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Sample records for validate treatment applications

  1. Development and validation of an algorithm for laser application in wound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diequison Rite da Cunha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To develop and validate an algorithm for laser wound therapy. Method: Methodological study and literature review. For the development of the algorithm, a review was performed in the Health Sciences databases of the past ten years. The algorithm evaluation was performed by 24 participants, nurses, physiotherapists, and physicians. For data analysis, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and the chi-square test for independence was used. The level of significance of the statistical test was established at 5% (p<0.05. Results: The professionals’ responses regarding the facility to read the algorithm indicated: 41.70%, great; 41.70%, good; 16.70%, regular. With regard the algorithm being sufficient for supporting decisions related to wound evaluation and wound cleaning, 87.5% said yes to both questions. Regarding the participants’ opinion that the algorithm contained enough information to support their decision regarding the choice of laser parameters, 91.7% said yes. The questionnaire presented reliability using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient test (α = 0.962. Conclusion: The developed and validated algorithm showed reliability for evaluation, wound cleaning, and use of laser therapy in wounds.

  2. The Treatment Validity of Autism Screening Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanis, Andrew; Mouzakitis, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Treatment validity is a frequently neglected topic of screening instruments used to identify autism spectrum disorders. Treatment validity, however, should represent an important aspect of these instruments to link the resulting data to the selection of interventions as well as make decisions about treatment length and intensity. Research…

  3. Validation and application of polymer gel dosimetry for the dose verification of an intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergote, K; Deene, Y de; Duthoy, W; Gersem, W de; Neve, W de; Achten, E; Wagter, C de

    2004-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimetry was used to assess an intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) treatment for whole abdominopelvic radiotherapy. Prior to the actual dosimetry experiment, a uniformity study on an unirradiated anthropomorphic phantom was carried out. A correction was performed to minimize deviations in the R2 maps due to radiofrequency non-uniformities. In addition, compensation strategies were implemented to limit R2 deviations caused by temperature drift during scanning. Inter- and intra-slice R2 deviations in the phantom were thereby significantly reduced. This was verified in an investigative study where the same phantom was irradiated with two rectangular superimposed beams: structural deviations between gel measurements and computational results remained below 3% outside high dose gradient regions; the spatial shift in those regions was within 2.5 mm. When comparing gel measurements with computational results for the IMAT treatment, dose deviations were noted in the liver and right kidney, but the dose-volume constraints were met. Root-mean-square differences between both dose distributions were within 5% with spatial deviations not more than 2.5 mm. Dose fluctuations due to gantry angle discretization in the dose computation algorithm were particularly noticeable in the low-dose region

  4. Validation and Application of a Dried Blood Spot Assay for Biofilm-Active Antibiotics Commonly Used for Treatment of Prosthetic Implant Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippenberg, Ben; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Clark, Ben; Dyer, John; Batty, Kevin T.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) antibiotic assays can facilitate pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) studies in situations where venous blood sampling is logistically difficult. We sought to develop, validate, and apply a DBS assay for rifampin (RIF), fusidic acid (FUS), and ciprofloxacin (CIP). These antibiotics are considered active against organisms in biofilms and are therefore commonly used for the treatment of infections associated with prosthetic implants. A liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy DBS assay was developed and validated, including red cell partitioning and thermal stability for each drug and the rifampin metabolite desacetyl rifampin (Des-RIF). Plasma and DBS concentrations in 10 healthy adults were compared, and the concentration-time profiles were incorporated into population PK models. The limits of quantification for RIF, Des-RIF, CIP, and FUS in DBS were 15 μg/liter, 14 μg/liter, 25 μg/liter, and 153 μg/liter, respectively. Adjusting for hematocrit, red cell partitioning, and relative recovery, DBS-predicted plasma concentrations were comparable to measured plasma concentrations for each antibiotic (r > 0.95; P < 0.0001), and Bland-Altman plots showed no significant bias. The final population PK estimates of clearance, volume of distribution, and time above threshold MICs for measured and DBS-predicted plasma concentrations were comparable. These drugs were stable in DBSs for at least 10 days at room temperature and 1 month at 4°C. The present DBS antibiotic assays are robust and can be used as surrogates for plasma concentrations to provide valid PK and PK/PD data in a variety of clinical situations, including therapeutic drug monitoring or studies of implant infections. PMID:27270283

  5. Instrument validation system of general application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filshtein, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Instrument Validation System (IVS) as a software system which has the capability of evaluating the performance of a set of functionally related instrument channels to identify failed instruments and to quantify instrument drift. Under funding from Combustion Engineering (C-E), the IVS has been developed to the extent that a computer program exists whose use has been demonstrated. The initial development work shows promise for success and for wide application, not only to power plants, but also to industrial manufacturing and process control. Applications in the aerospace and military sector are also likely

  6. Validation of an UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Screening of Antimicrobial Residues in Eggs and Their Application to Analyses of Eggs from Laying Hens Subjected to Pharmacological Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Gomes Magnago Caldeira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method by UHPLC/MS-MS was optimized and validated for the screening and semiquantitative detection of antimicrobials residues from tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, quinolones, lincosamides, β-lactams, sulfonamides, and macrolides families in eggs. A qualitative approach was used to ensure adequate sensitivity to detect residues at the level of interest, defined as maximum residue limit (MRL, or less. The applicability of the methods was assessed by analyzing egg samples from hens that had been subjected to pharmacological treatment with neomycin, enrofloxacin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline, and doxycycline during five days and after discontinuation of medication (10 days. The method was adequate for screening all studied analytes in eggs, since the performance parameters ensured a false-compliant rate below or equal to 5%, except for flumequine. In the analyses of eggs from laying hens subjected to pharmacological treatment, all antimicrobial residues were detected throughout the experimental period, even after discontinuation of medication, except for neomycin, demonstrating the applicability of the method for analyses of antimicrobial residues in eggs.

  7. Roll-up of validation results to a target application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Richard Guy

    2013-09-01

    Suites of experiments are preformed over a validation hierarchy to test computational simulation models for complex applications. Experiments within the hierarchy can be performed at different conditions and configurations than those for an intended application, with each experiment testing only part of the physics relevant for the application. The purpose of the present work is to develop methodology to roll-up validation results to an application, and to assess the impact the validation hierarchy design has on the roll-up results. The roll-up is accomplished through the development of a meta-model that relates validation measurements throughout a hierarchy to the desired response quantities for the target application. The meta-model is developed using the computation simulation models for the experiments and the application. The meta-model approach is applied to a series of example transport problems that represent complete and incomplete coverage of the physics of the target application by the validation experiments.

  8. Realtime validation of treatment programs on reconfigurable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present in this work an Algorithm/ Architecture adequation experience to prototype a real time image coder that will be used in surveillance applications. This last uses two algorithms: the first for compression and storage of the filmed scenes, the second to extract the moving objects edges. For the implementation, we ...

  9. Validation Aspects of Water Treatment Systems for Pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of conducting validation is to demonstrate that a process, when operated within established limits, produces a product of consistent and specified quality with a high degree of assurance. Validation of water treatment systems is necessary to obtain water with all desired quality attributes. This also provides a ...

  10. Dependability validation by means of fault injection: method, implementation, application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlat, Jean

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation presents theoretical and practical results concerning the use of fault injection as a means for testing fault tolerance in the framework of the experimental dependability validation of computer systems. The dissertation first presents the state-of-the-art of published work on fault injection, encompassing both hardware (fault simulation, physical fault Injection) and software (mutation testing) issues. Next, the major attributes of fault injection (faults and their activation, experimental readouts and measures, are characterized taking into account: i) the abstraction levels used to represent the system during the various phases of its development (analytical, empirical and physical models), and Il) the validation objectives (verification and evaluation). An evaluation method is subsequently proposed that combines the analytical modeling approaches (Monte Carlo Simulations, closed-form expressions. Markov chains) used for the representation of the fault occurrence process and the experimental fault Injection approaches (fault Simulation and physical injection); characterizing the error processing and fault treatment provided by the fault tolerance mechanisms. An experimental tool - MESSALINE - is then defined and presented. This tool enables physical faults to be Injected In an hardware and software prototype of the system to be validated. Finally, the application of MESSALINE for testing two fault-tolerant systems possessing very dissimilar features and the utilization of the experimental results obtained - both as design feedbacks and for dependability measures evaluation - are used to illustrate the relevance of the method. (author) [fr

  11. Multibeam radiation therapy treatment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manens, J.P.; Le Gall, G.; Chenal, C.; Ben Hassel, M.; Fresne, F.; Barillot, C.; Gibaud, B.; Lemoine, D.; Bouliou, A.; Scarabin, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A software package has been developed for multibeam radiation therapy treatment application. We present in this study a computer-assisted dosimetric planning procedure which includes: i), an analytical stage for setting up the large volume via 2D and 3D displays; ii), a planning stage for issue of a treatment strategy including dosimetric simulations; and iii), a treatment stage to drive the target volume to the radiation unit isocenter. The combined use of stereotactic methods and multimodality imagery ensures spatial coherence and makes target definition and cognition of structure environment more accurate. The dosimetric planning suited to the spatial reference (the stereotactic frame) guarantees optimal distribution of the dose, computed by the original 3D volumetric algorithm. A computer-driven chair-framework cluster was designed to position the target volume at the radiation unit isocenter [fr

  12. Validations and applications of the FEAST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Tayal, M.; Lau, J.H.; Evinou, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Jun, J.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    The FEAST (Finite Element Analysis for STresses) code is part of a suite of computer codes that are used to assess the structural integrity of CANDu fuel elements and bundles. A detailed validation of the FEAST code was recently performed. The FEAST calculations are in good agreement with a variety of analytical solutions (18 cases) for stresses, strains and displacements. This consistency shows that the FEAST code correctly incorporates the fundamentals of stress analysis. Further, the calculations of the FEAST code match the variations in axial and hoop strain profiles, measured by strain gauges near the sheath-endcap weld during an out-reactor compression test. The code calculations are also consistent with photoelastic measurements in simulated endcaps. (author)

  13. Validations and applications of the FEAST code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Tayal, M.; Lau, J.H.; Evinou, D.; Jun, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The FEAST (Finite Element Analysis for STresses) code is part of a suite of computer codes that are used to assess the structural integrity of CANDu fuel elements and bundles. A detailed validation of the FEAST code was recently performed. The FEAST calculations are in good agreement with a variety of analytical solutions (18 cases) for stresses, strains and displacements. This consistency shows that the FEAST code correctly incorporates the fundamentals of stress analysis. Further, the calculations of the FEAST code match the variations in axial and hoop strain profiles, measured by strain gauges near the sheath-endcap weld during an out-reactor compression test. The code calculations are also consistent with photoelastic measurements in simulated endcaps. (author)

  14. Validation and application of Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranya, Sandor; Muste, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a novel methodology to estimate bedload transport in rivers based on an improved bedform tracking procedure. The measurement technique combines components and processing protocols from two contemporary nonintrusive instruments: acoustic and image-based. The bedform mapping is conducted with acoustic surveys while the estimation of the velocity of the bedforms is obtained with processing techniques pertaining to image-based velocimetry. The technique is therefore called Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The implementation of this technique produces a whole-field velocity map associated with the multi-directional bedform movement. Based on the calculated two-dimensional bedform migration velocity field, the bedload transport estimation is done using the Exner equation. A proof-of-concept experiment was performed to validate the AMV based bedload estimation in a laboratory flume at IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering (IIHR). The bedform migration was analysed at three different flow discharges. Repeated bed geometry mapping, using a multiple transducer array (MTA), provided acoustic maps, which were post-processed with a particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Bedload transport rates were calculated along longitudinal sections using the streamwise components of the bedform velocity vectors and the measured bedform heights. The bulk transport rates were compared with the results from concurrent direct physical samplings and acceptable agreement was found. As a first field implementation of the AMV an attempt was made to estimate bedload transport for a section of the Ohio river in the United States, where bed geometry maps, resulted by repeated multibeam echo sounder (MBES) surveys, served as input data. Cross-sectional distributions of bedload transport rates from the AMV based method were compared with the ones obtained from another non-intrusive technique (due to the lack of direct samplings), ISSDOTv2, developed by the US Army

  15. Validation of nuclear models used in space radiation shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2013-01-01

    A program of verification and validation has been undertaken to assess the applicability of models to space radiation shielding applications and to track progress as these models are developed over time. In this work, simple validation metrics applicable to testing both model accuracy and consistency with experimental data are developed. The developed metrics treat experimental measurement uncertainty as an interval and are therefore applicable to cases in which epistemic uncertainty dominates the experimental data. To demonstrate the applicability of the metrics, nuclear physics models used by NASA for space radiation shielding applications are compared to an experimental database consisting of over 3600 experimental cross sections. A cumulative uncertainty metric is applied to the question of overall model accuracy, while a metric based on the median uncertainty is used to analyze the models from the perspective of model development by examining subsets of the model parameter space.

  16. Validation of the Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieschner, Klaus H.; Boomsma, Anne

    The validity of the Treatment Motivation Scales for outpatient offender treatment (TMS-F), a self-report questionnaire with scales for the motivation of patients to engage in the treatment and six cognitive and emotional determinants of this motivation, is evaluated in two studies. In Study 1 (N =

  17. Applications of NTCP calculations to treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutcher, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental step in the treatment decision process is the evaluation of a treatment plan. Most often treatment plans are judged by tradition using guidelines like target homogeneity and maximum dose to non-target tissues. While such judgments implicitly assume a relationship between dose distribution parameters and patient response, the judgment process is essentially supported by clinical outcomes from previous treatments. With the development of conformal therapy, new and unusual dose distributions and escalated doses are possible, while the clinical consequences are unknown. this situation has instigated attempts to place plan evaluation on a more systematic platform. One such endeavor has centered around attempts to calculate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and its sibling, tumor control probability (TCP). This lecture will be composed of two parts. The first will begin with a review of two categories of NTCP models: (1) an 'empirical' approach, based upon a power-law relationship between partial organ tolerance and irradiated volume, and histogram reduction to account for inhomogeneous irradiation: (2) a 'statistical' approach in which local responses are combined according to the underlying tissue architecture. Since both rely upon clinical data - often of limited and questionable validity - we will review some examples from the clinical and biological literature. The second part of the lecture will review clinical applications of biological-index based models: ranking competing treatment plans; design of dose escalation protocols; optimization of treatment plans with intensity modulation. We will also demonstrate how biological indices can be used to derive dose-volume histograms which account for treatment uncertainty

  18. Validation Techniques for Sensor Data in Mobile Health Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Miguel Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications have become a must in every user’s smart device, and many of these applications make use of the device sensors’ to achieve its goal. Nevertheless, it remains fairly unknown to the user to which extent the data the applications use can be relied upon and, therefore, to which extent the output of a given application is trustworthy or not. To help developers and researchers and to provide a common ground of data validation algorithms and techniques, this paper presents a review of the most commonly used data validation algorithms, along with its usage scenarios, and proposes a classification for these algorithms. This paper also discusses the process of achieving statistical significance and trust for the desired output.

  19. Validation of Internet Application: Study, Analysis and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Today, testing applications for Internet (web sites and other applications) is being verified using proprietary test solutions. The Internet Security became a very important and complex field of researches in our present time, especially if we apply this to the discussion of Internet protocols as basic interfaces for exchanging sensitive data over the Internet and finding appropriate and trustworthy algorithms for their validation. Test Competence Centre at Ericsson AB has expertise on tes...

  20. Application of parameters space analysis tools for empirical model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloma del Barrio, E. [LEPT-ENSAM UMR 8508, Talence (France); Guyon, G. [Electricite de France, Moret-sur-Loing (France)

    2004-01-01

    A new methodology for empirical model validation has been proposed in the framework of the Task 22 (Building Energy Analysis Tools) of the International Energy Agency. It involves two main steps: checking model validity and diagnosis. Both steps, as well as the underlying methods, have been presented in the first part of the paper. In this part, they are applied for testing modelling hypothesis in the framework of the thermal analysis of an actual building. Sensitivity analysis tools have been first used to identify the parts of the model that can be really tested on the available data. A preliminary diagnosis is then supplied by principal components analysis. Useful information for model behaviour improvement has been finally obtained by optimisation techniques. This example of application shows how model parameters space analysis is a powerful tool for empirical validation. In particular, diagnosis possibilities are largely increased in comparison with residuals analysis techniques. (author)

  1. Expert system verification and validation for nuclear power industry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The potential for the use of expert systems in the nuclear power industry is widely recognized. The benefits of such systems include consistency of reasoning during off-normal situations when humans are under great stress, the reduction of times required to perform certain functions, the prevention of equipment failures through predictive diagnostics, and the retention of human expertise in performing specialized functions. The increased use of expert systems brings with it concerns about their reliability. Difficulties arising from software problems can affect plant safety, reliability, and availability. A joint project between EPRI and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is being initiated to develop a methodology for verification and validation of expert systems for nuclear power applications. This methodology will be tested on existing and developing expert systems. This effort will explore the applicability of conventional verification and validation methodologies to expert systems. The major area of concern will be certification of the knowledge base. This is expected to require new types of verification and validation techniques. A methodology for developing validation scenarios will also be studied

  2. Automated reasoning applications to design validation and sneak function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is actively involved in the LMFBR Man-Machine Integration (MMI) Safety Program. The objective of this program is to enhance the operational safety and reliability of fast-breeder reactors by optimum integration of men and machines through the application of human factors principles and control engineering to the design, operation, and the control environment. ANL is developing methods to apply automated reasoning and computerization in the validation and sneak function analysis process. This project provides the element definitions and relations necessary for an automated reasoner (AR) to reason about design validation and sneak function analysis. This project also provides a demonstration of this AR application on an Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) system, the Argonne Cooling System

  3. The application of self-validation to wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collett, Michael A; Cox, Maurice G; Esward, Trevor J; Harris, Peter M; Duta, Mihaela; Henry, Manus P

    2008-01-01

    Self-validation is a valuable tool for extending the operating range of sensing systems and making them more robust. Wireless sensor networks suffer many limitations meaning that their efficacy could be greatly improved by self-validation techniques. We present two independently developed data analysis techniques and demonstrate that they can be applied to a wireless sensor network. Using an acoustic ranging application we demonstrate an improvement of more than ten-fold in the uncertainty of a single measurement where multiple sensor readings are appropriately combined. We also demonstrate that of the two methods for determining a largest consistent subset one is more rigorous in dealing with correlation, and the other more suited to time-series data

  4. Validation of a HT-PEMFC stack for CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasupathi, S.; Ulleberg, Oe. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Bujlo, P. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Electrotechnical Institute Wroclaw Division (Poland); Scholta, J. [Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel cell systems are very attractive for stationary co-generation applications as they can produce heat and electricity efficiently in a decentralized and environmentally friendly manner. PEMFC stacks operating at temperatures above 120 C, specifically in the range of 140-180 C, are ideal for co-generation purposes. In this study, preliminary results from a HTPEMFC stack designed for CHP applications is presented and discussed. A short, five-cell, HT-PEMFC stack was assembled with Celtec- P-2100 MEAs and validated in terms of electrical performance. The stack was operated with hydrogen and air at 160 C and the utilization curves for anode and cathode were recorded for a wide range of gas utilization at a current density of 0.52 A/cm{sup 2}. The current voltage characteristic was measured at optimal utilization values at 160 C. A 1kW stack is assembled and is currently being validated for its performance under various operating conditions for use in CHP applications. (orig.)

