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Sample records for validated rct filter

  1. Validation of the REBUS-3/RCT methodologies for EBR-II core-follow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    One of the many tasks to be completed at EBR-2/FCF (Fuel Cycle Facility) regarding fuel cycle closure for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is to develop and install the systems to be used for fissile material accountancy and control. The IFR fuel cycle and pyrometallurgical process scheme determine the degree of actinide of actinide buildup in the reload fuel assemblies. Inventories of curium, americium and neptunium in the fuel will affect the radiation and thermal environmental conditions at the fuel fabrication stations, the chemistry of reprocessing, and the neutronic performance of the core. Thus, it is important that validated calculational tools be put in place for accurately determining isotopic mass and neutronic inputs to FCF for both operational and material control and accountancy purposes. The primary goal of this work is to validate the REBUS-2/RCT codes as tools which can adequately compute the burnup and isotopic distribution in binary- and ternary-fueled Mark-3, Mark-4, and Mark-5 subassemblies. 6 refs

  2. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, L.D. [Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY (United States); Rahimi, R.S. [Pall Corp., Cortland, NY (United States); Edling, D. [Edling & Associates, Inc., Russel Springs, KY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Validation of search filters for identifying pediatric studies in PubMed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, Edith; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2013-01-01

    To identify and validate PubMed search filters for retrieving studies including children and to develop a new pediatric search filter for PubMed. We developed 2 different datasets of studies to evaluate the performance of the identified pediatric search filters, expressed in terms of sensitivity,

  4. HEPA filter leaching concept validation trials at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravartty, A.C.

    1995-04-01

    The enclosed report documents six New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) HEPA filter leaching trials conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant using a filter leaching system to validate the filter leaching treatment concept. The test results show that a modified filter leaching system will be able to successfully remove both hazardous and radiological constituents to RCRA disposal levels. Based on the success of the filter leach trials, the existing leaching system will be modified to provide a safe, simple, effective, and operationally flexible filter leaching system

  5. Validation of search filters for identifying pediatric studies in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Edith; Leeflang, Mariska M G; van Dalen, Elvira C; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2013-03-01

    To identify and validate PubMed search filters for retrieving studies including children and to develop a new pediatric search filter for PubMed. We developed 2 different datasets of studies to evaluate the performance of the identified pediatric search filters, expressed in terms of sensitivity, precision, specificity, accuracy, and number needed to read (NNR). An optimal search filter will have a high sensitivity and high precision with a low NNR. In addition to the PubMed Limits: All Child: 0-18 years filter (in May 2012 renamed to PubMed Filter Child: 0-18 years), 6 search filters for identifying studies including children were identified: 3 developed by Kastner et al, 1 developed by BestBets, one by the Child Health Field, and 1 by the Cochrane Childhood Cancer Group. Three search filters (Cochrane Childhood Cancer Group, Child Health Field, and BestBets) had the highest sensitivity (99.3%, 99.5%, and 99.3%, respectively) but a lower precision (64.5%, 68.4%, and 66.6% respectively) compared with the other search filters. Two Kastner search filters had a high precision (93.0% and 93.7%, respectively) but a low sensitivity (58.5% and 44.8%, respectively). They failed to identify many pediatric studies in our datasets. The search terms responsible for false-positive results in the reference dataset were determined. With these data, we developed a new search filter for identifying studies with children in PubMed with an optimal sensitivity (99.5%) and precision (69.0%). Search filters to identify studies including children either have a low sensitivity or a low precision with a high NNR. A new pediatric search filter with a high sensitivity and a low NNR has been developed. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The medline UK filter: development and validation of a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiku, Lynda; Levay, Paul; Hudson, Tom; Craven, Jenny; Barrett, Elizabeth; Finnegan, Amy; Adams, Rachel

    2017-07-13

    A validated geographic search filter for the retrieval of research about the United Kingdom (UK) from bibliographic databases had not previously been published. To develop and validate a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline with high recall and precision. Three gold standard sets of references were generated using the relative recall method. The sets contained references to studies about the UK which had informed National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance. The first and second sets were used to develop and refine the medline UK filter. The third set was used to validate the filter. Recall, precision and number-needed-to-read (NNR) were calculated using a case study. The validated medline UK filter demonstrated 87.6% relative recall against the third gold standard set. In the case study, the medline UK filter demonstrated 100% recall, 11.4% precision and a NNR of nine. A validated geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK with high recall and precision has been developed. The medline UK filter can be applied to systematic literature searches in OVID medline for topics with a UK focus. © 2017 Crown copyright. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2017 Health Libraries GroupThis article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  7. Software Verification and Validation Test Report for the HEPA filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System PLC ladder logic software was tested using a Software Verification and Validation (VandV) Test Plan as required by the ''Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements''. The purpose of his document is to report on the results of the software qualification

  8. Parametric adaptive filtering and data validation in the bar GW detector AURIGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolan, A.; Baggio, L.; Cerdonio, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Vedovato, G.; Vitale, S.

    2002-04-01

    We report on our experience gained in the signal processing of the resonant GW detector AURIGA. Signal amplitude and arrival time are estimated by means of a matched-adaptive Wiener filter. The detector noise, entering in the filter set-up, is modelled as a parametric ARMA process; to account for slow non-stationarity of the noise, the ARMA parameters are estimated on an hourly basis. A requirement of the set-up of an unbiased Wiener filter is the separation of time spans with 'almost Gaussian' noise from non-Gaussian and/or strongly non-stationary time spans. The separation algorithm consists basically of a variance estimate with the Chauvenet convergence method and a threshold on the Curtosis index. The subsequent validation of data is strictly connected with the separation procedure: in fact, by injecting a large number of artificial GW signals into the 'almost Gaussian' part of the AURIGA data stream, we have demonstrated that the effective probability distributions of the signal-to-noise ratio χ2 and the time of arrival are those that are expected.

  9. Parametric adaptive filtering and data validation in the bar GW detector AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortolan, A; Baggio, L; Cerdonio, M; Prodi, G A; Vedovato, G; Vitale, S

    2002-01-01

    We report on our experience gained in the signal processing of the resonant GW detector AURIGA. Signal amplitude and arrival time are estimated by means of a matched-adaptive Wiener filter. The detector noise, entering in the filter set-up, is modelled as a parametric ARMA process; to account for slow non-stationarity of the noise, the ARMA parameters are estimated on an hourly basis. A requirement of the set-up of an unbiased Wiener filter is the separation of time spans with 'almost Gaussian' noise from non-Gaussian and/or strongly non-stationary time spans. The separation algorithm consists basically of a variance estimate with the Chauvenet convergence method and a threshold on the Curtosis index. The subsequent validation of data is strictly connected with the separation procedure: in fact, by injecting a large number of artificial GW signals into the 'almost Gaussian' part of the AURIGA data stream, we have demonstrated that the effective probability distributions of the signal-to-noise ratio χ 2 and the time of arrival are those that are expected

  10. Parametric adaptive filtering and data validation in the bar GW detector AURIGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortolan, A [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea, 4 I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Baggio, L [Department of Physics, University of Trento and INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Cerdonio, M [Department of Physics, University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Prodi, G A [Department of Physics, University of Trento and INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Vedovato, G [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea, 4 I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Vitale, S [Department of Physics, University of Trento and INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2002-04-07

    We report on our experience gained in the signal processing of the resonant GW detector AURIGA. Signal amplitude and arrival time are estimated by means of a matched-adaptive Wiener filter. The detector noise, entering in the filter set-up, is modelled as a parametric ARMA process; to account for slow non-stationarity of the noise, the ARMA parameters are estimated on an hourly basis. A requirement of the set-up of an unbiased Wiener filter is the separation of time spans with 'almost Gaussian' noise from non-Gaussian and/or strongly non-stationary time spans. The separation algorithm consists basically of a variance estimate with the Chauvenet convergence method and a threshold on the Curtosis index. The subsequent validation of data is strictly connected with the separation procedure: in fact, by injecting a large number of artificial GW signals into the 'almost Gaussian' part of the AURIGA data stream, we have demonstrated that the effective probability distributions of the signal-to-noise ratio {chi}{sup 2} and the time of arrival are those that are expected.

  11. Parametric adaptive filtering and data validation in the bar GW detector AURIGA

    CERN Document Server

    Ortolan, A; Cerdonio, M; Prodi, G A; Vedovato, G; Vitale, S

    2002-01-01

    We report on our experience gained in the signal processing of the resonant GW detector AURIGA. Signal amplitude and arrival time are estimated by means of a matched-adaptive Wiener filter. The detector noise, entering in the filter set-up, is modelled as a parametric ARMA process; to account for slow non-stationarity of the noise, the ARMA parameters are estimated on an hourly basis. A requirement of the set-up of an unbiased Wiener filter is the separation of time spans with 'almost Gaussian' noise from non-Gaussian and/or strongly non-stationary time spans. The separation algorithm consists basically of a variance estimate with the Chauvenet convergence method and a threshold on the Curtosis index. The subsequent validation of data is strictly connected with the separation procedure: in fact, by injecting a large number of artificial GW signals into the 'almost Gaussian' part of the AURIGA data stream, we have demonstrated that the effective probability distributions of the signal-to-noise ratio chi sup 2 ...

  12. Method validation using weighted linear regression models for quantification of UV filters in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Claudia Pereira; Emídio, Elissandro Soares; de Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of a method consisting of solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) filters benzophenone-3, ethylhexyl salicylate, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and octocrylene. The method validation criteria included evaluation of selectivity, analytical curve, trueness, precision, limits of detection and limits of quantification. The non-weighted linear regression model has traditionally been used for calibration, but it is not necessarily the optimal model in all cases. Because the assumption of homoscedasticity was not met for the analytical data in this work, a weighted least squares linear regression was used for the calibration method. The evaluated analytical parameters were satisfactory for the analytes and showed recoveries at four fortification levels between 62% and 107%, with relative standard deviations less than 14%. The detection limits ranged from 7.6 to 24.1 ng L(-1). The proposed method was used to determine the amount of UV filters in water samples from water treatment plants in Araraquara and Jau in São Paulo, Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Theory and validation of a liquid radiation filter greenhouse simulation for performance prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuermann, D.; Kopel, R.; Zeroni, M.; Levi, S.; Gale, J.

    1997-01-01

    A greenhouse is described which has a selectively absorbing liquid radiation filter (LRF) circulating in double layered cladding. The filter removes much of the near infrared wave band of solar radiation (700 nm) while transmitting most of the photosynthetic radiation (400-700 nm). This greatly reduces the heat input to the greenhouse and, by transferring heat from day to night, facilitates better temperature control. This is particularly important for CO2 fertilization, which requires that the greenhouse should remain closed during daylight hours. A computer simulation model was developed to study the relationship between design parameters of such a LRF greenhouse and its thermal performance under different climatic conditions. The model was based on a small number of governing equations describing the major physical phenomena responsible for the greenhouse climate. Validation of the simulation was performed with data from a 330 m2 LRF greenhouse, operating in the Negev (Israel) desert highlands. The predicted greenhouse temperatures were found to agree with measured values to within one to two degrees Celsius. Performances of a LRF and a conventional greenhouse were compared using the simulation and hourly meteorological data for central Israel. For the summer season of May to October, the number of daylight hours during which the LRF greenhouse could remain closed was larger by about two-thirds than that of the conventional greenhouse

  14. Experimental validation of a method characterizing bow tie filters in CT scanners using a real-time dose probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, Sarah E.; Nosratieh, Anita; Gelskey, Dale; Yang Kai; Huang Shinying; Chen Lin; Boone, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Beam-shaping or ''bow tie'' (BT) filters are used to spatially modulate the x-ray beam in a CT scanner, but the conventional method of step-and-shoot measurement to characterize a beam's profile is tedious and time-consuming. The theory for characterization of bow tie relative attenuation (COBRA) method, which relies on a real-time dosimeter to address the issues of conventional measurement techniques, was previously demonstrated using computer simulations. In this study, the feasibility of the COBRA theory is further validated experimentally through the employment of a prototype real-time radiation meter and a known BT filter. Methods: The COBRA method consisted of four basic steps: (1) The probe was placed at the edge of a scanner's field of view; (2) a real-time signal train was collected as the scanner's gantry rotated with the x-ray beam on; (3) the signal train, without a BT filter, was modeled using peak values measured in the signal train of step 2; and (4) the relative attenuation of the BT filter was estimated from filtered and unfiltered data sets. The prototype probe was first verified to have an isotropic and linear response to incident x-rays. The COBRA method was then tested on a dedicated breast CT scanner with a custom-designed BT filter and compared to the conventional step-and-shoot characterization of the BT filter. Using basis decomposition of dual energy signal data, the thickness of the filter was estimated and compared to the BT filter's manufacturing specifications. The COBRA method was also demonstrated with a clinical whole body CT scanner using the body BT filter. The relative attenuation was calculated at four discrete x-ray tube potentials and used to estimate the thickness of the BT filter. Results: The prototype probe was found to have a linear and isotropic response to x-rays. The relative attenuation produced from the COBRA method fell within the error of the relative attenuation measured with the step-and-shoot method

  15. Status self-validation of a multifunctional sensor using a multivariate relevance vector machine and predictive filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhengguang; Wang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    A novel strategy by using a multivariable relevance vector machine coupled with predictive filters for status self-validation of a multifunctional sensor is proposed. The working principle and online updating algorithm of predictive filters are emphasized for multiple fault detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR), and the incorrect sensor measurements are validated online. The multivariable relevance vector machine is then employed for the signal reconstruction of the multifunctional sensor to generate the final validated measurement values (VMV) of multiple measured components, in which its advantages of sparse models and multivariable simultaneous outputs are fully used. With all likely uncertainty sources of the multifunctional self-validating sensor taken into account, the uncertainty propagation model is deduced in detail to evaluate the online validated uncertainty (VU) under a fault-free situation while a qualitative uncertainty component is appended to indicate the accuracy changes of VMV under different types of fault. A real experimental system of a multifunctional self-validating sensor is designed to verify the performance of the proposed strategy. From the real-time capacity and fault recovery accuracy of FDIR, and runtime of signal reconstruction under small samples, a performance comparison among different methods is made. Results demonstrate that the proposed scheme provides a better solution to the status self-validation of a multifunctional self-validating sensor under both normal and abnormal situations. (paper)

  16. Validation of the new filters configuration for the RPC gas systems at LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are widely employed as muon trigger systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. Their large detector volume and the use of a relatively expensive gas mixture make a closed-loop gas circulation unavoidable. The return gas of RPCs operated in conditions similar to the experimental background foreseen at LHC contains large amount of impurities potentially dangerous for long-term operation. Several gas-cleaning agents, characterized during the past years, are currently in use. New test allowed understanding of the properties and performance of a large number of purifiers. On that basis, an optimal combination of different filters consisting of Molecular Sieve (MS) 5Å and 4Å, and a Cu catalyst R11 has been chosen and validated irradiating a set of RPCs at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) for several years. A very important feature of this new configuration is the increase of the cycle duration for each purifier, which results in better system stabilit...

  17. Biotrickling filter modeling for styrene abatement. Part 1: Model development, calibration and validation on an industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Valero, Pau; Dorado, Antonio D; Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Gabaldón, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    A three-phase dynamic mathematical model based on mass balances describing the main processes in biotrickling filtration: convection, mass transfer, diffusion, and biodegradation was calibrated and validated for the simulation of an industrial styrene-degrading biotrickling filter. The model considered the key features of the industrial operation of biotrickling filters: variable conditions of loading and intermittent irrigation. These features were included in the model switching from the mathematical description of periods with and without irrigation. Model equations were based on the mass balances describing the main processes in biotrickling filtration: convection, mass transfer, diffusion, and biodegradation. The model was calibrated with steady-state data from a laboratory biotrickling filter treating inlet loads at 13-74 g C m -3 h -1 and at empty bed residence time of 30-15 s. The model predicted the dynamic emission in the outlet of the biotrickling filter, simulating the small peaks of concentration occurring during irrigation. The validation of the model was performed using data from a pilot on-site biotrickling filter treating styrene installed in a fiber-reinforced facility. The model predicted the performance of the biotrickling filter working under high-oscillating emissions at an inlet load in a range of 5-23 g C m -3 h -1 and at an empty bed residence time of 31 s for more than 50 days, with a goodness of fit of 0.84. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Explosive Destruction System’s Drum Filter. Part 1. Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    test to quantify filtration performance for MEA. Being a relatively low vapor pressure chemical, MEA is strongly adsorbed by microporous adsorbents...DMMP and the nerve/HD agents I I that it simulates are strongly adsorbed by microporous adsorbents, loading on the adsorbent is relatively...is started, the challenge chemical is fed to the top of the test filter located in an insulated enclosure (9), which can be seen immediately to the

  19. Ensemble Kalman filter regularization using leave-one-out data cross-validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rayo Schiappacasse, Lautaro Jeró nimo; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the classical leave-one-out cross-validation method for selecting a regularization parameter for the Tikhonov problem is implemented within the EnKF framework. Following the original concept, the regularization parameter is selected

  20. Ensemble Kalman filter regularization using leave-one-out data cross-validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rayo Schiappacasse, Lautaro Jerónimo

    2012-09-19

    In this work, the classical leave-one-out cross-validation method for selecting a regularization parameter for the Tikhonov problem is implemented within the EnKF framework. Following the original concept, the regularization parameter is selected such that it minimizes the predictive error. Some ideas about the implementation, suitability and conceptual interest of the method are discussed. Finally, what will be called the data cross-validation regularized EnKF (dCVr-EnKF) is implemented in a 2D 2-phase synthetic oil reservoir experiment and the results analyzed.

  1. Development and validation of a Kalman filter-based model for vehicle slip angle estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadola, M.; Chindamo, D.; Romano, M.; Padula, F.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that vehicle slip angle is one of the most difficult parameters to measure on a vehicle during testing or racing activities. Moreover, the appropriate sensor is very expensive and it is often difficult to fit to a car, especially on race cars. We propose here a strategy to eliminate the need for this sensor by using a mathematical tool which gives a good estimation of the vehicle slip angle. A single-track car model, coupled with an extended Kalman filter, was used in order to achieve the result. Moreover, a tuning procedure is proposed that takes into consideration both nonlinear and saturation characteristics typical of vehicle lateral dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been proven by both simulation results and real-world data.

  2. Validation of HPLC method for the simultaneous and quantitative determination of 12 UV-filters in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeborg, M; Pissavini, M; Lemasson, Y; Doucet, O

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was the validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous and quantitative determination of twelve commonly used organic UV-filters (phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, benzophenone-3, isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate, diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate, octocrylene, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, ethylhexyl salicylate, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, diethylhexyl butamido triazone, ethylhexyl triazone, methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol and bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine) contained in suncare products. The separation and quantitative determination was performed in <30 min, using a Symmetry Shield(R) C18 (5 microm) column from Waters and a mobile phase (gradient mode) consisting of ethanol and acidified water. UV measurements were carried out at multi-wavelengths, according to the absorption of the analytes.

  3. Bicycle Trains, Cycling, and Physical Activity: A Pilot Cluster RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Haaland, Wren; Jacobs, Maya; Abbey-Lambertz, Mark; Miller, Josh; Salls, Deb; Todd, Winifred; Madding, Rachel; Ellis, Katherine; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2017-10-01

    Increasing children's cycling to school and physical activity are national health goals. The objective was to conduct an RCT of a bicycle train program to assess impact on students' school travel mode and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Pilot cluster RCT with randomization at the school level and N=54 participants. Fourth-fifth graders from four public schools serving low-income families in Seattle, WA in 2014 with analyses in 2015-2016. All participants were provided and fitted with bicycles, safety equipment (helmets, locks, and lights), and a 2- to 3-hour bicycle safety course. The intervention was a bicycle train offered daily (i.e., students volunteered to cycle with study staff to and from school). Time 1 assessments occurred prior to randomization. Time 2 assessments occurred after 3-5 weeks of the intervention (i.e., during Weeks 4-6 of the intervention period). The primary outcome was the percentage of daily commutes to school by cycling measured by validated survey. MVPA, measured by accelerometry and GPS units and processed by machine learning algorithms, was a secondary outcome. For two separate adjusted repeated measures linear mixed effects models in which students (N=54) were nested within schools (N=4), intervention participants had: (1) an absolute increase in mean percentage of daily commutes by cycling of 44.9%, (95% CI=26.8, 63.0) and (2) an increase in mean MVPA of 21.6 minutes/day, (95% CI=8.7, 34.6) from Time 1 to Time 2 compared with controls. A pilot bicycle train intervention increased cycling to school and daily MVPA in the short term among diverse, inner-city elementary school students. The bicycle train intervention appears promising and warrants further experimental trials among large, diverse samples with longer follow-up. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02006186. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Manufacturing facilities of pharmaceutical products and measures for purification of its environment. Validation for sterilizing grade filter; Iyakuhin no seizo shisetsu to kankyo seijoka taisaku. Mekkin`yo firuta no barideshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, M.

    1994-07-31

    Validation is defined as firm establishment of a documentary evidence showing the system concerned is functioning as designed. Validation for sterilizing grade filter is not limited only to validation of the filter itself, but evaluation of its extract as well as adsorption and the sterilizing condition of the filter and system are the items to be examined. It is necessary to make validation of the filtering system as a whole taking into consideration any kind of element of composition in order to reach the target. In this article, in order to avoid description on diversified subjects, only validation for the filter is focused and its technique is introduced. The procedure for executing validation is stated first, and concerning validation for the sterilizing grade filter, a bacterial retention test is explained in detail, then with regard to an integrity test, sterilization of the devise concerned and pharmaceutical suitability/extract tests, the points which call special attention and testing items are introduced. Finally self inspection and evaluation of operating performance qualification are described. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Modelling and validation of a simple and compact wide upper stop band ultra-wideband bandpass filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdotta Roy Choudhury

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A compact ultra-wideband (UWB bandpass filter (BPF is proposed based on end coupled microstrip transmission line, defected ground structure and defected microstrip structure. The experimental filter shows a fractional bandwidth of 110% at a centre frequency, with two observable transmission zeros (attenuation poles at 2.1 and 11.7 GHz. Measured results exhibit an UWB passband from 3.02 to 10.6 GHz with mid-band insertion loss of 1.8 dB and group delay variation <0.45 ns. The BPF achieves a wide stopband with < −18 dB attenuation up to 20 GHz.

  6. RCT: Module 2.07, Respiratory Protection, Course 8773

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Internal dosimetry controls require the use of engineering controls to prevent the internal deposition of radioactive and nonradiological contaminants. However, when engineering and administrative controls are not available or feasible, respiratory protection may be necessary. The radiation control technician (RCT) should know and apply the considerations used in determining the respiratory protection equipment that is most appropriate for the job. The inappropriate use of or the use of the wrong respiratory protection equipment may result in undesirable health effects. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for RCT qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and will provide in-the-field skills.

  7. A systematic literature review of US definitions, scoring systems and validity according to the OMERACT filter for tendon lesion in RA and other inflammatory joint diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, María; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Bruyn, George A W; Möller, Ingrid; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Wakefield, Richard J; Naredo, Esperanza

    2012-07-01

    To present the published data concerning the US assessment of tendon lesions as well as the US metric properties investigated in inflammatory arthritis. A systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed. Selection criteria were original articles in the English language reporting US, Doppler, tenosynovitis and other tendon lesions in patients with RA and other inflammatory arthritis. Data extraction focused on the definition and quantification of US-detected tenosynovitis and other tendon abnormalities and the metric properties of US according to the OMERACT filter for evaluating the above tendon lesions. Thirty-three of 192 identified articles were included in the review. Most articles were case series (42%) or case-control (33%) studies describing hand and/or foot tenosynovitis in RA patients. The majority of older articles used only B-mode, whereas the most recent studies have incorporated Doppler mode. Definition of tenosynovitis or other tendon lesion was provided in 70% of the evaluated studies. Most of the studies (61%) used a binary score for evaluating tendon abnormalities. Concerning the OMERACT filter, 24 (73%) articles dealt with construct validity. The comparator most commonly used was clinical assessment and MRI. There were few studies assessing criterion validity. Some studies evaluated reliability (36%), responsiveness (21%) and feasibility (12%). US seems a promising tool for evaluating inflammatory tendon lesions. However, further validation is necessary for implementation in clinical practice and trials.

  8. RCT: Module 2.08, Radiological Source Control, Course 8774

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    radioactive source is material used for its emitted radiation. Sources are sealed or unsealed and are classified as accountable or exempt. Radioactive sources are used for response checks, functional checks, and the calibration of instruments and monitors to traceable standards. To ensure the safety and welfare of all personnel, it is important to maintain control of radioactive sources to minimize the potential for the spread of contamination, unnecessary exposure to personnel, loss or theft, and improper disposal. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for RCT qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and will provide in-the-field skills.

  9. RCT: Module 2.11, Radiological Work Coverage, Course 8777

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Radiological work is usually approved and controlled by radiation protection personnel by using administrative and procedural controls, such as radiological work permits (RWPs). In addition, some jobs will require working in, or will have the potential for creating, very high radiation, contamination, or airborne radioactivity areas. Radiological control technicians (RCTs) providing job coverage have an integral role in controlling radiological hazards. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for RCT qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and will provide in-the-field skills.

  10. Validation of Kalman Filter alignment algorithm with cosmic-ray data using a CMS silicon strip tracker endcap

    CERN Document Server

    Sprenger, D; Adolphi, R; Brauer, R; Feld, L; Klein, K; Ostaptchuk, A; Schael, S; Wittmer, B

    2010-01-01

    A Kalman Filter alignment algorithm has been applied to cosmic-ray data. We discuss the alignment algorithm and an experiment-independent implementation including outlier rejection and treatment of weakly determined parameters. Using this implementation, the algorithm has been applied to data recorded with one CMS silicon tracker endcap. Results are compared to both photogrammetry measurements and data obtained from a dedicated hardware alignment system, and good agreement is observed.

  11. RCT: 2.02 Communication Systems, Course #33339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This unit will present an overview of communication systems at LANL. Good communication skills are essential to an RCT. RCTs should develop an ability to communicate, using both verbal and nonverbal media. These skills will ensure that important information is transmitted to the proper individuals in a clear and concise manner.

  12. DOE-RCT-0003641 Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Edward [RCT Systems, Inc., Linthicum, MD (United States); Lesster, Ted [RCT Systems, Inc., Linthicum, MD (United States)

    2014-07-30

    This program studied novel concepts for an Axial Flux Reluctance Machine to capture energy from marine hydrokinetic sources and compared their attributes to a Radial Flux Reluctance Machine which was designed under a prior Department of Energy program for the same application. Detailed electromagnetic and mechanical analyses were performed to determine the validity of the concept and to provide a direct comparison with the existing conventional Radial Flux Switched Reluctance Machine designed during the Advanced Wave Energy Conversion Project, DE-EE0003641. The alternate design changed the machine topology so that the flux that is switched flows axially rather than radially and the poles themselves are long radially, as opposed to the radial flux machine that has pole pieces that are long axially. It appeared possible to build an axial flux machine that should be considerably more compact than the radial machine. In an “apples to apples” comparison, the same rules with regard to generating magnetic force and the fundamental limitations of flux density hold, so that at the heart of the machine the same torque equations hold. The differences are in the mechanical configuration that limits or enhances the change of permeance with rotor position, in the amount of permeable iron required to channel the flux via the pole pieces to the air-gaps, and in the sizing and complexity of the electrical winding. Accordingly it was anticipated that the magnetic component weight would be similar but that better use of space would result in a shorter machine with accompanying reduction in housing and support structure. For the comparison the pole count was kept the same at 28 though it was also expected that the radial tapering of the slots between pole pieces would permit a higher pole count machine, enabling the generation of greater power at a given speed in some future design. The baseline Radial Flux Machine design was established during the previous DOE program. Its

  13. Assessing the performance of methodological search filters to improve the efficiency of evidence information retrieval: five literature reviews and a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Carol; Glanville, Julie; Beale, Sophie; Boachie, Charles; Duffy, Steven; Fraser, Cynthia; Harbour, Jenny; McCool, Rachael; Smith, Lynne

    2017-11-01

    Effective study identification is essential for conducting health research, developing clinical guidance and health policy and supporting health-care decision-making. Methodological search filters (combinations of search terms to capture a specific study design) can assist in searching to achieve this. This project investigated the methods used to assess the performance of methodological search filters, the information that searchers require when choosing search filters and how that information could be better provided. Five literature reviews were undertaken in 2010/11: search filter development and testing; comparison of search filters; decision-making in choosing search filters; diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) study methods; and decision-making in choosing diagnostic tests. We conducted interviews and a questionnaire with experienced searchers to learn what information assists in the choice of search filters and how filters are used. These investigations informed the development of various approaches to gathering and reporting search filter performance data. We acknowledge that there has been a regrettable delay between carrying out the project, including the searches, and the publication of this report, because of serious illness of the principal investigator. The development of filters most frequently involved using a reference standard derived from hand-searching journals. Most filters were validated internally only. Reporting of methods was generally poor. Sensitivity, precision and specificity were the most commonly reported performance measures and were presented in tables. Aspects of DTA study methods are applicable to search filters, particularly in the development of the reference standard. There is limited evidence on how clinicians choose between diagnostic tests. No published literature was found on how searchers select filters. Interviewing and questioning searchers via a questionnaire found that filters were not appropriate for all tasks but were

  14. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  15. RCT: Module 2.04, Dosimetry, Course 8769

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This course will introduce the types of instruments used to measure external and internal radiation to people. Dosimetry is the quantitative assessment of radiation received by the human body. Several types of dosimeters are used worldwide. This information is valuable to all radiological control personnel because dosimeters are the only direct method to measure and document personnel radiation exposure and ensure regulatory compliance with applicable limits. This course will cover dosimetry terms, Department of Energy (DOE) limits, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) administrative guidelines, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), LANL dosimetry, and bioassay assessment methods. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for radiological control technician (RCT) qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and providing in-thefield skills.

  16. Content and Construct Validity, Reliability, and Responsiveness of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Flare Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, Susan J; Barbic, Skye P; Bykerk, Vivian P

    2017-01-01

    -FQ), and the voting results at OMERACT 2016. METHODS: Classic and modern psychometric methods were used to assess reliability, validity, sensitivity, factor structure, scoring, and thresholds. Interviews with patients and clinicians also assessed content validity, utility, and meaningfulness of RA-FQ scores. RESULTS......: People with RA in observational trials in Canada (n = 896) and France (n = 138), and an RCT in the Netherlands (n = 178) completed 5 items (11-point numerical rating scale) representing RA Flare core domains. There was moderate to high evidence of reliability, content and construct validity...... to identify and measure RA flares. Its review through OMERACT Filter 2.0 shows evidence of reliability, content and construct validity, and responsiveness. These properties merit its further validation as an outcome for clinical trials....

  17. DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.

    2005-01-01

    Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter...... is studied for current harmonic compensation. The hybrid filter is formed by a single tuned Le filter and a small-rated power active filter, which are directly connected in series without any matching transformer. Thus the required rating of the active filter is much smaller than a conventional standalone...... active filter. Simulation and experimental results obtained in laboratory confirmed the validity and effectiveness of the control....

  18. Preliminary validation of 2 magnetic resonance image scoring systems for osteoarthritis of the hip according to the OMERACT filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Cibere, Jolanda; Loeuille, Damien; Weber, Ulrich; Zubler, Veronika; Roemer, Frank W; Jaremko, Jacob L; Sayre, Eric C; Lambert, Robert G W

    2014-02-01

    Development of a validated magnetic resonance image (MRI) scoring system is essential in hip OA because radiographs are insensitive to change. We assessed the feasibility and reliability of 2 previously developed scoring methods: (1) the Hip Inflammation MRI Scoring System (HIMRISS) and (2) the Hip Osteoarthritis MRI Scoring System (HOAMS). Six readers (3 radiologists, 3 rheumatologists) participated in 2 reading exercises. In Reading Exercise 1, MRI of the hip of 20 subjects were read at a single time point followed by further standardization of methodology. In Reading Exercise 2, MRI of the hip of 18 subjects from a randomized controlled trial, assessed at 2 timepoints, and 27 subjects from a cross-sectional study were read for HIMRISS and HOAMS bone marrow lesions (BML) and synovitis. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa statistics. Both methods were considered feasible. For Reading 1, HIMRISS ICC were 0.52, 0.61, 0.70, and 0.58 for femoral BML, acetabular BML, effusion, and total scores, respectively; and for HOAMS, summed BML and synovitis ICC were 0.52 and 0.46, respectively. For Reading 2, HIMRISS and HOAMS ICC for BML and synovitis-effusion improved substantially. Interobserver reliability for change scores was 0.81 and 0.71 for HIMRISS femoral and HOAMS summed BML, respectively. Responsiveness and discrimination was moderate to high for synovitis-effusion. Significant associations were noted between BML or synovitis scores and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain scores for baseline values (p ≤ 0.001). The BML and synovitis-effusion components of both HIMRISS and HOAMS scoring systems are feasible and reliable, and should be validated further.

  19. Extended wavelength anisotropy resolved multidimensional emission spectroscopy (ARMES) measurements: better filters, validation standards, and Rayleigh scatter removal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamayou-Boucau, Yannick; Ryder, Alan G.

    2017-09-01

    Anisotropy resolved multidimensional emission spectroscopy (ARMES) provides valuable insights into multi-fluorophore proteins (Groza et al 2015 Anal. Chim. Acta 886 133-42). Fluorescence anisotropy adds to the multidimensional fluorescence dataset information about the physical size of the fluorophores and/or the rigidity of the surrounding micro-environment. The first ARMES studies used standard thin film polarizers (TFP) that had negligible transmission between 250 and 290 nm, preventing accurate measurement of intrinsic protein fluorescence from tyrosine and tryptophan. Replacing TFP with pairs of broadband wire grid polarizers enabled standard fluorescence spectrometers to accurately measure anisotropies between 250 and 300 nm, which was validated with solutions of perylene in the UV and Erythrosin B and Phloxine B in the visible. In all cases, anisotropies were accurate to better than ±1% when compared to literature measurements made with Glan Thompson or TFP polarizers. Better dual wire grid polarizer UV transmittance and the use of excitation-emission matrix measurements for ARMES required complete Rayleigh scatter elimination. This was achieved by chemometric modelling rather than classical interpolation, which enabled the acquisition of pure anisotropy patterns over wider spectral ranges. In combination, these three improvements permit the accurate implementation of ARMES for studying intrinsic protein fluorescence.

  20. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  1. Intracranial aneurysm segmentation in 3D CT angiography: Method and quantitative validation with and without prior noise filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firouzian, Azadeh; Manniesing, Rashindra; Flach, Zwenneke H.; Risselada, Roelof; Kooten, Fop van; Sturkenboom, Miriam C.J.M.; Lugt, Aad van der; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysm volume and shape are important factors for predicting rupture risk, for pre-surgical planning and for follow-up studies. To obtain these parameters, manual segmentation can be employed; however, this is a tedious procedure, which is prone to inter- and intra-observer variability. Therefore there is a need for an automated method, which is accurate, reproducible and reliable. This study aims to develop and validate an automated method for segmenting intracranial aneurysms in Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) data. Also, it is investigated whether prior smoothing improves segmentation robustness and accuracy. The proposed segmentation method is implemented in the level set framework, more specifically Geodesic Active Surfaces, in which a surface is evolved to capture the aneurysmal wall via an energy minimization approach. The energy term is composed of three different image features, namely; intensity, gradient magnitude and intensity variance. The method requires minimal user interaction, i.e. a single seed point inside the aneurysm needs to be placed, based on which image intensity statistics of the aneurysm are derived and used in defining the energy term. The method has been evaluated on 15 aneurysms in 11 CTA data sets by comparing the results to manual segmentations performed by two expert radiologists. Evaluation measures were Similarity Index, Average Surface Distance and Volume Difference. The results show that the automated aneurysm segmentation method is reproducible, and performs in the range of inter-observer variability in terms of accuracy. Smoothing by nonlinear diffusion with appropriate parameter settings prior to segmentation, slightly improves segmentation accuracy.

  2. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  3. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imaging...... using the original OMERACT Filter and the newly proposed structure. Breakout groups critically reviewed the extent to which the candidate biomarkers complied with the proposed stepwise approach, as a way of examining the utility of the proposed 3-dimensional structure. RESULTS: Although...... was obtained for a proposed tri-axis structure to assess validation of imaging and soluble biomarkers; nevertheless, additional work is required to better evaluate its place within the OMERACT Filter 2.0....

