria: Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Dysarthria Impact Profile into European Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Guimarães, Isabel; Santos, Helena; Loureiro, Rita; Domingos, Josefa; Abreu, Daisy; Gonçalves, Nilza; Pinto, Serge; Ferreira, Joaquim J

    2018-01-26

    The present study sought to make a cross-cultural adaptation of the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP) for European Portuguese (EP) and validate it for use in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The cross-cultural adaptation was carried out in accordance with the guidelines. The EP version of the DIP was administered to 80 people with PD, and 30 sex- and age-matched control participants. Psychometric properties, acceptability, feasibility reliability (internal consistency and intrarater agreement) and validity (construct, convergent and known-groups validity) were assessed using other assessment tools (motor disability and impairment, and voice impact). Overall, the EP-DIP final version has the same conceptual meaning, semantics, idiomatic and score equivalences as the original version. Statistical analyses showed adequate feasibility (missing data psychosocial impact of slight-to-mild dysarthria in people with PD. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Model Validation Status Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M and O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  7. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  8. [Academic and psycho-socio-familiar factors associated to anxiety and depression in university students. Reliability and validity of a questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanza Galindo, Serafín; Morales Moreno, Isabel; Guerrero Muñoz, Joaquín; Conesa Conesa, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The high frequency of anxiety and depression in university students is related to social, family factors and academic stress. The aim of this research is to determine the internal consistency and validity of a questionnaire on socio-familiar and academic situations which may be related to psychopathological situations in university students. The research was carried out at the Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia with 700 students, to whom a questionnaire made by the researchers was given. This questionnaire included items which evaluated academic and socio-familiar aspects. Variables regarding various stressful situations amongst students, and the Goldbergs level of anxiety and depression scale were used as independent facts of research in order to measure the validity of the questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was shown after obtaining an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.819. The original questionnaire with 19 items was reduced to 15 items after the homogeneity analysis, obtaining a Cronbach alpha of 0.758. The validity of constructio was evaluated with the factor analysis of the questionnaire, with a result of two factors which represented academic aspects and socio-familiar aspects. Those students with a positive anxiety and depression test were the ones who obtained the higher score on the global questionnaire and in both factors, proving the validity of the criteria. The research questionnaire is an agile and easy to use tool for the assessment and early detection of anxiety and depression in university students.

  9. Serum liver fatty acid binding protein levels correlate positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1 plays an inconclusive role in adiposity. We investigated the association of serum FABP1 levels with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young people under 30 years old. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional analysis including 200 obese and 172 normal-weight subjects matched for age and sex, anthropometric measurements were performed and serum FABP1 and biochemical characteristics were measured. Insulin resistance was determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and by the insulin sensitivity index (S(i derived from Bergman's minimal model. FABP1 levels in obese subjects were significantly higher than those in normal-weight subjects (p<0.001 and the significance remained after adjustment for age, gender, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.001. Serum FABP1 levels were significantly correlated with many metabolic-related parameters, with BMI and triglycerides as the independent determinants. FABP1 levels remained an independent risk factor of insulin resistance assessed by binary S(i (OR = 1.868 per SD unit, 95% CI [1.035-3.373], p = 0.038 after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol,. FABP1 levels were also elevated with an increasing number of components of the metabolic syndrome (p for trend <0.001. Multiple regression modeling for the MetS and its components demonstrated that hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly correlated to serum FABP1 levels. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Serum FABP1 correlates positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults. Our data supports the fact that FABP1 might be an important mediator participating in fatty acid metabolism and energy balance.

  10. Implementing an online tool for genome-wide validation of survival-associated biomarkers in ovarian-cancer using microarray data from 1287 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Győrffy, Balázs; Lánczky, András; Szállási, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    was set up using gene expression data and survival information of 1287 ovarian cancer patients downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas (Affymetrix HG-U133A, HG-U133A 2.0, and HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays). After quality control and normalization, only probes present on all......). A Kaplan–Meier survival plot was generated and significance was computed. The tool can be accessed online at www.kmplot.com/ovar. We used this integrative data analysis tool to validate the prognostic power of 37 biomarkers identified in the literature. Of these, CA125 (MUC16; P=3.7x10–5, hazard ratio (HR...... biomarker validation platform that mines all available microarray data to assess the prognostic power of 22 277 genes in 1287 ovarian cancer patients. We specifically used this tool to evaluate the effect of 37 previously published biomarkers on ovarian cancer prognosis....

  11. [Validation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS) in a German Sample: Psychometric Properties and Association with Eating Behavior, Body Image and Self-Esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire Mölbert, Simone; Hautzinger, Martin; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin

    2017-02-01

    The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS [14]) is the most commonly used validated measure of body-related social comparison habits. Here we investigate reliability and construct validity of the PACS in a German sample. Participants (n=75 men, n=75 women and n=25 women with a confirmed diagnosis of anorexia nervosa) completed the PACS along with measures of eating disorder pathology, body image and self-esteem. Results show an adequate internal consistency of the PACS for the female subgroups and medium to high correlations with eating disorder pathology, body image and self-esteem. PACS total score differed significantly between groups, with men scoring lowest and women with anorexia nervosa scoring highest. We conclude that the PACS is a sufficiently reliable and valid measure of body-related social comparison habits in women. In men, it should only be used with special care. The PACS is generally suitable to promote patient studies testing the role of social comparisons for the patho-mechanisms of eating disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Development and small-scale validation of a novel pigeon-associated mitochondrial DNA source tracking marker for the detection of fecal contamination in harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waso, M; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2018-02-15

    The current study was aimed at designing and validating (on a small-scale) a novel pigeon mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) microbial source tracking (MST) marker for the detection of pigeon fecal matter in harvested rainwater. The pigeon mtDNA MST marker was designed to target the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene by employing mismatch amplification mutation assay kinetics. The pigeon marker was validated by screening 69 non-pigeon and 9 pigeon fecal samples. The host-sensitivity of the assay was determined as 1.00 while the host-specificity of the assay was 0.96. Harvested rainwater samples (n=60) were screened for the prevalence of the marker with the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker detected in 78% of the samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to calculate the conditional probability of the marker detecting true pigeon contamination and the marker subsequently displayed a 99% probability of detecting true pigeon contamination in the harvested rainwater samples. In addition, the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker displayed high concurrence frequencies versus heterotrophic bacteria (78.3%), E. coli (73.3%), total coliforms (71.1%) and fecal coliforms (66.7%). This study thus validates that targeting mtDNA for the design of source tracking markers may be a valuable tool to detect avian fecal contamination in environmental waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and Validation of Case-Finding Algorithms for the Identification of Patients with ANCA-Associated Vasculitis in Large Healthcare Administrative Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreih, Antoine G.; Annapureddy, Narender; Springer, Jason; Casey, George; Byram, Kevin; Cruz, Andy; Estephan, Maya; Frangiosa, Vince; George, Michael D.; Liu, Mei; Parker, Adam; Sangani, Sapna; Sharim, Rebecca; Merkel, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate case-finding algorithms for granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s, GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss, EGPA). Methods 250 patients per disease were randomly selected from 2 large healthcare systems using the International Classification of Diseases version 9 (ICD9) codes for GPA/EGPA (446.4) and MPA (446.0). 16 case-finding algorithms were constructed using a combination of ICD9 code, encounter type (inpatient or outpatient), physician specialty, use of immunosuppressive medications, and the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) type. Algorithms with the highest average positive predictive value (PPV) were validated in a third healthcare system. Results An algorithm excluding patients with eosinophilia or asthma and including the encounter type and physician specialty had the highest PPV for GPA (92.4%). An algorithm including patients with eosinophilia and asthma and the physician specialty had the highest PPV for EGPA (100%). An algorithm including patients with one of the following diagnoses: alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial lung disease, glomerulonephritis, acute or chronic kidney disease, the encounter type, physician specialty, and immunosuppressive medications had the highest PPV for MPA (76.2%). When validated in a third healthcare system, these algorithms had high PPV (85.9% for GPA, 85.7% for EGPA, and 61.5% for MPA). Adding the ANCA type increased the PPV to 94.4%, 100%, and 81.2% for GPA, EGPA, and MPA respectively. Conclusion Case-finding algorithms accurately identify patients with GPA, EGPA, and MPA in administrative databases. These algorithms can be used to assemble population-based cohorts and facilitate future research in epidemiology, drug safety, and comparative effectiveness. PMID:27804171

  14. The reliability, concurrent validity and association with salivary oxytocin of the self-report version of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in adolescents with conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tomer; Apter, Alan; Djalovski, Amir; Peskin, Miriam; Fennig, Silvana; Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Bar-Maisels, Meytal; Borodkin, Katy; Bloch, Yuval

    2017-10-01

    The present study evaluated the self-report version of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU-SR) in terms of reliability, concurrent validity, and correlation with salivary oxytocin levels, a potential biomarker of CU traits. 67 socially at-risk male adolescents (mean 16.2 years) completed the ICU-SR, ICU teacher-version (ICU-TR), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and their medical files were coded for previous antisocial acts using Brown-Goodwin Lifetime Aggression Scale. Salivary samples were assayed for oxytocin. The reliability of ICU-SR was lower (α = 0.71) than ICU-TR (α = 0.86). ICU-SR mean score was significantly lower than ICU-TR (M = 25.29, SD = 8.02; M = 33.14, SD = 9.47). ICU-TR but not ICU-SR, significantly correlated with history of antisocial acts (r = 0.40). Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of conduct disorder and oxytocin on ICU-TR but not ICU-SR [F(1,59) = 6.53; F(1,59) = 6.08], and a significant interaction only for ICU-TR [F(1,59) = 2.89]. Subjective self-reports of CU traits may be less reliable and valid than teachers' reports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of a short questionnaire to measure symptoms and functional limitations associated with hand-foot syndrome and mucositis in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Diaz, Jose; Khan, Sadya; Cella, David

    2016-01-15

    Hand-foot syndrome and mucositis/stomatitis are frequent adverse events (AEs) of treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer therapy. Quality-of-life instruments that measure the functional consequences of these AEs are needed to assess the impact of therapeutic interventions and to guide patient care. The Hand-Foot and Mucositis Symptom and Impact Questionnaire (HAMSIQ [formerly the Supplementary Quality of Life Questionnaire]) was used in the COMPARZ trial (Pazopanib vs Sunitinib in the Treatment of Locally Advanced and/or Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma [national clinical trial no. NCT00720941]) and the PISCES study (Patient Preference Study of Pazopanib vs Sunitinib in Advanced or Metastatic Kidney Cancer [clinicaltrials.gov NCT01064310]) to assess mouth/throat and hand/foot soreness symptoms and subsequent limitations in patients receiving pazopanib or sunitinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The objective of the current analysis was to validate the HAMSIQ using data from the PISCES study. The HAMSIQ was administered in the PISCES study at baseline and every 2 weeks over two 10-week periods to patients who were receiving pazopanib or sunitinib. Data from the first 10-week period were used to assess the feasibility, validity, and responsiveness of the HAMSIQ. In total, ≥85% of 169 patients completed the HAMSIQ (excluding the item concerning days off work). Correlations among items within the same limitation subscale generally were high (Cronbach α ≥ .80). HAMSIQ limitation scores differentiated patients according to their baseline performance status and severity of soreness. Small-to-moderate correlations were observed for the symptoms/limitation scores and for changes from baseline scores between the HAMSIQ and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy fatigue survey. The HAMSIQ demonstrated responsiveness to changes in clinical status and the development of hand-foot syndrome AEs over time. The HAMSIQ is a feasible, valid

  16. Positive and negative emotional eating have different associations with overeating and binge eating: Construction and validation of the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultson, Hedvig; Kukk, Katrin; Akkermann, Kirsti

    2017-09-01

    Research on emotional eating mostly focuses on negative emotions. Much less is known about how positive emotions relate to overeating and binge eating (BE). The aim of the current study was to construct a scale for positive and negative emotional eating and to assess its predictive validity. In study 1, the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale (PNEES) was constructed and tested on 531 women, who also completed Eating Disorders Assessment Scale (EDAS). Results showed that a two-factor model constituting Positive emotional eating (PNEES-P) and Negative emotional eating (PNEES-N) fit the data well. PNEES-N also showed good convergent validity in assessing binge eating, correlating highly with EDAS subscale Binge eating. Further, a path analysis showed that after controlling for the mediating effect of PNEES-N, PNEES-P continued to significantly predict binge eating. In study 2 (N = 60), experience sampling method was used to assess overeating and BE in the natural environment. Palmtop computers were given to participants for a three-day study period that prompted them with questions regarding emotional experience, overeating, and BE. Results indicated that PNEES-P significantly predicted overeating, whereas PNEES-N predicted overeating and BE episodes only in a subsample of women who had experienced at least one overeating or BE episode. Thus, positive and negative emotional eating might have different relations with overeating and BE, with the latter being more characteristic of the severity/frequency of overeating and BE. New assessment tools that in addition to negative emotional eating also address positive emotional eating could be of potential help in planning intervention. Further, the tendency to overeat in response to positive emotions could be integrated into current models of eating disorders, especially when addressing relapse prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptation and obtainment of evidence for the validity of the “Scale of Perceived Sacrifices Associated with Leaving (the organization” in the Brazilian context: a study among teachers of basic, technical, and technological education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gomes de Jesus

    Full Text Available Abstract The most widely-used model in studies of organizational commitment is the three-dimensional model developed by Meyer and Allen in 1991. This model understands the construct as being composed of instrumental, affective, and normative dimensions. However, it has been criticized by researchers who do not view instrumental commitment as related to the concept of commitment, but instead as a possible organizational link. In order to address the conceptual and empirical problems of the instrument, Powell and Meyer perfected the sub-scale of instrumental commitment and recommended that a new scale, named Perceived Sacrifices Associated with Leaving, be used in future research. This article aims to adapt and obtain evidence of the validity of the new scale, and analyze how teachers perceive the sacrifices associated with leaving a Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology. The scale has undergone cross-cultural adaptation and the adapted version was applied to teachers. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied, displaying evidence of the validity of the construct for the Brazilian version. The results revealed that teachers agree on the high intensity level of the sacrifices associated with leaving, and that teachers who occupy management positions perceive it to a higher degree than others. The proposed changes in the scale should be evaluated in future research, and other studies are important to confirm the results found.

  18. Validation of the modified 4-tiered categorization system through comparison with the 5-tiered categorization system of the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for classifying small thyroid nodules on ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Park, Vivian Y; Kwak, Jin Young

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the modified 4-tiered categorization system and to compare stratification of malignancy risk in small thyroid nodules with the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) management guidelines. From January 2015 to December 2015, 737 thyroid nodules measured ≥ 1 cm and categorization, which combines very low suspicion and low suspicion nodules into the "revised low suspicion" category. Specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and accuracy were higher with the modified 4-tiered categorization system (P categorization system allows more efficient management with better diagnostic performance than the 2015 ATA categorization system in small thyroid nodules. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Association of adipocyte genes with ASP expression: a microarray analysis of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects

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    Lu HuiLing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of obesity is increasing to pandemic proportions. However, obese subjects differ in insulin resistance, adipokine production and co-morbidities. Based on fasting plasma analysis, obese subjects were grouped as Low Acylation Stimulating protein (ASP and Triglyceride (TG (LAT vs High ASP and TG (HAT. Subcutaneous (SC and omental (OM adipose tissues (n = 21 were analysed by microarray, and biologic pathways in lipid metabolism and inflammation were specifically examined. Methods LAT and HAT groups were matched in age, obesity, insulin, and glucose, and had similar expression of insulin-related genes (InsR, IRS-1. ASP related genes tended to be increased in the HAT group and were correlated (factor B, adipsin, complement C3, p Results HAT adipose tissue demonstrated increased lipid related genes for storage (CD36, DGAT1, DGAT2, SCD1, FASN, and LPL, lipolysis (HSL, CES1, perilipin, fatty acid binding proteins (FABP1, FABP3 and adipocyte differentiation markers (CEBPα, CEBPβ, PPARγ. By contrast, oxidation related genes were decreased (AMPK, UCP1, CPT1, FABP7. HAT subjects had increased anti-inflammatory genes TGFB1, TIMP1, TIMP3, and TIMP4 while proinflammatory PIG7 and MMP2 were also significantly increased; all genes, p Conclusion Taken together, the profile of C5L2 receptor, ASP gene expression and metabolic factors in adipose tissue from morbidly obese HAT subjects suggests a compensatory response associated with the increased plasma ASP and TG.

  20. Content validity of the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index (BII); a measure of how urinary trouble and problems associated with BPH may impact the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, L; Martin, M L; Naegeli, A N; Khan, S; Viktrup, L

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this qualitative interview study was to assess the content validity of the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index (BII) in a sample of men with signs and symptoms of Benign Prostatic Obstruction believed to be caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH lower urinary tract symptoms/BPH-LUTS) using concept elicitation (CE) and cognitive interviewing (CI) methods. Fifty men with BPH-LUTS participated in the study; 27 completed CE interviews and 23 completed cognitive interviews. Patient's average age was 69 years with a mean duration of BPH-LUTS of 6.5 years. IPSS scores ranged from 8 to 33 (higher scores indicating greater symptom severity). Overall, the most frequent symptoms (prevalence of ≥ 75%) reported spontaneously or after further explanation were awakening from sleep, increased daytime voiding (frequency), urgent desire to void (urgency), slow stream, and feeling of incomplete bladder emptying. Symptoms primarily recognized in response to follow up probe questions with a prevalence of ≥ 40% included terminal dribble, splitting of urinary stream, intermittent stream, straining and post-micturition dribble. Especially bothersome [> 5 on the numerical rating scale (NRS) of 0-10] and frequent symptoms included urgency and awakening at night to void. Discomfort or pain while urinating and post-micturition dribble were equally bothersome though less frequent. Five BPH symptom-related impact themes were identified: coping, daily responsibilities, emotion, lifestyle and relationships, and sleep. The BII was found to be easily understood, does capture clinically relevant BPH impacts related to urinary trouble and problems, and does capture most of the important symptom-related impacts as described by participants in this study. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: an examination of concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew M; Weller, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to committing decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules). Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate processes that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC) and one such process, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV). Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a) choosing risky options when EV favors those options and (b) avoiding risky options when EV favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  2. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: An examination of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Parker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules. Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate mechanisms that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC and one such mechanism, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV. Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a choosing risky options when expected value favors those options and (b avoiding risky options when expected value favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  3. Selection and validation of potato candidate genes for maturity corrected resistance to Phytophthora infestans based on differential expression combined with SNP association and linkage mapping

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    Meki Shehabu Muktar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, is one of the most important bottlenecks of potato production worldwide. Cultivars with high levels of durable, race unspecific, quantitative resistance are part of a solution to this problem. However, breeding for quantitative resistance is hampered by the correlation between resistance and late plant maturity, which is an undesirable agricultural attribute. The objectives of our research are (i the identification of genes that condition quantitative resistance to P. infestans not compromised by late plant maturity and (ii the discovery of diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to be used as molecular tools to increase efficiency and precision of resistance breeding. Twenty two novel candidate genes were selected based on comparative transcript profiling by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression in groups of plants with contrasting levels of maturity corrected resistance (MCR. Reproducibility of differential expression was tested by quantitative real time PCR and allele specific pyrosequencing in four new sets of genotype pools with contrasting late blight resistance levels, at three infection time points and in three independent infection experiments. Reproducibility of expression patterns ranged from 28% to 97%. Association mapping in a panel of 184 tetraploid cultivars identified SNPs in five candidate genes that were associated with MCR. These SNPs can be used in marker-assisted resistance breeding. Linkage mapping in two half-sib families (n = 111 identified SNPs in three candidate genes that were linked with MCR. The differentially expressed genes that showed association and/or linkage with MCR putatively function in phytosterol synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, asparagine synthesis, chlorophyll synthesis, cell wall modification and in the response to pathogen elicitors.

  4. On the validity of self-report assessment of cognitive abilities: Attentional control scale associations with cognitive performance, emotional adjustment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paula G; Rau, Holly K; Suchy, Yana; Thorgusen, Sommer R; Smith, Timothy W

    2017-05-01

    Individual differences in attentional control involve the ability to voluntarily direct, shift, and sustain attention. In studies of the role of attentional control in emotional adjustment, social relationships, and vulnerability to the effects of stress, self-report questionnaires are commonly used to measure this construct. Yet, convincing evidence of the association between self-report scales and actual cognitive performance has not been demonstrated. Across 2 independent samples, we examined associations between self-reported attentional control (Attentional Control Scale; ACS), self-reported emotional adjustment, Five-Factor Model personality traits (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) and performance measures of attentional control. Study 1 examined behavioral performance on the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002) and the Modified Switching Task (MST; Suchy & Kosson, 2006) in a large sample (n = 315) of healthy young adults. Study 2 (n = 78) examined behavioral performance on standardized neuropsychological tests of attention, including Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II and subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Third Edition (WAIS-III; Psychological Corporation, 1997) and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). Results indicated that the ACS was largely unrelated to behavioral performance measures of attentional control but was significantly associated with emotional adjustment, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. These findings suggest that although self-reported attentional control may be a useful construct, researchers using the ACS should exercise caution in interpreting it as a proxy for actual cognitive ability or performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Patterns of Change in Collaboration Are Associated with Baseline Characteristics and Predict Outcome and Dropout Rates in Treatment of Multi-Problem Families. A Validation Study

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    Egon Bachler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study validates the Multi-Problem Family (MPF-Collaboration Scale, which measures the progress of goal directed collaboration of patients in the treatment of families with MPF and its relation to drop-out rates and treatment outcome.Method: Naturalistic study of symptom and competence-related changes in children of ages 4–18 and their caregivers.Setting: Integrative, structural outreach family therapy.Measures: The data of five different groups of goal directed collaboration (deteriorating collaboration, stable low collaboration, stable medium collaboration, stable high collaboration, improving collaboration were analyzed in their relation to treatment expectation, individual therapeutic goals (ITG, family adversity index, severity of problems and global assessment of a caregiver’s functioning, child, and relational aspects.Results: From N = 810 families, 20% displayed stable high collaboration (n = 162 and 21% had a pattern of improving collaboration. The families with stable high or improving collaboration rates achieved significantly more progress throughout therapy in terms of treatment outcome expectancy (d = 0.96; r = 0.43, reaching ITG (d = 1.17; r = 0.50, family adversities (d = 0.55; r = 0.26, and severity of psychiatric symptoms (d = 0.31; r = 0.15. Furthermore, families with stable high or improving collaboration maintained longer treatments and had a bigger chance of finishing the therapy as planned. The odds of having a stable low or deteriorating collaboration throughout treatment were significantly higher for subjects who started treatment with low treatment expectation or high family-related adversities.Conclusion: The positive outcomes of homebased interventions for multi-problem families are closely related to “stable high” and an “improving” collaboration as measured with the MPF-Collaboration Scale. Patients who fall into these groups have a high treatment outcome expectancy and reduce

  6. PRODUCTIVE PROGRESS IN A GOAT PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION, "CAPRINOCULTORES UNIDOS DE GUANAJUATO AC", THROUGH A TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEM GGAVATT (LIVESTOCK VALIDATION AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER GROUP (2001-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Oliveros-Oliveros

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of technology adoption on milk goat producers in central México. The association has 13 producers, with an average age 41.5 years old, the average schooling reaches junior high school (3rd year, and  a mean of 6 dependants per family. This association has an average number of 246 female goats per herd, a total of 3447 females, and 2190 females in production control. The income in relation to investment is 36%. Technological practices implemented to date and the percentage of use are: Weighing milk (100%, Animal Nutrition consulting (71%, Estrus synchronization and reproductive management techniques (40%, Gestation Diagnosis (93%, Brucellosis control herd program (100%, Artificial kids raising in slat (46%, Disease diagnosis and management (61%, Certification of good milking practice (53%, Linear and genetics evaluation (87% Evaluation of genetic records ( 61%, Forage  conservation by silage (93%, Milk components analysis (100%, dispersion of genetic material (71%, Analysis and data processing for replacement selection and animal sale (Sire and females(100%, Bacteriological analysis of milk (93%, Cryoscopic point of milk (100%, and Diagnosis of subclinical mastitis (cytometryc flow (100%. An 80% of the producers have adopted different practices, and the association has promoted and implemented different programs such as: control milk production, milk quality, genealogical records, disease control, marketing in group, sales of fluid milk and dehydration of milk for conservation and sale. Accordingly to such practices, results are as follows: 11,180 kids born, from which 52% were females and 48% males, with 56.9%, 24.3%, 15.7% and 2.9% of double, triple, simple and quadruple births, respectively. The mean birth weight was 3.32 kg and 15.7 kg weaning at 60 days, with a daily gain weight (DGW of 206.33 g. For milk production, 3534 lactations were analyzed from 1999 to 2007 in a 90.4% of animals

  7. Construct Validity and Case Validity in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both "construct validity", which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and "case validity", which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is…

  8. Validation of sputum Gram stain for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and healthcare-associated pneumonia: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hajime; Yamashiro, Shin; Kinjo, Kiyoshi; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Kishaba, Tomoo

    2014-10-18

    The usefulness of sputum Gram stain in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is controversial. There has been no study to evaluate the diagnostic value of this method in patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of sputum Gram stain in etiological diagnosis and pathogen-targeted antibiotic treatment of CAP and HCAP. We conducted a prospective observational study on hospitalized patients with pneumonia admitted to our hospital from August 2010 to July 2012. Before administering antibiotics on admission, Gram stain was performed and examined by trained physicians immediately after sputum samples were obtained. We analyzed the quality of sputum samples and the diagnostic performance of Gram stain. We also compared pathogen-targeted antibiotic treatment guided by sputum Gram stain with empirical treatment. Of 670 patients with pneumonia, 328 were CAP and 342 were HCAP. Sputum samples were obtained from 591 patients, of these 478 samples were good quality. The sensitivity and specificity of sputum Gram stain were 62.5% and 91.5% for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 60.9% and 95.1% for Haemophilus influenzae, 68.2% and 96.1% for Moraxella catarrhalis, 39.5% and 98.2% for Klebsiella pneumoniae, 22.2% and 99.8% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 9.1% and 100% for Staphylococcus aureus. The diagnostic yield decreased in patients who had received antibiotics or patients with suspected aspiration pneumonia. Pathogen-targeted treatment provided similar efficacy with a decrease in adverse events compared to empirical treatment. Sputum Gram stain is highly specific for the etiologic diagnosis and useful in guiding pathogen-targeted antibiotic treatment of CAP and HCAP.

  9. Validity of partial protocols to assess the prevalence of periodontal outcomes and associated sociodemographic and behavior factors in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Marco A; Peres, Karen G; Cascaes, Andreia M; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio F; Hallal, Pedro C; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Menezes, Ana B

    2012-03-01

    Most studies comparing prevalence of periodontal disease and risk factors by using partial protocols were performed in adult populations, with several studies being conducted in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of partial protocols in estimating the prevalence of periodontal outcomes in adolescents and young adults from two population-based birth cohorts from Pelotas, Brazil, and to assess differences in the estimation and strength of the effect measures when partial protocols are adopted compared to full-mouth examination. Gingival bleeding at probing among adolescents (n = 339) and young adults (n = 720) and dental calculus and periodontal probing depth among young adults were assessed using full-mouth examinations and four partial protocols: Ramfjord teeth (RT), community periodontal index (CPI), and two random diagonal quadrants (1 and 3, 2 and 4). Socioeconomic, demographic, and periodontal health-related variables were also collected. Sensitivity, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratio for each periodontal outcome for the risk factors was estimated. Two diagonal quadrants showed better accuracy; RT had the worst, whereas CPI presented an intermediate pattern when compared to full-mouth examination. For bleeding assessment in adolescence, RT and CPI underestimated by 18.4% and 16.2%, respectively, the true outcome prevalence, whereas among young adults, all partial protocols underestimated the prevalence. All partial protocols presented similar magnitude of association measures for all investigated periodontal potential risk factors. Two diagonal quadrants protocol may be effective in identifying the risk factors for the most relevant periodontal outcomes in adolescence and in young adulthood.

  10. Prospective validation of American Diabetes Association risk tool for predicting pre-diabetes and diabetes in Taiwan-Taichung community health study.

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    Chia-Ing Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A simple diabetes risk tool that does not require laboratory tests would be beneficial in screening individuals at higher risk. Few studies have evaluated the ability of these tools to identify new cases of pre-diabetes. This study aimed to assess the ability of the American Diabetes Association Risk Tool (ADART to predict the 3-year incidence of pre-diabetes and diabetes in Taiwanese. METHODS: This was a 3-year prospective study of 1021 residents with normoglycemia at baseline, gathered from a random sample of residents aged 40-88 years in a metropolitan city in Taiwan. The areas under the curve (AUCs of three models were compared: ADART only, ADART plus lifestyle behaviors at baseline, and ADART plus lifestyle behaviors and biomarkers at baseline. The performance of ADART was compared with that of 16 tools that had been reported in the literature. RESULTS: The AUCs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 0.60 (0.54-0.66 for men and 0.72 (0.66-0.77 for women in model 1; 0.62 (0.56-0.68 for men and 0.74 (0.68-0.80 for women in model 2; and 0.64 (0.58-0.71 for men and 0.75 (0.69-0.80 for women in model 3. The AUCs of these three models were all above 0.7 in women, but not in men. No significant difference in either women or men (p = 0.268 and 0.156, respectively was observed in the AUC of these three models. Compared to 16 tools published in the literature, ADART had the second largest AUC in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: ADART is a good screening tool for predicting the three-year incidence of pre-diabetes and diabetes in females of a Taiwanese population. The performance of ADART in men was similar to the results with other tools published in the literature. Its performance was one of the best among the tools reported in the literature.

  11. [Discriminatory validity and association of the mini-mental test (MMSE) and the memory alteration test (M@T) with a neuropsychological battery in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, L; Bosch, B; Valls-Pedret, C; Caprile, C; Sánchez-Valle Díaz, R; Molinuevo, J L

    To establish the discriminatory validity of the mini-mental test (MMSE) and the memory alteration test (M@T) for the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), and also to study the association between the results obtained in screening tests, a neuropsychological battery and a functional questionnaire in healthy persons and in patients with aMCI and AD. We evaluated 27 normal controls, 27 patients with aMCI and 35 patients with AD using the MMSE and a memory screening test, the M@T, a neuropsychological battery and a questionnaire on functional activities of daily living. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relations between the scores on the M@T and the MMSE and the neuropsychological tests. The area below the curve, the sensitivity and the specificity were calculated for the screening tests. In patients with aMCI, the scores on the M@T and the MMSE were strongly associated with the performance in the episodic memory tests in frontal tests and with the scores on the functional questionnaire, but not with tests that evaluated praxias and perceptive functions. In patients with AD, the scores on the M@T and the MMSE were associated with results in semantic memory, language, executive functions and praxias, but not with perceptive tests and functional questionnaires. In patients with aMCI and AD, the association between MMSE and M@T only correlate with some cognitive functions, without there being any association with other cognitive functions. Therefore, screening tests cannot be used as the only instrument for evaluating the cognitive status in patients with suspected dementia.