  5. Validation of SCALE-4 for burnup credit applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the past, a criticality analysis of PWR fuel stored in racks and casks has assumed that the fuel is fresh with the maximum allowable initial enrichment. If credit is allowed for fuel burnup in the design of casks that are used in the transport of spent light water reactor fuel to a repository, the increase in payload can lead to a significant reduction in the cost of transport and a potential reduction in the risk to the public. A portion of the work has been performed at ORNL in support of the US DOE efforts to demonstrate a validation approach for criticality safety methods to be used in burnup credit cask design. To date, the SCALE code system developed at ORNL has been the primary computational tool used by DOE to investigate technical issues related to burnup credit. The ANSI/ANS-8.1 criticality safety standard requires validation and benchmarking of the calculational methods used in evaluating criticality safety limits for applications outside reactors by correlation against critical experiments that are applicable. Numerous critical experiments for fresh PWR-type fuel in storage and transport configurations exist and can be used as part of a validation database. However, there are no critical experiments with burned PWR-type fuel in storage and transport configurations. As an alternative, commercial reactors offer an excellent source of measured critical configurations. The results reported demonstrate the ability of the ORNL SCALE-4 methodology to predict a value of k eff very close to the known value of 1.0, both for fresh fuel criticals and for the more complex reactor criticals. Beyond these results, additional work in the determination of biases and uncertainties is necessary prior to use in burnup credit applications

  6. Assessing self-determined motivation for addiction treatment: validity of the Treatment Entry Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanoski, Karen A; Wild, T Cameron

    2012-07-01

    Although legal, formal, and informal social controls are frequently used to pressure individuals to enter treatment, motivational consequences of using these tactics have been neglected. Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a useful perspective for understanding client experiences of social controls and highlights the importance of self-determined motivation for long-term behavior change. This study assessed the construct validity of the Treatment Entry Questionnaire (TEQ), a brief scale derived from SDT to measure identified, introjected, and external treatment motivation. Two independent samples of clients entering Canadian residential and outpatient treatment completed TEQ items (ns = 529 and 623). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 9-item version of the scale, with 3 factors aligning with SDT motivational subtypes. Subscales showed high internal consistency and correlated as expected with social controls and perceived coercion at treatment entry. The TEQ-9 is a valid option for assessing self-determined motivation in clinical practice and evaluating coerced addiction treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of validity theory and methodology to patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs): building an argument for validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Melanie; Elsworth, Gerald R; Osborne, Richard H

    2018-07-01

    Data from subjective patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are now being used in the health sector to make or support decisions about individuals, groups and populations. Contemporary validity theorists define validity not as a statistical property of the test but as the extent to which empirical evidence supports the interpretation of test scores for an intended use. However, validity testing theory and methodology are rarely evident in the PROM validation literature. Application of this theory and methodology would provide structure for comprehensive validation planning to support improved PROM development and sound arguments for the validity of PROM score interpretation and use in each new context. This paper proposes the application of contemporary validity theory and methodology to PROM validity testing. The validity testing principles will be applied to a hypothetical case study with a focus on the interpretation and use of scores from a translated PROM that measures health literacy (the Health Literacy Questionnaire or HLQ). Although robust psychometric properties of a PROM are a pre-condition to its use, a PROM's validity lies in the sound argument that a network of empirical evidence supports the intended interpretation and use of PROM scores for decision making in a particular context. The health sector is yet to apply contemporary theory and methodology to PROM development and validation. The theoretical and methodological processes in this paper are offered as an advancement of the theory and practice of PROM validity testing in the health sector.

  8. Perceptually Valid Facial Expressions for Character-Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of creating facial expression of mixed emotions in a perceptually valid way. The research has been done in the context of a “game-like” health and education applications aimed at studying social competency and facial expression awareness in autistic children as well as native language learning, but the results can be applied to many other applications such as games with need for dynamic facial expressions or tools for automating the creation of facial animations. Most existing methods for creating facial expressions of mixed emotions use operations like averaging to create the combined effect of two universal emotions. Such methods may be mathematically justifiable but are not necessarily valid from a perceptual point of view. The research reported here starts by user experiments aiming at understanding how people combine facial actions to express mixed emotions, and how the viewers perceive a set of facial actions in terms of underlying emotions. Using the results of these experiments and a three-dimensional emotion model, we associate facial actions to dimensions and regions in the emotion space, and create a facial expression based on the location of the mixed emotion in the three-dimensional space. We call these regionalized facial actions “facial expression units.”

  9. Neuroinflammatory targets and treatments for epilepsy validated in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronica, Eleonora; Bauer, Sebastian; Bozzi, Yuri; Caleo, Matteo; Dingledine, Raymond; Gorter, Jan A; Henshall, David C; Kaufer, Daniela; Koh, Sookyong; Löscher, Wolfgang; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Mishto, Michele; Norwood, Braxton A; Palma, Eleonora; Poulter, Michael O; Terrone, Gaetano; Vezzani, Annamaria; Kaminski, Rafal M

    2017-07-01

    A large body of evidence that has accumulated over the past decade strongly supports the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of human epilepsy. Specific inflammatory molecules and pathways have been identified that influence various pathologic outcomes in different experimental models of epilepsy. Most importantly, the same inflammatory pathways have also been found in surgically resected brain tissue from patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy. New antiseizure therapies may be derived from these novel potential targets. An essential and crucial question is whether targeting these molecules and pathways may result in anti-ictogenesis, antiepileptogenesis, and/or disease-modification effects. Therefore, preclinical testing in models mimicking relevant aspects of epileptogenesis is needed to guide integrated experimental and clinical trial designs. We discuss the most recent preclinical proof-of-concept studies validating a number of therapeutic approaches against inflammatory mechanisms in animal models that could represent novel avenues for drug development in epilepsy. Finally, we suggest future directions to accelerate preclinical to clinical translation of these recent discoveries. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Cell Uptake and Validation of Novel PECs for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamà, Ilaria E; Musarò, Mariarosaria; Coluccia, Addolorata M L; D'Amone, Stefania; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study provides the proof of principle for biomedical application of novel polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) obtained via electrostatic interactions between dextran sulphate (DXS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that DXS/PAH polyelectrolyte complexes were Monodispersed with regular rounded-shape features and average diameters of 250 nm at 2 : 1 weight ratios of DXS/PAH. Fluorescently labelled DXS and fluorescein-isothiocyanate- (FITC-)conjugate DXS were used to follow cell uptake efficiency of PECs and biodegradability of their enzymatically degradable DXS-layers by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Moreover, quantitative MTT and Trypan Blue assays were employed to validate PECs as feasible and safe nanoscaled carriers at single-cell level without adverse effects on metabolism and viability.

  11. Cell Uptake and Validation of Novel PECs for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria E. Palamà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study provides the proof of principle for biomedical application of novel polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs obtained via electrostatic interactions between dextran sulphate (DXS and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM showed that DXS/PAH polyelectrolyte complexes were Monodispersed with regular rounded-shape features and average diameters of 250 nm at 2 : 1 weight ratios of DXS/PAH. Fluorescently labelled DXS and fluorescein-isothiocyanate- (FITC-conjugate DXS were used to follow cell uptake efficiency of PECs and biodegradability of their enzymatically degradable DXS-layers by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Moreover, quantitative MTT and Trypan Blue assays were employed to validate PECs as feasible and safe nanoscaled carriers at single-cell level without adverse effects on metabolism and viability.

  12. Multiscale GPS tomography during COPS: validation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champollion, Cédric; Flamant, Cyrille; Masson, Frédéric; Gégout, Pascal; Boniface, Karen; Richard, Evelyne

    2010-05-01

    Accurate 3D description of the water vapour field is of interest for process studies such as convection initiation. None of the current techniques (LIDAR, satellite, radio soundings, GPS) can provide an all weather continuous 3D field of moisture. The combination of GPS tomography with radio-soundings (and/or LIDAR) has been used for such process studies using both advantages of vertically resolved soundings and high temporal density of GPS measurements. GPS tomography has been used at short scale (10 km horizontal resolution but in a 50 km² area) for process studies such as the ESCOMPTE experiment (Bastin et al., 2005) and at larger scale (50 km horizontal resolution) during IHOP_2002. But no extensive statistical validation has been done so far. The overarching goal of the COPS field experiment is to advance the quality of forecasts of orographically induced convective precipitation by four-dimensional observations and modeling of its life cycle for identifying the physical and chemical processes responsible for deficiencies in QPF over low-mountain regions. During the COPS field experiment, a GPS network of about 100 GPS stations has been continuously operating during three months in an area of 500 km² in the East of France (Vosges Mountains) and West of Germany (Black Forest). If the mean spacing between the GPS is about 50 km, an East-West GPS profile with a density of about 10 km is dedicated to high resolution tomography. One major goal of the GPS COPS experiment is to validate the GPS tomography with different spatial resolutions. Validation is based on additional radio-soundings and airborne / ground-based LIDAR measurement. The number and the high quality of vertically resolved water vapor observations give an unique data set for GPS tomography validation. Numerous tests have been done on real data to show the type water vapor structures that can be imaging by GPS tomography depending of the assimilation of additional data (radio soundings), the

  13. Application of graphene oxide in water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchen

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide has good hydrophilicity and has been tried to use it into thin films for water treatment in recent years. In this paper, the preparation methods of graphene oxide membrane are reviewed, including vacuum suction filtration, spray coating, spin coating, dip coating and the layer by layer method. Secondly, the mechanism of mass transfer of graphene membrane is introduced in detail. The application of the graphene oxide membrane, modified graphene oxide membrane and graphene hybrid membranes were discussed in RO, vaporization, nanofiltration and other aspects. Finally, the development and application of graphene membrane in water treatment were discussed.

  14. Validation of CFD models for hydrogen safety application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, Anna; Skibin, Alexander; Krutikov, Alexey; Golibrodo, Luka; Volkov, Vasiliy; Nechaev, Artem; Nadinskiy, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    Most accidents involving hydrogen begin with its leakage and spreading in the air and spontaneous detonation, which is accompanied by fire or deflagration of hydrogen mixture with heat and /or shocks, which may cause harm to life and equipment. Outflow of hydrogen in a confined volume and its propagation in the volume is the worst option because of the impact of the insularity on the process of detonation. According to the safety requirements for handling hydrogen specialized systems (ventilation, sprinklers, burners etc.) are required for maintaining the hydrogen concentration less than the critical value, to eliminate the possibility of detonation and flame propagation. In this study, a simulation of helium propagation in a confined space with different methods of injection and ventilation of helium is presented, which is used as a safe replacement of hydrogen in experimental studies. Five experiments were simulated in the range from laminar to developed turbulent with different Froude numbers, which determine the regime of the helium outflow in the air. The processes of stratification and erosion of helium stratified layer were investigated. The study includes some results of OECD/NEA-PSI PANDA benchmark and some results of Gamelan project. An analysis of applicability of various turbulence models, which are used to close the system of equations of momentum transport, implemented in the commercial codes STAR CD, STAR CCM+, ANSYS CFX, was conducted for different mesh types (polyhedral and hexahedral). A comparison of computational studies results with experimental data showed a good agreement. In particular, for transition and turbulent regimes the error of the numerical results lies in the range from 5 to 15% for all turbulence models considered. This indicates applicability of the methods considered for some hydrogen safety problems. However, it should be noted that more validation research should be made to use CFD in Hydrogen safety applications with a wide

  15. Withholding and withdrawing treatment: practical applications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Withholding and withdrawing treatment: practical applications of ethical principles in end-of-life care. L Gwyther. Abstract. No Abstract South African Journal of Bioethics and Law Vol. 1 (1) 2008: pp. 24-26. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. Plasma treatment: A Novel Medical Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonyawan, Dheerawan

    2015-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) for the medical treatment is a new field in plasma application, called plasma medicine. CAP contrains mix of excited atoms and molecules, UV photons, charged particles as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Typical species in air CAPs are O 3 , OH, N x , and HNO x . Two cold atomospheric plasma devices were utiized (either in an indirect or a direct way) for the treatment of physiologically healthy volunterrs, The results show that CAP is effective againts chronic wound infections and/ or for skin treatment in clinical trials. The current developments in this field have fuelled the hope that CAP could be, and interesting new therapeutic apptoach in the treatment of cancer.

  17. Artificial intelligence applications to design validation and sneak function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    An objective of the US space reactor program is to design systems with high reliability and safety of control over long operating lifetimes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a participant in the National Man-Machine Integration (MMI) program for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). A purpose of this program is to promote the development of concepts and technologies that enhance the operational safety and reliability of fast-breeder reactors. Much of the work is directly applicable to the space reactor program. This paper reports on one of the MMI projects being developed by ANL. The project reported pertains to an automated system that demonstrates the use of artificial intelligence (AI) for design validation (DA) and sneak function analysis (SFA). The AI system models the design specification and the physical design of the cooling process assigned to the Argon Cooling System (ACS) at Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The models are developed using heuristic knowledge and natural laws. 13 refs

  18. Validation of elastic cross section models for space radiation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werneth, C.M., E-mail: charles.m.werneth@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center (United States); Xu, X. [National Institute of Aerospace (United States); Norman, R.B. [NASA Langley Research Center (United States); Ford, W.P. [The University of Tennessee (United States); Maung, K.M. [The University of Southern Mississippi (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The space radiation field is composed of energetic particles that pose both acute and long-term risks for astronauts in low earth orbit and beyond. In order to estimate radiation risk to crew members, the fluence of particles and biological response to the radiation must be known at tissue sites. Given that the spectral fluence at the boundary of the shielding material is characterized, radiation transport algorithms may be used to find the fluence of particles inside the shield and body, and the radio-biological response is estimated from experiments and models. The fidelity of the radiation spectrum inside the shield and body depends on radiation transport algorithms and the accuracy of the nuclear cross sections. In a recent study, self-consistent nuclear models based on multiple scattering theory that include the option to study relativistic kinematics were developed for the prediction of nuclear cross sections for space radiation applications. The aim of the current work is to use uncertainty quantification to ascertain the validity of the models as compared to a nuclear reaction database and to identify components of the models that can be improved in future efforts.

  19. Validation and Application of Concentrated Cesium Eluate Physical Property Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    This work contained two objectives. To verify the mathematical equations developed for the physical properties of concentrated cesium eluate solutions against experimental test results obtained with simulated feeds. To estimate the physical properties of the radioactive AW-101 cesium eluate at saturation using the validated models. The Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being built to extract radioisotopes from the vast inventory of Hanford tank wastes and immobilize them in a silicate glass matrix for eventual disposal at a geological repository. The baseline flowsheet for the pretreatment of supernatant liquid wastes includes removal of cesium using regenerative ion-exchange resins. The loaded cesium ion-exchange columns will be eluted with nitric acid nominally at 0.5 molar, and the resulting eluate solution will be concentrated in a forced-convection evaporator to reduce the storage volume and to recover the acid for reuse. The reboiler pot is initially charged with a concentrated nitric acid solution and kept under a controlled vacuum during feeding so the pot contents would boil at 50 degrees Celsius. The liquid level in the pot is maintained constant by controlling both the feed and boilup rates. The feeding will continue with no bottom removal until the solution in the pot reaches the target endpoint of 80 per cent saturation with respect to any one of the major salt species present

  20. A comprehensive model for piezoceramic actuators: modelling, validation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quant, Mario; Elizalde, Hugo; Flores, Abiud; Ramírez, Ricardo; Orta, Pedro; Song, Gangbing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive model for piezoceramic actuators (PAs), which accounts for hysteresis, non-linear electric field and dynamic effects. The hysteresis model is based on the widely used general Maxwell slip model, while an enhanced electro-mechanical non-linear model replaces the linear constitutive equations commonly used. Further on, a linear second order model compensates the frequency response of the actuator. Each individual model is fully characterized from experimental data yielded by a specific PA, then incorporated into a comprehensive 'direct' model able to determine the output strain based on the applied input voltage, fully compensating the aforementioned effects, where the term 'direct' represents an electrical-to-mechanical operating path. The 'direct' model was implemented in a Matlab/Simulink environment and successfully validated via experimental results, exhibiting higher accuracy and simplicity than many published models. This simplicity would allow a straightforward inclusion of other behaviour such as creep, ageing, material non-linearity, etc, if such parameters are important for a particular application. Based on the same formulation, two other models are also presented: the first is an 'alternate' model intended to operate within a force-controlled scheme (instead of a displacement/position control), thus able to capture the complex mechanical interactions occurring between a PA and its host structure. The second development is an 'inverse' model, able to operate within an open-loop control scheme, that is, yielding a 'linearized' PA behaviour. The performance of the developed models is demonstrated via a numerical sample case simulated in Matlab/Simulink, consisting of a PA coupled to a simple mechanical system, aimed at shifting the natural frequency of the latter

  1. 77 FR 25469 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Validation Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.411B (Validation grants). AGENCY: Office of... fiscal year 2012 for the Investing in Innovation (i3) Validation grant competition (March 27 i3...

  2. Empirical Validation and Application of the Computing Attitudes Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Brian; Elliott Tew, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Student attitudes play an important role in shaping learning experiences. However, few validated instruments exist for measuring student attitude development in a discipline-specific way. In this paper, we present the design, development, and validation of the computing attitudes survey (CAS). The CAS is an extension of the Colorado Learning…

  3. Verification, validation and application of NEPTUNE-CFD to two-phase Pressurized Thermal Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mérigoux, N., E-mail: nicolas.merigoux@edf.fr [Electricité de France, R& D Division, 6 Quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Laviéville, J.; Mimouni, S.; Guingo, M.; Baudry, C. [Electricité de France, R& D Division, 6 Quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Bellet, S., E-mail: serge.bellet@edf.fr [Electricité de France, Thermal & Nuclear Studies and Projects Division, 12-14 Avenue Dutriévoz, 69628 Villeurbanne (France)

    2017-02-15

    Nuclear Power Plants are subjected to a variety of ageing mechanisms and, at the same time, exposed to potential Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) – characterized by a rapid cooling of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) wall. In this context, NEPTUNE-CFD is developed and used to model two-phase PTS in an industrial configuration, providing temperature and pressure fields required to assess the integrity of the RPV. Furthermore, when using CFD for nuclear safety demonstration purposes, EDF applies a methodology based on physical analysis, verification, validation and application to industrial scale (V&V), to demonstrate the quality of, and the confidence in results obtained. By following this methodology, each step must be proved to be consistent with the others, and with the final goal of the calculations. To this effect, a chart demonstrating how far the validation step of NEPTUNE-CFD is covering the PTS application will be drawn. A selection of the code verification and validation cases against different experiments will be described. For results consistency, a single and mature set of models – resulting from the knowledge acquired during the code development over the last decade – has been used. From these development and validation feedbacks, a methodology has been set up to perform industrial computations. Finally, the guidelines of this methodology based on NEPTUNE-CFD and SYRTHES coupling – to take into account the conjugate heat transfer between liquid and solid – will be presented. A short overview of the engineering approach will be given – starting from the meshing process, up to the results post-treatment and analysis.

  4. Validation of a Weight Reduction Treatment Package for the Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotatori, Anthony F.; And Others

    Five studies are reviewed which indicated the effectiveness on weight loss by mentally retarded persons of a treatment program stressing self control. The intervention included procedures which increased the dieter's self awareness of overeating behavior patterns and body weight, reduced food cues, reduced eating rates, increased activity level…

  5. Verification and validation of the decision analysis model for assessment of TWRS waste treatment strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, N.G.; Eaton, S.C.F.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the verification and validation final report for the Decision Analysis Model for Assessment of Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Treatment Strategies. This model is also known as the INSIGHT Model

  6. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) is an existing treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit located in the 200 East Area and the adjacent 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed waste (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. The GTF consists of the following: The 241-AP-02D and 241-AP-04D waste pump pits and transfer piping; Dry Materials Facility (DMF); Grout Disposal Facility (GDF), consisting of the disposal vault and support and monitoring equipment; and Grout Processing Facility (GPF) and Westinghouse Hanford Company on the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit and may not be read to conflict with those comments. The Grout Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this TSD unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings

  7. Practical Validity of Overdentures Treatment. A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Cabo García; Ileana Grau León

    2012-01-01

    Complete or partial dentures supported in remaining teeth or implants are called overdentures. We present a clinical case that demonstrates the effectiveness of this type of prosthetic rehabilitation as part of the treatment in an elderly patient with temporomandibular disorders. We followed the techniques and procedures for making partial upper denture and total immediate lower overdenture of acrylic type depending on their nature. We obtained very positive results in the relief and remissio...

  8. Application of Laser Irradiation for Restorative Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Sanei, Maryam; Badrian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, lasers are widely used in many fields of medicine. Also, they can be applied at many branches of dental practice such as diagnosis, preventive procedures, restorative treatments, and endodontic therapies. Procedures like caries removal, re-mineralization, and vital pulp therapy are the most noticeable effects of laser irradiation which has gained much attention among clinicians. With controlled and appropriate wavelength, they can help stimulating dentinogenesis, controlling pulpal hemorrhage, sterilization, healing of collagenic proteins, formation of a fibrous matrix, and inducing hard tissue barrier. Nevertheless, there are many controversies in literatures regarding their effects on the quality of bonded restorations. It hampered a wide application of lasers in some aspects of restorative dentistry and requirements to identify the best way to use this technology. The aim of this mini review is to explain special characteristics of laser therapy and to introduce the possible applications of laser devices for dental purposes.

  9. [Common bile duct stones: the surgical treatment is always valid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, F; Gavelli, A; Dapri, G; Huguet, C

    2004-02-01

    The treatment of common bile duct stones has changed with the new therapeutic techniques, that have replaced the conventional therapy, represented by surgery. Anyway, they could cause some problems, that must be regarded. Therefore, we wish to confirm the importance of the conventional surgery in the management of patients with common bile duct stones. A total of 147 patients were operated for common bile duct stones (73 in emergency and 74 in election). The intraoperative cholangiography was carried out in 141 patients and a choledocoscopy in 130 patients. A drain of Kehr was positioned in 120 patients, a bilio-digestive anastomosis in 26 cases and in 1 case there was a direct suture of the common bile duct without drain. All patients were treated with a short-term antibioticotherapy, protracted to 5 days in the emergency cases. In the patients with the drain of Kehr there was a control cholangiography after 7 days from operation and it was removed after 25 days. The analysis of the results was done dividing the patients according to the age: old and >75 years old. Nobody died during the operation. Complications were 17.4% in the patients >75 years old and 2,6% in the patients old. There were 2 death, in the postoperative period, for the group >75 years old. Cases operated in emergency were 68.1% of "old" patients and 37.2% of "young" patients. The postoperative period was 14.9+/-9.2 days for the "old" group and 10.9+/-5.2 days for the "young" group. The treatment of common bile duct stones is still a surgical treatment, particularly for "old" patients.