  4. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  5. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... for defining core areas of measurement ("Filter 2.0 Core Areas of Measurement") was presented at OMERACT 11 to explore areas of consensus and to consider whether already endorsed core outcome sets fit into this newly proposed framework. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed the extent to which case......, presentation, and clarity of the framework were questioned. The discussion groups and subsequent feedback highlighted 20 such issues. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on accepting the proposed Filter 2.0 framework of Core Areas as the basis for the selection of Core Outcome...

  6. Benefits and Disadvantages of Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy (RCT) in the Multimodal Therapy of Squamous Esophageal Cancer (ESC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Adrian; Birla, Rodica; Iosif, Cristina; Boeriu, Marius; Constantinoiu, Silviu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the advantages and disadvantages of neoadjuvant RCT in multimodal therapyof ESC. Between 1998-2014 221 patients were treated with ESC, 85 of whom received neoadjuvant RCT. For these we have made imaging and pathologic assessment of response using RECIST and MANDARD criteria and statistical data were interpreted in terms of the factors that influence the response. Also, they were evaluated statistical correlations between RCT and resectability, postoperative morbidity, mortality and long-term survival. 45 patients were imagistic responders and 34 underwent surgery, 40 non-responders of which 14 underwent surgery. Of the 48 surgical patients with preoperative RCT, histopathological evaluation showed that 32 were pathological responders and 16 non responders. There were performed statistical analyzes of correlations between RCT and resectability, stage, location of ESC, morbidity, mortality and survival. RCT increase resectability, improves survival and maximum duration of survival, more in responders than in nonresponders and does not affect postoperative complications and postoperative mortality, nor among the responders or nonresponders. Imaging evaluation result of the response to RCT overestimate responders. Celsius.

  7. Some arithmetically symmetrical bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranasi, P.; Roy, S. C. D.

    1981-01-01

    A combination of the conventional and Matthaei lowpass-bandpass transformations is shown to result in some bandpass filters having very good arithmetic symmetry. The technique presented is applicable to the Butterworth and inverse Chebyshev types of magnitude approximations and the Bessel type of delay approximations. It is not valid, however, for the Chebyshev and elliptic varieties of filters.

  8. Validation of Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka van der Kooij

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of games for behavioral change has seen a surge in popularity but evidence on the efficacy of these games is contradictory. Anecdotal findings seem to confirm their motivational value whereas most quantitative findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT are negative or difficult to interpret. One cause for the contradictory evidence could be that the standard RCT validation methods are not sensitive to serious games’ effects. To be able to adapt validation methods to the properties of serious games we need a framework that can connect properties of serious game design to the factors that influence the quality of quantitative research outcomes. The Persuasive Game Design model [1] is particularly suitable for this aim as it encompasses the full circle from game design to behavioral change effects on the user. We therefore use this model to connect game design features, such as the gamification method and the intended transfer effect, to factors that determine the conclusion validity of an RCT. In this paper we will apply this model to develop guidelines for setting up validation methods for serious games. This way, we offer game designers and researchers handles on how to develop tailor-made validation methods.

  9. WE-F-16A-02: Design, Fabrication, and Validation of a 3D-Printed Proton Filter for Range Spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remmes, N; Courneyea, L; Corner, S; Beltran, C; Kemp, B; Kruse, J; Herman, M; Stoker, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To design, fabricate and test a 3D-printed filter for proton range spreading in scanned proton beams. The narrow Bragg peak in lower-energy synchrotron-based scanned proton beams can result in longer treatment times for shallow targets due to energy switching time and plan quality degradation due to minimum monitor unit limitations. A filter with variable thicknesses patterned on the same scale as the beam's lateral spot size will widen the Bragg peak. Methods: The filter consists of pyramids dimensioned to have a Gaussian distribution in thickness. The pyramids are 2.5mm wide at the base, 0.6 mm wide at the peak, 5mm tall, and are repeated in a 2.5mm pseudo-hexagonal lattice. Monte Carlo simulations of the filter in a proton beam were run using TOPAS to assess the change in depth profiles and lateral beam profiles. The prototypes were constrained to a 2.5cm diameter disk to allow for micro-CT imaging of promising prototypes. Three different 3D printers were tested. Depth-doses with and without the prototype filter were then measured in a ~70MeV proton beam using a multilayer ion chamber. Results: The simulation results were consistent with design expectations. Prototypes printed on one printer were clearly unacceptable on visual inspection. Prototypes on a second printer looked acceptable, but the micro-CT image showed unacceptable voids within the pyramids. Prototypes from the third printer appeared acceptable visually and on micro-CT imaging. Depth dose scans using the prototype from the third printer were consistent with simulation results. Bragg peak width increased by about 3x. Conclusions: A prototype 3D printer pyramid filter for range spreading was successfully designed, fabricated and tested. The filter has greater design flexibility and lower prototyping and production costs compared to traditional ridge filters. Printer and material selection played a large role in the successful development of the filter

  10. WE-F-16A-02: Design, Fabrication, and Validation of a 3D-Printed Proton Filter for Range Spreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmes, N; Courneyea, L; Corner, S; Beltran, C; Kemp, B; Kruse, J; Herman, M [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Stoker, J [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To design, fabricate and test a 3D-printed filter for proton range spreading in scanned proton beams. The narrow Bragg peak in lower-energy synchrotron-based scanned proton beams can result in longer treatment times for shallow targets due to energy switching time and plan quality degradation due to minimum monitor unit limitations. A filter with variable thicknesses patterned on the same scale as the beam's lateral spot size will widen the Bragg peak. Methods: The filter consists of pyramids dimensioned to have a Gaussian distribution in thickness. The pyramids are 2.5mm wide at the base, 0.6 mm wide at the peak, 5mm tall, and are repeated in a 2.5mm pseudo-hexagonal lattice. Monte Carlo simulations of the filter in a proton beam were run using TOPAS to assess the change in depth profiles and lateral beam profiles. The prototypes were constrained to a 2.5cm diameter disk to allow for micro-CT imaging of promising prototypes. Three different 3D printers were tested. Depth-doses with and without the prototype filter were then measured in a ~70MeV proton beam using a multilayer ion chamber. Results: The simulation results were consistent with design expectations. Prototypes printed on one printer were clearly unacceptable on visual inspection. Prototypes on a second printer looked acceptable, but the micro-CT image showed unacceptable voids within the pyramids. Prototypes from the third printer appeared acceptable visually and on micro-CT imaging. Depth dose scans using the prototype from the third printer were consistent with simulation results. Bragg peak width increased by about 3x. Conclusions: A prototype 3D printer pyramid filter for range spreading was successfully designed, fabricated and tested. The filter has greater design flexibility and lower prototyping and production costs compared to traditional ridge filters. Printer and material selection played a large role in the successful development of the filter.

  11. Filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)

  12. Economic evaluation alongside a single RCT of an integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Bakker, Ton J E M; Al, Maiwenn; van der Lee, Jacqueline; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Ribbe, Miel W; Huijsman, Robbert

    2013-09-30

    There is an 80% prevalence of two or more psychiatric symptoms in psychogeriatric patients. Multiple psychiatric symptoms (MPS) have many negative effects on quality of life of the patient as well as on caregiver burden and competence. Irrespective of the effectiveness of an intervention programme, it is important to take into account its economic aspects. The economic evaluation was performed alongside a single open RCT and conducted between 2001 and 2006. The patients who met the selection criteria were asked to participate in the RCT. After the patient or his caregiver signed a written informed consent form, he was then randomly assigned to either IRR or UC.The costs and effects of IRR were compared to those of UC. We assessed the cost-utility of IRR as well as the cost-effectiveness of both conditions. Primary outcome variable: severity of MPS (NPI) of patients; secondary outcome variables: general caregiver burden (CB) and caregiver competence (CCL), quality of life (EQ5D) of the patient, and total medical costs per patient (TiC-P). Cost-utility was evaluated on the basis of differences in total medical costs). Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by comparing differences of total medical costs and effects on NPI, CB and CCL (Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio: ICER). CEAC-analyses were performed for QALY and NPI-severity. All significant testing was fixed at pprinciple. A complete cases approach (CC) was used. IRR turned out to be non-significantly, 10.5% more expensive than UC (€ 36 per day). The number of QALYs was 0.01 higher (non-significant) in IRR, resulting in € 276,290 per QALY. According to the ICER-method, IRR was significantly more cost-effective on NPI-sum-severity of the patient (up to 34%), CB and CCL (up to 50%), with ICERs varying from € 130 to € 540 per additional point of improvement. No significant differences were found on QALYs. In IRR patients improved significantly more on severity of MPS, and caregivers on general burden and

  13. RCT: Module 2.10, Access Control and Work Area Setup, Course 8776

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This course presents information on radiological work permits (RWPs), various types of postings used in radiological areas, radiological area setups, access controls, and releases of material from radiological areas. All of these are fundamental duties of RCTs. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for radiological control technician (RCT) qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and providing in-thefield skills.

  14. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  15. On performing of interference technique based on self-adjusting Zernike filters (SA-AVT method) to investigate flows and validate 3D flow numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Al. A.; Shevchenko, A. M.; Khotyanovsky, D. V.; Pavlov, A. A.; Shmakov, A. S.; Golubev, M. P.

    2017-10-01

    We present a method for and results of determination of the field of integral density in the structure of flow corresponding to the Mach interaction of shock waves at Mach number M = 3. The optical diagnostics of flow was performed using an interference technique based on self-adjusting Zernike filters (SA-AVT method). Numerical simulations were carried out using the CFS3D program package for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Quantitative data on the distribution of integral density on the path of probing radiation in one direction of 3D flow transillumination in the region of Mach interaction of shock waves were obtained for the first time.

  16. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  17. Filter This

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Barbakoff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...

  18. RCT: Module 2.06, Air Sampling Program and Methods, Course 8772

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-19

    The inhalation of radioactive particles is the largest cause of an internal radiation dose. Airborne radioactivity measurements are necessary to ensure that the control measures are and continue to be effective. Regulations govern the allowable effective dose equivalent to an individual. The effective dose equivalent is determined by combining the external and internal dose equivalent values. Typically, airborne radioactivity levels are maintained well below allowable levels to keep the total effective dose equivalent small. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for RCT qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and will provide in-the-field skills.

  19. Identification of the rctA Gene, Which Is Required for Repression of Conjugative Transfer of Rhizobial Symbiotic Megaplasmids†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Sepúlveda, Edgardo; Pando, Victoria; Muñoz, Socorro; Nogales, Joaquina; Olivares, José; Soto, Maria J.; Herrera-Cervera, José A.; Romero, David; Brom, Susana; Sanjuán, Juan

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the conjugative transfer of pRetCFN42d, the symbiotic plasmid (pSym) of Rhizobium etli, has revealed a novel gene, rctA, as an essential element of a regulatory system for silencing the conjugative transfer of R. etli pSym by repressing the transcription of conjugal transfer genes in standard laboratory media. The rctA gene product lacks sequence conservation with other proteins of known function but may belong to the winged-helix DNA-binding subfamily of transcriptional regulators. Similar to that of many transcriptional repressors, rctA transcription seems to be positively autoregulated. rctA expression is greatly reduced upon overexpression of another gene, rctB, previously identified as a putative activator of R. etli pSym conjugal transfer. Thus, rctB seems to counteract the repressive action of rctA. rctA homologs are present in at least three other bacterial genomes within the order Rhizobiales, where they are invariably located adjacent to and divergently transcribed from putative virB-like operons. We show that similar to that of R. etli pSym, conjugative transfer of the 1.35-Mb symbiotic megaplasmid A of Sinorhizobium meliloti is also subjected to the inhibitory action of rctA. Our data provide strong evidence that the R. etli and S. meliloti pSym plasmids are indeed self-conjugative plasmids and that this property would only be expressed under optimal, as yet unknown conditions that entail inactivation of the rctA function. The rctA gene seems to represent novel but probably widespread regulatory systems controlling the transfer of conjugative elements within the order Rhizobiales. PMID:16237017

  20. Effectiveness in practice-based research: Looking for alternatives to the randomized controlled trial (RCT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavecchio, L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the status of the randomized controlled trial (RCT), hallmark of evidence-based medicine (research), has been growing strongly in general practice, social work and public health. But this type of research is only practicable under strictly controlled and well-defined settings

  1. The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2011-01-01

    Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada....

  2. Validation of the k-filtering technique for a signal composed of random-phase plane waves and non-random coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Roberts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of astrophysical magnetic fields have shown the presence of fluctuations being wave-like (propagating in the plasma frame and those described as being structure-like (advected by the plasma bulk velocity. Typically with single-spacecraft missions it is impossible to differentiate between these two fluctuations, due to the inherent spatio-temporal ambiguity associated with a single point measurement. However missions such as Cluster which contain multiple spacecraft have allowed for temporal and spatial changes to be resolved, using techniques such as k filtering. While this technique does not assume Taylor's hypothesis it requires both weak stationarity of the time series and that the fluctuations can be described by a superposition of plane waves with random phases. In this paper we test whether the method can cope with a synthetic signal which is composed of a combination of non-random-phase coherent structures with a mean radius d and a mean separation λ, as well as plane waves with random phase.

  3. Deqi sensations without cutaneous sensory input: results of an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simang Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deqi is defined in relation to acupuncture needling as a sensory perception of varying character. In a recently published sham laser validation study, we found that subjects in the verum and the sham laser group experienced deqi sensations. Therefore, we aim to further analyze whether the perceptions reported in the two study arms were distinguishable and whether expectancy effects exhibited considerable impact on our results. Methods A detailed re-analysis focusing on deqi sensations was performed from data collected in a previously published placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical cross-over trial for a sham laser evaluation. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (28 ± 10.7 years; 16 women, 18 men received two laser acupuncture treatments at three acupuncture points LI4 (hégu, LU7 (liéque, and LR3 (táichong; once by verum laser and once using a sham device containing an inactive laser in randomized order. Outcome measures were frequency, intensity (evaluated by visual analogue scale; VAS, and quality of the subjects' sensations perceived during treatments (assessed with the "acupuncture sensation scale". Results Both, verum and the sham laser acupuncture result in similar deqi sensations with regard to frequency (p-value = 0.67, intensity (p-value = 0.71 and quality (p-values between 0.15 - 0.98. In both groups the most frequently used adjectives to describe these perceptions were "spreading", "radiating", "tingling", "tugging", "pulsing", "warm", "dull", and "electric". Sensations reported were consistent with the perception of deqi as previously defined in literature. Subjects' conviction regarding the effectiveness of laser acupuncture or the history of having received acupuncture treatments before did not correlate with the frequency or intensity of sensations reported. Conclusions Since deqi sensations, described as sensory perceptions, were elicited without any cutaneous sensory input, we assume that they are a

  4. Bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K

    1982-01-01

    Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.

  5. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  6. The three stages of building and testing mid-level theories in a realist RCT: a theoretical and methodological case-example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Fletcher, Adam; Shackleton, Nichola; Elbourne, Diana; Viner, Russell; Bonell, Chris

    2015-10-15

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of social interventions are often criticised as failing to open the 'black box' whereby they only address questions about 'what works' without explaining the underlying processes of implementation and mechanisms of action, and how these vary by contextual characteristics of person and place. Realist RCTs are proposed as an approach to evaluation science that addresses these gaps while preserving the strengths of RCTs in providing evidence with strong internal validity in estimating effects. In the context of growing interest in designing and conducting realist trials, there is an urgent need to offer a worked example to provide guidance on how such an approach might be practically taken forward. The aim of this paper is to outline a three-staged theoretical and methodological process of undertaking a realist RCT using the example of the evaluation of a whole-school restorative intervention aiming to reduce aggression and bullying in English secondary schools. First, informed by the findings of our initial pilot trial and sociological theory, we elaborate our theory of change and specific a priori hypotheses about how intervention mechanisms interact with context to produce outcomes. Second, we describe how we will use emerging findings from the integral process evaluation within the RCT to refine, and add to, these a priori hypotheses before the collection of quantitative, follow-up data. Third, we will test our hypotheses using a combination of process and outcome data via quantitative analyses of effect mediation (examining mechanisms) and moderation (examining contextual contingencies). The results are then used to refine and further develop the theory of change. The aim of the realist RCT approach is thus not merely to assess whether the intervention is effective or not, but to develop empirically informed mid-range theory through a three-stage process. There are important implications for those involved with reporting and

  7. RCT: Module 2.03, Counting Errors and Statistics, Course 8768

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Radiological sample analysis involves the observation of a random process that may or may not occur and an estimation of the amount of radioactive material present based on that observation. Across the country, radiological control personnel are using the activity measurements to make decisions that may affect the health and safety of workers at those facilities and their surrounding environments. This course will present an overview of measurement processes, a statistical evaluation of both measurements and equipment performance, and some actions to take to minimize the sources of error in count room operations. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for radiological control technician (RCT) qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and by providing in the field skills.

  8. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  9. The RCT 1.3 m robotic telescope: broadband color transformation and extinction calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strolger, L.-G.; Gott, A. M.; Carini, M.; Gelderman, R.; Laney, C. D.; McGruder, C. [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Engle, S.; Guinan, E. [Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Treffers, R. R. [Starman Systems, LLC, Alamo, CA 94507 (United States); Walter, D. K., E-mail: strolger@stsci.edu [South Carolina State University, Orangeburg, SC 29117 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) 1.3 m telescope, formerly known as the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 50 inch telescope, has been refurbished as a fully robotic telescope, with an autonomous scheduler to take full advantage of the observing site without the requirement of a human presence. Here we detail the current configuration of the RCT and present, as a demonstration of its high-priority science goals, the broadband UBVRI photometric calibration of the optical facility. In summary, we find the linear color transformation and extinction corrections to be consistent with similar optical KPNO facilities, to within a photometric precision of 10% (at 1σ). While there were identified instrumental errors that likely added to the overall uncertainty, associated with since-resolved issues in engineering and maintenance of the robotic facility, a preliminary verification of this calibration gave a good indication that the solution is robust, perhaps to a higher precision than this initial calibration implies. The RCT has been executing regular science operations since 2009 and is largely meeting the science requirements set during its acquisition and redesign.

  10. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  11. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    . Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal...... the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of these filters are analyzed in terms of their noise reduction capabilities and desired signal distortion, and the analyses are validated and further explored in simulations....

  12. Alles Kidzzz: RCT naar een preventieve geïndiceerde individuele interventie voor agressie op de basisschool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Londen, M. van; Dekovic, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Prinzie, P.

    2013-01-01

    For elementary schoolchildren with aggressive behaviour, there is a need for effective preventive interventions to interrupt the development towards more serious behaviour problems. This rct study evaluated the effects of an indicated preventive individualized school-based intervention (Stay Cool

  13. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  14. Performance and optimisation of trickling filters on eel farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, A.; Heul, van der J.W.; Nijhof, M.

    1998-01-01

    The design of trickling filters used on commercial eel farms differs considerably with respect to dimensions, hydraulic and substrate loads and filter medium applied. In this paper, a model, developed for ammonium removal in a pilot-scale trickling filter, has been validated for a range of

  15. Fast algorithm for Morphological Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Shan; Jiang Xiangqian; Scott, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    In surface metrology, morphological filters, which evolved from the envelope filtering system (E-system) work well for functional prediction of surface finish in the analysis of surfaces in contact. The naive algorithms are time consuming, especially for areal data, and not generally adopted in real practice. A fast algorithm is proposed based on the alpha shape. The hull obtained by rolling the alpha ball is equivalent to the morphological opening/closing in theory. The algorithm depends on Delaunay triangulation with time complexity O(nlogn). In comparison to the naive algorithms it generates the opening and closing envelope without combining dilation and erosion. Edge distortion is corrected by reflective padding for open profiles/surfaces. Spikes in the sample data are detected and points interpolated to prevent singularities. The proposed algorithm works well both for morphological profile and area filters. Examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and superiority on efficiency of this algorithm over the naive algorithm.

  16. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  17. Exploratory RCT of art therapy as an adjunctive treatment in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Phil; Jones, Kevin; Evans, Chris; Stevens, Peter; Rowe, Anna; HASH(0x7f4d76f6c120)

    2007-01-01

    Background\\ud There is no high quality controlled trial evidence for the effectiveness of art therapy in the adjunctive treatment of schizophrenia.\\ud \\ud Aims\\ud To conduct the first exploratory RCT of group interactive art therapy (AT) as an adjunctive treatment in chronic schizophrenia.\\ud \\ud Method\\ud The outcomes of 43 patients randomised to 12 sessions of AT were compared with those of 47 who received standard psychiatric care. Patients were assessed on a range of measures of symptoms,...

  18. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  19. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  20. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  1. Optimization of filter loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, J.H.; Gardiner, D.E.; Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of 10 CFR Part 61 has created potential difficulties in the disposal of spent cartridge filters. When this report was prepared, Rancho Seco had no method of packaging and disposing of class B or C filters. This work examined methods to minimize the total operating cost of cartridge filters while maintaining them below the class A limit. It was found that by encapsulating filters in cement the filter operating costs could be minimized

  2. Effects of preventive family service coordination for parents with mental illnesses and their children, a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Henny J; Janssens, Jan M A M; Hoencamp, Erik; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Hosman, Clemens M H

    2015-06-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as developed in the Preventive Basic Care Management (PBCM) program, improve parenting and prevent child behavioral problems? This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) compared the effectiveness of PBCM with a control condition. Ninety-nine outpatients of a community mental health center were randomized to intervention or control. Primary outcomes included parenting quality (assessed by the HOME instrument), parenting skills (parenting skills subscale of FFQ), and parenting stress (PDH). Secondary outcomes are child behavioral problems (SDQ). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 9 and 18 months. Effects were analyzed by Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Most families were single-parent families belonging to ethnic minorities. The results of the first RCT on effects of PBCM suggest that this intervention is feasible and has a positive effect on parenting skills. There was no evidence for effects on the quality of parenting and parenting stress, nor preventive effects on child behavioral problems. Replication studies in other sites, with more power, including monitoring of the implementation quality and studying a broader palette of child outcomes are needed to confirm the positive effects of PBCM. Long-term prospective studies are needed to investigate if improved parenting skills lead to positive effects in the children in the long run. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Switching non-local vector median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.

  4. Passive target tracking using marginalized particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A marginalized particle filtering(MPF)approach is proposed for target tracking under the background of passive measurement.Essentially,the MPF is a combination of particle filtering technique and Kalman filter.By making full use of marginalization,the distributions of the tractable linear part of the total state variables are updated analytically using Kalman filter,and only the lower-dimensional nonlinear state variable needs to be dealt with using particle filter.Simulation studies are performed on an illustrative example,and the results show that the MPF method leads to a significant reduction of the tracking errors when compared with the direct particle implementation.Real data test results also validate the effectiveness of the presented method.

  5. Laboratory for filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1987-07-01

    Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.

  6. Two-stage nonrecursive filter/decimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, J.R.; Richard, B.D.

    1980-08-01

    A two-stage digital filter/decimator has been designed and implemented to reduce the sampling rate associated with the long-term computer storage of certain digital waveforms. This report describes the design selection and implementation process and serves as documentation for the system actually installed. A filter design with finite-impulse response (nonrecursive) was chosen for implementation via direct convolution. A newly-developed system-test statistic validates the system under different computer-operating environments

  7. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  8. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  9. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Simon-nitinol filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Kim, D.; Porter, D.H.; Kleshinski, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a filter that exploits the thermal shape-memory properties of the nitinol alloy to achieve an optimized filter shape and a fine-bore introducer. Experimental methods and materials are given and results are analyzed

  11. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  12. The discrete Kalman filtering approach for seismic signals deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.

    2012-01-01

    Seismic signals are a convolution of reflectivity and seismic wavelet. One of the most important stages in seismic data processing is deconvolution process; the process of deconvolution is inverse filters based on Wiener filter theory. This theory is limited by certain modelling assumptions, which may not always valid. The discrete form of the Kalman filter is then used to generate an estimate of the reflectivity function. The main advantage of Kalman filtering is capability of technique to handling continually time varying models and has high resolution capabilities. In this work, we use discrete Kalman filter that it was combined with primitive deconvolution. Filtering process works on reflectivity function, hence the work flow of filtering is started with primitive deconvolution using inverse of wavelet. The seismic signals then are obtained by convoluting of filtered reflectivity function with energy waveform which is referred to as the seismic wavelet. The higher frequency of wavelet gives smaller wave length, the graphs of these results are presented.

  13. Kalman Filtering for Delayed Singular Systems with Multiplicative Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lu; Linglong Wang; Haixia Wang; Xianghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Kalman filtering problem for singular systems is dealt with, where the measurements consist of instantaneous measurements and delayed ones, and the plant includes multiplicative noise. By utilizing standard singular value decomposition, the restricted equivalent delayed system is presented, and the Kalman filters for the restricted equivalent system are given by using the well-known re-organization of innovation analysis lemma. The optimal Kalman filter for the original system is given based on the above Kalman filter by recursive Riccati equations, and a numerical example is presented to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach, where the comparison between the filter and predictor is also given.

  14. Kalman Filter for Generalized 2-D Roesser Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Mei; ZOU Yun

    2007-01-01

    The design problem of the state filter for the generalized stochastic 2-D Roesser models, which appears when both the state and measurement are simultaneously subjected to the interference from white noise, is discussed. The wellknown Kalman filter design is extended to the generalized 2-D Roesser models. Based on the method of "scanning line by line", the filtering problem of generalized 2-D Roesser models with mode-energy reconstruction is solved. The formula of the optimal filtering, which minimizes the variance of the estimation error of the state vectors, is derived. The validity of the designed filter is verified by the calculation steps and the examples are introduced.

  15. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  16. Retina-Inspired Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2018-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter, which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model "virtual retina." This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatio-temporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina-inspired filter, studied in this paper. This filter is connected to the dynamic behavior of the retina, which enables the retina to increase the sharpness of the visual stimulus during filtering before its transmission to the brain. We establish that this retina-inspired transform forms a group of spatio-temporal Weighted Difference of Gaussian (WDoG) filters when it is applied to a still image visible for a given time. We analyze the spatial frequency bandwidth of the retina-inspired filter with respect to time. It is shown that the WDoG spectrum varies from a lowpass filter to a bandpass filter. Therefore, while time increases, the retina-inspired filter enables to extract different kinds of information from the input image. Finally, we discuss the benefits of using the retina-inspired filter in image processing applications such as edge detection and compression.

  17. Study of different filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.

    1959-01-01

    This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators

  18. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1980-01-01

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  19. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  20. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  1. Switching non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method for removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on grayscale images. Generally, it is well known that switching-type median filters are effective for impulse noise removal. In this paper, we propose a more sophisticated switching-type impulse noise removal method in terms of detail-preserving performance. Specifically, the noise detector of the proposed method finds out noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the difference between the value of a pixel of interest (POI) and the median of its neighboring pixel values, and on the POI's isolation tendency from the surrounding pixels. Furthermore, the removal of the detected noise is performed by the newly proposed median filter based on non-local processing, which has superior detail-preservation capability compared to the conventional median filter. The effectiveness and the validity of the proposed method are verified by some experiments using natural grayscale images.

  2. Design of an international multicentre RCT on group schema therapy for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzelaer, Pim; Farrell, Joan; Evers, Silvia M A A; Jacob, Gitta A; Lee, Christopher W; Brand, Odette; van Breukelen, Gerard; Fassbinder, Eva; Fretwell, Heather; Harper, R Patrick; Lavender, Anna; Lockwood, George; Malogiannis, Ioannis A; Schweiger, Ulrich; Startup, Helen; Stevenson, Teresa; Zarbock, Gerhard; Arntz, Arnoud

    2014-11-18

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and highly prevalent mental disorder. Schema therapy (ST) has been found effective in the treatment of BPD and is commonly delivered through an individual format. A group format (group schema therapy, GST) has also been developed. GST has been found to speed up and amplify the treatment effects found for individual ST. Delivery in a group format may lead to improved cost-effectiveness. An important question is how GST compares to treatment as usual (TAU) and what format for delivery of schema therapy (format A; intensive group therapy only, or format B; a combination of group and individual therapy) produces the best outcomes. An international, multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted with a minimum of fourteen participating centres. Each centre will recruit multiple cohorts of at least sixteen patients. GST formats as well as the orders in which they are delivered to successive cohorts will be balanced. Within countries that contribute an uneven number of sites, the orders of GST formats will be balanced within a difference of one. The RCT is designed to include a minimum of 448 patients with BPD. The primary clinical outcome measure will be BPD severity. Secondary clinical outcome measures will include measures of BPD and general psychiatric symptoms, schemas and schema modes, social functioning and quality of life. Furthermore, an economic evaluation that consists of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be performed using a societal perspective. Lastly, additional investigations will be carried out that include an assessment of the integrity of GST, a qualitative study on patients' and therapists' experiences with GST, and studies on variables that might influence the effectiveness of GST. This trial will compare GST to TAU for patients with BPD as well as two different formats for the delivery of GST. By combining an evaluation of clinical effectiveness, an economic evaluation

  3. A Pilot RCT of an Internet Intervention to Reduce the Risk of Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Karen; Frederick, Christina; MacDonnell, Kirsten; Ritterband, Lee; Lord, Holly; Jones, Brogan; Truwit, Lauren

    2018-06-01

    Preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEPs) could reduce the incidence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Previous face-to-face interventions significantly reduced risk for AEP, but a scalable intervention is needed to reach more women at risk. This study compared a 6 Core automated, interactive, and tailored Internet intervention, the Contraception and Alcohol Risk Reduction Internet Intervention (CARRII), to a static patient education (PE) website for its effect on AEP risk. Participants were recruited online to a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) with baseline, 9 weeks posttreatment, and 6-month (6-M) follow-up assessments. Seventy-one women completed online questionnaires and telephone interviews and were randomized to CARRII (n = 36) or PE (n = 35). Primary outcomes were rates of risky drinking, unprotected sex episodes, and AEP risk, collected from online prospective diaries. CARRII participants showed significant reductions in rate of unprotected sex from pretreatment (88.9%) to posttreatment (70.6%) (p < 0.04) and to 6-M follow-up (51.5%) (p = 0.001); rate of risky drinking from pretreatment (75.0%) to posttreatment (50.0%) (p < 0.02), but insignificant change from pretreatment to 6-M follow-up (57.6%) (p < 0.09); and rate of AEP risk from pretreatment (66.7%) to posttreatment (32.4%) (p = 0.001) and to 6-M follow-up (30.3%) (p = 0.005). PE participants demonstrated no significant changes on all 3 variables across all time points. Intent-to-treat group-by-time tests were not significant, but power was limited by missing diaries. Over 72% of CARRII participants completed all 6 Cores. Exploratory analyses suggest that higher program utilization is related to change. These data show that CARRII was acceptable, feasible, promising to reduce AEP risk, and merits further testing in a fully powered RCT. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson-Spillmann Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome

  5. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Kraemer, Thomas; Rust, Kristina; Schaub, Michael

    2012-04-04

    A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of standardisation of hypnotic

  6. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  7. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  8. Q-Method Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato; Ainscough, Thomas; Christian, John; Spanos, Pol D.

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed that smoothly integrates non-linear estimation of the attitude quaternion using Davenport s q-method and estimation of non-attitude states through an extended Kalman filter. The new method is compared to a similar existing algorithm showing its similarities and differences. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed through numerical simulations.

  9. Backflushable filter insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.C.; Vandenberg, T.; Randolph, M.C.; Lewis, T.B.; Gillis, P.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Filter elements are mounted on a tube plate beneath an accumulator chamber whose wall is extended by skirt and flange to form a closure for the top of pressure vessel. The accumulator chamber is annular around a central pipe which serves as the outlet for filtered water passing from the filter elements. The chamber contains filtered compressed air from supply. Periodically the filtration of water is stopped and vessel is drained. Then a valve is opened, allowing the accumulated air to flow from chamber up a pipe and down pipe, pushing the filtered water from pipe back through the filter elements to clean them. The accumulator chamber is so proportioned, relative to the volume of the system communicating therewith during backflushing, that the equilibrium pressure during backflushing cannot exceed the pressure rating of the vessel. However a line monitors the pressure at the top of the vessel, and if it rises too far a bleed valve is automatically opened to depressurise the system. The chamber is intended to replace the lid of an existing vessel to convert a filter using filter aid to one using permanent filter elements. (author)

  10. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs......, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...

  11. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  12. Filters in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, K.H.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The topics of the nine papers given include the behavior of HEPA filters during exposure to air flows of high humidity as well as of high differential pressure, the development of steel-fiber filters suitable for extreme operating conditions, and the occurrence of various radioactive iodine species in the exhaust air from boiling water reactors. In an introductory presentation the German view of the performance requirements to be met by filters in nuclear facilities as well as the present status of filter quality assurance are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Washing method of filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)

  14. Project STYLE: a multisite RCT for HIV prevention among youths in mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R; DiClemente, Ralph J; Lescano, Celia; Lang, Delia M; Crosby, Richard; Barker, David; Oster, Danielle

    2014-03-01

    The study examined the efficacy of family-based and adolescent-only HIV prevention programs in decreasing HIV risk and improving parental monitoring and sexual communication among youths in mental health treatment. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 721 adolescents (ages 13-18 years) and their caregivers from mental health settings in three U.S. cities were randomly assigned to one of three theory-based, structured group interventions: family-based HIV prevention, adolescent-only HIV prevention, and adolescent-only health promotion. Interventions were delivered during an all-day workshop. Assessments were completed at baseline and three months postintervention. Compared with those in the health intervention, adolescents in the HIV prevention interventions reported fewer unsafe sex acts (adjusted rate ratio=.49, p=.01), greater condom use (adjusted relative change=59%, p=.01), and greater likelihood of avoiding sex (adjusted odds ratio=1.44, p=.05). They also showed improved HIV knowledge (pprevention interventions reduced sexual risk behavior over three months in a large, diverse sample of youths in mental health treatment and that the family-based intervention improved parental monitoring and communication with teens about sex. These interventions show promise.

  15. Michelson interferometer based interleaver design using classic IIR filter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hao; Tang, Shasha

    2013-12-16

    An elegant method to design a Michelson interferometer based interleaver using a classic infinite impulse response (IIR) filter such as Butterworth, Chebyshev, and elliptic filters as a starting point are presented. The proposed design method allows engineers to design a Michelson interferometer based interleaver from specifications seamlessly. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed design method.

  16. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  17. Neutron Beam Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of filters is to transmit neutrons with selected energy, while remove unwanted ones from the incident neutron beam. This reduces the background, and the number of spurious. The types of commonly used now-a-day neutron filters and their properties are discussed in the present work. There are three major types of neutron filters. The first type is filter of selective thermal neutron. It transmits the main reflected neutrons from a crystal monochromate, while reject the higher order contaminations accompanying the main one. Beams coming from the moderator always contain unwanted radiation like fast neutrons and gamma-rays which contribute to experimental background and to the biological hazard potential. Such filter type is called filter of whole thermal neutron spectrum. The third filter type is it transmits neutrons with energies in the resonance energy range (En . 1 KeV). The main idea of such neutron filter technique is the use of large quantities of a certain material which have the deep interference minima in its total neutron cross-section. By transmitting reactor neutrons through bulk layer of such material, one can obtain the quasimonochromatic neutron lines instead of white reactor spectrum.

  18. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  19. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  20. Atmospheric Transmission Measurements Using IR Lasers, Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, and Gas-Filter Correlation Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowling, J

    1977-01-01

    ... and a gas filter correlation spectrometer. Results obtained from three concurrent experiments used to generate a data base appropriate to high resolution transmission model validation are displayed...

  1. Filtering and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Fristedt, B; Krylov, N

    2007-01-01

    Filtering and prediction is about observing moving objects when the observations are corrupted by random errors. The main focus is then on filtering out the errors and extracting from the observations the most precise information about the object, which itself may or may not be moving in a somewhat random fashion. Next comes the prediction step where, using information about the past behavior of the object, one tries to predict its future path. The first three chapters of the book deal with discrete probability spaces, random variables, conditioning, Markov chains, and filtering of discrete Markov chains. The next three chapters deal with the more sophisticated notions of conditioning in nondiscrete situations, filtering of continuous-space Markov chains, and of Wiener process. Filtering and prediction of stationary sequences is discussed in the last two chapters. The authors believe that they have succeeded in presenting necessary ideas in an elementary manner without sacrificing the rigor too much. Such rig...