  12. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Induces Hepatic Steatosis by Enhancing the Expression of Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Li; Peng, Xian-E; Zhu, Yi-Bing; Yan, Xiao-Li; Chen, Wan-Nan; Lin, Xu

    2016-02-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been implicated as a potential trigger of hepatic steatosis although molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HBV-associated hepatic steatosis still remain elusive. Our prior work has revealed that the expression level of liver fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1), a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was elevated in HBV-producing hepatoma cells. In this study, the effects of HBV X protein (HBx) mediated FABP1 regulation on hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanism were determined. mRNA and protein levels of FABP1 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. HBx-mediated FABP1 regulation was evaluated by luciferase assay, coimmunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Hepatic lipid accumulation was measured by using Oil-Red-O staining and the triglyceride level. It was found that expression of FABP1 was increased in HBV-producing hepatoma cells, the sera of HBV-infected patients, and the sera and liver tissues of HBV-transgenic mice. Ectopic overexpression of HBx resulted in upregulation of FABP1 in HBx-expressing hepatoma cells, whereas HBx abolishment reduced FABP1 expression. Mechanistically, HBx activated the FABP1 promoter in an HNF3β-, C/EBPα-, and PPARα-dependent manner, in which HBx increased the gene expression of HNF3β and physically interacted with C/EBPα and PPARα. On the other hand, knockdown of FABP1 remarkably blocked lipid accumulation both in long-chain free fatty acids treated HBx-expressing HepG2 cells and in a high-fat diet-fed HBx-transgenic mice. Therefore, FABP1 is a key driver gene in HBx-induced hepatic lipid accumulation via regulation of HNF3β, C/EBPα, and PPARα. FABP1 may represent a novel target for treatment of HBV-associated hepatic steatosis. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has indicated that chronic HBV infection is associated with hepatic steatosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying HBV

  13. Validation: an overview of definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    1995-01-01

    The term validation is featured prominently in the literature on radioactive high-level waste disposal and is generally understood to be related to model testing using experiments. In a first class, validation is linked to the goal of predicting the physical world as faithfully as possible but is unattainable and unsuitable for setting goals for the safety analyses. In a second class, validation is associated to split-sampling or to blind-tests predictions. In the third class of definition, validation focuses on the quality of the decision-making process. Most prominent in the present review is the observed lack of use of the term validation in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal. The continued informal use of the term validation in the field of high level wastes disposals can become cause for misperceptions and endless speculations. The paper proposes either abandoning the use of this term or agreeing to a definition which would be common to all. (J.S.). 29 refs

  14. Validade da hipertensão autorreferida associa-se inversamente com escolaridade em brasileiros Validity of self-reported hypertension is inversely associated with the level of education in Brazilian individuals

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    Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro Selem

    2012-01-01

    .BACKGROUND: Self-reported hypertension is an important piece of information for public health that is available in epidemiological studies. For proper use of this information, such studies should be validated. OBJECTIVE: To validate self-reported hypertension and associated factors in adults and elderly individuals in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Participants were selected from the sample of a population-based cross-sectional health survey carried out in São Paulo (ISA Capital-2008. Their age was 20 years or older, they were from both genders, and had their blood pressure measured (n = 535. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg and/or use of medication for hypertension. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Poisson regression was used to identify factors associated with sensitivity of self-reported hypertension. RESULTS: Sensitivity of self-reported hypertension was 71.1% (95%CI: 64.8 to 76.9, specificity 80.5% (95%CI: 75.6 to 84.8, PPV 73.7% (95%CI: 67.4 to 79.3, and NPV 78.5% (95%CI: 73.5 to 82.9. There was moderate agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension as diagnosed by blood pressure measurement (kappa = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.45 to 0.59. Body mass index and level of education were independently associated with sensitivity (body mass index > 25 kg/m²: PR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.76; schooling > 9 years: PR = 0.71 95%CI: 0.54-0.94. CONCLUSION: Self-reported hypertension was shown to be valid in adults and the elderly in the city of São Paulo, and is thus an appropriate indicator for the surveillance of hypertension prevalence in the absence of blood pressure measurement. Overweight was positively associated with validity of self-reported hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the inverse association between the validity of self-reported hypertension and level of education.

  15. Validade da hipertensão autorreferida associa-se inversamente com escolaridade em brasileiros Validity of self-reported hypertension is inversely associated with the level of education in Brazilian individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro Selem

    2013-01-01

    .BACKGROUND: Self-reported hypertension is an important piece of information for public health that is available in epidemiological studies. For proper use of this information, such studies should be validated. OBJECTIVE: To validate self-reported hypertension and associated factors in adults and elderly individuals in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Participants were selected from the sample of a population-based cross-sectional health survey carried out in São Paulo (ISA Capital-2008. Their age was 20 years or older, they were from both genders, and had their blood pressure measured (n = 535. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg and/or use of medication for hypertension. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Poisson regression was used to identify factors associated with sensitivity of self-reported hypertension. RESULTS: Sensitivity of self-reported hypertension was 71.1% (95%CI: 64.8 to 76.9, specificity 80.5% (95%CI: 75.6 to 84.8, PPV 73.7% (95%CI: 67.4 to 79.3, and NPV 78.5% (95%CI: 73.5 to 82.9. There was moderate agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension as diagnosed by blood pressure measurement (kappa = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.45 to 0.59. Body mass index and level of education were independently associated with sensitivity (body mass index > 25 kg/m²: PR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.76; schooling > 9 years: PR = 0.71 95%CI: 0.54-0.94. CONCLUSION: Self-reported hypertension was shown to be valid in adults and the elderly in the city of São Paulo, and is thus an appropriate indicator for the surveillance of hypertension prevalence in the absence of blood pressure measurement. Overweight was positively associated with validity of self-reported hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the inverse association between the validity of self-reported hypertension and level of education.

  16. Quality data validation: Comprehensive approach to environmental data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejka, L.A. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental data validation consists of an assessment of three major areas: analytical method validation; field procedures and documentation review; evaluation of the level of achievement of data quality objectives based in part on PARCC parameters analysis and expected applications of data. A program utilizing matrix association of required levels of validation effort and analytical levels versus applications of this environmental data was developed in conjunction with DOE-ID guidance documents to implement actions under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order in effect at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This was an effort to bring consistent quality to the INEL-wide Environmental Restoration Program and database in an efficient and cost-effective manner. This program, documenting all phases of the review process, is described here

  17. Lesson 6: Signature Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checklist items 13 through 17 are grouped under the Signature Validation Process, and represent CROMERR requirements that the system must satisfy as part of ensuring that electronic signatures it receives are valid.

  18. Validation of the Classroom Behavior Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Dale; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Factor-analytic methods were used toassess contruct validity of the Classroom Behavior Inventory, a scale for rating behaviors associated with hyperactivity. The Classroom Behavior Inventory measures three dimensions of behavior: Hyperactivity, Hostility, and Sociability. Significant concurrent validity was obtained for only one Classroom Behavior…

  19. Terminology, Emphasis, and Utility in Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Lissitz and Samuelsen (2007) have proposed an operational definition of "validity" that shifts many of the questions traditionally considered under validity to a separate category associated with the utility of test use. Operational definitions support inferences about how well people perform some kind of task or how they respond to some kind of…

  20. Simultaneous validation of the Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor by the British Hypertension Society and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/the International Organization for Standardization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhua; Wang, Yun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor by the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)/the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocols. A total of 85 participants were included for evaluation based on the requirements of the BHS and the AAMI/ISO protocols. The validation procedure and data analysis followed the protocols precisely. The device achieved A/A grading for the BHS protocol and maintained A/A grading throughout the low, medium and high blood pressure ranges. The device also fulfilled the requirement of the AAMI/ISO protocol with device-observer differences of -0.9±5.6 and 0.8±5.2 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, for criterion 1, and -0.9±4.7 and 0.8±4.2 mmHg, respectively, for criterion 2. The Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor achieved A/A grade of the BHS protocol and passed the requirements of the AAMI/ISO protocol in adults.

  1. Principles of Proper Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    to suffer from the same deficiencies. The PPV are universal and can be applied to all situations in which the assessment of performance is desired: prediction-, classification-, time series forecasting-, modeling validation. The key element of PPV is the Theory of Sampling (TOS), which allow insight......) is critically necessary for the inclusion of the sampling errors incurred in all 'future' situations in which the validated model must perform. Logically, therefore, all one data set re-sampling approaches for validation, especially cross-validation and leverage-corrected validation, should be terminated...

  2. Identification of BRCA1-like triple-negative breast cancers by quantitative multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of BRCA1-associated chromosomal regions: a validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Eva; Tinteren, Harm van; Li, Zhou; Raab, Sandra; Meul, Christina; Avril, Stefanie; Laddach, Nadja; Aubele, Michaela; Propping, Corinna; Gkazepis, Apostolos; Schmitt, Manfred; Meindl, Alfons; Nederlof, Petra M.; Kiechle, Marion; Lips, Esther H.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with a BRCA1-like molecular signature has been demonstrated to remarkably respond to platinum-based chemotherapy and might be suited for a future treatment with poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. In order to rapidly assess this signature we have previously developed a multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA)-based assay. Here we present an independent validation of this assay to confirm its important clinical impact. One-hundred-forty-four TNBC tumor specimens were analysed by the MLPA-based “BRCA1-like” test. Classification into BRCA1-like vs. non-BRCA1-like samples was performed by our formerly established nearest shrunken centroids classifier. Data were subsequently compared with the BRCA1-mutation/methylation status of the samples. T-lymphocyte infiltration and expression of the main target of PARP inhibitors, PARP1, were assessed on a subset of samples by immunohistochemistry. Data acquisition and interpretation was performed in a blinded manner. In the studied TNBC cohort, 63 out of 144 (44 %) tumors were classified into the BRCA1-like category. Among these, the MLPA test correctly predicted 15 out of 18 (83 %) samples with a pathogenic BRCA1-mutation and 20 of 22 (91 %) samples exhibiting BRCA1-promoter methylation. Five false-negative samples were observed. We identified high lymphocyte infiltration as one possible basis for misclassification. However, two falsely classified BRCA1-mutated tumors were also characterized by rather non-BRCA1-associated histopathological features such as borderline ER expression. The BRCA1-like vs. non-BRCA1-like signature was specifically enriched in high-grade (G3) cancers (90 % vs. 58 %, p = 0.0004) and was also frequent in tumors with strong (3+) nuclear PARP1 expression (37 % vs. 16 %; p = 0.087). This validation study confirmed the good performance of the initial MLPA assay which might thus serve as a valuable tool to select patients for platinum

  3. Validity evidence based on test content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen; Faulkner-Bond, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Validity evidence based on test content is one of the five forms of validity evidence stipulated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing developed by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education. In this paper, we describe the logic and theory underlying such evidence and describe traditional and modern methods for gathering and analyzing content validity data. A comprehensive review of the literature and of the aforementioned Standards is presented. For educational tests and other assessments targeting knowledge and skill possessed by examinees, validity evidence based on test content is necessary for building a validity argument to support the use of a test for a particular purpose. By following the methods described in this article, practitioners have a wide arsenal of tools available for determining how well the content of an assessment is congruent with and appropriate for the specific testing purposes.

  4. Bias factors associated with assessing the validity of university teaching: a hierarchical linear model Factores de sesgo asociados a la validez de la evaluación docente universitaria: un modelo jerárquico lineal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raciel Acevedo Alvarez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the variables that are intrinsically linked with the student, professor and class environment in relation to the university educational evaluation questionnaires. The participants in the study were 374 students with an age mean of 19.9 and 29 professors with an age mean of 36 from 3 different departments at the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR at the city of Guanacaste. The hierarchical lineal models were used for the data analysis, a quantitative methodology which facilitates the evaluation of the determinants which affect the results of the study. However, only four of these determinants were associated with the evaluation concerned, class size, enrolment year, department type and forecasted achievement levels. The results obtained from the study demonstrate that these kinds of evaluation are valid despite the results being slightly affected by a range of factors from externalities to teacher competence. El presente estudio analiza las variables del estudiante, la clase y el profesor asociadas con el sesgo en los cuestionarios aplicados a los estudiantes en la evaluación docente universitaria. En la propuesta han participado 374 estudiantes y 29 profesores de tres departamentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR, sede de Guanacaste, con una media de edad de 19.9 para los estudiantes y de 36 años los profesores. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizaron los modelos jerárquicos lineales, una metodología cuantitativa, cuyas estimaciones permitieron comprobar que de todos los determinantes incluidos en el estudio, solamente, cuatro de ellos (número de estudiantes en el curso, cantidad de años en la institución, tipo de departamento al que pertenece el estudiante y expectativa de nota estaban ligeramente asociados a este tipo de evaluación. Los resultados demuestran que estas evaluaciones son válidas y se ven poco afectadas por los elementos externos a la competencia docente.

  5. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco Lub

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate), the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of con...

  6. Validation of HEDR models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Eslinger, P.W.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Thiede, M.E.; Walters, W.H.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computer models for estimating the possible radiation doses that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the validation of these models. In the HEDR Project, the model validation exercise consisted of comparing computational model estimates with limited historical field measurements and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the models. The results of any one test do not mean that a model is valid. Rather, the collection of tests together provide a level of confidence that the HEDR models are valid

  7. Validation of simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Muniza; Pedersen, Stig Andur

    2012-01-01

    In philosophy of science, the interest for computational models and simulations has increased heavily during the past decades. Different positions regarding the validity of models have emerged but the views have not succeeded in capturing the diversity of validation methods. The wide variety...

  8. Validation of Multilevel Constructs: Validation Methods and Empirical Findings for the EDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forer, Barry; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to highlight the foundations of multilevel construct validation, describe two methodological approaches and associated analytic techniques, and then apply these approaches and techniques to the multilevel construct validation of a widely-used school readiness measure called the Early Development Instrument (EDI;…

  9. Simultaneous validation of the SunTech CT40 automated blood pressure measurement device by the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/International Organization for Standardization 81060-2: 2013 standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo Friz, Hernan; Punzi, Veronica; Petri, Francesco; Orlandi, Riccardo; Maggiolini, Daniele; Polo Friz, Melisa; Primitz, Laura; Vighi, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to perform a simultaneous, third-party, independent validation of the oscillometric SunTech CT40 device for blood pressure (BP) measurement, according to the 1993 protocol of the British Hypertension Society and the standard of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)/the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 81060-2:2013. Patient recruitment, study procedures, and data analysis followed the recommendations stated by the protocols. The study was approved by the institutional review board. A total of 94 participants were included, 52 (55.3%) women, mean±SD age: 63.1±18.0 years, mean±SD arm circumference: 35.0±9.0 cm. The average of observers' entry BPs was 146.9±37.2 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 82.2±22.1 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Differences between the standard measurement and the test device within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, for the better observer, were 79.4, 96.5, and 100.0% for SBP and 82.6, 97.5, and 100.0% for DBP, respectively. The mean±SD differences between the readings obtained using the test device and those obtained by the observers (AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard criterion 1) were 0.3±5.0 mmHg (SBP) and -0.8±4.3 mmHg (DBP), and the mean±SD differences between average of reference readings and average of test device readings in each patient (criterion 2) were 0.3±3.9 and -0.8±3.5 mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively. The CT40 BP device achieved A/A grade of the British Hypertension Society protocol and fulfilled the requirements (criteria 1 and 2) of the AAMI/ISO standard. CT40 can be recommended for BP measurement in adults.

  10. A validation study of the 2003 American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology and 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association risk stratification and treatment algorithms for sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Constantinos; Tome-Esteban, Maite; Lambiase, Pier D; Pantazis, Antonios; Dickie, Shaughan; McKenna, William J; Elliott, Perry M

    2013-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a common mode of death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but identification of patients who are at a high risk of SCD is challenging as current risk stratification guidelines have never been formally validated. The objective of this study was to assess the power of the 2003 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and 2011 ACC Foundation (ACCF)/American Heart Association (AHA) SCD risk stratification algorithms to distinguish high risk patients who might be eligible for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) from low risk individuals. We studied 1606 consecutively evaluated HCM patients in an observational, retrospective cohort study. Five risk factors (RF) for SCD were assessed: non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, severe left ventricular hypertrophy, family history of SCD, unexplained syncope and abnormal blood pressure response to exercise. During a follow-up period of 11 712 patient years (median 6.6 years), SCD/appropriate ICD shock occurred in 20 (3%) of 660 patients without RF (annual rate 0.45%), 31 (4.8%) of 636 patients with 1 RF (annual rate 0.65%), 27 (10.8%) of 249 patients with 2 RF (annual rate 1.3%), 7 (13.7%) of 51 patients with 3 RF (annual rate 1.9%) and 4 (40%) of 10 patients with ≥4 RF (annual rate 5.0%). The risk of SCD increased with multiple RF (2 RF: HR 2.87, p≤0.001; 3 RF: HR 4.32, p=0.001; ≥4 RF: HR 11.37, p<0.0001), but not with a single RF (HR 1.43 p=0.21). The area under time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves (representing the probability of correctly identifying a patient at risk of SCD on the basis of RF profile) was 0.63 at 1 year and 0.64 at 5 years for the 2003 ACC/ESC algorithm and 0.61 at 1 year and 0.63 at 5 years for the 2011 ACCF/AHA algorithm. The risk of SCD increases with the aggregation of RF. The 2003 ACC/ESC and 2011 ACCF/AHA guidelines distinguish high from low risk individuals with limited power.

  11. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Lub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate, the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of connecting them with aspects of evaluation in social policy. It argues that different purposes of qualitative evaluations can be linked with different scientific paradigms and perspectives, thus transcending unproductive paradigmatic divisions as well as providing a flexible yet rigorous validity framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative evaluations.

  12. Cross validation in LULOO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1996-01-01

    The leave-one-out cross-validation scheme for generalization assessment of neural network models is computationally expensive due to replicated training sessions. Linear unlearning of examples has recently been suggested as an approach to approximative cross-validation. Here we briefly review...... the linear unlearning scheme, dubbed LULOO, and we illustrate it on a systemidentification example. Further, we address the possibility of extracting confidence information (error bars) from the LULOO ensemble....

  13. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  14. Transient FDTD simulation validation

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregui Tellería, Ricardo; Riu Costa, Pere Joan; Silva Martínez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In computational electromagnetic simulations, most validation methods have been developed until now to be used in the frequency domain. However, the EMC analysis of the systems in the frequency domain many times is not enough to evaluate the immunity of current communication devices. Based on several studies, in this paper we propose an alternative method of validation of the transients in time domain allowing a rapid and objective quantification of the simulations results.

  15. HEDR model validation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Thiede, M.E.; Walters, W.H.

    1993-06-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computational ''tools'' for estimating the possible radiation dose that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the planned activities to ''validate'' these tools. In the sense of the HEDR Project, ''validation'' is a process carried out by comparing computational model predictions with field observations and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the model

  16. Verification and validation benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-01-01

    Verification and validation (V and V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V and V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V and V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the

  17. Verification and validation benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberkampf, William L.; Trucano, Timothy G.

    2008-01-01

    Verification and validation (V and V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V and V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V and V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the

  18. Validation suite for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, Russell D.

    2002-01-01

    Two validation suites, one for criticality and another for radiation shielding, have been defined and tested for the MCNP Monte Carlo code. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on experiments so that calculated and measured results can be compared in a meaningful way. The cases in the validation suites are described, and results from those cases are discussed. For several years, the distribution package for the MCNP Monte Carlo code1 has included an installation test suite to verify that MCNP has been installed correctly. However, the cases in that suite have been constructed primarily to test options within the code and to execute quickly. Consequently, they do not produce well-converged answers, and many of them are physically unrealistic. To remedy these deficiencies, sets of validation suites are being defined and tested for specific types of applications. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on benchmark experiments. Consequently, the results from the measurements are reliable and quantifiable, and calculated results can be compared with them in a meaningful way. Currently, validation suites exist for criticality and radiation-shielding applications.

  19. Estimating uncertainty of inference for validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

    2010-09-30

    We present a validation process based upon the concept that validation is an inference-making activity. This has always been true, but the association has not been as important before as it is now. Previously, theory had been confirmed by more data, and predictions were possible based on data. The process today is to infer from theory to code and from code to prediction, making the role of prediction somewhat automatic, and a machine function. Validation is defined as determining the degree to which a model and code is an accurate representation of experimental test data. Imbedded in validation is the intention to use the computer code to predict. To predict is to accept the conclusion that an observable final state will manifest; therefore, prediction is an inference whose goodness relies on the validity of the code. Quantifying the uncertainty of a prediction amounts to quantifying the uncertainty of validation, and this involves the characterization of uncertainties inherent in theory/models/codes and the corresponding data. An introduction to inference making and its associated uncertainty is provided as a foundation for the validation problem. A mathematical construction for estimating the uncertainty in the validation inference is then presented, including a possibility distribution constructed to represent the inference uncertainty for validation under uncertainty. The estimation of inference uncertainty for validation is illustrated using data and calculations from Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The ICF measurements of neutron yield and ion temperature were obtained for direct-drive inertial fusion capsules at the Omega laser facility. The glass capsules, containing the fusion gas, were systematically selected with the intent of establishing a reproducible baseline of high-yield 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} neutron output. The deuterium-tritium ratio in these experiments was varied to study its influence upon yield. This paper on validation inference is the

  20. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  1. Groundwater Model Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed E. Hassan

    2006-01-24

    Models have an inherent uncertainty. The difficulty in fully characterizing the subsurface environment makes uncertainty an integral component of groundwater flow and transport models, which dictates the need for continuous monitoring and improvement. Building and sustaining confidence in closure decisions and monitoring networks based on models of subsurface conditions require developing confidence in the models through an iterative process. The definition of model validation is postulated as a confidence building and long-term iterative process (Hassan, 2004a). Model validation should be viewed as a process not an end result. Following Hassan (2004b), an approach is proposed for the validation process of stochastic groundwater models. The approach is briefly summarized herein and detailed analyses of acceptance criteria for stochastic realizations and of using validation data to reduce input parameter uncertainty are presented and applied to two case studies. During the validation process for stochastic models, a question arises as to the sufficiency of the number of acceptable model realizations (in terms of conformity with validation data). Using a hierarchical approach to make this determination is proposed. This approach is based on computing five measures or metrics and following a decision tree to determine if a sufficient number of realizations attain satisfactory scores regarding how they represent the field data used for calibration (old) and used for validation (new). The first two of these measures are applied to hypothetical scenarios using the first case study and assuming field data consistent with the model or significantly different from the model results. In both cases it is shown how the two measures would lead to the appropriate decision about the model performance. Standard statistical tests are used to evaluate these measures with the results indicating they are appropriate measures for evaluating model realizations. The use of validation

  2. Validation of Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka van der Kooij

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of games for behavioral change has seen a surge in popularity but evidence on the efficacy of these games is contradictory. Anecdotal findings seem to confirm their motivational value whereas most quantitative findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT are negative or difficult to interpret. One cause for the contradictory evidence could be that the standard RCT validation methods are not sensitive to serious games’ effects. To be able to adapt validation methods to the properties of serious games we need a framework that can connect properties of serious game design to the factors that influence the quality of quantitative research outcomes. The Persuasive Game Design model [1] is particularly suitable for this aim as it encompasses the full circle from game design to behavioral change effects on the user. We therefore use this model to connect game design features, such as the gamification method and the intended transfer effect, to factors that determine the conclusion validity of an RCT. In this paper we will apply this model to develop guidelines for setting up validation methods for serious games. This way, we offer game designers and researchers handles on how to develop tailor-made validation methods.

  3. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...... of 38 checklist items. Empirical support was considered the most valid methodology for item inclusion. Assessment of methodological justification showed that none of the items were supported empirically. Other kinds of literature justified the inclusion of 22 of the items, and 17 items were included...

  4. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  5. Validating Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Atanasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I respond to the challenge raised against contemporary experimental neurobiology according to which the field is in a state of crisis because of the multiple experimental protocols employed in different laboratories and strengthening their reliability that presumably preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. I provide an alternative account of experimentation in neurobiology which makes sense of its experimental practices. I argue that maintaining a multiplicity of experimental protocols and strengthening their reliability are well justified and they foster rather than preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. Thus, their presence indicates thriving rather than crisis of experimental neurobiology.

  6. Validation Process Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, John E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); English, Christine M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gesick, Joshua C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mukkamala, Saikrishna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-04

    This report documents the validation process as applied to projects awarded through Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) within the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (DOE-BETO). It describes the procedures used to protect and verify project data, as well as the systematic framework used to evaluate and track performance metrics throughout the life of the project. This report also describes the procedures used to validate the proposed process design, cost data, analysis methodologies, and supporting documentation provided by the recipients.

  7. Computer system validation: an overview of official requirements and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, A; Kähny-Simonius, J; Plattner, M; Schmidli-Vckovski, V; Kronseder, C

    1998-02-01

    A brief overview of the relevant documents for companies in the pharmaceutical industry, which are to be taken into consideration to fulfil computer system validation requirements, is presented. We concentrate on official requirements and valid standards in the USA, European Community and Switzerland. There are basically three GMP-guidelines. their interpretations by the associations of interests like APV and PDA as well as the GAMP Suppliers Guide. However, the three GMP-guidelines imply the same philosophy about computer system validation. They describe more a what-to-do approach for validation, whereas the GAMP Suppliers Guide describes a how-to-do validation. Nevertheless, they do not contain major discrepancies.

  8. The dialogic validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper is inspired by dialogism and the title is a paraphrase on Bakhtin's (1981) "The Dialogic Imagination". The paper investigates how dialogism can inform the process of validating inquiry-based qualitative research. The paper stems from a case study on the role of recognition...

  9. A valid licence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    A valid licence Tuesday, April 20, 2010 Dr Hans Spoolder and Dr Paul Ingenbleek, of Wageningen University and Research Centres, share their thoughts on improving farm animal welfare in Europe At the presentation of the European Strategy 2020 on 3rd March, President Barroso emphasised the need for

  10. The Chimera of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Education policy over the past 40 years has focused on the importance of accountability in school improvement. Although much of the scholarly discourse around testing and assessment is technical and statistical, understanding of validity by a non-specialist audience is essential as long as test results drive our educational…

  11. Validating year 2000 compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); P. Klint (Paul); M.P.A. Sellink

    1997-01-01

    textabstractValidating year 2000 compliance involves the assessment of the correctness and quality of a year 2000 conversion. This entails inspecting both the quality of the conversion emph{process followed, and of the emph{result obtained, i.e., the converted system. This document provides an

  12. Validation and test report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Meldgaard; Andersen, T. Bull

    2012-01-01

    . As a consequence of extensive movement artefacts seen during dynamic contractions, the following validation and test report consists of a report that investigates the physiological responses to a static contraction in a standing and a supine position. Eight subjects performed static contractions of the ankle...

  13. Statistical Analysis and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Horvatovich, P.; Bischoff, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter guidelines are given for the selection of a few biomarker candidates from a large number of compounds with a relative low number of samples. The main concepts concerning the statistical validation of the search for biomarkers are discussed. These complicated methods and concepts are

  14. Validity and Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's critique on Xiaoming Xi's article, "How do we go about investigating test fairness?," which lays out a broad framework for studying fairness as comparable validity across groups within the population of interest. Xi proposes to develop a fairness argument that would identify and evaluate potential fairness-based…

  15. EOS Terra Validation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  16. Associations between reported intakes of carotenoid-rich foods and concentrations of carotenoids in plasma: a validation study of a web-based food recall for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Anine Christine; Carlsen, Monica Hauger; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-12-01

    To validate estimated intakes of carotenoid-rich foods from a web-based food recall (WebFR) using carotenoids in blood as an objective reference method. Cross-sectional validation study using carotenoids in plasma to evaluate estimated intakes of selected carotenoid-rich foods. Participants recorded their food intake in the WebFR and plasma concentrations of β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin were measured. Schools and homes of families in a suburb of the capital of Norway. A total of 261 participants in the age groups 8-9 and 12-14 years. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0·30 to 0·44, and cross-classification showed that 71·6-76·6 % of the participants were correctly classified, when comparing the reported intakes of carotenoid-rich foods and concentrations of the corresponding carotenoids in plasma, not including lutein and zeaxanthin. Correlations were acceptable and cross-classification analyses demonstrated that the WebFR was able to rank participants according to their reported intake of foods rich in α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. The WebFR is a promising tool for dietary assessment among children and adolescents.

  17. Carotenoid Intakes, Assessed by food frequency questionnaires are associated with serum carotenoid concentrations in the Jackson Heart Study: Validation of the Jackson Heart Study Delta NIRI Adult Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Intake and status of carotenoids have been associated with chronic disease. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between carotenoid intakes as measured by two regional food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and their corresponding measures in serum, and to report ...

  18. [Validation of the IBS-SSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, C; Mannsdörfer, K; Bischoff, S C

    2013-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by abdominal pain, associated with stool abnormalities and changes in stool consistency. Diagnosis of IBS is based on characteristic symptoms and exclusion of other gastrointestinal diseases. A number of questionnaires exist to assist diagnosis and assessment of severity of the disease. One of these is the irritable bowel syndrome - severity scoring system (IBS-SSS). The IBS-SSS was validated 1997 in its English version. In the present study, the IBS-SSS has been validated in German language. To do this, a cohort of 60 patients with IBS according to the Rome III criteria, was compared with a control group of healthy individuals (n = 38). We studied sensitivity and reproducibility of the score, as well as the sensitivity to detect changes of symptom severity. The results of the German validation largely reflect the results of the English validation. The German version of the IBS-SSS is also a valid, meaningful and reproducible questionnaire with a high sensitivity to assess changes in symptom severity, especially in IBS patients with moderate symptoms. It is unclear if the IBS-SSS is also a valid questionnaire in IBS patients with severe symptoms because this group of patients was not studied. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Flight code validation simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Brent A.

    1996-05-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which Inertial Measurement Unit data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System in January of 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  20. Software Validation in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, Mark; Seuster, Rolf; Simmons, Brinick; Sherwood, Peter; Rousseau, David

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration operates an extensive set of protocols to validate the quality of the offline software in a timely manner. This is essential in order to process the large amounts of data being collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 without complications on the offline software side. We will discuss a number of different strategies used to validate the ATLAS offline software; running the ATLAS framework software, Athena, in a variety of configurations daily on each nightly build via the ATLAS Nightly System (ATN) and Run Time Tester (RTT) systems; the monitoring of these tests and checking the compilation of the software via distributed teams of rotating shifters; monitoring of and follow up on bug reports by the shifter teams and periodic software cleaning weeks to improve the quality of the offline software further.

  1. CIPS Validation Data Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam Dinh

    2012-03-01

    This report documents analysis, findings and recommendations resulted from a task 'CIPS Validation Data Plan (VDP)' formulated as an POR4 activity in the CASL VUQ Focus Area (FA), to develop a Validation Data Plan (VDP) for Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) challenge problem, and provide guidance for the CIPS VDP implementation. The main reason and motivation for this task to be carried at this time in the VUQ FA is to bring together (i) knowledge of modern view and capability in VUQ, (ii) knowledge of physical processes that govern the CIPS, and (iii) knowledge of codes, models, and data available, used, potentially accessible, and/or being developed in CASL for CIPS prediction, to devise a practical VDP that effectively supports the CASL's mission in CIPS applications.

  2. CIPS Validation Data Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Nam

    2012-01-01

    This report documents analysis, findings and recommendations resulted from a task 'CIPS Validation Data Plan (VDP)' formulated as an POR4 activity in the CASL VUQ Focus Area (FA), to develop a Validation Data Plan (VDP) for Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) challenge problem, and provide guidance for the CIPS VDP implementation. The main reason and motivation for this task to be carried at this time in the VUQ FA is to bring together (i) knowledge of modern view and capability in VUQ, (ii) knowledge of physical processes that govern the CIPS, and (iii) knowledge of codes, models, and data available, used, potentially accessible, and/or being developed in CASL for CIPS prediction, to devise a practical VDP that effectively supports the CASL's mission in CIPS applications.