  10. Validation plays the role of a "bridge" in connecting remote sensing research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Deng, Ying; Fan, Yida

    2018-07-01

    Remote sensing products contribute to improving earth observations over space and time. Uncertainties exist in products of different levels; thus, validation of these products before and during their applications is critical. This study discusses the meaning of validation in depth and proposes a new definition of reliability for use with such products. In this context, validation should include three aspects: a description of the relevant uncertainties, quantitative measurement results and a qualitative judgment that considers the needs of users. A literature overview is then presented evidencing improvements in the concepts associated with validation. It shows that the root mean squared error (RMSE) is widely used to express accuracy; increasing numbers of remote sensing products have been validated; research institutes contribute most validation efforts; and sufficient validation studies encourage the application of remote sensing products. Validation plays a connecting role in the distribution and application of remote sensing products. Validation connects simple remote sensing subjects with other disciplines, and it connects primary research with practical applications. Based on the above findings, it is suggested that validation efforts that include wider cooperation among research institutes and full consideration of the needs of users should be promoted.

  11. Validation of Magnetic Reconstruction Codes for Real-Time Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon, D.; Murari, A.; Boulbe, C.; Faugeras, B.; Blum, J.; Svensson, J.; Quilichini, T.; Gelfusa, M.

    2010-01-01

    The real-time reconstruction of the plasma magnetic equilibrium in a tokamak is a key point to access high-performance regimes. Indeed, the shape of the plasma current density profile is a direct output of the reconstruction and has a leading effect for reaching a steady-state high-performance regime of operation. The challenge is thus to develop real-time methods and algorithms that reconstruct the magnetic equilibrium from the perspective of using these outputs for feedback control purposes. In this paper the validation of the JET real-time equilibrium reconstruction codes using both a Bayesian approach and a full equilibrium solver named Equinox will be detailed, the comparison being performed with the off-line equilibrium code EFIT (equilibrium fitting) or the real-time boundary reconstruction code XLOC (X-point local expansion). In this way a significant database, a methodology, and a strategy for the validation are presented. The validation of the results has been performed using a validated database of 130 JET discharges with a large variety of magnetic configurations. Internal measurements like polarimetry and motional Stark effect have been also used for the Equinox validation including some magnetohydrodynamic signatures for the assessment of the reconstructed safety profile and current density. (authors)

  12. Validation of Varian's AAA algorithm with focus on lung treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roende, Heidi S.; Hoffmann, Lone

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the accuracy of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA). A variety of different field configurations in homogeneous and in inhomogeneous media (lung geometry) was tested for the AAA algorithm. It was also tested against the present Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) algorithm. Materials and methods. Two dimensional (2D) dose distributions were measured for a variety of different field configurations in solid water with a 2D array of ion chambers. The dose distributions of patient specific treatment plans in selected transversal slices were measured in a Thorax lung phantom with Gafchromic dosimetry films. A Farmer ion chamber was used to check point doses in the Thorax phantom. The 2D dose distributions were evaluated with a gamma criterion of 3% in dose and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) for the 2D array measurements and for the film measurements. Results. For AAA, all fields tested in homogeneous media fulfilled the criterion, except asymmetric fields with wedges and intensity modulated plans where deviations of 5 and 4%, respectively, were seen. Overall, the measured and calculated 2D dose distributions for AAA in the Thorax phantom showed good agreement - both for 6 and 15 MV photons. More than 80% of the points in the high dose regions met the gamma criterion, though it failed at low doses and at gradients. For the PBC algorithm only 30-70% of the points met the gamma criterion. Conclusion. The AAA algorithm has been shown to be superior to the PBC algorithm in heterogeneous media, especially for 15 MV. For most treatment plans the deviations in the lung and the mediastinum regions are below 3%. However, the algorithm may underestimate the dose to the spinal cord by up to 7%

  13. Scoring and psychometric validation of the Perception of Anticoagulant Treatment Questionnaire (PACT-Q©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essers B

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Perception of Anti-Coagulant Treatment Questionnaire' (PACT-Q was developed to assess patients' expectations of, and satisfaction with their anticoagulant treatment. This questionnaire needs to be finalised and psychometrically validated. Methods The PACT-Q was included in the United States, the Netherlands and France into three phase III multinational clinical trials conducted to evaluate efficacy and safety of a new long-acting anticoagulant drug (idraparinux compared to vitamin K antagonist (VKA. PACT-Q was administered to patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT, atrial fibrillation (AF or pulmonary embolism (PE at Day 1, to assess patients' expectations, and at 3 and 6 months to assess patients' satisfaction and treatment convenience and burden. The final structure of the PACT-Q (Principal Component Analysis – PCA – with Varimax Rotation was first determined and its psychometric properties were then measured with validity of the structure (Multitrait analysis, internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients and known-group validity. Results PCA and multitrait analyses showed the multidimensionality of the "Treatment Expectations" dimension, comprising 7 items that had to be scored independently. The "Convenience" and "Burden of Disease and Treatment" dimensions of the hypothesised original structure of the questionnaire were combined, thus resulting in 13 items grouped into the single dimension "Convenience". The "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" dimension remained unchanged and included 7 items. All items of the "Convenience" and "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" dimensions displayed good convergent and discriminant validity. The internal consistency reliability was good, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.84 for the "Convenience" dimension, and 0.76 for the "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" dimension. Known-group validity was good, especially with regard to occurrence of

  14. Workplace nutrition knowledge questionnaire: psychometric validation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnin, Simone C; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Dutra, Eliane S; de Carvalho, Kênia M B; Ito, Marina K

    2016-11-01

    Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder-Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (Pnutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.

  15. Validation of OpenFoam for heavy gas dispersion applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mack, A.; Spruijt, M.P.N.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper heavy gas dispersion calculations were performed with OpenFoam. For a windtunnel test case, numerical data was validated with experiments. For a full scale numerical experiment,a code to code comparison was performed with numerical results obtained from Fluent. The validationwas

  16. Validation of recent Geant4 physics models for application in carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lechner, A; Ivanchenko, V N

    2010-01-01

    Cancer treatment with energetic carbon ions has distinct advantages over proton or photon irradiation. In this paper we present a simulation model integrated into the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit (version 9.3) which enables the use of ICRU 73 stopping powers for ion transport calculations. For a few materials, revised ICRU 73 stopping power tables recently published by ICRU (P. Sigmund, A. Schinner, H. Paul, Errata and Addenda: ICRU Report 73 (Stopping of Ions Heavier than Helium), International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, 2009) were incorporated into Geant4, also covering media like water which are of importance in radiotherapeutical applications. We examine, with particular attention paid to the recent developments, the accuracy of current Geant4 models for simulating Bragg peak profiles of C-12 ions incident on water and polyethylene targets. Simulated dose distributions are validated against experimental data available in the literature, where the focus is on beam energies relevant to io...

  17. Accounting for treatment use when validating a prognostic model: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajouheshnia, Romin; Peelen, Linda M; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2017-07-14

    Prognostic models often show poor performance when applied to independent validation data sets. We illustrate how treatment use in a validation set can affect measures of model performance and present the uses and limitations of available analytical methods to account for this using simulated data. We outline how the use of risk-lowering treatments in a validation set can lead to an apparent overestimation of risk by a prognostic model that was developed in a treatment-naïve cohort to make predictions of risk without treatment. Potential methods to correct for the effects of treatment use when testing or validating a prognostic model are discussed from a theoretical perspective.. Subsequently, we assess, in simulated data sets, the impact of excluding treated individuals and the use of inverse probability weighting (IPW) on the estimated model discrimination (c-index) and calibration (observed:expected ratio and calibration plots) in scenarios with different patterns and effects of treatment use. Ignoring the use of effective treatments in a validation data set leads to poorer model discrimination and calibration than would be observed in the untreated target population for the model. Excluding treated individuals provided correct estimates of model performance only when treatment was randomly allocated, although this reduced the precision of the estimates. IPW followed by exclusion of the treated individuals provided correct estimates of model performance in data sets where treatment use was either random or moderately associated with an individual's risk when the assumptions of IPW were met, but yielded incorrect estimates in the presence of non-positivity or an unobserved confounder. When validating a prognostic model developed to make predictions of risk without treatment, treatment use in the validation set can bias estimates of the performance of the model in future targeted individuals, and should not be ignored. When treatment use is random, treated

  18. Accounting for treatment use when validating a prognostic model: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romin Pajouheshnia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic models often show poor performance when applied to independent validation data sets. We illustrate how treatment use in a validation set can affect measures of model performance and present the uses and limitations of available analytical methods to account for this using simulated data. Methods We outline how the use of risk-lowering treatments in a validation set can lead to an apparent overestimation of risk by a prognostic model that was developed in a treatment-naïve cohort to make predictions of risk without treatment. Potential methods to correct for the effects of treatment use when testing or validating a prognostic model are discussed from a theoretical perspective.. Subsequently, we assess, in simulated data sets, the impact of excluding treated individuals and the use of inverse probability weighting (IPW on the estimated model discrimination (c-index and calibration (observed:expected ratio and calibration plots in scenarios with different patterns and effects of treatment use. Results Ignoring the use of effective treatments in a validation data set leads to poorer model discrimination and calibration than would be observed in the untreated target population for the model. Excluding treated individuals provided correct estimates of model performance only when treatment was randomly allocated, although this reduced the precision of the estimates. IPW followed by exclusion of the treated individuals provided correct estimates of model performance in data sets where treatment use was either random or moderately associated with an individual's risk when the assumptions of IPW were met, but yielded incorrect estimates in the presence of non-positivity or an unobserved confounder. Conclusions When validating a prognostic model developed to make predictions of risk without treatment, treatment use in the validation set can bias estimates of the performance of the model in future targeted individuals, and

  19. Evidence-based cross validation for acoustic power transmission for a novel treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihcin, Senay; Strehlow, Jan; Demedts, Daniel; Schwenke, Michael; Levy, Yoav; Melzer, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The novel Trans-Fusimo Treatment System (TTS) is designed to control Magnetic Resonance guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapy to ablate liver tumours under respiratory motion. It is crucial to deliver the acoustic power within tolerance limits for effective liver tumour treatment via MRgFUS. Before application in a clinical setting, evidence of reproducibility and reliability is a must for safe practice. The TTS software delivers the acoustic power via ExAblate-2100 Conformal Bone System (CBS) transducer. A built-in quality assurance application was developed to measure the force values, using a novel protocol to measure the efficiency for the electrical power values of 100 and 150W for 6s of sonication. This procedure was repeated 30 times by two independent users against the clinically approved ExAblate-2100 CBS for cross-validation. Both systems proved to deliver the power within the accepted efficiency levels (70-90%). Two sample t-tests were used to assess the differences in force values between the ExAblate-2100 CBS and the TTS (p > 0.05). Bland-Altman plots were used to demonstrate the limits of agreement between the two systems falling within the 10% limits of agreement. Two sample t-tests indicated that TTS does not have user dependency (p > 0.05). The TTS software proved to deliver the acoustic power without exceeding the safety levels. Results provide evidence as a part of ISO13485 regulations for CE marking purposes. The developed methodology could be utilised as a part of quality assurance system in clinical settings; when the TTS is used in clinical practice.

  20. Trailing Edge Noise Model Validation and Application to Airfoil Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. First, an existing trailing edge noise model is validated by comparing with airfoil surface pressure fluctuations and far field sound pressure levels measured in three different experiments. The agreement is satisfactory in one case but poor in two other cases...... across the boundary layer near the trailing edge and to a lesser extent by a smaller boundary layer displacement thickness. ©2010 American Society of Mechanical Engineers...

  1. Content validation of the dimensions constituting non-adherence to treatment of arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Wicto Pereira Borges

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to validate the content of the dimensions that constituted nonadherence to treatment of arterial systemic hypertension. It was a methodological study of content validation. Initially an integrative review was conducted that demonstrated four dimensions of nonadherence: person, disease/treatment, health service, and environment. Definitions of these dimensions were evaluated by 17 professionals, who were specialists in the area, including: nurses, pharmacists and physicians. The Content Validity Index was calculated for each dimension (IVCi and the set of the dimensions (IVCt, and the binomial test was conducted. The results permitted the validation of the dimensions with an IVCt of 0.88, demonstrating reasonable systematic comprehension of the phenomena of nonadherence.

  2. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations

  3. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 2 appendices covering engineering drawings and operating procedures

  4. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constitutents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 2 Appendices covering engineering drawings and operating procedures

  5. Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This section briefly describes the Hanford Site, provides a general description of the site operations and administration, provides an overview of the contents of this Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) Permit Application, and gives a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the document. The decision was made to use the checklist as a locator reference instead of using the checklist section numbers as paragraph section numbers because several different types of waste management units, some of which are not addressed in the checklists, are part of the GTF. The GTF is a waste management unit within the Hanford Site facility. In May 1988, a permit application was filed that identified the GTF as an existing facility. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid wastes (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. In addition to the design and operating features of the GTF that are intended to meet the requirements of dangerous waste regulations, many additional design and operating features are necessary to comply with radioactive waste management practices. The GTF design features and practices are intended to keep operational exposure to radionuclides and dangerous substances ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) and to provide a disposal system that protects the environment for at least 10,000 yr. In some instances, ALARA practices present difficulties when complying with requirements of dangerous waste regulations. This volume contains 14 Appendices. Topics include Engineering Drawings, Maps, Roads, Toxicity Testing, and Pilot-Scale Testing

  6. Application of radiation for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bumsoo; Kim Jinkyu; Kim Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of wastewater is non-chemical, and uses fast formation of short-lived reactive radicals that can interact with a wide range of pollutants. Such reactive radicals are strong oxidizing or reducing agents that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. The first studies on the radiation treatment of wastes were carried out in the 1950s principally for disinfection. In the 1960s, these studies were extended to the purification of water and wastewater. After some laboratory research on industrial wastewaters and polluted groundwater in 1970s and 1980s, several pilot plants were built for extended research in the 1990s. The first full-scale application was reported for the purification of wastewater at the Voronezh synthetic rubber plant in Russia. Two accelerators (50 kW each) were used to convert the non-biodegradable emulsifier, 'nekal', present in the wastewater to a biodegradable form . The installation treats up to 2000 m3 of effluent per day. A pilot plant of 1000 m 3 /d for treating textile-dyeing wastewater has been constructed in Daegu, Korea with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. High-energy irradiation produces instantaneous radiolytical transformations by energy transfer from accelerated electrons to orbital electrons of water molecules. Absorbed energy disturbs the electron system of the molecule and results in breakage of inter-atomic bonds. Hydrated electron eaq, H atom, . OH and HO 2 . radicals and hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and H 2 are the most important products of the primary interactions (radiolysis products). Generally, radiation processing of wastewater has maximum efficiency at pollutant concentration less than 10 -3 mol/L (∼100 ppm). The treatment of such wastewater is simple, requires low dose (about 1 kGy or less) and gives almost complete elimination of odor, color, taste and turbidity. The radiation processing of polluted water containing specific contaminants may require creation of special conditions to

  7. Computer arithmetic and validity theory, implementation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kulisch, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This is the revised and extended second edition of the successful basic book on computer arithmetic. It is consistent with the newest recent standard developments in the field. The book shows how the arithmetic capability of the computer can be enhanced. The work is motivated by the desire and the need to improve the accuracy of numerical computing and to control the quality of the computed results (validity). The accuracy requirements for the elementary floating-point operations are extended to the customary product spaces of computations including interval spaces. The mathematical properties

  8. Application of neural computing paradigms for signal validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Eryurek, E.; Mathai, G.

    1989-01-01

    Signal validation and process monitoring problems often require the prediction of one or more process variables in a system. The feasibility of applying neural network paradigms to relate one variable with a set of other related variables is studied. The backpropagation network (BPN) is applied to develop models of signals from both a commercial power plant and the EBR-II. Modification of the BPN algorithm is studied with emphasis on the speed of network training and the accuracy of prediction. The prediction of process variables in a Westinghouse PWR is presented in this paper

  9. Validation of the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) in Substance use Disorder Treatment Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Finn, Natalie K; Roesch, Scott C

    2016-09-01

    There have been recent calls for pragmatic measures to assess factors that influence evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation processes and outcomes. The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) is a brief and efficient measure that can be used for research or organizational development purposes to assess leader behaviors and actions that actively support effective EBP implementation. The ILS was developed and validated in mental health settings. This study validates the ILS factor structure with providers in alcohol and other drug (AOD) use treatment agencies. Participants were 323 service providers working in 72 workgroups from three AOD use treatment agencies. Confirmatory factor analyses and reliability analyses were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the ILS. Convergent and discriminant validity were also assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated good fit to the hypothesized first and second order factor structure. Internal consistency reliability was excellent. Convergent and discriminant validity was supported. The ILS psychometric characteristics, reliability, and validity were supported in AOD use treatment agencies. The ILS is a brief and pragmatic measure that can be used for research and practice to assess leadership for EBP implementation in AOD use treatment agencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Mark G.; Torres, Elisa M.; Finn, Natalie K.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    There have been recent calls for pragmatic measures to assess factors that influence evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation processes and outcomes. The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) is a brief and efficient measure that can be used for research or organizational development purposes to assess leader behaviors and actions that actively support effective EBP implementation. The ILS was developed and validated in mental health settings. This study validates the ILS factor structure with providers in alcohol and other drug (AOD) use treatment agencies. Participants were 323 service providers working in 72 workgroups from three AOD use treatment agencies. Confirmatory factor analyses and reliability analyses were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the ILS. Convergent and discriminant validity were also assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated good fit to the hypothesized first and second order factor structure. Internal consistency reliability was excellent. Convergent and discriminant validity was supported. The ILS psychometric characteristics, reliability, and validity were supported in AOD use treatment agencies. The ILS is a brief and pragmatic measure that can be used for research and practice to assess leadership for EBP implementation in AOD use treatment agencies. PMID:27431044

  11. Reliability and Validity of a Treatment Barriers Scale for Individuals With Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possemato, Kyle; Funderburk, Jennifer; Spinola, Suzanne; Hutchison, Dezarie; Maisto, Stephen A; Lantinga, Larry J; Oslin, David W

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have measured addiction-specific barriers to treatment. A measurement of barriers with psychometric support that has been tested in diverse samples and that assesses multiple components of addiction treatment barriers is needed to inform providers and treatment programs. This paper aims to provide an initial psychometric investigation of a measure of barriers to seeking addictions treatment. Data were collected from 196 Veterans Affairs primary care patients with Alcohol Use Disorder that participated in a randomized clinical trial. A Principal Components Analysis revealed that the 32-item Treatment Barriers Scale (TBS) can be reduced to 14 items, measuring 4 factors: stigma, dislike of the treatment process, alcohol problem identification, and logistical concerns. Acceptable internal consistent reliability (α = .64-.76) and excellent precision of alpha (α = 0.001-0.009) was found for each subscale. Support for the measure's concurrent validity was found, for example, participants who reported more motivation to reduce their drinking perceived significantly fewer barriers to care. Support for the measure's predictive validity was also found, including that more barriers were related to future drinking among all participants and less mental health and addictions treatment visits among participants in one treatment condition. Conclusions/ Importance: Our results provide initial support for the utility of the TBS-14 among primary care patients with Alcohol Use Disorder. Use of the TBS-14 could enable healthcare providers to better understand patient-specific treatment barriers, provide corrective information on treatment misconceptions, and inform individualized treatment plans that increase patient engagement in addiction services.

  12. Validation and application of FTIR spectroscopy in raw milk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučević Denis S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether FTIR spectroscopy is an accurate and valid technique for the assessment of quality parameters in raw cow's milk: fat, protein, lactose, and total solids. The assessment was based on calibration series and comparison with reference material. Furthermore, it takes into account the results obtained in the inter-laboratory comparisons (proficiency testing. The calibration samples were purchased from the accredited regional reference laboratories. The validation parameters included linearity, accuracy, repeatability, reproducibility, and robustness. The linearity ratio was 0.95%. The biases calculated for the fat, protein, lactose and dry matter were -0.33, 0.31, -0.25, and 0.06 respectively. The F value from the F-test was used to determine the significant differences between two independent sets of the results. The obtained results were as follows: 1.469 for fat, 1.634 for protein, 1.192 for lactose, and 0.528 for dry matter. The intra-laboratory reproducibility calculated as the Horwitz Ratios for all parameters were within the criterion limits (0.5 to 0.8. The data obtained for carry-over were 0.27% for fat, 0.52% for protein, 0.47% for lactose, and 0.47% for dry matter. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the FTIR spectroscopy is a reliable instrumental technique for the determination of fat, protein, lactose and total solids in raw cow's milk.