  2. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  3. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  4. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  5. Design of Microwave Multibandpass Filters with Quasilumped Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Miljanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of RF and microwave filters has always been the challenging engineering field. Modern filter design techniques involve the use of the three-dimensional electromagnetic (3D EM solvers for predicting filter behavior, yielding the most accurate filter characteristics. However, the 3D EM simulations are time consuming. In this paper, we propose electric-circuit models, instead of 3D EM models, suitable for design of RF and microwave filters with quasilumped coupled resonators. Using the diakoptic approach, the 3D filter structure is decomposed into domains that are modeled by electric networks. The coupling between these domains is modeled by capacitors and coupled inductors. Furthermore, we relate the circuit-element values to the physical dimensions of the 3D filter structure. We propose the filter design procedure that is based on the circuit models and fast circuit-level simulations, yielding the element values from which the physical dimensions can be obtained. The obtained dimensions should be slightly refined for achieving the desired filter characteristics. The mathematical problems encountered in the procedure are solved by numerical and symbolic computations. The procedure is exemplified by designing a triple-bandpass filter and validated by measurements on the fabricated filter. The simulation and experimental results are in good agreement.

  6. A 2-Year Holistic Health and Stress Intervention: Results of an RCT in Clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Turner, Elizabeth L; Bennett, Gary G; Yao, Jia; Li, Xiang-Fang; Eagle, David E; Meyer, Rachel A; Williams, Redford B; Swift, Robin Y; Moore, H Edgar; Kolkin, Melanie A; Weisner, Carl C; Rugani, Katherine M; Hough, Holly J; Williams, Virginia P; Toole, David C

    2017-09-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of a 2-year, multicomponent health intervention (Spirited Life) targeting metabolic syndrome and stress simultaneously. An RCT using a three-cohort multiple baseline design was conducted in 2010-2014. Participants were United Methodist clergy in North Carolina, U.S., in 2010, invited based on occupational status. Of invited 1,745 clergy, 1,114 consented, provided baseline data, and were randomly assigned to immediate intervention (n=395), 1-year waitlist (n=283), or 2-year waitlist (n=436) cohorts for a 48-month trial duration. The 2-year intervention consisted of personal goal setting and encouragement to engage in monthly health coaching, an online weight loss intervention, a small grant, and three workshops delivering stress management and theological content supporting healthy behaviors. Participants were not blinded to intervention. Trial outcomes were metabolic syndrome (primary) and self-reported stress and depressive symptoms (secondary). Intervention effects were estimated in 2016 in an intention-to-treat framework using generalized estimating equations with adjustment for baseline level of the outcome and follow-up time points. Log-link Poisson generalized estimating equations with robust SEs was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for binary outcomes; mean differences were used for continuous/score outcomes. Baseline prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 50.9% and depression was 11.4%. The 12-month intervention effect showed a benefit for metabolic syndrome (PR=0.86, 95% CI=0.79, 0.94, pstress scores. The Spirited Life intervention improved metabolic syndrome prevalence in a population of U.S. Christian clergy and sustained improvements during 24 months of intervention. These findings offer support for long-duration behavior change interventions and population-level interventions that allow participants to set their own health goals. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01564719. Copyright

  7. Effects of physical activity training in patients with Alzheimer's dementia: results of a pilot RCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthoff, Vjera A; Marschner, Kira; Scharf, Maria; Steding, Julius; Meyer, Shirin; Koch, Rainer; Donix, Markus

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that physical activity (PA) is of cognitive benefit to the ageing brain, but little is known on the effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present pilot study assessed the effect of a home-based PA training on clinical symptoms, functional abilities, and caregiver burden after 12 and 24 weeks. In an RCT thirty patients (aged 72.4±4.3 years) with AD (MMSE: 20.6±6.5 points) and their family caregivers were allocated to a home-based 12-week PA intervention program or the usual care group. The program changed between passive, motor-assisted or active resistive leg training and changes in direction on a movement trainer in order to combine physical and cognitive stimuli. Analysis of activities of daily living in the patients (ADCS ADL total score) revealed a significant group × time interaction effect (95% CI of the difference between both groups at T2: 5.01-10.51). The control group experienced decreases in ADL performance at week 12 and 24 whereas patients in the intervention group remained stable. Analyses of executive function and language ability revealed considerable effects for semantic word fluency with a group × time interaction (95% CI of the difference between both groups at T2: 0.18-4.02). Patients in the intervention group improved during the intervention and returned to initial performance at week 12 whereas the controls revealed continuous worsening. Analyses of reaction time, hand-eye quickness and attention revealed improvement only in the intervention group. Caregiver burden remained stable in the intervention group but worsened in the control group. This study suggests that PA in a home-based setting might be an effective and intrinsically attractive way to promote PA training in AD and modulate caregiver burden. The results demonstrate transfer benefits to ADL, cognitive and physical skill in patients with AD. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02196545.

  8. Effects of physical activity training in patients with Alzheimer's dementia: results of a pilot RCT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjera A Holthoff

    Full Text Available There is evidence that physical activity (PA is of cognitive benefit to the ageing brain, but little is known on the effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. The present pilot study assessed the effect of a home-based PA training on clinical symptoms, functional abilities, and caregiver burden after 12 and 24 weeks.In an RCT thirty patients (aged 72.4±4.3 years with AD (MMSE: 20.6±6.5 points and their family caregivers were allocated to a home-based 12-week PA intervention program or the usual care group. The program changed between passive, motor-assisted or active resistive leg training and changes in direction on a movement trainer in order to combine physical and cognitive stimuli.Analysis of activities of daily living in the patients (ADCS ADL total score revealed a significant group × time interaction effect (95% CI of the difference between both groups at T2: 5.01-10.51. The control group experienced decreases in ADL performance at week 12 and 24 whereas patients in the intervention group remained stable. Analyses of executive function and language ability revealed considerable effects for semantic word fluency with a group × time interaction (95% CI of the difference between both groups at T2: 0.18-4.02. Patients in the intervention group improved during the intervention and returned to initial performance at week 12 whereas the controls revealed continuous worsening. Analyses of reaction time, hand-eye quickness and attention revealed improvement only in the intervention group. Caregiver burden remained stable in the intervention group but worsened in the control group.This study suggests that PA in a home-based setting might be an effective and intrinsically attractive way to promote PA training in AD and modulate caregiver burden. The results demonstrate transfer benefits to ADL, cognitive and physical skill in patients with AD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02196545.

  9. An RCT on treatment of palatally displaced canines with RME and/or a transpalatal arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Sigler, Lauren M; McNamara, James A

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effect of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and/or transpalatal arch (TPA) therapy in combination with deciduous canine extraction on the eruption of palatally displaced canines (PDCs). Hundred and twenty subjects were enrolled in an RCT based on PDCs diagnosed on panoramic radiographs and they were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. Three treatment groups (TGs) (RME followed by TPA therapy plus extraction of deciduous canines, RME/TPA/EC group, 40 subjects; TPA therapy plus extraction of deciduous canines, TPA/EC group, 25 subjects; extraction of deciduous canines, EC group, 25 subjects) were analyzed. A control group (CG, 30 subjects) received no orthodontic treatment. Prevalence rates of eruption of PDCs in the three TGs were compared with the CG at T2. Predictive features at T1 for successful canine eruption were tested in the three TGs. The prevalence of canine eruption was 80 per cent for the RME/TPA/EC group, 79 per cent for the TPA/EC group, 62.5 per cent for the EC group, versus 28 per cent in the CG, with statistically significant differences between all the groups, with the exception of the comparison between RME/TPA/EC and TPA/EC. Predictive pretreatment variables for the success of treatment were less severe sectors of canine displacement, prepubertal stages of skeletal maturity, and an open root apex of PDCs. The use of a TPA in absence of RME can be equally effective than the RME/TPA combination in PDC cases not requiring maxillary expansion, thus reducing the burden of treatment for the patient.

  10. Feature-Based Nonlocal Polarimetric SAR Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Xing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR images are inherently contaminated by multiplicative speckle noise, which complicates the image interpretation and image analyses. To reduce the speckle effect, several adaptive speckle filters have been developed based on the weighted average of the similarity measures commonly depending on the model or probability distribution, which are often affected by the distribution parameters and modeling texture components. In this paper, a novel filtering method introduces the coefficient of variance ( CV and Pauli basis (PB to measure the similarity, and the two features are combined with the framework of the nonlocal mean filtering. The CV is used to describe the complexity of various scenes and distinguish the scene heterogeneity; moreover, the Pauli basis is able to express the polarimetric information in PolSAR image processing. This proposed filtering combines the CV and Pauli basis to improve the estimation accuracy of the similarity weights. Then, the similarity of the features is deduced according to the test statistic. Subsequently, the filtering is proceeded by using the nonlocal weighted estimation. The performance of the proposed filter is tested with the simulated images and real PolSAR images, which are acquired by AIRSAR system and ESAR system. The qualitative and quantitative experiments indicate the validity of the proposed method by comparing with the widely-used despeckling methods.

  11. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  12. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  13. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  14. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...

  15. Metalcasting: Filtering Molten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauren Poole; Lee Recca

    1999-01-01

    A more efficient method has been created to filter cast molten metal for impurities. Read about the resulting energy and money savings that can accrue to many different industries from the use of this exciting new technology

  16. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-01

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  17. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  18. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  19. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  20. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  1. Microwave Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    1 Microwave Resonators and Filters Daniel E. Oates MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood St. Lexington, MA 02478 USA Email: oates@ll.mit.edu...explained in other chapters, the surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies can be as much as three orders of magnitude lower than the...resonators and filters in the first edition of this handbook (Z.-Y. Shen 2003) discussed the then state of the art of microwave frequency applications

  2. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  3. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  4. Preventing family transmission of anxiety: Feasibility RCT of a brief intervention for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright-Hatton, Sam; Ewing, Donna; Dash, Suzanne; Hughes, Zoe; Thompson, Ellen J; Hazell, Cassie M; Field, Andy P; Startup, Helen

    2018-03-25

    Children of anxious parents are at high risk of anxiety disorders themselves. The evidence suggests that this is due to environmental rather than genetic factors. However, we currently do little to reduce this risk of transmission. There is evidence that supporting parenting in those with mental health difficulties can ameliorate this risk. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a new one-session, group-based, preventive parenting intervention for parents with anxiety disorders. Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial. A total of 100 parents with anxiety disorders, recruited from adult mental health services in England (and child aged 3-9 years), were randomized to receive the new intervention (a 1-day, group workshop), or to treatment as usual. Children's anxiety disorder and anxiety symptoms were assessed to 12 months by outcome assessors who were blind to group allocation. Exploratory analyses were conducted on an intention to treat basis, as far as possible. A total of 51 participants were randomized to the intervention condition and 49 to the control condition (82% and 80% followed to 12 months, respectively). The attendance rate was 59%, and the intervention was highly acceptable to parents who received it. The RCT was feasible, and 12-month follow-up attrition rates were low. Children whose parents were in the control condition were 16.5% more likely to have an anxiety disorder at follow-up than those in the intervention group. No adverse events were reported. An inexpensive, light-touch, psycho-educational intervention may be useful in breaking the intergenerational cycle of transmission of anxiety disorders. A substantive trial is warranted. Anxiety disorders run in families, but we currently do little to help anxious parents to raise confident children. A brief group workshop was highly acceptable to such parents and was very inexpensive to run. Children of parents who took part in the brief intervention were 16.5% less

  5. Weight-Gain Reduction Among 2-Year College Students: The CHOICES RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A; Laska, Melissa N; Linde, Jennifer A; Moe, Stacey G; Nanney, Marilyn S; Hannan, Peter J; Erickson, Darin J

    2017-02-01

    The young adult years have been recognized as an influential period for excess weight gain. Non-traditional students and those attending 2-year community colleges are at particularly high risk for a range of adverse weight-related outcomes. Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings was an RCT with students randomly assigned into a control or intervention condition after baseline assessment. The study was designed to evaluate if a 24-month weight-gain prevention intervention reduces the expected increase in BMI and overweight prevalence in young adults attending 2-year colleges. Two cohorts were recruited, corresponding to the fall and spring semesters. Data collection occurred at four time points for each cohort, with baseline occurring in fall 2011 for Cohort 1 and spring 2012 for Cohort 2. The 24-month follow-up occurred in fall 2013 for Cohort 1 and spring 2014 for Cohort 2. Data analysis occurred in 2015-2016. This research was conducted with 441 students from three community colleges in Minnesota. The 24-month intervention began with a 1-credit college course on healthy weight behaviors. A social networking and social support website was introduced as part of the course and participation encouraged for the duration of the trial. Changes in BMI, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and weight status were assessed. Retention of the cohorts at 24 months was 83.4%. There was not a statistically significant difference in BMI between conditions at the end of the trial. However, there was a statically significant difference in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between treatment conditions at 24 months. Also, participants randomized to the intervention who were overweight or obese at baseline were more than three times as likely to transition to a healthy weight by the end of the trial as compared with control students. The intervention was not successful in achieving BMI differences between treatment groups. However, an 8

  6. Weight Gain Reduction Among 2-Year College Students: The CHOICES RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, Marilyn S.; Hannan, Peter J.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The young adult years have been recognized as an influential period for excess weight gain. Non-traditional students and those attending 2-year community colleges are at particularly high risk for a range of adverse weight-related outcomes. Design Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings was an RCT with students randomly assigned into a control or intervention condition after baseline assessment. The study was designed to evaluate if a 24-month weight gain prevention intervention reduces the expected increase in BMI and overweight prevalence in young adults attending 2-year colleges. Two cohorts were recruited, corresponding to the fall and spring semesters. Data collection occurred at four time points for each cohort, with baseline occurring in fall 2011 for Cohort 1 and spring 2012 for Cohort 2. The 24-month follow-up occurred in fall 2013 for Cohort 1 and spring 2014 for Cohort 2. Data analysis occurred in 2015–2016. Setting/participants This research was conducted with 441 students from three community colleges in Minnesota. Intervention The 24-month intervention began with a 1-credit college course on healthy weight behaviors. A social networking and social support website was introduced as part of the course and participation encouraged for the duration of the trial. Main outcome measures Changes in BMI, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and weight status were assessed. Results Retention of the cohorts at 24 months was 83.4%. There was not a statistically significant difference in BMI between conditions at the end of the trial. However, there was a statically significant difference in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between treatment conditions at 24 months. Also, participants randomized to the intervention who were overweight or obese at baseline were more than three times as likely to transition to a healthy weight by the end of the trial as compared with control students. Conclusions The intervention

  7. Compact Unequal Power Divider with Filtering Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiang Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel unequal power divider with bandpass responses. The proposed power divider consists of five resonators and a resistor. The power division ratio is controlled by altering the coupling strength among the resonators. The output ports have the characteristic impedance of 50 Ω and impedance transformers in classical Wilkinson power dividers are not required in this design. Use of resonators enables the filtering function of the power divider. Two transmission zeros are generated near the passband edges, resulting in quasielliptic bandpass responses. For validation, a 2 : 1 filtering power divider is implemented. The fabricated circuit size is 0.22 λg × 0.08 λg, featuring compact size for unequal filtering power dividers, which is suitable for the feeding networks of antenna arrays.

  8. An Unbiased Unscented Transform Based Kalman Filter for 3D Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGGuohong; XIUJianjuan; HEYou

    2004-01-01

    As a derivative-free alternative to the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) in the framework of state estimation, the Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) has potential applications in nonlinear filtering. By noting the fact that the unscented transform is generally biased when converting the radar measurements from spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates, a new filtering algorithm for 3D radar, called Unbiased unscented Kalman filter (UUKF), is proposed. The new algorithm is validated by Monte Carlo simulation runs. Simulation results show that the UUKF is more effective than the UKF, EKF and the Converted measurement Kalman filter (CMKF).

  9. Robust non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.

  10. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  11. Optimal search filters for renal information in EMBASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Shariff, Salimah Z; Weir, Matthew; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, Ann; Rehman, Faisal; Garg, Amit X

    2010-07-01

    EMBASE is a popular database used to retrieve biomedical information. Our objective was to develop and test search filters to help clinicians and researchers efficiently retrieve articles with renal information in EMBASE. We used a diagnostic test assessment framework because filters operate similarly to screening tests. We divided a sample of 5,302 articles from 39 journals into development and validation sets of articles. Information retrieval properties were assessed by treating each search filter as a "diagnostic test" or screening procedure for the detection of relevant articles. We tested the performance of 1,936,799 search filters made of unique renal terms and their combinations. REFERENCE STANDARD & OUTCOME: The reference standard was manual review of each article. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of each filter to identify articles with renal information. The best renal filters consisted of multiple search terms, such as "renal replacement therapy," "renal," "kidney disease," and "proteinuria," and the truncated terms "kidney," "dialy," "neph," "glomerul," and "hemodial." These filters achieved peak sensitivities of 98.7% (95% CI, 97.9-99.6) and specificities of 98.5% (95% CI, 98.0-99.0). The retrieval performance of these filters remained excellent in the validation set of independent articles. The retrieval performance of any search will vary depending on the quality of all search concepts used, not just renal terms. We empirically developed and validated high-performance renal search filters for EMBASE. These filters can be programmed into the search engine or used on their own to improve the efficiency of searching.

  12. Anti-clogging filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Erik P.

    2015-05-19

    An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.

  13. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  14. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  15. Mixing Methods in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs): Validation, Contextualization, Triangulation, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Dorner, Lisa; Barnes, Carol; May, Henry; Huff, Jason; Camburn, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we described how we mixed research approaches in a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) of a school principal professional development program. Using examples from our study we illustrate how combining qualitative and quantitative data can address some key challenges from validating instruments and measures of mediator variables to…

  16. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  17. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  18. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  19. Quantum reality filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-01-01

    An anhomomorphic logic A* is the set of all possible realities for a quantum system. Our main goal is to find the 'actual reality' Φ a element of A* for the system. Reality filters are employed to eliminate unwanted potential realities until only φ a remains. In this paper, we consider three reality filters that are constructed by means of quantum integrals. A quantum measure μ can generate or actualize a Φ element of A* if μ(A) is a quantum integral with respect to φ for a density function f over events A. In this sense, μ is an 'average' of the truth values of φ with weights given by f. We mainly discuss relations between these filters and their existence and uniqueness properties. For example, we show that a quadratic reality generated by a quantum measure is unique. In this case we obtain the unique actual quadratic reality.

  20. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  1. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  2. Artificial neural network (ANN)-based prediction of depth filter loading capacity for filter sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Harshit; Rathore, Anurag S; Hadpe, Sandeep Ramesh; Alva, Solomon J

    2016-11-01

    This article presents an application of artificial neural network (ANN) modelling towards prediction of depth filter loading capacity for clarification of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) product during commercial manufacturing. The effect of operating parameters on filter loading capacity was evaluated based on the analysis of change in the differential pressure (DP) as a function of time. The proposed ANN model uses inlet stream properties (feed turbidity, feed cell count, feed cell viability), flux, and time to predict the corresponding DP. The ANN contained a single output layer with ten neurons in hidden layer and employed a sigmoidal activation function. This network was trained with 174 training points, 37 validation points, and 37 test points. Further, a pressure cut-off of 1.1 bar was used for sizing the filter area required under each operating condition. The modelling results showed that there was excellent agreement between the predicted and experimental data with a regression coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.98. The developed ANN model was used for performing variable depth filter sizing for different clarification lots. Monte-Carlo simulation was performed to estimate the cost savings by using different filter areas for different clarification lots rather than using the same filter area. A 10% saving in cost of goods was obtained for this operation. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1436-1443, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Filtered-X Affine Projection Algorithms for Active Noise Control Using Volterra Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicuranza Giovanni L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the use of adaptive Volterra filters, implemented in the form of multichannel filter banks, as nonlinear active noise controllers. In particular, we discuss the derivation of filtered-X affine projection algorithms for homogeneous quadratic filters. According to the multichannel approach, it is then easy to pass from these algorithms to those of a generic Volterra filter. It is shown in the paper that the AP technique offers better convergence and tracking capabilities than the classical LMS and NLMS algorithms usually applied in nonlinear active noise controllers, with a limited complexity increase. This paper extends in two ways the content of a previous contribution published in Proc. IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03, Grado, Italy, June 2003. First of all, a general adaptation algorithm valid for any order of affine projections is presented. Secondly, a more complete set of experiments is reported. In particular, the effects of using multichannel filter banks with a reduced number of channels are investigated and relevant results are shown.

  4. Successful Reach and Adoption of a workplace health promotion RCT targeting a group of high-risk workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekner Dorte

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cleaners are rarely introduced to workplace health promotion programs. The study's objective was to evaluate the reach and adoption of a workplace randomized controlled trial (RCT among cleaners in Denmark. Methods Cleaning businesses with at least 30 employees, that could offer a weekly 1-hour intervention during working hours, were invited to participate. Employees working at least 20 hours/week were invited to answer a screening questionnaire and consent to participate. Analyses determined the differences in health variables between responders and non-responders, consenters and non-consenters, participants and non-participants and between participants of the RCT's three groups: physical coordination training, cognitive-behavioural theory-based training and reference group. Results From 16 eligible workplaces, a representative sample of 50% adopted the trial. Of 758 eligible employees, 78% responded to the screening questionnaire and 49% consented to participate. Consenters and participants differed from non-consenters and non-participants by having higher BMI, more chronic diseases and poorer musculoskeletal health. Conclusions This study indicates that workplace health promotion programs directed at health risk factors among cleaners enable significant adoption and reach to a high-risk subgroup of the Danish workforce. Trial registration Trial registration ISRCTN96241850

  5. Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the α-stable and generalized-t. We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the “normal” equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.

  6. Voltage harmonic elimination with RLC based interface smoothing filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, K; Ramachandaramurthy, V K

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed for designing a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with RLC interface smoothing filter. The RLC filter connected between the IGBT based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is attempted to eliminate voltage harmonics in the busbar voltage and switching harmonics from VSI by producing a PWM controlled harmonic voltage. In this method, the DVR or series active filter produces PWM voltage that cancels the existing harmonic voltage due to any harmonic voltage source. The proposed method is valid for any distorted busbar voltage. The operating VSI handles no active power but only harmonic power. The DVR is able to suppress the lower order switching harmonics generated by the IGBT based VSI. Good dynamic and transient results obtained. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is minimized to zero at the sensitive load end. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of RLC filter. Simulated results are presented. (paper)

  7. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  8. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  9. Kalman Filtering for Delayed Singular Systems with Multiplicative Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lu; Linglong Wang; Haixia Wang; Xianghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Kalman filtering problem for singular systems is dealt with,where the measurements consist of instantaneous measurements and delayed ones,and the plant includes multiplicative noise.By utilizing standard singular value decomposition,the restricted equivalent delayed system is presented,and the Kalman filters for the restricted equivalent system are given by using the well-known re-organization of innovation analysis lemma.The optimal Kalman filter for the original system is given based on the above Kalman filter by recursive Riccati equations,and a numerical example is presented to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach,where the comparison between the filter and predictor is also given.

  10. A randomised clinical trial (RCT) of a symbiotic mixture in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): effects on symptoms, colonic transit and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Carmelina; Tremolaterra, Fabrizio; Pascariello, Annalisa; Ciacci, Carolina; Iovino, Paola

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to test in a double-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled study the effects of a commercially available multi-strain symbiotic mixture on symptoms, colonic transit and quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients who meet Rome III criteria. There is only one other double-blinded RCT on a single-strain symbiotic mixture in IBS. This is a double-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled study of a symbiotic mixture (Probinul, 5 g bid) over 4 weeks after 2 weeks of run-in. The primary endpoints were global satisfactory relief of abdominal flatulence and bloating. Responders were patients who reported at least 50 % of the weeks of treatment with global satisfactory relief. The secondary endpoints were change in abdominal bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency by a 100-mm visual analog scale, stool frequency and bowel functions on validated adjectival scales (Bristol Scale and sense of incomplete evacuation). Pre- and post-treatment colonic transit time (Metcalf) and quality of life (SF-36) were assessed. Sixty-four IBS patients (symbiotic n = 32, 64 % females, mean age 38.7 ± 12.6 years) were studied. This symbiotic mixture reduced flatulence over a 4-week period of treatment (repeated-measures analysis of covariance, p symbiotic group. This symbiotic mixture has shown a beneficial effect in decreasing the severity of flatulence in IBS patients, a lack of adverse events and a good side-effect profile; however, it failed to achieve an improvement in global satisfactory relief of abdominal flatulence and bloating. Further studies are warranted.

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  12. Filter assembly for metallic and intermetallic tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Lippert, Thomas E.; Bruck, Gerald J.; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    2001-01-01

    A filter assembly (60) for holding a filter element (28) within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel is provided, containing: a filter housing (62), said filter housing having a certain axial length and having a peripheral sidewall, said sidewall defining an interior chamber (66); a one piece, all metal, fail-safe/regenerator device (68) within the interior chamber (66) of the filter housing (62) and/or extending beyond the axial length of the filter housing, said device containing an outward extending radial flange (71) within the filter housing for seating an essential seal (70), the device also having heat transfer media (72) disposed inside and screens (80) for particulate removal; one compliant gasket (70) positioned next to and above the outward extending radial flange of the fail-safe/regenerator device; and a porous metallic corrosion resistant superalloy type filter element body welded at the bottom of the metal fail-safe/regenerator device.

  13. Digital Simulation of a Hybrid Active Filter - An Active Filter in Series with a Shunt Passive Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V

    1998-01-01

    Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.

  14. Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)

  15. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  16. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  17. A Differential Geometric Approach to Nonlinear Filtering: The Projection Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, D.; Hanzon, B.; LeGland, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new and systematic method of approximating exact nonlinear filters with finite dimensional filters, using the differential geometric approach to statistics. The projection filter is defined rigorously in the case of exponential families. A convenient exponential family is

  18. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  19. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  20. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  1. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  2. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  3. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  4. Filtered cathodic arc source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45 degree to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures

  5. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  6. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  7. Quick-change filter cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

  8. Filter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), as well as Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) treated with mono-olein to simulate the effects of biodiesel . Results...fuel. Sufficient analysis and qualification of filter products is becoming increasingly crucial in ground transportation vehicles to promote the...well as a simulated biodiesel composed of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and mono-olein. As written in the scope of work, the alternative aviation

  9. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  10. Carbon nanotube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.

  11. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  12. Hybrid Active Filter with Variable Conductance for Harmonic Resonance Suppression in Industrial Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Tzung-Lin; Wang, Yen-Ching; Li, Jian-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional series and/or parallel resonances, due to the tuned passive filter and the line inductance, may result in severe harmonic distortion in the industrial power system. This paper presents a hybrid active filter to suppress harmonic resonance and reduce harmonic distortion as well...... expensive. A reasonable trade-off between filtering performances and cost is to use the hybrid active filter. Design consideration are presented and experimental results are provided to validate effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, this paper discusses filtering performances on line impedance...

  13. Successful Reach and Adoption of a workplace health promotion RCT targeting a group of high-risk workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Ekner, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cleaners are rarely introduced to workplace health promotion programs. The study's objective was to evaluate the reach and adoption of a workplace randomized controlled trial (RCT) among cleaners in Denmark. METHODS: Cleaning businesses with at least 30 employees, that could offer...... a weekly 1-hour intervention during working hours, were invited to participate. Employees working at least 20 hours/week were invited to answer a screening questionnaire and consent to participate. Analyses determined the differences in health variables between responders and non-responders, consenters...... employees, 78% responded to the screening questionnaire and 49% consented to participate. Consenters and participants differed from non-consenters and non-participants by having higher BMI, more chronic diseases and poorer musculoskeletal health. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that workplace health...

  14. The history of ceramic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, S

    2000-01-01

    The history of ceramic filters is surveyed. Included is the history of piezoelectric ceramics. Ceramic filters were developed using technology similar to that of quartz crystal and electro-mechanical filters. However, the key to this development involved the theoretical analysis of vibration modes and material improvements of piezoelectric ceramics. The primary application of ceramic filters has been for consumer-market use. Accordingly, a major emphasis has involved mass production technology, leading to low-priced devices. A typical ceramic filter includes monolithic resonators and capacitors packaged in unique configurations.

  15. Spirometry filters can be used to detect exhaled respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alicia B; Mourad, Bassel; Tovey, Euan; Buddle, Lachlan; Peters, Matthew; Morgan, Lucy; Oliver, Brian G

    2016-09-26

    Respiratory viruses are very common in the community and contribute to the burden of illness for patients with chronic respiratory diseases, including acute exacerbations. Traditional sampling methods are invasive and problematic to repeat. Accordingly, we explored whether respiratory viruses could be isolated from disposable spirometry filters and whether detection of viruses in this context represented presence in the upper or lower respiratory tract. Discovery (n  =  53) and validation (n  =  49) cohorts were recruited from a hospital outpatient department during two different time periods. Spirometry mouthpiece filters were collected from all participants. Respiratory secretions were sampled from the upper and lower respiratory tract by nasal washing (NW), sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). All samples were examined using RT-PCR to identify a panel of respiratory viruses (rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza virus 1, 2 & 3, and human metapneumovirus). Rhinovirus was quantified using qPCR. Paired filter-NW samples (n  =  29), filter-sputum samples (n  =  24), filter-BAL samples (n  =  39) and filter-NW-BAL samples (n  =  10) provided a range of comparisons. At least one virus was detected in any sample in 85% of participants in the discovery cohort versus 45% in the validation cohort. Overall, 72% of viruses identified in the paired comparator method matched those detected in spirometry filters. There was a high correlation between viruses identified in spirometry filters compared with viruses identified in both the upper and lower respiratory tract using traditional sampling methods. Our results suggest that examination of spirometry filters may be a novel and inexpensive sampling method for the presence of respiratory viruses in exhaled breath.

  16. Kaon Filtering For CLAS Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNabb, J.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of data from CLAS is a multi-step process. After the detectors for a given running period have been calibrated, the data is processed in the so called pass-1 cooking. During the pass-1 cooking each event is reconstructed by the program a1c which finds particle tracks and computes momenta from the raw data. The results are then passed on to several data monitoring and filtering utilities. In CLAS software, a filter is a parameterless function which returns an integer indicating whether an event should be kept by that filter or not. There is a main filter program called g1-filter which controls several specific filters and outputs several files, one for each filter. These files may then be analyzed separately, allowing individuals interested in one reaction channel to work from smaller files than using the whole data set would require. There are several constraints on what the filter functions should do. Obviously, the filtered files should be as small as possible, however the filter should also not reject any events that might be used in the later analysis for which the filter was intended

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench

  18. BWR level estimation using Kalman Filtering approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, G.; Divakaruni, S.M.; Meyer, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Work is in progress on development of a system for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) vessel level validation and failure detection. The levels validated include the liquid level both inside and outside the core shroud. This work is a major part of a larger effort to develop a complete system for BWR signal validation. The demonstration plant is the Oyster Creek BWR. Liquid level inside the core shroud is not directly measured during full power operation. This level must be validated using measurements of other quantities and analytic models. Given the available sensors, analytic models for level that are based on mass and energy balances can contain open integrators. When such a model is driven by noisy measurements, the model predicted level will deviate from the true level over time. To validate the level properly and to avoid false alarms, the open integrator must be stabilized. In addition, plant parameters will change slowly with time. The respective model must either account for these plant changes or be insensitive to them to avoid false alarms and maintain sensitivity to true failures of level instrumentation. Problems are addressed here by combining the extended Kalman Filter and Parity Space Decision/Estimator. The open integrator is stabilized by integrating from the validated estimate at the beginning of each sampling interval, rather than from the model predicted value. The model is adapted to slow plant/sensor changes by updating model parameters on-line

  19. Influence of size, shape, and flexibility on bacterial passage through micropore membrane filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Hammes, Frederik; Düggelin, Marcel; Egli, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Sterilization of fluids by means of microfiltration is commonly applied in research laboratories as well as in pharmaceutical and industrial processes. Sterile micropore filters are subject to microbiological validation, where Brevundimonas diminuta is used as a standard test organism. However, several recent reports on the ubiquitous presence of filterable bacteria in aquatic environments have cast doubt on the accuracy and validity of the standard filter-testing method. Six different bacterial species of various sizes and shapes (Hylemonella gracilis, Escherichia coli, Sphingopyxis alaskensis, Vibrio cholerae, Legionella pneumophila, and B. diminuta) were tested for their filterability through sterile micropore filters. In all cases, the slender spirillum-shaped Hylemonella gracilis cells showed a superior ability to pass through sterile membrane filters. Our results provide solid evidence that the overall shape (including flexibility), instead of biovolume, is the determining factor for the filterability of bacteria, whereas cultivation conditions also play a crucial role. Furthermore, the filtration volume has a more important effect on the passage percentage in comparison with other technical variables tested (including flux and filter material). Based on our findings, we recommend a re-evaluation of the grading system for sterile filters, and suggest that the species Hylemonella should be considered as an alternative filter-testing organism for the quality assessment of micropore filters.

  20. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  1. Adaptive projective filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikusar, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    The new approach to solving of the finding problem is proposed. The method is based on Discrete Projective Transformations (DPT), the List Square Fitting (LSF) and uses the information feedback in tracing for linear or quadratic track segments (TS). The fast and stable with respect to measurement errors and background points recurrent algorithm is suggested. The algorithm realizes the family of digital adaptive projective filters (APF) with known nonlinear weight functions-projective invariants. APF can be used in adequate control systems for collection, processing and compression of data, including tracking problems for the wide class of detectors. 10 refs.; 9 figs

  2. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  3. Interdigital filter design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available to the general inverter-coupled resonator bandpass filter structure in Figure 2 [6] by using the inverter shown in Figure 3. The admittance of the inverter in Figure 3 is 4 J= Y mn sin(βl) (1) where β is the propagation factor and l is the length... of the resonators (a quarter wavelength in this case). While the series quarter-wave line alone can approximate an inverter, the structure shown in Figure 3 is more accurate over wide bandwidths. At this point the circuits in Figures 1 and 2 still differ because...

  4. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  5. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  6. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashettappa Biradar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI, and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink embedded with Stein’s unbiased risk estimation (SURE. The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images.

  7. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, Nagashettappa; Dewal, M L; Rohit, ManojKumar; Gowre, Sanjaykumar; Gundge, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI), and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink) embedded with Stein's unbiased risk estimation (SURE). The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images.

  8. Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per

    2001-01-01

    Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...

  9. High flow ceramic pot filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Halem, D; van der Laan, H; Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J

    2017-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6-19 L h -1 ), but initial LRVs for E. coli of high flow filters was slightly lower than for regular ceramic pot filters. This disadvantage was, however, only temporarily as the clogging in high flow filters had a positive effect on the LRV for E. coli (from below 1 to 2-3 after clogging). Therefore, it can be carefully concluded that regular ceramic pot filters perform better initially, but after clogging, the high flow filters have a higher flow rate as well as a higher LRV for E. coli. To improve the initial performance of new high flow filters, it is recommended to further utilize residence time of the water in the receptacle, since additional E. coli inactivation was observed during overnight storage. Although a relationship was observed between flow rate and LRV of MS2 bacteriophages, both regular and high flow filters were unable to reach over 2 LRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CBT for depression: a pilot RCT comparing mobile phone vs. computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Sarah; Mackenzie, Anna; Thomas, Cherian; Griskaitis, Al; Mewton, Louise; Williams, Alishia; Andrews, Gavin

    2013-02-07

    This paper reports the results of a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the delivery modality (mobile phone/tablet or fixed computer) of a cognitive behavioural therapy intervention for the treatment of depression. The aim was to establish whether a previously validated computerized program (The Sadness Program) remained efficacious when delivered via a mobile application. 35 participants were recruited with Major Depression (80% female) and randomly allocated to access the program using a mobile app (on either a mobile phone or iPad) or a computer. Participants completed 6 lessons, weekly homework assignments, and received weekly email contact from a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist until completion of lesson 2. After lesson 2 email contact was only provided in response to participant request, or in response to a deterioration in psychological distress scores. The primary outcome measure was the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). Of the 35 participants recruited, 68.6% completed 6 lessons and 65.7% completed the 3-months follow up. Attrition was handled using mixed-model repeated-measures ANOVA. Both the Mobile and Computer Groups were associated with statistically significantly benefits in the PHQ-9 at post-test. At 3 months follow up, the reduction seen for both groups remained significant. These results provide evidence to indicate that delivering a CBT program using a mobile application, can result in clinically significant improvements in outcomes for patients with depression. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 12611001257954.