  3. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  4. Calibration, validation, and sensitivity analysis: What's what

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trucano, T.G.; Swiler, L.P.; Igusa, T.; Oberkampf, W.L.; Pilch, M.

    2006-01-01

    One very simple interpretation of calibration is to adjust a set of parameters associated with a computational science and engineering code so that the model agreement is maximized with respect to a set of experimental data. One very simple interpretation of validation is to quantify our belief in the predictive capability of a computational code through comparison with a set of experimental data. Uncertainty in both the data and the code are important and must be mathematically understood to correctly perform both calibration and validation. Sensitivity analysis, being an important methodology in uncertainty analysis, is thus important to both calibration and validation. In this paper, we intend to clarify the language just used and express some opinions on the associated issues. We will endeavor to identify some technical challenges that must be resolved for successful validation of a predictive modeling capability. One of these challenges is a formal description of a 'model discrepancy' term. Another challenge revolves around the general adaptation of abstract learning theory as a formalism that potentially encompasses both calibration and validation in the face of model uncertainty

  5. DDML Schema Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    XML schema govern DDML instance documents. For information about XML, refer to RCC 125-15, XML Style Guide.2 Figure 4 provides an XML snippet of a...we have documented three main types of information .  User Stories: A user story describes a specific requirement of the schema in the terms of a...instance document is a schema -valid XML file that completely describes the information in the test case in a manner that satisfies the user story

  6. What is validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Criteria for establishing the validity of a computational method to be used in assessing nuclear criticality safety, as set forth in ''American Standard for Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactors,'' ANSI/ANS-8.1-1983, are examined and discussed. Application of the criteria is illustrated by describing the procedures followed in deriving subcritical limits that have been incorporated in the Standard

  7. Validation of the 36-item version of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) for assessing women's disability and functioning associated with maternal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Carla; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Pacagnella, Rodolfo Carvalho; Andreucci, Carla Betina; Angelini, Carina Robles; Ferreira, Elton Carlos; Cecatti, José Guilherme

    2017-02-01

    Objective  To validate the translation and adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of 36 items from the World Health Organizaton Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), regarding their content and structure (construct), in a female population after pregnancy. Methods  This is a validation of an instrument for the evaluation of disability and functioning and an assessment of its psychometric properties, performed in a tertiary maternity and a referral center specialized in high-risk pregnancies in Brazil. A sample of 638 women in different postpartum periods who had either a normal or a complicated pregnancy was included. The structure was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), while the content and relationships among the domains were assessed through Pearson's correlation coefficient. The sociodemographic characteristics were identified, and the mean scores with their standard deviations for the 36 questions of the WHODAS 2.0 were calculated. The internal consistency was evaluated byCronbach's α. Results  Cronbach's α was higher than 0.79 for both sets of questons of the questionnaire. The EFA and CFA for the main 32 questions exhibited a total variance of 54.7% (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin [KMO] measure of sampling adequacy =  0.934; p  < 0.001) and 53.47% (KMO = 0.934; p  < 0.001) respectively. There was a significant correlation among the 6 domains (r = 0.571-0.876), and a moderate correlation among all domains (r = 0.476-0.694). Conclusion  The version of the WHODAS 2.0 instrument adapted to Brazilian Portuguese showed good psychometric properties in this sample, and therefore could be applied to populations of women regarding their reproductive history. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  8. Benchmarks for multidimensional recovery after burn injury in young adults: the development, validation, and testing of the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children young adult burn outcome questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Kazis, Lewis E; Lee, Austin; Li, Nien-Chen; Hinson, Michelle; Bauk, Helena; Peck, Michael; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2013-01-01

    Although data exist on burn survival, there are little data on long-term burn recovery. Patient-centered health outcomes are useful in monitoring and predicting recovery and evaluating treatments. An outcome questionnaire for young adult burn survivors was developed and tested. This 5-year (2003-2008) prospective, controlled, multicenter study included burned and nonburned adults ages 19 to 30 years. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaires were completed at initial contact, 10 days, and 6 and 12 months. Factor analysis established construct validity. Reliability assessments used Cronbach α and test-retest. Recovery patterns were investigated using generalized linear models, with generalized estimating equations using mixed models and random effects. Burned (n = 153) and nonburned subjects (n = 112) completed 620 questionnaires (47 items). Time from injury to first questionnaire administration was 157 ± 36 days (mean ± SEM). Factor analysis included 15 factors: Physical Function, Fine Motor Function, Pain, Itch, Social Function Limited by Physical Function, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Sexual Function, Emotion, Family Function, Family Concern, Satisfaction With Symptom Relief, Satisfaction With Role, Work Reintegration, and Religion. Cronbach α ranged from 0.72 to 0.92, with 11 scales >0.8. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.29 to 0.94, suggesting changes in underlying health status after burns. Recovery curves in five domains, Itch, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Family Concern, and Satisfaction with Symptom Relief, remained below the reference group at 24 months. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for multidimensional functional outcomes assessment. Recovery in some domains was incomplete.

  9. Validation of Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to explore the use of an activity-based approach to determine the validity of a set of housing standards addressing accessibility. This included examination of the frequency and the extent of accessibility problems among older people with physical functional limitations who used...... participant groups were examined. Performing well-known kitchen activities was associated with accessibility problems for all three participant groups, in particular those using a wheelchair. The overall validity of the housing standards examined was poor. Observing older people interacting with realistic...... environments while performing real everyday activities seems to be an appropriate method for assessing accessibility problems....

  10. Content validity and its estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmale F

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring content validity of instruments are important. This type of validity can help to ensure construct validity and give confidence to the readers and researchers about instruments. content validity refers to the degree that the instrument covers the content that it is supposed to measure. For content validity two judgments are necessary: the measurable extent of each item for defining the traits and the set of items that represents all aspects of the traits. Purpose: To develop a content valid scale for assessing experience with computer usage. Methods: First a review of 2 volumes of International Journal of Nursing Studies, was conducted with onlyI article out of 13 which documented content validity did so by a 4-point content validity index (CV! and the judgment of 3 experts. Then a scale with 38 items was developed. The experts were asked to rate each item based on relevance, clarity, simplicity and ambiguity on the four-point scale. Content Validity Index (CVI for each item was determined. Result: Of 38 items, those with CVIover 0.75 remained and the rest were discarded reSulting to 25-item scale. Conclusion: Although documenting content validity of an instrument may seem expensive in terms of time and human resources, its importance warrants greater attention when a valid assessment instrument is to be developed. Keywords: Content Validity, Measuring Content Validity

  11. Validering av Evolution 220

    OpenAIRE

    Krakeli, Tor-Arne

    2013-01-01

    - Det har blitt kjøpt inn et nytt spektrofotometer (Evolution 220, Thermo Scientific) til BioLab Nofima. I den forbindelsen har det blitt utført en validering som involverer kalibreringsstandarder fra produsenten og en test på normal distribusjon (t-test) på to metoder (Total fosfor, Tryptofan). Denne valideringen fant Evolution 220 til å være et akseptabelt alternativ til det allerede benyttede spektrofotometeret (Helios Beta). På bakgrunn av noen instrumentbegrensninger må de aktuelle an...

  12. A new O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase inhibitor associated with a nitrosourea (cystemustine) validates a strategy of melanoma-targeted therapy in murine B16 and human-resistant M4Beu melanoma xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Maryse; Maurizis, Jean C; Papon, Janine; Labarre, Pierre; Wu, Ting-Di; Croisy, Alain; Guerquin-Kern, Jean L; Madelmont, Jean C; Mounetou, Emmanuelle

    2008-07-01

    Chemoresistance to O(6)-alkylating agents is a major barrier to successful treatment of melanoma. It is mainly due to a DNA repair suicide protein, O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). Although AGT inactivation is a powerful clinical strategy for restoring tumor chemosensitivity, it was limited by increased toxicity to nontumoral cells resulting from a lack of tumor selectivity. Achieving enhanced chemosensitization via AGT inhibition preferably in the tumor should protect normal tissue. To this end, we have developed a strategy to target AGT inhibitors. In this study, we tested a new potential melanoma-directed AGT inhibitor [2-amino-6-(4-iodobenzyloxy)-9-[4-(diethylamino) ethylcarbamoylbenzyl] purine; IBgBZ] designed as a conjugate of O(6)-(4-iododbenzyl)guanine (IBg) as the AGT inactivator and a N,N-diethylaminoethylenebenzamido (BZ) moiety as the carrier to the malignant melanocytes. IBgBZ demonstrated AGT inactivation ability and potentiation of O(6)-alkylating agents (cystemustine, a chloroethylnitrosourea) in M4Beu highly chemoresistant human melanoma cells both in vitro and in tumor models. The biodisposition study on mice bearing B16 melanoma, the standard model for the evaluation of melanoma-directed agents, and the secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the concentration of IBgBZ in the tumor and in particular in the intracytoplasmic melanosomes. These results validate the potential of IBgBZ as a new, more tumor-selective, AGT inhibitor in a strategy of melanoma-targeted therapy.

  13. Psychometric Validation of the Parental Bonding Instrument in a U.K. Population-Based Sample: Role of Gender and Association With Mental Health in Mid-Late Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man K; Morin, Alexandre J S; Marsh, Herbert W; Richards, Marcus; Jones, Peter B

    2016-08-01

    The factorial structure of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) has been frequently studied in diverse samples but no study has examined its psychometric properties from large, population-based samples. In particular, important questions have not been addressed such as the measurement invariance properties across parental and offspring gender. We evaluated the PBI based on responses from a large, representative population-based sample, using an exploratory structural equation modeling method appropriate for categorical data. Analysis revealed a three-factor structure representing "care," "overprotection," and "autonomy" parenting styles. In terms of psychometric measurement validity, our results supported the complete invariance of the PBI ratings across sons and daughters for their mothers and fathers. The PBI ratings were also robust in relation to personality and mental health status. In terms of predictive value, paternal care showed a protective effect on mental health at age 43 in sons. The PBI is a sound instrument for capturing perceived parenting styles, and is predictive of mental health in middle adulthood. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Simulation Validation for Societal Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yahja, Alex

    2006-01-01

    .... There are however, substantial obstacles to validation. The nature of modeling means that there are implicit model assumptions, a complex model space and interactions, emergent behaviors, and uncodified and inoperable simulation and validation knowledge...

  15. Identification, validation, and clinical implementation of tumor-associated biomarkers to improve therapy concepts, survival, and quality of life of cancer patients: tasks of the Receptor and Biomarker Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.; Harbeck, N.; Daidone, M.G.; Brynner, N.; Duffy, M.J.; Foekens, J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Guiding principles are provided and discussed on how to inform the physician scientist and cancer researcher about quality control systems to enable a consistent assessment of the clinical value of tumor-associated biomarkers. Next to cancer research itself, the Receptor and Biomarker Group of the

  16. Model validation: a systemic and systematic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.; Elzas, M.S.; Cronhjort, B.T.

    1993-01-01

    The term 'validation' is used ubiquitously in association with the modelling activities of numerous disciplines including social, political natural, physical sciences, and engineering. There is however, a wide range of definitions which give rise to very different interpretations of what activities the process involves. Analyses of results from the present large international effort in modelling radioactive waste disposal systems illustrate the urgent need to develop a common approach to model validation. Some possible explanations are offered to account for the present state of affairs. The methodology developed treats model validation and code verification in a systematic fashion. In fact, this approach may be regarded as a comprehensive framework to assess the adequacy of any simulation study. (author)

  17. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up rate...... of 73.4%). At baseline, children (12-59 mo old) were examined with the ICDAS and a caries activity assessment system. The predictive validity was assessed by evaluating the risk of active caries lesion progression to more severe conditions in the follow-up, compared with inactive lesions. We also...... assessed if children with a higher number of active caries lesions were more likely to develop new lesions (construct validity). Noncavitated active caries lesions at occlusal surfaces presented higher risk of progression than inactive ones. Children with a higher number of active lesions and with higher...

  18. Audit Validation Using Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements to increase quality audit processes in enterprises are defined. It substantiates the need for assessment and management audit processes using ontologies. Sets of rules, ways to assess the consistency of rules and behavior within the organization are defined. Using ontologies are obtained qualifications that assess the organization's audit. Elaboration of the audit reports is a perfect algorithm-based activity characterized by generality, determinism, reproducibility, accuracy and a well-established. The auditors obtain effective levels. Through ontologies obtain the audit calculated level. Because the audit report is qualitative structure of information and knowledge it is very hard to analyze and interpret by different groups of users (shareholders, managers or stakeholders. Developing ontology for audit reports validation will be a useful instrument for both auditors and report users. In this paper we propose an instrument for validation of audit reports contain a lot of keywords that calculates indicators, a lot of indicators for each key word there is an indicator, qualitative levels; interpreter who builds a table of indicators, levels of actual and calculated levels.

  19. Validation of thermalhydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Thermalhydraulic codes require to be validated against experimental data collected over a wide range of situations if they are to be relied upon. A good example is provided by the nuclear industry where codes are used for safety studies and for determining operating conditions. Errors in the codes could lead to financial penalties, to the incorrect estimation of the consequences of accidents and even to the accidents themselves. Comparison between prediction and experiment is often described qualitatively or in approximate terms, e.g. ''agreement is within 10%''. A quantitative method is preferable, especially when several competing codes are available. The codes can then be ranked in order of merit. Such a method is described. (Author)

  20. Testing the Predictive Validity of the Healthy Eating Index-2015 in the Multiethnic Cohort: Is the Score Associated with a Reduced Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Chloe E; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Harmon, Brook E; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loic; Haiman, Christopher; Reedy, Jill; Boushey, Carol J

    2018-04-05

    The Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) was created to assess conformance of dietary intake with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) 2015-2020. We assessed the association between the HEI-2015 and mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). White, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, and Latino adults ( n > 215,000) from Hawaii and California completed a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire at study enrollment. HEI-2015 scores were divided into quintiles for men and women. Radar graphs were used to demonstrate how dietary components contributed to HEI-2015 scores. Mortality was documented over 17-22 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using Cox proportional hazards models. High HEI-2015 scores were inversely associated with risk of mortality from all-cause, CVD, and cancer for men and women ( p -trend <0.0001 for all models). For men, the HRs (CIs) for all-cause, CVD, and cancer comparing the highest to the lowest quintile were 0.79 (0.76, 0.82), 0.76 (0.71, 0.82), and 0.80 (0.75, 0.87), respectively. For women, the HRs were 0.79 (0.76, 0.82), 0.75 (0.70, 0.81), and 0.84 (0.78, 0.91), respectively. These results, in a multiethnic population, demonstrate that following a diet aligned with the DGAs 2015-2020 recommendations is associated with lower risk of mortality from all-cause, CVD, and cancer.

  1. Testing the Predictive Validity of the Healthy Eating Index-2015 in the Multiethnic Cohort: Is the Score Associated with a Reduced Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe E. Panizza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015 was created to assess conformance of dietary intake with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA 2015–2020. We assessed the association between the HEI-2015 and mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and cancer in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC. White, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, and Latino adults (n > 215,000 from Hawaii and California completed a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire at study enrollment. HEI-2015 scores were divided into quintiles for men and women. Radar graphs were used to demonstrate how dietary components contributed to HEI-2015 scores. Mortality was documented over 17–22 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were computed using Cox proportional hazards models. High HEI-2015 scores were inversely associated with risk of mortality from all-cause, CVD, and cancer for men and women (p-trend <0.0001 for all models. For men, the HRs (CIs for all-cause, CVD, and cancer comparing the highest to the lowest quintile were 0.79 (0.76, 0.82, 0.76 (0.71, 0.82, and 0.80 (0.75, 0.87, respectively. For women, the HRs were 0.79 (0.76, 0.82, 0.75 (0.70, 0.81, and 0.84 (0.78, 0.91, respectively. These results, in a multiethnic population, demonstrate that following a diet aligned with the DGAs 2015–2020 recommendations is associated with lower risk of mortality from all-cause, CVD, and cancer.

  2. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D......Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D...

  3. Design for validation: An approach to systems validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William C.; Dunham, Janet R.; Laprie, Jean-Claude; Williams, Thomas; Howden, William; Smith, Brian; Lewis, Carl M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Every complex system built is validated in some manner. Computer validation begins with review of the system design. As systems became too complicated for one person to review, validation began to rely on the application of adhoc methods by many individuals. As the cost of the changes mounted and the expense of failure increased, more organized procedures became essential. Attempts at devising and carrying out those procedures showed that validation is indeed a difficult technical problem. The successful transformation of the validation process into a systematic series of formally sound, integrated steps is necessary if the liability inherent in the future digita-system-based avionic and space systems is to be minimized. A suggested framework and timetable for the transformtion are presented. Basic working definitions of two pivotal ideas (validation and system life-cyle) are provided and show how the two concepts interact. Many examples are given of past and present validation activities by NASA and others. A conceptual framework is presented for the validation process. Finally, important areas are listed for ongoing development of the validation process at NASA Langley Research Center.

  4. Site characterization and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Eriksson, J.; Falk, L.; Sandberg, E.

    1988-04-01

    The borehole radar investigation program of the SCV-site (Site Characterization and Validation) has comprised single hole reflection measurements with centre frequencies of 22, 45, and 60 MHz. The radar range obtained in the single hole reflection measurements was approximately 100 m for the lower frequency (22 MHz) and about 60 m for the centre frequency 45 MHz. In the crosshole measurements transmitter-receiver separations from 60 to 200 m have been used. The radar investigations have given a three dimensional description of the structure at the SCV-site. A generalized model of the site has been produced which includes three major zones, four minor zones and a circular feature. These features are considered to be the most significant at the site. Smaller features than the ones included in the generalized model certainly exist but no additional features comparable to the three major zones are thought to exist. The results indicate that the zones are not homogeneous but rather that they are highly irregular containing parts of considerably increased fracturing and parts where their contrast to the background rock is quite small. The zones appear to be approximately planar at least at the scale of the site. At a smaller scale the zones can appear quite irregular. (authors)

  5. Spare Items validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Carratala, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing difficulty for purchasing safety related spare items, with certifications by manufacturers for maintaining the original qualifications of the equipment of destination. The main reasons are, on the top of the logical evolution of technology, applied to the new manufactured components, the quitting of nuclear specific production lines and the evolution of manufacturers quality systems, originally based on nuclear codes and standards, to conventional industry standards. To face this problem, for many years different Dedication processes have been implemented to verify whether a commercial grade element is acceptable to be used in safety related applications. In the same way, due to our particular position regarding the spare part supplies, mainly from markets others than the american, C.N. Trillo has developed a methodology called Spare Items Validation. This methodology, which is originally based on dedication processes, is not a single process but a group of coordinated processes involving engineering, quality and management activities. These are to be performed on the spare item itself, its design control, its fabrication and its supply for allowing its use in destinations with specific requirements. The scope of application is not only focussed on safety related items, but also to complex design, high cost or plant reliability related components. The implementation in C.N. Trillo has been mainly curried out by merging, modifying and making the most of processes and activities which were already being performed in the company. (Author)

  6. SHIELD verification and validation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, C.

    1992-02-01

    This document outlines the verification and validation effort for the SHIELD, SHLDED, GEDIT, GENPRT, FIPROD, FPCALC, and PROCES modules of the SHIELD system code. Along with its predecessors, SHIELD has been in use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for more than ten years. During this time the code has been extensively tested and a variety of validation documents have been issued. The primary function of this report is to specify the features and capabilities for which SHIELD is to be considered validated, and to reference the documents that establish the validation

  7. Spacecraft early design validation using formal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzano, Marco; Cimatti, Alessandro; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Katsaros, Panagiotis; Mokos, Konstantinos; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas; Postma, Bart; Roveri, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The size and complexity of software in spacecraft is increasing exponentially, and this trend complicates its validation within the context of the overall spacecraft system. Current validation methods are labor-intensive as they rely on manual analysis, review and inspection. For future space missions, we developed – with challenging requirements from the European space industry – a novel modeling language and toolset for a (semi-)automated validation approach. Our modeling language is a dialect of AADL and enables engineers to express the system, the software, and their reliability aspects. The COMPASS toolset utilizes state-of-the-art model checking techniques, both qualitative and probabilistic, for the analysis of requirements related to functional correctness, safety, dependability and performance. Several pilot projects have been performed by industry, with two of them having focused on the system-level of a satellite platform in development. Our efforts resulted in a significant advancement of validating spacecraft designs from several perspectives, using a single integrated system model. The associated technology readiness level increased from level 1 (basic concepts and ideas) to early level 4 (laboratory-tested)

  8. Experimental validation of UTDefect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, A.S. [ABB Tekniska Roentgencentralen AB, Taeby (Sweden); Bostroem, A.; Wirdelius, H. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Mechanics

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on conducted experiments and computer simulations of ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT). Experiments and simulations are compared with the purpose of validating the simulation program UTDefect. UTDefect simulates ultrasonic NDT of cracks and some other defects in isotropic and homogeneous materials. Simulations for the detection of surface breaking cracks are compared with experiments in pulse-echo mode on surface breaking cracks in carbon steel plates. The echo dynamics are plotted and compared with the simulations. The experiments are performed on a plate with thickness 36 mm and the crack depths are 7.2 mm and 18 mm. L- and T-probes with frequency 1, 2 and 4 MHz and angels 45, 60 and 70 deg are used. In most cases the probe and the crack is on opposite sides of the plate, but in some cases they are on the same side. Several cracks are scanned from two directions. In total 53 experiments are reported for 33 different combinations. Generally the simulations agree well with the experiments and UTDefect is shown to be able to, within certain limits, perform simulations that are close to experiments. It may be concluded that: For corner echoes the eight 45 deg cases and the eight 60 deg cases show good agreement between experiments and UTDefect, especially for the 7.2 mm crack. The amplitudes differ more for some cases where the defect is close to the probe and for the corner of the 18 mm crack. For the two 70 deg cases there are too few experimental values to compare the curve shapes, but the amplitudes do not differ too much. The tip diffraction echoes also agree well in general. For some cases, where the defect is close to the probe, the amplitudes differ more than 10-15 dB, but for all but two cases the difference in amplitude is less than 7 dB. 6 refs.

  9. Using wound care algorithms: a content validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, J M; van Rijswijk, L

    1999-09-01

    Valid and reliable heuristic devices facilitating optimal wound care are lacking. The objectives of this study were to establish content validation data for a set of wound care algorithms, to identify their associated strengths and weaknesses, and to gain insight into the wound care decision-making process. Forty-four registered nurse wound care experts were surveyed and interviewed at national and regional educational meetings. Using a cross-sectional study design and an 83-item, 4-point Likert-type scale, this purposive sample was asked to quantify the degree of validity of the algorithms' decisions and components. Participants' comments were tape-recorded, transcribed, and themes were derived. On a scale of 1 to 4, the mean score of the entire instrument was 3.47 (SD +/- 0.87), the instrument's Content Validity Index was 0.86, and the individual Content Validity Index of 34 of 44 participants was > 0.8. Item scores were lower for those related to packing deep wounds (P valid and reliable definitions. The wound care algorithms studied proved valid. However, the lack of valid and reliable wound assessment and care definitions hinders optimal use of these instruments. Further research documenting their clinical use is warranted. Research-based practice recommendations should direct the development of future valid and reliable algorithms designed to help nurses provide optimal wound care.

  10. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  11. The validation of language tests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics, Vol. ... validation is necessary because of the major impact which test results can have on the many ... Messick (1989: 20) introduces his much-quoted progressive matrix (cf. table 1), which ... argue that current accounts of validity only superficially address theories of measurement.

  12. Validity in SSM: neglected areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pala, O.; Vennix, J.A.M.; Mullekom, T.L. van

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to the prevailing notion in hard OR, in soft system methodology (SSM), validity seems to play a minor role. The primary reason for this is that SSM models are of a different type, they are not would-be descriptions of real-world situations. Therefore, establishing their validity, that is

  13. The Consequences of Consequential Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrens, William A.

    1997-01-01

    There is no agreement at present about the importance or meaning of the term "consequential validity." It is important that the authors of revisions to the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" recognize the debate and relegate discussion of consequences to a context separate from the discussion of validity.…

  14. Current Concerns in Validity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    Validity is concerned with the clarification and justification of the intended interpretations and uses of observed scores. It has not been easy to formulate a general methodology set of principles for validation, but progress has been made, especially as the field has moved from relatively limited criterion-related models to sophisticated…

  15. The measurement of instrumental ADL: content validity and construct validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Schultz-Larsen, K; Kreiner, S

    1993-01-01

    do not depend on help. It is also possible to add the items in a valid way. However, to obtain valid IADL-scales, we omitted items that were highly relevant to especially elderly women, such as house-work items. We conclude that the criteria employed for this IADL-measure are somewhat contradictory....... showed that 14 items could be combined into two qualitatively different additive scales. The IADL-measure complies with demands for content validity, distinguishes between what the elderly actually do, and what they are capable of doing, and is a good discriminator among the group of elderly persons who...

  16. Convergent validity test, construct validity test and external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maldavsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The author first exposes a complement of a previous test about convergent validity, then a construct validity test and finally an external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm.  The first part of the paper focused on a complementary aspect, the differential sensitivity of the DLA 1 in an external comparison (to other methods, and 2 in an internal comparison (between two ways of using the same method, the DLA.  The construct validity test exposes the concepts underlined to DLA, their operationalization and some corrections emerging from several empirical studies we carried out.  The external validity test examines the possibility of using the investigation of a single case and its relation with the investigation of a more extended sample.

  17. Validation of EAF-2005 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Validation procedures applied on EAF-2003 starter file, which lead to the production of EAF-2005 library, are described. The results in terms of reactions with assigned quality scores in EAF-20005 are given. Further the extensive validation against the recent integral data is discussed together with the status of the final report 'Validation of EASY-2005 using integral measurements'. Finally, the novel 'cross section trend analysis' is presented with some examples of its use. This action will lead to the release of improved library EAF-2005.1 at the end of 2005, which shall be used as the starter file for EAF-2007. (author)

  18. Validity and validation of expert (Q)SAR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulzebos, E; Sijm, D; Traas, T; Posthumus, R; Maslankiewicz, L

    2005-08-01

    At a recent workshop in Setubal (Portugal) principles were drafted to assess the suitability of (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SARs) for assessing the hazards and risks of chemicals. In the present study we applied some of the Setubal principles to test the validity of three (Q)SAR expert systems and validate the results. These principles include a mechanistic basis, the availability of a training set and validation. ECOSAR, BIOWIN and DEREK for Windows have a mechanistic or empirical basis. ECOSAR has a training set for each QSAR. For half of the structural fragments the number of chemicals in the training set is >4. Based on structural fragments and log Kow, ECOSAR uses linear regression to predict ecotoxicity. Validating ECOSAR for three 'valid' classes results in predictivity of > or = 64%. BIOWIN uses (non-)linear regressions to predict the probability of biodegradability based on fragments and molecular weight. It has a large training set and predicts non-ready biodegradability well. DEREK for Windows predictions are supported by a mechanistic rationale and literature references. The structural alerts in this program have been developed with a training set of positive and negative toxicity data. However, to support the prediction only a limited number of chemicals in the training set is presented to the user. DEREK for Windows predicts effects by 'if-then' reasoning. The program predicts best for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Each structural fragment in ECOSAR and DEREK for Windows needs to be evaluated and validated separately.

  19. Radiochemical verification and validation in the environmental data collection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosano-Reece, D.; Bottrell, D.; Bath, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A credible and cost effective environmental data collection process should produce analytical data which meets regulatory and program specific requirements. Analytical data, which support the sampling and analysis activities at hazardous waste sites, undergo verification and independent validation before the data are submitted to regulators. Understanding the difference between verification and validation and their respective roles in the sampling and analysis process is critical to the effectiveness of a program. Verification is deciding whether the measurement data obtained are what was requested. The verification process determines whether all the requirements were met. Validation is more complicated than verification. It attempts to assess the impacts on data use, especially when requirements are not met. Validation becomes part of the decision-making process. Radiochemical data consists of a sample result with an associated error. Therefore, radiochemical validation is different and more quantitative than is currently possible for the validation of hazardous chemical data. Radiochemical data include both results and uncertainty that can be statistically compared to identify significance of differences in a more technically defensible manner. Radiochemical validation makes decisions about analyte identification, detection, and uncertainty for a batch of data. The process focuses on the variability of the data in the context of the decision to be made. The objectives of this paper are to present radiochemical verification and validation for environmental data and to distinguish the differences between the two operations

  20. Validation of Autonomous Space Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — System validation addresses the question "Will the system do the right thing?" When system capability includes autonomy, the question becomes more pointed. As NASA...

  1. Magnetic Signature Analysis & Validation System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vliet, Scott

    2001-01-01

    The Magnetic Signature Analysis and Validation (MAGSAV) System is a mobile platform that is used to measure, record, and analyze the perturbations to the earth's ambient magnetic field caused by object such as armored vehicles...

  2. Mercury and Cyanide Data Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Document designed to offer data reviewers guidance in determining the validity ofanalytical data generated through the USEPA Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) Statement ofWork (SOW) ISM01.X Inorganic Superfund Methods (Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration)

  3. ICP-MS Data Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Document designed to offer data reviewers guidance in determining the validity ofanalytical data generated through the USEPA Contract Laboratory Program Statement ofWork (SOW) ISM01.X Inorganic Superfund Methods (Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration)

  4. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...... to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well....