  13. Validation and Application of a Dried Blood Spot Ceftriaxone Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Sharp, Madhu; Nunn, Troy; Salman, Sam; Moore, Brioni R.; Batty, Kevin T.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) antibiotic assays can facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies in situations where venous blood sampling is logistically and/or ethically problematic. In this study, we aimed to develop, validate, and apply a DBS ceftriaxone assay. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) DBS ceftriaxone assay was assessed for matrix effects, process efficiency, recovery, variability, and limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD). The effects of hematocrit, protein binding, red cell partitioning, and chad positioning were evaluated, and thermal stability was assessed. Plasma, DBS, and cell pellet ceftriaxone concentrations in 10 healthy adults were compared, and plasma concentration-time profiles of DBS and plasma ceftriaxone were incorporated into population PK models. The LOQ and LOD for ceftriaxone in DBS were 0.14 mg/liter and 0.05 mg/liter, respectively. Adjusting for hematocrit, red cell partitioning, and relative recovery, DBS-predicted plasma concentrations were comparable to measured plasma concentrations (r > 0.95, P 95% initial concentrations in DBS for 14 h, 35 h, 30 days, 21 weeks, and >11 months, respectively. The present DBS ceftriaxone assay is robust and can be used as a surrogate for plasma concentrations to provide valid PK and PK/PD data in a variety of clinical situations, including in studies of young children and of those in remote or resource-poor settings. PMID:26438505

  14. Development and validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure of Weight (TRIM-Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessard Suzanne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of prescription anti-obesity medication (AOM is becoming increasingly common as treatment options grow and become more accessible. However, AOM may not be without a wide range of potentially negative impacts on patient functioning and well being. The Treatment Related Impact Measure (TRIM-Weight is an obesity treatment-specific patient reported outcomes (PRO measure designed to assess the key impacts of prescription anti-obesity medication. This paper will present the validation findings for the TRIM-Weight. Methods The online validation battery survey was administered in four countries (the U.S., U.K., Australia, and Canada. Eligible subjects were over age eighteen, currently taking a prescription AOM and were currently or had been obese during their life. Validation analyses were conducted according to an a priori statistical analysis plan. Item level psychometric and conceptual criteria were used to refine and reduce the preliminary item pool and factor analysis to identify structural domains was performed. Reliability and validity testing was then performed and the minimally importance difference (MID explored. Results Two hundred and eight subjects completed the survey. Twenty-one of the 43 items were dropped and a five-factor structure was achieved: Daily Life, Weight Management, Treatment Burden, Experience of Side Effects, and Psychological Health. A-priori criteria for internal consistency and test-retest coefficients for the total score and all five subscales were met. All pre-specified hypotheses for convergent and known group validity were also met with the exception of the domain of Daily Life (proven in an ad hoc analysis as well as the 1/2 standard deviation threshold for the MID. Conclusion The development and validation of the TRIM-Weight has been conducted according to well-defined principles for the creation of a PRO measure. Based on the evidence to date, the TRIM-Weight can be considered a brief

  15. Application of verification and validation on safety parameter display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    Offers some explanation of how verification and validation (VandV) can support development and licensing of the Safety Parameter Display Systems (SPDS). Advocates that VandV can be more readily accepted within the nuclear industry if a better understanding exists of what the objectives of VandV are and should be. Includes a discussion regarding a reasonable balance of costs and benefits of VandV as applied to the SPDS and to other digital systems. Represents the author's perception of the regulator's perspective based on background information and experience, and discussions with regulators about their current concerns and objectives. Suggests that the introduction of the SPDS into the Control Room is a first step towards growing dependency on use of computers

  16. Oxcarbazepine: validation and application of an analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Rezende Enéas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxcarbazepine (OXC is an important anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug. A pharmacopoeial monograph for OXC is not yet available and therefore the development and validation of a new analytical method for quantification of this drug is essential. In the present study, a UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of OXC was developed. The various parameters, such as linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity, were studied according to International Conference on Harmonization Guidelines. Batches of 150 mg OXC capsules were prepared and analyzed using the validated UV method. The formulations were also evaluated for parameters including drug-excipient compatibility, flowability, uniformity of weight, disintegration time, assay, uniformity of content and the amount of drug dissolved during the first hour.Oxcarbazepina (OXC é um fármaco anticonvulsivante e estabilizante do humor. O desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico para quantificação da OXC são de fundamental importância devido à ausência de monografias farmacopéicas oficiais para esse fármaco. Nesse trabalho, um método espectrofotométrico UV para determinação da OXC foi desenvolvido. O método proposto foi validado seguindo os parâmetros de linearidade, precisão, exatidão e especificidade de acordo com as normas da Conferência Internacional de Harmonização. Cápsulas de OXC 150 mg foram preparadas e analisadas utilizando-se o método analítico validado. As formulações foram avaliadas com relação à compatibilidade fármaco-excipientes, fluidez, determinação de peso, tempo de desintegração, doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e quantidade do fármaco dissolvido após 60 minutos.

  17. Validation of OpenFoam for heavy gas dispersion applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, A; Spruijt, M P N

    2013-11-15

    In the present paper heavy gas dispersion calculations were performed with OpenFoam. For a wind tunnel test case, numerical data was validated with experiments. For a full scale numerical experiment, a code to code comparison was performed with numerical results obtained from Fluent. The validation was performed in a gravity driven environment (slope), where the heavy gas induced the turbulence. For the code to code comparison, a hypothetical heavy gas release into a strongly turbulent atmospheric boundary layer including terrain effects was selected. The investigations were performed for SF6 and CO2 as heavy gases applying the standard k-ɛ turbulence model. A strong interaction of the heavy gas with the turbulence is present which results in a strong damping of the turbulence and therefore reduced heavy gas mixing. Especially this interaction, based on the buoyancy effects, was studied in order to ensure that the turbulence-buoyancy coupling is the main driver for the reduced mixing and not the global behaviour of the turbulence modelling. For both test cases, comparisons were performed between OpenFoam and Fluent solutions which were mainly in good agreement with each other. Beside steady state solutions, the time accuracy was investigated. In the low turbulence environment (wind tunnel test) which for both codes (laminar solutions) was in good agreement, also with the experimental data. The turbulent solutions of OpenFoam were in much better agreement with the experimental results than the Fluent solutions. Within the strong turbulence environment, both codes showed an excellent comparability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiotracer Applications in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater containing pollutants resulting from municipal and industrial activities are normally collected in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for processing before discharge to the environment. The WWTPs are the last barrier against contamination of downstream surface waters such as rivers, lakes and sea. Treated wastewater is reused for irrigation, particularly in arid and semi-arid countries. Therefore, it is very important to maintain optimal operating conditions of WWTPs to eliminate or reduce environmental pollution. Wastewater treatment plants are complicated systems, where the processes of mixing, separation, aeration, biological and chemical reactions occur. A WWTP is basically a multiphase system, and the efficiency of an installation strongly depends on liquid, solid and gas phase flow structures and their residence time distributions (RTDs). However, the fluid dynamic properties of such systems are not yet completely understood, rendering difficult the theoretical prediction of important process parameters such as flow rates, phase distributions, mixing and sediment characteristics. Tracer techniques are very useful tools to investigate the efficiency of purification in WWTPs, aiding both their design and performance optimization. There are many kinds of tracers. Radioactive tracers are the most sensitive and are largely used for on-line diagnosis of various operations in WWTPs. The success of radiotracer applications rests upon their extremely high detection sensitivity, and the strong resistance against severe process conditions. During the last few decades, many radiotracer studies have been conducted worldwide for investigation of various installations for wastewater treatment, such as mixer, aeration tank, clarifiers, digester, filter, wetland and oxidation units. Various radiotracer methods and techniques have been developed by individual tracer groups. However, the information necessary for the preservation of knowledge and transfer of

  19. On the validity and practical applicability of derivative analyticity relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, P.; Fischer, J.

    1983-09-01

    We examine derivative analyticity relations (DAR), which were originally proposed by Bronzan as an alternative to dispersion relations and in which the dispersion integral is replaced by a tangent series of derivatives. We characterize the class of functions satisfying DAR, and show that outside this class the dispersion integral represents a Borel-like sum of tangent series. We point out difficulties connected with the application of DAR. (author)

  20. Pesticide applicators questionnaire content validation: A fuzzy delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakandan, S K; Rosnah, I; Mohd Ridhuan, J; Priya, R

    2017-08-01

    The most crucial step in forming a set of survey questionnaire is deciding the appropriate items in a construct. Retaining irrelevant items and removing important items will certainly mislead the direction of a particular study. This article demonstrates Fuzzy Delphi method as one of the scientific analysis technique to consolidate consensus agreement within a panel of experts pertaining to each item's appropriateness. This method reduces the ambiguity, diversity, and discrepancy of the opinions among the experts hence enhances the quality of the selected items. The main purpose of this study was to obtain experts' consensus on the suitability of the preselected items on the questionnaire. The panel consists of sixteen experts from the Occupational and Environmental Health Unit of Ministry of Health, Vector-borne Disease Control Unit of Ministry of Health and Occupational and Safety Health Unit of both public and private universities. A set of questionnaires related to noise and chemical exposure were compiled based on the literature search. There was a total of six constructs with 60 items in which three constructs for knowledge, attitude, and practice of noise exposure and three constructs for knowledge, attitude, and practice of chemical exposure. The validation process replicated recent Fuzzy Delphi method that using a concept of Triangular Fuzzy Numbers and Defuzzification process. A 100% response rate was obtained from all the sixteen experts with an average Likert scoring of four to five. Post FDM analysis, the first prerequisite was fulfilled with a threshold value (d) ≤ 0.2, hence all the six constructs were accepted. For the second prerequisite, three items (21%) from noise-attitude construct and four items (40%) from chemical-practice construct had expert consensus lesser than 75%, which giving rise to about 12% from the total items in the questionnaire. The third prerequisite was used to rank the items within the constructs by calculating the average

  1. Expert systems application to plant diagnosis and sensor data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S.; Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.; Chandrasekaran, B.; Josephson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, over 2000 alarms and displays are available to the operator. For any given set of alarms and displays, the operator must be able to diagnose and correct the problem (s) quickly and accurately. At the same time, the operator is expected to distinguish the plant system faults from instrumentation channel failures and drifts. Needs for plant operator aids have been considered since the accident at TMI. Many of these aids are of the form of the Safety Parameter Display Systems and offer improved methods of displaying otherwise available data to the operator in a more concise and summarized format. diagnosis, however, remains a desirable objective of an operator aid. At The Ohio State University, faculty and students in nuclear engineering and computer science have evaluated this problem. The results of these studies have shown that plant diagnosis and sensor data validation must be considered as one integral problem and cannot be isolated from one another. Otherwise, an incorrect diagnosis based on faulty instrument information might be provided to the operator. In this study, the Knowlege Based System (KBS) technology is being incorporated to accomplish a final goal of an intelligent operator aid system

  2. Validating a bovine brucellosis elisa test for application in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.; Muller, G.; Errico, F.; Dilave, M.

    1998-01-01

    Sera from 600 cattle on Rio Negro Island, known to be free of brucellosis, and 400 sera from vaccinated cattle but known to be negative in the Rose-Bengal test were selected for validation of the FAO/IAEA test kit for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus. Two conjugates, one a polyclonal antiserum and the other a monoclonal antibody, were evaluated. When evaluated for reproducibility using the sera from uninfected cattle, the average coefficient of variation for duplicate samples was 7.1%±5.5. The serum control samples did not exceed OD limits as established for the kit, for any of the 15 plates evaluated. When evaluated by regression analysis, the control sera had an average correlation coefficient of 0.996, indicating a high degree of agreement between the observed OD values of controls on each plate vs the expected values for those controls. Specificity in the assay was >98% as calculated by the PP or regression methods. Comparison of the monoclonal and polyclonal conjugates using sera from vaccinated cattle indicated that many of the cattle must have been vaccinated as adults because of high antibody levels detected by both conjugates. Before this assay can be used on vaccinated animals, the kit will have to be evaluated using sera from animals of known age of vaccination. (author)

  3. IVIM: modeling, experimental validation and application to animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournet, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis is centered on the study of the IVIM ('Intravoxel Incoherent Motion') MRI sequence. This sequence allows for the study of the blood microvasculature such as the capillaries, arterioles and venules. To be sensitive only to moving groups of spins, diffusion gradients are added before and after the 180 degrees pulse of a spin echo (SE) sequence. The signal component corresponding to spins diffusing in the tissue can be separated from the one related to spins travelling in the blood vessels which is called the IVIM signal. These two components are weighted by f IVIM which represents the volume fraction of blood inside the tissue. The IVIM signal is usually modelled by a mono-exponential (ME) function and characterized by a pseudo-diffusion coefficient, D*. We propose instead a bi-exponential IVIM model consisting of a slow pool, characterized by F slow and D* slow corresponding to the capillaries as in the ME model, and a fast pool, characterized by F fast and D* fast, related to larger vessels such as medium-size arterioles and venules. This model was validated experimentally and more information was retrieved by comparing the experimental signals to a dictionary of simulated IVIM signals. The influence of the pulse sequence, the repetition time and the diffusion encoding time was also studied. Finally, the IVIM sequence was applied to the study of an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. (author) [fr

  4. CFD analysis for offshore systems: validation and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniel Fonseca de Carvalho e; Pagot, Paulo Roberto [Centro de Pesquisas da PETROBRAS (CENPES), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Engenharia Oceanica], E-mails: danielfc@petrobras.com.br, pagot@petrobras.com.br

    2011-04-15

    The Ocean Engineering group in the PETROBRAS Research Center develops and applies multidisciplinary simulation tools for several engineering problems mainly related to offshore systems. Recently, there have been many different cases where Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been successfully employed. This study presents a collection of cases where CFD simulations were validated against experimental data and directly used to facilitate solutions for practical problems. Case 01 calculated the maritime current loads on an FPSO and investigated the influence of appendices such as bilge keels and rudders on the near flow field. Similarly, Case 02 extends this procedure to the identification of wind loads. Case 03 calculates the hydrodynamic forces on a torpedo anchor during its installation. The simulation results coupled with a simplified dynamic model facilitates the directional stability of different torpedo models to be evaluated. A whole FPSO topside geometry is modeled in Case 04, which investigates the flow pattern near the FPSO Helideck. The simulation velocity and turbulence profiles were compared to wind tunnel measurements. These summarized cases show how CFD tools can be advantageously applied to solve many practical problems. All these simulations were performed using ANSYS CFX. (author)

  5. Preliminary data on validity of the Drug Addiction Treatment Efficacy Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelic, Andrej; Mlakar, Janez; Pregelj, Peter

    2013-09-01

    This study describes the validation process for the Slovenian version of the Drug Addiction Treatment Efficacy Questionnaire (DATEQ). DATEQ was constructed from the questionnaires used at the Centre for the Treatment of Drug Addiction, Ljubljana University Psychiatric Hospital, and within the network of Centres for the Prevention and Treatment of Drug Addiction in Slovenia during the past 14 years. The Slovenian version of the DATEQ was translated to English using the 'forward-backward' procedure by its authors and their co-workers. The validation process included 100 male and female patients with established addiction to illicit drugs who had been prescribed opioid substitution therapy. The DATEQ questionnaire was used in the study, together with clinical evaluation to measure psychological state and to evaluate the efficacy of treatment in the last year. To determinate the validity of DATEQ the correlation with the clinical assessments of the outcome was calculated using one-way ANOVA. The F value was 44.4, p<0.001 (sum of squares: between groups 210.4, df=2, within groups 229.7, df=97, total 440.1, df=99). At the cut-off 4 the sensitivity is 81% and specificity 83%. The validation process for the Slovenian DATEQ version shows metric properties similar to those found in international studies of similar questionnaires, suggesting that it measures the same constructs, in the same way and as similar questionnaires. However, the relatively low sensitivity and specificity suggests caution when using DATEQ as the only measure of outcome.

  6. The significance of motivation in periodontal treatment: validity and reliability of the motivation assessment scale among patients undergoing periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, A; Oruba, Z; Olszewska-Czyż, I; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, M

    2014-03-01

    The individual evaluation of patients' motivation should be introduced to the protocol of periodontal treatment, as it could impact positively on effective treatment planning and treatment outcomes. However, a standardised tool measuring the extent of periodontal patients' motivation has not yet been proposed in the literature. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Zychlińscy motivation scale adjusted to the needs of periodontology. Cross sectional study. Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Dental University Clinic, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland. 199 adult periodontal patients, aged 20-78. 14-item questionnaire. The items were adopted from the original Zychlińscy motivation assessment scale. Validity and reliability of the proposed motivation assessment instrument. The assessed Cronbach's alpha of 0.79 indicates the scale is a reliable tool. Principal component analysis revealed a model with three factors, which explained half of the total variance. Those factors represented: the patient's attitude towards treatment and oral hygiene practice; previous experiences during treatment; and the influence of external conditions on the patient's attitude towards treatment. The proposed scale proved to be a reliable and accurate tool for the evaluation of periodontal patients' motivation.

  7. Biological Treatment of Drinking Water: Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fundamentals of biological treatment are presented to an audience of state drinking water regulators. The presentation covers definitions, applications, the basics of bacterial metabolism, a discussion of treatment options, and the impact that implementation of these options...

  8. Identification of validated questionnaires to measure adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Escamilla B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Pérez-Escamilla,1 Lucía Franco-Trigo,1 Joanna C Moullin,2 Fernando Martínez-Martínez,1 José P García-Corpas1 1Academic Centre in Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Graduate School of Health, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Low adherence to pharmacological treatments is one of the factors associated with poor blood pressure control. Questionnaires are an indirect measurement method that is both economic and easy to use. However, questionnaires should meet specific criteria, to minimize error and ensure reproducibility of results. Numerous studies have been conducted to design questionnaires that quantify adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether questionnaires fulfil the minimum requirements of validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to compile validated questionnaires measuring adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments that had at least one measure of validity and one measure of reliability. Methods: A literature search was undertaken in PubMed, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde [LILACS]. References from included articles were hand-searched. The included papers were all that were published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish from the beginning of the database’s indexing until July 8, 2013, where a validation of a questionnaire (at least one demonstration of the validity and at least one of reliability was performed to measure adherence to antihypertensive pharmacological treatments. Results: A total of 234 potential papers were identified in the electronic database search; of these, 12 met the eligibility criteria. Within these 12 papers, six questionnaires were validated: the Morisky

  9. Assessing mental health clinicians' intentions to adopt evidence-based treatments: reliability and validity testing of the evidence-based treatment intentions scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J

    2016-05-05

    Intentions play a central role in numerous empirically supported theories of behavior and behavior change and have been identified as a potentially important antecedent to successful evidence-based treatment (EBT) implementation. Despite this, few measures of mental health clinicians' EBT intentions exist and available measures have not been subject to thorough psychometric evaluation or testing. This paper evaluates the psychometric properties of the evidence-based treatment intentions (EBTI) scale, a new measure of mental health clinicians' intentions to adopt EBTs. The study evaluates the reliability and validity of inferences made with the EBTI using multi-method, multi-informant criterion variables collected over 12 months from a sample of 197 mental health clinicians delivering services in 13 mental health agencies. Structural, predictive, and discriminant validity evidence is assessed. Findings support the EBTI's factor structure (χ (2) = 3.96, df = 5, p = .556) and internal consistency reliability (α = .80). Predictive validity evidence was provided by robust and significant associations between EBTI scores and clinicians' observer-reported attendance at a voluntary EBT workshop at a 1-month follow-up (OR = 1.92, p adoption at a 12-month follow-up (R (2) = .17, p adopt EBTs. Discussion focuses on research and practice applications.