  11. Independent control of replication initiation of the two Vibrio cholerae chromosomes by DnaA and RctB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duigou, Stephane; Knudsen, Kristine Groth; Skovgaard, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Although the two Vibrio cholerae chromosomes initiate replication in a coordinated fashion, we show here that each chromosome appears to have a specific replication initiator. DnaA overproduction promoted overinitiation of chromosome I and not chromosome II. In contrast, overproduction of RctB, a...

  12. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Economical Implementation of a Filter Engine in an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, James E.

    2009-01-01

    A logic design has been conceived for a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that would implement a complex system of multiple digital state-space filters. The main innovative aspect of this design lies in providing for reuse of parts of the FPGA hardware to perform different parts of the filter computations at different times, in such a manner as to enable the timely performance of all required computations in the face of limitations on available FPGA hardware resources. The implementation of the digital state-space filter involves matrix vector multiplications, which, in the absence of the present innovation, would ordinarily necessitate some multiplexing of vector elements and/or routing of data flows along multiple paths. The design concept calls for implementing vector registers as shift registers to simplify operand access to multipliers and accumulators, obviating both multiplexing and routing of data along multiple paths. Each vector register would be reused for different parts of a calculation. Outputs would always be drawn from the same register, and inputs would always be loaded into the same register. A simple state machine would control each filter. The output of a given filter would be passed to the next filter, accompanied by a "valid" signal, which would start the state machine of the next filter. Multiple filter modules would share a multiplication/accumulation arithmetic unit. The filter computations would be timed by use of a clock having a frequency high enough, relative to the input and output data rate, to provide enough cycles for matrix and vector arithmetic operations. This design concept could prove beneficial in numerous applications in which digital filters are used and/or vectors are multiplied by coefficient matrices. Examples of such applications include general signal processing, filtering of signals in control systems, processing of geophysical measurements, and medical imaging. For these and other applications, it could be

  14. Multi-template Scale-Adaptive Kernelized Correlation Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel Aamer

    2015-12-07

    This paper identifies the major drawbacks of a very computationally efficient and state-of-the-art-tracker known as the Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) tracker. These drawbacks include an assumed fixed scale of the target in every frame, as well as, a heuristic update strategy of the filter taps to incorporate historical tracking information (i.e. simple linear combination of taps from the previous frame). In our approach, we update the scale of the tracker by maximizing over the posterior distribution of a grid of scales. As for the filter update, we prove and show that it is possible to use all previous training examples to update the filter taps very efficiently using fixed-point optimization. We validate the efficacy of our approach on two tracking datasets, VOT2014 and VOT2015.

  15. Design and full scale test of a sand bed filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    1991-01-01

    All French pressurized water reactor plants are equipped with a containment venting system. this system is designed and implemented by Electricite de France with the technical support of safety authorities (Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety of Atomic Energy Commission). This paper covers the following items: main assumptions, sizing and design requirements; basic design of the filter resulting from PITEAS R and D program carried out between 1983 and 1989 at Cadarache nuclear center; full scale tests performed in 1990 on FUCHIA loop at Cadarache including description of the loop using plasma torches to generate CsOH aerosols in a steam - air flow, and preliminary results concerning thermohydraulic and thermic behavior under residual power simulated filtration efficiency with CsOH aerosols and iodine; complementary design, including hydrogen risk during condensation period, radiological shieldings of the filter, and heat removal after the filter closure; and conclusion on the validation of the filter

  16. A CLT on the SNR of Diagonally Loaded MVDR Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Francisco; Mestre, Xavier; Hachem, Walid

    2012-08-01

    This paper studies the fluctuations of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of minimum variance distorsionless response (MVDR) filters implementing diagonal loading in the estimation of the covariance matrix. Previous results in the signal processing literature are generalized and extended by considering both spatially as well as temporarily correlated samples. Specifically, a central limit theorem (CLT) is established for the fluctuations of the SNR of the diagonally loaded MVDR filter, under both supervised and unsupervised training settings in adaptive filtering applications. Our second-order analysis is based on the Nash-Poincar\\'e inequality and the integration by parts formula for Gaussian functionals, as well as classical tools from statistical asymptotic theory. Numerical evaluations validating the accuracy of the CLT confirm the asymptotic Gaussianity of the fluctuations of the SNR of the MVDR filter.

  17. Active pre-filters for dc/dc Boost regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an active pre-filter to mitigate the current harmonics generated by classical dc/dc Boost regulators, which generate current ripples proportional to the duty cycle. Therefore, high output voltage conditions, i.e., high voltage conversion ratios, produce high current harmonics that must be filtered to avoid damage or source losses. Traditionally, these current components are filtered using electrolytic capacitors, which introduce reliability problems because of their high failure rate. The solution introduced in this paper instead uses a dc/dc converter based on the parallel connection of the Boost canonical cells to filter the current ripples generated by the Boost regulator, improving the system reliability. This solution provides the additional benefits of improving the overall efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. Finally, the solution is validated with simulations and experimental results.

  18. Multi-template Scale-Adaptive Kernelized Correlation Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel Aamer; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the major drawbacks of a very computationally efficient and state-of-the-art-tracker known as the Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) tracker. These drawbacks include an assumed fixed scale of the target in every frame, as well as, a heuristic update strategy of the filter taps to incorporate historical tracking information (i.e. simple linear combination of taps from the previous frame). In our approach, we update the scale of the tracker by maximizing over the posterior distribution of a grid of scales. As for the filter update, we prove and show that it is possible to use all previous training examples to update the filter taps very efficiently using fixed-point optimization. We validate the efficacy of our approach on two tracking datasets, VOT2014 and VOT2015.

  19. Optical Protection Filters for Harmful Laser Beams and UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim M., Osama A.

    2007-02-01

    Due to the rapid growth of radiation protection applications in various devices and instruments, it is essential to use suitable filters for eye protection of the personal working in the radiation field. Different protection filters were produced to protect from four laser beam wavelengths (at 532nm, 632.8nm, 694nm and 1064nm) and block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters used optical thin film technology. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production filter processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Dralo (mixture of oxides TiO2/Al2O3), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO2/Al2O3); deposition by an electron beam gun. The output transmittance curves for both theoretical and experimental values of all filters are presented. To validate the suitability for use in a `real world', rather than laboratory test application, full environmental assessment was also carried out. These filters exhibited high endurance after exposing them to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance and humidity) according to military standards MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

  20. Optical Protection Filters for Harmful Laser Beams and UV Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azim M, Osama A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of radiation protection applications in various devices and instruments, it is essential to use suitable filters for eye protection of the personal working in the radiation field. Different protection filters were produced to protect from four laser beam wavelengths (at 532nm, 632.8nm, 694nm and 1064nm) and block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters used optical thin film technology. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production filter processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Dralo (mixture of oxides TiO2/Al2O3), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO2/Al2O3); deposition by an electron beam gun. The output transmittance curves for both theoretical and experimental values of all filters are presented. To validate the suitability for use in a 'real world', rather than laboratory test application, full environmental assessment was also carried out. These filters exhibited high endurance after exposing them to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance and humidity) according to military standards MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A

  1. CBT for depression: a pilot RCT comparing mobile phone vs. computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Sarah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports the results of a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the delivery modality (mobile phone/tablet or fixed computer of a cognitive behavioural therapy intervention for the treatment of depression. The aim was to establish whether a previously validated computerized program (The Sadness Program remained efficacious when delivered via a mobile application. Method 35 participants were recruited with Major Depression (80% female and randomly allocated to access the program using a mobile app (on either a mobile phone or iPad or a computer. Participants completed 6 lessons, weekly homework assignments, and received weekly email contact from a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist until completion of lesson 2. After lesson 2 email contact was only provided in response to participant request, or in response to a deterioration in psychological distress scores. The primary outcome measure was the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9. Of the 35 participants recruited, 68.6% completed 6 lessons and 65.7% completed the 3-months follow up. Attrition was handled using mixed-model repeated-measures ANOVA. Results Both the Mobile and Computer Groups were associated with statistically significantly benefits in the PHQ-9 at post-test. At 3 months follow up, the reduction seen for both groups remained significant. Conclusions These results provide evidence to indicate that delivering a CBT program using a mobile application, can result in clinically significant improvements in outcomes for patients with depression. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 12611001257954

  2. An RCT protocol of varying financial incentive amounts for smoking cessation among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynagh Marita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy is harmful to the unborn child. Few smoking cessation interventions have been successfully incorporated into standard antenatal care. The main aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of a personal financial incentive scheme for encouraging smoking cessation among pregnant women. Design A pilot randomised control trial will be conducted to assess the feasibility and potential effectiveness of two varying financial incentives that increase incrementally in magnitude ($20 vs. $40AUD, compared to no incentive in reducing smoking in pregnant women attending an Australian public hospital antenatal clinic. Method Ninety (90 pregnant women who self-report smoking in the last 7 days and whose smoking status is biochemically verified, will be block randomised into one of three groups: a. No incentive control group (n=30, b. $20 incremental incentive group (n=30, and c. $40 incremental incentive group (n=30. Smoking status will be assessed via a self-report computer based survey in nine study sessions with saliva cotinine analysis used as biochemical validation. Women in the two incentive groups will be eligible to receive a cash reward at each of eight measurement points during pregnancy if 7-day smoking cessation is achieved. Cash rewards will increase incrementally for each period of smoking abstinence. Discussion Identifying strategies that are effective in reducing the number of women smoking during pregnancy and are easily adopted into standard antenatal practice is of utmost importance. A personal financial incentive scheme is a potential antenatal smoking cessation strategy that warrants further investigation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR number: ACTRN12612000399897

  3. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  4. Multi-filter spectrophotometry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Kim A. S.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    To complement both the multi-filter observations of quasar environments described in these proceedings, as well as the proposed UBC 2.7 m Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) redshift survey, we have initiated a program of simulated multi-filter spectrophotometry. The goal of this work, still very much in progress, is a better quantitative assessment of the multiband technique as a viable mechanism for obtaining useful redshift and morphological class information from large scale multi-filter surveys.

  5. Digital filtering in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.R.; Sampathkumaran, S.

    1982-01-01

    Digital filtering is a powerful mathematical technique in computer analysis of nuclear medicine studies. The basic concepts of object-domain and frequency-domain filtering are presented in simple, largely nonmathemaical terms. Computational methods are described using both the Fourier transform and convolution techniques. The frequency response is described and used to represent the behavior of several classes of filters. These concepts are illustrated with examples drawn from a variety of important applications in nuclear medicine

  6. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  7. Box-particle intensity filter

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Marek; Gning, Amadou; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Cremers, Daniel; Koch, Wofgang; Streit, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multi-target tracking, called box-particle intensity filter (box-iFilter). The approach is able to cope with unknown clutter, false alarms and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The box-iFilter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The low particle number enables thi...

  8. Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

    2016-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...

  9. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  10. Intelligent medical information filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Y

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent information filtering system to assist users to be notified of updates to new and relevant medical information. Among the major problems users face is the large volume of medical information that is generated each day, and the need to filter and retrieve relevant information. The Internet has dramatically increased the amount of electronically accessible medical information and reduced the cost and time needed to publish. The opportunity of the Internet for the medical profession and consumers is to have more information to make decisions and this could potentially lead to better medical decisions and outcomes. However, without the assistance from professional medical librarians, retrieving new and relevant information from databases and the Internet remains a challenge. Many physicians do not have access to the services of a medical librarian. Most physicians indicate on surveys that they do not prefer to retrieve the literature themselves, or visit libraries because of the lack of recent materials, poor organisation and indexing of materials, lack of appropriate and available material, and lack of time. The information filtering system described in this paper records the online web browsing behaviour of each user and creates a user profile of the index terms found on the web pages visited by the user. A relevance-ranking algorithm then matches the user profiles to the index terms of new health care web pages that are added each day. The system creates customised summaries of new information for each user. A user can then connect to the web site to read the new information. Relevance feedback buttons on each page ask the user to rate the usefulness of the page to their immediate information needs. Errors in relevance ranking are reduced in this system by having both the user profile and medical information represented in the same representation language using a controlled vocabulary. This system also updates the user profiles

  11. Kalman and particle filtering methods for full vehicle and tyre identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanski, Karol; Best, Matthew C.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers identification of all significant vehicle handling dynamics of a test vehicle, including identification of a combined-slip tyre model, using only those sensors currently available on most vehicle controller area network buses. Using an appropriately simple but efficient model structure, all of the independent parameters are found from test vehicle data, with the resulting model accuracy demonstrated on independent validation data. The paper extends previous work on augmented Kalman Filter state estimators to concentrate wholly on parameter identification. It also serves as a review of three alternative filtering methods; identifying forms of the unscented Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter and particle filter are proposed and compared for effectiveness, complexity and computational efficiency. All three filters are suited to applications of system identification and the Kalman Filters can also operate in real-time in on-line model predictive controllers or estimators.

  12. Sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter and its application in eye tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu-Tao, Zhang; Jia-Shu, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The unscented Kalman filter is a developed well-known method for nonlinear motion estimation and tracking. However, the standard unscented Kalman filter has the inherent drawbacks, such as numerical instability and much more time spent on calculation in practical applications. In this paper, we present a novel sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter, aiming to overcome the difficulty in nonlinear eye tracking. In the above proposed filter, the simplified unscented transform sampling strategy with n + 2 sigma points leads to the computational efficiency, and suboptimal fading factor of strong tracking filtering is introduced to improve robustness and accuracy of eye tracking. Compared with the related unscented Kalman filter for eye tracking, the proposed filter has potential advantages in robustness, convergence speed, and tracking accuracy. The final experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  13. Cancellation of neutral current harmonics by using a four-branch star hybrid filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Rodriguez, Pedro; Candela, I.

    2008-01-01

    filtering topology to a three-phase four-wire system. An extensive evaluation using simulation and experimental results are conducted in this work to validate the good performance of the proposed solution for canceling current harmonics flowing through the neutral conductor.......This paper presents a new technique for filtering current harmonics in three-phase four-wire networks based on the usage of a four-branch star (FBS) filter topology. Based on single-phase inductors and capacitors, the specific layout of the FBS filter topology allows achieving a power filter...... is improved by integrating a power converter into its structure. This paper analyzes the FBS topology and presents fundamental concepts regarding the control of a generic FBS hybrid power filter. A neutral current hybrid power filter and var compensator is presented as an illustrative example applying the FBS...

  14. Comparative analysis on some spatial-domain filters for fringe pattern denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian

    2011-04-20

    Fringe patterns produced by various optical interferometric techniques encode information such as shape, deformation, and refractive index. Noise affects further processing of the fringe patterns. Denoising is often needed before fringe pattern demodulation. Filtering along the fringe orientation is an effective option. Such filters include coherence enhancing diffusion, spin filtering with curve windows, second-order oriented partial-differential equations, and the regularized quadratic cost function for oriented fringe pattern filtering. These filters are analyzed to establish the relationships among them. Theoretical analysis shows that the four filters are largely equivalent to each other. Quantitative results are given on simulated fringe patterns to validate the theoretical analysis and to compare the performance of these filters. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. Device for filtering gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The air filter system for gaseous radioactive substances consists of a vertical chamber with filter material (charcoal, e.g. impregnated). On one side of the chamber there is an inlet compartment and an outlet compartment. On the other side a guiding compartment turns the gas flow coming from the natural-air side through the lower part of filter chamber to the upper part of the filter. The gas flow leaves the upper part through the outlet conpartment as cleaned-air flow. The filter material may be filled into the chamber from above and drawn off below. For better utilization of the filter material the filter chamber is separated by means of a wall between the inlet and outlet compartment. This partition wall consist of two sheets arranged one above the other provided with slots which may be superposed in alignment. In this case filter material is tickling from the upper part of the chamber into the lower part avoiding to form a crater in the filter bed. (DG) [de

  16. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  17. Immobilized Filters for Air Filtration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, John J; Zaiee, Saeed

    2002-01-01

    ... (settling performance) and attrition resistance. The fabricated filter samples will be analyzed in order to determine the physical and chemical factors affecting mechanical strength and chemical filtration...

  18. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  19. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  20. The saving and empowering young lives in Europe (SEYLE) randomized controlled trial (RCT): methodological issues and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Wasserman, Danuta; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Guillemin, Francis; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Keresztény, Agnes; Iosue, Miriam; Mars, Ursa; Musa, George; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Peeter; Varnik, Airi; Hoven, Christina W

    2013-05-16

    Mental health problems and risk behaviours among young people are of great public health concern. Consequently, within the VII Framework Programme, the European Commission funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in eleven European countries, with Sweden as the coordinating centre, and was designed to identify an effective way to promote mental health and reduce suicidality and risk taking behaviours among adolescents. To describe the methodological and field procedures in the SEYLE RCT among adolescents, as well as to present the main characteristics of the recruited sample. Analyses were conducted to determine: 1) representativeness of study sites compared to respective national data; 2) response rate of schools and pupils, drop-out rates from baseline to 3 and 12 month follow-up, 3) comparability of samples among the four Intervention Arms; 4) properties of the standard scales employed: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5). Participants at baseline comprised 12,395 adolescents (M/F: 5,529/6,799; mean age=14.9±0.9) from Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain. At the 3 and 12 months follow up, participation rates were 87.3% and 79.4%, respectively. Demographic characteristics of participating sites were found to be reasonably representative of their respective national population. Overall response rate of schools was 67.8%. All scales utilised in the study had good to very good internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach's alpha (BDI-II: 0.864; Z-SAS: 0.805; SDQ: 0.740; WHO-5: 0.799). SEYLE achieved its objective of recruiting a large representative sample of adolescents within participating European countries. Analysis of SEYLE data will shed light on the effectiveness

  1. Home-based, early intervention with mechatronic toys for preterm infants at risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (CARETOY): a RCT protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cioni, Giovanni; Greisen, Gorm; Herskind, Anna; Inguaggiato, Emanuela; Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Sicola, Elisa

    2014-10-15

    Preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, including motor, cognitive or behavioural problems, which may potentially be modified by early intervention. The EU CareToy Project Consortium (http://www.caretoy.eu) has developed a new modular system for intensive, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention, managed remotely by rehabilitation staff. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) has been designed to evaluate the efficacy of CareToy training in a first sample of low-risk preterm infants. The trial, randomised, multi-center, evaluator-blinded, parallel group controlled, is designed according to CONSORT Statement. Eligible subjects are infants born preterm without major complications, aged 3-9 months of corrected age with specific gross-motor abilities defined by Ages & Stages Questionnaire scores. Recruited infants, whose parents will sign a written informed consent for participation, will be randomized in CareToy training and control groups at baseline (T0). CareToy group will perform four weeks of personalized activities with the CareToy system, customized by the rehabilitation staff. The control group will continue standard care. Infant Motor Profile Scale is the primary outcome measure and a total sample size of 40 infants has been established. Bayley-Cognitive subscale, Alberta Infants Motor Scale and Teller Acuity Cards are secondary outcome measures. All measurements will be performed at T0 and at the end of training/control period (T1). For ethical reasons, after this first phase infants enrolled in the control group will perform the CareToy training, while the training group will continue standard care. At the end of open phase (T2) all infants will be assessed as at T1. Further assessment will be performed at 18 months corrected age (T3) to evaluate the long-term effects on neurodevelopmental outcome. Caregivers and rehabilitation staff will not be blinded whereas all the clinical assessments will be performed

  2. Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users' Interest Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Cheng

    Full Text Available As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users' dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users' behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users' unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users' similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users' preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users' interest sequences (IS that rank users' ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users' longest common sub-IS (LCSIS and the count of users' total common sub-IS (ACSIS. Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users' IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users' preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction.

  3. Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users' Interest Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weijie; Yin, Guisheng; Dong, Yuxin; Dong, Hongbin; Zhang, Wansong

    2016-01-01

    As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users' dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users' behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users' unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users' similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users' preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users' interest sequences (IS) that rank users' ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users' longest common sub-IS (LCSIS) and the count of users' total common sub-IS (ACSIS). Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users' IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users' preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction.

  4. Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users’ Interest Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weijie; Yin, Guisheng; Dong, Yuxin; Dong, Hongbin; Zhang, Wansong

    2016-01-01

    As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users’ dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users’ behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users’ unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users’ similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users’ preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users’ interest sequences (IS) that rank users’ ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users’ longest common sub-IS (LCSIS) and the count of users’ total common sub-IS (ACSIS). Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users’ IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users’ preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction. PMID:27195787

  5. Performance Analysis of Local Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin T.

    2018-03-01

    Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is an important data assimilation method for high-dimensional geophysical systems. Efficient implementation of EnKF in practice often involves the localization technique, which updates each component using only information within a local radius. This paper rigorously analyzes the local EnKF (LEnKF) for linear systems and shows that the filter error can be dominated by the ensemble covariance, as long as (1) the sample size exceeds the logarithmic of state dimension and a constant that depends only on the local radius; (2) the forecast covariance matrix admits a stable localized structure. In particular, this indicates that with small system and observation noises, the filter error will be accurate in long time even if the initialization is not. The analysis also reveals an intrinsic inconsistency caused by the localization technique, and a stable localized structure is necessary to control this inconsistency. While this structure is usually taken for granted for the operation of LEnKF, it can also be rigorously proved for linear systems with sparse local observations and weak local interactions. These theoretical results are also validated by numerical implementation of LEnKF on a simple stochastic turbulence in two dynamical regimes.

  6. Motivation Filtering on a Multi-Institution Assessment of General College Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steedle, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Possible lack of motivation is a perpetual concern when tests have no stakes attached to performance. Specifically, the validity of test score interpretations may be compromised when examinees are unmotivated to exert their best efforts. Motivation filtering, a procedure that filters out apparently unmotivated examinees, was applied to the…

  7. 640 Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format conversion based on optical phase filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for all optical RZ-to-NRZ conversion based on optical phase filtering. The proposed concept is experimentally validated through format conversion of a 640 Gbit/s coherent RZ signal to NRZ signal using a simple phase filter implemented by a commercial optical waveshaper....

  8. From Microwave Filter to Digital Filter and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1989-01-01

    A new very simple state variable flow graph representation for interdigital transmission line bandpass filters is presented, which has led to two important results: 1) A new type of digital filter with properties, that surpass the properties of most other (all pole) digital filtertypes. 2) The st...

  9. AER image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  10. Explicating Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    How we choose to use a term depends on what we want to do with it. If "validity" is to be used to support a score interpretation, validation would require an analysis of the plausibility of that interpretation. If validity is to be used to support score uses, validation would require an analysis of the appropriateness of the proposed…

  11. Proposing Wavelet-Based Low-Pass Filter and Input Filter to Improve Transient Response of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Available photovoltaic (PV systems show a prolonged transient response, when integrated into the power grid via active filters. On one hand, the conventional low-pass filter, employed within the integrated PV system, works with a large delay, particularly in the presence of system’s low-order harmonics. On the other hand, the switching of the DC (direct current–DC converters within PV units also prolongs the transient response of an integrated system, injecting harmonics and distortion through the PV-end current. This paper initially develops a wavelet-based low-pass filter to improve the transient response of the interconnected PV systems to grid lines. Further, a damped input filter is proposed within the PV system to address the raised converter’s switching issue. Finally, Matlab/Simulink simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed wavelet-based low-pass filter and damped input filter within an integrated PV system.

  12. Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2010-09-19

    Optimal nonlinear filtering consists of sequentially determining the conditional probability distribution functions (pdf) of the system state, given the information of the dynamical and measurement processes and the previous measurements. Once the pdfs are obtained, one can determine different estimates, for instance, the minimum variance estimate, or the maximum a posteriori estimate, of the system state. It can be shown that, many filters, including the Kalman filter (KF) and the particle filter (PF), can be derived based on this sequential Bayesian estimation framework. In this contribution, we present a Gaussian mixture‐based framework, called the particle Kalman filter (PKF), and discuss how the different EnKF methods can be derived as simplified variants of the PKF. We also discuss approaches to reducing the computational burden of the PKF in order to make it suitable for complex geosciences applications. We use the strongly nonlinear Lorenz‐96 model to illustrate the performance of the PKF.

  13. Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.

  14. An observational study showed that explaining randomization using gambling-related metaphors and computer-agency descriptions impeded RCT recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Marcus; Elliott, Daisy; Conefrey, Carmel; Wade, Julia; Rooshenas, Leila; Wilson, Caroline; Beard, David; Blazeby, Jane M; Birtle, Alison; Halliday, Alison; Stein, Rob; Donovan, Jenny L

    2018-03-02

    To explore how the concept of randomisation is described by clinicians and understood by patients in randomised clinical trials (RCTs), and how it contributes to patient understanding and recruitment. Qualitative analysis of seventy-three audio recordings of recruitment consultations from five, multi-centre, UK based RCTs with identified or anticipated recruitment difficulties. One in ten appointments did not include any mention of randomisation. Most included a description of the method or process of allocation. Descriptions often drew on gambling-related metaphors or similies, or referred to allocation by a computer. Where reference was made to a computer, some patients assumed that they would receive the treatment that was 'best for them'. Descriptions of the rationale for randomisation were rarely present, and often only came about as a consequence of patients questioning the reason for a random allocation. The methods and processes of randomisation were usually described by recruiters, but often without clarity, which could lead to patient misunderstanding. The rationale for randomisation was rarely mentioned. Recruiters should avoid problematic gambling metaphors and illusions of agency in their explanations, and instead focus on clearer descriptions of the rationale and method of randomisation to ensure patients are better informed about randomisation and RCT participation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Enhanced efficacy of sequential administration of Albendazole for the clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: Double blind RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Britto, R L; Vanamail, P; Sankari, T; Vijayalakshmi, G; Das, L K; Pani, S P

    2015-06-01

    Till today, there is no effective treatment protocol for the complete clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) infection that causes secondary lymphoedema. In a double blind randomized control trial (RCT), 146 asymptomatic W. b infected individuals were randomly assigned to one of the four regimens for 12 days, DEC 300 mg + Doxycycline 100 mg coadministration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg co-administration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg sequential administration or control regimen DEC 300 mg and were followed up at 13, 26 and 52 weeks post-treatment for the clearance of infection. At intake, there was no significant variation in mf counts (F(3,137)=0.044; P=0.988) and antigen levels (F(3,137)=1.433; P=0.236) between the regimens. Primary outcome analysis showed that DEC + Albendazole sequential administration has an enhanced efficacy over DEC + Albendazole co-administration (80.6 Vs 64.7%), and this regimen is significantly different when compared to DEC + doxycycline co-administration and control (PAlbendazole sequential administration appears to be a better option for rapid clearance of W. b microfilariae in 13 weeks time. (Clinical trials.gov identifier - NCT02005653).

  16. Filters in Fuzzy Class Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 14 (2008), s. 1773-1787 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : filter * prime filter * fuzzy class theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2008

  17. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1 fi...

  18. Chopped filter for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, J.

    1980-12-01

    Some of the theoretical and practical factors affecting the energy resolution of a spectrometry system are considered, specially those related to t he signal-to-noise ratio, and a time-variant filter with the transfer function of the theoretical optimum filter, during its active time, is proposed. A prototype has been tested and experimental results are presented. (Author) [pt

  19. Cluster Based Vector Attribute Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiwanuka, Fred N.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological attribute filters operate on images based on properties or attributes of connected components. Until recently, attribute filtering was based on a single global threshold on a scalar property to remove or retain objects. A single threshold struggles in case no single property or

  20. Properties of auxiliary filtering materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have studied the physicochemical and filtering properties of the perlites FP-1 and FP-2, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, wood pulp, and the diatomite powders Spidplace and Saperaid. They propose a classification for filtering materials according to their properties when mechanical impurities are being removed from the additives.

  1. High flow ceramic pot filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more

  2. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon; Ryu, Duchwan; Mallick, Bani K.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class

  3. Mobile filters in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuter, R.

    1979-01-01

    The need for filters with high efficiencies which may be used at any place originated in nuclear power plants. Filters of this type, called Filtermobil, have been developed by Sulzer. They have been used successfully in nuclear plants for several years. (orig.) [de

  4. Implicit LES using adaptive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangrui; Domaradzki, Julian A.

    2018-04-01

    In implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) numerical dissipation prevents buildup of small scale energy in a manner similar to the explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models. If spectral methods are used the numerical dissipation is negligible but it can be introduced by applying a low-pass filter in the physical space, resulting in an effective ILES. In the present work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the numerical dissipation produced by different filtering operations in a turbulent channel flow simulated using a non-dissipative, pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. The amount of numerical dissipation imparted by filtering can be easily adjusted by changing how often a filter is applied. We show that when the additional numerical dissipation is close to the subgrid-scale (SGS) dissipation of an explicit LES the overall accuracy of ILES is also comparable, indicating that periodic filtering can replace explicit SGS models. A new method is proposed, which does not require any prior knowledge of a flow, to determine the filtering period adaptively. Once an optimal filtering period is found, the accuracy of ILES is significantly improved at low implementation complexity and computational cost. The method is general, performing well for different Reynolds numbers, grid resolutions, and filter shapes.

  5. Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mable P. Fok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.

  6. Ella-V and technology usage technology usage in an english language and literacy acquisition validation randomized controlled trial study

    OpenAIRE

    Roisin P. Corcoran; Steven M. Ross; Beverly J. Irby; Fuhui Tong; Rafael Lara-Alecio; Cindy Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of technology to provide virtual professional development (VPD) for teachers and to conduct classroom observations in a study of English Language Learner (ELL) instruction in grades K–3. The technology applications were part of a cluster randomized control trial (RCT) design for a federally funded longitudinal validation study of a particular program, English Language and Literacy Acquisition-Validation, ELLA- V, to determine its degree of impact on English oral l...

  7. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...

  8. Apparatus for filtering radioactive fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gischel, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for filtering radioactive particles from the cooling and/or auxiliary process water of a nuclear reactor, or nuclear fuel processing plant, or other installations wherein radioactive fluid systems are known to exist. The apparatus affords disposal of the captured particles in a manner which minimizes the exposure of operating personnel to radioactivity. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to contain a removable filter cartridge assembly, a valve normally closing the lower end of the housing, an upwardly-open shipping cask located below the valve, and an elongated operating rod assembly projecting upwardly from the filter cartridge assembly and through the upper end of the housing to enable a workman to dismount the filter cartridge assembly from its housing and to lower the filter cartridge assembly through the valve and into the cask from a remote location above the housing. (U.S.)

  9. Vectorization of linear discrete filtering algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiess, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Linear filters, including the conventional Kalman filter and versions of square root filters devised by Potter and Carlson, are studied for potential application on streaming computers. The square root filters are known to maintain a positive definite covariance matrix in cases in which the Kalman filter diverges due to ill-conditioning of the matrix. Vectorization of the filters is discussed, and comparisons are made of the number of operations and storage locations required by each filter. The Carlson filter is shown to be the most efficient of the filters on the Control Data STAR-100 computer.

  10. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  11. Development of the code for filter calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzay, O.O.; Vakulenko, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a calculation method, which commonly used in the Neutron Physics Department to develop a new neutron filter or to improve the existing neutron filter. This calculation is the first step of the traditional filter development procedure. It allows easy selection of the qualitative and quantitative contents of a composite filter in order to receive the filtered neutron beam with given parameters

  12. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  13. Modeling, simulation, and design of SAW grating filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwelb, Otto; Adler, E. L.; Slaboszewicz, J. K.

    1990-05-01

    A systematic procedure for modeling, simulating, and designing SAW (surface acoustic wave) grating filters, taking losses into account, is described. Grating structures and IDTs (interdigital transducers) coupling to SAWs are defined by cascadable transmission-matrix building blocks. Driving point and transfer characteristics (immittances) of complex architectures consisting of gratings, transducers, and coupling networks are obtained by chain-multiplying building-block matrices. This modular approach to resonator filter analysis and design combines the elements of lossy filter synthesis with the transmission-matrix description of SAW components. A multipole filter design procedure based on a lumped-element-model approximation of one-pole two-port resonator building blocks is given and the range of validity of this model examined. The software for simulating the performance of SAW grating devices based on this matrix approach is described, and its performance, when linked to the design procedure to form a CAD/CAA (computer-aided design and analysis) multiple-filter design package, is illustrated with a resonator filter design example.

  14. An approach for fixed coefficient RNS-based FIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Reddy, Kotha; Sahoo, Subhendu Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In this work, an efficient new modular multiplication method for {2k-1, 2k, 2k+1-1} moduli set is proposed to implement a residue number system (RNS)-based fixed coefficient finite impulse response filter. The new multiplication approach reduces the number of partial products by using pre-loaded product block. The reduction in partial products with the proposed modular multiplication improves the clock frequency and reduces the area and power as compared with the conventional modular multiplication. Further, the present approach eliminates a binary number to residue number converter circuit, which is usually needed at the front end of RNS-based system. In this work, two fixed coefficient filter architectures with the new modular multiplication approach are proposed. The filters are implemented using Verilog hardware description language. The United Microelectronics Corporation 90 nm technology library has been used for synthesis and the results area, power and delay are obtained with the help of Cadence register transfer level compiler. The power delay product (PDP) is also considered for performance comparison among the proposed filters. One of the proposed architecture is found to improve PDP gain by 60.83% as compared with the filter implemented with conventional modular multiplier. The filters functionality is validated with the help of Altera DSP Builder.

  15. Nondestructive quality assurance of ceramic filters using noncontact dynamic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, P.; Chen, S.E.; Nishihama, Y. [University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2005-06-01

    Ceramic candle filters are stiff cylindrical structures arranged in rosettes in a hot gas vessel. Custom-made with strong composite materials, these filters are designed to withstand heating and cooling cycles of very high temperature gradients during coal energy production processes. To ensure consistency in the manufactured filters, noncontact dynamic characterization using laser vibrometry is proposed as a factory quality control technique. To evaluate the proposed technique, a sensitivity study using both contact and noncontact vibration measurements is first conducted. The shift in natural vibration frequencies is used as a quality indicator for likely manufacturing variables. Six candle filters are tested using dynamic impact tests. Contact and noncontact results are compared with theoretical natural frequency values, which show that laser results were 'noisier' due to dropout from speckle noises. The results are used to establish the sensitivity of the technique, which indicates that dynamic characterization is a valid nondestructive testing technique for quality assurance of the ceramic filters, provided that the manufactured filters have a quality variation greater than 3.21%.

  16. Regenerative-filter-incinerator device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, T.L.

    1977-10-18

    A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.

  17. Eulerian Time-Domain Filtering for Spatial LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, C. David

    1997-01-01

    Eulerian time-domain filtering seems to be appropriate for LES (large eddy simulation) of flows whose large coherent structures convect approximately at a common characteristic velocity; e.g., mixing layers, jets, and wakes. For these flows, we develop an approach to LES based on an explicit second-order digital Butterworth filter, which is applied in,the time domain in an Eulerian context. The approach is validated through a priori and a posteriori analyses of the simulated flow of a heated, subsonic, axisymmetric jet.

  18. A THEORETICAL STUDY ON SIMPLIFIED KALMAN FILTER IN DATA ASSIMILATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Zhai-pu; Huang Da-ji; Zhang Ben-zhao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we put forward a new method to reduce the calculation amount of the gain matrix of Kalman filter in data assimilation. We rewrite the vector describing the total state variables with two vectors whose dimensions are small and thus obtain the main parts and the trivial parts of the state variables. On the basis of the rewrittten formula, we not only develop a reduced Kalman filter scheme, but also obtain the transition equations about truncation errors, with which the validity of the main parts acting for the total state variables can be evaluated quantitatively. The error transition equations thus offer an indirect testimony to the rationality of the main parts.

  19. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, M.S.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size

  20. Filters for radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiba, Yukihiko; Kawashima, Akio

    1980-01-01

    In the crud generated in the reactor cooling water for nuclear power plants, iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) are contained as the main components, and also Co, Mn, Fe, Cr exist as radioactive nuclides. A new filter to separate these cruds, nuclepore membrane filter (NPMF), was investigated for its adaptability, and has been adopted as a practical filter for radioactive liquid wastes. The NPMF has such features as the possibility of complete automation of operation, no generation of secondary wastes, and easy maintenance, because the NPMF has uniform circular holes in poly-carbonate thin films, and shows the properties of stable filtering of particulates, capability of back washing, and others. The elements mounted in a practical system have such construction that the membrane is cut in the form of doughnut, and sandwiched with 100 mesh polyester nets (spacer); the obtained unit filter (cassette) is mounted on the stackable plate of the same size; and 80 pieces of this cassette are formed in a filter of 4 m 2 filtering area. The performance varies with the properties of suspended matters and the turbidity of wastes. For example, the filtered liquid of 0.1 ppm or less can be obtained when the 1 μm filter material is used to treat the liquid waste containing 1 to 100 ppm suspended matters. Usually back washed water is produced by about 1/100 of treated liquid wastes. The lifetime of the membrane is expected to be 1 or 2 years if crud is the main component. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap Water Many but not all available home water filters remove Cryptosporidium . Some filter designs are more suitable for removal of Cryptosporidium than others. Filters that have the words "reverse osmosis" on the label protect against Cryptosporidium . Some other ...