  5. MARS Validation Plan and Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seung-hoon; Cho, Yong-jin

    2008-01-01

    The KINS Reactor Thermal-hydraulic Analysis System (KINS-RETAS) under development is directed toward a realistic analysis approach of best-estimate (BE) codes and realistic assumptions. In this system, MARS is pivoted to provide the BE Thermal-Hydraulic (T-H) response in core and reactor coolant system to various operational transients and accidental conditions. As required for other BE codes, the qualification is essential to ensure reliable and reasonable accuracy for a targeted MARS application. Validation is a key element of the code qualification, and determines the capability of a computer code in predicting the major phenomena expected to occur. The MARS validation was made by its developer KAERI, on basic premise that its backbone code RELAP5/MOD3.2 is well qualified against analytical solutions, test or operational data. A screening was made to select the test data for MARS validation; some models transplanted from RELAP5, if already validated and found to be acceptable, were screened out from assessment. It seems to be reasonable, but does not demonstrate whether code adequacy complies with the software QA guidelines. Especially there may be much difficulty in validating the life-cycle products such as code updates or modifications. This paper presents the plan for MARS validation, and the current implementation status

  6. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Validation of the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K; Holding, Anne; Perez, Samara; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2016-12-01

    Parents' vaccine attitudes influence their decision regarding child vaccination. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of vaccine conspiracy beliefs on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance. The authors assessed the validity of a Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (VCBS) and determined whether this scale was associated with parents' willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine. Canadian parents completed a 24-min online survey in 2014. Measures included socio-demographic variables, HPV knowledge, health care provider recommendation, Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), the seven-item VCBS, and parents' willingness to vaccinate their son at two price points. A total of 1427 Canadian parents completed the survey in English (61.2%) or French (38.8%). A Factor Analysis revealed the VCBS is one-dimensional and has high internal consistency (α=0.937). The construct validity of the VCBS was supported by a moderate relationship with the CMQ (r=0.44, pparents' willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine at both price points ('free' or '$300') after controlling for gender, age, household income, education level, HPV knowledge, and health care provider recommendation. The VCBS is a brief, valid scale that will be useful in further elucidating the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. Future research could use the VCBS to evaluate the impact of vaccine conspiracies beliefs on vaccine uptake and how concerns about vaccination may be challenged and reversed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Validation of Clinical Testing for Warfarin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Michael R.; Booker, Jessica K.; Evans, James P.; McLeod, Howard L.; Weck, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Responses to warfarin (Coumadin) anticoagulation therapy are affected by genetic variability in both the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Validation of pharmacogenetic testing for warfarin responses includes demonstration of analytical validity of testing platforms and of the clinical validity of testing. We compared four platforms for determining the relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both CYP2C9 and VKORC1 that are associated with warfarin sensitivity (Third Wave Invader Plus, ParagonDx/Cepheid Smart Cycler, Idaho Technology LightCycler, and AutoGenomics Infiniti). Each method was examined for accuracy, cost, and turnaround time. All genotyping methods demonstrated greater than 95% accuracy for identifying the relevant SNPs (CYP2C9 *2 and *3; VKORC1 −1639 or 1173). The ParagonDx and Idaho Technology assays had the shortest turnaround and hands-on times. The Third Wave assay was readily scalable to higher test volumes but had the longest hands-on time. The AutoGenomics assay interrogated the largest number of SNPs but had the longest turnaround time. Four published warfarin-dosing algorithms (Washington University, UCSF, Louisville, and Newcastle) were compared for accuracy for predicting warfarin dose in a retrospective analysis of a local patient population on long-term, stable warfarin therapy. The predicted doses from both the Washington University and UCSF algorithms demonstrated the best correlation with actual warfarin doses. PMID:19324988

  9. Site characterization and validation - validation drift fracture data, stage 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursey, G.; Gale, J.; MacLeod, R.; Straahle, A.; Tiren, S.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the mapping procedures and the data collected during fracture mapping in the validation drift. Fracture characteristics examined include orientation, trace length, termination mode, and fracture minerals. These data have been compared and analysed together with fracture data from the D-boreholes to determine the adequacy of the borehole mapping procedures and to assess the nature and degree of orientation bias in the borehole data. The analysis of the validation drift data also includes a series of corrections to account for orientation, truncation, and censoring biases. This analysis has identified at least 4 geologically significant fracture sets in the rock mass defined by the validation drift. An analysis of the fracture orientations in both the good rock and the H-zone has defined groups of 7 clusters and 4 clusters, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the fracture patterns in five consecutive sections along the validation drift further identified heterogeneity through the rock mass, with respect to fracture orientations. These results are in stark contrast to the results form the D-borehole analysis, where a strong orientation bias resulted in a consistent pattern of measured fracture orientations through the rock. In the validation drift, fractures in the good rock also display a greater mean variance in length than those in the H-zone. These results provide strong support for a distinction being made between fractures in the good rock and the H-zone, and possibly between different areas of the good rock itself, for discrete modelling purposes. (au) (20 refs.)

  10. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI...

  11. The validation of an infrared simulation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available theoretical validation framework. This paper briefly describes the procedure used to validate software models in an infrared system simulation, and provides application examples of this process. The discussion includes practical validation techniques...

  12. Process validation for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    Process validation concerns the establishment of the irradiation conditions that will lead to the desired changes of the irradiated product. Process validation therefore establishes the link between absorbed dose and the characteristics of the product, such as degree of crosslinking in a polyethylene tube, prolongation of shelf life of a food product, or degree of sterility of the medical device. Detailed international standards are written for the documentation of radiation sterilization, such as EN 552 and ISO 11137, and the steps of process validation that are described in these standards are discussed in this paper. They include material testing for the documentation of the correct functioning of the product, microbiological testing for selection of the minimum required dose and dose mapping for documentation of attainment of the required dose in all parts of the product. The process validation must be maintained by reviews and repeated measurements as necessary. This paper presents recommendations and guidance for the execution of these components of process validation. (author)

  13. Assessing the construct validity of aberrant salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT. The “aberrant salience” measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance, attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a learned irrelevance task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for ~75% percent of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated “Introvertive Anhedonia” schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. Learned irrelevance loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of learned irrelevance and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.

  14. Rapid Robot Design Validation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  15. A project manager's primer on data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    While carrying out their central responsibility of conducting an environmental investigation in a high- quality, timely, and cost-effective manner, project managers also face a significant challenge due to the many inherent uncertainties associated with characterizing and remediating sites. From all aspects and considerations (health and financial risks; and technical, professional, and legal defensibility/credibility), the project manager must minimize the uncertainty associated with making decisions based on environmental data. A key objective for every project manager is to produce sufficient data of known and acceptable quality. In simple terms, the level of confidence in the gathered data directly relates to: (1) the upfront determination of the types and uses of the data needed (which drives the required quality of the data); (2) the ongoing verification that the prescribed methods by which the data are to be obtained and analyzed are being followed; and (3) the validation of the verified data to determine whether the preestablished data quality objectives have been met, therefore making the data adequate for their intended use(s). This paper focuses on the third clement of the equation for data quality, therefore implying that the first two elements (planning and verification) have been accomplished. The open-quotes Who,close quotes open-quotes What,close quotes open-quotes Why,close quotes open-quotes Whenclose quotes and open-quotes Howclose quotes of data validation are discussed in general terms

  16. CASL Verification and Validation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Vincent Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dinh, Nam [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This report documents the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) verification and validation plan. The document builds upon input from CASL subject matter experts, most notably the CASL Challenge Problem Product Integrators, CASL Focus Area leaders, and CASL code development and assessment teams. This document will be a living document that will track progress on CASL to do verification and validation for both the CASL codes (including MPACT, CTF, BISON, MAMBA) and for the CASL challenge problems (CIPS, PCI, DNB). The CASL codes and the CASL challenge problems are at differing levels of maturity with respect to validation and verification. The gap analysis will summarize additional work that needs to be done. Additional VVUQ work will be done as resources permit. This report is prepared for the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) CASL program in support of milestone CASL.P13.02.

  17. Common variants of the liver fatty acid binding protein gene influence the risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in Spanish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Mansego

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: The main objective was to evaluate the association between SNPs and haplotypes of the FABP1-4 genes and type 2 diabetes, as well as its interaction with fat intake, in one general Spanish population. The association was replicated in a second population in which HOMA index was also evaluated. METHODS: 1217 unrelated individuals were selected from a population-based study [Hortega study: 605 women; mean age 54 y; 7.8% with type 2 diabetes]. The replication population included 805 subjects from Segovia, a neighboring region of Spain (446 females; mean age 52 y; 10.3% with type 2 diabetes. DM2 mellitus was defined in a similar way in both studies. Fifteen SNPs previously associated with metabolic traits or with potential influence in the gene expression within the FABP1-4 genes were genotyped with SNPlex and tested. Age, sex and BMI were used as covariates in the logistic regression model. RESULTS: One polymorphism (rs2197076 and two haplotypes of the FABP-1 showed a strong association with the risk of DM2 in the original population. This association was further confirmed in the second population as well as in the pooled sample. None of the other analyzed variants in FABP2, FABP3 and FABP4 genes were associated. There was not a formal interaction between rs2197076 and fat intake. A significant association between the rs2197076 and the haplotypes of the FABP1 and HOMA-IR was also present in the replication population. CONCLUSIONS: The study supports the role of common variants of the FABP-1 gene in the development of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians.

  18. All Validity Is Construct Validity. Or Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Paul E. Newton's article on the consensus definition of validity tackles a number of big issues and makes a number of strong claims. I agreed with much of what he said, and I disagreed with a number of his claims, but I found his article to be consistently interesting and thought provoking (whether I agreed or not). I will focus on three general…

  19. The validity and clinical utility of purging disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Pamela K; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H

    2009-12-01

    To review evidence of the validity and clinical utility of Purging Disorder and examine options for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-V). Articles were identified by computerized and manual searches and reviewed to address five questions about Purging Disorder: Is there "ample" literature? Is the syndrome clearly defined? Can it be measured and diagnosed reliably? Can it be differentiated from other eating disorders? Is there evidence of syndrome validity? Although empirical classification and concurrent validity studies provide emerging support for the distinctiveness of Purging Disorder, questions remain about definition, diagnostic reliability in clinical settings, and clinical utility (i.e., prognostic validity). We discuss strengths and weaknesses associated with various options for the status of Purging Disorder in the DSM-V ranging from making no changes from DSM-IV to designating Purging Disorder a diagnosis on equal footing with Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

  20. Reliability and validity of the McDonald Play Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ann E; Vigen, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the ability of a two-part self-report instrument, the McDonald Play Inventory, to reliably and validly measure the play activities and play styles of 7- to 11-yr-old children and to discriminate between the play of neurotypical children and children with known learning and developmental disabilities. A total of 124 children ages 7-11 recruited from a sample of convenience and a subsample of 17 parents participated in this study. Reliability estimates yielded moderate correlations for internal consistency, total test intercorrelations, and test-retest reliability. Validity estimates were established for content and construct validity. The results suggest that a self-report instrument yields reliable and valid measures of a child's perceived play performance and discriminates between the play of children with and without disabilities. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Validering av vattenkraftmodeller i ARISTO

    OpenAIRE

    Lundbäck, Maja

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis was made to validate hydropower models of a turbine governor, Kaplan turbine and a Francis turbine in the power system simulator ARISTO at Svenska Kraftnät. The validation was made in three steps. The first step was to make sure the models was implement correctly in the simulator. The second was to compare the simulation results from the Kaplan turbine model to data from a real hydropower plant. The comparison was made to see how the models could generate simulation result ...

  2. PIV Data Validation Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshire, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A PIV data validation and post-processing software package was developed to provide semi-automated data validation and data reduction capabilities for Particle Image Velocimetry data sets. The software provides three primary capabilities including (1) removal of spurious vector data, (2) filtering, smoothing, and interpolating of PIV data, and (3) calculations of out-of-plane vorticity, ensemble statistics, and turbulence statistics information. The software runs on an IBM PC/AT host computer working either under Microsoft Windows 3.1 or Windows 95 operating systems.

  3. Development and Initial Validation of the Need Satisfaction and Need Support at Work Scales: A Validity-Focused Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Tafvelin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the relevance of employee need satisfaction and manager need support have been examined, the integration of self-determination theory (SDT into work and organizational psychology has been hampered by the lack of validated measures. The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate measures of employees’ perception of need satisfaction (NSa-WS and need support (NSu-WS at work that were grounded in SDT. We used three Swedish samples (total 'N' = 1,430 to develop and validate our scales. We used a confirmatory approach including expert panels to assess item content relevance, confirmatory factor analysis for factorial validity, and associations with theoretically warranted outcomes to assess criterion-related validity. Scale reliability was also assessed. We found evidence of content, factorial, and criterion-related validity of our two scales of need satisfaction and need support at work. Further, the scales demonstrated high internal consistency. Our newly developed scales may be used in research and practice to further our understanding regarding how satisfaction and support of employee basic needs influence employee motivation, performance, and well-being. Our study makes a contribution to the current literature by providing (1 scales that are specifically designed for the work context, (2 an example of how expert panels can be used to assess content validity, and (3 testing of theoretically derived hypotheses that, although SDT is built on them, have not been examined before.

  4. Prospective validation of pathologic complete response models in rectal cancer: Transferability and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, Johan; Meldolesi, Elisa; van Stiphout, Ruud; Gatta, Roberto; Damiani, Andrea; Valentini, Vincenzo; Lambin, Philippe; Dekker, Andre

    2017-09-01

    Multiple models have been developed to predict pathologic complete response (pCR) in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. Unfortunately, validation of these models normally omit the implications of cohort differences on prediction model performance. In this work, we will perform a prospective validation of three pCR models, including information whether this validation will target transferability or reproducibility (cohort differences) of the given models. We applied a novel methodology, the cohort differences model, to predict whether a patient belongs to the training or to the validation cohort. If the cohort differences model performs well, it would suggest a large difference in cohort characteristics meaning we would validate the transferability of the model rather than reproducibility. We tested our method in a prospective validation of three existing models for pCR prediction in 154 patients. Our results showed a large difference between training and validation cohort for one of the three tested models [Area under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) cohort differences model: 0.85], signaling the validation leans towards transferability. Two out of three models had a lower AUC for validation (0.66 and 0.58), one model showed a higher AUC in the validation cohort (0.70). We have successfully applied a new methodology in the validation of three prediction models, which allows us to indicate if a validation targeted transferability (large differences between training/validation cohort) or reproducibility (small cohort differences). © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Assessment of juveniles testimonies’ validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dozortseva E.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of the English language publications concerning the history and the current state of differential psychological assessment of validity of testimonies produced by child and adolescent victims of crimes. The topicality of the problem in Russia is high due to the tendency of Russian specialists to use methodical means and instruments developed abroad in this sphere for forensic assessments of witness testimony veracity. A system of Statement Validity Analysis (SVA by means of Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA and Validity Checklist is described. The results of laboratory and field studies of validity of CBCA criteria on the basis of child and adult witnesses are discussed. The data display a good differentiating capacity of the method, however, a high level of error probability. The researchers recommend implementation of SVA in the criminal investigation process, but not in the forensic assessment. New perspective developments in the field of methods for differentiation of witness statements based on the real experience and fictional are noted. The conclusion is drawn that empirical studies and a special work for adaptation and development of new approaches should precede their implementation into Russian criminal investigation and forensic assessment practice

  6. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  7. Validation process of simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Isidro, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    It is presented a methodology on empirical validation about any detailed simulation model. This king of validation it is always related with an experimental case. The empirical validation has a residual sense, because the conclusions are based on comparisons between simulated outputs and experimental measurements. This methodology will guide us to detect the fails of the simulation model. Furthermore, it can be used a guide in the design of posterior experiments. Three steps can be well differentiated: Sensitivity analysis. It can be made with a DSA, differential sensitivity analysis, and with a MCSA, Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. Looking the optimal domains of the input parameters. It has been developed a procedure based on the Monte-Carlo methods and Cluster techniques, to find the optimal domains of these parameters. Residual analysis. This analysis has been made on the time domain and on the frequency domain, it has been used the correlation analysis and spectral analysis. As application of this methodology, it is presented the validation carried out on a thermal simulation model on buildings, Esp., studying the behavior of building components on a Test Cell of LECE of CIEMAT. (Author) 17 refs

  8. Validity of Management Control Topoi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Lennart; Nørreklit, Hanne; Israelsen, Poul

    2004-01-01

    The validity of research and company topoi for constructing/analyzing relaity is analyzed as the integration of the four aspects (dimensions): fact, possibility (logic), value and comunication. Main stream, agency theory and social constructivism are critizied for reductivism (incomplete integrat...

  9. NVN 5694 intra laboratory validation. Feasibility study for interlaboratory- validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voors, P.I.; Baard, J.H.

    1998-11-01

    Within the project NORMSTAR 2 a number of Dutch prenormative protocols have been defined for radioactivity measurements. Some of these protocols, e.g. the Dutch prenormative protocol NVN 5694, titled Methods for radiochemical determination of polonium-210 and lead-210, have not been validated, neither by intralaboratory nor interlaboratory studies. Validation studies are conducted within the framework of the programme 'Normalisatie and Validatie van Milieumethoden 1993-1997' (Standardization and Validation of test methods for environmental parameters) of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and the Environment (VROM). The aims of this study were (a) a critical evaluation of the protocol, (b) investigation on the feasibility of an interlaboratory study, and (c) the interlaboratory validation of NVN 5694. The evaluation of the protocol resulted in a list of deficiencies varying from missing references to incorrect formulae. From the survey by interview it appeared that for each type of material, there are 4 to 7 laboratories willing to participate in a interlaboratory validation study. This reflects the situation in 1997. Consequently, if 4 or 6 (the minimal number) laboratories are participating and each laboratory analyses 3 subsamples, the uncertainty in the repeatability standard deviation is 49 or 40 %, respectively. If the ratio of reproducibility standard deviation to the repeatability standard deviation is equal to 1 or 2, then the uncertainty in the reproducibility standard deviation increases from 42 to 67 % and from 34 to 52 % for 4 or 6 laboratories, respectively. The intralaboratory validation was established on four different types of materials. Three types of materials (milkpowder condensate and filter) were prepared in the laboratory using the raw material and certified Pb-210 solutions, and one (sediment) was obtained from the IAEA. The ECN-prepared reference materials were used after testing on homogeneity. The pre-normative protocol can

  10. The Multiplicity of Validity: A Game within a Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaney, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Kathleen Slaney, associate professor in the History, Quantitative and Theoretical Psychology stream in the Department of Psychology at Simon Fraser University, comments on three issues she considers central to a fruitful discussion of how "validity" should be used in the context of testing.

  11. Temporal validation for landsat-based volume estimation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaldo J. Arroyo; Emily B. Schultz; Thomas G. Matney; David L. Evans; Zhaofei Fan

    2015-01-01

    Satellite imagery can potentially reduce the costs and time associated with ground-based forest inventories; however, for satellite imagery to provide reliable forest inventory data, it must produce consistent results from one time period to the next. The objective of this study was to temporally validate a Landsat-based volume estimation model in a four county study...

  12. An information architecture for validating courseware

    OpenAIRE

    Melia, Mark; Pahl, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Courseware validation should locate Learning Objects inconsistent with the courseware instructional design being used. In order for validation to take place it is necessary to identify the implicit and explicit information needed for validation. In this paper, we identify this information and formally define an information architecture to model courseware validation information explicitly. This promotes tool-support for courseware validation and its interoperability with the courseware specif...

  13. Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O' Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

  14. Construct Validity: Advances in Theory and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Milton E.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of psychological constructs are validated by testing whether they relate to measures of other constructs as specified by theory. Each test of relations between measures reflects on the validity of both the measures and the theory driving the test. Construct validation concerns the simultaneous process of measure and theory validation. In this chapter, we review the recent history of validation efforts in clinical psychological science that has led to this perspective, and we review f...

  15. Validation of data and indicators in the Danish Cholecystectomy Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Kirstine Moll; Anthonsen, Kristian; Bardram, Linda

    2009-01-01

    and postoperative complications RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Data from 1360 medical records of patients undergoing cholecystectomy were compared to the relevant administrative data from the National Patient Registry. The medical records served as the "gold standard". The association between the individual...... indicators and the occurrence of a postoperative complication was assessed. MEASURES: Validation of administrative data against the gold standard was done by the calculation of per cent agreement (including kappa-values) sensitivity/specificity and predictive values. The association between indicators...

  16. Validation of the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilla K. Shapiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents’ vaccine attitudes influence their decision regarding child vaccination. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of vaccine conspiracy beliefs on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance. The authors assessed the validity of a Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (VCBS and determined whether this scale was associated with parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine. Methods: Canadian parents completed a 24-min online survey in 2014. Measures included socio-demographic variables, HPV knowledge, health care provider recommendation, Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, the seven-item VCBS, and parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son at two price points. Results: A total of 1427 Canadian parents completed the survey in English (61.2% or French (38.8%. A Factor Analysis revealed the VCBS is one-dimensional and has high internal consistency (α=0.937. The construct validity of the VCBS was supported by a moderate relationship with the CMQ (r=0.44, p<0.001. Hierarchical regression analyses found the VCBS is negatively related to parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine at both price points (‘free’ or ‘$300′ after controlling for gender, age, household income, education level, HPV knowledge, and health care provider recommendation. Conclusions: The VCBS is a brief, valid scale that will be useful in further elucidating the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. Future research could use the VCBS to evaluate the impact of vaccine conspiracies beliefs on vaccine uptake and how concerns about vaccination may be challenged and reversed. Keywords: Cancer prevention, Conspiracy beliefs, Human papillomavirus, Vaccine hesitancy, Vaccines, Vaccine Conspiracy Belief Scale

  17. Polarographic validation of chemical speciation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, J.R.; Jarratt, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    It is well established that the chemical speciation of an element in a given matrix, or system of matrices, is of fundamental importance in controlling the transport behaviour of the element. Therefore, to accurately understand and predict the transport of elements and compounds in the environment it is a requirement that both the identities and concentrations of trace element physico-chemical forms can be ascertained. These twin requirements present the analytical scientist with considerable challenges given the labile equilibria, the range of time scales (from nanoseconds to years) and the range of concentrations (ultra-trace to macro) that may be involved. As a result of this analytical variability, chemical equilibrium modelling has become recognised as an important predictive tool in chemical speciation analysis. However, this technique requires firm underpinning by the use of complementary experimental techniques for the validation of the predictions made. The work reported here has been undertaken with the primary aim of investigating possible methodologies that can be used for the validation of chemical speciation models. However, in approaching this aim, direct chemical speciation analyses have been made in their own right. Results will be reported and analysed for the iron(II)/iron(III)-citrate proton system (pH 2 to 10; total [Fe] = 3 mmol dm -3 ; total [citrate 3- ] 10 mmol dm -3 ) in which equilibrium constants have been determined using glass electrode potentiometry, speciation is predicted using the PHREEQE computer code, and validation of predictions is achieved by determination of iron complexation and redox state with associated concentrations. (authors)

  18. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  19. Validation of New Cancer Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Michael J; Sturgeon, Catherine M; Söletormos, Georg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are playing increasingly important roles in the detection and management of patients with cancer. Despite an enormous number of publications on cancer biomarkers, few of these biomarkers are in widespread clinical use. CONTENT: In this review, we discuss the key steps...... in advancing a newly discovered cancer candidate biomarker from pilot studies to clinical application. Four main steps are necessary for a biomarker to reach the clinic: analytical validation of the biomarker assay, clinical validation of the biomarker test, demonstration of clinical value from performance...... of the biomarker test, and regulatory approval. In addition to these 4 steps, all biomarker studies should be reported in a detailed and transparent manner, using previously published checklists and guidelines. Finally, all biomarker studies relating to demonstration of clinical value should be registered before...

  20. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured...... in the questionnaire. Exposure measured in SED by dosimetry correlated strongly with the exposure scale. In a linear regression model of UVR (SED) received, 41 percent of the variation was explained by skin type, age, week of participation and the exposure scale, with the exposure scale as the main contributor...

  1. Automatic validation of numerical solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings...... differential equations, but in this thesis, we describe how to use the methods for enclosing iterates of discrete mappings, and then later use them for discretizing solutions of ordinary differential equations. The theory of automatic differentiation is introduced, and three methods for obtaining derivatives...... are described: The forward, the backward, and the Taylor expansion methods. The three methods have been implemented in the C++ program packages FADBAD/TADIFF. Some examples showing how to use the three metho ds are presented. A feature of FADBAD/TADIFF not present in other automatic differentiation packages...

  2. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  3. Validation of nursing management diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R S

    1995-01-01

    Nursing management diagnosis based on nursing and management science, merges "nursing diagnosis" and "organizational diagnosis". Nursing management diagnosis is a judgment about nursing organizational problems. The diagnoses provide a basis for nurse manager interventions to achieve outcomes for which a nurse manager is accountable. A nursing organizational problem is a discrepancy between what should be happening and what is actually happening that prevents the goals of nursing from being accomplished. The purpose of this study was to validate 73 nursing management diagnoses identified previously in 1992: 71 of the 72 diagnoses were considered valid by at least 70% of 136 participants. Diagnoses considered to have high priority for future research and development were identified by summing the mean scores for perceived frequency of occurrence and level of disruption. Further development of nursing management diagnoses and testing of their effectiveness in enhancing decision making is recommended.

  4. Verification Validation and Uncertainty Quantification for CGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rider, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kamm, James R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weirs, V. Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The overall conduct of verification, validation and uncertainty quantification (VVUQ) is discussed through the construction of a workflow relevant to computational modeling including the turbulence problem in the coarse grained simulation (CGS) approach. The workflow contained herein is defined at a high level and constitutes an overview of the activity. Nonetheless, the workflow represents an essential activity in predictive simulation and modeling. VVUQ is complex and necessarily hierarchical in nature. The particular characteristics of VVUQ elements depend upon where the VVUQ activity takes place in the overall hierarchy of physics and models. In this chapter, we focus on the differences between and interplay among validation, calibration and UQ, as well as the difference between UQ and sensitivity analysis. The discussion in this chapter is at a relatively high level and attempts to explain the key issues associated with the overall conduct of VVUQ. The intention is that computational physicists can refer to this chapter for guidance regarding how VVUQ analyses fit into their efforts toward conducting predictive calculations.

  5. Validation of the Impostor Phenomenon among Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Sonja; Bechtoldt, Myriam N; Leonhardt, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Following up on earlier investigations, the present research aims at validating the construct impostor phenomenon by taking other personality correlates into account and to examine whether the impostor phenomenon is a construct in its own right. In addition, gender effects as well as associations with dispositional working styles and strain are examined. In an online study we surveyed a sample of N = 242 individuals occupying leadership positions in different sectors. Confirmatory factor analyses provide empirical evidence for the discriminant validity of the impostor phenomenon. In accord with earlier studies we show that the impostor phenomenon is accompanied by higher levels of anxiety, dysphoric moods, emotional instability, a generally negative self-evaluation, and perfectionism. The study does not reveal any gender differences concerning the impostor phenomenon. With respect to working styles, persons with an impostor self-concept tend to show perfectionist as well as procrastinating behaviors. Moreover, they report being more stressed and strained by their work. In sum, the findings show that the impostor phenomenon constitutes a dysfunctional personality style. Practical implications are discussed.

  6. Precision validation of MIPAS-Envisat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Piccolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the variation and validation of the precision, or estimated random error, associated with the ESA Level 2 products from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. This quantity represents the propagation of the radiometric noise from the spectra through the retrieval process into the Level 2 profile values. The noise itself varies with time, steadily rising between ice decontamination events, but the Level 2 precision has a greater variation due to the atmospheric temperature which controls the total radiance received. Hence, for all species, the precision varies latitudinally/seasonally with temperature, with a small superimposed temporal structure determined by the degree of ice contamination on the detectors. The precision validation involves comparing two MIPAS retrievals at the intersections of ascending/descending orbits. For 5 days per month of full resolution MIPAS operation, the standard deviation of the matching profile pairs is computed and compared with the precision given in the MIPAS Level 2 data, except for NO2 since it has a large diurnal variation between ascending/descending intersections. Even taking into account the propagation of the pressure-temperature retrieval errors into the VMR retrieval, the standard deviation of the matching pairs is usually a factor 1–2 larger than the precision. This is thought to be due to effects such as horizontal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere and instability of the retrieval.

  7. HTC Experimental Program: Validation and Calculational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernex, F.; Ivanova, T.; Bernard, F.; Letang, E. [Inst Radioprotect and Surete Nucl, F-92262 Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Fouillaud, P. [CEA Valduc, Serv Rech Neutron and Critcite, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Thro, J. F. [AREVA NC, F-78000 Versailles (France)

    2009-05-15

    In the 1980's a series of the Haut Taux de Combustion (HTC) critical experiments with fuel pins in a water-moderated lattice was conducted at the Apparatus B experimental facility in Valduc (Commissariat a I'Energie Atomique, France) with the support of the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire and AREVA NC. Four series of experiments were designed to assess profit associated with actinide-only burnup credit in the criticality safety evaluation for fuel handling, pool storage, and spent-fuel cask conditions. The HTC rods, specifically fabricated for the experiments, simulated typical pressurized water reactor uranium oxide spent fuel that had an initial enrichment of 4. 5 wt% {sup 235}U and was burned to 37.5 GWd/tonne U. The configurations have been modeled with the CRISTAL criticality package and SCALE 5.1 code system. Sensitivity/uncertainty analysis has been employed to evaluate the HTC experiments and to study their applicability for validation of burnup credit calculations. This paper presents the experimental program, the principal results of the experiment evaluation, and modeling. The HTC data applicability to burnup credit validation is demonstrated with an example of spent-fuel storage models. (authors)

  8. Validation of intermediate end points in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzkin, A; Freedman, L S; Schiffman, M H; Dawsey, S M

    1990-11-21

    Investigations using intermediate end points as cancer surrogates are quicker, smaller, and less expensive than studies that use malignancy as the end point. We present a strategy for determining whether a given biomarker is a valid intermediate end point between an exposure and incidence of cancer. Candidate intermediate end points may be selected from case series, ecologic studies, and animal experiments. Prospective cohort and sometimes case-control studies may be used to quantify the intermediate end point-cancer association. The most appropriate measure of this association is the attributable proportion. The intermediate end point is a valid cancer surrogate if the attributable proportion is close to 1.0, but not if it is close to 0. Usually, the attributable proportion is close to neither 1.0 nor 0; in this case, valid surrogacy requires that the intermediate end point mediate an established exposure-cancer relation. This would in turn imply that the exposure effect would vanish if adjusted for the intermediate end point. We discuss the relative advantages of intervention and observational studies for the validation of intermediate end points. This validation strategy also may be applied to intermediate end points for adverse reproductive outcomes and chronic diseases other than cancer.

  9. Statistical Validation of Engineering and Scientific Models: Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, Richard G.; Trucano, Timothy G.

    1999-01-01

    A tutorial is presented discussing the basic issues associated with propagation of uncertainty analysis and statistical validation of engineering and scientific models. The propagation of uncertainty tutorial illustrates the use of the sensitivity method and the Monte Carlo method to evaluate the uncertainty in predictions for linear and nonlinear models. Four example applications are presented; a linear model, a model for the behavior of a damped spring-mass system, a transient thermal conduction model, and a nonlinear transient convective-diffusive model based on Burger's equation. Correlated and uncorrelated model input parameters are considered. The model validation tutorial builds on the material presented in the propagation of uncertainty tutoriaI and uses the damp spring-mass system as the example application. The validation tutorial illustrates several concepts associated with the application of statistical inference to test model predictions against experimental observations. Several validation methods are presented including error band based, multivariate, sum of squares of residuals, and optimization methods. After completion of the tutorial, a survey of statistical model validation literature is presented and recommendations for future work are made

  10. Validation of radiation sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.

    2007-01-01

    The standards for quality management systems recognize that, for certain processes used in manufacturing, the effectiveness of the process cannot be fully verified by subsequent inspection and testing of the product. Sterilization is an example of such a process. For this reason, sterilization processes are validated for use, the performance of sterilization process is monitored routinely and the equipment is maintained according to ISO 13 485. Different aspects of this norm are presented

  11. Satellite imager calibration and validation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available and Validation Lufuno Vhengani*, Minette Lubbe, Derek Griffith and Meena Lysko Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Defence Peace Safety and Security, Pretoria, South Africa E-mail: * lvhengani@csir.co.za Abstract: The success or failure... techniques specific to South Africa. 1. Introduction The success or failure of any earth observation mission depends on the quality of its data. To achieve optimum levels of reliability most sensors are calibrated pre-launch. However...

  12. Microservices Validation: Methodology and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Savchenko, D.; Radchenko, G.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the wide spread of cloud computing, arises actual question about architecture, design and implementation of cloud applications. The microservice model describes the design and development of loosely coupled cloud applications when computing resources are provided on the basis of automated IaaS and PaaS cloud platforms. Such applications consist of hundreds and thousands of service instances, so automated validation and testing of cloud applications developed on the basis of microservic...