  10. Application of RNAi to Genomic Drug Target Validation in Schistosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Guidi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over the possibility of resistance developing to praziquantel (PZQ, has stimulated efforts to develop new drugs for schistosomiasis. In addition to the development of improved whole organism screens, the success of RNA interference (RNAi in schistosomes offers great promise for the identification of potential drug targets to initiate drug discovery. In this study we set out to contribute to RNAi based validation of putative drug targets. Initially a list of 24 target candidates was compiled based on the identification of putative essential genes in schistosomes orthologous of C. elegans essential genes. Knockdown of Calmodulin (Smp_026560.2 (Sm-Calm, that topped this list, produced a phenotype characterised by waves of contraction in adult worms but no phenotype in schistosomula. Knockdown of the atypical Protein Kinase C (Smp_096310 (Sm-aPKC resulted in loss of viability in both schistosomula and adults and led us to focus our attention on other kinase genes that were identified in the above list and through whole organism screening of known kinase inhibitor sets followed by chemogenomic evaluation. RNAi knockdown of these kinase genes failed to affect adult worm viability but, like Sm-aPKC, knockdown of Polo-like kinase 1, Sm-PLK1 (Smp_009600 and p38-MAPK, Sm-MAPK p38 (Smp_133020 resulted in an increased mortality of schistosomula after 2-3 weeks, an effect more marked in the presence of human red blood cells (hRBC. For Sm-PLK-1 the same effects were seen with the specific inhibitor, BI2536, which also affected viable egg production in adult worms. For Sm-PLK-1 and Sm-aPKC the in vitro effects were reflected in lower recoveries in vivo. We conclude that the use of RNAi combined with culture with hRBC is a reliable method for evaluating genes important for larval development. However, in view of the slow manifestation of the effects of Sm-aPKC knockdown in adults and the lack of effects of Sm-PLK-1 and Sm-MAPK p38 on adult viability

  11. Reliability, validity and treatment sensitivity of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Richard S E; Davis, Vicki G; Spagnola, Nathan B; Hilt, Dana; Dgetluck, Nancy; Ruse, Stacy; Patterson, Thomas D; Narasimhan, Meera; Harvey, Philip D

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive functioning can be assessed with performance-based assessments such as neuropsychological tests and with interview-based assessments. Both assessment methods have the potential to assess whether treatments for schizophrenia improve clinically relevant aspects of cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the reliability, validity and treatment responsiveness of interview-based measures, especially in the context of clinical trials. Data from two studies were utilized to assess these features of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS). One of the studies was a validation study involving 79 patients with schizophrenia assessed at 3 academic research centers in the US. The other study was a 32-site clinical trial conducted in the US and Europe comparing the effects of encenicline, an alpha-7 nicotine agonist, to placebo in 319 patients with schizophrenia. The SCoRS interviewer ratings demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability in several different circumstances, including those that did not involve treatment (ICC> 0.90), and during treatment (ICC>0.80). SCoRS interviewer ratings were related to cognitive performance as measured by the MCCB (r=-0.35), and demonstrated significant sensitivity to treatment with encenicline compared to placebo (Pcognition in schizophrenia, and may be useful for clinical practice. The weaknesses of the SCoRS include its reliance on informant information, which is not available for some patients, and reduced validity when patient's self-report is the sole information source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Lightweight acoustic treatments for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naify, Christina Jeanne

    2011-12-01

    Increase in the use of composites for aerospace applications has the benefit of decreased structural weight, but at the cost of decreased acoustic performance. Stiff, lightweight structures (such as composites) are traditionally not ideal for acoustic insulation applications because of high transmission loss at low frequencies. A need has thus arisen for effective sound insulation materials for aerospace and automotive applications with low weight addition. Current approaches, such as the addition of mass law dominated materials (foams) also perform poorly when scaled to small thickness and low density. In this dissertation, methods which reduce sound transmission without adding significant weight are investigated. The methods presented are intended to be integrated into currently used lightweight structures such as honeycomb sandwich panels and to cover a wide range of frequencies. Layering gasses of differing acoustic impedances on a panel substantially reduced the amount of sound energy transmitted through the panel with respect to the panel alone or an equivalent-thickness single species gas layer. The additional transmission loss derives from successive impedance mismatches at the interfaces between gas layers and the resulting inefficient energy transfer. Attachment of additional gas layers increased the transmission loss (TL) by as much as 17 dB at high (>1 kHz) frequencies. The location and ordering of the gasses with respect to the panel were important factors in determining the magnitude of the total TL. Theoretical analysis using a transfer matrix method was used to calculate the frequency dependence of sound transmission for the different configurations tested. The method accurately predicted the relative increases in TL observed with the addition of different gas layer configurations. To address low-frequency sound insulation, membrane-type locally resonant acoustic materials (LRAM) were fabricated, characterized, and analyzed to understand their

  13. [Spanish validation of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment interview to assess patients competence to consent treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Marrodán, Ignacio; Baón Pérez, Beatriz; Navío Acosta, Mercedes; López-Antón, Raul; Lobo Escolar, Elena; Ventura Faci, Tirso

    2014-09-09

    To validate the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) Spanish version, which assesses the mental capacity of patients to consent treatment, by examining 4 areas (Understanding, Appreciation, Reasoning and Expressing a choice). 160 subjects (80 Internal Medicine inpatients, 40 Psychiatric inpatients and 40 healthy controls). MacCAT-T, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). Feasibility study, reliability and validity calculations (against to gold standard of clinical expert). Mean duration of the MacCAT-T interview was 18min. Inter-rater reliability: Intraclass correlation coefficient for Understanding=0.98, Appreciation=0.97, Reasoning=0.98, Expressing a choice=0.91. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha): Understanding=0.87, for Appreciation=0.76, for Reasoning=0.86. Patients considered to be incapable (gold standard) scored lower in all the MacCAT-T areas. Poor performance on the MacCAT-T was related to cognitive impairment assessed by MMSE. Spanish version of the MacCAT-T is feasible, reliable, and valid for assessing the capacity of patients to consent treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of MCNP and WIMS-AECL/DRAGON/RFSP for ACR-1000 applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, Blair P.; Adams, Fred P.; Zeller, Michael B.; Watts, David G.; Shukhman, Boris V.; Pencer, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of the validation of the reactor physics codes WIMS-AECL, DRAGON, RFSP and MCNP5, which are being used in the design, operation, and safety analysis of the ACR-1000 R . The standards and guidelines being followed for code validation of the suite are established in CSA Standard N286.7-99 and ANS Standard ANS-19.3-2005. These codes are being validated for the calculation of key output parameters associated with various reactor physics phenomena of importance during normal operations and postulated accident conditions in an ACR-1000 reactor. Experimental data from a variety of sources are being used for validation. The bulk of the validation data is from critical experiments in the ZED-2 research reactor with ACR-type lattices. To supplement and complement ZED-2 data, qualified and applicable data are being taken from other power and research reactors, such as existing CANDU R units, FUGEN, NRU and SPERT research reactors, and the DCA critical facility. MCNP simulations of the ACR-1000 are also being used for validating WIMS-AECL/ DRAGON/RFSP, which involves extending the validation results for MCNP through the assistance of TSUNAMI analyses. Code validation against commissioning data in the first-build ACR-1000 will be confirmatory. The code validation is establishing the biases and uncertainties in the calculations of the WIMS-AECL/DRAGON/RFSP suite for the evaluation of various key parameters of importance in the reactor physics analysis of the ACR-1000. (authors)

  15. Methodologies for pre-validation of biofilters and wetlands for stormwater treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefeng Zhang

    Full Text Available Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD systems are frequently used as part of a stormwater harvesting treatment trains (e.g. biofilters (bio-retentions and rain-gardens and wetlands. However, validation frameworks for such systems do not exist, limiting their adoption for end-uses such as drinking water. The first stage in the validation framework is pre-validation, which prepares information for further validation monitoring.A pre-validation roadmap, consisting of five steps, is suggested in this paper. Detailed methods for investigating target micropollutants in stormwater, and determining challenge conditions for biofilters and wetlands, are provided.A literature review was undertaken to identify and quantify micropollutants in stormwater. MUSIC V5.1 was utilized to simulate the behaviour of the systems based on 30-year rainfall data in three distinct climate zones; outputs were evaluated to identify the threshold of operational variables, including length of dry periods (LDPs and volume of water treated per event.The paper highlights that a number of micropollutants were found in stormwater at levels above various worldwide drinking water guidelines (eight pesticides, benzene, benzo(apyrene, pentachlorophenol, di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate and a total of polychlorinated biphenyls. The 95th percentile LDPs was exponentially related to system design area while the 5th percentile length of dry periods remained within short durations (i.e. 2-8 hours. 95th percentile volume of water treated per event was exponentially related to system design area as a percentage of an impervious catchment area.The out-comings of this study show that pre-validation could be completed through a roadmap consisting of a series of steps; this will help in the validation of stormwater treatment systems.

  16. Validating data quality during wet weather monitoring of wastewater treatment plant influents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alferes, Janelcy; Lynggaard-Jensen, Anders; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas

    Efficient monitoring of water systems and proper use of the collected data in further applications such as modelling, forecasting influent water quality and real-time control depends on careful data quality control. Given the size of the data sets produced nowadays in online water quality...... monitoring schemes, automated data validation is the only feasible option. In this paper, software tools for automatic data quality assessment with a practical orientation are presented. The developments from three organizations ranging from simple to more complex methods for automated data validation...

  17. Reactor Fuel Isotopics and Code Validation for Nuclear Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Matthew W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weber, Charles F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pigni, Marco T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Experimentally measured isotopic concentrations of well characterized spent nuclear fuel (SNF) samples have been collected and analyzed by previous researchers. These sets of experimental data have been used extensively to validate the accuracy of depletion code predictions for given sets of burnups, initial enrichments, and varying power histories for different reactor types. The purpose of this report is to present the diversity of data in a concise manner and summarize the current accuracy of depletion modeling. All calculations performed for this report were done using the Oak Ridge Isotope GENeration (ORIGEN) code, an internationally used irradiation and decay code solver within the SCALE comprehensive modeling and simulation code. The diversity of data given in this report includes key actinides, stable fission products, and radioactive fission products. In general, when using the current ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries in SCALE, the major actinides are predicted to within 5% of the measured values. Large improvements were seen for several of the curium isotopes when using improved cross section data found in evaluated nuclear data file ENDF/B-VII.0 as compared to ENDF/B-V-based results. The impact of the flux spectrum on the plutonium isotope concentrations as a function of burnup was also shown. The general accuracy noted for the actinide samples for reactor types with burnups greater than 5,000 MWd/MTU was not observed for the low-burnup Hanford B samples. More work is needed in understanding these large discrepancies. The stable neodymium and samarium isotopes were predicted to within a few percent of the measured values. Large improvements were seen in prediction for a few of the samarium isotopes when using the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries compared to results obtained with ENDF/B-V libraries. Very accurate predictions were obtained for 133Cs and 153Eu. However, the predicted values for the stable ruthenium and rhodium isotopes varied

  18. Validation of a questionnaire to monitor symptoms in HIV-infected patients during hepatitis C treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachay, Edward R; Ballard, Craig; Colwell, Bradford; Torriani, Francesca; Hicks, Charles; Mathews, Wm Christopher

    2017-09-20

    Clinicians are incorporating patient-reported outcomes in the management of HIV-infected persons co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but there are no validated inventories to monitor symptoms of patients during HCV therapy. Five-year retrospective cohort analysis of persons living with HIV (PLWH) treated for HCV. The HCV symptom-inventory (HCV-SI) was administered before, during, and after HCV treatment. Discriminant validity was assessed, separately, in mixed model linear regression of HCV-SI T-scores on treatment regimens (pegylated-interferon and ribavirin; pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir; and interferon-free antivirals); and side effect-related premature treatment discontinuation (SE-DC). From the 103 patients who completed the HCV-SI, 7% were female, 26% non-white, 32% cirrhotics and 91% had undetectable HIV viral loads. Most had genotype 1 (83%) and were HCV treatment-naïve (78%). We treated 19% of patients with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin, 22% with pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir and 59% received interferon-free antivirals. Overall, 77% achieved a sustained virologic response, and 6% discontinued HCV treatment due to side effects. In the treatment discrimination model, compared to the no treatment period, HCV-SI scores were significantly (p < 0.01) lower for interferon-free antivirals and higher for interferon-containing regimens. In the SE-DC model, the total HCV-SI, somatic and neuropsychiatric scores significantly predicted those patients who prematurely discontinued HCV treatment (P < 0.05). The HCV-SI effectively differentiated among treatment regimens known to vary by side effect profiles and between patients with and without treatment discontinuation due to side effects. The HCV-SI may have value as a patient-reported outcome instrument predicting the risk of HCV treatment discontinuation.

  19. Standards and guidelines applicable for the validation of programmable automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.

    1993-02-01

    The validation of programmable automation system for an application important to safety in a nuclear power plant requires a comprehensive view about the system quality and reliability. One central point is to get assured that proper international guidelines and standards have been followed in the design, construction and maintenance of the system. The study was directed to locate international standards and guidelines which can support the validation of programmable systems and to evaluate their applicability for the validation of systems on different levels of requirement during their life cycle. The publication reviews the most important international standards (IAEA, ISO, IEC, IEEE) and their basic principles both for system and application program. Several nuclear standards, which have drawn the main attention, and some general programmable automation standards have been examined. In addition one practical automation system has been examined in order to find essential questions. Based on these studies a set of important items for the qualification have been identified

  20. Validation of multisource electronic health record data: an application to blood transfusion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeven, Loan R van; Bruijne, Martine C de; Kemper, Peter F; Koopman, Maria M W; Rondeel, Jan M M; Leyte, Anja; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Janssen, Mart P; Roes, Kit C B

    2017-07-14

    Although data from electronic health records (EHR) are often used for research purposes, systematic validation of these data prior to their use is not standard practice. Existing validation frameworks discuss validity concepts without translating these into practical implementation steps or addressing the potential influence of linking multiple sources. Therefore we developed a practical approach for validating routinely collected data from multiple sources and to apply it to a blood transfusion data warehouse to evaluate the usability in practice. The approach consists of identifying existing validation frameworks for EHR data or linked data, selecting validity concepts from these frameworks and establishing quantifiable validity outcomes for each concept. The approach distinguishes external validation concepts (e.g. concordance with external reports, previous literature and expert feedback) and internal consistency concepts which use expected associations within the dataset itself (e.g. completeness, uniformity and plausibility). In an example case, the selected concepts were applied to a transfusion dataset and specified in more detail. Application of the approach to a transfusion dataset resulted in a structured overview of data validity aspects. This allowed improvement of these aspects through further processing of the data and in some cases adjustment of the data extraction. For example, the proportion of transfused products that could not be linked to the corresponding issued products initially was 2.2% but could be improved by adjusting data extraction criteria to 0.17%. This stepwise approach for validating linked multisource data provides a basis for evaluating data quality and enhancing interpretation. When the process of data validation is adopted more broadly, this contributes to increased transparency and greater reliability of research based on routinely collected electronic health records.

  1. Identification of validated questionnaires to measure adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Beatriz; Franco-Trigo, Lucía; Moullin, Joanna C; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando; García-Corpas, José P

    2015-01-01

    Background Low adherence to pharmacological treatments is one of the factors associated with poor blood pressure control. Questionnaires are an indirect measurement method that is both economic and easy to use. However, questionnaires should meet specific criteria, to minimize error and ensure reproducibility of results. Numerous studies have been conducted to design questionnaires that quantify adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether questionnaires fulfil the minimum requirements of validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to compile validated questionnaires measuring adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments that had at least one measure of validity and one measure of reliability. Methods A literature search was undertaken in PubMed, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde [LILACS]). References from included articles were hand-searched. The included papers were all that were published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish from the beginning of the database’s indexing until July 8, 2013, where a validation of a questionnaire (at least one demonstration of the validity and at least one of reliability) was performed to measure adherence to antihypertensive pharmacological treatments. Results A total of 234 potential papers were identified in the electronic database search; of these, 12 met the eligibility criteria. Within these 12 papers, six questionnaires were validated: the Morisky–Green–Levine; Brief Medication Questionnaire; Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale; Morisky Medication Adherence Scale; Treatment Adherence Questionnaire for Patients with Hypertension (TAQPH); and Martín–Bayarre–Grau. Questionnaire length ranged from four to 28 items. Internal consistency, assessed by Cronbach’s α, varied from 0

  2. Validation of an Arabic version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Kerry; Al Hammaq, Abdulla O

    2016-03-01

    Several instruments evaluate patient-reported outcomes in diabetes mellitus (DM), but almost none are validated for use in Arabic language. The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties and responsiveness of the Arabic version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQs) in Qatar. Ambulatory Arabic speaking DM patients were interviewed at two consecutive time points in Doha, Qatar. The 8-item DTSQs was administered in conjunction with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Measure (WHOQOL-Bref) to assess convergent validity. Reliability was evaluated by internal consistency and item analysis. Construct validity was evaluated using "known groups" comparisons (including gender, insulin use, and HbA1c). Sensitivity of DTSQs scores to the subject's metabolic conditions was determined. One hundred subjects (mean age 50.7) participated. Half (54%) were female. The majority (93%) had Type 2 DM, but 39 (42%) were using insulin. Results revealed satisfactory internal consistency. Metabolic measures (fasting blood glucose and AIC) had significant inverse correlations with DTSQs scores (interview 1, Pearson's r=-0.333 and r=-0.401, respectively, pQatar Arabic DTSQs version was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of treatment satisfaction in Arabic diabetes mellitus patients in the country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of reverse osmosis in radioactive wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Considering the disadvantages of the conventional evaporation and ion exchange process for radioactive wastewater treatment, the reverse osmosis is used to treat the low level radioactive wastewater. The paper summarizes the research and application progress of the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment and indicates that the reverse osmosis in the radioactive wastewater treatment is very important. (authors)

  4. Adherence to treatment for diabetes mellitus: validation of instruments for oral antidiabetics and insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Lilian Cristiane Gomes-Villas; Lima, Maria Luisa Soares Almeida Pedroso de; Pace, Ana Emilia

    2014-01-01

    to verify the face validity, criterion-related validity and the reliability of two distinct forms of presentation of the instrument Measurement of Adherence to Treatment, one being for ascertaining the adherence to the use of oral antidiabetics and the other for adherence to the use of insulin, as well as to assess differences in adherence between these two modes of drug therapy. a methodological study undertaken with 90 adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The criterion-related validity was verified using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves; and for the reliability, the researchers calculated the Cronbach alpha coefficient, the item-total correlation, and the Pearson correlation coefficient. the oral antidiabetics and the other showed sensitivity of 0.84, specificity of 0.35 and a Cronbach correlation coefficient of 0.84. For the adherence to the use of insulin, the values found were, respectively, 0.60, 0.21 and 0.68. A statistically significant difference was found between the final scores of the two forms of the instrument, indicating greater adherence to the use of insulin than to oral antidiabetics. it is concluded that the two forms of the Measurement of Adherence to Treatment instrument are reliable and should be used to evaluate adherence to drug treatment among people with diabetes mellitus.

  5. Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Scientific Basis and Clinical Application-A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greher, Michael R; Wodushek, Thomas R

    2017-03-01

    Performance validity testing refers to neuropsychologists' methodology for determining whether neuropsychological test performances completed in the course of an evaluation are valid (ie, the results of true neurocognitive function) or invalid (ie, overly impacted by the patient's effort/engagement in testing). This determination relies upon the use of either standalone tests designed for this sole purpose, or specific scores/indicators embedded within traditional neuropsychological measures that have demonstrated this utility. In response to a greater appreciation for the critical role that performance validity issues play in neuropsychological testing and the need to measure this variable to the best of our ability, the scientific base for performance validity testing has expanded greatly over the last 20 to 30 years. As such, the majority of current day neuropsychologists in the United States use a variety of measures for the purpose of performance validity testing as part of everyday forensic and clinical practice and address this issue directly in their evaluations. The following is the first article of a 2-part series that will address the evolution of performance validity testing in the field of neuropsychology, both in terms of the science as well as the clinical application of this measurement technique. The second article of this series will review performance validity tests in terms of methods for development of these measures, and maximizing of diagnostic accuracy.

  6. Development and validation of the functional assessment of chronic illness therapy treatment satisfaction (FACIT TS) measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipert, John D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Bode, Rita; Cella, Dave; Garcia, Sofia F; Hahn, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    To develop and validate a new functional assessment of chronic illness therapy (FACIT) measure of satisfaction with treatment for chronic illnesses such as cancer and HIV/AIDS. To define domains and generate items, a literature review informed creation of semi-structured interview guides for patients and an international expert panel of clinicians and researchers. Patients and experts also rated 15 areas of satisfaction for relevance. The final list of items underwent further refinement by the original expert panel and a new group of clinical experts. Items were tested in four studies (primarily lung cancer) and data were pooled for analysis. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), and item response theory modeling were conducted to evaluate dimensionality. Internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability were both evaluated. Validity was evaluated by correlating the FACIT subscale scores and measures of comparable concepts and by testing the scales' ability to distinguish people according to their overall treatment satisfaction. Two instruments were created: the FACIT TS-general (G), an overall evaluation of current treatment, and the FACIT TS-patient satisfaction (PS), a measure of patient satisfaction. CFA results were not optimal for a five-factor solution for PS. Internal consistency reliability met psychometric standards (≥0.70) for all PS subscales. Construct validity was established for the PS subscales: Physician Communication, Treatment Staff Communication, Technical Competence, Confidence and Trust, and Nurse Communication. The two instruments generated here offer a new way to assess several key dimensions of patient satisfaction with treatment, especially for people with lung cancer.

  7. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of low-level radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Geologic data, hydrologic data, groundwater monitoring program, information, detection monitoring program, groundwater characterization drawings, building emergency plan--grout treatment facility, response action plan for grout treatment facility, Hanford Facility contingency plan, training course descriptions, overview of the Hanford Facility Grout Performance, assessment, bland use and zoning map, waste minimization plan, cover design engineering report, and clay liners (ADMIXTURES) in semiarid environments

  8. Rater reliability and construct validity of a mobile application for posture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Kimberly A; Brown, Elena V Donoso

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] Measurement of posture is important for those with a clinical diagnosis as well as researchers aiming to understand the impact of faulty postures on the development of musculoskeletal disorders. A reliable, cost-effective and low tech posture measure may be beneficial for research and clinical applications. The purpose of this study was to determine rater reliability and construct validity of a posture screening mobile application in healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Pictures of subjects were taken in three standing positions. Two raters independently digitized the static standing posture image twice. The app calculated posture variables, including sagittal and coronal plane translations and angulations. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were calculated using the appropriate ICC models for complete agreement. Construct validity was determined through comparison of known groups using repeated measures ANOVA. [Results] Intra-rater reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.99. Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent for all translations. ICCs were stronger for translations versus angulations. The construct validity analysis found that the app was able to detect the change in the four variables selected. [Conclusion] The posture mobile application has demonstrated strong rater reliability and preliminary evidence of construct validity. This application may have utility in clinical and research settings.