  2. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  3. High flow ceramic pot filters

    OpenAIRE

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6–19 L h−1), but initial LRVs for E. coli o...

  4. Face Recognition using Gabor Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad MOHSIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An Elastic Bunch Graph Map (EBGM algorithm is being proposed in this research paper that successfully implements face recognition using Gabor filters. The proposed system applies 40 different Gabor filters on an image. As aresult of which 40 images with different angles and orientation are received. Next, maximum intensity points in each filtered image are calculated and mark them as Fiducial points. The system reduces these points in accordance to distance between them. The next step is calculating the distances between the reduced points using distance formula. At last, the distances are compared with database. If match occurs, it means that the image is recognized.

  5. Impact on Prehospital Delay of a Stroke Preparedness Campaign: A SW-RCT (Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denti, Licia; Caminiti, Caterina; Scoditti, Umberto; Zini, Andrea; Malferrari, Giovanni; Zedde, Maria Luisa; Guidetti, Donata; Baratti, Mario; Vaghi, Luca; Montanari, Enrico; Marcomini, Barbara; Riva, Silvia; Iezzi, Elisa; Castellini, Paola; Olivato, Silvia; Barbi, Filippo; Perticaroli, Eva; Monaco, Daniela; Iafelice, Ilaria; Bigliardi, Guido; Vandelli, Laura; Guareschi, Angelica; Artoni, Andrea; Zanferrari, Carla; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-12-01

    Public campaigns to increase stroke preparedness have been tested in different contexts, showing contradictory results. We evaluated the effectiveness of a stroke campaign, designed specifically for the Italian population in reducing prehospital delay. According to an SW-RCT (Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial) design, the campaign was launched in 4 provinces in the northern part of the region Emilia Romagna at 3-month intervals in randomized sequence. The units of analysis were the patients admitted to hospital, with stroke and transient ischemic attack, over a time period of 15 months, beginning 3 months before the intervention was launched in the first province to allow for baseline data collection. The proportion of early arrivals (within 2 hours of symptom onset) was the primary outcome. Thrombolysis rate and some behavioral end points were the secondary outcomes. Data were analyzed using a fixed-effect model, adjusting for cluster and time trends. We enrolled 1622 patients, 912 exposed and 710 nonexposed to the campaign. The proportion of early access was nonsignificantly lower in exposed patients (354 [38.8%] versus 315 [44.4%]; adjusted odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-1.08; P =0.15). As for secondary end points, an increase was found for stroke recognition, which approximated but did not reach statistical significance ( P =0.07). Our campaign was not effective in reducing prehospital delay. Even if some limitations of the intervention, mainly in terms of duration, are taken into account, our study demonstrates that new communication strategies should be tested before large-scale implementation. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01881152. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. The social play, social skills and parent-child relationships of children with ADHD 12 months following a RCT of a play-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gabrielle; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Bundy, Anita; Cordier, Reinie

    2017-12-01

    There is an urgent need to investigate the long-term impact of social skill interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Interventions targeting the social skills of children with ADHD have limited short-term effectiveness and rarely investigate the long-term impact. Furthermore, these interventions are most frequently conducted in the clinic setting, without including the child's natural settings and interactants, such as their regular playmates and parents. The present study investigated the social play, social skills and parent-child relationships of children with ADHD and their playmates (n = 13/group) aged 5-13 years. A two-group before and after design with a longitudinal component was applied. Participant data compared over two time points, immediately following a randomised, controlled trial (RCT) of a play-based intervention and 12 months post-RCT. From immediately following the RCT to the 12-month follow-up, children with ADHD maintained social play skill gains in the home environment. Playmates maintained social play skill gains across the home and clinic environments. Children scored within a developmentally appropriate range, falling within 1 standard deviation of the mean for social skills and most parent-child relationship scales using norm-based assessments. Results support the long-term effectiveness of the intervention. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  7. Remotely operated top loading filter housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.J.; Carter, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system was developed for the Fuel Processing Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The system utilizes commercially available HEPA filters and allows in-cell filters to be maintained using operator-controlled remote handling equipment. The remote handling tasks include transport of filters before and after replacement, removal and replacement of the filter from the housing, and filter containment

  8. Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 2: The predicted hyper responder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Simone C; van Tilborg, Theodora C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Oosterhuis, G Jur E; Friederich, Jaap; van Hooff, Marcel H A; van Santbrink, Evert J P; Brinkhuis, Egbert A; Smeenk, Jesper M J; Kwee, Janet; de Koning, Corry H; Groen, Henk; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M; Torrance, Helen L

    2017-12-01

    Does a reduced FSH dose in women with a predicted hyper response, apparent from a high antral follicle count (AFC), who are scheduled for IVF/ICSI lead to a different outcome with respect to cumulative live birth rate and safety? Although in women with a predicted hyper response (AFC > 15) undergoing IVF/ICSI a reduced FSH dose (100 IU per day) results in similar cumulative live birth rates and a lower occurrence of any grade of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) as compared to a standard dose (150 IU/day), a higher first cycle cancellation rate and similar severe OHSS rate were observed. Excessive ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for IVF/ICSI may result in increased rates of cycle cancellation, the occurrence of OHSS and suboptimal live birth rates. In women scheduled for IVF/ICSI, an ovarian reserve test (ORT) can be used to predict response to COS. No consensus has been reached on whether ORT-based FSH dosing improves effectiveness and safety in women with a predicted hyper response. Between May 2011 and May 2014, we performed an open-label, multicentre RCT in women with regular menstrual cycles and an AFC > 15. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (Rotterdam criteria) were excluded. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy achieved within 18 months after randomization and resulting in a live birth. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of OHSS and cost-effectiveness. Since this RCT was embedded in a cohort study assessing over 1500 women, we expected to randomize 300 predicted hyper responders. Women with an AFC > 15 were randomized to an FSH dose of 100 IU or 150 IU/day. In both groups, dose adjustment was allowed in subsequent cycles (maximum 25 IU in the reduced and 50 IU in the standard group) based on pre-specified criteria. Both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness were evaluated from an intention-to-treat perspective. We randomized 255 women to a daily FSH dose of 100 IU and 266 women to a daily FSH dose of 150 IU. The

  9. Neural Model for Left-Handed CPW Bandpass Filter Loaded Split Ring Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiwen; Wang, Shuxin; Tan, Mingtao; Zhang, Qijun

    2010-02-01

    Compact left-handed coplanar waveguide (CPW) bandpass filter loaded split ring resonator (SRR) is presented in this paper. The proposed filter exhibits a quasi-elliptic function response and its circuit size occupies only 12 × 11.8 mm2 (≈0.21 λg × 0.20 λg). Also, a simple circuit model is given and the parametric study of this filter is discussed. Then, with the aid of NeuroModeler software, a five-layer feed-forward perceptron neural networks model is built up to optimize the proposed filter design fast and accurately. Finally, this newly left-handed CPW bandpass filter was fabricated and measured. A good agreement between simulations and measurement verifies the proposed left-handed filter and the validity of design methodology.

  10. Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....

  11. Fremont Tree-Well Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Fremont Tree-Well Filter Spine project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  12. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  13. Comparison of filtering methods for the modeling and retrospective forecasting of influenza epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A variety of filtering methods enable the recursive estimation of system state variables and inference of model parameters. These methods have found application in a range of disciplines and settings, including engineering design and forecasting, and, over the last two decades, have been applied to infectious disease epidemiology. For any system of interest, the ideal filter depends on the nonlinearity and complexity of the model to which it is applied, the quality and abundance of observations being entrained, and the ultimate application (e.g. forecast, parameter estimation, etc.. Here, we compare the performance of six state-of-the-art filter methods when used to model and forecast influenza activity. Three particle filters--a basic particle filter (PF with resampling and regularization, maximum likelihood estimation via iterated filtering (MIF, and particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (pMCMC--and three ensemble filters--the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF, the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF, and the rank histogram filter (RHF--were used in conjunction with a humidity-forced susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS model and weekly estimates of influenza incidence. The modeling frameworks, first validated with synthetic influenza epidemic data, were then applied to fit and retrospectively forecast the historical incidence time series of seven influenza epidemics during 2003-2012, for 115 cities in the United States. Results suggest that when using the SIRS model the ensemble filters and the basic PF are more capable of faithfully recreating historical influenza incidence time series, while the MIF and pMCMC do not perform as well for multimodal outbreaks. For forecast of the week with the highest influenza activity, the accuracies of the six model-filter frameworks are comparable; the three particle filters perform slightly better predicting peaks 1-5 weeks in the future; the ensemble filters are more accurate predicting peaks in

  14. Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs

  15. Filter indexing for spectrophotometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamran, M.M.; Scott, L.B.; Williams, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    A spectrophotometer system has an optical system for transmitting a beam from a source at select wavelengths onto a detector. A plurality of filters are positioned in a tray. A stepper mechanism indexes the tray along a path. A microcomputer controls the stepper mechanism and the optical system. The wavelength is successively changed over a range, the tray is indexed to move a select filter into the beam at a predetermined wavelength and the changing is discontinued during indexing

  16. New iodine filter pack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackbee, B.A.

    1977-10-01

    To enable Naval Emergency Monitoring Teams to fulfil their role in the field it was necessary to locate or design a replacement filter pack for the collection of radioactive iodine air samples. Collaboration with the Berkeley Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board provided the necessary starting point for a suitable type of package. Further development by NGTE (West Drayton) yielded the improved filter pack which is the subject of this memorandum. (author)

  17. Stochastic processes and filtering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jazwinski, Andrew H

    1970-01-01

    This unified treatment of linear and nonlinear filtering theory presents material previously available only in journals, and in terms accessible to engineering students. Its sole prerequisites are advanced calculus, the theory of ordinary differential equations, and matrix analysis. Although theory is emphasized, the text discusses numerous practical applications as well.Taking the state-space approach to filtering, this text models dynamical systems by finite-dimensional Markov processes, outputs of stochastic difference, and differential equations. Starting with background material on probab

  18. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)

  19. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emzir, Muhammad F.; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.

    2017-06-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements.

  20. Signal filtering algorithm for depth-selective diffuse optical topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M; Nakayama, K

    2009-01-01

    A compact filtered backprojection algorithm that suppresses the undesirable effects of skin circulation for near-infrared diffuse optical topography is proposed. Our approach centers around a depth-selective filtering algorithm that uses an inverse problem technique and extracts target signals from observation data contaminated by noise from a shallow region. The filtering algorithm is reduced to a compact matrix and is therefore easily incorporated into a real-time system. To demonstrate the validity of this method, we developed a demonstration prototype for depth-selective diffuse optical topography and performed both computer simulations and phantom experiments. The results show that the proposed method significantly suppresses the noise from the shallow region with a minimal degradation of the target signal.

  1. Experience with three percutaneous vena cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCowan, T.C.; Ferris, E.J.; Harshfield, D.L.; Hassell, D.R.; Baker, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-one Kimray-Greenfield, 33 bird's nest, and 19 Amplatz vena cava filters were placed percutaneously. The Kimray-Greenfield filter was the most difficult to insert. The major problem was the insertion site, which required venipuncture with a 24-F catheter. Minor hemorrhage was frequent, and femoral vein thrombosis occurred in four patients. No migration, caval thrombosis, or pulmonary emboli were seen after Kimray-Greenfield filter placement. The bird's nest filter was relatively easy to insert, although in two cases the filter prongs could not be adequately seated in the wall of the inferior vena cava. Three patients with bird's nest filters had thrombosis below the filter, and three filters migrated to the heart. One migrated filter could not be removed. One patient had multiple small pulmonary emboli at autopsy. No other pulmonary emboli after filter placement were noted. The Amplatz filter was the easiest of the three filters to insert. Only one patient with an Amplatz filter had thrombosis of the vena cava below the filter. No filter migrations were documented, and no recurrent pulmonary emboli were found on clinical or radiologic follow-up. The Amplatz vena cava filter is easier to place than percutaneous Kimray-Greenfield or bird's nest filters, has a low complication rate, and has proven to be clinically effective in preventing pulmonary emboli

  2. Alexander fractional differential window filter for ECG denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Atul Kumar; Saini, Indu; Saini, Barjinder Singh

    2018-06-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) non-invasively monitors the electrical activities of the heart. During the process of recording and transmission, ECG signals are often corrupted by various types of noises. Minimizations of these noises facilitate accurate detection of various anomalies. In the present paper, Alexander fractional differential window (AFDW) filter is proposed for ECG signal denoising. The designed filter is based on the concept of generalized Alexander polynomial and the R-L differential equation of fractional calculus. This concept is utilized to formulate a window that acts as a forward filter. Thereafter, the backward filter is constructed by reversing the coefficients of the forward filter. The proposed AFDW filter is then obtained by averaging of the forward and backward filter coefficients. The performance of the designed AFDW filter is validated by adding the various type of noise to the original ECG signal obtained from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The two non-diagnostic measure, i.e., SNR, MSE, and one diagnostic measure, i.e., wavelet energy based diagnostic distortion (WEDD) have been employed for the quantitative evaluation of the designed filter. Extensive experimentations on all the 48-records of MIT-BIH arrhythmia database resulted in average SNR of 22.014 ± 3.806365, 14.703 ± 3.790275, 13.3183 ± 3.748230; average MSE of 0.001458 ± 0.00028, 0.0078 ± 0.000319, 0.01061 ± 0.000472; and average WEDD value of 0.020169 ± 0.01306, 0.1207 ± 0.061272, 0.1432 ± 0.073588, for ECG signal contaminated by the power line, random, and the white Gaussian noise respectively. A new metric named as morphological power preservation measure (MPPM) is also proposed that account for the power preservance (as indicated by PSD plots) and the QRS morphology. The proposed AFDW filter retained much of the original (clean) signal power without any significant morphological distortion as validated by MPPM measure that were 0

  3. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    filter and three modifications of a bag-type fiberglass combination filter: the "Heavy" corresponded to a commercially available filter containing 400 g of carbon per square meter of filter area, the "Medium" contained half as much carbon (200 g/m(2)), and the "Light" contained a quarter as much carbon...

  4. FACTAR validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.B.; Wadsworth, S.L.; Rock, R.C.; Sills, H.E.; Langman, V.J.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed strategy to validate fuel channel thermal mechanical behaviour codes for use of current power reactor safety analysis is presented. The strategy is derived from a validation process that has been recently adopted industry wide. Focus of the discussion is on the validation plan for a code, FACTAR, for application in assessing fuel channel integrity safety concerns during a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). (author)

  5. PIV Data Validation Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshire, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A PIV data validation and post-processing software package was developed to provide semi-automated data validation and data reduction capabilities for Particle Image Velocimetry data sets. The software provides three primary capabilities including (1) removal of spurious vector data, (2) filtering, smoothing, and interpolating of PIV data, and (3) calculations of out-of-plane vorticity, ensemble statistics, and turbulence statistics information. The software runs on an IBM PC/AT host computer working either under Microsoft Windows 3.1 or Windows 95 operating systems.

  6. Subacromial triamcinolone acetonide, hyaluronic acid and saline injections for shoulder pain an RCT investigating the effectiveness in the first days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Ludo I F; de Bie, Rob A; Walenkamp, Geert H I M

    2014-10-23

    Subacromial impingement is a common cause of shoulder complaints in general practice. When the initial treatment with acetaminophen and low dose Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs fails, triamcinolone acetonide injections are commonly used. Triamcinolone acetonide injections are effective at four to six weeks. Little is known about the pain relief effect of triamcinolone acetonide injections in the first days after injection and the effect of repeated injection. In this study we investigate the effect of triamcinolone acetonide injections compared to hyaluronic acid and NaCl injections using a pain diary. 159 Patients recruited for an RCT comparing the effect of subacromial injections of triamcinolone acetonide, hyaluronic acid and sodium chloride (NaCl) were used in this study. They were blinded for their treatment and could receive up to three injections. Primary outcome consisted of the patient perceived pain on a VAS score recorded on a daily basis during 21 days following injection. Secondary outcome consisted of the amount of taken escape medication following injection and adverse effects. All patients received the first injection. 150 patients also received the second and third injections. 97% Of the paper and pencil pain diaries were returned for data analysis.The triamcinolone acetonide group showed the largest decrease in pain on the VAS scores after injection compared to the hyaluronic acid and NaCl group in the first week after injection. The reduction in pain was best achieved after the first injection, the second triamcinolone acetonide injection showed a further reduction in pain. The third triamcinolone acetonide injection only showed a slight improvement in pain reduction. In this study we could show a booster effect in pain reduction after repeated triamcinolone acetonide injection. The triamcinolone acetonide group showed a faster reduction in pain after injection compared to the hyaluronic acid and NaCl group. The effect was best seen after

  7. Influence of embryo culture medium (G5 and HTF) on pregnancy and perinatal outcome after IVF: a multicenter RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; Mantikou, Eleni; Slappendel, Els; Consten, Dimitri; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Wetzels, Alex M; van Wely, Madelon; Smits, Luc J M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Repping, Sjoerd; Dumoulin, John C M; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan

    2016-10-01

    Does embryo culture medium influence pregnancy and perinatal outcome in IVF? Embryo culture media used in IVF affect treatment efficacy and the birthweight of newborns. A wide variety of culture media for human preimplantation embryos in IVF/ICSI treatments currently exists. It is unknown which medium is best in terms of clinical outcomes. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the culture medium used for the in vitro culture of embryos affects birthweight, but this has never been demonstrated by large randomized trials. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind RCT comparing the use of HTF and G5 embryo culture media in IVF. Between July 2010 and May 2012, 836 couples (419 in the HTF group and 417 in the G5 group) were included. The allocated medium (1:1 allocation) was used in all treatment cycles a couple received within 1 year after randomization, including possible transfers with frozen-thawed embryos. The primary outcome was live birth rate. Couples that were scheduled for an IVF or an ICSI treatment at one of the six participating centers in the Netherlands or their affiliated clinics. The live birth rate was higher, albeit nonsignificantly, in couples assigned to G5 than in couples assigned to HTF (44.1% (184/417) versus 37.9% (159/419); RR: 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.37; P = 0.08). Number of utilizable embryos per cycle (2.8 ± 2.3 versus 2.3 ± 1.8; P culture media on perinatal outcome remains to be determined. Embryo culture media used in IVF affect not only treatment efficacy but also perinatal outcome. This suggests that the millions of human embryos that are cultured in vitro each year are sensitive to their environment. These findings should lead to increased awareness, mechanistic studies and legislative adaptations to protect IVF offspring during the first few days of their existence. This project was partly funded by The NutsOhra foundation (Grant 1203-061) and March of Dimes (Grant 6-FY13-153). The authors declare no conflict of

  8. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winegardner, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period.

  9. Multidimensional student skills with collaborative filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Yoav; Rayyan, Saif; Seaton, Daniel; Pritchard, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that a physics course typically culminates in one final grade for the student, many instructors and researchers believe that there are multiple skills that students acquire to achieve mastery. Assessment validation and data analysis in general may thus benefit from extension to multidimensional ability. This paper introduces an approach for model determination and dimensionality analysis using collaborative filtering (CF), which is related to factor analysis and item response theory (IRT). Model selection is guided by machine learning perspectives, seeking to maximize the accuracy in predicting which students will answer which items correctly. We apply the CF to response data for the Mechanics Baseline Test and combine the results with prior analysis using unidimensional IRT.

  10. An operator model-based filtering scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, R.S.; Dodds, H.L.; Schryer, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a diagnostic model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for off-normal nuclear power plant events. The diagnostic model is intended to serve as an embedded module of a cognitive model of the human operator, one application of which could be to assist control room operators in correctly responding to off-normal events by providing a rapid and accurate assessment of alarm patterns and parameter trends. The sequential filter model is comprised of two distinct subsystems --- an alarm analysis followed by an analysis of interpreted plant signals. During the alarm analysis phase, the alarm pattern is evaluated to generate hypotheses of possible initiating events in order of likelihood of occurrence. Each hypothesis is further evaluated through analysis of the current trends of state variables in order to validate/reject (in the form of increased/decreased certainty factor) the given hypothesis. 7 refs., 4 figs

  11. Photonic filtering of microwave signals in the frequency range of 0.01-20 GHz using a Fabry-Perot filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo-Rodriguez, G; Zaldivar-Huerta, I E [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE). Sta. Maria Tonantzintla, Pue. Mexico (Mexico); GarcIa-Juarez, A [Depto. de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON) Hermosillo, Son. Mexico (Mexico); Rodriguez-Asomoza, J [Depto. de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad de las Americas-Puebla (UDLA). San Andres Cholula, Pue. Mexico (Mexico); Larger, L; Courjal, N [Laboratoire d' Optique P. M. Duffieux, UMR 6603 CNRS, Institut des Microtechiques de Franche-Comte, FRW 0067, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Universite de Franche-Comte (UFC), Besancon cedex (France)

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the efficiency of tuning of a photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01 to 20 GHz. The presented work combines the use of a multimode optical source associated with a dispersive optical fiber to obtain the filtering effect. Tunability effect is achieved by the use of a Fabry-Perot filter that allows altering the spectral characteristics of the optical source. Experimental results are validated by means of numerical simulations. The scheme here proposed has a potential application in the field of optical telecommunications.

  12. 21 CFR 211.72 - Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filters. 211.72 Section 211.72 Food and Drugs FOOD... shall not release fibers into such products. Fiber-releasing filters may be used when it is not possible to manufacture such products without the use of these filters. If use of a fiber-releasing filter is...

  13. Decentralized Social Filtering based on Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a decentralised approach to social filtering based on trust between agents in a multiagent system. The social filtering in the proposed approach is built on the interactions between collaborative software agents performing content-based filtering. This means that it uses a mixture of content-based and social filtering and thereby, it takes advantage of both methods.

  14. A class of orthogonal nonrecursive binomial filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The time- and frequency-domain properties of the orthogonal binomial sequences are presented. It is shown that these sequences, or digital filters based on them, can be generated using adders and delay elements only. The frequency-domain behavior of these nonrecursive binomial filters suggests a number of applications as low-pass Gaussian filters or as inexpensive bandpass filters.

  15. Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    . In contrast, the active damping does not require any dissipation elements, and thus has become of increasing interest. As a result, a vast of active damping solutions have been reported, among which multi-loop control systems and additional sensors are necessary, leading to increased cost and complexity....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated...... in the z-domain. Simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed active damping method. Both results have confirmed that the notch filter based active damping can ensure the entire system stability in the case of resonances with a good system performance....

  16. Walsh-synthesized noise filters for quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Harrison; Biercuk, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We study a novel class of open-loop control protocols constructed to perform arbitrary nontrivial single-qubit logic operations robust against time-dependent non-Markovian noise. Amplitude and phase modulation protocols are crafted leveraging insights from functional synthesis and the basis set of Walsh functions. We employ the experimentally validated generalized filter-transfer function formalism in order to find optimized control protocols for target operations in SU(2) by defining a cost function for the filter-transfer function to be minimized through the applied modulation. Our work details the various techniques by which we define and then optimize the filter-synthesis process in the Walsh basis, including the definition of specific analytic design rules which serve to efficiently constrain the available synthesis space. This approach yields modulated-gate constructions consisting of chains of discrete pulse-segments of arbitrary form, whose modulation envelopes possess intrinsic compatibility with digital logic and clocking. We derive novel families of Walsh-modulated noise filters designed to suppress dephasing and coherent amplitude-damping noise, and describe how well-known sequences derived in NMR also fall within the Walsh-synthesis framework. Finally, our work considers the effects of realistic experimental constraints such as limited modulation bandwidth on achievable filter performance. (orig.)

  17. Walsh-synthesized noise filters for quantum logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Harrison; Biercuk, Michael J. [The University of Sydney, ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); National Measurement Institute, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-05-14

    We study a novel class of open-loop control protocols constructed to perform arbitrary nontrivial single-qubit logic operations robust against time-dependent non-Markovian noise. Amplitude and phase modulation protocols are crafted leveraging insights from functional synthesis and the basis set of Walsh functions. We employ the experimentally validated generalized filter-transfer function formalism in order to find optimized control protocols for target operations in SU(2) by defining a cost function for the filter-transfer function to be minimized through the applied modulation. Our work details the various techniques by which we define and then optimize the filter-synthesis process in the Walsh basis, including the definition of specific analytic design rules which serve to efficiently constrain the available synthesis space. This approach yields modulated-gate constructions consisting of chains of discrete pulse-segments of arbitrary form, whose modulation envelopes possess intrinsic compatibility with digital logic and clocking. We derive novel families of Walsh-modulated noise filters designed to suppress dephasing and coherent amplitude-damping noise, and describe how well-known sequences derived in NMR also fall within the Walsh-synthesis framework. Finally, our work considers the effects of realistic experimental constraints such as limited modulation bandwidth on achievable filter performance. (orig.)

  18. Progress towards the use of disposable filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macphail, I.

    1979-08-01

    Thermally degradable materials have been evaluated for service in HEPA filter units used to filter gases from active plants. The motivation was to reduce the bulk storage problems of contaminated filters by thermal decomposition to gaseous products and a solid residue substantially comprised of the filtered particulates. It is shown that while there are no commercially available alternatives to the glass fibre used in the filter medium, it would be feasible to manufacture the filter case and spacers from materials which could be incinerated. Operating temperatures, costs and the type of residues for disposal are discussed for filter case materials. (U.K.)

  19. Risk Sensitive Filtering with Poisson Process Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, W. P.; James, M. R.; Elliott, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we consider risk sensitive filtering for Poisson process observations. Risk sensitive filtering is a type of robust filtering which offers performance benefits in the presence of uncertainties. We derive a risk sensitive filter for a stochastic system where the signal variable has dynamics described by a diffusion equation and determines the rate function for an observation process. The filtering equations are stochastic integral equations. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance gain for the risk sensitive filter compared with the risk neutral filter

  20. Novel Simplex Unscented Transform and Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Chun Li; Ping Wei; Xian-Ci Xiao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new simplex unscented transform (UT) based Schmidt orthogonal algorithm and a new filter method based on this transform are proposed. This filter has less computation consumption than UKF (unscented Kalman filter), SUKF (simplex unscented Kalman filter) and EKF (extended Kalman filter). Computer simulation shows that this filter has the same performance as UKF and SUKF, and according to the analysis of the computational requirements of EKF, UKF and SUKF, this filter has preferable practicality value. Finally, the appendix shows the efficiency for this UT.

  1. Digital timing: sampling frequency, anti-aliasing filter and signal interpolation filter dependence on timing resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sanghee; Grazioso, Ron; Zhang Nan; Aykac, Mehmet; Schmand, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of our study is to investigate how the performance of digital timing methods is affected by sampling rate, anti-aliasing and signal interpolation filters. We used the Nyquist sampling theorem to address some basic questions such as what will be the minimum sampling frequencies? How accurate will the signal interpolation be? How do we validate the timing measurements? The preferred sampling rate would be as low as possible, considering the high cost and power consumption of high-speed analog-to-digital converters. However, when the sampling rate is too low, due to the aliasing effect, some artifacts are produced in the timing resolution estimations; the shape of the timing profile is distorted and the FWHM values of the profile fluctuate as the source location changes. Anti-aliasing filters are required in this case to avoid the artifacts, but the timing is degraded as a result. When the sampling rate is marginally over the Nyquist rate, a proper signal interpolation is important. A sharp roll-off (higher order) filter is required to separate the baseband signal from its replicates to avoid the aliasing, but in return the computation will be higher. We demonstrated the analysis through a digital timing study using fast LSO scintillation crystals as used in time-of-flight PET scanners. From the study, we observed that there is no significant timing resolution degradation down to 1.3 Ghz sampling frequency, and the computation requirement for the signal interpolation is reasonably low. A so-called sliding test is proposed as a validation tool checking constant timing resolution behavior of a given timing pick-off method regardless of the source location change. Lastly, the performance comparison for several digital timing methods is also shown.

  2. Iodine filters in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The present report discusses the significance for environmental exposure of the iodine released with the gaseous effluents of nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in relation to releases of other airborne radionuclides. Iodine filtration processes are described. The release pathways and the composition of airborne fission product iodine mixtures and their bearing on environmental exposure are discussed on the basis of measured fission product iodine emissions. The sorbents which can be used for iodine filtration, their removal efficiencies and range of applications are dealt with in detail. The particular conditions governing iodine removal, which are determined by the various gaseous iodine species, are illustrated on the basis of experimentally determined retention profiles. Particular attention is given to the limitations imposed by temperature, humidity, radiation and filter poisoning. The types of filter normally used are described, their advantages and drawbacks discussed, the principles underlying their design are outlined and the sources of error indicated. The methods normally applied to test the efficiency of various iodine sorbents are described and assessed. Operating experience with iodine filters, gathered from surveillance periods of many years, is supplemented by a large number of test results and the findings of extensive experiments. Possible ways of prolonging the permissible service lives of iodine filters are discussed and information is given on protective measures. The various iodine removal processes applied in reprocessing plants are described and compared with reference to efficiency and cost. The latest developments in filter technology in reprocessing plants are briefly outlined

  3. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  4. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasila, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  5. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  6. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  7. Gastrostomy versus nasogastric tube feeding for chemoradiation patients with head and neck cancer: the TUBE pilot RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleri, Vinidh; Patterson, Joanne; Rousseau, Nikki; Moloney, Eoin; Craig, Dawn; Tzelis, Dimitrios; Wilkinson, Nina; Franks, Jeremy; Hynes, Ann Marie; Heaven, Ben; Hamilton, David; Guerrero-Urbano, Teresa; Donnelly, Rachael; Barclay, Stewart; Rapley, Tim; Stocken, Deborah

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 9000 new cases of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs) are treated by the NHS each year. Chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is a commonly used treatment for advanced HNSCC. Approximately 90% of patients undergoing CRT require nutritional support via gastrostomy or nasogastric tube feeding. Long-term dysphagia following CRT is a primary concern for patients. The effect of enteral feeding routes on swallowing function is not well understood, and the two feeding methods have, to date (at the time of writing), not been compared. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to compare these two options. This was a mixed-methods multicentre study to establish the feasibility of a RCT comparing oral feeding plus pre-treatment gastrostomy with oral feeding plus as-required nasogastric tube feeding in patients with HNSCC. Patients were recruited from four tertiary centres treating cancer and randomised to the two arms of the study (using a 1 : 1 ratio). The eligibility criteria were patients with advanced-staged HNSCC who were suitable for primary CRT with curative intent and who presented with no swallowing problems. The primary outcome was the willingness to be randomised. A qualitative process evaluation was conducted alongside an economic modelling exercise. The criteria for progression to a Phase III trial were based on a hypothesised recruitment rate of at least 50%, collection of outcome measures in at least 80% of those recruited and an economic value-of-information analysis for cost-effectiveness. Of the 75 patients approached about the trial, only 17 consented to be randomised [0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13 to 0.32]. Among those who were randomised, the compliance rate was high (0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.05). Retention rates were high at completion of treatment (0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.05), at the 3-month follow-up (0.88, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.04) and at the 6-month follow-up (0.88, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.04). No serious adverse

  8. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter resea...

  9. Optimal Nonlinear Filter for INS Alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞; 顾启泰

    2002-01-01

    All the methods to handle the inertial navigation system (INS) alignment were sub-optimal in the past. In this paper, particle filtering (PF) as an optimal method is used for solving the problem of INS alignment. A sub-optimal two-step filtering algorithm is presented to improve the real-time performance of PF. The approach combines particle filtering with Kalman filtering (KF). Simulation results illustrate the superior performance of these approaches when compared with extended Kalman filtering (EKF).

  10. Multiplier-free filters for wideband SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    2001-01-01

    This paper derives a set of parameters to be optimized when designing filters for digital demodulation and range prefiltering in SAR systems. Aiming at an implementation in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), an approach for the design of multiplier-free filters is outlined. Design results...... are presented in terms of filter complexity and performance. One filter has been coded in VHDL and preliminary results indicate that the filter can meet a 2 GHz input sample rate....

  11. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  12. Filtered containment venting in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindau, L.; Ellisson, K.

    1989-01-01

    After the TMI accident, Swedish authorities decided that all Swedish nuclear power plants should be upgraded with respect to mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents. One contribution to meet these ends is filtered containment venting, i.e. means to relieve containment overpressure and to clean the relief gas from radioactive components. The first system in operation was built at the Barsebaeck site (2 BWR's) where a gravel bed filter was installed. For the remaining Swedish units (7 BWR's and 3 PWR's) a passive, self-controlling wet scrubber system, FILTRA-MVSS, is now under installation. The principle of the FILTRA-MVSS is a self-controlling, self-pumping venturi collector submerged in a pool, and it is used to filter out emissions of solid and gaseous radioactive components

  13. HEPA filter concerns - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.F. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated a complete review of the DOE High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Program to identify areas for improvement. Although this process is currently ongoing, various issues and problems have already been identified for action that not only impacts the DOE HEPA filter program, but potentially the national and international air cleaning community as well. This paper briefly reviews a few of those concerns that may be of interest, and discusses actions initiated by the DOE to address the associated issues and problems. Issues discussed include: guidance standards, in-place testing, specifications, Test Facilities, portable units, vacuum cleaners, substitute aerosols, filter efficiencies, aging/shelf life/service life, fire suppression, handbook, Quality Products List (QPL), QA testing, and evaluations.

  14. Filtering reducer of flushing fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secu, P; Apostu, M; Basarabescu, T; Popescu, F

    1981-02-28

    This is a patent of a filtering reducer of flushing fluid on a water base with low content of solid particles used at temperatures of roughly 200/sup 0/C. With the use of the proposed filtering reducer, there is no excessive increase in viscosity and gelatinization of the flushing fluids without restriction in the quantity of reducer needed to guarantee the required filtering. There is a possibility of recovering the polyalkylphenol vat residues obtained in the production of nonyl phenol. It is possible to reduce the time of treatment and dissolving of the product; there is no danger of plugging of the productive oil beds. The process of hydration of clay is excluded.

  15. Adaptive filtering primer with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Poularikas, Alexander D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONSignal ProcessingAn ExampleOutline of the TextDISCRETE-TIME SIGNAL PROCESSINGDiscrete Time SignalsTransform-Domain Representation of Discrete-Time SignalsThe Z-TransformDiscrete-Time SystemsProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsRANDOM VARIABLES, SEQUENCES, AND STOCHASTIC PROCESSESRandom Signals and DistributionsAveragesStationary ProcessesSpecial Random Signals and Probability Density FunctionsWiener-Khinchin RelationsFiltering Random ProcessesSpecial Types of Random ProcessesNonparametric Spectra EstimationParametric Methods of power Spectral EstimationProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsWIENER FILTERSThe Mean-Square ErrorThe FIR Wiener FilterThe Wiener SolutionWiener Filtering ExamplesProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsEIGENVALUES OF RX - PROPERTIES OF THE ERROR SURFACEThe Eigenvalues of the Correlation MatrixGeometrical Properties of the Error SurfaceProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsNEWTON AND STEEPEST-DESCENT METHODOne-Dimensional Gradient Search MethodSteepest-Descent AlgorithmProblemsHints-Sol...

  16. Current Harmonics Cancellation in Three-Phase Four-Wire Systems by Using a Four-Branch Star Filtering Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Candela, J. I.; Luna, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new solution for filtering current harmonics in three-phase four-wire networks. The original four-branch star (FBS) filter topology presented in this paper is characterized by a particular layout of single-phase inductances and capacitors, without using any transformer......, a specific implementation of a three-phase four-wire hybrid power filter is presented as an illustrative application of the filtering topology. An extensive evaluation using simulation and experimental results from a DSP-based laboratory prototype is conducted in order to verify and validate the good...... only passive components are employed, or as a hybrid filter, when its behavior is improved by integrating a power converter into the filter structure. The paper analyzes the proposed topology, and derives fundamental concepts about the control of the resulting hybrid power filter. From this analysis...