  13. Validity and Reliability of the 8-Item Work Limitations Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Timothy J; Tullar, Jessica M; Diamond, Pamela M; Kohl, Harold W; Amick, Benjamin C

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To evaluate factorial validity, scale reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of the 8-item Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) among employees from a public university system. Methods A secondary analysis using de-identified data from employees who completed an annual Health Assessment between the years 2009-2015 tested research aims. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (n = 10,165) tested the latent structure of the 8-item WLQ. Scale reliability was determined using a CFA-based approach while test-retest reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Convergent/discriminant validity was tested by evaluating relations between the 8-item WLQ with health/performance variables for convergent validity (health-related work performance, number of chronic conditions, and general health) and demographic variables for discriminant validity (gender and institution type). Results A 1-factor model with three correlated residuals demonstrated excellent model fit (CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.03, and SRMR = 0.01). The scale reliability was acceptable (0.69, 95% CI 0.68-0.70) and the test-retest reliability was very good (ICC = 0.78). Low-to-moderate associations were observed between the 8-item WLQ and the health/performance variables while weak associations were observed between the demographic variables. Conclusions The 8-item WLQ demonstrated sufficient reliability and validity among employees from a public university system. Results suggest the 8-item WLQ is a usable alternative for studies when the more comprehensive 25-item WLQ is not available.

  14. Ovid MEDLINE Instruction can be Evaluated Using a Validated Search Assessment Tool. A Review of: Rana, G. K., Bradley, D. R., Hamstra, S. J., Ross, P. T., Schumacher, R. E., Frohna, J. G., & Lypson, M. L. (2011. A validated search assessment tool: Assessing practice-based learning and improvement in a residency program. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 99(1, 77-81. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.99.1.013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Badia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the construct validity of a search assessment instrument that is used to evaluate search strategies in Ovid MEDLINE. Design – Cross-sectional, cohort study. Setting – The Academic Medical Center of the University of Michigan. Subjects – All 22 first-year residents in the Department of Pediatrics in 2004 (cohort 1; 10 senior pediatric residents in 2005 (cohort 2; and 9 faculty members who taught evidence based medicine (EBM and published on EBM topics. Methods – Two methods were employed to determine whether the University of Michigan MEDLINE Search Assessment Instrument (UMMSA could show differences between searchers’ construction of a MEDLINE search strategy.The first method tested the search skills of all 22 incoming pediatrics residents (cohort 1 after they received MEDLINE training in 2004, and again upon graduation in 2007. Only 15 of these residents were tested upon graduation; seven were either no longer in the residency program, or had quickly left the institution after graduation. The search test asked study participants to read a clinical scenario, identify the search question in the scenario, and perform an Ovid MEDLINE search. Two librarians scored the blinded search strategies.The second method compared the scores of the 22 residents with the scores of ten senior residents (cohort 2 and nine faculty volunteers. Unlike the first cohort, the ten senior residents had not received any MEDLINE training. The faculty members’ search strategies were used as the gold standard comparison for scoring the search skills of the two cohorts.Main Results – The search strategy scores of the 22 first-year residents, who received training, improved from 2004 to 2007 (mean improvement: 51.7 to 78.7; t(14=5.43, PConclusion – According to the authors, “the results of this study provide evidence for the validity of an instrument to evaluate MEDLINE search strategies” (p. 81, since the instrument under

  15. The predictive validity of safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen E

    2007-01-01

    -level climates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 616-628]. In addition, safety behavior and accident experience data were collected for 5 months following the survey and were statistically analyzed (structural equation modeling, confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, etc.) to identify correlations, associations, internal consistency, and factorial structures. Results revealed that the ZSCQ: (a) was psychometrically reliable and valid, (b) served as an effective predictor of safety-related outcomes (behavior and accident experience), and (c) could be trimmed to an 11 item survey with little loss of explanatory power. Practitioners and researchers can use the ZSCQ with reasonable certainty of the questionnaire's reliability and validity. This provides a solid foundation for the development of meaningful organizational interventions and/or continued research into social factors affecting industrial accident experience.

  16. Natural analogues and radionuclide transport model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, D.A.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, some possible roles for natural analogues are discussed from the point of view of those involved with the development of mathematical models for radionuclide transport and with the use of these models in repository safety assessments. The characteristic features of a safety assessment are outlined in order to address the questions of where natural analogues can be used to improve our understanding of the processes involved and where they can assist in validating the models that are used. Natural analogues have the potential to provide useful information about some critical processes, especially long-term chemical processes and migration rates. There is likely to be considerable uncertainty and ambiguity associated with the interpretation of natural analogues, and thus it is their general features which should be emphasized, and models with appropriate levels of sophistication should be used. Experience gained in modelling the Koongarra uranium deposit in northern Australia is drawn upon. (author)

  17. Towards Seamless Validation of Land Cover Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprikova, Ekaterina; Liebel, Lukas; Meng, Liqiu

    2018-05-01

    This article demonstrates the ability of the Bayesian Network analysis for the recognition of uncertainty patterns associated with the fusion of various land cover data sets including GlobeLand30, CORINE (CLC2006, Germany) and land cover data derived from Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) such as Open Street Map (OSM). The results of recognition are expressed as probability and uncertainty maps which can be regarded as a by-product of the GlobeLand30 data. The uncertainty information may guide the quality improvement of GlobeLand30 by involving the ground truth data, information with superior quality, the know-how of experts and the crowd intelligence. Such an endeavor aims to pave a way towards a seamless validation of global land cover data on the one hand and a targeted knowledge discovery in areas with higher uncertainty values on the other hand.

  18. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    .93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice......Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated...... the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age...

  19. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  20. Validation of the TRUST tool in a Greek perioperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzea, Vasiliki-Eirini; Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Dey, Nilanjan; Melidoniotis, Evangelos

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the TRUST questionnaire in a Greek perioperative setting. The TRUST questionnaire assesses the relationship between trust and performance. The study assessed the levels of trust and performance in the surgery and anaesthesiology department during a very stressful period for Greece (economic crisis) and offered a user friendly and robust assessment tool. The study concludes that the Greek version of the TRUST questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring team performance among Greek perioperative teams. Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.

  1. Validation of argo data in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Reddy, G.V.; Ratnakaran, L.; Revichandran, C.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Gayana (Concepción) - VALIDATION OF ARGO DATA IN THE INDIAN OCEA... 8/11/2006http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-65382004000300025&lng=... susceptible to fouling and associated drift because of the possible change... initial profiles (profiles 1 and 2). Figure-1b represents the same as that in figure-1a, but for 29 match-ups involving profile numbers 5 and above. Page 2 of 5Gayana (Concepción) - VALIDATION OF ARGO DATA IN THE INDIAN OCEA... 8/11/2006http://www...

  2. Validation of safeguards monitoring systems and their simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standley, V.; Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2001-01-01

    Research is underway at the Atominstitut in Vienna Austria where the objective is to design and validate quantitatively a safeguards monitoring system (SMS) and its simulation. The work is novel because the simulation is also used as the basis for automated evaluation of SMS data. Preliminary results indicate that video and radiation data can be automatically interpreted using this approach. Application of the technique promises that an investment in a simulation supports directly the safeguards objective, which is to catch diversion of nuclear material. Consequently, it is easier for a safeguards agency to also realize other benefits associated with simulation-based acquisition, in addition to having a quantitative method for validation

  3. Literature evidence in open targets - a target validation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Dunham, Ian; McEntyre, Johanna

    2017-06-06

    We present the Europe PMC literature component of Open Targets - a target validation platform that integrates various evidence to aid drug target identification and validation. The component identifies target-disease associations in documents and ranks the documents based on their confidence from the Europe PMC literature database, by using rules utilising expert-provided heuristic information. The confidence score of a given document represents how valuable the document is in the scope of target validation for a given target-disease association by taking into account the credibility of the association based on the properties of the text. The component serves the platform regularly with the up-to-date data since December, 2015. Currently, there are a total number of 1168365 distinct target-disease associations text mined from >26 million PubMed abstracts and >1.2 million Open Access full text articles. Our comparative analyses on the current available evidence data in the platform revealed that 850179 of these associations are exclusively identified by literature mining. This component helps the platform's users by providing the most relevant literature hits for a given target and disease. The text mining evidence along with the other types of evidence can be explored visually through https://www.targetvalidation.org and all the evidence data is available for download in json format from https://www.targetvalidation.org/downloads/data .

  4. Multimicrophone Speech Dereverberation: Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Dereverberation is required in various speech processing applications such as handsfree telephony and voice-controlled systems, especially when signals are applied that are recorded in a moderately or highly reverberant environment. In this paper, we compare a number of classical and more recently developed multimicrophone dereverberation algorithms, and validate the different algorithmic settings by means of two performance indices and a speech recognition system. It is found that some of the classical solutions obtain a moderate signal enhancement. More advanced subspace-based dereverberation techniques, on the other hand, fail to enhance the signals despite their high-computational load.

  5. Physical standards and valid caibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    The desire for improved nuclear material safeguards has led to the development and use of a number and techniques and instruments for the nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material. Sources of potential bias in NDA measurements are discussed and methods of eliminating the effects of bias in assay results are suggested. Examples are given of instruments in which these methods have been successfully applied. The results of careful attention to potential sources of assay bias are a significant reduction in the number and complexity of standards required for valid instrument calibration and more credible assay results. (auth)

  6. Verification and validation of models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, A.W.; Hodgkinson, D.P.; Jackson, C.P.; Lever, D.A.; Robinson, P.C.

    1986-12-01

    The numerical accuracy of the computer models for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport that are to be used in repository safety assessment must be tested, and their ability to describe experimental data assessed: they must be verified and validated respectively. Also appropriate ways to use the codes in performance assessments, taking into account uncertainties in present data and future conditions, must be studied. These objectives are being met by participation in international exercises, by developing bench-mark problems, and by analysing experiments. In particular the project has funded participation in the HYDROCOIN project for groundwater flow models, the Natural Analogues Working Group, and the INTRAVAL project for geosphere models. (author)

  7. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  8. Software for validating parameters retrieved from satellite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Sathe, P.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    -channel Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) onboard the Indian satellites Occansat-1 during 1999-2001 were validated using this software as a case study. The program has several added advantages over the conventional method of validation that involves strenuous...

  9. Congruent Validity of the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Thomas L.; Brown, Nina W.

    1979-01-01

    The validity of the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) was investigated by correlating it with the six Class I scales of the California Psychological Inventory on a sample of undergraduate students. Results supported the validity of the RAS. (JKS)

  10. Validity Evidence for the Security Scale as a Measure of Perceived Attachment Security in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social…

  11. Validity of a short questionnaire to assess physical activity in 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    To accurately examine associations of physical activity (PA) with disease outcomes, a valid method of assessing free-living activity is required. We examined the validity of a brief PA questionnaire (PAQ) used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PA energy

  12. An Assessment of the Title III, ESEA Validation Effort, 1973-74. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, J. Stephen, Jr.

    Evaluation materials and instructional content relevant to the IVD process for 1973-74 are presented. Section 1 of this report is an analysis of on-site experience of the validators in the employment of the Validator Self-Analysis Forms. Section 2 is Scientific Management Associates Educational Systems Division (SMA/ESD) evaluation of the 10…

  13. Development and first validation of a simplified CT-based classification system of soft tissue changes in large-head metal-on-metal total hip replacement: intra- and interrater reliability and association with revision rates in a uniform cohort of 664 arthroplasties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomsma, Martijn F.; Warringa, Niek; Edens, Mireille A.; Lingen, Christiaan P. van; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C.P.M.; Maas, Mario

    2015-01-01

    analysis was performed two-tailed using alpha 5 % as the significance level. In total, 664 scores from 664 MoM hips obtained by two observers were available for analyses. Interobserver reliability for the non-simplified version (I-V) was κw = 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.62-0.79), which indicates good agreement between the two musculoskeletal radiologists. Intra- and interobserver reliability for the simplified version (A-C) were respectively κw 0.78 (95 % CI: 0.68-0.87), and κw = 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.76). This indicates good agreement within and between the two observers. The simplified A-C version is significantly associated with revision exclusively due to MoM pathology, in both patients with unilateral MoM THA (p < 0.001) and patients with bilateral MoM THA (p < 0.044). The simplified A-C version is associated with several clinical measures. In patients with unilateral MoM THA, with or without contralateral THA, in situ time (p < 0.008), cobalt and chromium (p < 0.001) were statistically significant. In patients with bilateral MoM, cobalt (p < 0.001) and chromium (p < 0.027) were statistically significant. Revision is significantly associated with cup size (p < 0.001), anteversion of the cup (p < 0.004), serum ion levels of cobalt and chromium (p < 0.001) and the adapted classification system (p < 0.001). In univariate logistic regression analysis on revision, cup, anteversion of the cup, cobalt-chromium ion serum levels, and the simplified (A-C) CT category system were statistically significant. The simplified (A-C) CT category system was an independent associate of revision, in several multiple logistic regression models. The presented simplified CT grading system (A-C) in its first clinical validation on 48- and 64-multislice systems is reliable, showing good intra- and interrater reliability and is independently associated with revision surgery. (orig.)

  14. Development and first validation of a simplified CT-based classification system of soft tissue changes in large-head metal-on-metal total hip replacement: intra- and interrater reliability and association with revision rates in a uniform cohort of 664 arthroplasties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomsma, Martijn F.; Warringa, Niek [Isala Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Edens, Mireille A. [Isala Hospital, Department of Innovation and Science, Zwolle (Netherlands); Lingen, Christiaan P. van; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C.P.M. [Isala Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Zwolle (Netherlands); Maas, Mario [AMC, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    analysis was performed two-tailed using alpha 5 % as the significance level. In total, 664 scores from 664 MoM hips obtained by two observers were available for analyses. Interobserver reliability for the non-simplified version (I-V) was κw = 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.62-0.79), which indicates good agreement between the two musculoskeletal radiologists. Intra- and interobserver reliability for the simplified version (A-C) were respectively κw 0.78 (95 % CI: 0.68-0.87), and κw = 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.76). This indicates good agreement within and between the two observers. The simplified A-C version is significantly associated with revision exclusively due to MoM pathology, in both patients with unilateral MoM THA (p < 0.001) and patients with bilateral MoM THA (p < 0.044). The simplified A-C version is associated with several clinical measures. In patients with unilateral MoM THA, with or without contralateral THA, in situ time (p < 0.008), cobalt and chromium (p < 0.001) were statistically significant. In patients with bilateral MoM, cobalt (p < 0.001) and chromium (p < 0.027) were statistically significant. Revision is significantly associated with cup size (p < 0.001), anteversion of the cup (p < 0.004), serum ion levels of cobalt and chromium (p < 0.001) and the adapted classification system (p < 0.001). In univariate logistic regression analysis on revision, cup, anteversion of the cup, cobalt-chromium ion serum levels, and the simplified (A-C) CT category system were statistically significant. The simplified (A-C) CT category system was an independent associate of revision, in several multiple logistic regression models. The presented simplified CT grading system (A-C) in its first clinical validation on 48- and 64-multislice systems is reliable, showing good intra- and interrater reliability and is independently associated with revision surgery. (orig.)

  15. Trace-based post-silicon validation for VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    This book first provides a comprehensive coverage of state-of-the-art validation solutions based on real-time signal tracing to guarantee the correctness of VLSI circuits.  The authors discuss several key challenges in post-silicon validation and provide automated solutions that are systematic and cost-effective.  A series of automatic tracing solutions and innovative design for debug (DfD) techniques are described, including techniques for trace signal selection for enhancing visibility of functional errors, a multiplexed signal tracing strategy for improving functional error detection, a tracing solution for debugging electrical errors, an interconnection fabric for increasing data bandwidth and supporting multi-core debug, an interconnection fabric design and optimization technique to increase transfer flexibility and a DfD design and associated tracing solution for improving debug efficiency and expanding tracing window. The solutions presented in this book improve the validation quality of VLSI circuit...

  16. Validation of geotechnical software for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeGore, T.; Hoover, J.D.; Khaleel, R.; Thornton, E.C.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Lanigan, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    An important step in the characterization of a high level nuclear waste repository is to demonstrate that geotechnical software, used in performance assessment, correctly models validation. There is another type of validation, called software validation. It is based on meeting the requirements of specifications documents (e.g. IEEE specifications) and does not directly address the correctness of the specifications. The process of comparing physical experimental results with the predicted results should incorporate an objective measure of the level of confidence regarding correctness. This paper reports on a methodology developed that allows the experimental uncertainties to be explicitly included in the comparison process. The methodology also allows objective confidence levels to be associated with the software. In the event of a poor comparison, the method also lays the foundation for improving the software

  17. CFD validation experiments for hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    A roadmap for CFD code validation is introduced. The elements of the roadmap are consistent with air-breathing vehicle design requirements and related to the important flow path components: forebody, inlet, combustor, and nozzle. Building block and benchmark validation experiments are identified along with their test conditions and measurements. Based on an evaluation criteria, recommendations for an initial CFD validation data base are given and gaps identified where future experiments could provide new validation data.

  18. A CFD validation roadmap for hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Joseph G.

    1993-01-01

    A roadmap for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation is developed. The elements of the roadmap are consistent with air-breathing vehicle design requirements and related to the important flow path components: forebody, inlet, combustor, and nozzle. Building block and benchmark validation experiments are identified along with their test conditions and measurements. Based on an evaluation criteria, recommendations for an initial CFD validation data base are given and gaps identified where future experiments would provide the needed validation data.

  19. MODIS Hotspot Validation over Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerachai Tanpipat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure remote sensing MODIS hotspot (also known as active fire products or hotspots quality and precision in forest fire control and management in Thailand, an increased level of confidence is needed. Accuracy assessment of MODIS hotspots utilizing field survey data validation is described. A quantitative evaluation of MODIS hotspot products has been carried out since the 2007 forest fire season. The carefully chosen hotspots were scattered throughout the country and within the protected areas of the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. Three areas were selected as test sites for validation guidelines. Both ground and aerial field surveys were also conducted in this study by the Forest Fire Control Division, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conversation Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand. High accuracy of 91.84 %, 95.60% and 97.53% for the 2007, 2008 and 2009 fire seasons were observed, resulting in increased confidence in the use of MODIS hotspots for forest fire control and management in Thailand.

  20. ASTEC validation on PANDA SETH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaib, Ahmed; Bleyer, Alexandre; Schwarz, Siegfried

    2009-01-01

    The ASTEC code development by IRSN and GRS is aimed to provide an integral code for the simulation of the whole course of severe accidents in Light-Water Reactors. ASTEC is a complex system of codes for reactor safety assessment. In this validation, only the thermal-hydraulic module of ASTEC code is used. ASTEC is a lumped-parameter code able to represent multi-compartment containments. It uses the following main elements: zones (compartments), junctions (liquids and atmospherics) and structures. The zones are connected by junctions and contain steam, water and non condensable gases. They exchange heat with structures by different heat transfer regimes: convection, radiation and condensation. This paper presents the validation of ASTEC V1.3 on the tests T9 and T9bis, of the PANDA OECD/SETH experimental program, investigating the impact of injection velocity and steam condensation on the plume shape and on the gas distribution. Dedicated meshes were developed to simulate the test facility with the two vessels DW1, DW2 and the interconnection pipe. The obtained numerical results are analyzed and compared to the experiments. The comparison shows a good agreement between experiments and calculations. (author)

  1. Benchmarks for GADRAS performance validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattingly, John K.; Mitchell, Dean James; Rhykerd, Charles L. Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) was validated by comparing GADRAS model results to experimental measurements for a series of benchmark sources. Sources for the benchmark include a plutonium metal sphere, bare and shielded in polyethylene, plutonium oxide in cans, a highly enriched uranium sphere, bare and shielded in polyethylene, a depleted uranium shell and spheres, and a natural uranium sphere. The benchmark experimental data were previously acquired and consist of careful collection of background and calibration source spectra along with the source spectra. The calibration data were fit with GADRAS to determine response functions for the detector in each experiment. A one-dimensional model (pie chart) was constructed for each source based on the dimensions of the benchmark source. The GADRAS code made a forward calculation from each model to predict the radiation spectrum for the detector used in the benchmark experiment. The comparisons between the GADRAS calculation and the experimental measurements are excellent, validating that GADRAS can correctly predict the radiation spectra for these well-defined benchmark sources.

  2. Expert system validation in prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Todd; Stachowitz, Rolf; Chang, Chin-Liang; Combs, Jacqueline

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the Expert System Validation Assistant (EVA) is being implemented in Prolog at the Lockheed AI Center. Prolog was chosen to facilitate rapid prototyping of the structure and logic checkers and since February 1987, we have implemented code to check for irrelevance, subsumption, duplication, deadends, unreachability, and cycles. The architecture chosen is extremely flexible and expansible, yet concise and complementary with the normal interactive style of Prolog. The foundation of the system is in the connection graph representation. Rules and facts are modeled as nodes in the graph and arcs indicate common patterns between rules. The basic activity of the validation system is then a traversal of the connection graph, searching for various patterns the system recognizes as erroneous. To aid in specifying these patterns, a metalanguage is developed, providing the user with the basic facilities required to reason about the expert system. Using the metalanguage, the user can, for example, give the Prolog inference engine the goal of finding inconsistent conclusions among the rules, and Prolog will search the graph intantiations which can match the definition of inconsistency. Examples of code for some of the checkers are provided and the algorithms explained. Technical highlights include automatic construction of a connection graph, demonstration of the use of metalanguage, the A* algorithm modified to detect all unique cycles, general-purpose stacks in Prolog, and a general-purpose database browser with pattern completion.

  3. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

  4. Validity Semantics in Educational and Psychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcoat, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The semantics, or meaning, of validity is a fluid concept in educational and psychological testing. Contemporary controversies surrounding this concept appear to stem from the proper location of validity. Under one view, validity is a property of score-based inferences and entailed uses of test scores. This view is challenged by the…

  5. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  6. The Role of Generalizability in Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    The relationship between generalizability and validity is explained, making four important points. The first is that generalizability coefficients provide upper bounds on validity. The second point is that generalization is one step in most interpretive arguments, and therefore, generalizability is a necessary condition for the validity of these…

  7. Diseño y validación de un nuevo método para estimar reductores hidrosolubles asociados con la quitina Design and validation of a new method for estimation of water-soluble reducers associated with chitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yania Suárez Pérez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló por primera vez un método espectrofotométrico para estimar reductores hidrosolubles asociados con la quitina materia prima. Para el ajuste del método se utilizó glucosamina como sustancia de referencia. Las determinaciones se realizaron a 330 nm que fue la longitud de onda de máxima absorción. Se seleccionó como tiempo óptimo de calentamiento 5 min y se verificó la selectividad de la respuesta analítica. Se demostró el cumplimiento de la ley de Lambert-Beer en el intervalo de 100-300 mg/mL. Se obtuvo un extracto acuoso a partir de quitina materia prima procesado para eliminar posibles interferencias, el cual se empleó como control en la validación del método. El método fue lineal, exacto y preciso en el intervalo estudiado. El límite de detección fue de 25,21 mg/mL y el de cuantificación de 65,45 mg/mL.For the first time, a spectrophotometric method to estimate water-soluble reducers associated with raw material chitin was developed. For the purpose of adjusting the method, glucosamine as a reference substance was used. The estimations were made at 330 nm that was the wavelength of maximum absorption. The selected optimal heating time was 5 min; the selectivity of analytical response was checked. The Lambert-Beer law was demonstrated in the 100-300 mg/mL interval. An aqueous extract from raw material chitin was obtained and then processed to eliminate possible interference and be used as a control for the method validation. The method was linear, exact and accurate in the studied interval. The detection limit was 25,21 mg/mL and the quantification limit was 65,45 mg/mL.

  8. Site characterization and validation - Inflow to the validation drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, W.G.C.; Black, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogeological experiments have had an essential role in the characterization of the drift site on the Stripa project. This report focuses on the methods employed and the results obtained from inflow experiments performed on the excavated drift in stage 5 of the SCV programme. Inflows were collected in sumps on the floor, in plastic sheeting on the upper walls and ceiling, and measured by means of differential humidity of ventilated air at the bulkhead. Detailed evaporation experiments were also undertaken on uncovered areas of the excavated drift. The inflow distribution was determined on the basis of a system of roughly equal sized grid rectangles. The results have highlighted the overriding importance of fractures in the supply of water to the drift site. The validation drift experiment has revealed that in excess of 99% of inflow comes from a 5 m section corresponding to the 'H' zone, and that as much as 57% was observed coming from a single grid square (267). There was considerable heterogeneity even within the 'H' zone, with 38% of such samples areas yielding no flow at all. Model predictions in stage 4 underestimated the very substantial declines in inflow observed in the validation drift when compared to the SDE; this was especially so in the 'good' rock areas. Increased drawdowns in the drift have generated less flow and reduced head responses in nearby boreholes by a similar proportion. This behaviour has been the focus for considerable study in the latter part of the SCV project, and a number of potential processes have been proposed. These include 'transience', stress redistribution resulting from the creation of the drift, chemical precipitation, blast-induced dynamic unloading and related gas intrusion, and degassing. (au)

  9. How valid are commercially available medical simulators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunt, JJ; Wulms, PH; Kerkhoffs, GM; Dankelman, J; van Dijk, CN; Tuijthof, GJM

    2014-01-01

    Background Since simulators offer important advantages, they are increasingly used in medical education and medical skills training that require physical actions. A wide variety of simulators have become commercially available. It is of high importance that evidence is provided that training on these simulators can actually improve clinical performance on live patients. Therefore, the aim of this review is to determine the availability of different types of simulators and the evidence of their validation, to offer insight regarding which simulators are suitable to use in the clinical setting as a training modality. Summary Four hundred and thirty-three commercially available simulators were found, from which 405 (94%) were physical models. One hundred and thirty validation studies evaluated 35 (8%) commercially available medical simulators for levels of validity ranging from face to predictive validity. Solely simulators that are used for surgical skills training were validated for the highest validity level (predictive validity). Twenty-four (37%) simulators that give objective feedback had been validated. Studies that tested more powerful levels of validity (concurrent and predictive validity) were methodologically stronger than studies that tested more elementary levels of validity (face, content, and construct validity). Conclusion Ninety-three point five percent of the commercially available simulators are not known to be tested for validity. Although the importance of (a high level of) validation depends on the difficulty level of skills training and possible consequences when skills are insufficient, it is advisable for medical professionals, trainees, medical educators, and companies who manufacture medical simulators to critically judge the available medical simulators for proper validation. This way adequate, safe, and affordable medical psychomotor skills training can be achieved. PMID:25342926

  10. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Association, Washington, D.C., 1974) (hereinafter “A.P.A. Standards”) and standard textbooks and journals in... in the relevant labor market and the job should be considered in the determination of when a validity...

  11. Convergent Validity of the PUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively

  12. Development and initial validation of a cessation fatigue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Heckman, Bryan W; Meier, Ellen; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2017-07-01

    Smoking cessation fatigue, or tiredness of attempting to quit smoking, has been posited as a latent construct encompassing loss of motivation, loss of hope in cessation success, decreased self-efficacy, and exhaustion of self-control resources. Despite the potential clinical impact of characterizing cessation fatigue, there is currently no validated measure to assess it. Using a rational scale development approach, we developed a cessation fatigue measure and examined its reliability and construct validity in relation to a) smokers' experience of a recently failed quit attempt (QA) and b) readiness to engage in a subsequent QA. Data were drawn from an online cross-sectional survey of 484 smokers who relapsed from a QA within the past 30days. Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors within the 17-item Cessation Fatigue Scale (CFS), which we labeled: emotional exhaustion, pessimism, and devaluation. High internal consistency was observed for each factor and across the full scale. As expected, CFS overall was positively associated with withdrawal severity and difficulty quitting. CFS was negatively associated with previously validated measures of intention to quit, self-efficacy, and abstinence-related motivational engagement, even after adjusting for nicotine dependence. Findings provide initial validation for a new tool to assess cessation fatigue and contribute needed information on a theory-driven component of cessation-related motivation and relapse risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Validation of consistency of Mendelian sampling variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrisevä, A-M; Fikse, W F; Mäntysaari, E A; Jakobsen, J; Aamand, G P; Dürr, J; Lidauer, M H

    2018-03-01

    Experiences from international sire evaluation indicate that the multiple-trait across-country evaluation method is sensitive to changes in genetic variance over time. Top bulls from birth year classes with inflated genetic variance will benefit, hampering reliable ranking of bulls. However, none of the methods available today enable countries to validate their national evaluation models for heterogeneity of genetic variance. We describe a new validation method to fill this gap comprising the following steps: estimating within-year genetic variances using Mendelian sampling and its prediction error variance, fitting a weighted linear regression between the estimates and the years under study, identifying possible outliers, and defining a 95% empirical confidence interval for a possible trend in the estimates. We tested the specificity and sensitivity of the proposed validation method with simulated data using a real data structure. Moderate (M) and small (S) size populations were simulated under 3 scenarios: a control with homogeneous variance and 2 scenarios with yearly increases in phenotypic variance of 2 and 10%, respectively. Results showed that the new method was able to estimate genetic variance accurately enough to detect bias in genetic variance. Under the control scenario, the trend in genetic variance was practically zero in setting M. Testing cows with an average birth year class size of more than 43,000 in setting M showed that tolerance values are needed for both the trend and the outlier tests to detect only cases with a practical effect in larger data sets. Regardless of the magnitude (yearly increases in phenotypic variance of 2 or 10%) of the generated trend, it deviated statistically significantly from zero in all data replicates for both cows and bulls in setting M. In setting S with a mean of 27 bulls in a year class, the sampling error and thus the probability of a false-positive result clearly increased. Still, overall estimated genetic

  14. Turbine-99 unsteady simulations - Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, M J; Andersson, U; Loevgren, H M

    2010-01-01

    The Turbine-99 test case, a Kaplan draft tube model, aimed to determine the state of the art within draft tube simulation. Three workshops were organized on the matter in 1999, 2001 and 2005 where the geometry and experimental data were provided as boundary conditions to the participants. Since the last workshop, computational power and flow modelling have been developed and the available data completed with unsteady pressure measurements and phase resolved velocity measurements in the cone. Such new set of data together with the corresponding phase resolved velocity boundary conditions offer new possibilities to validate unsteady numerical simulations in Kaplan draft tube. The present work presents simulation of the Turbine-99 test case with time dependent angular resolved inlet velocity boundary conditions. Different grids and time steps are investigated. The results are compared to experimental time dependent pressure and velocity measurements.

  15. Ultrasonic techniques validation on shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, J.; Gonzalez, E.

    1998-01-01

    Due to the results obtained in several international RRT during the 80's, it has been necessary to prove the effectiveness of the NDT techniques. For this reason it has been imperative to verify the goodness of the Inspection Procedure over different mock-ups, representative of the inspection area and with real defects. Prior to the revision of the inspection procedure and with the aim of updating the techniques used, it is a good practice to perform different scans on the mock-ups until the validation is achieved. It is at this point, where all the parameters of the inspection at hands are defined; transducer, step, scan direction,... and what it's more important, it will be demonstrated that the technique to be used for the area required to inspection is suitable to evaluate the degradation phenomena that could appear. (Author)

  16. Turbine-99 unsteady simulations - Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, M. J.; Andersson, U.; Lövgren, H. M.

    2010-08-01

    The Turbine-99 test case, a Kaplan draft tube model, aimed to determine the state of the art within draft tube simulation. Three workshops were organized on the matter in 1999, 2001 and 2005 where the geometry and experimental data were provided as boundary conditions to the participants. Since the last workshop, computational power and flow modelling have been developed and the available data completed with unsteady pressure measurements and phase resolved velocity measurements in the cone. Such new set of data together with the corresponding phase resolved velocity boundary conditions offer new possibilities to validate unsteady numerical simulations in Kaplan draft tube. The present work presents simulation of the Turbine-99 test case with time dependent angular resolved inlet velocity boundary conditions. Different grids and time steps are investigated. The results are compared to experimental time dependent pressure and velocity measurements.