  9. Validation and application of a physics database for fast reactor fuel cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, R.D.; Stillman, J.A.; Toppel, B.J.; Khalil, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    An effort has been made to automate the execution of fast reactor fuel cycle analysis, using EBR-II as a demonstration vehicle, and to validate the analysis results for application to the IFR closed fuel cycle demonstration at EBR-II and its fuel cycle facility. This effort has included: (1) the application of the standard ANL depletion codes to perform core-follow analyses for an extensive series of EBR-II runs, (2) incorporation of the EBR-II data into a physics database, (3) development and verification of software to update, maintain and verify the database files, (4) development and validation of fuel cycle models and methodology, (5) development and verification of software which utilizes this physics database to automate the application of the ANL depletion codes, methods and models to perform the core-follow analysis, and (6) validation studies of the ANL depletion codes and of their application in support of anticipated near-term operations in EBR-II and the Fuel Cycle Facility. Results of the validation tests indicate the physics database and associated analysis codes and procedures are adequate to predict required quantities in support of early phases of FCF operations

  10. Integration of data validation and user interface concerns in a DSL for web applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, D.M.; Visser, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a pre-print of: Danny M. Groenewegen, Eelco Visser. Integration of Data Validation and User Interface Concerns in a DSL for Web Applications. In Mark G. J. van den Brand, Jeff Gray, editors, Software Language Engineering, Second International Conference, SLE 2009, Denver, USA, October,

  11. 77 FR 25152 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Validation Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Validation Grants Correction In notice document 2012-7365 appearing on pages 18229-18242 in the issue of Tuesday, March 27, 2012 make the following corrections: 1. On page 18238 in the second column, in the second...

  12. Validating self-reported mobile phone use in adults using a newly developed smartphone application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. METHODS: 107

  13. Advances in surface treatments: Technology, applications, effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niku-Lari, A.

    1987-01-01

    An international handbook has been produced to include all aspects of residual stresses, including the theoretical background, effects of residual stresses, measurement and calculation and quantitative assessment of residual stress effects. Techniques for altering residual stresses, particularly surface treatments, are discussed. Up to date information on the state of the art is presented. (UK)

  14. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product

  15. A comprehensive validation toolbox for regional ocean models - Outline, implementation and application to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Simon; Laagemaa, Priidik; Janssen, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The systematic and objective comparison between output from a numerical ocean model and a set of observations, called validation in the context of this presentation, is a beneficial activity at several stages, starting from early steps in model development and ending at the quality control of model based products delivered to customers. Even though the importance of this kind of validation work is widely acknowledged it is often not among the most popular tasks in ocean modelling. In order to ease the validation work a comprehensive toolbox has been developed in the framework of the MyOcean-2 project. The objective of this toolbox is to carry out validation integrating different data sources, e.g. time-series at stations, vertical profiles, surface fields or along track satellite data, with one single program call. The validation toolbox, implemented in MATLAB, features all parts of the validation process - ranging from read-in procedures of datasets to the graphical and numerical output of statistical metrics of the comparison. The basic idea is to have only one well-defined validation schedule for all applications, in which all parts of the validation process are executed. Each part, e.g. read-in procedures, forms a module in which all available functions of this particular part are collected. The interface between the functions, the module and the validation schedule is highly standardized. Functions of a module are set up for certain validation tasks, new functions can be implemented into the appropriate module without affecting the functionality of the toolbox. The functions are assigned for each validation task in user specific settings, which are externally stored in so-called namelists and gather all information of the used datasets as well as paths and metadata. In the framework of the MyOcean-2 project the toolbox is frequently used to validate the forecast products of the Baltic Sea Marine Forecasting Centre. Hereby the performance of any new product

  16. Statistical Validation of a Web-Based GIS Application and Its Applicability to Cardiovascular-Related Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Eun; Sung, Jung Hye; Malouhi, Mohamad

    2015-12-22

    There is abundant evidence that neighborhood characteristics are significantly linked to the health of the inhabitants of a given space within a given time frame. This study is to statistically validate a web-based GIS application designed to support cardiovascular-related research developed by the NIH funded Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) Data Coordinating Center (DCC) and discuss its applicability to cardiovascular studies. Geo-referencing, geocoding and geospatial analyses were conducted for 500 randomly selected home addresses in a U.S. southeastern Metropolitan area. The correlation coefficient, factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha (α) were estimated to quantify measures of the internal consistency, reliability and construct/criterion/discriminant validity of the cardiovascular-related geospatial variables (walk score, number of hospitals, fast food restaurants, parks and sidewalks). Cronbach's α for CVD GEOSPATIAL variables was 95.5%, implying successful internal consistency. Walk scores were significantly correlated with number of hospitals (r = 0.715; p restaurants (r = 0.729; p application were internally consistent and demonstrated satisfactory validity. Therefore, the GIS application may be useful to apply to cardiovascular-related studies aimed to investigate potential impact of geospatial factors on diseases and/or the long-term effect of clinical trials.

  17. Application of Laser Irradiation for Restorative Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Davoudi, Amin; Sanei, Maryam; Badrian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, lasers are widely used in many fields of medicine. Also, they can be applied at many branches of dental practice such as diagnosis, preventive procedures, restorative treatments, and endodontic therapies. Procedures like caries removal, re-mineralization, and vital pulp therapy are the most noticeable effects of laser irradiation which has gained much attention among clinicians. With controlled and appropriate wavelength, they can help stimulating dentinogenesis, controlling pulpal ...

  18. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Vault design, run-on/run-off control design, and asphalt compatibility with 90-degree celsius double-shell slurry feed

  19. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the low-level liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Hanford Site Maps, road evaluation for the grout treatment facility, Department of Ecology certificate of non-designation for centralia fly ash, double-shell tank waste compositional modeling, laboratory analysis reports for double-shell tank waste, stored in tanks 241-AN-103, 241-AN-106, and 241-AW-101, grout vault heat transfer results for M-106 grout formulation, test results for extraction procedure toxicity testing, test results for toxicity testing of double-shell tank grout, pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste, characterization of simulated low-level waste grout produced in a pilot-scale test, description of the procedure for sampling nonaging waste storage tanks, description of laboratory procedures, grout campaign waste composition verification, variability in properties of grouted phosphate/sulfate N-reactor waste, engineering drawings, description of operating procedures, equipment list--transportable grout equipment, grout treatment facility--tank integrity assessment plan, long-term effects of waste solutions on concrete and reinforcing steel, vendor information, grout disposal facilities construction quality assurance plan, and flexible membrane liner/waste compatibility test results

  20. Preclinical validation of electrochemotherapy as an effective treatment for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm-Larsen, Birgit; Iversen, Helle K; Ibsen, Per

    2011-01-01

    treatment. Bleomycin was injected intracranially into male rats inoculated with rat glia-derived tumor cells 2 weeks before the application of the electrical field (32 pulses, 100 V, 0.1 ms, and 1 Hz). In this model, where presence of tumor was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before treatment...... to the treated area, which MRI and histology showed to contain a fluid-filled cavity. In a long-range survival study, treatment side effects seemed to be minimal, with normal rat behavior observed after electrochemotherapy. Our findings suggest that electrochemotherapy may offer a safe and effective new tool...

  1. Accelerating cross-validation with total variation and its application to super-resolution imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Obuchi

    Full Text Available We develop an approximation formula for the cross-validation error (CVE of a sparse linear regression penalized by ℓ1-norm and total variation terms, which is based on a perturbative expansion utilizing the largeness of both the data dimensionality and the model. The developed formula allows us to reduce the necessary computational cost of the CVE evaluation significantly. The practicality of the formula is tested through application to simulated black-hole image reconstruction on the event-horizon scale with super resolution. The results demonstrate that our approximation reproduces the CVE values obtained via literally conducted cross-validation with reasonably good precision.

  2. Use of CT scans and treatment planning software for validation of the dose component of food irradiation protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsa, Joseph; Chu, Rod; Sun Jiansheng; Linton, Nick; Hunter, Craig

    2002-01-01

    The challenging problem of estimating the dose delivered to heterogeneous products by radiation modalities of limited penetration can be readily handled by using technologies developed for, and widely used in, radiation therapy applications. In particular, combining CT scanning with radiation treatment planning programs can simulate radiation processing with either photons or electrons, and can provide detailed, high resolution and accurate dose maps for any arbitrary product and package configuration. Such dose maps are an essential part of process validation. Comparison of the simulated dose distributions with measured dose maps verifies the soundness of this approach. The present communication presents results obtained with the simulation technique for a variety of common food items which are likely candidates for radiation processing

  3. Validation and uncertainty analysis of a pre-treatment 2D dose prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Jose A.; Wolfs, Cecile J. A.; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M. J. J. G.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Independent verification of complex treatment delivery with megavolt photon beam radiotherapy (RT) has been effectively used to detect and prevent errors. This work presents the validation and uncertainty analysis of a model that predicts 2D portal dose images (PDIs) without a patient or phantom in the beam. The prediction model is based on an exponential point dose model with separable primary and secondary photon fluence components. The model includes a scatter kernel, off-axis ratio map, transmission values and penumbra kernels for beam-delimiting components. These parameters were derived through a model fitting procedure supplied with point dose and dose profile measurements of radiation fields. The model was validated against a treatment planning system (TPS; Eclipse) and radiochromic film measurements for complex clinical scenarios, including volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Confidence limits on fitted model parameters were calculated based on simulated measurements. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the parameter uncertainties on the model output. For the maximum uncertainty, the maximum deviating measurement sets were propagated through the fitting procedure and the model. The overall uncertainty was assessed using all simulated measurements. The validation of the prediction model against the TPS and the film showed a good agreement, with on average 90.8% and 90.5% of pixels passing a (2%,2 mm) global gamma analysis respectively, with a low dose threshold of 10%. The maximum and overall uncertainty of the model is dependent on the type of clinical plan used as input. The results can be used to study the robustness of the model. A model for predicting accurate 2D pre-treatment PDIs in complex RT scenarios can be used clinically and its uncertainties can be taken into account.

  4. Validation of treatment escalation as a definition of atopic eczema flares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S Thomas

    Full Text Available Atopic eczema (AE is a chronic disease with flares and remissions. Long-term control of AE flares has been identified as a core outcome domain for AE trials. However, it is unclear how flares should be defined and measured.To validate two concepts of AE flares based on daily reports of topical medication use: (i escalation of treatment and (ii days of topical anti-inflammatory medication use (topical corticosteroids and/or calcineurin inhibitors.Data from two published AE studies (studies A (n=336 and B (n=60 were analysed separately. Validity and feasibility of flare definitions were assessed using daily global bother (scale 0 to 10 as the reference standard. Intra-class correlations were reported for continuous variables, and odds ratios and area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for binary outcome measures.Good agreement was found between both AE flare definitions and change in global bother: area under the ROC curve for treatment escalation of 0.70 and 0.73 in studies A and B respectively, and area under the ROC curve of 0.69 for topical anti-inflammatory medication use (Study A only. Significant positive relationships were found between validated severity scales (POEM, SASSAD, TIS and the duration of AE flares occurring in the previous week - POEM and SASSAD rose by half a point for each unit increase in number of days in flare. Smaller increases were observed on the TIS scale. Completeness of daily diaries was 95% for Study A and 60% for Study B over 16 weeks.Both definitions were good proxy indicators of AE flares. We found no evidence that 'escalation of treatment' was a better measure of AE flares than 'use of topical anti-inflammatory medications'. Capturing disease flares in AE trials through daily recording of medication use is feasible and appears to be a good indicator of long-term control.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71423189 (Study A.

  5. Prevalence of diabetes treatment effect modifiers: the external validity of trials to older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carlos O; Boyd, Cynthia M; Wolff, Jennifer L; Leff, Bruce

    2012-08-01

    Potential treatment effect modifiers (TEMs) are specific diseases or conditions with a well-described mechanism for treatment effect modification. The prevalence of TEMs in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. Objectives were to 1) determine the prevalence of pre-specified potential TEMs; 2) demonstrate the potential impact of TEMs in the older adult population using a simulated trial; 3) identify TEM combinations associated with number of hospitalizations to test construct validity. Data are from the nationally-representative United States National Health and Examination Survey, 1999-2004: 8646 Civilian, non-institutionalized adults aged 45-64 or 65+ years, including 1443 with DM. TEMs were anemia, congestive heart failure, liver inflammation, polypharmacy, renal insufficiency, cognitive impairment, dizziness, frequent mental distress, mobility difficulty, and visual impairment. A trial was simulated to examine prevalence of potential TEM impact. The cross-sectional association between TEM patterns and number of hospitalizations was estimated to assess construct validity. The prevalence of TEMs was substantial such that 19.0% (95% CI 14.8-23.2) of middle-aged adults and 38.0% (95% CI 33.4-42.5) of older adults had any two. A simulated trial with modest levels of interaction suggested the prevalence of TEMs could nullify treatment benefit in 3.9-27.2% of older adults with DM. Compared to having DM alone, hospitalization rate was increased by several combinations of TEMs with substantial prevalence. We provide national benchmarks that can be used to evaluate TEM prevalence reported by clinical trials of DM, and correspondingly their external validity to older adults.

  6. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Stephen J., E-mail: sbeebe@odu.edu; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Heller, Richard [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics/Old Dominion University 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States)

    2010-09-27

    Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  7. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Heller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs. EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  8. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, Stephen J.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Heller, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma

  9. Development and validation of a smartphone heart rate acquisition application for health promotion and wellness telehealth applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoski, Mathew J; Mueller, Martina; Vertegel, Alexey; Shaporev, Aleksey; Jackson, Brenda B; Frenzel, Ronja M; Sprehn, Sara M; Treiber, Frank A

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Current generation smartphones' video camera technologies enable photoplethysmographic (PPG) acquisition and heart rate (HR) measurement. The study objective was to develop an Android application and compare HRs derived from a Motorola Droid to electrocardiograph (ECG) and Nonin 9560BT pulse oximeter readings during various movement-free tasks. Materials and Methods. HRs were collected simultaneously from 14 subjects, ages 20 to 58, healthy or with clinical conditions, using the 3 devices during 5-minute periods while at rest, reading aloud under observation, and playing a video game. Correlation between the 3 devices was determined, and Bland-Altman plots for all possible pairs of devices across all conditions assessed agreement. Results. Across conditions, all device pairs showed high correlations. Bland-Altman plots further revealed the Droid as a valid measure for HR acquisition. Across all conditions, the Droid compared to ECG, 95% of the data points (differences between devices) fell within the limits of agreement. Conclusion. The Android application provides valid HRs at varying levels of movement free mental/perceptual motor exertion. Lack of electrode patches or wireless sensor telemetric straps make it advantageous for use in mobile-cell-phone-delivered health promotion and wellness programs. Further validation is needed to determine its applicability while engaging in physical movement-related activities.

  10. Development and Validation of a Smartphone Heart Rate Acquisition Application for Health Promotion and Wellness Telehealth Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J. Gregoski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Current generation smartphones' video camera technologies enable photoplethysmographic (PPG acquisition and heart rate (HR measurement. The study objective was to develop an Android application and compare HRs derived from a Motorola Droid to electrocardiograph (ECG and Nonin 9560BT pulse oximeter readings during various movement-free tasks. Materials and Methods. HRs were collected simultaneously from 14 subjects, ages 20 to 58, healthy or with clinical conditions, using the 3 devices during 5-minute periods while at rest, reading aloud under observation, and playing a video game. Correlation between the 3 devices was determined, and Bland-Altman plots for all possible pairs of devices across all conditions assessed agreement. Results. Across conditions, all device pairs showed high correlations. Bland-Altman plots further revealed the Droid as a valid measure for HR acquisition. Across all conditions, the Droid compared to ECG, 95% of the data points (differences between devices fell within the limits of agreement. Conclusion. The Android application provides valid HRs at varying levels of movement free mental/perceptual motor exertion. Lack of electrode patches or wireless sensor telemetric straps make it advantageous for use in mobile-cell-phone-delivered health promotion and wellness programs. Further validation is needed to determine its applicability while engaging in physical movement-related activities.

  11. Nonthermal effects in thermal treatment applications of nonionizing irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Sharon

    2005-04-01

    Several non-thermal factors influence the primary and secondary effects of interstitial thermal treatments using various types of non-ionizing irradiation. Recognition and understanding of the influences of these various factors are important in choice of energy source, the configuration of the application instrument and the design of treatments.

  12. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN WASTE TREATMENT- A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review is an exposure on the various ways that solar energy can be harnessed for numerous waste treatment processes. Almost all forms of waste treatment require energy which is scarcely available considering the global energy crisis. The objective of this study is to enumerate the solar energy applications in waste ...

  13. Validation of the VERITAS-Pro treatment adherence scale in a Spanish sample population with hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta-Barriuso R

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rubén Cuesta-Barriuso,1–3 Ana Torres-Ortuño,4 Pilar Galindo-Piñana,4 Joaquín Nieto-Munuera,4 Natalie Duncan,5 José Antonio López-Pina6 1Department of Physiotherapy, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, European University of Madrid, 2Fishemo, Centro Especial de Empleo, Spanish Federation of Hemophilia, 3Royal Foundation Victoria Eugenia, Madrid, 4Department of Psychiatry and Social Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; 5Indiana Hemophilia & Thrombosis Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 6Department of Basic Psychology and Methodology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain Purpose: We aimed to conduct a validation in Spanish of the Validated Hemophilia Regimen Treatment Adherence Scale – Prophylaxis (VERITAS-Pro questionnaire for use in patients with hemophilia under prophylactic treatment.Patients and methods: The VERITAS-Pro scale was adapted through a process of back translation from English to Spanish. A bilingual native Spanish translator translated the scale from English to Spanish. Subsequently, a bilingual native English translator translated the scale from Spanish to English. The disagreements were resolved by agreement between the research team and translators. Seventy-three patients with hemophilia, aged 13–62 years, were enrolled in the study. The scale was applied twice (2 months apart to evaluate the test–retest reliability.Results: Internal consistency reliability was lower on the Spanish VERITAS-Pro than on the English version. Test–retest reliability was high, ranging from 0.83 to 0.92. No significant differences (P>0.05 were found between test and retest scores in subscales of VERITAS-Pro. In general, Spanish patients showed higher rates of nonadherence than American patients in all subscales.Conclusion: The Spanish version of the VERITAS-Pro has high levels of consistency and empirical validity. This scale can be administered to assess the degree of

  14. The Development and Validation of a Transformational Leadership Survey for Substance Use Treatment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jennifer R.; Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Directors in substance use treatment programs are increasingly required to respond to external economic and socio-political pressures. Leadership practices that promote innovation can help offset these challenges. Using focus groups, factor analysis, and validation instruments, the current study developed and established psychometrics for the Survey of Transformational Leadership. In 2008, clinical directors were evaluated on leadership practices by 214 counselors within 57 programs in four U.S. regions. Nine themes emerged: integrity, sensible risk, demonstrates innovation, encourages innovation, inspirational motivation, supports others, develops others, delegates tasks, and expects excellence. Study implications, limitations and suggested future directions are discussed. Funding from NIDA. PMID:20509734

  15. Validation of the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS) among Treatment-Seeking Smoker

    OpenAIRE

    Farris, Samantha G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2015-01-01

    The Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS; Gifford et al., 2004) was derived as smoking-specific measure of experiential avoidance. However, there has been little investigation of the psychometric proprieties of the AIS and no published work on the topic. The current study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the AIS among a sample of adult treatment-seeking daily smokers (n = 465; 48.1% female, 17.8 [SD = 9.60] cigarettes per day). The AIS was administered at three time points (Bas...