  17. Evaluation of residential furnace filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowser, D. [Bowser Technical Inc. (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Various filters rotated through six houses in southern Ontario during the heating season were evaluated for their filtration efficiency, including their ability to trap respirable particulate matter. Particulate levels were continuously monitored in the outside air, before and after the filter in the ducting system; also in the air in two rooms in each house. Results show that the filters performed according to their respective efficiency ratings. The integrated breathing zone exposure reading were not considered as significant as the reductions in the ducting system, dur to the fact that the integrated breathing zone exposure reflects both dust generation and dust removal mechanisms. Electronic air filters were found to produce ozone inside the home when the air-handling system was in operation. There was no evidence of any particular relationship between cleanliness and ozone production. Indoor ozone levels were always lower than outdoor levels. Continuous blower operation was found to improve filtration efficiency , however, it could result in an increase of about $250 in annual energy expenses. Bypass filters recorded significantly higher electrical energy consumption than full-flow systems. Continuous low-speed air handler fan operation appeared to be the most effective strategy. Portable air cleaners were shown to be highly effective in removing particulates in a single room. Removing footwear on entering the house, keeping major dust generators out of the house, frequent vacuuming, improving the air tightness of the house, and installing an air intake filter on the air supply may all be all be helpful in controlling exposure to particulates. 21 refs., 8 tabs., 32 figs.

  18. Improving Filtered Backprojection Reconstruction by Data-Dependent Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Pelt (Daniël); K.J. Batenburg (Joost)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractFiltered backprojection, one of the most widely used reconstruction methods in tomography, requires a large number of low-noise projections to yield accurate reconstructions. In many applications of tomography, complete projection data of high quality cannot be obtained, because of

  19. Flat microwave photonic filter based on hybrid of two filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Chunhui; Pei, Li; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Gao, Song

    2010-01-01

    A new microwave photonic filter (MPF) hybrid of two filters that can realize both multiple taps and a flat bandpass or bandstop response is presented. Based on the phase character of a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM), a two taps finite impulse response (FIR) filter is obtained as the first part. The second part is obtained by taking full advantage of the wavelength selectivity of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the gain of a erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Combining the two filters, the flat bandpass or bandstop response is realized by changing the coupler's factor k, the reflectivity of FBG1 R 1 or the gain of the EDF g. Optimizing the system parameters, a flat bandpass response with amplitude depth of more than 45 dB is obtained at k = 0.5, R 1 = 0.33, g = 10, and a flat bandstop response is also obtained at k = 0.4, R 1 = 0.5, g = 2. In addition, the free-spectral range (FSR) can be controlled by changing the length of the EDF and the length difference between two MZMs. The method is proved feasible by some experiments. Such a method offers realistic solutions to support future radio-frequency (RF) optical communication systems

  20. Filter-extruded liposomes revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinna, Askell; Steiniger, Frank; Hupfeld, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    (pore-size, number of filter passages, and flow-rate), flow field-flow fractionation in conjunction with multi-angle laser light scattering (AF4-MALLS, Wyatt Technology Corp., Santa Barbara, CA) was employed. Liposome size-distributions determined by AF4-MALLS were compared with those of dynamic light...... is suggested to prepare large (300 nm) liposomes with rather narrow size distribution, based on the filter extrusion at defined flow-rates in combination with freeze-/ thaw-cycling and bench-top centrifugation....

  1. Process for washing electromagnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guittet, Maurice; Treille, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    This process concerns the washing of an electro-magnetic filter used, inter alia, for filtering the drain-off waters of nuclear power station steam generators, by means of a washing water used in closed circuit and freed, after each cleaning, of the solids in suspension it contains, by settlement of these solids. This invention enables the volume of water to be evaporated to be divided by 50, thereby providing a solid assurance of better safety, apart from a very significant saving [fr

  2. Quantized, piecewise linear filter network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1993-01-01

    A quantization based piecewise linear filter network is defined. A method for the training of this network based on local approximation in the input space is devised. The training is carried out by repeatedly alternating between vector quantization of the training set into quantization classes...... and equalization of the quantization classes linear filter mean square training errors. The equalization of the mean square training errors is carried out by adapting the boundaries between neighbor quantization classes such that the differences in mean square training errors are reduced...

  3. Adaptive filtering prediction and control

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Graham C

    2009-01-01

    Preface1. Introduction to Adaptive TechniquesPart 1. Deterministic Systems2. Models for Deterministic Dynamical Systems3. Parameter Estimation for Deterministic Systems4. Deterministic Adaptive Prediction5. Control of Linear Deterministic Systems6. Adaptive Control of Linear Deterministic SystemsPart 2. Stochastic Systems7. Optimal Filtering and Prediction8. Parameter Estimation for Stochastic Dynamic Systems9. Adaptive Filtering and Prediction10. Control of Stochastic Systems11. Adaptive Control of Stochastic SystemsAppendicesA. A Brief Review of Some Results from Systems TheoryB. A Summary o

  4. A New LCL -Filter With In-Series Parallel Resonant Circuit for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Sun, Yunjie; Lin, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    are investigated for the conventional LCL-filter-based system. Based on this, a modified LCL-filter topology using an extra parallel LrCr resonant circuit is proposed to reduce the total inductance value, without increasing the capacitive reactive power. The validity is verified through the experiments on a 500-W...

  5. CONSORT to community: translation of an RCT to a large-scale community intervention and learnings from evaluation of the upscaled program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Carly Jane; Miller, Jacqueline; Perry, Rebecca Anne; Chan, Lily Lai Hang; Daniels, Lynne Allison; Vidgen, Helen Anna; Magarey, Anthea Margaret

    2017-11-29

    Translation encompasses the continuum from clinical efficacy to widespread adoption within the healthcare service and ultimately routine clinical practice. The Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health (PEACH™) program has previously demonstrated clinical effectiveness in the management of child obesity, and has been recently implemented as a large-scale community intervention in Queensland, Australia. This paper aims to describe the translation of the evaluation framework from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to large-scale community intervention (PEACH™ QLD). Tensions between RCT paradigm and implementation research will be discussed along with lived evaluation challenges, responses to overcome these, and key learnings for future evaluation conducted at scale. The translation of evaluation from PEACH™ RCT to the large-scale community intervention PEACH™ QLD is described. While the CONSORT Statement was used to report findings from two previous RCTs, the REAIM framework was more suitable for the evaluation of upscaled delivery of the PEACH™ program. Evaluation of PEACH™ QLD was undertaken during the project delivery period from 2013 to 2016. Experiential learnings from conducting the evaluation of PEACH™ QLD to the described evaluation framework are presented for the purposes of informing the future evaluation of upscaled programs. Evaluation changes in response to real-time changes in the delivery of the PEACH™ QLD Project were necessary at stages during the project term. Key evaluation challenges encountered included the collection of complete evaluation data from a diverse and geographically dispersed workforce and the systematic collection of process evaluation data in real time to support program changes during the project. Evaluation of large-scale community interventions in the real world is challenging and divergent from RCTs which are rigourously evaluated within a more tightly-controlled clinical research setting. Constructs

  6. Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 1: The predicted poor responder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Torrance, Helen L; Oudshoorn, Simone C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Koks, Carolien A M; Verhoeve, Harold R; Nap, Annemiek W; Scheffer, Gabrielle J; Manger, A Petra; Schoot, Benedictus C; Sluijmer, Alexander V; Verhoeff, Arie; Groen, Henk; Laven, Joop S E; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M

    2017-12-01

    Does an increased FSH dose result in higher cumulative live birth rates in women with a predicted poor ovarian response, apparent from a low antral follicle count (AFC), scheduled for IVF or ICSI? In women with a predicted poor ovarian response (AFC IVF/ICSI, an increased FSH dose (225/450 IU/day) does not improve cumulative live birth rates as compared to a standard dose (150 IU/day). In women scheduled for IVF/ICSI, an ovarian reserve test (ORT) can predict ovarian response to stimulation. The FSH starting dose is often adjusted based on the ORT from the belief that it will improve live birth rates. However, the existing RCTs on this topic, most of which show no benefit, are underpowered. Between May 2011 and May 2014, we performed an open-label multicentre RCT in women with an AFC cost-effectiveness of the strategies were evaluated from an intention-to-treat perspective. In total, 511 women were randomized, 234 with an AFC ≤ 7 and 277 with an AFC 8-10. The cumulative live birth rate for increased versus standard dosing was 42.4% (106/250) versus 44.8% (117/261), respectively [relative risk (RR): 0.95 (95%CI, 0.78-1.15), P = 0.58]. As an increased dose strategy was more expensive [delta costs/woman: €1099 (95%CI, 562-1591)], standard FSH dosing was the dominant strategy in our economic analysis. Despite our training programme, the AFC might have suffered from inter-observer variation. As this open study permitted small dose adjustments between cycles, potential selective cancelling of cycles in women treated with 150 IU could have influenced the cumulative results. However, since first cycle live birth rates point in the same direction we consider it unlikely that the open design masked a potential benefit for the individualized strategy. Since an increased dose in women scheduled for IVF/ICSI with a predicted poor response (AFC < 11) does not improve live birth rates and is more expensive, we recommend using a standard dose of 150 IU/day in these women. This

  7. Computerized tomographic scanner with shaped radiation filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Walters, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention comprises a shaped filter and a filter correction circuitry for computerized tomographic scanners. The shaped filter is a generally u-shaped block of filter material which is adapted to be mounted between the source of radiation and the scan circle. The u-shaped block has a parabolic recess. The filter material may be beryllium, aluminum, sulphur, calcium, titanium, erbium, copper, and compounds including oxides and alloys thereof. The filter correction circuit comprises a first filter correction profile adding circuit for adding a first scaler valve to each intensity valve in a data line. The data line is operated on by a beam hardness correction polynomial. After the beam hardness polynomial correction operation, a second filter correction circuit adds a second filter correction profile consisting of a table of scalor values, one corresponding to each intensity reading in the data line

  8. Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2009-01-01

    Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering.

  9. In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of

  10. Robust Ensemble Filtering and Its Relation to Covariance Inflation in the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    A robust ensemble filtering scheme based on the H∞ filtering theory is proposed. The optimal H∞ filter is derived by minimizing the supremum (or maximum) of a predefined cost function, a criterion different from the minimum variance used

  11. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  12. Removal of xenotropic murine leukemia virus by nanocellulose based filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asper, M; Hanrieder, T; Quellmalz, A; Mihranyan, A

    2015-11-01

    The removal of xenotrpic murine leukemia virus (xMuLV) by size-exclusion filter paper composed of 100% naturally derived cellulose was validated. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. algae. The filter paper was characterized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, helium pycnometry, and model tracer (100 nm latex beads and 50 nm gold nanoparticles) retention tests. Following the filtration of xMuLV spiked solutions, LRV ≥5.25 log10 TCID50 was observed, as limited by the virus titre in the feed solution and sensitivity of the tissue infectivity test. The results of the validation study suggest that the nanocellulose filter paper is useful for removal of endogenous rodent retroviruses and retrovirus-like particles during the production of recombinant proteins. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Filtering Undesirable Flows in Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.; Gao, X.; Du, H.; Han, M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of fully mitigating the effects of denial of service by filtering the minimum necessary set of the undesirable flows. First, we model this problem and then we concentrate on a subproblem where every good flow has a bottleneck. We prove that unless P=NP, this subproblem is

  14. Pressure transients across HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.; Reynolds, G.; Ricketts, C.; Smith, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle facilities require ventilation for health and safety reasons. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are located within ventilation systems to trap radioactive dust released in reprocessing and fabrication operations. Pressure transients within the air cleaning systems may be such that the effectiveness of the filtration system is questioned under certain accident conditions. These pressure transients can result from both natural and man-caused phenomena: atmospheric pressure drop caused by a tornado or explosions and nuclear excursions initiate pressure pulses that could create undesirable conditions across HEPA filters. Tornado depressurization is a relatively slow transient as compared to pressure pulses that result from combustible hydrogen-air mixtures. Experimental investigation of these pressure transients across air cleaning equipment has been undertaken by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and New Mexico State University. An experimental apparatus has been constructed to impose pressure pulses across HEPA filters. The experimental equipment is described as well as preliminary results using variable pressurization rates. Two modes of filtration of an aerosol injected upstream of the filter is examined. A laser instrumentation for measuring the aerosol release, during the transient, is described

  15. Service discovery using Bloom filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goering, P.T.H.; Heijenk, Geert; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.

    A protocol to perform service discovery in adhoc networks is introduced in this paper. Attenuated Bloom filters are used to distribute services to nodes in the neighborhood and thus enable local service discovery. The protocol has been implemented in a discrete event simulator to investigate the

  16. Relevance Models for Collaborative Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wang (Jun)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractCollaborative filtering is the common technique of predicting the interests of a user by collecting preference information from many users. Although it is generally regarded as a key information retrieval technique, its relation to the existing information retrieval theory is unclear.

  17. Radioactive liquid waste filtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inami, Ichiro; Tabata, Masayuki; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent clogging in filter materials and improve the filtration performance for radioactive liquid wastes without increasing the amount of radioactive wastes. Constitution: In a radioactive waste filtering device, a liquid waste recycling pipe and a liquid recycling pump are disposed for recycling the radioactive liquid wastes in a liquid wastes vessel. In this case, the recycling pipe and the recycling pump are properly selected so as to satisfy the conditions capable of making the radioactive liquid wastes flowing through the pipe to have the Reynolds number of 10 4 - 10 5 . By repeating the transportation of radioactive liquid wastes in the liquid waste vessel through the liquid waste recycling pipe by the liquid waste recycling pump and then returning them to the liquid waste vessel again, particles of fine grain size in the suspended liquids are coagulated with each other upon collision to increase the grain size of the suspended particles. In this way, clogging of the filter materials caused by the particles of fine grain size can be prevented, thereby enabling to prevent the increase in the rising rate of the filtration differential pressure, reduce the frequency for the occurrence of radioactive wastes such as filter sludges and improve the processing performance. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Spectral Diagonal Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanický, Ivan; Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 485-497 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF(US) DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * ensemble Kalman filter * spectral representation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2015

  19. Grid Filter Design for a Multi-Megawatt Medium-Voltage Voltage Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockhill, A.A.; Liserre, Marco; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design procedure and performance of an LCL grid filter for a medium-voltage neutral point clamped (NPC) converter to be adopted for a multimegawatt wind turbine. The unique filter design challenges in this application are driven by a combination of the medium voltage...... converter, a limited allowable switching frequency, component physical size and weight concerns, and the stringent limits for allowable injected current harmonics. Traditional design procedures of grid filters for lower power and higher switching frequency converters are not valid for a multi......-megawatt filter connecting a medium-voltage converter switching at low frequency to the electric grid. This paper demonstrates a frequency domain model based approach to determine the optimum filter parameters that provide the necessary performance under all operating conditions given the necessary design...

  20. Compact and Wide Stopband Lowpass Filter Using Open Complementary Split Ring Resonator and Defected Ground Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Karthikeyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A compact (0.16 λg x 0.08 λg and wide stop¬band lowpass filter design using open complementary split ring resonator (OCSRR and defected ground structure (DGS is presented in this paper. Low pass filter is con-structed using two cascaded stages of OCSRR. Since the rejection bandwidth of the OCSRR is narrow, tapered dumbbell shaped DGS section is placed under the OCSRR to enhance the bandwidth. The cutoff frequency (fc of the proposed lowpass filter is 1.09 GHz. The rejection band¬width of the filter covers the entire ultra wideband spec¬trum. Hence the spurious passband suppression is achieved up to 10 fc. The designed filter has been fabri¬cated and validated by experimental results

  1. Optimal Design of High-Order Passive-Damped Filters for Grid-Connected Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Harmonic stability problems caused by the resonance of high-order filters in power electronic systems are ever increasing. The use of passive damping does provide a robust solution to address these issues, but at the price of reduced efficiency due to the presence of additional passive components....... Hence, a new method is proposed in this paper to optimally design the passive damping circuit for the LCL filters and LCL with multi-tuned LC traps. In short, the optimization problem reduces to the proper choice of the multi-split capacitors or inductors in the high-order filter. Compared to existing...... filter resonance. The passive filters are designed, built and validated both analytically and experimentally for verification....

  2. A Novel CPW BandPass Filter Integrating Periodic Rectangular Slot Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aytouna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the design and the achievement of a Bandpass filter structure based on the use of rectangular slot cell. The originality of this work is to achieve a coplanar filter easy to integrate with microwave planar circuits and having a wide frequency bandwidth. The proposed bandpass filter is a low cost and compact planar filter structure. The final circuit is simulated by using two electromagnetic solvers, ADS and HFSS. The validation into simulation is based on using optimization methods integrated into the both solvers. Simulations have taken into account a high meshing density to cover the whole circuit. The fabricated bandpass filter has an area of 35X31mm2 and having a good insertion loss around -0.75dB in the bandwidth. The comparison between simulation and measurement results presents a good agreement.

  3. Particle filtering with path sampling and an application to a bimodal ocean current model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weare, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a recursive particle filtering algorithm designed to filter high dimensional systems with complicated non-linear and non-Gaussian effects. The method incorporates a parallel marginalization (PMMC) step in conjunction with the hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) scheme to improve samples generated by standard particle filters. Parallel marginalization is an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) strategy that uses lower dimensional approximate marginal distributions of the target distribution to accelerate equilibration. As a validation the algorithm is tested on a 2516 dimensional, bimodal, stochastic model motivated by the Kuroshio current that runs along the Japanese coast. The results of this test indicate that the method is an attractive alternative for problems that require the generality of a particle filter but have been inaccessible due to the limitations of standard particle filtering strategies.

  4. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  5. PSpice for filters and transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this book, PSpice for Filters and Transmission Lines, we examine a range of active and passive filters where each design is simulated using the latest Cadence Orcad V10.5 PSpice capture software. These filters cannot match the very high order digital signal processing (DSP) filters considered in PSpice for Digital Signal Processing, but nevertheless these filters have many uses. The active filters considered were designed using Butterworth and Chebychev approximation loss functions rather than using the 'cookbook approach' so that the final design will meet a given specification in an exact

  6. Performance comparison of various time variant filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwata, M [JEOL Engineering Co. Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo (Japan); Husimi, K

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the advantage of the trapezoidal filter used in semiconductor detector system comparing with the other time variant filters. The trapezoidal filter is the compose of a rectangular pre-filter and a gated integrator. We indicate that the best performance is obtained by the differential-integral summing type rectangular pre-filter. This filter is not only superior in performance, but also has the useful feature that the rising edge of the output waveform is linear. We introduce an example of this feature used in a high-energy experiment. (author)

  7. Design and construction of electronic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerril Z, E.R.; Moreno P, C.; Salinas B, E.

    1979-01-01

    The design and construction of very low frequencies electronic filters which will be used for carrying out analysis of pile noise at Mexico's Nuclear Center Triga Mark III Reactor, in order to realize measurements of its parameters is presented. NIM norms and active filters with lineal integrated circuits were used: a. Band pass filter from 10 to 500 hertz, band width 50. b. Low pass filter from 0.001 to 10 hertz in 3 steps. c. Kalman Bucy filter, an analogical simulation of this filter was undertaken, obtained from a mathematical model of a Zero power experimental reactor, with the purpose to establish a control searching. (author)

  8. Bottom loaded filter for radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to equipment for filtering liquids and more particularly to filter assemblies for use with radioactive by-products of nuclear power plants. The invention provides a compact, bottom-loaded filter assembly that can be quickly and safely loaded and unloaded without the use of complex remote equipment. The assembly is integrally shielded and does not require external shielding. The closure hatch may be automatically aligned to facilitate quick sealing attachment after replacement of the filter cartridge, and the filter cartridge may be automatically positioned within the filter housing during the replacement operation

  9. High temperature filter for incinerator gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Brion, Jacques; Cousin, Michel; Delarue, Roger

    1969-01-01

    This note describes a regenerable filter for the hot filtering of incinerator gases. The filter is made of several wire gauze candles coated with asbestos fibers as filtering medium. Unburnt products, like carbon black, terminate their combustion on the filter, reducing the risk of clogging and enhancing the operation time to several hundreds of hours between two regeneration cycles. The filter was tested on a smaller scale mockup, and then on an industrial pilot plant with a 20 kg/h capacity during a long duration. This note describes the installation and presents the results obtained [fr

  10. Kalman filtering techniques for reducing variance of digital speckle displacement measurement noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ Target dynamics are assumed to be known in measuring digital speckle displacement. Use is made of a simple measurement equation, where measurement noise represents the effect of disturbances introduced in measurement process. From these assumptions, Kalman filter can be designed to reduce variance of measurement noise. An optical and analysis system was set up, by which object motion with constant displacement and constant velocity is experimented with to verify validity of Kalman filtering techniques for reduction of measurement noise variance.

  11. Research on Kalman Filtering Algorithm for Deformation Information Series of Similar Single-Difference Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Wei-cai; XU Shao-quan

    2004-01-01

    Using similar single-difference methodology(SSDM) to solve the deformation values of the monitoring points, there is unstability of the deformation information series, at sometimes.In order to overcome this shortcoming, Kalman filtering algorithm for this series is established,and its correctness and validity are verified with the test data obtained on the movable platform in plane. The results show that Kalman filtering can improve the correctness, reliability and stability of the deformation information series.

  12. A vector Wiener filter for dual-radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Links, J.M.; Prince, J.L.; Gupta, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    The routine use of a single radionuclide for patient imaging in nuclear medicine can be complemented by studies employing two tracers to examine two different processes in a single organ, most frequently by simultaneous imaging of both radionuclides in two different energy windows. In addition, simultaneous transmission/emission imaging with dual-radionuclides has been described, with one radionuclide used for the transmission study and a second for the emission study. There is thus currently considerable interest in dual-radionuclide imaging. A major problem with all dual-radionuclide imaging is the crosstalk between the two radionuclides. Such crosstalk frequently occurs, because scattered radiation from the higher energy radionuclide is detected in the lower energy window, and because the lower energy radionuclide may have higher energy emissions which are detected in the higher energy window. The authors have previously described the use of Fourier-based restoration filtering in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) to improve quantitative accuracy by designing a Wiener or other Fourier filter to partially restore the loss of contrast due to scatter and finite spatial resolution effects. The authors describe here the derivation and initial validation of an extension of such filtering for dual-radionuclide imaging that simultaneously (1) improves contrast in each radionuclide's direct image, (2) reduces image noise, and (3) reduces the crosstalk contribution from the other radionuclide. This filter is based on a vector version of the Wiener filter, which is shown to be superior [in the minimum mean square error (MMSE) sense] to the sequential application of separate crosstalk and restoration filters

  13. Evaluation of the effectiveness of robotic gait training and gait-focused physical therapy programs for children and youth with cerebral palsy: a mixed methods RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiart, Lesley; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Wright, F Virginia

    2016-06-02

    Robot assisted gait training (RAGT) is considered to be a promising approach for improving gait-related gross motor function of children and youth with cerebral palsy. However, RAGT has yet to be empirically demonstrated to be effective. This knowledge gap is particularly salient given the strong interest in this intensive therapy, the high cost of the technology, and the requirement for specialized rehabilitation centre resources. This is a research protocol describing a prospective, multi-centre, concurrent mixed methods study comprised of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and an interpretive descriptive qualitative design. It is a mixed methods study designed to determine the relative effectiveness of three physical therapy treatment conditions (i.e., RAGT, a functional physical therapy program conducted over-ground (fPT), and RAGT + fPT) on gait related motor skills of ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. Children with cerebral palsy aged 5-18 years who are ambulatory (Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels II and III) will be randomly allocated to one of four treatment conditions: 1) RAGT, 2) fPT, 3) RAGT and fPT combined, or 4) a maintenance therapy only control group. The qualitative component will explicate child and parent experiences with the interventions, provide insight into the values that underlie their therapy goals, and assist with interpretation of the results of the RCT. n/a. NCT02391324 Registered March 12, 2015.

  14. Outcomes and lessons from a pilot RCT of a community-based HIV prevention multi-session group intervention for gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, R; Bensley, J; Corrigan, N; Franks, L; Stratman, J; Waller, Z; Warner, J

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the first outcome evaluation of multi-session groupwork for HIV prevention among gay men in the UK. This community-based RCT recruited 50 men, of whom 42% were HIV-positive or untested, and 32% reported status unknown or serodiscordant UAI in the previous 12 months. No knowledge, skills, attitudinal or behavioural differences were detected between intervention and control at baseline. At eight weeks, those attending the group reported significant gains over their control in making sexual choices, physical safety, HIV and STI transmission knowledge, and sexual negotiation skills. At 20 weeks, significant differences remained for HIV and STI transmission knowledge and comfort with sexual choices. Although no behavioural differences were detected, the aims of the National Prevention Strategy were met. This pilot RCT is appraised in the light of modest sample size and attrition, and recommendations for establishing behavioural outcomes are presented. This study has demonstrated that high-risk community samples can be recruited to multi-session interventions, and has provided feasibility data for future rigorous evaluation designs.

  15. Dialysis search filters for PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Lee, Christopher W C; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, Ann; Shariff, Salimah Z; Blake, Peter G; Lindsay, Robert M; Garg, Amit X

    2012-10-01

    Physicians frequently search bibliographic databases, such as MEDLINE via PubMed, for best evidence for patient care. The objective of this study was to develop and test search filters to help physicians efficiently retrieve literature related to dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) from all other articles indexed in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase. A diagnostic test assessment framework was used to develop and test robust dialysis filters. The reference standard was a manual review of the full texts of 22,992 articles from 39 journals to determine whether each article contained dialysis information. Next, 1,623,728 unique search filters were developed, and their ability to retrieve relevant articles was evaluated. The high-performance dialysis filters consisted of up to 65 search terms in combination. These terms included the words "dialy" (truncated), "uremic," "catheters," and "renal transplant wait list." These filters reached peak sensitivities of 98.6% and specificities of 98.5%. The filters' performance remained robust in an independent validation subset of articles. These empirically derived and validated high-performance search filters should enable physicians to effectively retrieve dialysis information from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase.

  16. Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Luo, Xiaodong; Pham, Dinh-Tuan; Moroz, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we present a Gaussian mixture‐based framework, called the particle Kalman filter (PKF), and discuss how the different EnKF methods can be derived as simplified variants of the PKF. We also discuss approaches to reducing the computational burden of the PKF in order to make it suitable for complex geosciences applications. We use the strongly nonlinear Lorenz‐96 model to illustrate the performance of the PKF.

  17. CF4CF: Recommending Collaborative Filtering algorithms using Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Tiago; Soares, Carlos; de Carvalho, André C. P. L. F.

    2018-01-01

    Automatic solutions which enable the selection of the best algorithms for a new problem are commonly found in the literature. One research area which has recently received considerable efforts is Collaborative Filtering. Existing work includes several approaches using Metalearning, which relate the characteristics of datasets with the performance of the algorithms. This work explores an alternative approach to tackle this problem. Since, in essence, both are recommendation problems, this work...

  18. Marginalized Particle Filtering Framework for Tuning of Ensemble Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Hofman, Radek

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 11 (2011), s. 3589-3599 ISSN 0027-0644 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013018; GA ČR GP102/08/P250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : ensemble finter * marginalized particle filter * data assimilation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.688, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/smidl-0367533.pdf

  19. Filter forensics: microbiota recovery from residential HVAC filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Juan P; Jennings, Wiley; Wylie, Dennis; Horner, Sharon D; Siegel, Jeffrey; Kinney, Kerry A

    2018-01-30

    Establishing reliable methods for assessing the microbiome within the built environment is critical for understanding the impact of biological exposures on human health. High-throughput DNA sequencing of dust samples provides valuable insights into the microbiome present in human-occupied spaces. However, the effect that different sampling methods have on the microbial community recovered from dust samples is not well understood across sample types. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters hold promise as long-term, spatially integrated, high volume samplers to characterize the airborne microbiome in homes and other climate-controlled spaces. In this study, the effect that dust recovery method (i.e., cut and elution, swabbing, or vacuuming) has on the microbial community structure, membership, and repeatability inferred by Illumina sequencing was evaluated. The results indicate that vacuum samples captured higher quantities of total, bacterial, and fungal DNA than swab or cut samples. Repeated swab and vacuum samples collected from the same filter were less variable than cut samples with respect to both quantitative DNA recovery and bacterial community structure. Vacuum samples captured substantially greater bacterial diversity than the other methods, whereas fungal diversity was similar across all three methods. Vacuum and swab samples of HVAC filter dust were repeatable and generally superior to cut samples. Nevertheless, the contribution of environmental and human sources to the bacterial and fungal communities recovered via each sampling method was generally consistent across the methods investigated. Dust recovery methodologies have been shown to affect the recovery, repeatability, structure, and membership of microbial communities recovered from dust samples in the built environment. The results of this study are directly applicable to indoor microbiota studies utilizing the filter forensics approach. More broadly, this study provides a

  20. A Study of Parallel Operation of an active Filter and passive Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports investigations of the parallel operations of a current controlled active filter and passive filters in a system with current harmonic sources. The task of reactive power and harmonic compensation is shared by the active filter and passive filters. The passive filters are used...... arrangements of the active and passive filters can operate relatively independently, also the compensation flexibility of the active filter can be fully exploited, such as one active filter for several harmonic sources.The simulation studies on various systems have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness...... of the systems. The results show that the power factor is corrected by the passive filters, harmonics are minimized by both active and passive filters and overloading of the filter system can be avoided....

  1. Variable Span Filters for Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider enhancement of multichannel speech recordings. Linear filtering and subspace approaches have been considered previously for solving the problem. The current linear filtering methods, although many variants exist, have limited control of noise reduction and speech...

  2. On filter boundary conditions in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Most research papers on topology optimization involve filters for regularization. Typically, boundary effects from the filters are ignored. Despite significant drawbacks the inappropriate homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are used, probably because they are trivial to implement. In this paper...

  3. Neutrosophic filters in BE-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Rezaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inthispaper, weintroducethenotionof(implicativeneutrosophicfilters in BE-algebras. The relation between implicative neutrosophic filters and neutrosophic filters is investigated and we show that in self distributive BE-algebras these notions are equivalent.

  4. Filter device for high density aerozol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Endo, Masao; Utamura, Motoaki; Tozuka, Fumio; Tate, Hitoshi.

    1991-01-01

    In a reactor, filters for capturing aerozol particles at high concentration have such a structure that a great number of fine pores are formed. Aerozols are introduced to a filter portion from the place remote from a first inlet. Cloggings are caused successively from the places remote from the inlet. Even if the clogging should occur, since there are many pores, the performance of filters is not deteriorated. Further, the filter has a multi-layered structure. With such a constitution, if the filter at a first stage is clogged to increase the pressure, a partitioning plate is opened and fluids are introduced into a second filter. This is conducted successively to suppress the deterioration of the performance of the filter. In view of the above, even if cloggings should occur, the filter performance is not deteriorated and, accordingly, reactor container ventilation can be conducted at high reliability upon occurrence of accidents. (T.M.)

  5. Noise reduction with complex bilateral filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu

    2017-12-01

    This study introduces a noise reduction technique that uses a complex bilateral filter. A bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter originally developed for images that can reduce noise while preserving edge information. It is an attractive filter and has been used in many applications in image processing. When it is applied to an acoustical signal, small-amplitude noise is reduced while the speech signal is preserved. However, a bilateral filter cannot handle noise with relatively large amplitudes owing to its innate characteristics. In this study, the noisy signal is transformed into the time-frequency domain and the filter is improved to handle complex spectra. The high-amplitude noise is reduced in the time-frequency domain via the proposed filter. The features and the potential of the proposed filter are also confirmed through experiments.

  6. Target Response Adaptation for Correlation Filter Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel Aamer; Mueller, Matthias; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Most correlation filter (CF) based trackers utilize the circulant structure of the training data to learn a linear filter that best regresses this data to a hand-crafted target response. These circularly shifted patches are only approximations

  7. Learning Rotation for Kernel Correlation Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdi, Abdullah; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    . This paper tries to tackle the problem of rotation by reformulating the optimization problem for learning the correlation filter. This modification (RKCF) includes learning rotation filter that utilizes circulant structure of HOG feature to guesstimate

  8. Deep Ultraviolet Macroporous Silicon Filters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make deep and far UV optical filters from macroporous silicon. This type of filter consists of an array of...

  9. Spatial filtring and thermocouple spatial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bing; Tong Yunxian

    1989-12-01

    The design and study on thermocouple spatial filter have been conducted for the flow measurement of integrated reactor coolant. The fundamental principle of spatial filtring, mathematical descriptions and analyses of thermocouple spatial filter are given

  10. Kalman filtering with real-time applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    This new edition presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering. Over 100 exercises and problems with solutions help de...

  11. Validation philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornehm, D.

    1994-01-01

    To determine when a set of calculations falls within an umbrella of an existing validation documentation, it is necessary to generate a quantitative definition of range of applicability (our definition is only qualitative) for two reasons: (1) the current trend in our regulatory environment will soon make it impossible to support the legitimacy of a validation without quantitative guidelines; and (2) in my opinion, the lack of support by DOE for further critical experiment work is directly tied to our inability to draw a quantitative open-quotes line-in-the-sandclose quotes beyond which we will not use computer-generated values

  12. Paracervical block as pain treatment during second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy: an RCT with bupivacaine versus sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, I-M; Benson, L; Christensson, K; Gemzell-Danielsson, K

    2016-01-01

    Can paracervical block (PCB) administered before the onset of pain decrease women's pain experience during second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MToP)? There were no clinically significant differences between groups receiving PCB with bupivacaine or saline with regard to the highest and lowest pain intensity, morphine consumption or induction-to abortion interval. The most common side effect of misoprostol is pain; nevertheless, there are sparse studies in pain and pain treatment during MToP, especially in second-trimester abortion. Pain reported in second-trimester medical abortion is often intense, and peaks when the fetal expulsion occurs. A double-blinded RCT was carried out from May 2012 until April 2015. A power calculation was based on a previous pilot study showing that the proportion of women with severe pain [visual analogue scale (VAS) ≥7] was 63%. A clinically significant reduction was considered to yield 35% with severe pain, and with a power of 80% and significance level of 5% (two-sided) 112 women were needed. Accounting for a 20% drop-out rate, a total of 140 women were needed. The primary outcome, pain intensity measured as any VAS ≥7, was analysed using a generalized estimating equations model. The level of significance was set to P sodium chloride 1 h after the first dose of misoprostol. The full analysis set (FAS) population was defined as all randomized women that had at least one value for any of the outcomes (n = 102). The per-protocol (PP) population was defined as a subset of the FAS excluding patients with major protocol deviations or without a value for the primary outcome (n = 99). Pain was measured by VAS at misoprostol initiation (baseline) and repeated every 30 min until fetal expulsion. The primary outcome was the highest VAS pain intensity at any time point. The highest pain intensity, did not show any differences at a cut-off of VAS ≥7 [risk ratio (RR): 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-1.5; P = 0.0.292]. In

  13. Operating regimes of signaling cycles: statics, dynamics, and noise filtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gomez-Uribe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A ubiquitous building block of signaling pathways is a cycle of covalent modification (e.g., phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in MAPK cascades. Our paper explores the kind of information processing and filtering that can be accomplished by this simple biochemical circuit. Signaling cycles are particularly known for exhibiting a highly sigmoidal (ultrasensitive input-output characteristic in a certain steady-state regime. Here, we systematically study the cycle's steady-state behavior and its response to time-varying stimuli. We demonstrate that the cycle can actually operate in four different regimes, each with its specific input-output characteristics. These results are obtained using the total quasi-steady-state approximation, which is more generally valid than the typically used Michaelis-Menten approximation for enzymatic reactions. We invoke experimental data that suggest the possibility of signaling cycles operating in one of the new regimes. We then consider the cycle's dynamic behavior, which has so far been relatively neglected. We demonstrate that the intrinsic architecture of the cycles makes them act--in all four regimes--as tunable low-pass filters, filtering out high-frequency fluctuations or noise in signals and environmental cues. Moreover, the cutoff frequency can be adjusted by the cell. Numerical simulations show that our analytical results hold well even for noise of large amplitude. We suggest that noise filtering and tunability make signaling cycles versatile components of more elaborate cell-signaling pathways.