  17. PEMFC modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, J.V.C. [Federal University of Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Ordonez, J.C.; Martins, L.S. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: ordonez@caps.fsu.edu, martins@caps.fsu.edu

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a simplified and comprehensive PEMFC mathematical model introduced in previous studies is experimentally validated. Numerical results are obtained for an existing set of commercial unit PEM fuel cells. The model accounts for pressure drops in the gas channels, and for temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction, that are investigated by direct infrared imaging, showing that even at low current operation such gradients are present in fuel cell operation, and therefore should be considered by a PEMFC model, since large coolant flow rates are limited due to induced high pressure drops in the cooling channels. The computed polarization and power curves are directly compared to the experimentally measured ones with good qualitative and quantitative agreement. The combination of accuracy and low computational time allow for the future utilization of the model as a reliable tool for PEMFC simulation, control, design and optimization purposes. (author)

  18. Cable SGEMP Code Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, William Parker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for CA Weapons Systems Engineering

    2013-05-01

    This report compared data taken on the Modular Bremsstrahlung Simulator using copper jacketed (cujac) cables with calculations using the RHSD-RA Cable SGEMP analysis tool. The tool relies on CEPXS/ONBFP to perform radiation transport in a series of 1D slices through the cable, and then uses a Green function technique to evaluate the expected current drive on the center conductor. The data were obtained in 2003 as part of a Cabana verification and validation experiment using 1-D geometries, but were not evaluated until now. The agreement between data and model is not adequate unless gaps between the dielectric and outer conductor (ground) are assumed, and these gaps are large compared with what is believed to be in the actual cable.

  19. Comparative Validation of Building Simulation Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    The scope of this subtask is to perform a comparative validation of the building simulation software for the buildings with the double skin façade. The outline of the results in the comparative validation identifies the areas where is no correspondence achieved, i.e. calculation of the air flow r...... is that the comparative validation can be regarded as the main argument to continue the validation of the building simulation software for the buildings with the double skin façade with the empirical validation test cases.......The scope of this subtask is to perform a comparative validation of the building simulation software for the buildings with the double skin façade. The outline of the results in the comparative validation identifies the areas where is no correspondence achieved, i.e. calculation of the air flow...

  20. Optimising screening for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder: Validation and evaluation of objective and subjective tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Støttrup, Mette Marie; Nayberg, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    by correlation with established objective and subjective cognitive measures, and decision validity was determined with Receiver-Operating-Characteristic analyses. Correlations and linear regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between objective and subjective cognitive impairment......Introduction Cognitive impairment is common in bipolar disorder and contributes to socio-occupational difficulties. The objective was to validate and evaluate instruments to screen for and monitor cognitive impairments, and improve the understanding of the association between cognitive measures...

  1. Validation plays the role of a "bridge" in connecting remote sensing research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Deng, Ying; Fan, Yida

    2018-07-01

    Remote sensing products contribute to improving earth observations over space and time. Uncertainties exist in products of different levels; thus, validation of these products before and during their applications is critical. This study discusses the meaning of validation in depth and proposes a new definition of reliability for use with such products. In this context, validation should include three aspects: a description of the relevant uncertainties, quantitative measurement results and a qualitative judgment that considers the needs of users. A literature overview is then presented evidencing improvements in the concepts associated with validation. It shows that the root mean squared error (RMSE) is widely used to express accuracy; increasing numbers of remote sensing products have been validated; research institutes contribute most validation efforts; and sufficient validation studies encourage the application of remote sensing products. Validation plays a connecting role in the distribution and application of remote sensing products. Validation connects simple remote sensing subjects with other disciplines, and it connects primary research with practical applications. Based on the above findings, it is suggested that validation efforts that include wider cooperation among research institutes and full consideration of the needs of users should be promoted.

  2. A contemporary approach to validity arguments: a practical guide to Kane's framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Brydges, Ryan; Ginsburg, Shiphra; Hatala, Rose

    2015-06-01

    Assessment is central to medical education and the validation of assessments is vital to their use. Earlier validity frameworks suffer from a multiplicity of types of validity or failure to prioritise among sources of validity evidence. Kane's framework addresses both concerns by emphasising key inferences as the assessment progresses from a single observation to a final decision. Evidence evaluating these inferences is planned and presented as a validity argument. We aim to offer a practical introduction to the key concepts of Kane's framework that educators will find accessible and applicable to a wide range of assessment tools and activities. All assessments are ultimately intended to facilitate a defensible decision about the person being assessed. Validation is the process of collecting and interpreting evidence to support that decision. Rigorous validation involves articulating the claims and assumptions associated with the proposed decision (the interpretation/use argument), empirically testing these assumptions, and organising evidence into a coherent validity argument. Kane identifies four inferences in the validity argument: Scoring (translating an observation into one or more scores); Generalisation (using the score[s] as a reflection of performance in a test setting); Extrapolation (using the score[s] as a reflection of real-world performance), and Implications (applying the score[s] to inform a decision or action). Evidence should be collected to support each of these inferences and should focus on the most questionable assumptions in the chain of inference. Key assumptions (and needed evidence) vary depending on the assessment's intended use or associated decision. Kane's framework applies to quantitative and qualitative assessments, and to individual tests and programmes of assessment. Validation focuses on evaluating the key claims, assumptions and inferences that link assessment scores with their intended interpretations and uses. The Implications

  3. Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-12

    polarization control and the CV state and the LO state are separated at a polarizing beam splitter . The CV state is delayed relative to the LO state, and... splitter or loss imperfections. We have identified a number of risks associated with implementing this design . The two most critical risks are: • The...Contractor Address: 10 Moulton Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 Title of the Project: Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY

  4. Active Transportation Demand Management (ATDM) Trajectory Level Validation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ATDM Trajectory Validation project developed a validation framework and a trajectory computational engine to compare and validate simulated and observed vehicle...

  5. Benchmarking - a validation of UTDefect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niklasson, Jonas; Bostroem, Anders; Wirdelius, Haakan

    2006-06-01

    New and stronger demands on reliability of used NDE/NDT procedures and methods have stimulated the development of simulation tools of NDT. Modelling of ultrasonic non-destructive testing is useful for a number of reasons, e.g. physical understanding, parametric studies and in the qualification of procedures and personnel. The traditional way of qualifying a procedure is to generate a technical justification by employing experimental verification of the chosen technique. The manufacturing of test pieces is often very expensive and time consuming. It also tends to introduce a number of possible misalignments between the actual NDT situation and the proposed experimental simulation. The UTDefect computer code (SUNDT/simSUNDT) has been developed, together with the Dept. of Mechanics at Chalmers Univ. of Technology, during a decade and simulates the entire ultrasonic testing situation. A thorough validated model has the ability to be an alternative and a complement to the experimental work in order to reduce the extensive cost. The validation can be accomplished by comparisons with other models, but ultimately by comparisons with experiments. This project addresses the last alternative but provides an opportunity to, in a later stage, compare with other software when all data are made public and available. The comparison has been with experimental data from an international benchmark study initiated by the World Federation of NDE Centers. The experiments have been conducted with planar and spherically focused immersion transducers. The defects considered are side-drilled holes, flat-bottomed holes, and a spherical cavity. The data from the experiments are a reference signal used for calibration (the signal from the front surface of the test block at normal incidence) and the raw output from the scattering experiment. In all, more than forty cases have been compared. The agreement between UTDefect and the experiments was in general good (deviation less than 2dB) when the

  6. How valid are commercially available medical simulators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stunt JJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available JJ Stunt,1 PH Wulms,2 GM Kerkhoffs,1 J Dankelman,2 CN van Dijk,1 GJM Tuijthof1,2 1Orthopedic Research Center Amsterdam, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical, Materials and Maritime Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands Background: Since simulators offer important advantages, they are increasingly used in medical education and medical skills training that require physical actions. A wide variety of simulators have become commercially available. It is of high importance that evidence is provided that training on these simulators can actually improve clinical performance on live patients. Therefore, the aim of this review is to determine the availability of different types of simulators and the evidence of their validation, to offer insight regarding which simulators are suitable to use in the clinical setting as a training modality. Summary: Four hundred and thirty-three commercially available simulators were found, from which 405 (94% were physical models. One hundred and thirty validation studies evaluated 35 (8% commercially available medical simulators for levels of validity ranging from face to predictive validity. Solely simulators that are used for surgical skills training were validated for the highest validity level (predictive validity. Twenty-four (37% simulators that give objective feedback had been validated. Studies that tested more powerful levels of validity (concurrent and predictive validity were methodologically stronger than studies that tested more elementary levels of validity (face, content, and construct validity. Conclusion: Ninety-three point five percent of the commercially available simulators are not known to be tested for validity. Although the importance of (a high level of validation depends on the difficulty level of skills training and possible consequences when skills are

  7. Development and validation of an index of musculoskeletal functional limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Jeffrey N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While musculoskeletal problems are leading sources of disability, there has been little research on measuring the number of functionally limiting musculoskeletal problems for use as predictor of outcome in studies of chronic disease. This paper reports on the development and preliminary validation of a self administered musculoskeletal functional limitations index. Methods We developed a summary musculoskeletal functional limitations index based upon a six-item self administered questionnaire in which subjects indicate whether they are limited a lot, a little or not at all because of problems in six anatomic regions (knees, hips, ankles and feet, back, neck, upper extremities. Responses are summed into an index score. The index was completed by a sample of total knee replacement recipients from four US states. Our analyses examined convergent validity at the item and at the index level as well as discriminant validity and the independence of the index from other correlates of quality of life. Results 782 subjects completed all items of the musculoskeletal functional limitations index and were included in the analyses. The mean age of the sample was 75 years and 64% were female. The index demonstrated anticipated associations with self-reported quality of life, activities of daily living, WOMAC functional status score, use of walking support, frequency of usual exercise, frequency of falls and dependence upon another person for assistance with chores. The index was strongly and independently associated with self-reported overall health. Conclusion The self-reported musculoskeletal functional limitations index appears to be a valid measure of musculoskeletal functional limitations, in the aspects of validity assessed in this study. It is useful for outcome studies following TKR and shows promise as a covariate in studies of chronic disease outcomes.

  8. Validation and selection of ODE based systems biology models: how to arrive at more reliable decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasdemir, Dicle; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Smilde, Age K

    2015-07-08

    Most ordinary differential equation (ODE) based modeling studies in systems biology involve a hold-out validation step for model validation. In this framework a pre-determined part of the data is used as validation data and, therefore it is not used for estimating the parameters of the model. The model is assumed to be validated if the model predictions on the validation dataset show good agreement with the data. Model selection between alternative model structures can also be performed in the same setting, based on the predictive power of the model structures on the validation dataset. However, drawbacks associated with this approach are usually under-estimated. We have carried out simulations by using a recently published High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway from S.cerevisiae to demonstrate these drawbacks. We have shown that it is very important how the data is partitioned and which part of the data is used for validation purposes. The hold-out validation strategy leads to biased conclusions, since it can lead to different validation and selection decisions when different partitioning schemes are used. Furthermore, finding sensible partitioning schemes that would lead to reliable decisions are heavily dependent on the biology and unknown model parameters which turns the problem into a paradox. This brings the need for alternative validation approaches that offer flexible partitioning of the data. For this purpose, we have introduced a stratified random cross-validation (SRCV) approach that successfully overcomes these limitations. SRCV leads to more stable decisions for both validation and selection which are not biased by underlying biological phenomena. Furthermore, it is less dependent on the specific noise realization in the data. Therefore, it proves to be a promising alternative to the standard hold-out validation strategy.

  9. Validation of the Danish PAROLE lexicon (upubliceret)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe; Christoffersen, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    This validation is based on the Danish PAROLE lexicon dated June 20, 1998, downloaded on March 16, 1999. Subsequently, the developers of the lexicon have informed us that they have been revising the lexicon, in particular the morphological level. Morphological entries were originally generated...... automatically from a machine-readable version of the Official Danish Spelling Dictionary (Retskrivningsordbogen 1986, in the following RO86), and this resulted in some overgeneration, which the developers started eliminating after submitting the Danish PAROLE lexicon for validation. The present validation is......, however, based on the January 1997 version of the lexicon. The validation as such complies with the specifications described in ELRA validation manuals for lexical data, i.e. Underwood and Navaretta: "A Draft Manual for the Validation of Lexica, Final Report" [Underwood & Navaretta1997] and Braasch: "A...

  10. Reliability and validity in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannigan, Katrina; Watson, Roger

    2009-12-01

    To explore and explain the different concepts of reliability and validity as they are related to measurement instruments in social science and health care. There are different concepts contained in the terms reliability and validity and these are often explained poorly and there is often confusion between them. To develop some clarity about reliability and validity a conceptual framework was built based on the existing literature. The concepts of reliability, validity and utility are explored and explained. Reliability contains the concepts of internal consistency and stability and equivalence. Validity contains the concepts of content, face, criterion, concurrent, predictive, construct, convergent (and divergent), factorial and discriminant. In addition, for clinical practice and research, it is essential to establish the utility of a measurement instrument. To use measurement instruments appropriately in clinical practice, the extent to which they are reliable, valid and usable must be established.

  11. Verifying and Validating Simulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    This presentation is a high-level discussion of the Verification and Validation (V&V) of computational models. Definitions of V&V are given to emphasize that “validation” is never performed in a vacuum; it accounts, instead, for the current state-of-knowledge in the discipline considered. In particular comparisons between physical measurements and numerical predictions should account for their respective sources of uncertainty. The differences between error (bias), aleatoric uncertainty (randomness) and epistemic uncertainty (ignorance, lack-of- knowledge) are briefly discussed. Four types of uncertainty in physics and engineering are discussed: 1) experimental variability, 2) variability and randomness, 3) numerical uncertainty and 4) model-form uncertainty. Statistical sampling methods are available to propagate, and analyze, variability and randomness. Numerical uncertainty originates from the truncation error introduced by the discretization of partial differential equations in time and space. Model-form uncertainty is introduced by assumptions often formulated to render a complex problem more tractable and amenable to modeling and simulation. The discussion concludes with high-level guidance to assess the “credibility” of numerical simulations, which stems from the level of rigor with which these various sources of uncertainty are assessed and quantified.

  12. Neutron flux control systems validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hascik, R.

    2003-01-01

    In nuclear installations main requirement is to obtain corresponding nuclear safety in all operation conditions. From the nuclear safety point of view is commissioning and start-up after reactor refuelling appropriate period for safety systems verification. In this paper, methodology, performance and results of neutron flux measurements systems validation is presented. Standard neutron flux measuring chains incorporated into the reactor protection and control system are used. Standard neutron flux measuring chain contains detector, preamplifier, wiring to data acquisition unit, data acquisition unit, wiring to display at control room and display at control room. During reactor outage only data acquisition unit and wiring and displaying at reactor control room is verified. It is impossible to verify detector, preamplifier and wiring to data acquisition recording unit during reactor refuelling according to low power. Adjustment and accurate functionality of these chains is confirmed by start-up rate (SUR) measurement during start-up tests after refuelling of the reactors. This measurement has direct impact to nuclear safety and increase operational nuclear safety level. Briefly description of each measuring system is given. Results are illustrated on measurements performed at Bohunice NPP during reactor start-up tests. Main failures and their elimination are described (Authors)

  13. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic’s Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  14. CTF Validation and Verification Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blyth, Taylor S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Dances, Christopher A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Magedanz, Jeffrey W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Jernigan, Caleb [Holtec International, Marlton, NJ (United States); Kelly, Joeseph [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rockville, MD (United States); Toptan, Aysenur [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Palmtag, Scott [Core Physics, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays- Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a Thermal/Hydraulic (T/H) simulation code designed for Light Water Reactor (LWR) analysis. It uses a two-fluid, three-field (i.e. fluid film, fluid drops, and vapor) modeling approach. Both sub-channel and 3D Cartesian forms of nine conservation equations are available for LWR modeling. The code was originally developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1980 and has been used and modified by several institutions over the last several decades. COBRA-TF is also used at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) by the Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG), and has been improved, updated, and subsequently became the PSU RDFMG version of COBRA-TF (CTF). One part of the improvement process includes validating the methods in CTF. This document seeks to provide a certain level of certainty and confidence in the predictive capabilities of the code for the scenarios it was designed to model--rod bundle geometries with operating conditions that are representative of prototypical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)s and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)s in both normal and accident conditions. This is done by modeling a variety of experiments that simulate these scenarios and then presenting a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results that demonstrates the accuracy to which CTF is capable of capturing specific quantities of interest.

  15. Seismic Data Gathering and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Three recent earthquakes in the last seven years have exceeded their design basis earthquake values (so it is implied that damage to SSC’s should have occurred). These seismic events were recorded at North Anna (August 2011, detailed information provided in [Virginia Electric and Power Company Memo]), Fukushima Daichii and Daini (March 2011 [TEPCO 1]), and Kaswazaki-Kariwa (2007, [TEPCO 2]). However, seismic walk downs at some of these plants indicate that very little damage occurred to safety class systems and components due to the seismic motion. This report presents seismic data gathered for two of the three events mentioned above and recommends a path for using that data for two purposes. One purpose is to determine what margins exist in current industry standard seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) tools. The second purpose is the use the data to validated seismic site response tools and SSI tools. The gathered data represents free field soil and in-structure acceleration time histories data. Gathered data also includes elastic and dynamic soil properties and structural drawings. Gathering data and comparing with existing models has potential to identify areas of uncertainty that should be removed from current seismic analysis and SPRA approaches. Removing uncertainty (to the extent possible) from SPRA’s will allow NPP owners to make decisions on where to reduce risk. Once a realistic understanding of seismic response is established for a nuclear power plant (NPP) then decisions on needed protective measures, such as SI, can be made.

  16. Predictive validity of neurotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Winning; Butler, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Stig

    2014-01-01

    association with the other two categories of neurosis than would be expected by chance. CONCLUSION: Anxiety neurosis and obsessive-compulsive neurosis are more severe disorders than hysterical neurosis, both in terms of symptom profile and depression, including suicidal behaviour. The identified suicides were...

  17. Use of the color trails test as an embedded measure of performance validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, George K; Algina, James

    2013-01-01

    One hundred personal injury litigants and disability claimants referred for a forensic neuropsychological evaluation were administered both portions of the Color Trails Test (CTT) as part of a more comprehensive battery of standardized tests. Subjects who failed two or more free-standing tests of cognitive performance validity formed the Failed Performance Validity (FPV) group, while subjects who passed all free-standing performance validity measures were assigned to the Passed Performance Validity (PPV) group. A cutscore of ≥45 seconds to complete Color Trails 1 (CT1) was associated with a classification accuracy of 78%, good sensitivity (66%) and high specificity (90%), while a cutscore of ≥84 seconds to complete Color Trails 2 (CT2) was associated with a classification accuracy of 82%, good sensitivity (74%) and high specificity (90%). A CT1 cutscore of ≥58 seconds, and a CT2 cutscore ≥100 seconds was associated with 100% positive predictive power at base rates from 20 to 50%.

  18. Validation for chromatographic and electrophoretic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ribani, Marcelo; Bottoli, Carla Beatriz Grespan; Collins, Carol H.; Jardim, Isabel Cristina Sales Fontes; Melo, Lúcio Flávio Costa

    2004-01-01

    The validation of an analytical method is fundamental to implementing a quality control system in any analytical laboratory. As the separation techniques, GC, HPLC and CE, are often the principal tools used in such determinations, procedure validation is a necessity. The objective of this review is to describe the main aspects of validation in chromatographic and electrophoretic analysis, showing, in a general way, the similarities and differences between the guidelines established by the dif...

  19. Redundant sensor validation by using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbert, K.E.; Heger, A.S.; Alang-Rashid, N.K.

    1994-01-01

    This research is motivated by the need to relax the strict boundary of numeric-based signal validation. To this end, the use of fuzzy logic for redundant sensor validation is introduced. Since signal validation employs both numbers and qualitative statements, fuzzy logic provides a pathway for transforming human abstractions into the numerical domain and thus coupling both sources of information. With this transformation, linguistically expressed analysis principles can be coded into a classification rule-base for signal failure detection and identification

  20. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  1. Empirical validation of directed functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Ravi D; Bagic, Anto; Bostan, Andreea; Schneider, Walter; Cole, Michael W

    2017-02-01

    Mapping directions of influence in the human brain connectome represents the next phase in understanding its functional architecture. However, a host of methodological uncertainties have impeded the application of directed connectivity methods, which have primarily been validated via "ground truth" connectivity patterns embedded in simulated functional MRI (fMRI) and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) datasets. Such simulations rely on many generative assumptions, and we hence utilized a different strategy involving empirical data in which a ground truth directed connectivity pattern could be anticipated with confidence. Specifically, we exploited the established "sensory reactivation" effect in episodic memory, in which retrieval of sensory information reactivates regions involved in perceiving that sensory modality. Subjects performed a paired associate task in separate fMRI and MEG sessions, in which a ground truth reversal in directed connectivity between auditory and visual sensory regions was instantiated across task conditions. This directed connectivity reversal was successfully recovered across different algorithms, including Granger causality and Bayes network (IMAGES) approaches, and across fMRI ("raw" and deconvolved) and source-modeled MEG. These results extend simulation studies of directed connectivity, and offer practical guidelines for the use of such methods in clarifying causal mechanisms of neural processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Downs

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98. The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  3. Softcopy quality ruler method: implementation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Elaine W.; Keelan, Brian W.; Chen, Junqing; Phillips, Jonathan B.; Chen, Ying

    2009-01-01

    A softcopy quality ruler method was implemented for the International Imaging Industry Association (I3A) Camera Phone Image Quality (CPIQ) Initiative. This work extends ISO 20462 Part 3 by virtue of creating reference digital images of known subjective image quality, complimenting the hardcopy Standard Reference Stimuli (SRS). The softcopy ruler method was developed using images from a Canon EOS 1Ds Mark II D-SLR digital still camera (DSC) and a Kodak P880 point-and-shoot DSC. Images were viewed on an Apple 30in Cinema Display at a viewing distance of 34 inches. Ruler images were made for 16 scenes. Thirty ruler images were generated for each scene, representing ISO 20462 Standard Quality Scale (SQS) values of approximately 2 to 31 at an increment of one just noticeable difference (JND) by adjusting the system modulation transfer function (MTF). A Matlab GUI was developed to display the ruler and test images side-by-side with a user-adjustable ruler level controlled by a slider. A validation study was performed at Kodak, Vista Point Technology, and Aptina Imaging in which all three companies set up a similar viewing lab to run the softcopy ruler method. The results show that the three sets of data are in reasonable agreement with each other, with the differences within the range expected from observer variability. Compared to previous implementations of the quality ruler, the slider-based user interface allows approximately 2x faster assessments with 21.6% better precision.

  4. Verification and validation of control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, J.K. Jr.; Kisner, R.A.; Bhadtt, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    The following guidelines are proposed for verification and validation (V ampersand V) of nuclear power plant control system software: (a) use risk management to decide what and how much V ampersand V is needed; (b) classify each software application using a scheme that reflects what type and how much V ampersand V is needed; (c) maintain a set of reference documents with current information about each application; (d) use Program Inspection as the initial basic verification method; and (e) establish a deficiencies log for each software application. The following additional practices are strongly recommended: (a) use a computer-based configuration management system to track all aspects of development and maintenance; (b) establish reference baselines of the software, associated reference documents, and development tools at regular intervals during development; (c) use object-oriented design and programming to promote greater software reliability and reuse; (d) provide a copy of the software development environment as part of the package of deliverables; and (e) initiate an effort to use formal methods for preparation of Technical Specifications. The paper provides background information and reasons for the guidelines and recommendations. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Verification and software validation for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaytan G, E.; Salgado G, J. R.; De Andrade O, E.; Ramirez G, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this work is presented a Verification Methodology and Software Validation, to be applied in instruments of nuclear use with associate software. This methodology was developed under the auspices of IAEA, through the regional projects RLA4022 (ARCAL XCIX) and RLA1011 (RLA CXXIII), led by Mexico. In the first project three plans and three procedures were elaborated taking into consideration IEEE standards, and in the second project these documents were updated considering ISO and IEC standards. The developed methodology has been distributed to the participant countries of Latin America in the ARCAL projects and two related courses have been imparted with the participation of several countries, and participating institutions of Mexico like Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). In the ININ due to the necessity to work with Software Quality Guarantee in systems for the nuclear power plant of the CFE, a Software Quality Guarantee Plan and five procedures were developed in the year 2004, obtaining the qualification of the ININ for software development for the nuclear power plant of CFE. These first documents were developed taking like reference IEEE standards and regulator guides of NRC, being the first step for the development of the methodology. (Author)

  6. Validating the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Stahlhut, Michelle; Wong, Kingsley; Syhler, Birgit; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a pathogenic mutation on the MECP2 gene. Impaired movement is a fundamental component and the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale was developed to measure gross motor abilities in this population. The current study investigated the validity and reliability of the Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale. Video data showing gross motor abilities supplemented with parent report data was collected for 255 girls and women registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, and the factor structure and relationships between motor scores, age and genotype were investigated. Clinical assessment scores for 38 girls and women with Rett syndrome who attended the Danish Center for Rett Syndrome were used to assess consistency of measurement. Principal components analysis enabled the calculation of three factor scores: Sitting, Standing and Walking, and Challenge. Motor scores were poorer with increasing age and those with the p.Arg133Cys, p.Arg294* or p.Arg306Cys mutation achieved higher scores than those with a large deletion. The repeatability of clinical assessment was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient for total score 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-0.98). The standard error of measurement for the total score was 2 points and we would be 95% confident that a change 4 points in the 45-point scale would be greater than within-subject measurement error. The Rett Syndrome Gross Motor Scale could be an appropriate measure of gross motor skills in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  7. Development and Validation of the Consumer Health Activation Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael S; Smith, Samuel G; Pandit, Anjali U; Condon, David M; Curtis, Laura M; Griffith, James; O'Conor, Rachel; Rush, Steven; Bailey, Stacy C; Kaplan, Gordon; Haufle, Vincent; Martin, David

    2018-04-01

    Although there has been increasing interest in patient engagement, few measures are publicly available and suitable for patients with limited health literacy. We sought to develop a Consumer Health Activation Index (CHAI) for use among diverse patients. Expert opinion, a systematic literature review, focus groups, and cognitive interviews with patients were used to create and revise a potential set of items. Psychometric testing guided by item response theory was then conducted among 301 English-speaking, community-dwelling adults. This included differential item functioning analyses to evaluate item performance across participant health literacy levels. To determine construct validity, CHAI scores were compared to scales measuring similar personality constructs. Associations between the CHAI and physical and mental health established predictive validity. A second study among 9,478 adults was used to confirm CHAI associations with health outcomes. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a single-factor solution with a 10-item scale. The CHAI showed good internal consistency (alpha = 0.81) and moderate test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.53). Reading grade level was found to be at the 6 th grade. Moderate to strong correlations were found with similar constructs (Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, r = 0.38, P measures (depression, r = -0.28, P < 0.001; anxiety, r = -0.22, P < 0.001; and physical functioning, r = 0.22, P < 0.001). In the validation sample, the CHAI was significantly associated with self-reported physical and mental health ( r = 0.31 and 0.32 respectively; both P < 0.001). The CHAI appears to be a valid, reliable, and easily administered tool that can be used to assess health activation among adults, including those with limited health literacy. Future studies should test the tool in actual use and explore further applications.

  8. Differential proteomic and tissue expression analyses identify valuable diagnostic biomarkers of hepatocellular differentiation and hepatoid adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Henning; Padden, Juliet; Ahrens, Maike; Pütter, Carolin; Bertram, Stefanie; Pott, Leona L; Reis, Anna-Carinna; Weber, Frank; Juntermanns, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Andreas-C; Eisenacher, Martin; Schlaak, Joörg F; Canbay, Ali; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara; Baba, Hideo A

    2015-10-01

    The exact discrimination of lesions with true hepatocellular differentiation from secondary tumours and neoplasms with hepatocellular histomorphology like hepatoid adenocarcinomas (HAC) is crucial. Therefore, we aimed to identify ancillary protein biomarkers by using complementary proteomic techniques (2D-DIGE, label-free MS). The identified candidates were immunohistochemically validated in 14 paired samples of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-tumourous liver tissue (NT). The candidates and HepPar1/Arginase1 were afterwards tested for consistency in a large cohort of hepatocellular lesions and NT (n = 290), non-hepatocellular malignancies (n = 383) and HAC (n = 13). Eight non-redundant, differentially expressed proteins were suitable for further immunohistochemical validation and four (ABAT, BHMT, FABP1, HAOX1) for further evaluation. Sensitivity and specificity rates for HCC/HAC were as follows: HepPar1 80.2%, 94.3% / 80.2%, 46.2%; Arginase1 82%, 99.4% / 82%, 69.2%; BHMT 61.4%, 93.8% / 61.4%, 100%; ABAT 84.4%, 33.7% / 84.4%, 30.8%; FABP1 87.2%, 95% / 87.2%, 69.2%; HAOX1 95.5%, 36.3% / 95.5%, 46.2%. The best 2×/3× biomarker panels for the diagnosis of HCC consisted of Arginase1/HAOX1 and BHMT/Arginase1/HAOX1 and for HAC consisted of Arginase1/FABP1 and BHMT/Arginase1/FABP1. In summary, we successfully identified, validated and benchmarked protein biomarker candidates of hepatocellular differentiation. BHMT in particular exhibited superior diagnostic characteristics in hepatocellular lesions and specifically in HAC. BHMT is therefore a promising (panel based) biomarker candidate in the differential diagnostic process of lesions with hepatocellular aspect.

  9. Validation of fracture flow models in the Stripa project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, A.; Dershowitz, W.; Long, J.; Hodgkinson, D.

    1991-01-01

    One of the objectives of Phase III of the Stripa Project is to develop and evaluate approaches for the prediction of groundwater flow and nuclide transport in a specific unexplored volume of the Stripa granite and make a comparison with data from field measurements. During the first stage of the project, a prediction of inflow to the D-holes, an array of six parallel closely spaced 100m boreholes, was made based on data from six other boreholes. This data included fracture geometry, stress, single borehole geophysical logging, crosshole and reflection radar and seismic tomogram, head monitoring and single hole packer test measurements. Maps of fracture traces on the drift walls have also been made. The D-holes are located along a future Validation Drift which will be excavated. The water inflow to the D-holes has been measured in an experiment called the Simulated Drift Experiment. The paper reviews the Simulated Drift Experiment validation exercise. Following a discussion of the approach to validation, the characterization data and its preliminary interpretation are summarised and commented upon. That work has proved feasible to carry through all the complex and interconnected tasks associated with the gathering and interpretation of characterization data, the development and application of complex models, and the comparison with measured inflows. This exercise has provided detailed feed-back to the experimental and theoretical work required for measurements and predictions of flow into the Validation Drift. Computer codes used: CHANGE, FRACMAN, MAFIC, NAPSAC and TRINET. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 19 refs

  10. Chinese adaptation and validation of the patellofemoral pain severity scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; Ngai, Shirley P C; Lam, Priscillia L; Chiu, Joseph K W; Fung, Eric Y H

    2013-05-01

    This study validated the Patellofemoral Pain Severity Scale translated into Chinese. The Chinese Patellofemoral Pain Severity Scale was translated from the original English version following standard forward and backward translation procedures recommended by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The survey was then conducted in clinical settings by a questionnaire comprising the Chinese Patellofemoral Pain Severity Scale, Kujala Scale and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index. Eighty-four Chinese reading patients with patellofemoral pain were recruited from physical therapy clinics. Internal consistency of the translated instrument was measured by Cronbach alpha. Convergent validity was examined by Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho) tests by comparing its score with the validated Chinese version of the Kujala Scale and the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index while the test-retest reliability was evaluated by administering the questionnaires twice. Cronbach alpha values of individual questions and their overall value were above 0.85. Strong association was found between the Chinese Patellofemoral Pain Severity Scale and the Kujala Scale (rho = -0.72, p coefficient = 0.98) was demonstrated. The Chinese translated version of the Patellofemoral Pain Severity Scale is a reliable and valid instrument for patients with patellofemoral pain.