  16. Development and validation of a clinically applicable score to classify cachexia stages in advanced cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Wang, Bangyan; Liu, Huiquan; Yang, Kaixiang; Thapa, Sudip; Zhang, Haowen; Li, Lu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that is highly prevalent in advanced cancer patients and leads to progressive functional impairments. The classification of cachexia stages is essential for diagnosing and treating cachexia. However, there is a lack of simple tools with good discrimination for classifying cachexia stages. Therefore, our study aimed to develop a clinically applicable cachexia staging score (CSS) and validate its discrimination of clinical outcomes for different cachexia stages. Methods Advanced cancer patients were enrolled in our study. A CSS comprising the following five components was developed: weight loss, a simple questionnaire of sarcopenia (SARC‐F), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, appetite loss, and abnormal biochemistry. According to the CSS, patients were classified into non‐cachexia, pre‐cachexia, cachexia, and refractory cachexia stages, and clinical outcomes were compared among the four groups. Results Of the 297 participating patients, data from 259 patients were ultimately included. Based on the CSS, patients were classified into non‐cachexia (n = 69), pre‐cachexia (n = 68), cachexia (n = 103), and refractory cachexia (n = 19) stages. Patients with more severe cachexia stages had lower skeletal muscle indexes (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004 in male and female patients, respectively), higher prevalence of sarcopenia (P = 0.017 and P = 0.027 in male and female patients, respectively), more severe symptom burden (P cachexia stages. This score is extremely useful for the clinical treatment and prognosis of cachexia and for designing clinical trials. PMID:29372594

  17. DBS-LC-MS/MS assay for caffeine: validation and neonatal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschettini, Matteo; Barco, Sebastiano; Romantsik, Olga; Risso, Francesco; Gennai, Iulian; Chinea, Benito; Ramenghi, Luca A; Tripodi, Gino; Cangemi, Giuliana

    2016-09-01

    DBS might be an appropriate microsampling technique for therapeutic drug monitoring of caffeine in infants. Nevertheless, its application presents several issues that still limit its use. This paper describes a validated DBS-LC-MS/MS method for caffeine. The results of the method validation showed an hematocrit dependence. In the analysis of 96 paired plasma and DBS clinical samples, caffeine levels measured in DBS were statistically significantly lower than in plasma but the observed differences were independent from hematocrit. These results clearly showed the need for extensive validation with real-life samples for DBS-based methods. DBS-LC-MS/MS can be considered to be a good alternative to traditional methods for therapeutic drug monitoring or PK studies in preterm infants.

  18. External validation of the ability of the DRAGON score to predict outcome after thrombolysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovesen, C; Christensen, A; Nielsen, J K; Christensen, H

    2013-11-01

    Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant plasminogen activator between 2009 and 2011 were included. Upon admission all patients underwent physical and neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale along with non-contrast CT scans and CT angiography. Patients were followed up through the Outpatient Clinic and their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was assessed after 3 months. Three hundred and three patients were included in the analysis. The DRAGON scale proved to have a good discriminative ability for predicting highly unfavourable outcome (mRS 5-6) (area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic [AUC-ROC]: 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.96; pDRAGON scale provided good discriminative capability (AUC-ROC: 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-1.0; p=0.003) for highly unfavourable outcome. We confirmed the validity of the DRAGON scale in predicting outcome after thrombolysis treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS) among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; DiBello, Angelo M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-06-01

    The Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS; Gifford et al., 2004) was derived as a smoking-specific measure of experiential avoidance. However, there has been little investigation of the psychometric proprieties of the AIS and no published work on the topic. The current study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the AIS among a sample of adult treatment-seeking daily smokers (n = 465; 48.2% female, 17.8 [SD = 9.60] cigarettes per day). The AIS was administered at 3 time points (baseline, quit-day, and 1 month postquit) as part of a larger smoking cessation trial. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a 2-factor solution, described by inflexibility and avoidance because of smoking related "thoughts/feelings" (9 items) and "somatic sensations" (4 items). Results revealed that the AIS-total and factor scores demonstrated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The AIS total and factor scores also displayed high convergent, discriminant, and incremental predictive validity with theoretically relevant smoking and affective variables. The present data suggest that the AIS measure appears to be a valid and reliable smoking-specific index of experiential avoidance. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Validation of the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS) among Treatment-Seeking Smoker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2015-01-01

    The Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS; Gifford et al., 2004) was derived as smoking-specific measure of experiential avoidance. However, there has been little investigation of the psychometric proprieties of the AIS and no published work on the topic. The current study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the AIS among a sample of adult treatment-seeking daily smokers (n = 465; 48.1% female, 17.8 [SD = 9.60] cigarettes per day). The AIS was administered at three time points (Baseline, Quit day, 1 month post-quit) as part of a larger smoking cessation trial. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor solution, described by inflexibility and avoidance due to smoking related “thoughts/feelings” (9 items) and “somatic sensations” (4 items). Results revealed that the AIS-total and factor scores demonstrated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The AIS total and factor scores also displayed high convergent, discriminant, and incremental predictive validity with theoretically-relevant smoking and affective variables. The present data suggest that the AIS measure appears to be a valid and reliable smoking-specific index of experiential avoidance. PMID:25642937

  1. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)

  2. Bacteriophages-potential for application in wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withey, S.; Cartmell, E.; Avery, L.M.; Stephenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction

  3. Validation of an abbreviated Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9 among patients on antihypertensive medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desrosiers Marie-Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 14-item Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM Version 1.4 is a reliable and valid instrument to assess patients' satisfaction with medication, providing scores on four scales – side effects, effectiveness, convenience and global satisfaction. In naturalistic studies, administering the TSQM with the side effects domain could provoke the physician to assess the presence or absence of adverse events in a way that is clinically atypical, carrying the potential to interfere with routine medical care. As a result, an abbreviated 9-item TSQM (TSQM-9, derived from the TSQM Version 1.4 but without the five items of the side effects domain was created. In this study, an interactive voice response system (IVRS-administered TSQM-9 was psychometrically evaluated among patients taking antihypertensive medication. Methods A total of 3,387 subjects were invited to participate in the study from an online panel who self-reported taking a prescribed antihypertensive medication. The subjects were asked to complete the IVRS-administered TSQM-9 at the start of the study, along with the modified Morisky scale, and again within 7 to 14 days. Standard psychometric analyses were conducted; including Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients, structural equation modeling, Spearman correlation coefficients and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results A total of 396 subjects completed all the study procedures. Approximately 50% subjects were male with a good racial/ethnic mix: 58.3% white, 18.9% black, 17.7% Hispanic and 5.1% either Asian or other. There was evidence of construct validity of the TSQM-9 based on the structural equation modeling findings of the observed data fitting the Decisional Balance Model of Treatment Satisfaction even without the side effects domain. TSQM-9 domains had high internal consistency as evident from Cronbach's alpha values of 0.84 and greater. TSQM-9 domains also demonstrated good test

  4. Lessons learned in the verification, validation and application of a coupled heat and fluid flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    A summary is given of the authors recent studies in the verification, validation and application of a coupled heat and fluid flow code. Verification has been done against eight analytic and semi-analytic solutions. These solutions include those involving thermal buoyancy flow and fracture flow. Comprehensive field validation studies over a period of four years are discussed. The studies are divided into three stages: (1) history matching, (2) double-blind prediction and confirmation, (3) design optimization. At each stage, parameter sensitivity studies are performed. To study the applications of mathematical models, a problem proposed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) is solved using this verified and validated numerical model as well as two simpler models. One of the simpler models is a semi-analytic method assuming the uncoupling of the heat and fluid flow processes. The other is a graphical method based on a large number of approximations. Variations are added to the basic IEA problem to point out the limits of ranges of applications of each model. A number of lessons are learned from the above investigations. These are listed and discussed

  5. Statistical Validation of a Web-Based GIS Application and Its Applicability to Cardiovascular-Related Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is abundant evidence that neighborhood characteristics are significantly linked to the health of the inhabitants of a given space within a given time frame. This study is to statistically validate a web-based GIS application designed to support cardiovascular-related research developed by the NIH funded Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI Translational Research Network (RTRN Data Coordinating Center (DCC and discuss its applicability to cardiovascular studies. Methods: Geo-referencing, geocoding and geospatial analyses were conducted for 500 randomly selected home addresses in a U.S. southeastern Metropolitan area. The correlation coefficient, factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha (α were estimated to quantify measures of the internal consistency, reliability and construct/criterion/discriminant validity of the cardiovascular-related geospatial variables (walk score, number of hospitals, fast food restaurants, parks and sidewalks. Results: Cronbach’s α for CVD GEOSPATIAL variables was 95.5%, implying successful internal consistency. Walk scores were significantly correlated with number of hospitals (r = 0.715; p < 0.0001, fast food restaurants (r = 0.729; p < 0.0001, parks (r = 0.773; p < 0.0001 and sidewalks (r = 0.648; p < 0.0001 within a mile from homes. It was also significantly associated with diversity index (r = 0.138, p = 0.0023, median household incomes (r = −0.181; p < 0.0001, and owner occupied rates (r = −0.440; p < 0.0001. However, its non-significant correlation was found with median age, vulnerability, unemployment rate, labor force, and population growth rate. Conclusion: Our data demonstrates that geospatial data generated by the web-based application were internally consistent and demonstrated satisfactory validity. Therefore, the GIS application may be useful to apply to cardiovascular-related studies aimed to investigate potential impact of geospatial factors on diseases and/or the long

  6. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  7. Validated biomarkers: The key to precision treatment in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael J; O'Donovan, Norma; McDermott, Enda; Crown, John

    2016-10-01

    Recent DNA sequencing and gene expression studies have shown that at a molecular level, almost every case of breast cancer is unique and different from other breast cancers. For optimum management therefore, every patient should receive treatment that is guided by the molecular composition of their tumor, i.e., precision treatment. While such a scenario is still some distance into the future, biomarkers are beginning to play an important role in preparing the way for precision treatment. In particular, biomarkers are increasingly being used for predicting patient outcome and informing as to the most appropriate type of systemic therapy to be administered. Mandatory biomarkers for every newly diagnosed case of breast cancer are estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors in selecting patients for endocrine treatment and HER2 for identifying patients likely to benefit from anti-HER2 therapy. Amongst the best validated prognostic biomarker tests are uPA/PAI-1, MammaPrint and Oncotype DX. Although currently, there are no biomarkers available for predicting response to specific forms of chemotherapy, uPA/PAI-1 and Oncotype DX can aid the identification of lymph node-negative patients that are most likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, in general. In order to accelerate progress towards precision treatment for women with breast cancer, we need additional predictive biomarkers, especially for enhancing the positive predictive value for endocrine and anti-HER2 therapies, as well as biomarkers for predicting response to specific forms of chemotherapy. The ultimate biomarker test for achieving the goal of precision treatment for patients with breast cancer will likely require a combination of gene sequencing and transcriptomic analysis of every patient's tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validity and Reliability of 2 Goniometric Mobile Apps: Device, Application, and Examiner Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmon, Robert H; Gulick, Dawn T; Paterson, Mark L; Gulick, Colleen N

    2016-12-01

    Smartphones are being used in a variety of practice settings to measure joint range of motion (ROM). A number of factors can affect the validity of the measurements generated. However, there are no studies examining smartphone-based goniometer applications focusing on measurement variability and error arising from the electromechanical properties of the device being used. To examine the concurrent validity and interrater reliability of 2 goniometric mobile applications (Goniometer Records, Goniometer Pro), an inclinometer, and a universal goniometer (UG). Nonexperimental, descriptive validation study. University laboratory. 3 physical therapists having an average of 25 y of experience. Three standardized angles (acute, right, obtuse) were constructed to replicate the movement of a hinge joint in the human body. Angular changes were measured and compared across 3 raters who used 3 different devices (UG, inclinometer, and 2 goniometric apps installed on 3 different smartphones: Apple iPhone 5, LG Android, and Samsung SIII Android). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine interrater reliability and concurrent validity. Interrater reliability for each of the smartphone apps, inclinometer and UG were excellent (ICC = .995-1.000). Concurrent validity was also good (ICC = .998-.999). Based on the Bland-Altman plots, the means of the differences between the devices were low (range = -0.4° to 1.2°). This study identifies the error inherent in measurement that is independent of patient factors and due to the smartphone, the installed apps, and examiner skill. Less than 2° of measurement variability was attributable to those factors alone. The data suggest that 3 smartphones with the 2 installed apps are a viable substitute for using a UG or an inclinometer when measuring angular changes that typically occur when examining ROM and demonstrate the capacity of multiple examiners to accurately use smartphone-based goniometers.

  9. Development and validation of a Markov microsimulation model for the economic evaluation of treatments in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Ethgen, Olivier; Bruyère, Olivier; Richy, Florent; Gathon, Henry-Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Markov models are increasingly used in economic evaluations of treatments for osteoporosis. Most of the existing evaluations are cohort-based Markov models missing comprehensive memory management and versatility. In this article, we describe and validate an original Markov microsimulation model to accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We developed a Markov microsimulation model with a lifetime horizon and a direct health-care cost perspective. The patient history was recorded and was used in calculations of transition probabilities, utilities, and costs. To test the internal consistency of the model, we carried out an example calculation for alendronate therapy. Then, external consistency was investigated by comparing absolute lifetime risk of fracture estimates with epidemiologic data. For women at age 70 years, with a twofold increase in the fracture risk of the average population, the costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained for alendronate therapy versus no treatment were estimated at €9105 and €15,325, respectively, under full and realistic adherence assumptions. All the sensitivity analyses in terms of model parameters and modeling assumptions were coherent with expected conclusions and absolute lifetime risk of fracture estimates were within the range of previous estimates, which confirmed both internal and external consistency of the model. Microsimulation models present some major advantages over cohort-based models, increasing the reliability of the results and being largely compatible with the existing state of the art, evidence-based literature. The developed model appears to be a valid model for use in economic evaluations in osteoporosis.

  10. Validation and application of the system code ATHLET-CD for BWR severe accident analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Marcello, Valentino, E-mail: valentino.marcello@kit.edu; Imke, Uwe; Sanchez, Victor

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We present the application of the system code ATHLET-CD code for BWR safety analyses. • Validation of core in-vessel models is performed based on KIT CORA experiments. • A SB-LOCA scenario is simulated on a generic German BWR plant up to vessel failure. • Different core reflooding possibilities are investigated to mitigate the accident consequences. • ATHLET-CD modelling features reflect the current state of the art of severe accident codes. - Abstract: This paper is aimed at the validation and application of the system code ATHLET-CD for the simulation of severe accident phenomena in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The corresponding models for core degradation behaviour e.g., oxidation, melting and relocation of core structural components are validated against experimental data available from the CORA-16 and -17 bundle tests. Model weaknesses are discussed along with needs for further code improvements. With the validated ATHLET-CD code, calculations are performed to assess the code capabilities for the prediction of in-vessel late phase core behaviour and reflooding of damaged fuel rods. For this purpose, a small break LOCA scenario for a generic German BWR with postulated multiple failures of the safety systems was selected. In the analysis, accident management measures represented by cold water injection into the damaged reactor core are addressed to investigate the efficacy in avoiding or delaying the failure of the reactor pressure vessel. Results show that ATHLET-CD is applicable to the description of BWR plant behaviour with reliable physical models and numerical methods adopted for the description of key in-vessel phenomena.

  11. An approach to verification and validation of MHD codes for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolentsev, S., E-mail: sergey@fusion.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Badia, S. [Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en Enginyeria, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech (Spain); Bhattacharyay, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Bühler, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Chen, L. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Huang, Q. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Jin, H.-G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Krasnov, D. [Technische Universität Ilmenau (Germany); Lee, D.-W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mas de les Valls, E. [Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en Enginyeria, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech (Spain); Mistrangelo, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Munipalli, R. [HyPerComp, Westlake Village (United States); Ni, M.-J. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Pashkevich, D. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Patel, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech (Spain); Pulugundla, G. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Satyamurthy, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center (India); Snegirev, A. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Sviridov, V. [Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Russian Federation); Swain, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center (India); and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Review of status of MHD codes for fusion applications. • Selection of five benchmark problems. • Guidance for verification and validation of MHD codes for fusion applications. - Abstract: We propose a new activity on verification and validation (V&V) of MHD codes presently employed by the fusion community as a predictive capability tool for liquid metal cooling applications, such as liquid metal blankets. The important steps in the development of MHD codes starting from the 1970s are outlined first and then basic MHD codes, which are currently in use by designers of liquid breeder blankets, are reviewed. A benchmark database of five problems has been proposed to cover a wide range of MHD flows from laminar fully developed to turbulent flows, which are of interest for fusion applications: (A) 2D fully developed laminar steady MHD flow, (B) 3D laminar, steady developing MHD flow in a non-uniform magnetic field, (C) quasi-two-dimensional MHD turbulent flow, (D) 3D turbulent MHD flow, and (E) MHD flow with heat transfer (buoyant convection). Finally, we introduce important details of the proposed activities, such as basic V&V rules and schedule. The main goal of the present paper is to help in establishing an efficient V&V framework and to initiate benchmarking among interested parties. The comparison results computed by the codes against analytical solutions and trusted experimental and numerical data as well as code-to-code comparisons will be presented and analyzed in companion paper/papers.

  12. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Water on Earth is a precious and finite resource, which is endlessly recycled in the water cycle. Water, whose physical, chemical, or biological properties have been altered due to the addition of contaminants such as organic/inorganic materials, pathogens, heavy metals or other toxins making it unsafe for the ecosystem, can be termed as wastewater. Various schemes have been adopted by industries across the world to treat wastewater prior to its release to the ecosystem, and several new concepts and technologies are fast replacing the traditional methods. This article briefly reviews the recent advances and application of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials typically have high reactivity and a high degree of functionalization, large specific surface area, size-dependent properties etc., which makes them suitable for applications in wastewater treatment and for water purification. In this article, the application of various nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolite, filtration membranes, etc., in the field of wastewater treatment is discussed.

  13. Application of environmental isotopes to validate a model of regional groundwater flow and transport (Carrizo Aquifer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    It is asserted that models cannot be validated. This seems obvious if one identifies validation as the process of testing a model against absolute truth, and accepts that absolute truth is less a scientific than a philosophic or religious concept. What is here called model validation has a more modest goal - to develop confidence in the conceptual and mathematical models used to describe a groundwater system by illustrating that measured radiochemical properties of the groundwater match those predicted by the model. The system described is the Carrizo sand in the Gulf Coastal Plain of south Texas. Each element of the modelling chain describing the movement of 14 C is confirmed independently and, thus, can be said to be validated. The groundwater ages, and the 14 C measurements and carbonate geochemical model underlying them, are confirmed by the noble gas measurements, while the flow and transport model is confirmed by the 14 C results. Agreement between the modelled and measured 234 U/ 238 U ratios supports the description of U transport used in the modelling, while the need to use an unexpectedly low K D value for U raises questions about the applicability of laboratory K D data to the Carrizo groundwater system. (author)

  14. Applications of autoassociative neural networks for signal validation in accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, P.; Mazzola, A.

    1994-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has been working for several years with computer based systems for determination on plant status including early fault detection and signal validation. The method here presented explores the possibility to use a neural network approach to validate important process signals during normal and abnormal plant conditions. In BWR plants, signal validation has two important applications: reliable thermal limits calculation and reliable inputs to other computerized systems that support the operator during accident scenarious. This work shows how a properly trained autoassociative neural network can promptly detect faulty process signal measurements and produce a best estimate of the actual process value. Noise has been artificially added to the input to evaluate the network ability to respond in a very low signal to noise ratio environment. Training and test datasets have been simulated by the real time transient simulator code APROS. Future development addresses the validation of the model through the use of real data from the plant. (author). 5 refs, 17 figs

  15. Applicability of U.S. Army tracer test data to model validation needs of ERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, D.L.; Minott, D.H.

    1976-06-01

    This report covers the first phase of an atmospheric dispersion model validation project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The project will employ dispersion data generated during an extensive series of field tracer experiments that were part of a meteorological research program which was conducted by the U. S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, from the late 1950's to the early 1970's. The tests were conducted at several locations in the U. S., South America, Germany, and Norway chosen to typify the effects of certain environmental factors on atmospheric dispersion. The purpose of the Phase I work of this project was to identify applicable portions of the Army data, obtain and review that data, and make recommendations for its uses for atmospheric dispersion model validations. This report presents key information in three formats. The first is a tabular listing of the Army dispersion test reports summarizing the test data contained in each report. This listing is presented in six separate tables with each tabular list representing a different topical area that is based on model validation requirements and the nature of the Army data base. The second format for presenting key information is a series of discussions of the Army test information assigned to each of the six topical areas. These discussions relate the extent and quality of the available data, as well as its prospective use for model validation. The third format is a series of synopses for each Army test report

  16. Recent advances in modeling and validation of nuclear thermal-hydraulics applications with NEPTUNE CFD - 15471

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guingo, M.; Baudry, C.; Hassanaly, M.; Lavieville, J.; Mechitouna, N.; Merigoux, N.; Mimouni, S.; Bestion, D.; Coste, P.; Morel, C.