  14. Heterogeneous counting on filter support media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.; Kohler, V.; Kelly, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Many investigators in the biomedical research area have used filter paper as the support for radioactive samples. This means that a heterogeneous counting of sample sometimes results. The count rate of a sample on a filter will be affected by positioning, degree of dryness, sample application procedure, the type of filter, and the type of cocktail used. Positioning of the filter (up or down) in the counting vial can cause a variation of 35% or more when counting tritiated samples on filter paper. Samples of varying degrees of dryness when added to the counting cocktail can cause nonreproducible counts if handled improperly. Count rates starting at 2400 CPM initially can become 10,000 CPM in 24 hours for 3 H-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) samples dried on standard cellulose acetate membrane filters. Data on cellulose nitrate filters show a similar trend. Sample application procedures in which the sample is applied to the filter in a small spot or on a large amount of the surface area can cause nonreproducible or very low counting rates. A tritiated DNA sample, when applied topically, gives a count rate of 4,000 CPM. When the sample is spread over the whole filter, 13,400 CPM are obtained with a much better coefficient of variation (5% versus 20%). Adding protein carrier (bovine serum albumin-BSA) to the sample to trap more of the tritiated DNA on the filter during the filtration process causes a serious beta absorption problem. Count rates which are one-fourth the count rate applied to the filter are obtained on calibrated runs. Many of the problems encountered can be alleviated by a proper choice of filter and the use of a liquid scintillation cocktail which dissolves the filter. Filter-Solv has been used to dissolve cellulose nitrate filters and filters which are a combination of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate. Count rates obtained for these dissolved samples are very reproducible and highly efficient

  15. Bayesian target tracking based on particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    For being able to deal with the nonlinear or non-Gaussian problems, particle filters have been studied by many researchers. Based on particle filter, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) proposal function is applied to Bayesian target tracking. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, the resampling step, etc novel techniques are also introduced into Bayesian target tracking. And the simulation results confirm the improved particle filter with these techniques outperforms the basic one.

  16. Aerosol filtration with metallic fibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The filtration efficiency of stainless steel fibrous filters (BEKIPOR porous mats and sintered webs) is determined using submicronic monodisperse polystyrene aerosols. Lasers spectrometers are used for the aerosol measurements. The parameters varied are the fiber diameter, the number of layers, the aerosol diameter and the superficial velocity. Two selected types of filters are tested with polydisperse methylene blue aerosols to determine the effect of bed loading on the filter performance and to test washing techniques for the regeneration of the filter

  17. Modelling of air flows in pleated filters and of their clogging by solid particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Fabbro, L.

    2002-01-01

    The devices of air cleaning against particles are widely spread in various branches of industry: nuclear, motor, food, electronic,...; among these devices, numerous are constituted by pleated porous media to increase the surface of filtration and thus to reduce the pressure drop, for given air flow. The objective of our work is to compensate a lack evident of knowledge on the evolution of the pressure drop of pleated filter during the clogging and to deduct a modelling from it, on the basis of experiments concerning industrial filters of nuclear and car types. The obtained model is a function of characteristics of the filtering medium and pleats, of the characteristics of solid particles deposited on the filter, of the mass of particles and of the aeraulic conditions of air flow. It also depends on data on the clogging of flat filters of equivalent medium. To elaborate this model of pressure drop, an initial stage was carried out in order to characterize, experimentally and numerically, the pressure drop and the distribution of air flow in clean pleated filters of nuclear (high efficiency particulate air filter, in fiberglasses) and car (mean efficiency filter, in fibers of cellulose) types. The numerical model allowed to understand the fundamental role played by the aeraulic resistance of the filtering medium. From an non-dimensional approach, we established a semi-empirical model of pressure drop for a clean pleated filter valid for both studied types of medium; this model is used of first base for the development of the final model of clogging. The study of the clogging of the filters showed the complexity of the phenomenon dependent mainly on a reduction of the surface of filtration. This observation brings us to propose a clogging of pleated filters in three phases. Both first phases are similar in those observed for flat filters, while last phase corresponds to a reduction of the surface of filtration and leads a strong increase of the filter pressure drop

  18. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class of closed skew-normal distributions. Some basic properties are derived and a class of closed skew. t distributions is obtained. Our suggested family of distributions is skewed and has heavy tails too, so it is appropriate for robust analysis. Our proposed special sequential Monte Carlo methods use a random mixture of the closed skew-normal distributions to approximate a target distribution. Hence it is possible to handle skewed and heavy tailed data simultaneously. These methods are illustrated with numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Spectral filtering for CW searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Antonio, S; Frasca, S; Palomba, C

    2009-01-01

    In the hierarchical all-sky search method for periodic sources developed in the Virgo Collaboration, after the first incoherent step based on the Hough transform we have a number of candidates that must be analyzed using a much longer time baseline periodogram. In this step, we correct the signal power spread due to the Earth rotation, which becomes relevant for observation times greater than ∼1 sidereal day, using a bank of matched filters on the power spectrum. Describing the wave as the combination of a linearly polarized and a circularly polarized component, the spread depends on two parameters: the polarization angle of the linearly polarized wave component and the percentage of linear polarization. Here we discuss in detail the issue of how many filters must be built to properly cover the parameter space and give some implementation details of the procedure.

  20. Nonlinear image filtering within IDP++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S.K.; Wieting, M.G.; Brase, J.M.

    1995-02-09

    IDP++, image and data processing in C++, is a set of a signal processing libraries written in C++. It is a multi-dimension (up to four dimensions), multi-data type (implemented through templates) signal processing extension to C++. IDP++ takes advantage of the object-oriented compiler technology to provide ``information hiding.`` Users need only know C, not C++. Signals or data sets are treated like any other variable with a defined set of operators and functions. We here some examples of the nonlinear filter library within IDP++. Specifically, the results of MIN, MAX median, {alpha}-trimmed mean, and edge-trimmed mean filters as applied to a real aperture radar (RR) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data set.

  1. Particle Filter Tracking without Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ortegon-Aguilar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available People tracking is an interesting topic in computer vision. It has applications in industrial areas such as surveillance or human-machine interaction. Particle Filters is a common algorithm for people tracking; challenging situations occur when the target's motion is poorly modelled or with unexpected motions. In this paper, an alternative to address people tracking is presented. The proposed algorithm is based in particle filters, but instead of using a dynamical model, it uses background subtraction to predict future locations of particles. The algorithm is able to track people in omnidirectional sequences with a low frame rate (one or two frames per second. Our approach can tackle unexpected discontinuities and changes in the direction of the motion. The main goal of the paper is to track people from laboratories, but it has applications in surveillance, mainly in controlled environments.

  2. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, E.S.; Forsythe, G.D.; Domanski, D.M.; Chambers, J.A.; Rajendran, G.P.

    1999-05-11

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter is described having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during back pulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  3. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  4. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment and...

  5. Gradient based filtering of digital elevation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Andersen, Rune Carbuhn

    We present a filtering method for digital terrain models (DTMs). The method is based on mathematical morphological filtering within gradient (slope) defined domains. The intention with the filtering procedure is to improbé the cartographic quality of height contours generated from a DTM based...

  6. Filtration and retention capacities of filter aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, A.; Boualia, A.

    1992-01-01

    The present work involves the filtration of impure uranyl nitrate solutions by different filter aids such as kieselguhr, celite and bleaching clay. The retention of substances contained in uranyl nitrate solution was determined using the three filter aids. A study of the effects of granulometry and filter earths treatment (thermal and chemical) on the filtration rate was performed

  7. Two-dimensional FIR compaction filter design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijayakumar, N.; Prabhu, K.M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The design of signal-adapted multirate filter banks has been an area of research interest. The authors present the design of a 2-D finite impulse response (FIR) compaction filter followed by a 2-D FIR filter bank that packs the maximum energy of the input process into a few subbands. The energy

  8. CMOS VHF transconductance-C lowpass filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results of a VHF CMOS transconductance-C lowpass filter are described. The filter is built with transconductors as published earlier. The cutoff frequency can be tuned from 22 to 98 MHz and the measured filter response is very close to the ideal response

  9. Ion exchange nonwoven fabric chemical filter. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    This report outlined the characteristics of EPIX filter and its complex with activated carbon to eliminate organic compounds from solvent. Elimination performance of this filter was determined using an ion chromatographic analyzer. EPIX filter showed high performance to eliminate trace amount of ionic compounds. The rate of elimination was both 99% or more for NH 3 and SO 2 in an early phase of filtration. Release of dust as well as impurities was significantly reduced by the use of EPIX filter. Gases once adsorbed on the filter were not released even at an elevated temperature of atmosphere. Combined use of non-woven fabrics was possible. For EPIX filter, there are three kinds; strong acid cation exchange filter and strong/weak basic anion filters. The weak basic anion filter has been applied to the conventional apparatus in wafer makers because the filter was very effective for selective boron trapping. When polyethyleneterephthalate was used as the base polymer, radical groups produced on the polymer were co-polymerized with monomer substances. The lifetime of filter was estimated on a base of gas concentration and wind velocity to determine the time to replace with a new one. Furthermore, the loss of pressure became less than a half when EPIX filter was used. (M.N.)

  10. B Plant exhaust filter inventory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, J.S.; Wootan, D.W.; Carter, L.L.; Bunch, W.L.; Covey, L.I.; Greenborg, J.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes a method for determining radionuclide inventories in filters using measurements of radiation fields that determine photon dose rates and photon-plus-electron dose rates between filter banks. The mathematical approach quantifies the curie inventories of filter banks by using the measured dose rates and the calculated Green's functions involving detector responses per unit source

  11. Konsep Multicriteria Collaborative Filtering Untuk Perbaikan Rekomendasi

    OpenAIRE

    Wiranto, Wiranto; Winarko, Edi

    2010-01-01

        Untuk membantu pencari informasi yang belum memiliki referensi diperlukan alat bantu recommendersystem. Pengembangan recommender system sebagian besar dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatanberbasis collaborative filtering. Sistem berbasis collaborative filtering akan bekerja dengan cara mempelajarikebiasaan para pencari informasi dan membangun profil pencari informasi, kemudian memberikanrekomendasi.Pendekatan collaborative filtering klasik diterapkan pada kasus pemilihan item yang hanya...

  12. UV Bandpass Optical Filter for Microspectometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia, J.H.; Emadi, A.R.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design and modeling of a UV bandpass optical filter for microspectrometers. The materials used for fabricating the multilayer UV filter are: silicon dioxide (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3). The optical filter shows a bandpass response wavelength in

  13. Filters: It's Not about Porn, Stupid!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Discusses libraries' uses of filters to prevent access to objectionable sites on the Internet. Highlights include the American Library Association's resolution against filters as a violation of First Amendment rights; patron's use of terminals for e-mail or games; using filters for collection management; and listservs and online resources…

  14. Notch filters for port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksz, D.A.; Scherpen, J.M.A.; van der Schaft, A.J.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a standard notch filter is modeled in the port-Hamiltonian framework. By having such a port-Hamiltonian description it is proven that the notch filter is a passive system. The notch filter can then be interconnected with another (nonlinear) port-Hamiltonian system, while preserving the

  15. Liquid filter for liquids containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohleder, N.; Schwarz, F.

    1986-01-01

    A device for filtering radioactive liquids loaded with solids is described, which has a pressure-resistant housing with a lid and an incomer for the turbid liquid and a collecting space and drain for the filtrate at the bottom of the housing. A filter cartridge is present in this housing. Such a filtering device must be suitable for use in nuclear plants, must be easy to replace by remote control and must minimise the carrying over of radioactive particles. This problem should be solved by the filter cartridge consisting of a large number of horizontal filter plates stacked above one another, which carry a deep layer filter material acting in the sub-micron range. The turbid liquid runs into the centre of the stack of filter plates via a vertical central duct. The intermediate spaces between the filter places are connected to this central duct via the layer of filter material. The filter plates are sealed against one another on the outer circumference and have radial drain openings for the filtrate on the outside. The central duct is sealed at the lower end by a plate. When the filter cartridge is replaced, the radioactive waste in the filter cartridge remains safely enclosed and can be conditioned in suitable containers. (orig.) [de

  16. Technology development for producing nickel metallic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    A technology to produce metallic filters by Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-Brazilian CNEN) providing the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-Brazilian CNEN) in obtaining nickel alloy filters used for filtration process of uranium hexafluoride, was developed. The experiences carried out for producing nickel conical trunk filters from powder metallurgy are related. (M.C.K.)

  17. HF filter design and computer simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rhea, Randall W

    1994-01-01

    A book for engineers who design and build filters of all types, including lumped element, coaxial, helical, dielectric resonator, stripline and microstrip types. A thorough review of classic and modern filter design techniques, containing extensive practical design information of passband characteristics, topologies and transformations, component effects and matching. An excellent text for the design and construction of microstrip filters.

  18. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  19. Simulasi Filter Pasif Dan Perbandingan Unjuk Kerjanya Dengan Filter Aktif Dan Filter Aktif Hibrid Dalam Meredam Harmonisa Pada Induction Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Tanoto, Yusak; Limantara, Limboto; Khandy Lestanto, Khristian

    2005-01-01

    This paper describe about simulation of Passive Filter in analysis to reduce harmonics that happened in a load such as vacuum casting induction furnace 9 kW, 13.8 kVA, 200V, 3 Ph, 50/60 Hz, also gives comparison with Hybrid Active Filter and Active Filter which made satisfaction result on the previous research. The best result achieved on the use of Hybrid Active Filter on %ITHD for 4.27 % and %VTHD for 3.83%, while Active Filter gave on %ITHD for 5.14 % and %VTHD for 3.82%. There ...

  20. Nonlinear Filtering and Approximation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    filtering. UNIT8 Q RECERCE**No 1223 Programme 5 A utomatique, Productique, Traitement dui Signal et des Donnc~es CONSISTENT PARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR...ue’e[71 E C 2.’(Rm x [0,7]; R) is the unique solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation 9u,’[7](x, t) - EAu "’[ 7](x,t) + He,’[ 7](x,t,Du,[ 7](x,t

  1. Filtering algorithm for dotted interferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K., E-mail: kurt.osterloh@bam.de [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Bock, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-09-21

    An algorithm has been developed to remove reliably dotted interferences impairing the perceptibility of objects within a radiographic image. This particularly is a major challenge encountered with neutron radiographs collected at the NECTAR facility, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II): the resulting images are dominated by features resembling a snow flurry. These artefacts are caused by scattered neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic radiation, etc. all hitting the detector CCD directly in spite of a sophisticated shielding. This makes such images rather useless for further direct evaluations. One approach to resolve this problem of these random effects would be to collect a vast number of single images, to combine them appropriately and to process them with common image filtering procedures. However, it has been shown that, e.g. median filtering, depending on the kernel size in the plane and/or the number of single shots to be combined, is either insufficient or tends to blur sharp lined structures. This inevitably makes a visually controlled processing image by image unavoidable. Particularly in tomographic studies, it would be by far too tedious to treat each single projection by this way. Alternatively, it would be not only more comfortable but also in many cases the only reasonable approach to filter a stack of images in a batch procedure to get rid of the disturbing interferences. The algorithm presented here meets all these requirements. It reliably frees the images from the snowy pattern described above without the loss of fine structures and without a general blurring of the image. It consists of an iterative, within a batch procedure parameter free filtering algorithm aiming to eliminate the often complex interfering artefacts while leaving the original information untouched as far as possible.

  2. Filtering algorithm for dotted interferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch.; Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U.; Bock, S.

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to remove reliably dotted interferences impairing the perceptibility of objects within a radiographic image. This particularly is a major challenge encountered with neutron radiographs collected at the NECTAR facility, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II): the resulting images are dominated by features resembling a snow flurry. These artefacts are caused by scattered neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic radiation, etc. all hitting the detector CCD directly in spite of a sophisticated shielding. This makes such images rather useless for further direct evaluations. One approach to resolve this problem of these random effects would be to collect a vast number of single images, to combine them appropriately and to process them with common image filtering procedures. However, it has been shown that, e.g. median filtering, depending on the kernel size in the plane and/or the number of single shots to be combined, is either insufficient or tends to blur sharp lined structures. This inevitably makes a visually controlled processing image by image unavoidable. Particularly in tomographic studies, it would be by far too tedious to treat each single projection by this way. Alternatively, it would be not only more comfortable but also in many cases the only reasonable approach to filter a stack of images in a batch procedure to get rid of the disturbing interferences. The algorithm presented here meets all these requirements. It reliably frees the images from the snowy pattern described above without the loss of fine structures and without a general blurring of the image. It consists of an iterative, within a batch procedure parameter free filtering algorithm aiming to eliminate the often complex interfering artefacts while leaving the original information untouched as far as possible.

  3. Texture classification using autoregressive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, W. M.; Lee, M.

    1984-01-01

    A general theory of image texture models is proposed and its applicability to the problem of scene segmentation using texture classification is discussed. An algorithm, based on half-plane autoregressive filtering, which optimally utilizes second order statistics to discriminate between texture classes represented by arbitrary wide sense stationary random fields is described. Empirical results of applying this algorithm to natural and sysnthesized scenes are presented and future research is outlined.

  4. Maximum Correntropy Criterion Kalman Filter for α-Jerk Tracking Model with Non-Gaussian Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Hou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most critical issues for target track, α -jerk model is an effective maneuver target track model. Non-Gaussian noises always exist in the track process, which usually lead to inconsistency and divergence of the track filter. A novel Kalman filter is derived and applied on α -jerk tracking model to handle non-Gaussian noise. The weighted least square solution is presented and the standard Kalman filter is deduced firstly. A novel Kalman filter with the weighted least square based on the maximum correntropy criterion is deduced. The robustness of the maximum correntropy criterion is also analyzed with the influence function and compared with the Huber-based filter, and, moreover, the kernel size of Gaussian kernel plays an important role in the filter algorithm. A new adaptive kernel method is proposed in this paper to adjust the parameter in real time. Finally, simulation results indicate the validity and the efficiency of the proposed filter. The comparison study shows that the proposed filter can significantly reduce the noise influence for α -jerk model.

  5. Improvement of the fringe analysis algorithm for wavelength scanning interferometry based on filter parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Gao, Feng; Muhamedsalih, Hussam; Lou, Shan; Martin, Haydn; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2018-03-20

    The phase slope method which estimates height through fringe pattern frequency and the algorithm which estimates height through the fringe phase are the fringe analysis algorithms widely used in interferometry. Generally they both extract the phase information by filtering the signal in frequency domain after Fourier transform. Among the numerous papers in the literature about these algorithms, it is found that the design of the filter, which plays an important role, has never been discussed in detail. This paper focuses on the filter design in these algorithms for wavelength scanning interferometry (WSI), trying to optimize the parameters to acquire the optimal results. The spectral characteristics of the interference signal are analyzed first. The effective signal is found to be narrow-band (near single frequency), and the central frequency is calculated theoretically. Therefore, the position of the filter pass-band is determined. The width of the filter window is optimized with the simulation to balance the elimination of the noise and the ringing of the filter. Experimental validation of the approach is provided, and the results agree very well with the simulation. The experiment shows that accuracy can be improved by optimizing the filter design, especially when the signal quality, i.e., the signal noise ratio (SNR), is low. The proposed method also shows the potential of improving the immunity to the environmental noise by adapting the signal to acquire the optimal results through designing an adaptive filter once the signal SNR can be estimated accurately.

  6. Effectiveness of interim stage filter in the exhaust system of glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patre, D.K.; Vangara, H.; Thanamani, S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Mhatre, Amol M.

    2018-01-01

    All operations in radiochemical laboratories are carried out in containment systems like Glove boxes and Fume hoods. For controlling air contamination two separate air cleaning systems are incorporated. Laboratory has general ventilation system and glove boxes are provided with a negative pressure system (NPS). Glove box exhaust air is passed through three stage filtration systems: in situ, interim and final before discharging to the atmosphere. In addition to the individual HEPA filters of each glove box, there is an interim HEPA filter bank introduced at the laboratory end. This was introduced to reduce a load on main exhaust filter system. Finally the exhaust air is discharged through the final stage HEPA filter located in the filter house through the Stack. The interim HEPA filter bank provides additional protection for the release of particulate activity and reduces load on the final stage filters. In the present work efforts have been put to validate the interim stage filter, which has been introduced, to limit the environmental release

  7. Mechanisms of Günther Tulip filter tilting during transfemoral placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Y; Horikawa, M; Ohta, K; Jahangiri Noudeh, Y; Kaufman, J A; Farsad, K

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanisms of Günther Tulip filter (GTF) tilting during transfemoral placement in an experimental model with further validation in a clinical series. In an experimental study, 120 GTF placements in an inferior vena cava (IVC) model were performed using 6 configurations of pre-deployment filter position. The angle between the pre-deployment filter axis and IVC axis, and the proximity of the constrained filter legs to IVC wall prior to deployment were evaluated. The association of those pre-deployment factors with post-deployment filter tilting was analyzed. The association noted in the experimental study was then evaluated in a retrospective clinical series of 21 patients. In the experimental study, there was a significant association between the pre-deployment angle and post-deployment filter tilting (P<0.0001). With a low pre-deployment angle (≤5°), a significant association was noted between filter tilting and the proximity of the constrained filter legs to the far IVC wall (P=0.001). In a retrospective clinical study, a significant association between the pre-deployment angle and post-deployment filter tilting was also noted with a linear regression model (P=0.026). Significant association of the pre-deployment angle with post-deployment GTF tilting was shown in both the experimental and clinical studies. The experimental study also showed that proximity of filter legs is relevant when pre-deployment angle is small. Addressing these factors may result in a lower incidence of filter tilting. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Social Collaborative Filtering by Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Lei, Yu; Liu, Jiming; Li, Wenjie

    2017-08-01

    Recommender systems are used to accurately and actively provide users with potentially interesting information or services. Collaborative filtering is a widely adopted approach to recommendation, but sparse data and cold-start users are often barriers to providing high quality recommendations. To address such issues, we propose a novel method that works to improve the performance of collaborative filtering recommendations by integrating sparse rating data given by users and sparse social trust network among these same users. This is a model-based method that adopts matrix factorization technique that maps users into low-dimensional latent feature spaces in terms of their trust relationship, and aims to more accurately reflect the users reciprocal influence on the formation of their own opinions and to learn better preferential patterns of users for high-quality recommendations. We use four large-scale datasets to show that the proposed method performs much better, especially for cold start users, than state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms for social collaborative filtering based on trust.

  9. Filter bed systems treating domestic wastewater in the Nordic countries - Performance and reuse of filter media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Petter D.; Krogstad, T.; Paruch, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nine filter beds have been constructed in the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Filter beds consist of a septic tank followed by an aerobic pre-treatment biofilter and a subsequent saturated flow grass-covered filter. Thus, filter beds are similar to subsurface flow construct...

  10. Ventilation filters as sources of air pollution – Processes occurring on surfaces of used filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Halás, Oto; Clausen, Geo

    2004-01-01

    Ozone concentrations were monitored upstream and downstream of used filter samples following 24hours of ventilation with ozone- filtered air. The ozone concentration in the air upstream of the filters was maintained at ~75 ppb while the concentration downstream of the filters was initially betwee...

  11. Chlamyweb Study II: a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an online offer of home-based Chlamydia trachomatis sampling in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersaudy-Rahib, Delphine; Lydié, Nathalie; Leroy, Chloé; March, Laura; Bébéar, Cécile; Arwidson, Pierre; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2017-05-01

    The number of cases of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) diagnosed has increased in the past 15 years in France as well as in other European countries. This paper reports a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate whether the offer of home-based testing over the internet increased the number of young people tested for chlamydia compared with the current testing strategy and to estimate the number and risks factors of the infected population. This RCT took place as an element of the Chlamyweb Study-a study aiming to evaluate an intervention (the Chlamyweb Intervention) involving the offer of a free self-sampling kit online to sexually active men and women aged 18-24 years in France. Participants in the Chlamyweb RCT (n=11 075) received either an offer of a free self-sampling kit (intervention group) or were invited to be screened in primary care settings (control group). Risks ratios were used to compare screening rates between the intervention and control groups. Risk factors were analysed for infected people in the intervention group. The screening frequency was about three times higher among young people who received a self-sampling kit than those who only received a tailored recommendation to be screened (29.2% vs 8.7%). Although rates of screening among men were lower than among women (23.9% vs 33.9%), the intervention effect was greater among men (adjusted risk ratios (aRR)=4.55 vs aRR=2.94). Ct positivity (6.8%) was similar to that observed in STI clinics. It was higher in women (8.3%) than in men (4.4%). These results invite us to consider the establishment of a large home-based screening programme, although additional studies including economic assessments are needed to evaluate the most appropriate combination of strategies in the French context. AFFSAPS n° IDRCB 0211-A01000-41; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Modeling the Performance of Biological Rapid Sand Filters Used to Remove Ammonium, Iron, and Manganese From Drinking Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smets, Barth F.

    activated carbon and are often used following ozonation to remove additional biodegradable organics created during ozonation. In Europe, biological filters are also used to remove ammonium and reduced forms of iron and manganese. These compounds can cause biological instability in the distribution system...... tracer, are performed during an operational cycle of a filter to examine how the filter flow changes with time. The data is used to validate a mathematical model that can both predict process performance and to gain an understanding of how dynamic conditions can influence filter performance....... The mathematical model developed is intended to assist in the design of new filters, set up of pilot plant studies, and as a tool to troubleshoot existing problems in full scale filters. Unlike previous models, the model developed accounts for the effects of particle/precipitate accumulation and its effects...

  13. Topology optimization of microwave waveguide filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Johansen, Villads Egede

    2017-01-01

    We present a density based topology optimization approach for the design of metallic microwave insert filters. A two-phase optimization procedure is proposed in which we, starting from a uniform design, first optimize to obtain a set of spectral varying resonators followed by a band gap...... optimization for the desired filter characteristics. This is illustrated through numerical experiments and comparison to a standard band pass filter design. It is seen that the carefully optimized topologies can sharpen the filter characteristics and improve performance. Furthermore, the obtained designs share...... little resemblance to standard filter layouts and hence the proposed design method offers a new design tool in microwave engineering....

  14. Filtering in the time and frequency domains

    CERN Document Server

    Blinchikoff, Herman

    2001-01-01

    Long regarded as a classic of filter theory and design, this book stands as the most comprehensive treatment of filtering techniques, devices and concepts as well as pertinent mathematical relationships. Analysis and theory are supplemented by detailed design curves, fully explained examples and problem and answer sections. Discussed are the derivation of filtering functions, Fourier, Laplace, Hilbert and z transforms, lowpass responses, the transformation of lowpass into other filter types, the all-pass function, the effect of losses on theoretical responses, matched filtering, methods of tim

  15. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  16. Adaptable Iterative and Recursive Kalman Filter Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear filters are often very computationally expensive and usually not suitable for real-time applications. Real-time navigation algorithms are typically based on linear estimators, such as the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and, to a much lesser extent, the unscented Kalman filter. The Iterated Kalman filter (IKF) and the Recursive Update Filter (RUF) are two algorithms that reduce the consequences of the linearization assumption of the EKF by performing N updates for each new measurement, where N is the number of recursions, a tuning parameter. This paper introduces an adaptable RUF algorithm to calculate N on the go, a similar technique can be used for the IKF as well.

  17. Auditory filters at low-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -ear transfer function), the asymmetry of the auditory filter changed from steeper high-frequency slopes at 1000 Hz to steeper low-frequency slopes below 100 Hz. Increasing steepness at low-frequencies of the middle-ear high-pass filter is thought to cause this effect. The dynamic range of the auditory filter...... was found to steadily decrease with decreasing center frequency. Although the observed decrease in filter bandwidth with decreasing center frequency was only approximately monotonic, the preliminary data indicates the filter bandwidth does not stabilize around 100 Hz, e.g. it still decreases below...

  18. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misel Batmend

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  19. Grid impedance detection via excitation of LCL-filter resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus

    2005-01-01

    Inverters adopted in distributed power generation, active filter and UPS are often connected to the grid through an LCL-fiIter. The impedance of the LCL-fiIter has a typical frequency spectrum with a resonance peak. Hence the LCL-fiIter has to be damped in order to avoid instability. However...... the resonance of the LCL-fiIter can be also excited in a controlled way in order to individuate the resonance frequency in the spectrum (using for example the FFn. This paper proposes to use a controlled excitation to measure the grid impedance, since this one influences also the resonance frequency. This paper...... will address some possible limits, some solutions and some implementation issues (e.g. how to obtain a controlled resonance in the filter without damaging the system) in order to use the resonant peak for grid impedance detection. The analysis is validated both by simulations and experimental results....

  20. The statistical bandwidth of Butterworth filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, J. L.; Dunn, I. P.

    1987-06-01

    The precision of standard architectural acoustic measurements is a function of the statistical bandwidth of the band pass filters used in the measurements. The International and United States Standards on octave and fractional octave-band filters which specify the band pass filters used in architectural acoustics measurements give the effective bandwidth, but unfortunately not the statistical bandwidth of the filters. Both these Standards are currently being revised and both revisions require the use of Butterworth filter characteristics. In this paper it is shown theoretically that the ratio of statistical bandwidth to effective bandwidth for an nth order Butterworth band pass filter is {2n}/{(2n-1)}. This is verified experimentally for third-octave third-order Butterworth band pass filters. It is also shown experimentally that this formula is approximately correct for some non-Butterworth third-octave third-order band pass filters. Because of the importance of Butterworth filters in the revised Standards, the theory of Butterworth filters is reviewed and the formulae for Butterworth filters given in both revised Standards are derived.

  1. Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A filter for enriching the .sup.196 Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The .sup.196 Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter.

  2. High efficiency particulate air filter experience survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Causes and magnitude of HEPA filter changeouts and failures at DOE sites for the years 1977 to 1979 were evaluated. Conclusions inferred from the data follow: HEPA filters have been generally performing the task they were designed for; most changeouts have been made because of filter plugging, preventive maintenance, or precautionary reasons rather than evidence of filter failure; where failures have been experienced, records generally have not been adequate to determine the cause of failure; where cause of failure has been determined, damage attributed to personnel handling and installation has been substantially more prevalent than that from filter environmental exposure. The need for improved personnel training in handling and installation was stressed. Some reduction in filter failure frequency can be achieved by improving the acid and moisture resistance of filters, and providing adequate pretreatment of air prior to HEPA filtration

  3. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed....... Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal......-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both...

  4. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Kelkar, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems caused by the interaction between the input filter, output filter, and the control loop are discussed. The input filter design is made more complicated because of the need to avoid performance degradation and also stay within the weight and loss limitations. Conventional input filter design techniques are then dicussed. The concept of pole zero cancellation is reviewed; this concept is the basis for an approach to control the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter and thus mitigate some of the problems caused by the input filter. The proposed approach for control of the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter is to use a feedforward loop working in conjunction with feedback loops, thus forming a total state control scheme. The design of the feedforward loop for a buck regulator is described. A possible implementation of the feedforward loop design is suggested.

  5. Analog Electronic Filters Theory, Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Hercules G

    2012-01-01

    Filters are essential subsystems in a huge variety of electronic systems. Filter applications are innumerable; they are used for noise reduction, demodulation, signal detection, multiplexing, sampling, sound and speech processing, transmission line equalization and image processing, to name just a few. In practice, no electronic system can exist without filters. They can be found in everything from power supplies to mobile phones and hard disk drives and from loudspeakers and MP3 players to home cinema systems and broadband Internet connections. This textbook introduces basic concepts and methods and the associated mathematical and computational tools employed in electronic filter theory, synthesis and design.  This book can be used as an integral part of undergraduate courses on analog electronic filters. Includes numerous, solved examples, applied examples and exercises for each chapter. Includes detailed coverage of active and passive filters in an independent but correlated manner. Emphasizes real filter...

  6. Flexible time-varying filter banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Temel E.; Nguyen, Truong Q.

    1993-09-01

    Linear phase maximally flat FIR Butterworth filter approximations are discussed and a new filter design method is introduced. This variable cutoff filter design method uses the cosine modulated versions of a prototype filter. The design procedure is simple and different variants of this procedure can be used to obtain close to optimum linear phase filters. Using this method, flexible time-varying filter banks with good reconstruction error are introduced. These types of oversampled filter banks have small magnitude error which can be easily controlled by the appropriate choice of modulation frequency. This error can be further decreased by magnitude equalization without increasing the computational complexity considerably. Two dimensional design examples are also given.

  7. Evaluation of HEPA filter service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretthold, J.K.; Stithem, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and potential accidents. This report summarizes the results of destructive and non-destructive tests on HEPA filters obtained from a wide variety of ages and service conditions. These tests were performed to determine an acceptable service life criteria for HEPA filters used at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A total of 140 filters of various ages (1972 to 1996) and service history (new, aged unused, used) were tested. For the purpose of this report, filter age from manufacture date/initial test date to the current sample date was used, as opposed to the actual time a filter was installed in an operating system

  8. High temperature superconducting YBCO microwave filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabagheri, S.; Rasti, M.; Mohammadizadeh, M. R.; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H.; Mohammadpour-Aghdam, K.; Faraji-Dana, R.

    2018-06-01

    Epitaxial thin films of YBCO high temperature superconductor are widely used in telecommunication technology such as microwave filter, antenna, coupler and etc., due to their lower surface resistance and lower microwave loss than their normal conductor counterparts. Thin films of YBCO were fabricated by PLD technique on LAO substrate. Transition temperature and width were 88 K and 3 K, respectively. A filter pattern was designed and implemented by wet photolithography method on the films. Characterization of the filter at 77 K has been compared with the simulation results and the results for a made gold filter. Both YBCO and gold filters show high microwave loss. For YBCO filter, the reason may be due to the improper contacts on the feedlines and for gold filter, low thickness of the gold film has caused the loss increased.

  9. UV filters for lighting of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H.K.; Payer, H.D. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The ageing of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In any case chamber experiments require a careful selection of the filter material used and must be accompanied by a continuous UV-B monitoring.

  10. Signal enhancement with variable span linear filters

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper R

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed. Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of ...

  11. Apparatus for Removing Remaining Adhesives of Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Sik; Kim, Tae Kuk; Hong, Dae Seok; Ji, Young Yong; Ryu, Woo Seog

    2010-01-01

    A Large amount of ventilation filter was used at radiation areas not only in nuclear power plants but also in nuclear facilities. These spent ventilation filters are generated as radioactive waste and composed of a steel frame, glass fiber media and aluminum separator. When treated, the spent filter is separated into filter media for air purification and frame. After separation, while the filter media is collected using steel drum for reducing internal exposure, the filter frame is treated further to remove adhesives for recycling the frame as many as possible in order to reduce waste and cost and improve working conditions. Usually, the adhesives are separated from the filter frame manually. As a result, a lot of time and labor is required. So, the objective of this study is to develop a motor-driven apparatus for removing adhesives efficiently

  12. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT in rehabilitation after lumbar spinal fusion: a low-cost, behavioural approach is cost-effective over individual exercise therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Laurberg, Ida; Christensen, Finn B

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Christensen et al. reported the clinical effects of a low-cost rehabilitation program equally efficient to a relatively intensive program of individual, physiotherapist-guided exercise therapy. Yet, the low-cost approach is not fully supported as an optimal strategy until a full......-scale economic evaluation, including extra-hospital effects such as service utilization in the primary health care sector and return-to-work, is conducted. The objective of this study was to conduct such evaluation i.e. investigate the cost-effectiveness of (1) a low-cost rehabilitation regimen...... with a behavioural element and (2) a regimen of individual exercise therapy, both in comparison with usual practice, from a health economic, societal perspective. Study design was a cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT with a 2-year follow-up. Ninety patients having had posterolateral or circumferential fusion...

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-01-01

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based

  14. Effect of open-label infusion of an apoA-I-containing particle (CER-001) on RCT and artery wall thickness in patients with FHA[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootte, Ruud S.; Smits, Loek P.; van der Valk, Fleur M.; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Keyserling, Constance H.; Barbaras, Ronald; Paolini, John F.; Santos, Raul D.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Dallinga-van Thie, Geesje M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Groen, Albert K.; Stroes, Erik S.