  11. Validation of the Gratitude Questionnaire in Filipino Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Jana Patricia M; Yang, Weipeng; Datu, Jesus Alfonso D

    2017-10-11

    Most studies have assessed the psychometric properties of the Gratitude Questionnaire - Six-Item Form (GQ-6) in the Western contexts while very few research has been generated to explore the applicability of this scale in non-Western settings. To address this gap, the aim of the study was to examine the factorial validity and gender invariance of the Gratitude Questionnaire in the Philippines through a construct validation approach. There were 383 Filipino high school students who participated in the research. In terms of within-network construct validity, results of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the five-item version of the questionnaire (GQ-5) had better fit compared to the original six-item version of the gratitude questionnaire. The scores from the GQ-5 also exhibited invariance across gender. Between-network construct validation showed that gratitude was associated with higher levels of academic achievement (β = .46, p gratitude was linked to lower degree of amotivation (β = -.51, p <.001). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  12. Health Service Quality Scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira, Paulo Rocha; Song, Elaine Horibe; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2013-01-17

    The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality.

  13. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. Results One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. Conclusions The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality. PMID:23327598

  14. Validation of Land Surface Temperature from Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the Sentinel-3 mission is to measure sea- and land-surface temperature with high-end accuracy and reliability in support of environmental and climate monitoring in an operational context. Calibration and validation are thus key criteria for operationalization within the framework of the Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S3MPC). Land surface temperature (LST) has a long heritage of satellite observations which have facilitated our understanding of land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. These observations have been acquired from a variety of satellite instruments on platforms in both low-earth orbit and in geostationary orbit. Retrieval accuracy can be a challenge though; surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land, and atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. As such, a rigorous validation is critical in order to assess the quality of the data and the associated uncertainties. Validation of the level-2 SL_2_LST product, which became freely available on an operational basis from 5th July 2017 builds on an established validation protocol for satellite-based LST. This set of guidelines provides a standardized framework for structuring LST validation activities. The protocol introduces a four-pronged approach which can be summarised thus: i) in situ validation where ground-based observations are available; ii) radiance-based validation over sites that are homogeneous in emissivity; iii) intercomparison with retrievals from other satellite sensors; iv) time-series analysis to identify artefacts on an interannual time-scale. This multi-dimensional approach is a necessary requirement for assessing the performance of the LST algorithm for the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) which is designed around biome

  15. Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project: Verification and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Jeff; Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rosea; Holecamp, Kara; Owen, Carolyn; Nicholson, Lamar; Dartez, Deanna

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project's verification,and validation process. The topics include: 1) What is Verification and Validation? 2) Why Verification and Validation? 3) Background; 4) ESE Data Purchas Validation Process; 5) Data Validation System and Ingest Queue; 6) Shipment Verification; 7) Tracking and Metrics; 8) Validation of Contract Specifications; 9) Earth Watch Data Validation; 10) Validation of Vertical Accuracy; and 11) Results of Vertical Accuracy Assessment.

  16. Validation of MCNP and WIMS-AECL/DRAGON/RFSP for ACR-1000 applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, Blair P.; Adams, Fred P.; Zeller, Michael B.; Watts, David G.; Shukhman, Boris V.; Pencer, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of the validation of the reactor physics codes WIMS-AECL, DRAGON, RFSP and MCNP5, which are being used in the design, operation, and safety analysis of the ACR-1000 R . The standards and guidelines being followed for code validation of the suite are established in CSA Standard N286.7-99 and ANS Standard ANS-19.3-2005. These codes are being validated for the calculation of key output parameters associated with various reactor physics phenomena of importance during normal operations and postulated accident conditions in an ACR-1000 reactor. Experimental data from a variety of sources are being used for validation. The bulk of the validation data is from critical experiments in the ZED-2 research reactor with ACR-type lattices. To supplement and complement ZED-2 data, qualified and applicable data are being taken from other power and research reactors, such as existing CANDU R units, FUGEN, NRU and SPERT research reactors, and the DCA critical facility. MCNP simulations of the ACR-1000 are also being used for validating WIMS-AECL/ DRAGON/RFSP, which involves extending the validation results for MCNP through the assistance of TSUNAMI analyses. Code validation against commissioning data in the first-build ACR-1000 will be confirmatory. The code validation is establishing the biases and uncertainties in the calculations of the WIMS-AECL/DRAGON/RFSP suite for the evaluation of various key parameters of importance in the reactor physics analysis of the ACR-1000. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of biologic occupational risk control practices: quality indicators development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Renata Ferreira; Gryschek, Anna Luíza F P L; Izumi Nichiata, Lúcia Yasuko; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko; Gir, Elucir; Padoveze, Maria Clara

    2010-05-01

    There is growing demand for the adoption of qualification systems for health care practices. This study is aimed at describing the development and validation of indicators for evaluation of biologic occupational risk control programs. The study involved 3 stages: (1) setting up a research team, (2) development of indicators, and (3) validation of the indicators by a team of specialists recruited to validate each attribute of the developed indicators. The content validation method was used for the validation, and a psychometric scale was developed for the specialists' assessment. A consensus technique was used, and every attribute that obtained a Content Validity Index of at least 0.75 was approved. Eight indicators were developed for the evaluation of the biologic occupational risk prevention program, with emphasis on accidents caused by sharp instruments and occupational tuberculosis prevention. The indicators included evaluation of the structure, process, and results at the prevention and biologic risk control levels. The majority of indicators achieved a favorable consensus regarding all validated attributes. The developed indicators were considered validated, and the method used for construction and validation proved to be effective. Copyright (c) 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of the Intestinal Part of the Prostate Cancer Questionnaire 'QUFW94': Psychometric Properties, Responsiveness, and Content Validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidunsdatter, Randi J.; Lund, Jo-Asmund; Fransson, Per; Widmark, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Several treatment options are available for patients with prostate cancer. Applicable and valid self-assessment instruments for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are of paramount importance. The aim of this study was to explore the validity and responsiveness of the intestinal part of the prostate cancer-specific questionnaire QUFW94. Methods and Materials: The content of the intestinal part of QUFW94 was examined by evaluation of experienced clinicians and reviewing the literature. The psychometric properties and responsiveness were assessed by analyzing HRQOL data from the randomized study Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 (SPCG)/Swedish Association for Urological Oncology 3 (SFUO). Subscales were constructed by means of exploratory factor analyses. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Responsiveness was investigated by comparing baseline scores with the 4-year posttreatment follow-up. Results: The content validity was found acceptable, but some amendments were proposed. The factor analyses revealed two symptom scales. The first scale comprised five items regarding general stool problems, frequency, incontinence, need to plan toilet visits, and daily activity. Cronbach's alpha at 0.83 indicated acceptable homogeneity. The second scale was less consistent with a Cronbach's alpha at 0.55. The overall responsiveness was found to be very satisfactory. Conclusion: Two scales were identified in the bowel dimension of the QUFW94; the first one had good internal consistency. The responsiveness was excellent, and some modifications are suggested to strengthen the content validity.

  19. Internal Validity: A Must in Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahit, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    In experimental research, internal validity refers to what extent researchers can conclude that changes in dependent variable (i.e. outcome) are caused by manipulations in independent variable. The causal inference permits researchers to meaningfully interpret research results. This article discusses (a) internal validity threats in social and…

  20. Validation of the Netherlands pacemaker patient registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, WA; Kingma, T; Hooijschuur, CAM; Dassen, WRM; Hoorntje, JCA; van Gelder, LM

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the validation of the information stored in the Netherlands central pacemaker patient database. At this moment the registry database contains information on more than 70500 patients, 85000 pacemakers and 90000 leads. The validation procedures consisted of an internal

  1. Ensuring validity in qualitative International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account for how the validity issue may be gasped within a qualitative apporach to the IB field......The purpose of this paper is to provide an account for how the validity issue may be gasped within a qualitative apporach to the IB field...

  2. Construct Validity of Neuropsychological Tests in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N.; Aldarondo, Felito; Goldstein, Gerald; Huegel, Stephen G.; Gilbertson, Mark; van Kammen, Daniel P.

    1998-01-01

    The construct validity of neuropsychological tests in patients with schizophrenia was studied with 39 patients who were evaluated with a battery of six tests assessing attention, memory, and abstract reasoning abilities. Results support the construct validity of the neuropsychological tests in patients with schizophrenia. (SLD)

  3. 77 FR 27135 - HACCP Systems Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... validation, the journal article should identify E.coli O157:H7 and other pathogens as the hazard that the..., or otherwise processes ground beef may determine that E. coli O157:H7 is not a hazard reasonably... specifications that require that the establishment's suppliers apply validated interventions to address E. coli...

  4. Validity in assessment of prior learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2015-01-01

    , the article discusses the need for specific criteria for assessment. The reliability and validity of the assessment procedures depend on whether the competences are well-defined, and whether the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures. Keywords: assessment, prior learning, adult...... education, vocational training, lifelong learning, validity...

  5. DESIGN AND VALIDATION OF A CARDIORESPIRATORY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UJA

    This study aimed to validate the 10x20m test for children aged 3 to 6 years in order ... obtained adequate parameters of reliability and validity in healthy children aged 3 ... and is a determinant of cardiovascular risk in preschool children (Bürgi et al., ... (Seca 222, Hamburg, Germany), and weight (kg) that was recorded with a ...

  6. DESCQA: Synthetic Sky Catalog Validation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Uram, Thomas D.; Zhou, Rongpu; Kovacs, Eve; Ricker, Paul M.; Kalmbach, J. Bryce; Padilla, Nelson; Lanusse, François; Zu, Ying; Tenneti, Ananth; Vikraman, Vinu; DeRose, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    The DESCQA framework provides rigorous validation protocols for assessing the quality of high-quality simulated sky catalogs in a straightforward and comprehensive way. DESCQA enables the inspection, validation, and comparison of an inhomogeneous set of synthetic catalogs via the provision of a common interface within an automated framework. An interactive web interface is also available at portal.nersc.gov/project/lsst/descqa.

  7. Structural Validation of the Holistic Wellness Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlene; Applegate, E. Brooks; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The Holistic Wellness Assessment (HWA) is a relatively new assessment instrument based on an emergent transdisciplinary model of wellness. This study validated the factor structure identified via exploratory factor analysis (EFA), assessed test-retest reliability, and investigated concurrent validity of the HWA in three separate samples. The…

  8. Linear Unlearning for Cross-Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The leave-one-out cross-validation scheme for generalization assessment of neural network models is computationally expensive due to replicated training sessions. In this paper we suggest linear unlearning of examples as an approach to approximative cross-validation. Further, we discuss...... time series prediction benchmark demonstrate the potential of the linear unlearning technique...

  9. Validation of self-reported erythema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Lerche, C M

    2013-01-01

    Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data.......Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data....

  10. Validity of a Measure of Assertiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, John P.; Galassi, Merna D.

    1974-01-01

    This study was concerned with further validation of a measure of assertiveness. Concurrent validity was established for the College Self-Expression Scale using the method of contrasted groups and through correlations of self-and judges' ratings of assertiveness. (Author)

  11. Empirical Validation of Listening Proficiency Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Troy L.; Clifford, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Because listening has received little attention and the validation of ability scales describing multidimensional skills is always challenging, this study applied a multistage, criterion-referenced approach that used a framework of aligned audio passages and listening tasks to explore the validity of the ACTFL and related listening proficiency…

  12. Theory and Validation for the Collision Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1999-01-01

    This report describes basic modelling principles, the theoretical background and validation examples for the Collision Module for the computer program DAMAGE.......This report describes basic modelling principles, the theoretical background and validation examples for the Collision Module for the computer program DAMAGE....

  13. Is intercessory prayer valid nursing intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Cecily Wellelr

    2011-01-01

    Is the use of intercessory prayer (IP) in modern nursing a valid practice? As discussed in current healthcare literature, IP is controversial, with authors offering support for and against the efficacy of the practice. This article reviews IP literature and research, concluding IP is a valid intervention for Christian nurses.

  14. Promoting Rigorous Validation Practice: An Applied Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Camara, Wayne J.

    2012-01-01

    As researchers at a testing organization concerned with the appropriate uses and validity evidence for our assessments, we provide an applied perspective related to the issues raised in the focus article. Newton's proposal for elaborating the consensus definition of validity is offered with the intention to reduce the risks of inadequate…

  15. The Treatment Validity of Autism Screening Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanis, Andrew; Mouzakitis, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Treatment validity is a frequently neglected topic of screening instruments used to identify autism spectrum disorders. Treatment validity, however, should represent an important aspect of these instruments to link the resulting data to the selection of interventions as well as make decisions about treatment length and intensity. Research…

  16. Validating Measures of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2007-01-01

    According to Schilling, Blunk, and Hill, the set of papers presented in this journal issue had two main purposes: (1) to use an argument-based approach to evaluate the validity of the tests of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT), and (2) to critically assess the author's version of an argument-based approach to validation (Kane, 2001, 2004).…

  17. Validation of a Spanish Questionnaire on Mobile Phone Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Olivencia-Carrión

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women. The MULTICAGE questionnaire was administered to assess history of drug abuse and addiction. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found evidence for the construct validity of the following factors: Craving, Loss of Control, Negative Life Consequences, and Withdrawal Syndrome, and their association with a second order factor related to mobile phone abuse. The four ATeMO factors were also associated with alcoholism, internet use, and compulsive buying. Important gender differences were found that should be considered when studying mobile phone addictions. The ATeMo is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in further research on mobile phone abuse.

  18. Validation of a Spanish Questionnaire on Mobile Phone Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Carrión, María A; Ramírez-Uclés, Isabel; Holgado-Tello, Pablo; López-Torrecillas, Francisca

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo) to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women). The MULTICAGE questionnaire was administered to assess history of drug abuse and addiction. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found evidence for the construct validity of the following factors: Craving, Loss of Control, Negative Life Consequences, and Withdrawal Syndrome, and their association with a second order factor related to mobile phone abuse. The four ATeMO factors were also associated with alcoholism, internet use, and compulsive buying. Important gender differences were found that should be considered when studying mobile phone addictions. The ATeMo is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in further research on mobile phone abuse.

  19. Validation of a Spanish Questionnaire on Mobile Phone Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Carrión, María A.; Ramírez-Uclés, Isabel; Holgado-Tello, Pablo; López-Torrecillas, Francisca

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo) to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women). The MULTICAGE questionnaire was administered to assess history of drug abuse and addiction. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found evidence for the construct validity of the following factors: Craving, Loss of Control, Negative Life Consequences, and Withdrawal Syndrome, and their association with a second order factor related to mobile phone abuse. The four ATeMO factors were also associated with alcoholism, internet use, and compulsive buying. Important gender differences were found that should be considered when studying mobile phone addictions. The ATeMo is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in further research on mobile phone abuse. PMID:29760674

  20. Validation of self-reported cellular phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...

  1. Features to validate cerebral toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Cunha Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurotoxoplasmosis (NT sometimes manifests unusual characteristics. Methods We analyzed 85 patients with NT and AIDS according to clinical, cerebrospinal fluid, cranial magnetic resonance, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR characteristics. Results In 8.5%, focal neurological deficits were absent and 16.4% had single cerebral lesions. Increased sensitivity of PCR for Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the central nervous system was associated with pleocytosis and presence of >4 encephalic lesions. Conclusions Patients with NT may present without focal neurological deficit and NT may occur with presence of a single cerebral lesion. Greater numbers of lesions and greater cellularity in cerebrospinal fluid improve the sensitivity of PCR to T gondii.

  2. Robust Object Tracking Using Valid Fragments Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Bo; Tian, Peng; Luo, Gang

    Local features are widely used in visual tracking to improve robustness in cases of partial occlusion, deformation and rotation. This paper proposes a local fragment-based object tracking algorithm. Unlike many existing fragment-based algorithms that allocate the weights to each fragment, this method firstly defines discrimination and uniqueness for local fragment, and builds an automatic pre-selection of useful fragments for tracking. Then, a Harris-SIFT filter is used to choose the current valid fragments, excluding occluded or highly deformed fragments. Based on those valid fragments, fragment-based color histogram provides a structured and effective description for the object. Finally, the object is tracked using a valid fragment template combining the displacement constraint and similarity of each valid fragment. The object template is updated by fusing feature similarity and valid fragments, which is scale-adaptive and robust to partial occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and robust in challenging scenarios.

  3. Validation of models with multivariate output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebba, Ramesh; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops metrics for validating computational models with experimental data, considering uncertainties in both. A computational model may generate multiple response quantities and the validation experiment might yield corresponding measured values. Alternatively, a single response quantity may be predicted and observed at different spatial and temporal points. Model validation in such cases involves comparison of multiple correlated quantities. Multiple univariate comparisons may give conflicting inferences. Therefore, aggregate validation metrics are developed in this paper. Both classical and Bayesian hypothesis testing are investigated for this purpose, using multivariate analysis. Since, commonly used statistical significance tests are based on normality assumptions, appropriate transformations are investigated in the case of non-normal data. The methodology is implemented to validate an empirical model for energy dissipation in lap joints under dynamic loading

  4. Assessment model validity document FARF31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, Mark; Gylling Bjoern; Lindgren, Maria

    2004-08-01

    The prime goal of model validation is to build confidence in the model concept and that the model is fit for its intended purpose. In other words: Does the model predict transport in fractured rock adequately to be used in repository performance assessments. Are the results reasonable for the type of modelling tasks the model is designed for. Commonly, in performance assessments a large number of realisations of flow and transport is made to cover the associated uncertainties. Thus, the flow and transport including radioactive chain decay are preferably calculated in the same model framework. A rather sophisticated concept is necessary to be able to model flow and radionuclide transport in the near field and far field of a deep repository, also including radioactive chain decay. In order to avoid excessively long computational times there is a need for well-based simplifications. For this reason, the far field code FARF31 is made relatively simple, and calculates transport by using averaged entities to represent the most important processes. FARF31 has been shown to be suitable for the performance assessments within the SKB studies, e.g. SR 97. Among the advantages are that it is a fast, simple and robust code, which enables handling of many realisations with wide spread in parameters in combination with chain decay of radionuclides. Being a component in the model chain PROPER, it is easy to assign statistical distributions to the input parameters. Due to the formulation of the advection-dispersion equation in FARF31 it is possible to perform the groundwater flow calculations separately.The basis for the modelling is a stream tube, i.e. a volume of rock including fractures with flowing water, with the walls of the imaginary stream tube defined by streamlines. The transport within the stream tube is described using a dual porosity continuum approach, where it is assumed that rock can be divided into two distinct domains with different types of porosity

  5. Assessment of teacher competence using video portfolios: reliability, construct validity and consequential validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W.; Hoeksma, M.; van de Kamp, M.-T.; van Duin, G.

    2011-01-01

    The richness and complexity of video portfolios endanger both the reliability and validity of the assessment of teacher competencies. In a post-graduate teacher education program, the assessment of video portfolios was evaluated for its reliability, construct validity, and consequential validity.

  6. Validation of Symptom Validity Tests Using a "Child-model" of Adult Cognitive Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, A.; Spaan, P. E. J.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Validation studies of symptom validity tests (SVTs) in children are uncommon. However, since children's cognitive abilities are not yet fully developed, their performance may provide additional support for the validity of these measures in adult populations. Four SVTs, the Test of Memory Malingering

  7. Validation of symptom validity tests using a "child-model" of adult cognitive impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, A.; Spaan, P.E.J.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Validation studies of symptom validity tests (SVTs) in children are uncommon. However, since children’s cognitive abilities are not yet fully developed, their performance may provide additional support for the validity of these measures in adult populations. Four SVTs, the Test of Memory Malingering

  8. Blastogenetic associations: General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinsky, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Associations of anomalies, with VACTERL as the prototype, have been the source of much debate, including questions about the validity and definition of this category. Evidence is presented for a teratologic basis for associations involving interactions between disruptive events and specific vulnerabilities. Because the embryo is organized in time and space, differences in the timing, location, and severity of exposures will create variable sequelae for any specific vulnerability, creating associations. The blastogenetic stage of development involves distinct properties that affect the nature of associations arising during this time, including relatively undifferentiated developmental fields and causally nonspecific malformations. With this, single anomalies can be part of the spectrum of findings that comprise a specific association. A specific defect defines a subset of disturbances, biasing frequencies of other defects. Processes are basic, integrated, and general, so disruptions are often lethal, and can have multiple effects, accounting for high incidences of multiple anomalies, and overlaps between associations. Blastogenetic disturbances also do not affect the late "fine tuning" of minor anomalies, although pathogenetic sequences can occur. This model suggests that certain combinations of congenital anomalies can arise from causally nonspecific teratogenetic fields determined by timing, location, and vulnerabilities, rather than polytopic developmental fields. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Palliative sedation: reliability and validity of sedation scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Jimmy J; Brinkkemper, Tijn; van der Heide, Agnes; Rietjens, Judith A; Ribbe, Miel; Deliens, Luc; Loer, Stephan A; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; Perez, Roberto S G M

    2012-11-01

    Observer-based sedation scales have been used to provide a measurable estimate of the comfort of nonalert patients in palliative sedation. However, their usefulness and appropriateness in this setting has not been demonstrated. To study the reliability and validity of observer-based sedation scales in palliative sedation. A prospective evaluation of 54 patients under intermittent or continuous sedation with four sedation scales was performed by 52 nurses. Included scales were the Minnesota Sedation Assessment Tool (MSAT), Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), Vancouver Interaction and Calmness Scale (VICS), and a sedation score proposed in the Guideline for Palliative Sedation of the Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG). Inter-rater reliability was tested with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's kappa coefficient. Correlations between the scales using Spearman's rho tested concurrent validity. We also examined construct, discriminative, and evaluative validity. In addition, nurses completed a user-friendliness survey. Overall moderate to high inter-rater reliability was found for the VICS interaction subscale (ICC = 0.85), RASS (ICC = 0.73), and KNMG (ICC = 0.71). The largest correlation between scales was found for the RASS and KNMG (rho = 0.836). All scales showed discriminative and evaluative validity, except for the MSAT motor subscale and VICS calmness subscale. Finally, the RASS was less time consuming, clearer, and easier to use than the MSAT and VICS. The RASS and KNMG scales stand as the most reliable and valid among the evaluated scales. In addition, the RASS was less time consuming, clearer, and easier to use than the MSAT and VICS. Further research is needed to evaluate the impact of the scales on better symptom control and patient comfort. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Construct Validity of the Societal Outreach Scale (SOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David S; Denton, Jason; Walk, Matt; Kish, Jennifer; Gorman, Ira

    2018-04-01

    The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has been working toward a vision of increasing professional focus on societal-level health. However, performance of social responsibility and related behaviors by physical therapists remain relatively poorly integrated into practice. Promoting a focus on societal outreach is necessary for all health care professionals to impact the health of their communities. The objective was to document the validity of the 14-item Societal Outreach Scale (SOS) for use with practicing physical therapists. This study used a cross-sectional survey. The SOS was transmitted via email to all therapists who were licensed and practicing in 10 states in the United States that were purposefully selected to assure a broad representation. A sample of 2612 usable responses was received. Factor analysis was applied to assess construct validity of the instrument. Of alternate models, a 3-factor model best demonstrated goodness of fit with the sample data according to conventional indices (standardized root mean squared residual = .03, comparative fit index .96, root mean square error of approximation = .06). The 3 factors measured by the SOS were labeled Societal-Level Health Advocacy, Community Engagement/Social Integration, and Political Engagement. Internal consistency reliability was 0.7 for all factors. The 3-factor SOS demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. Though the sample included a broad representation of physical therapists, this was a single cross-sectional study. Additional confirmatory factor analysis, reliability testing, and word refinement of the tool are warranted. Given the construct validity and reliability of the 3-factor SOS, it is recommended for use as a validated instrument to measure physical therapists' performance of social responsibility and related behaviors.

  11. Validation of Calculations in a Digital Thermometer Firmware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batagelj, V.; Miklavec, A.; Bojkovski, J.

    2014-04-01

    State-of-the-art digital thermometers are arguably remarkable measurement instruments, measuring outputs from resistance thermometers and/or thermocouples. Not only that they can readily achieve measuring accuracies in the parts-per-million range, but they also incorporate sophisticated algorithms for the transformation calculation of the measured resistance or voltage to temperature. These algorithms often include high-order polynomials, exponentials and logarithms, and must be performed using both standard coefficients and particular calibration coefficients. The numerical accuracy of these calculations and the associated uncertainty component must be much better than the accuracy of the raw measurement in order to be negligible in the total measurement uncertainty. In order for the end-user to gain confidence in these calculations as well as to conform to formal requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and other standards, a way of validation of these numerical procedures performed in the firmware of the instrument is required. A software architecture which allows a simple validation of internal measuring instrument calculations is suggested. The digital thermometer should be able to expose all its internal calculation functions to the communication interface, so the end-user can compare the results of the internal measuring instrument calculation with reference results. The method can be regarded as a variation of the black-box software validation. Validation results on a thermometer prototype with implemented validation ability show that the calculation error of basic arithmetic operations is within the expected rounding error. For conversion functions, the calculation error is at least ten times smaller than the thermometer effective resolution for the particular probe type.

  12. Validating the JobFit system functional assessment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenny Legge; Robin Burgess-Limerick

    2007-05-15

    Workplace injuries are costing the Australian coal mining industry and its communities $410 Million a year. This ACARP study aims to meet those demands by developing a safe, reliable and valid pre-employment functional assessment tool. All JobFit System Pre-Employment Functional Assessments (PEFAs) consist of a musculoskeletal screen, balance test, aerobic fitness test and job-specific postural tolerances and material handling tasks. The results of each component are compared to the applicant's job demands and an overall PEFA score between 1 and 4 is given with 1 being the better score. The reliability study and validity study were conducted concurrently. The reliability study examined test-retest, intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of the JobFit System Functional Assessment Method. Overall, good to excellent reliability was found, which was sufficient to be used for comparison with injury data for determining the validity of the assessment. The overall assessment score and material handling tasks had the greatest reliability. The validity study compared the assessment results of 336 records from a Queensland underground and open cut coal mine with their injury records. A predictive relationship was found between PEFA score and the risk of a back/trunk/shoulder injury from manual handling. An association was also found between PEFA score of 1 and increased length of employment. Lower aerobic fitness test results had an inverse relationship with injury rates. The study found that underground workers, regardless of PEFA score, were more likely to have an injury when compared to other departments. No relationship was found between age and risk of injury. These results confirm the validity of the JobFit System Functional Assessment method.

  13. Developing and Validating a New Classroom Climate Observation Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Thomas, Duane E; Shapiro, Edward S; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F

    2011-01-01

    The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children's psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically-grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social climate of classrooms, our research team developed an observation tool through participatory action research (PAR). This article details how the assessment tool was designed and preliminarily validated in 18 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade classrooms in a large urban public school district. The goals of this study are to illustrate the feasibility of a PAR paradigm in measurement development, ascertain the psychometric properties of the assessment tool, and determine associations with different indices of classroom levels of relational and physical aggression.

  14. Contingency inferences driven by base rates: Valid by sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kutzner

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiedler et al. (2009, reviewed evidence for the utilization of a contingency inference strategy termed pseudocontingencies (PCs. In PCs, the more frequent levels (and, by implication, the less frequent levels are assumed to be associated. PCs have been obtained using a wide range of task settings and dependent measures. Yet, the readiness with which decision makers rely on PCs is poorly understood. A computer simulation explored two potential sources of subjective validity of PCs. First, PCs are shown to perform above chance level when the task is to infer the sign of moderate to strong population contingencies from a sample of observations. Second, contingency inferences based on PCs and inferences based on cell frequencies are shown to partially agree across samples. Intriguingly, this criterion and convergent validity are by-products of random sampling error, highlighting the inductive nature of contingency inferences.

  15. Validation issues for depletion and criticality analysis in burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Dehart, M.D.; Gauld, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews validation issues associated with implementation of burnup credit in transport, dry storage, and disposal. The issues discussed are ones that have been identified by one or more constituents of the United States technical community (national laboratories, licensees, and regulators) that have been exploring the use of burnup credit. There is not necessarily agreement on the importance of the various issues, which sometimes is what creates the issue. The broad issues relate to the paucity of available experimental data (radiochemical assays and critical experiments) covering the full range and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel in away-from-reactor systems. The paper will also introduce recent efforts initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide technical information that can help better assess the value of different experiments. The focus of the paper is on experience with validation issues related to use of burnup credit for transport and dry storage applications. (author)

  16. STATISTICS. The reusable holdout: Preserving validity in adaptive data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwork, Cynthia; Feldman, Vitaly; Hardt, Moritz; Pitassi, Toniann; Reingold, Omer; Roth, Aaron

    2015-08-07

    Misapplication of statistical data analysis is a common cause of spurious discoveries in scientific research. Existing approaches to ensuring the validity of inferences drawn from data assume a fixed procedure to be performed, selected before the data are examined. In common practice, however, data analysis is an intrinsically adaptive process, with new analyses generated on the basis of data exploration, as well as the results of previous analyses on the same data. We demonstrate a new approach for addressing the challenges of adaptivity based on insights from privacy-preserving data analysis. As an application, we show how to safely reuse a holdout data set many times to validate the results of adaptively chosen analyses. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Extending the construct validity of dependency among conjugally bereaved adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denckla, Christy A; Bornstein, Robert F; Mancini, Anthony D; Bonanno, George A

    2015-06-01

    The Relationship Profile Test is a widely used measure of dependency, detachment, and healthy dependency that has been examined in both clinical and nonclinical settings, though researchers have yet to validate this measure among conjugally bereaved adults. The present study examines the construct validity of a three-facet model of dependency-detachment by comparing relationships among self-report, semistructured interview-rated, and knowledgeable informant-rated functioning among conjugally bereaved adults. Participants (N = 112) included bereaved adults (M = 51.1 years; SD = 9.7) who had experienced the loss of a spouse 1.5 to 3 years prior to taking part in this study. Findings indicate adequate psychometric properties and theoretically expected associations with various measures of wellness and health including satisfaction with life, coping flexibility, somatic complaints, and ego resiliency. Results draw attention to adaptive correlates of dependency, suggesting potentially beneficial mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Validation of a pediatric caregiver diary to measure symptoms of postacute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santanello, Nancy C; Norquist, Josephine M; Nelsen, Linda M

    2005-01-01

    consistent, supporting a unidimensional scale structure. Test-retest reliabilities for the percentage of SFD and CSS were above the recommended cut point of 0.70. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations were sizeable and statistically significant, demonstrating construct validity. Hypothesized known......Acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis is often associated with continuing respiratory symptoms following hospitalization. To date, there is no validated objective measure to evaluate symptoms of RSV-induced bronchiolitis. We report on the reliability, validity...... the 4-week treatment period of the reported prospective, placebo-controlled trial of montelukast for treatment of postacute RSV were used to assess reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), construct validity (cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations), discriminant validity (known...