    2015-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) contributes to the anti-atherogenic effects of HDL. Patients with the orphan disease, familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA), are characterized by decreased tissue cholesterol removal and an increased atherogenic burden. We performed an open-label uncontrolled proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effect of infusions with a human apoA-I-containing HDL-mimetic particle (CER-001) on RCT and the arterial vessel wall in FHA. Subjects received 20 infusions of CER-001 (8 mg/kg) during 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by measuring (apo)lipoproteins, plasma-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux, fecal sterol excretion (FSE), and carotid artery wall dimension by MRI and artery wall inflammation by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. We included seven FHA patients: HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), 13.8 [1.8–29.1] mg/dl; apoA-I, 28.7 [7.9–59.1] mg/dl. Following nine infusions in 1 month, apoA-I and HDL-c increased directly after infusion by 27.0 and 16.1 mg/dl (P = 0.018). CER-001 induced a 44% relative increase (P = 0.018) in in vitro cellular cholesterol efflux with a trend toward increased FSE (P = 0.068). After nine infusions of CER-001, carotid mean vessel wall area decreased compared with baseline from 25.0 to 22.8 mm2 (P = 0.043) and target-to-background ratio from 2.04 to 1.81 (P = 0.046). In FHA-subjects, CER-001 stimulates cholesterol mobilization and reduces artery wall dimension and inflammation, supporting further evaluation of CER-001 in FHA patients. PMID:25561459

  15. Effect of open-label infusion of an apoA-I-containing particle (CER-001) on RCT and artery wall thickness in patients with FHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootte, Ruud S; Smits, Loek P; van der Valk, Fleur M; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Keyserling, Constance H; Barbaras, Ronald; Paolini, John F; Santos, Raul D; van Dijk, Theo H; Dallinga-van Thie, Geesje M; Nederveen, Aart J; Mulder, Willem J M; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastelein, John J P; Groen, Albert K; Stroes, Erik S

    2015-03-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) contributes to the anti-atherogenic effects of HDL. Patients with the orphan disease, familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA), are characterized by decreased tissue cholesterol removal and an increased atherogenic burden. We performed an open-label uncontrolled proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effect of infusions with a human apoA-I-containing HDL-mimetic particle (CER-001) on RCT and the arterial vessel wall in FHA. Subjects received 20 infusions of CER-001 (8 mg/kg) during 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by measuring (apo)lipoproteins, plasma-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux, fecal sterol excretion (FSE), and carotid artery wall dimension by MRI and artery wall inflammation by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. We included seven FHA patients: HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), 13.8 [1.8-29.1] mg/dl; apoA-I, 28.7 [7.9-59.1] mg/dl. Following nine infusions in 1 month, apoA-I and HDL-c increased directly after infusion by 27.0 and 16.1 mg/dl (P = 0.018). CER-001 induced a 44% relative increase (P = 0.018) in in vitro cellular cholesterol efflux with a trend toward increased FSE (P = 0.068). After nine infusions of CER-001, carotid mean vessel wall area decreased compared with baseline from 25.0 to 22.8 mm(2) (P = 0.043) and target-to-background ratio from 2.04 to 1.81 (P = 0.046). In FHA-subjects, CER-001 stimulates cholesterol mobilization and reduces artery wall dimension and inflammation, supporting further evaluation of CER-001 in FHA patients. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Reducing sedentary time in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes: process evaluation of the STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. H. Biddle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing sedentary behaviour may have important health implications. This study evaluated the potential enablers and barriers for outcomes of a randomised controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a pragmatic education based intervention designed to reduce sedentary (sitting behaviour in young adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were collected from participants in the intervention group immediately after an educational workshop addressing sedentary time and diabetes risk (n = 71, through phone interviews 6 weeks (n = 45 after the workshop, and at the conclusion of the 12-month trial (n = 10. The two education session facilitators were also interviewed about the intervention. Results The RCT showed no difference in sedentary time at 12 months between intervention and control arms. The lack of behaviour change appeared not to be attributed to the workshops, which were well led and very favourably received according to feedback. However, factors contributing to this lack of behaviour change include lack of perceived health risk from baseline measures feedback; the preference to adopt physically active behaviours rather than to sit less; certain barriers to sitting less; motivational drift after the 3-month follow-up measurements where participants had no contact for a further 9 months; and, for some, unreliability of the self-monitoring tool. Conclusions The workshop was well led and well received by the attendees but future interventions need to consider more contact with participants, discuss any specific benefits around simply standing to reduce sitting time, address the barriers to sitting less, and provide a more user-friendly and reliable self-monitoring tool. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08434554 , MRC project 91409. Registered retrospectively on 22 February 2011.

  17. Psychoeducational Psychotherapy and Omega-3 Supplementation Improve Co-Occurring Behavioral Problems in Youth with Depression: Results from a Pilot RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea S; Arnold, L Eugene; Wolfson, Hannah L; Fristad, Mary A

    2017-07-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and Individual-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (PEP; a family-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy) for behavior problems among youth with depression. Participants aged 7-14 with DSM-IV-TR depressive disorders (N = 72; 56.9 % male) were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: PEP + omega-3, PEP monotherapy (with pill placebo), omega-3 monotherapy, or placebo (without active intervention). At screen, baseline, and 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 weeks post-baseline, parents completed the SNAP-IV, which assesses attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, and overall behavior problems. At screen, baseline (randomization), 6 and 12 weeks, parents completed the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), which includes Intensity and Problem scales for child behavior problems. Youth who had a completed SNAP-IV or ECBI for at least two assessments during treatment (n = 48 and 38, respectively) were included in analyses of the respective outcome. ClinicalTrials.gov.:NCT01341925. Linear mixed effects models indicated a significant effect of combined PEP + omega-3 on SNAP-IV Total (p = 0.022, d = 0.80) and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity trajectories (p = 0.008, d = 0.80), such that youth in the combined group saw greater behavioral improvement than those receiving only placebo. Similarly, youth in combined treatment had more favorable ECBI Intensity trajectories than youth who received no active treatment (p = 0.012, d = 1.07). Results from this pilot RCT suggest that combined PEP + omega-3 is a promising treatment for co-occurring behavior symptoms in youth with depression.

  18. Mitigating mask roughness via pupil filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylav, B.; Maloney, C.; Levinson, Z.; Bekaert, J.; Vaglio Pret, A.; Smith, B.

    2014-03-01

    The roughness present on the sidewalls of lithographically defined patterns imposes a very important challenge for advanced technology nodes. It can originate from the aerial image or the photoresist chemistry/processing [1]. The latter remains to be the dominant group in ArF and KrF lithography; however, the roughness originating from the mask transferred to the aerial image is gaining more attention [2-9], especially for the imaging conditions with large mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) values. The mask roughness contribution is usually in the low frequency range, which is particularly detrimental to the device performance by causing variations in electrical device parameters on the same chip [10-12]. This paper explains characteristic differences between pupil plane filtering in amplitude and in phase for the purpose of mitigating mask roughness transfer under interference-like lithography imaging conditions, where onedirectional periodic features are to be printed by partially coherent sources. A white noise edge roughness was used to perturbate the mask features for validating the mitigation.

  19. Visualizing the application of filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus; Hertzum, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Through a mixed-design experiment we compare how emergency-department clinicians perform when solving realistic work tasks with an electronic whiteboard where the application of information filters is visualized either by blocking, colour-coding or blurring information. We find that clinicians...... perform significantly faster and with less effort and temporal demand when using the blocking interface. However, we also find that the colour-coding interface provides clinicians with a better overview of the information displayed by the electronic whiteboard. The blurring interface did not perform...

  20. Nonlinear Filtering in High Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-02

    near J (that is, the spatial accumulation of errors is mitigated). This localization comes at a price , however; the local filter stability bound holds...Appendix A to complete the proof of the variance bound. The present approach is inspired by [15]. The price we pay is that the variance bound scales...Random fields and diffusion processes. In École d’Été de Prob- abilités de Saint- Flour XV–XVII, 1985–87, volume 1362 of Lecture Notes in Math., pages

  1. Design of an S band narrow-band bandpass BAW filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhao, Kun-li; Han, Chao

    2017-11-01

    An S band narrowband bandpass filter BAW with center frequency 2.460 GHz, bandwidth 41MHz, band insertion loss - 1.154 dB, the passband ripple 0.9 dB, the out of band rejection about -42.5dB@2.385 GHz; -45.5dB@2.506 GHz was designed for potential UAV measurement and control applications. According to the design specifications, the design is as follows: each FBAR's stack was designed in BAW filter by using Mason model. Each FBAR's shape was designed with the method of apodization electrode. The layout of BAW filter was designed. The acoustic-electromagnetic cosimulation model was built to validate the performance of the designed BAW filter. The presented design procedure is a common one, and there are two characteristics: 1) an A and EM co-simulation method is used for the final BAW filter performance validation in the design stage, thus ensures over-optimistic designs by the bare 1D Mason model are found and rejected in time; 2) An in-house developed auto-layout method is used to get compact BAW filter layout, which simplifies iterative error-and-try work here and output necessary in-plane geometry information to the A and EM cosimulation model.

  2. IAE-adaptive Kalman filter for INS/GPS integrated navigation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Hongwei; Jin Zhihua; Tian Weifeng

    2006-01-01

    A marine INS/GPS adaptive navigation system is presented in this paper. GPS with two antenna providing vessel's altitude is selected as the auxiliary system fusing with INS to improve the performance of the hybrid system. The Kalman filter is the most frequently used algorithm in the integrated navigation system, which is capable of estimating INS errors online based on the measured errors between INS and GPS. The standard Kalman filter (SKF) assumes that the statistics of the noise on each sensor are given. As long as the noise distributions do not change, the Kalman filter will give the optimal estimation. However GPS receiver will be disturbed easily and thus temporally changing measurement noise will join into the outputs of GPS, which will lead to performance degradation of the Kalman filter. Many researchers introduce fuzzy logic control method into innovation-based adaptive estimation adaptive Kalman filtering (IAE-AKF) algorithm, and accordingly propose various adaptive Kalman filters. However how to design the fuzzy logic controller is a very complicated problem still without a convincing solution. A novel IAE-AKF is proposed herein, which is based on the maximum likelihood criterion for the proper computation of the filter innovation covariance and hence of the filter gain. The approach is direct and simple without having to establish fuzzy inference rules. After having deduced the proposed IAE-AKF algorithm theoretically in detail, the approach is tested by the simulation based on the system error model of the developed INS/GPS integrated marine navigation system. Simulation results show that the adaptive Kalman filter outperforms the SKF with higher accuracy, robustness and less computation. It is demonstrated that this proposed approach is a valid solution for the unknown changing measurement noise exited in the Kalman filter.

  3. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P.

    2015-01-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity. PMID:26521693

  4. Projects on filter testing in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, B.; Wiktorsson, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear power program comprises twelve light water reactors. Nine are boiling water reactors of ASEA-ATOM design and three are pressurized water reactors of Westinghouse design. Of these, ten are in operation and two are under construction and planned to go into operation during late 1984 and early 1985, respectively. Frequent tests on the penetration of particles through HEPA filters, regular tests on the adsorption of methyl iodide in the stand-by carbon filter units by laboratory testing are discussed. The proposed new regulations are based on many years of experience of filter system operation and of tests in-situ and in the laboratory. Moisture and water are factors that affect the functioning of filters. In addition, high loading of dust can give rise to increased penetration through HEPA filters, however pinholes could have less influence on the total penetration. Laboratory tests show that DOP particles retain 30-40% in 90 mm carbon filters (8-12 mesh). However no effect on the ability of carbon to adsorb methyl iodide after DOP contamination in combined carbon/HEPA filters has been observed. Leakage from ventilation ducts can cause radioactive contamination problems during filter testing with radioiodine. In-situ testing of control-room filters has been performed using inactive methyl iodide. A type of carbon bed not previously used in Sweden has been introduced. Testing of this filter type is discussed

  5. Robust Object Tracking Using Valid Fragments Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Bo; Tian, Peng; Luo, Gang

    Local features are widely used in visual tracking to improve robustness in cases of partial occlusion, deformation and rotation. This paper proposes a local fragment-based object tracking algorithm. Unlike many existing fragment-based algorithms that allocate the weights to each fragment, this method firstly defines discrimination and uniqueness for local fragment, and builds an automatic pre-selection of useful fragments for tracking. Then, a Harris-SIFT filter is used to choose the current valid fragments, excluding occluded or highly deformed fragments. Based on those valid fragments, fragment-based color histogram provides a structured and effective description for the object. Finally, the object is tracked using a valid fragment template combining the displacement constraint and similarity of each valid fragment. The object template is updated by fusing feature similarity and valid fragments, which is scale-adaptive and robust to partial occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and robust in challenging scenarios.

  6. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  7. Application of square-root filtering for spacecraft attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Goka, T.

    1978-01-01

    Suitable digital algorithms are developed and tested for providing on-board precision attitude estimation and pointing control for potential use in the Landsat-D spacecraft. These algorithms provide pointing accuracy of better than 0.01 deg. To obtain necessary precision with efficient software, a six state-variable square-root Kalman filter combines two star tracker measurements to update attitude estimates obtained from processing three gyro outputs. The validity of the estimation and control algorithms are established, and the sensitivity of their performance to various error sources and software parameters are investigated by detailed digital simulation. Spacecraft computer memory, cycle time, and accuracy requirements are estimated.

  8. Modified signed-digit trinary addition using synthetic wavelet filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Razzaque, M. A.

    2000-09-01

    The modified signed-digit (MSD) number system has been a topic of interest as it allows for parallel carry-free addition of two numbers for digital optical computing. In this paper, harmonic wavelet joint transform (HWJT)-based correlation technique is introduced for optical implementation of MSD trinary adder implementation. The realization of the carry-propagation-free addition of MSD trinary numerals is demonstrated using synthetic HWJT correlator model. It is also shown that the proposed synthetic wavelet filter-based correlator shows high performance in logic processing. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed technique.

  9. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  10. Application of extended Kalman filter to identification of enzymatic deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminal, G; Lafuente, J; López-Santín, J; Poch, M; Solà, C

    1987-02-01

    A recursive estimation scheme, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) technique, was applied to study enzymatic deactivation in the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated cellulose using a model previously developed by the authors. When no deactivation model was assumed, the results showed no variation with time for all the model parameters except for the maximum rate of cellobiose-to-glucose conversion (r'(m)).The r'(m) variation occurred in two zones with a grace period. A new model of enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated cellulose deactivation was proposed and validated showing better behavior than the old deactivation model. This approach allows one to study enzyme deactivation without additional experiments and within operational conditions.

  11. Super-resolution pupil filtering for visual performance enhancement using adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Dai, Yun; Zhao, Junlei; Zhou, Xiaojun

    2018-05-01

    Ocular aberration correction can significantly improve visual function of the human eye. However, even under ideal aberration correction conditions, pupil diffraction restricts the resolution of retinal images. Pupil filtering is a simple super-resolution (SR) method that can overcome this diffraction barrier. In this study, a 145-element piezoelectric deformable mirror was used as a pupil phase filter because of its programmability and high fitting accuracy. Continuous phase-only filters were designed based on Zernike polynomial series and fitted through closed-loop adaptive optics. SR results were validated using double-pass point spread function images. Contrast sensitivity was further assessed to verify the SR effect on visual function. An F-test was conducted for nested models to statistically compare different CSFs. These results indicated CSFs for the proposed SR filter were significantly higher than the diffraction correction (p vision optical correction of the human eye.

  12. A Divergence Median-based Geometric Detector with A Weighted Averaging Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Li, Yubo; Wang, Hongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2018-01-01

    To overcome the performance degradation of the classical fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based constant false alarm rate detector with the limited sample data, a divergence median-based geometric detector on the Riemannian manifold of Heimitian positive definite matrices is proposed in this paper. In particular, an autocorrelation matrix is used to model the correlation of sample data. This method of the modeling can avoid the poor Doppler resolution as well as the energy spread of the Doppler filter banks result from the FFT. Moreover, a weighted averaging filter, conceived from the philosophy of the bilateral filtering in image denoising, is proposed and combined within the geometric detection framework. As the weighted averaging filter acts as the clutter suppression, the performance of the geometric detector is improved. Numerical experiments are given to validate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  13. A novel strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter for nonlinear eye tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZuTao; ZHANG JiaShu

    2009-01-01

    Non-Intrusive methods for eye tracking are Important for many applications of vision-based human computer interaction. However, due to the high nonlinearity of eye motion, how to ensure the robust-ness of external interference and accuracy of eye tracking poses the primary obstacle to the integration of eye movements into today's interfaces. In this paper, we present a strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter algorithm, aiming to overcome the difficulty In modeling nonlinear eye tracking. In filtering calculation, strong tracking factor is introduced to modify a priori covariance matrix and im-prove the accuracy of the filter. The filter uses finite-difference method to calculate partial derivatives of nonlinear functions for eye tracking. The latest experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions.

  14. Design of a Narrow Bandwidth Bandpass Filter Using Compact Spiral Resonator with Chirality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a compact narrow-bandpass filter with high selectivity and improved rejection level is presented. For miniaturization, a pair of double negative (DNG cells consisting of quasi-planar chiral resonators are cascaded and electrically loaded to a microstrip transmission line; short ended stubs are introduced to expand upper rejection band. The structure is analyzed using equivalent circuit models and simulated based on EM simulation software. For validation, the proposed filter is fabricated and measured. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones. By comparing to other filters in the references, it is shown that the proposed filter has the advantage of skirt selectivity and compact size, so it can be integrated more conveniently in modern wireless communication systems and microwave planar circuits.

  15. Numerical and experimental study of pulse-jet cleaning in fabric filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Andersen, B.; Nielsen, N. F.; Walther, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Pulse-jet cleaning and understanding of the complex physics are essential when designing fabric filters used for air pollution control. Today, low-pressure cleaning is of particular interest due to demand for reduced compressed air consumption. Pulse-jet cleaned fabric filters have been studied......-pressure fabric filters (2 bar) is studied using a full three-dimensional (3D) CFD model. Experimental results obtained in a pilot-scale test filter with 28 bags, in length of 10 m and in general full-scale dimensions of the cleaning system are used to verify the reliability of the present CFD model....... The validated CFD model reveals the strong compressible effects, a highly transient behaviour, the formation of compressible vortex rings and the shock cell phenomenon within the overexpanded supersonic jet. The cleaning nozzles and venturi design aid or oppose the pulse-pressure within the bags, and this plays...

  16. Robust extended Kalman filter of discrete-time Markovian jump nonlinear system under uncertain noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jin; Park, Jun Hong; Lee, Kwan Soo; Spiryagin, Maksym

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of robust extended Kalman filter design for discrete -time Markovian jump nonlinear systems with noise uncertainty. Because of the existence of stochastic Markovian switching, the state and measurement equations of underlying system are subject to uncertain noise whose covariance matrices are time-varying or un-measurable instead of stationary. First, based on the expression of filtering performance deviation, admissible uncertainty of noise covariance matrix is given. Secondly, two forms of noise uncertainty are taken into account: Non- Structural and Structural. It is proved by applying game theory that this filter design is a robust mini-max filter. A numerical example shows the validity of the method

  17. Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density filter for multipath multitarget tracking in over-the-horizon radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yong; Ma, Hong; Chen, Jinfeng; Cheng, Li

    2015-12-01

    Conventional multitarget tracking systems presume that each target can produce at most one measurement per scan. Due to the multiple ionospheric propagation paths in over-the-horizon radar (OTHR), this assumption is not valid. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel tracking algorithm based on the theory of finite set statistics (FISST) called the multipath probability hypothesis density (MP-PHD) filter in cluttered environments. First, the FISST is used to derive the update equation, and then Gaussian mixture (GM) is introduced to derive the closed-form solution of the MP-PHD filter. Moreover, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is presented to deal with the nonlinear problem of the measurement model in OTHR. Eventually, the simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed filter.

  18. Stability analysis and active damping for LLCL-filter based grid-connected inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    A higher order passive power filter (LLCL-filter) for the grid-tied inverter is becoming attractive for the industrial applications due to the possibility to reduce the cost of the copper and the magnetic material. To avoid the well-known stability problems of the LLCL-filter it is requested to use...... either passive or active damping methods. This paper analyzes the stability when damping is required and when damping is not necessary considering sampling and transport delay. Basic LLCL resonance damping properties of different feedback states are also studied. Then an active damping method which...... is using the capacitor current feedback for LLCL-filter is introduced. Based on this method, a design procedure for the control method is given. Last, both simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the theoretical analysis of this paper....

  19. Stability Analysis and Active Damping for LLCL-filter-Based Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    to use either passive or active damping methods. This paper analyzes the stability of the LLCL-filter based grid-connected inverter and identifies a critical resonant frequency for the LLCL-filter when sampling and transport delays are considered. In a high resonant frequency region the active damping...... is not required but in a low resonant frequency region the active damping is necessary. The basic LLCL resonance damping properties of different feedback states based on a notch filter concept are also studied. Then an active damping method which is using the capacitor current feedback for LLCL......-filter is introduced. Based on this active damping method, a design procedure for the controller is given. Last, both simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the theoretical analysis of this paper....

  20. Device for automatic filter changing. Einrichtung zum selbsttaetigen Wechseln eines Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matschoss, V; Naschwitz, A; Wild, H

    1984-01-05

    A filter is moved from a store to an aerosol pipe by a lifting device and is clamped there. At the end of the operating period, the lifting device moves a new filter to a parking place. Control is from limit switches of the lifting, clamping and thrust devices and the position control of the store is by the limit switches. The filter changing device is enclosed in a gastight case, prevents blockage of a filter and makes it possible to set a certain operating period, to change the filter without interrupting the aerosol flow and to measure each filter in the sequence of operation outside the aerosol flow.

  1. Technical Note: Kinect V2 surface filtering during gantry motion for radiotherapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Souha; Rihana, Sandy; Visvikis, Dimitris; Fayad, Hadi

    2018-04-01

    In radiotherapy, the Kinect V2 camera, has recently received a lot of attention concerning many clinical applications including patient positioning, respiratory motion tracking, and collision detection during the radiotherapy delivery phase. However, issues associated with such applications are related to some materials and surfaces reflections generating an offset in depth measurements especially during gantry motion. This phenomenon appears in particular when the collimator surface is observed by the camera; resulting in erroneous depth measurements, not only in Kinect surfaces itself, but also as a large peak when extracting a 1D respiratory signal from these data. In this paper, we proposed filtering techniques to reduce the noise effect in the Kinect-based 1D respiratory signal, using a trend removal filter, and in associated 2D surfaces, using a temporal median filter. Filtering process was validated using a phantom, in order to simulate a patient undergoing radiotherapy treatment while having the ground truth. Our results indicate a better correlation between the reference respiratory signal and its corresponding filtered signal (Correlation coefficient of 0.76) than that of the nonfiltered signal (Correlation coefficient of 0.13). Furthermore, surface filtering results show a decrease in the mean square distance error (85%) between the reference and the measured point clouds. This work shows a significant noise compensation and surface restitution after surface filtering and therefore a potential use of the Kinect V2 camera for different radiotherapy-based applications, such as respiratory tracking and collision detection. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Pleasant/Unpleasant Filtering for Affective Image Retrieval Based on Cross-Correlation of EEG Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keranmu Xielifuguli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available People often make decisions based on sensitivity rather than rationality. In the field of biological information processing, methods are available for analyzing biological information directly based on electroencephalogram: EEG to determine the pleasant/unpleasant reactions of users. In this study, we propose a sensitivity filtering technique for discriminating preferences (pleasant/unpleasant for images using a sensitivity image filtering system based on EEG. Using a set of images retrieved by similarity retrieval, we perform the sensitivity-based pleasant/unpleasant classification of images based on the affective features extracted from images with the maximum entropy method: MEM. In the present study, the affective features comprised cross-correlation features obtained from EEGs produced when an individual observed an image. However, it is difficult to measure the EEG when a subject visualizes an unknown image. Thus, we propose a solution where a linear regression method based on canonical correlation is used to estimate the cross-correlation features from image features. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the validity of sensitivity filtering compared with image similarity retrieval methods based on image features. We found that sensitivity filtering using color correlograms was suitable for the classification of preferred images, while sensitivity filtering using local binary patterns was suitable for the classification of unpleasant images. Moreover, sensitivity filtering using local binary patterns for unpleasant images had a 90% success rate. Thus, we conclude that the proposed method is efficient for filtering unpleasant images.

  3. Spectral shaping of an all-fiber torsional acousto-optic tunable filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jeakwon; Lee, Kwang Jo; Kim, Byoung Yoon

    2014-12-20

    Spectral shaping of an all-fiber torsional acousto-optic (AO) tunable filter is studied. The technique is based on the axial modulation of AO coupling strength along a highly birefringent optical fiber, which is achieved by tailoring the outer diameter of the fiber along its propagation axis. Two kinds of filter spectral shaping schemes-Gaussian apodization and matched filtering with triple resonance peaks-are proposed and numerically investigated under realistic experimental conditions: at the 50-cm-long AO interaction length of the fiber and at half of the original fiber diameter as the minimum thickness of the tailored fiber section. The results show that the highest peak of sidelobe spectra in filter transmission is suppressed from 11.64% to 0.54% via Gaussian modulation of the AO coupling coefficient (κ). Matched filtering with triple resonance peaks operating with a single radio frequency signal is also achieved by cosine modulation of κ, of which the modulation period determines the spectral distance between two satellite peaks located in both wings of the main resonance peak. The splitting of two satellite peaks in the filter spectra reaches 48.2 nm while the modulation period varies from 7.7 to 50 cm. The overall peak power of two satellite resonances is calculated to be 22% of the main resonance power. The results confirm the validity and practicality of our approach, and we predict robust and stable operation of the designed all-fiber torsional AO filters.

  4. Multi-Canister overpack internal HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for locating a filter assembly inside each Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) rather than include the filter in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) process piping system was to eliminate the potential for contamination to the operators, processing equipment, and the MCO. The internal HEPA filters provide essential protection to facility workers from alpha contamination, both external skin contamination and potential internal depositions. Filters installed in the CVD process piping cannot mitigate potential contamination when breaking the process piping connections. Experience with K-Basin material has shown that even an extremely small release can result in personnel contamination and costly schedule disruptions to perform equipment and facility decontamination. Incorporating the filter function internal to the MCO rather than external is consistent with ALARA requirements of 10 CFR 835. Based on the above, the SNF Project position is to retain the internal HEPA filters in the MCO design

  5. Filtering and control of wireless networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained book, written by leading experts, offers a cutting-edge, in-depth overview of the filtering and control of wireless networked systems. It addresses the energy constraint and filter/controller gain variation problems, and presents both the centralized and the distributed solutions. The first two chapters provide an introduction to networked control systems and basic information on system analysis. Chapters (3–6) then discuss the centralized filtering of wireless networked systems, presenting different approaches to deal with energy efficiency and filter/controller gain variation problems. The next part (chapters 7–10) explores the distributed filtering of wireless networked systems, addressing the main problems of energy constraint and filter gain variation. The final part (chapters 11–14) focuses on the distributed control of wireless networked systems.

  6. A Simple Ripple Filter for FLUKA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Herrmann, Rochus

    In heavy ion radiotherapy, pristine C-12 beams are usually widened a few mm (FWHM) along the beam axis, before the actual spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is build. The pristine beam widening is commonly performed with a ripple filter, known from the facility at GSI (Darmstadt) and at HIT (Heidelberg......). The ripple filter at GSI and HIT consists of several wedge like structures, which widens the Bragg-peak up to e.g. 3 mm. For Monte Carlo simulations of C-12 therapy, the exact setup, including the ripple filter needs to be simulated. In the Monte Carlo particle transport program FLUKA, the ripple filter can....... Since the ripple filter is a periodic geometry, one could use the LATTIC card with advantage, but here we shall take a Monte Carlo based approach istead. The advantage of this method is that our input file merely contains one body as the ripple filter, which can be a flat slab (or any other arbitrary...

  7. A comparison of filters for thoracic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestmann, J.W.; Hendrickx, P.; Rieder, P.; Geerlings, H.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1986-01-01

    The effect of three types of filter on the quality of radiographs of the chest was compared. These filters improve visualization of mediastinal structures without significantly reducing the quality of the pulmonary image. In practice the Du Pont filter proved best; the quality of the central and peripheral portions of the lung image is equal to that of an ordinary radiograph and visualization of the mediastinum is improved. The Agfa-Gevaert filter showed no significant disadvantages compared with the ordinary techniques but the improvement in mediastinal visualization is not that marked. The 3M-filter yields poor images of the central portions of the lung and its type of construction prevents the retrocardiac structures from being pictured as well as with the other filters. (orig.) [de

  8. Design of Kalman filters for mobile robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Dall; Hansen, Karsten L.; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1999-01-01

    the mobile robot is equipped with a dual encoder system supported by some additional absolute measurements. A common filter type for this setup is the odometric filter, where readings from the odometry system on the robot are used together with the geometry of the robot movement as a model of the robot......Kalman filters have for a long time been widely used on mobile robots as a location estimator. Many different Kalman filter designs have been proposed, using models of various complexity. In this paper, two different design methods are evaluated and compared. Focus is put on the common setup where...... estimates. The Kalman filter normally consists of a time update followed by one or more data updates. However, it is shown that when using the kinematic filter, the encoder measurements should be fused prior to the time update for better performance....

  9. The development rainfall forecasting using kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfi, Mohammad; Hasan, Moh.; Dwidja Purnomo, Kosala

    2018-04-01

    Rainfall forecasting is very interesting for agricultural planing. Rainfall information is useful to make decisions about the plan planting certain commodities. In this studies, the rainfall forecasting by ARIMA and Kalman Filter method. Kalman Filter method is used to declare a time series model of which is shown in the form of linear state space to determine the future forecast. This method used a recursive solution to minimize error. The rainfall data in this research clustered by K-means clustering. Implementation of Kalman Filter method is for modelling and forecasting rainfall in each cluster. We used ARIMA (p,d,q) to construct a state space for KalmanFilter model. So, we have four group of the data and one model in each group. In conclusions, Kalman Filter method is better than ARIMA model for rainfall forecasting in each group. It can be showed from error of Kalman Filter method that smaller than error of ARIMA model.

  10. FLOWING BILATERAL FILTER: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Moreaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral filter plays a key role in image processing applications due to its intuitive parameterization and its high quality filter result, smoothing homogeneous regions while preserving the edges of the objects. Considering the image as a topological relief, seeing pixel intensities as peaks and valleys, we introduce a way to control the tonal weighting coefficients, the flowing bilateral filter, reducing "halo" artifacts typically produced by the regular bilateral filter around a large peak surrounded by two valleys of lower values. In this paper we propose to investigate exact and approximated versions of CPU and parallel GPU (Graphical Processing Unit based implementations of the regular and flowing bilateral filter using the NVidia CUDA API. Fast implementations of these filters are important for the processing of large 3D volumes up to several GB acquired by x-ray or electron tomography.

  11. Flexible RF filter using a nonuniform SCISSOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng

    2016-03-15

    This work presents a flexible radiofrequency (RF) filter using an integrated microwave photonic circuit that comprises a nonuniform side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators (N-SCISSOR). The filter passband can be reconfigured by varying the N-SCISSOR parameters. When employing a dual-parallel Mach-Zechnder modulator, the filter is also able to perform frequency down-conversion. In the experiment, various filter response shapes are shown, ranging from a flat-top band-pass filter to a total opposite high-rejection (>40  dB) notch filter, with a frequency coverage of greater than two octaves. The frequency down-conversion function is also demonstrated.

  12. High-performance information search filters for acute kidney injury content in PubMed, Ovid Medline and Embase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Ainslie M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Mehta, Ravindra L; Parikh, Chirag R; Garg, Amit X

    2014-04-01

    We frequently fail to identify articles relevant to the subject of acute kidney injury (AKI) when searching the large bibliographic databases such as PubMed, Ovid Medline or Embase. To address this issue, we used computer automation to create information search filters to better identify articles relevant to AKI in these databases. We first manually reviewed a sample of 22 992 full-text articles and used prespecified criteria to determine whether each article contained AKI content or not. In the development phase (two-thirds of the sample), we developed and tested the performance of >1.3-million unique filters. Filters with high sensitivity and high specificity for the identification of AKI articles were then retested in the validation phase (remaining third of the sample). We succeeded in developing and validating high-performance AKI search filters for each bibliographic database with sensitivities and specificities in excess of 90%. Filters optimized for sensitivity reached at least 97.2% sensitivity, and filters optimized for specificity reached at least 99.5% specificity. The filters were complex; for example one PubMed filter included >140 terms used in combination, including 'acute kidney injury', 'tubular necrosis', 'azotemia' and 'ischemic injury'. In proof-of-concept searches, physicians found more articles relevant to topics in AKI with the use of the filters. PubMed, Ovid Medline and Embase can be filtered for articles relevant to AKI in a reliable manner. These high-performance information filters are now available online and can be used to better identify AKI content in large bibliographic databases.

  13. Dynamic beam filtering for miscentered patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Andrew; Shyr, William; Gang, Grace J; Stayman, J Webster

    2018-02-01

    Accurate centering of the patient within the bore of a CT scanner takes time and is often difficult to achieve precisely. Patient miscentering can result in significant dose and image noise penalties with the use of traditional bowtie filters. This work describes a system to dynamically position an x-ray beam filter during image acquisition to enable more consistent image performance and potentially lower dose needed for CT imaging. We propose a new approach in which two orthogonal low-dose scout images are used to estimate a parametric model of the object describing its shape, size, and location within the field of view (FOV). This model is then used to compute an optimal filter motion profile by minimizing the variance of the expected detector fluence for each projection. Dynamic filtration was implemented on a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test bench using two different physical filters: 1) an aluminum bowtie and 2) a structured binary filter called a multiple aperture device (MAD). Dynamic filtration performance was compared to a static filter in studies of dose and reconstruction noise as a function of the degree of miscentering of a homogeneous water phantom. Estimated filter trajectories were found to be largely sinusoidal with an amplitude proportional to the amount of miscentering. Dynamic filtration demonstrated an improved ability to keep the spatial distribution of dose and reconstruction noise at baseline levels across varying levels of miscentering, reducing the maximum noise and dose deviation from 53% to 15% and 42% to 14% respectively for the bowtie filter, and 25% to 8% and 24% to 15% respectively for the MAD filter. Dynamic positioning of beam filters during acquisition improves dose utilization and image quality over static filters for miscentered patients. Such dynamic filters relax positioning requirements and have the potential to reduce set-up time and lower dose requirements.

  14. Sensitivity filtering from a continuum mechanics perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    In topology optimization filtering is a popular approach for preventing numerical instabilities. This short note shows that the well-known sensitivity filtering technique, that prevents checkerboards and ensures mesh-independent designs in density-based topology optimization, is equivalent to min...... to minimizing compliance for nonlocal elasticity problems known from continuum mechanics. Hence, the note resolves the long-standing quest for finding an explanation and physical motivation for the sensitivity filter....

  15. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; LeMay, J.

    1994-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cfm HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased from 1.15 inches to 2.85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 μm dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased from 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cfm air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3μm particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater

  16. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2009-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions, and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We provide theoretical and empirical results demonstrating that while common nearest neighbor algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, can be highly susceptible to manipulation, two classes of collaborative filtering algorithms which we refer to as linear and a...

  17. Design of 2-D rational digital filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B

    1981-01-01

    A novel 2-D rational filter design technique is presented which makes use of a reflection coefficient function (RCF) representation for the filter transfer function. The design problem is formulated in the frequency domain. A least-square error criterion is used though the usual error measure is augmented with barrier functions. These act to restrict the domain of approximation to the set of stable filters. Construction of suitable barrier functions is facilitated by the RCF characterization

  18. Theory and design of microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Ian

    2000-01-01

    This is a thorough, graduate-level text which provides a single source for filter design including basic circuit theory, network synthesis and the design of a variety of microwave filter structures. The aim is to present design theories followed by specific examples with numerical simulations of the designs, with pictures of real devices wherever possible. The book is aimed at designers, engineers and researchers working in microwave electronics who need to design or specify filters.

  19. Unscented Kalman filter for SINS alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhanxin; Gao Yanan; Chen Jiabin

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the filter accuracy for the nonlinear error model of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) alignment, Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is presented for simulation with stationary base and moving base of SINS alignment.Simulation results show the superior performance of this approach when compared with classical suboptimal techniques such as extended Kalman filter in cases of large initial misalignment.The UKF has good performance in case of small initial misalignment.

  20. Filter element, particularly for cleaning hot gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelter, H.

    1980-01-01

    The fibres of the filter cloth consists of aluminium silicate. The filter cloth lies on a mesh made of ceramic material, e.g. 99% SiO 2 and 1% Cr 2 O 3 . In order to reduce the bending stress at the edges of the filter cloth, particularly when cleaning, there are bend protection devices in the form of curved surfaces made of felt or similar material in the edge areas. (DG) [de