  19. Internal Consistency, Retest Reliability, and their Implications For Personality Scale Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Kurtz, John E.; Yamagata, Shinji; Terracciano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We examined data (N = 34,108) on the differential reliability and validity of facet scales from the NEO Inventories. We evaluated the extent to which (a) psychometric properties of facet scales are generalizable across ages, cultures, and methods of measurement; and (b) validity criteria are associated with different forms of reliability. Composite estimates of facet scale stability, heritability, and cross-observer validity were broadly generalizable. Two estimates of retest reliability were independent predictors of the three validity criteria; none of three estimates of internal consistency was. Available evidence suggests the same pattern of results for other personality inventories. Internal consistency of scales can be useful as a check on data quality, but appears to be of limited utility for evaluating the potential validity of developed scales, and it should not be used as a substitute for retest reliability. Further research on the nature and determinants of retest reliability is needed. PMID:20435807

  20. Development and Validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhan; Kogan, Steven M

    2017-07-01

    The present study describes the development and validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire (MAQ). The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretically and empirically grounded measure of masculine attributes for sexual health research with African American young men. Consistent with Whitehead's theory, the MAQ items were hypothesized to comprise two components representing reputation-based and respect-based attributes. The sample included 505 African American men aged 19 to 22 years ( M = 20.29, SD = 1.10) living in resource-poor communities in the rural South. Convergent and discriminant validity of the MAQ were assessed by examining the associations of masculinity attributes with psychosocial factors. Criterion validity was assessed by examining the extent to which the MAQ subscales predicted sexual risk behavior outcomes. Consistent with study hypotheses, the MAQ was composed of (a) reputation-based attributes oriented toward sexual prowess, toughness, and authority-defying behavior and (b) respect-based attributes oriented toward economic independence, socially approved levels of hard work and education, and committed romantic relationships. Reputation-based attributes were associated positively with street code and negatively related to academic orientation, vocational engagement, and self-regulation, whereas respect-based attributes were associated positively with academic and vocational orientations and self-regulation. Finally, reputation-based attributes predicted sexual risk behaviors including concurrent sexual partnerships, multiple sexual partners, marijuana use, and incarceration, net of the influence of respect-based attributes. The development of the MAQ provides a new measure that permits systematic quantitative investigation of the associations between African American men's masculinity ideology and sexual risk behavior.

  1. Development and validation of the collaborative parent involvement scale for youths with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, Tonja R; Rovner, Alisha J; Haynie, Denise; Iannotti, Ronald J; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Wysocki, Timothy; Anderson, Barbara; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Laffel, Lori

    2009-01-01

    To develop and test a youth-report measure of collaborative parent involvement in type 1 diabetes management. Initial item development and testing were conducted with 81 youths; scale refinement and validation were conducted with 122 youths from four geographic regions. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha, and factor analyses were conducted to select items comprising the scale. Correlations with parenting style and parent diabetes responsibility were examined. Multiple regression analyses examining associations with quality of life, adherence, and glycemic control were conducted to assess concurrent validity. The measure demonstrated strong internal consistency. It was modestly associated with parenting style, but not with parent responsibility for diabetes management. A consistent pattern of associations with quality of life and adherence provide support for the measure's concurrent validity. This brief youth-report measure of parent collaborative involvement assesses a unique dimension of parent involvement in diabetes management associated with important youth outcomes.

  2. Predictive validity of neurotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Winning; Butler, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Stig

    2014-01-01

    behaviour, including committed suicide, and with regard to symptom profile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 112 patients were followed on the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register and the Danish Cause of Death Register with regard to their diagnostic behaviour. In a subset of the sample (n = 24......), the patients were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL)-90. RESULTS: Both at the diagnostic level, including suicide rate, and at the level of symptom severity (SCL-90), anxiety neurosis and obsessive-compulsive neurosis were similar, in contrast to hysterical neurosis which had no more...... association with the other two categories of neurosis than would be expected by chance. CONCLUSION: Anxiety neurosis and obsessive-compulsive neurosis are more severe disorders than hysterical neurosis, both in terms of symptom profile and depression, including suicidal behaviour. The identified suicides were...

  3. Dutch validation of the low anterior resection syndrome score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupkens, B J P; Breukink, S O; Olde Reuver Of Briel, C; Tanis, P J; de Noo, M E; van Duijvendijk, P; van Westreenen, H L; Dekker, J W T; Chen, T Y T; Juul, T

    2018-04-21

    The aim of this study was to validate the Dutch translation of the low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score in a population of Dutch rectal cancer patients. Patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer received the LARS score questionnaire, a single quality of life (QoL) category question and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 questionnaire. A subgroup of patients received the LARS score twice to assess the test-retest reliability. A total of 165 patients were included in the analysis, identified in six Dutch centres. The response rate was 62.0%. The percentage of patients who reported 'major LARS' was 59.4%. There was a high proportion of patients with a perfect or moderate fit between the QoL category question and the LARS score, showing a good convergent validity. The LARS score was able to discriminate between patients with or without neoadjuvant radiotherapy (P = 0.003), between total and partial mesorectal excision (P = 0.008) and between age groups (P = 0.039). There was a statistically significant association between a higher LARS score and an impaired function on the global QoL subscale and the physical, role, emotional and social functioning subscales of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. The test-retest reliability of the LARS score was good, with an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.79. The good psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the LARS score are comparable overall to the earlier validations in other countries. Therefore, the Dutch translation can be considered to be a valid tool for assessing LARS in Dutch rectal cancer patients. Colorectal Disease © 2018 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Quantifying the foodscape: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the validity of commercially available business data

    OpenAIRE

    Lebel, Alexandre; Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Block, Jason P.; Walker, Renée; Lalonde, Benoît; Kestens, Yan; Subramanian, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of the validity of commercially available business (CAB) data on food establishments (?the foodscape?), offering a meta-analysis of characteristics associated with CAB quality and a case study evaluating the performance of commonly-used validity indicators describing the foodscape. Existing validation studies report a broad range in CAB data quality, although most studies conclude that CAB quality is ?moderate? to ?substantial?. We conclude that current studies may ...

  5. GPM Ground Validation: Pre to Post-Launch Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Huffman, George

    2015-04-01

    NASA GPM Ground Validation (GV) activities have transitioned from the pre to post-launch era. Prior to launch direct validation networks and associated partner institutions were identified world-wide, covering a plethora of precipitation regimes. In the U.S. direct GV efforts focused on use of new operational products such as the NOAA Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor suite (MRMS) for TRMM validation and GPM radiometer algorithm database development. In the post-launch, MRMS products including precipitation rate, accumulation, types and data quality are being routinely generated to facilitate statistical GV of instantaneous (e.g., Level II orbit) and merged (e.g., IMERG) GPM products. Toward assessing precipitation column impacts on product uncertainties, range-gate to pixel-level validation of both Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM microwave imager data are performed using GPM Validation Network (VN) ground radar and satellite data processing software. VN software ingests quality-controlled volumetric radar datasets and geo-matches those data to coincident DPR and radiometer level-II data. When combined MRMS and VN datasets enable more comprehensive interpretation of both ground and satellite-based estimation uncertainties. To support physical validation efforts eight (one) field campaigns have been conducted in the pre (post) launch era. The campaigns span regimes from northern latitude cold-season snow to warm tropical rain. Most recently the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) took place in the mountains of North Carolina and involved combined airborne and ground-based measurements of orographic precipitation and hydrologic processes underneath the GPM Core satellite. One more U.S. GV field campaign (OLYMPEX) is planned for late 2015 and will address cold-season precipitation estimation, process and hydrology in the orographic and oceanic domains of western Washington State. Finally, continuous direct and physical validation

  6. The GPM Ground Validation Program: Pre to Post-Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA GPM Ground Validation (GV) activities have transitioned from the pre to post-launch era. Prior to launch direct validation networks and associated partner institutions were identified world-wide, covering a plethora of precipitation regimes. In the U.S. direct GV efforts focused on use of new operational products such as the NOAA Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor suite (MRMS) for TRMM validation and GPM radiometer algorithm database development. In the post-launch, MRMS products including precipitation rate, types and data quality are being routinely generated to facilitate statistical GV of instantaneous and merged GPM products. To assess precipitation column impacts on product uncertainties, range-gate to pixel-level validation of both Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM microwave imager data are performed using GPM Validation Network (VN) ground radar and satellite data processing software. VN software ingests quality-controlled volumetric radar datasets and geo-matches those data to coincident DPR and radiometer level-II data. When combined MRMS and VN datasets enable more comprehensive interpretation of ground-satellite estimation uncertainties. To support physical validation efforts eight (one) field campaigns have been conducted in the pre (post) launch era. The campaigns span regimes from northern latitude cold-season snow to warm tropical rain. Most recently the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) took place in the mountains of North Carolina and involved combined airborne and ground-based measurements of orographic precipitation and hydrologic processes underneath the GPM Core satellite. One more U.S. GV field campaign (OLYMPEX) is planned for late 2015 and will address cold-season precipitation estimation, process and hydrology in the orographic and oceanic domains of western Washington State. Finally, continuous direct and physical validation measurements are also being conducted at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility multi

  7. Verification, validation, and reliability of predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.

    1987-04-01

    The objective of predicting long-term performance should be to make reliable determinations of whether the prediction falls within the criteria for acceptable performance. Establishing reliable predictions of long-term performance of a waste repository requires emphasis on valid theories to predict performance. The validation process must establish the validity of the theory, the parameters used in applying the theory, the arithmetic of calculations, and the interpretation of results; but validation of such performance predictions is not possible unless there are clear criteria for acceptable performance. Validation programs should emphasize identification of the substantive issues of prediction that need to be resolved. Examples relevant to waste package performance are predicting the life of waste containers and the time distribution of container failures, establishing the criteria for defining container failure, validating theories for time-dependent waste dissolution that depend on details of the repository environment, and determining the extent of congruent dissolution of radionuclides in the UO 2 matrix of spent fuel. Prediction and validation should go hand in hand and should be done and reviewed frequently, as essential tools for the programs to design and develop repositories. 29 refs

  8. Validation of Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunsook; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Hyojin

    2015-12-01

    The lack of reliable and valid evaluation tools targeting Korean nursing students' critical thinking (CT) abilities has been reported as one of the barriers to instructing and evaluating students in undergraduate programs. Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition (YCTD) instrument was developed for Korean nursing students, but few studies have assessed its validity. This study aimed to validate the YCTD. Specifically, the YCTD was assessed to identify its cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement invariance. This was a validation study in which a cross-sectional and longitudinal (prenursing and postnursing practicum) survey was used to validate the YCTD using 345 nursing students at three universities in Seoul, Korea. The participants' CT abilities were assessed using the YCTD before and after completing an established pediatric nursing practicum. The validity of the YCTD was estimated and then group invariance test using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to confirm the measurement compatibility of multigroups. A test of the seven-factor model showed that the YCTD demonstrated good construct validity. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis findings for the measurement invariance suggested that this model structure demonstrated strong invariance between groups (i.e., configural, factor loading, and intercept combined) but weak invariance within a group (i.e., configural and factor loading combined). In general, traditional methods for assessing instrument validity have been less than thorough. In this study, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis using cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement data allowed validation of the YCTD. This study concluded that the YCTD can be used for evaluating Korean nursing students' CT abilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Evolving temporal association rules with genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Stephen G.; Gongora, Mario A.; Hopgood, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel framework for mining temporal association rules by discovering itemsets with a genetic algorithm is introduced. Metaheuristics have been applied to association rule mining, we show the efficacy of extending this to another variant - temporal association rule mining. Our framework is an enhancement to existing temporal association rule mining methods as it employs a genetic algorithm to simultaneously search the rule space and temporal space. A methodology for validating the ability of...

  10. Validation and application of Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranya, Sandor; Muste, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a novel methodology to estimate bedload transport in rivers based on an improved bedform tracking procedure. The measurement technique combines components and processing protocols from two contemporary nonintrusive instruments: acoustic and image-based. The bedform mapping is conducted with acoustic surveys while the estimation of the velocity of the bedforms is obtained with processing techniques pertaining to image-based velocimetry. The technique is therefore called Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The implementation of this technique produces a whole-field velocity map associated with the multi-directional bedform movement. Based on the calculated two-dimensional bedform migration velocity field, the bedload transport estimation is done using the Exner equation. A proof-of-concept experiment was performed to validate the AMV based bedload estimation in a laboratory flume at IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering (IIHR). The bedform migration was analysed at three different flow discharges. Repeated bed geometry mapping, using a multiple transducer array (MTA), provided acoustic maps, which were post-processed with a particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Bedload transport rates were calculated along longitudinal sections using the streamwise components of the bedform velocity vectors and the measured bedform heights. The bulk transport rates were compared with the results from concurrent direct physical samplings and acceptable agreement was found. As a first field implementation of the AMV an attempt was made to estimate bedload transport for a section of the Ohio river in the United States, where bed geometry maps, resulted by repeated multibeam echo sounder (MBES) surveys, served as input data. Cross-sectional distributions of bedload transport rates from the AMV based method were compared with the ones obtained from another non-intrusive technique (due to the lack of direct samplings), ISSDOTv2, developed by the US Army

  11. Tracer travel time and model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu.

    1988-01-01

    The performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository demands much more in comparison to the safety evaluation of any civil constructions such as dams, or the resource evaluation of a petroleum or geothermal reservoir. It involves the estimation of low probability (low concentration) of radionuclide transport extrapolated 1000's of years into the future. Thus models used to make these estimates need to be carefully validated. A number of recent efforts have been devoted to the study of this problem. Some general comments on model validation were given by Tsang. The present paper discusses some issues of validation in regards to radionuclide transport. 5 refs

  12. Validation of Simulation Codes for Future Systems: Motivations, Approach and the Role of Nuclear Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores; G. Aliberti

    2007-01-01

    The validation of advanced simulation tools will still play a very significant role in several areas of reactor system analysis. This is the case of reactor physics and neutronics, where nuclear data uncertainties still play a crucial role for many core and fuel cycle parameters. The present paper gives a summary of validation motivations, objectives and approach. A validation effort is in particular necessary in the frame of advanced (e.g. Generation-IV or GNEP) reactors and associated fuel cycles assessment and design

  13. Validation of multisource electronic health record data: an application to blood transfusion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeven, Loan R van; Bruijne, Martine C de; Kemper, Peter F; Koopman, Maria M W; Rondeel, Jan M M; Leyte, Anja; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Janssen, Mart P; Roes, Kit C B

    2017-07-14

    Although data from electronic health records (EHR) are often used for research purposes, systematic validation of these data prior to their use is not standard practice. Existing validation frameworks discuss validity concepts without translating these into practical implementation steps or addressing the potential influence of linking multiple sources. Therefore we developed a practical approach for validating routinely collected data from multiple sources and to apply it to a blood transfusion data warehouse to evaluate the usability in practice. The approach consists of identifying existing validation frameworks for EHR data or linked data, selecting validity concepts from these frameworks and establishing quantifiable validity outcomes for each concept. The approach distinguishes external validation concepts (e.g. concordance with external reports, previous literature and expert feedback) and internal consistency concepts which use expected associations within the dataset itself (e.g. completeness, uniformity and plausibility). In an example case, the selected concepts were applied to a transfusion dataset and specified in more detail. Application of the approach to a transfusion dataset resulted in a structured overview of data validity aspects. This allowed improvement of these aspects through further processing of the data and in some cases adjustment of the data extraction. For example, the proportion of transfused products that could not be linked to the corresponding issued products initially was 2.2% but could be improved by adjusting data extraction criteria to 0.17%. This stepwise approach for validating linked multisource data provides a basis for evaluating data quality and enhancing interpretation. When the process of data validation is adopted more broadly, this contributes to increased transparency and greater reliability of research based on routinely collected electronic health records.

  14. Criterion and Divergent Validity of the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Goldbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual minority adolescents (SMA consistently report health disparities compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet the underlying mechanisms of these negative health outcomes remain unclear. The predominant explanatory model is the minority stress theory; however, this model was developed largely with adults, and no valid and comprehensive measure of minority stress has been developed for adolescents. The present study validated a newly developed instrument to measure minority stress among racially and ethnically diverse SMA. A sample of 346 SMA aged 14–17 was recruited and surveyed between February 2015 and July 2016. The focal measure of interest was the 64-item, 11-factor Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory (SMASI developed in the initial phase of this study. Criterion validation measures included measures of depressive symptoms, suicidality and self-harm, youth problem behaviors, and substance use; the general Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ was included as a measure of divergent validity. Analyses included Pearson and tetrachoric correlations to establish criterion and divergent validity and structural equation modeling to assess the explanatory utility of the SMASI relative to the ASQ. SMASI scores were significantly associated with all outcomes but only moderately associated with the ASQ (r = −0.13 to 0.51. Analyses revealed significant associations of a latent minority stress variable with both proximal and distal health outcomes beyond the variation explained by general stress. Results show that the SMASI is the first instrument to validly measure minority stress among SMA.

  15. The relationship between external and internal validity of randomized controlled trials: A sample of hypertension trials from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Several components relate to the external validity of RCTs do associate with the internal validity, that do not stand in an easy relationship to each other. Regarding the poor reporting, other possible links between two variables need to trace in the future methodological researches.

  16. Base Flow Model Validation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is the systematic "building-block" validation of CFD/turbulence models employing a GUI driven CFD code (RPFM) and existing as well as new data sets to...

  17. The validation of Huffaz Intelligence Test (HIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Azrin Mohammad; Ahmad, Tahir; Awang, Siti Rahmah; Safar, Ajmain

    2017-08-01

    In general, a hafiz who can memorize the Quran has many specialties especially in respect to their academic performances. In this study, the theory of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner is embedded in a developed psychometric instrument, namely Huffaz Intelligence Test (HIT). This paper presents the validation and the reliability of HIT of some tahfiz students in Malaysia Islamic schools. A pilot study was conducted involving 87 huffaz who were randomly selected to answer the items in HIT. The analysis method used includes Partial Least Square (PLS) on reliability, convergence and discriminant validation. The study has validated nine intelligences. The findings also indicated that the composite reliabilities for the nine types of intelligences are greater than 0.8. Thus, the HIT is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the multiple intelligences among huffaz.

  18. Ensuring validity in qualitative international business research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of how the validity issue related to qualitative research strategies within the IB field may be grasped from an at least partially subjectivist point of view. In section two, we will first assess via the aforementioned literature review the extent...... to which the validity issue has been treated in qualitative research contributions published in six leading English-language journals which publish IB research. Thereafter, in section three, we will discuss our findings and relate them to (a) various levels of a research project and (b) the existing...... literature on potential validity problems from a more subjectivist point of view. As a part of this step, we will demonstrate that the assumptions of objectivist and subjectivist ontologies and their corresponding epistemologies merit different canons for assessing research validity. In the subsequent...

  19. Convergent Validity of Four Innovativeness Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    Four scales of innovativeness were administered to two samples of undergraduate students: the Open Processing Scale, Innovativeness Scale, innovation subscale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. Intercorrelations indicated the scales generally exhibited convergent validity. (GDC)

  20. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  1. Regulatory perspectives on human factors validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.; Staples, L.

    2001-01-01

    Validation is an important avenue for controlling the genesis of human error, and thus managing loss, in a human-machine system. Since there are many ways in which error may intrude upon system operation, it is necessary to consider the performance-shaping factors that could introduce error and compromise system effectiveness. Validation works to this end by examining, through objective testing and measurement, the newly developed system, procedure or staffing level, in order to identify and eliminate those factors which may negatively influence human performance. It is essential that validation be done in a high-fidelity setting, in an objective and systematic manner, using appropriate measures, if meaningful results are to be obtained, In addition, inclusion of validation work in any design process can be seen as contributing to a good safety culture, since such activity allows licensees to eliminate elements which may negatively impact on human behaviour. (author)

  2. Validation of the reactor dynamics code HEXTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.

    1994-05-01

    HEXTRAN is a new three-dimensional, hexagonal reactor dynamics code developed in the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) for VVER type reactors. This report describes the validation work of HEXTRAN. The work has been made with the financing of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). HEXTRAN is particularly intended for calculation of such accidents, in which radially asymmetric phenomena are included and both good neutron dynamics and two-phase thermal hydraulics are important. HEXTRAN is based on already validated codes. The models of these codes have been shown to function correctly also within the HEXTRAN code. The main new model of HEXTRAN, the spatial neutron kinetics model has been successfully validated against LR-0 test reactor and Loviisa plant measurements. Connected with SMABRE, HEXTRAN can be reliably used for calculation of transients including effects of the whole cooling system of VVERs. Further validation plans are also introduced in the report. (orig.). (23 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.)

  3. Concepts of Model Verification and Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thacker, B.H.; Doebling, S.W.; Hemez, F.M.; Anderson, M.C.; Pepin, J.E.; Rodriguez, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Model verification and validation (VandV) is an enabling methodology for the development of computational models that can be used to make engineering predictions with quantified confidence. Model VandV procedures are needed by government and industry to reduce the time, cost, and risk associated with full-scale testing of products, materials, and weapon systems. Quantifying the confidence and predictive accuracy of model calculations provides the decision-maker with the information necessary for making high-consequence decisions. The development of guidelines and procedures for conducting a model VandV program are currently being defined by a broad spectrum of researchers. This report reviews the concepts involved in such a program. Model VandV is a current topic of great interest to both government and industry. In response to a ban on the production of new strategic weapons and nuclear testing, the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). An objective of the SSP is to maintain a high level of confidence in the safety, reliability, and performance of the existing nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear testing. This objective has challenged the national laboratories to develop high-confidence tools and methods that can be used to provide credible models needed for stockpile certification via numerical simulation. There has been a significant increase in activity recently to define VandV methods and procedures. The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) is working to develop fundamental concepts and terminology for VandV applied to high-level systems such as ballistic missile defense and battle management simulations. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has recently formed a Standards Committee for the development of VandV procedures for computational solid mechanics models. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has been a proponent of model

  4. Verification and validation in computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkampf, William L.; Trucano, Timothy G.

    2002-04-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess accuracy and reliability in computational simulations. This paper presents an extensive review of the literature in V&V in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), discusses methods and procedures for assessing V&V, and develops a number of extensions to existing ideas. The review of the development of V&V terminology and methodology points out the contributions from members of the operations research, statistics, and CFD communities. Fundamental issues in V&V are addressed, such as code verification versus solution verification, model validation versus solution validation, the distinction between error and uncertainty, conceptual sources of error and uncertainty, and the relationship between validation and prediction. The fundamental strategy of verification is the identification and quantification of errors in the computational model and its solution. In verification activities, the accuracy of a computational solution is primarily measured relative to two types of highly accurate solutions: analytical solutions and highly accurate numerical solutions. Methods for determining the accuracy of numerical solutions are presented and the importance of software testing during verification activities is emphasized. The fundamental strategy of validation is to assess how accurately the computational results compare with the experimental data, with quantified error and uncertainty estimates for both. This strategy employs a hierarchical methodology that segregates and simplifies the physical and coupling phenomena involved in the complex engineering system of interest. A hypersonic cruise missile is used as an example of how this hierarchical structure is formulated. The discussion of validation assessment also encompasses a number of other important topics. A set of guidelines is proposed for designing and conducting validation experiments, supported by an explanation of how validation experiments are different

  5. An information architecture for courseware validation

    OpenAIRE

    Melia, Mark; Pahl, Claus

    2007-01-01

    A lack of pedagogy in courseware can lead to learner rejec- tion. It is therefore vital that pedagogy is a central concern of courseware construction. Courseware validation allows the course creator to specify pedagogical rules and principles which courseware must conform to. In this paper we investigate the information needed for courseware valida- tion and propose an information architecture to be used as a basis for validation.

  6. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L.; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self‐reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. Aim: The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. Methods: An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back i...

  7. VAlidation STandard antennas: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drioli, Luca Salghetti; Ostergaard, A; Paquay, M

    2011-01-01

    designed for validation campaigns of antenna measurement ranges. The driving requirements of VAST antennas are their mechanical stability over a given operational temperature range and with respect to any orientation of the gravity field. The mechanical design shall ensure extremely stable electrical....../V-band of telecom satellites. The paper will address requirements for future VASTs and possible architecture for multi-frequency Validation Standard antennas....

  8. Methodology for testing and validating knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, C.; Padalkar, S.; Sztipanovits, J.; Purves, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    A test and validation toolset developed for artificial intelligence programs is described. The basic premises of this method are: (1) knowledge bases have a strongly declarative character and represent mostly structural information about different domains, (2) the conditions for integrity, consistency, and correctness can be transformed into structural properties of knowledge bases, and (3) structural information and structural properties can be uniformly represented by graphs and checked by graph algorithms. The interactive test and validation environment have been implemented on a SUN workstation.

  9. Empirical Validation of Building Simulation Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    The work described in this report is the result of a collaborative effort of members of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Task 34/43: Testing and validation of building energy simulation tools experts group.......The work described in this report is the result of a collaborative effort of members of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Task 34/43: Testing and validation of building energy simulation tools experts group....

  10. Verification and Validation in Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Debbabi, Mourad; Jarraya, Yosr; Soeanu, Andrei; Alawneh, Luay

    2010-01-01

    "Verification and validation" represents an important process used for the quality assessment of engineered systems and their compliance with the requirements established at the beginning of or during the development cycle. Debbabi and his coauthors investigate methodologies and techniques that can be employed for the automatic verification and validation of systems engineering design models expressed in standardized modeling languages. Their presentation includes a bird's eye view of the most prominent modeling languages for software and systems engineering, namely the Unified Model

  11. The Legality and Validity of Administrative Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Iarkovoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept and content of the validity of adopted by the executive authorities and other bodies of public administration legal acts and committed by them legal actions as an important characteristic of law enforcement by these bodies. The Author concludes that the validity of the administrative law enforcement is not an independent requirement for it, and acts as an integral part of its legal requirements.

  12. A theory of cross-validation error

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Peter D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a theory of error in cross-validation testing of algorithms for predicting real-valued attributes. The theory justifies the claim that predicting real-valued attributes requires balancing the conflicting demands of simplicity and accuracy. Furthermore, the theory indicates precisely how these conflicting demands must be balanced, in order to minimize cross-validation error. A general theory is presented, then it is developed in detail for linear regression and instance-bas...

  13. DTU PMU Laboratory Development - Testing and Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Yang, Guang-Ya; Martin, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the results of phasor measurement unit (PMU) laboratory development and testing done at the Centre for Electric Technology (CET), Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Analysis of the PMU performance first required the development of tools to convert the DTU PMU data into IEEE standard, and the validation is done for the DTU-PMU via a validated commercial PMU. The commercial PMU has been tested from the authors' previous efforts, where the response can be expected to foll...

  14. Verification and validation for waste disposal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    A set of evaluation criteria has been developed to assess the suitability of current verification and validation techniques for waste disposal methods. A survey of current practices and techniques was undertaken and evaluated using these criteria with the items most relevant to waste disposal models being identified. Recommendations regarding the most suitable verification and validation practices for nuclear waste disposal modelling software have been made

  15. Feature Extraction for Structural Dynamics Model Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nishio, Mayuko [Yokohama University; Hemez, Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stull, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Univesity; Cornwell, Phil [Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology; Figueiredo, Eloi [Universidade Lusófona; Luscher, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worden, Keith [University of Sheffield

    2016-01-13

    As structural dynamics becomes increasingly non-modal, stochastic and nonlinear, finite element model-updating technology must adopt the broader notions of model validation and uncertainty quantification. For example, particular re-sampling procedures must be implemented to propagate uncertainty through a forward calculation, and non-modal features must be defined to analyze nonlinear data sets. The latter topic is the focus of this report, but first, some more general comments regarding the concept of model validation will be discussed.

  16. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…

  17. Validating presupposed versus focused text information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Murray; Solar, Kevin G; Spear, Jackie

    2017-04-01

    There is extensive evidence that readers continually validate discourse accuracy and congruence, but that they may also overlook conspicuous text contradictions. Validation may be thwarted when the inaccurate ideas are embedded sentence presuppositions. In four experiments, we examined readers' validation of presupposed ("given") versus new text information. Throughout, a critical concept, such as a truck versus a bus, was introduced early in a narrative. Later, a character stated or thought something about the truck, which therefore matched or mismatched its antecedent. Furthermore, truck was presented as either given or new information. Mismatch target reading times uniformly exceeded the matching ones by similar magnitudes for given and new concepts. We obtained this outcome using different grammatical constructions and with different antecedent-target distances. In Experiment 4, we examined only given critical ideas, but varied both their matching and the main verb's factivity (e.g., factive know vs. nonfactive think). The Match × Factivity interaction closely resembled that previously observed for new target information (Singer, 2006). Thus, readers can successfully validate given target information. Although contemporary theories tend to emphasize either deficient or successful validation, both types of theory can accommodate the discourse and reader variables that may regulate validation.

  18. Assessment of validity with polytrauma Veteran populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Shane S; Bass, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Veterans with polytrauma have suffered injuries to multiple body parts and organs systems, including the brain. The injuries can generate a triad of physical, neurologic/cognitive, and emotional symptoms. Accurate diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these conditions and for fair allocation of benefits. To accurately diagnose polytrauma disorders and their related problems, clinicians take into account the validity of reported history and symptoms, as well as clinical presentations. The purpose of this article is to describe the assessment of validity with polytrauma Veteran populations. Review of scholarly and other relevant literature and clinical experience are utilized. A multimethod approach to validity assessment that includes objective, standardized measures increases the confidence that can be placed in the accuracy of self-reported symptoms and physical, cognitive, and emotional test results. Due to the multivariate nature of polytrauma and the multiple disciplines that play a role in diagnosis and treatment, an ideal model of validity assessment with polytrauma Veteran populations utilizes neurocognitive, neurological, neuropsychiatric, and behavioral measures of validity. An overview of these validity assessment approaches as applied to polytrauma Veteran populations is presented. Veterans, the VA, and society are best served when accurate diagnoses are made.

  19. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  20. Development and validation of the primary care team dynamics survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hummy; Chien, Alyna T; Fisher, Josephine; Martin, Julia; Peters, Antoinette S; Hacker, Karen; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Singer, Sara J

    2015-06-01

    To develop and validate a survey instrument designed to measure team dynamics in primary care. We studied 1,080 physician and nonphysician health care professionals working at 18 primary care practices participating in a learning collaborative aimed at improving team-based care. We developed a conceptual model and administered a cross-sectional survey addressing team dynamics, and we assessed reliability and discriminant validity of survey factors and the overall survey's goodness-of-fit using structural equation modeling. We administered the survey between September 2012 and March 2013. Overall response rate was 68 percent (732 respondents). Results support a seven-factor model of team dynamics, suggesting that conditions for team effectiveness, shared understanding, and three supportive processes are associated with acting and feeling like a team and, in turn, perceived team effectiveness. This model demonstrated adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.91), scale reliability (Cronbach's alphas: 0.71-0.91), and discriminant validity (average factor correlations: 0.49). It is possible to measure primary care team dynamics reliably using a 29-item survey. This survey may be used in ambulatory settings to study teamwork and explore the effect of efforts to improve team-based care. Future studies should demonstrate the importance of team dynamics for markers of team effectiveness (e.g., work satisfaction, care quality, clinical outcomes). © Health Research and Educational Trust.