    2015-01-01

    NEPTUNE CFD is a Computational Multi-(Fluid) Dynamics code dedicated to the simulation of multiphase flows, primarily targeting nuclear thermo-hydraulics applications, such as the departure from nuclear boiling (DNB) or the two-phase Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS). It is co-developed within the joint research/development project NEPTUNE (AREVA, CEA, EDF, IRSN) since 2001. Over the years, to address the aforementioned applications, dedicated physical models and numerical methods have been developed and implemented in the code, including specific sets of models for turbulent boiling flows and two-phase non-adiabatic stratified flows. This paper aims at summarizing the current main modeling capabilities of the code, and gives an overview of the associated validation database. A brief summary of emerging applications of the code, such as containment simulation during a potential severe accident or in-vessel retention, is also provided. (authors)

  17. Multicentre validation of IMRT pre-treatment verification: Comparison of in-house and external audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jornet, Núria; Carrasco, Pablo; Beltrán, Mercè; Calvo, Juan Francisco; Escudé, Lluís; Hernández, Victor; Quera, Jaume; Sáez, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: We performed a multicentre intercomparison of IMRT optimisation and dose planning and IMRT pre-treatment verification methods and results. The aims were to check consistency between dose plans and to validate whether in-house pre-treatment verification results agreed with those of an external audit. Materials and methods: Participating centres used two mock cases (prostate and head and neck) for the intercomparison and audit. Compliance to dosimetric goals and total number of MU per plan were collected. A simple quality index to compare the different plans was proposed. We compared gamma index pass rates using the centre’s equipment and methodology to those of an external audit. Results: While for the prostate case, all centres fulfilled the dosimetric goals and plan quality was homogeneous, that was not the case for the head and neck case. The number of MU did not correlate with the plan quality index. Pre-treatment verifications results of the external audit did not agree with those of the in-house measurements for two centres: being within tolerance for in-house measurements and unacceptable for the audit or the other way round. Conclusions: Although all plans fulfilled dosimetric constraints, plan quality is highly dependent on the planner expertise. External audits are an excellent tool to detect errors in IMRT implementation and cannot be replaced by intercomparison using results obtained by centres

  18. Validation and implementation of model based control strategies at an industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demey, D; Vanderhaegen, B; Vanhooren, H; Liessens, J; Van Eyck, L; Hopkins, L; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the practical implementation and validation of advanced control strategies, designed using model based techniques, at an industrial wastewater treatment plant is demonstrated. The plant under study is treating the wastewater of a large pharmaceutical production facility. The process characteristics of the wastewater treatment were quantified by means of tracer tests, intensive measurement campaigns and the use of on-line sensors. In parallel, a dynamical model of the complete wastewater plant was developed according to the specific kinetic characteristics of the sludge and the highly varying composition of the industrial wastewater. Based on real-time data and dynamic models, control strategies for the equalisation system, the polymer dosing and phosphorus addition were established. The control strategies are being integrated in the existing SCADA system combining traditional PLC technology with robust PC based control calculations. The use of intelligent control in wastewater treatment offers a wide spectrum of possibilities to upgrade existing plants, to increase the capacity of the plant and to eliminate peaks. This can result in a more stable and secure overall performance and, finally, in cost savings. The use of on-line sensors has a potential not only for monitoring concentrations, but also for manipulating flows and concentrations. This way the performance of the plant can be secured.

  19. Phase-II Clinical Validation of a Powered Exoskeleton for the Treatment of Elbow Spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Simona; Cempini, Marco; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Posteraro, Federico; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Spasticity is a typical motor disorder in patients affected by stroke. Typically post-stroke rehabilitation consists of repetition of mobilization exercises on impaired limbs, aimed to reduce muscle hypertonia and mitigate spastic reflexes. It is currently strongly debated if the treatment's effectiveness improves with the timeliness of its adoption; in particular, starting intensive rehabilitation as close as possible to the stroke event may counteract the growth and postpone the onset of spasticity. In this paper we present a phase-II clinical validation of a robotic exoskeleton in treating subacute post-stroke patients. Methods: Seventeen post-stroke patients participated in 10 daily rehabilitation sessions using the NEUROExos Elbow Module exoskeleton, each one lasting 45 min: the exercises consisted of isokinetic passive mobilization of the elbow, with torque threshold to detect excessive user's resistance to the movement. We investigated the safety by reporting possible adverse events, such as mechanical, electrical or software failures of the device or injuries or pain experienced by the patient. As regards the efficacy , the Modified Ashworth Scale, was identified as primary outcome measure and the NEEM metrics describing elbow joint resistance to passive extension (i.e., maximum extension torque and zero-torque angle) as secondary outcomes. Results: During the entire duration of the treatments no failures or adverse events for the patients were reported. No statistically significant differences were found in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores, between pre-treatment and post-treatment and between post-treatment and follow-up sessions, indicating the absence of spasticity increase throughout (14 days) and after (3-4 months follow-up) the treatment. Exoskeleton metrics confirmed the absence of significant difference in between pre- and post-treatment data, whereas intra-session data highlighted significant differences in the secondary outcomes

  20. Phase-II Clinical Validation of a Powered Exoskeleton for the Treatment of Elbow Spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Crea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spasticity is a typical motor disorder in patients affected by stroke. Typically post-stroke rehabilitation consists of repetition of mobilization exercises on impaired limbs, aimed to reduce muscle hypertonia and mitigate spastic reflexes. It is currently strongly debated if the treatment's effectiveness improves with the timeliness of its adoption; in particular, starting intensive rehabilitation as close as possible to the stroke event may counteract the growth and postpone the onset of spasticity. In this paper we present a phase-II clinical validation of a robotic exoskeleton in treating subacute post-stroke patients.Methods: Seventeen post-stroke patients participated in 10 daily rehabilitation sessions using the NEUROExos Elbow Module exoskeleton, each one lasting 45 min: the exercises consisted of isokinetic passive mobilization of the elbow, with torque threshold to detect excessive user's resistance to the movement. We investigated the safety by reporting possible adverse events, such as mechanical, electrical or software failures of the device or injuries or pain experienced by the patient. As regards the efficacy, the Modified Ashworth Scale, was identified as primary outcome measure and the NEEM metrics describing elbow joint resistance to passive extension (i.e., maximum extension torque and zero-torque angle as secondary outcomes.Results: During the entire duration of the treatments no failures or adverse events for the patients were reported. No statistically significant differences were found in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores, between pre-treatment and post-treatment and between post-treatment and follow-up sessions, indicating the absence of spasticity increase throughout (14 days and after (3–4 months follow-up the treatment. Exoskeleton metrics confirmed the absence of significant difference in between pre- and post-treatment data, whereas intra-session data highlighted significant differences in the

  1. Dosimetric validation of Monaco treatment planning system on an Elekta VersaHD linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Saenz, Daniel L; Defoor, Dewayne; Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform dosimetric validation of Monaco treatment planning system version 5.1. The Elekta VersaHD linear accelerator with high dose rate flattening filter-free photon modes and electron energies was used in this study. The dosimetric output of the new Agility head combined with the FFF photon modes warranted this investigation into the dosimetric accuracy prior to clinical usage. A model of the VersaHD linac was created in Monaco TPS by Elekta using commissioned beam data including percent depth dose curves, beam profiles, and output factors. A variety of 3D conformal fields were created in Monaco TPS on a combined Plastic water/Styrofoam phantom and validated against measurements with a calibrated ion chamber. Some of the parameters varied including source to surface distance, field size, wedges, gantry angle, and depth for all photon and electron energies. In addition, a series of step and shoot IMRT, VMAT test plans, and patient plans on various anatomical sites were verified against measurements on a Delta 4 diode array. The agreement in point dose measurements was within 2% for all photon and electron energies in the homogeneous phantom and within 3% for photon energies in the heterogeneous phantom. The mean ± SD gamma passing rates of IMRT test fields yielded 93.8 ± 4.7% based on 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance-to-agreement criteria. Eight previously treated IMRT patient plans were replanned in Monaco TPS and five measurements on each yielded an average gamma passing rate of 95% with 6.7% confidence limit based on 3%, 3 mm gamma criteria. This investigation on dosimetric validation ensures accuracy of modeling VersaHD linac in Monaco TPS thereby improving patient safety. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Methodology for validating technical tools to assess customer Demand Response: Application to a commercial customer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Segura-Heras, Isidoro

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a methodology, which is demonstrated with some applications to the commercial sector, in order to validate a Demand Response (DR) evaluation method previously developed and applied to a wide range of industrial and commercial segments, whose flexibility was evaluated by modeling. DR is playing a more and more important role in the framework of electricity systems management for the effective integration of other distributed energy resources. Consequently, customers must identify what they are using the energy for in order to use their flexible loads for management purposes. Modeling tools are used to predict the impact of flexibility on the behavior of customers, but this result needs to be validated since both customers and grid operators have to be confident in these flexibility predictions. An easy-to-use two-steps method to achieve this goal is presented in this paper.

  3. Complex Systems Models and Their Applications: Towards a New Science of Verification, Validation & Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trucano, Timothy G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kleban, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naugle, Asmeret Bier [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Curtis M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gabert, Kasimir Georg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Wei [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); DeLaurentis, Daniel [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hubler, Alfred [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Oberkampf, Bill [WLO Consulting, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report contains the written footprint of a Sandia-hosted workshop held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 22-23, 2016 on “Complex Systems Models and Their Applications: Towards a New Science of Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification,” as well as of pre-work that fed into the workshop. The workshop’s intent was to explore and begin articulating research opportunities at the intersection between two important Sandia communities: the complex systems (CS) modeling community, and the verification, validation and uncertainty quantification (VVUQ) community The overarching research opportunity (and challenge) that we ultimately hope to address is: how can we quantify the credibility of knowledge gained from complex systems models, knowledge that is often incomplete and interim, but will nonetheless be used, sometimes in real-time, by decision makers?

  4. Is the Oswestry Disability Index a valid measure of response to sacroiliac joint treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copay, Anne G; Cher, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    Disease-specific measures of the impact of sacroiliac (SI) joint pain on back/pelvis function are not available. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a validated functional measure for lower back pain, but its responsiveness to SI joint treatment has yet to be established. We sought to assess the validity of ODI to capture disability caused by SI joint pain and the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) after SI joint treatment. Patients (n = 155) participating in a prospective clinical trial of minimally invasive SI joint fusion underwent baseline and follow-up assessments using ODI, visual analog scale (VAS) pain assessment, Short Form 36 (SF-36), EuroQoL-5D, and questions (at follow-up only) regarding satisfaction with the SI joint fusion and whether the patient would have the fusion surgery again. All outcomes were compared from baseline to 12 months postsurgery. The health transition item of the SF-36 and the satisfaction scale were used as external anchors to calculate MCID. MCID was estimated for ODI using four calculation methods: (1) minimum detectable change, (2) average ODI change of patients' subsets, (3) change difference between patients' subsets, and (4) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. After SI fusion, patients improved significantly (p disability caused by SI pain. We estimated the MCID for ODI to be 13-15 points, which falls within the range of that previously reported for lumbar back pain and indicates that an improvement in disability should be at least 15 % to be beyond random variation.

  5. Measurement-based Treatment of Residual Symptoms Using Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale: Korean Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seo Young; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Park, Yong Chon; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Ko, Seung-Duk; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic validity of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) with varying follow-up in a typical clinical setting in multiple centers. Methods In total, 891 psychiatric outpatients were enrolled at the time of their intake appointment. Current diagnostic characteristics were examined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (41% major depressive disorder). The CUDOS was measured and compared with three clinician rating scales and four self-report scales. Results The CUDOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α, 0.91), test-retest reliability (patients at intake, r=0.81; depressed patients in ongoing treatment, r=0.89), and convergent and discriminant validity (measures of depression, r=0.80; measures of anxiety and somatization, r=0.42). The CUDOS had a high ability to discriminate between different levels of depression severity based on the rating of Clinical Global Impression for depression severity and the diagnostic classification of major depression, minor depression, and non-depression. The ability of the CUDOS to identify patients with major depression was high (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.867). A score of 20 as the optimal cutoff point was suggested when screening for major depression using the CUDOS (sensitivity=89.9%, specificity=69.5%). The CUDOS was sensitive to change after antidepressant treatment: patients with greater improvement showed a greater decrease in CUDOS scores (p<0.001). Conclusion The results of this multi-site outpatient study found that the Korean version of the CUDOS is a very useful measurement for research and for clinical practice. PMID:28138107

  6. Industrial waste treatment and application in rubber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, I. N.; Popova, L. V.; Repin, P. S.; Molokanova, L. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper provides for the relevance of various industrial waste treatment and application, as well as their secondary commercialization. It considers treatment of secondary polymer materials turning to additives applied in rubber production, in particular, in production of conveyor and V-type belts used in mechanical engineering. It is found that oligomers obtained from petroleum by-products can be used as an impregnating compound for fiber materials. Such adhesive treatment prior to introduction of impregnating compounds into elastomeric materials improves adhesion and complements performance of obtained composites.

  7. Predicting environmental aspects of CCSR leachates through the application of scientifically valid leaching protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassett, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The disposal of solid wastes from energy production, particularly solid wastes from coal conversion processes, requires a thorough understanding of the waste material as well as the disposal environment. Many coal conversion solid residues (CCSRs) have chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties advantageous for use as engineering construction materials and in other industrial applications. If disposal is to be the final disposition of CCSRs from any source, the very properties that can make ash useful also contribute to behavior that must be understood for scientifically logical and environmentally responsible disposal. This paper describes the application of scientifically valid leaching and characterization tests designed to predict field phenomena. The key to proper characterization of these unique materials is the recognition of and compensation for the hydration reactions that can occur during long-term leaching. Many of these reactions, such as the formation of the mineral ettringite, can have a profound effect on the concentration of potentially problematic trace elements such as boron, chromium, and selenium. The mobility of these elements, which may be concentrated in CCSRs due to the conversion process, must be properly evaluated for the formation of informed and scientifically sound decisions regarding safe disposal. Groundwater is an extremely important and relatively scarce resource. Contamination of this resource is a threat to life, which is highly dependent on it, so management of materials that can impact groundwater must be carefully planned and executed. The application of scientifically valid leaching protocols and complete testing are critical to proper waste management

  8. Validation of physics and thermalhydraulic computer codes for advanced Candu reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, D.J.; Popov, N.; Snell, V.G.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is developing an Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR) that is an evolutionary advancement of the currently operating Candu 6 reactors. The ACR is being designed to produce electrical power for a capital cost and at a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current reactor designs. The ACR retains the modular Candu concept of horizontal fuel channels surrounded by a heavy water moderator. However, ACR uses slightly enriched uranium fuel compared to the natural uranium used in Candu 6. This achieves the twin goals of improved economics (via large reductions in the heavy water moderator volume and replacement of the heavy water coolant with light water coolant) and improved safety. AECL has developed and implemented a software quality assurance program to ensure that its analytical, scientific and design computer codes meet the required standards for software used in safety analyses. Since the basic design of the ACR is equivalent to that of the Candu 6, most of the key phenomena associated with the safety analyses of ACR are common, and the Candu industry standard tool-set of safety analysis codes can be applied to the analysis of the ACR. A systematic assessment of computer code applicability addressing the unique features of the ACR design was performed covering the important aspects of the computer code structure, models, constitutive correlations, and validation database. Arising from this assessment, limited additional requirements for code modifications and extensions to the validation databases have been identified. This paper provides an outline of the AECL software quality assurance program process for the validation of computer codes used to perform physics and thermal-hydraulics safety analyses of the ACR. It describes the additional validation work that has been identified for these codes and the planned, and ongoing, experimental programs to extend the code validation as required to address specific ACR design

  9. Applicability of Solid Solution Heat Treatments to Aluminum Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rodríguez-Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present research work evaluates the influence of both density and size on the treatability of Aluminum-based (6000 series foam-parts subjected to a typical solid solution heat treatment (water quenching. The results are compared with those obtained for the bulk alloy, evaluating the fulfilment of cooling requirements. Density of the foams was modeled by tomography analysis and the thermal properties calculated, based on validated density-scaled models. With this basis, cooling velocity maps during water quenching were predicted by finite element modeling (FEM in which boundary conditions were obtained by solving the inverse heat conduction problem. Simulations under such conditions have been validated experimentally. Obtained results address incomplete matrix hardening for foam-parts bigger than 70 mm in diameter with a density below 650 kg/m3. An excellent agreement has been found in between the predicted cooling maps and final measured microhardness profiles.

  10. Reliability and validity of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication among Portuguese-speaking Brazilian patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer Liberato, Ana Carolina; Cunha Matheus Rodrigues, Roberta; Kim, MyoungJin; Mallory, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4) among patients with hypertension. Understanding the patient experience with treatment satisfaction will contribute to improved medication adherence and control of hypertension. Hypertension is a serious problem in Brazil that is associated with chronic illness controlled, in part, by consistent adherence to medications. Patient satisfaction with medication treatment is associated with adherence to medication. The Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4) is a promising instrument for measuring medication; however, to date there has been no report of the reliability and validity of the instrument with Portuguese-speaking adults with hypertension in Brazil. Cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study. A convenience sample of 300 patients with hypertension in an outpatient setting in the southeast region of São Paulo state in Brazil completed the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4). The instrument, comprised of four subscales, was evaluated for reliability using correlation analyses and internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine factorial validity. Correlational analyses, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis demonstrate adequate support for the four-factor dimensionality, reliability and factorial validity of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4). This study provides modest evidence for internal consistency and factorial validity of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4) in Portuguese-speaking adult Brazilians with hypertension. Future testing should focus on extending reliability testing, discriminant validity and potential translation and literacy issues in this population. Within known limitations, clinicians will

  11. Laser surface treatment of grey cast iron for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Tang, P.N.; de Boer, M.C.; de Oliveira, U.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    The surface of pearlitic grey cast iron was treated using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser beam with the final aim to improve its surface properties, mainly for automotive applications. Two kinds of laser surface treatments were experimentally applied. In the laser surface hardening approach the surface of cast

  12. Assiut Experience in the Application of Holmium Laser in Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assiut Experience in the Application of Holmium Laser in Treatment of Ureteral Calculi in Adults. A.M. Abdel Lateef, A.E. Abdel Moniem, M.I. Taha, M.A. Shalaby. Abstract. Internal Optical Urethrotomy at the National Medical Center of Sanou Souro in Bobo-Dioulasso: Feasibility, Safety and Short-Term Results Objective To ...

  13. Validation of differential gene expression algorithms: Application comparing fold-change estimation to hypothesis testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bickel David R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained research on the problem of determining which genes are differentially expressed on the basis of microarray data has yielded a plethora of statistical algorithms, each justified by theory, simulation, or ad hoc validation and yet differing in practical results from equally justified algorithms. Recently, a concordance method that measures agreement among gene lists have been introduced to assess various aspects of differential gene expression detection. This method has the advantage of basing its assessment solely on the results of real data analyses, but as it requires examining gene lists of given sizes, it may be unstable. Results Two methodologies for assessing predictive error are described: a cross-validation method and a posterior predictive method. As a nonparametric method of estimating prediction error from observed expression levels, cross validation provides an empirical approach to assessing algorithms for detecting differential gene expression that is fully justified for large numbers of biological replicates. Because it leverages the knowledge that only a small portion of genes are differentially expressed, the posterior predictive method is expected to provide more reliable estimates of algorithm performance, allaying concerns about limited biological replication. In practice, the posterior predictive method can assess when its approximations are valid and when they are inaccurate. Under conditions in which its approximations are valid, it corroborates the results of cross validation. Both comparison methodologies are applicable to both single-channel and dual-channel microarrays. For the data sets considered, estimating prediction error by cross validation demonstrates that empirical Bayes methods based on hierarchical models tend to outperform algorithms based on selecting genes by their fold changes or by non-hierarchical model-selection criteria. (The latter two approaches have comparable

  14. Nonparametric model validations for hidden Markov models with applications in financial econometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhibiao

    2011-06-01

    We address the nonparametric model validation problem for hidden Markov models with partially observable variables and hidden states. We achieve this goal by constructing a nonparametric simultaneous confidence envelope for transition density function of the observable variables and checking whether the parametric density estimate is contained within such an envelope. Our specification test procedure is motivated by a functional connection between the transition density of the observable variables and the Markov transition kernel of the hidden states. Our approach is applicable for continuous time diffusion models, stochastic volatility models, nonlinear time series models, and models with market microstructure noise.

  15. Verification and validation as an integral part of the development of digital systems for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straker, E.A.; Thomas, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear industry's current attitude toward verification and validation (V and V) is realized through the experiences gained to date. On the basis of these experiences, V and V can effectively be applied as an integral part of digital system development for nuclear electric power applications. An overview of a typical approach for integrating V and V with system development is presented. This approach represents a balance between V and V as applied in the aerospace industry and the standard practice commonly applied within the nuclear industry today

  16. The nature thickness pipe element testing method to validate the application of LBB conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilchenko, G.S.; Artemyev, V.I.; Merinov, G.N. [and others

    1997-04-01

    To validate the application of leak before break analysis to the VVER-1000 reactor, a procedure for testing a large-scale specimen on electrohydraulic machinery was developed. Steel pipe with a circular weld and stainless cladding inside was manufactured and large-scale longitudinal cross-sections were cut. The remaining parts of the weld after cut out were used to determination standard tensile mechanical properties, critical temperature of brittlness and for manufacture of compact specimens. Experimental mechanical properties of the weld are summarized.

  17. The nature thickness pipe element testing method to validate the application of LBB conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, G.S.; Artemyev, V.I.; Merinov, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    To validate the application of leak before break analysis to the VVER-1000 reactor, a procedure for testing a large-scale specimen on electrohydraulic machinery was developed. Steel pipe with a circular weld and stainless cladding inside was manufactured and large-scale longitudinal cross-sections were cut. The remaining parts of the weld after cut out were used to determination standard tensile mechanical properties, critical temperature of brittlness and for manufacture of compact specimens. Experimental mechanical properties of the weld are summarized

  18. Validation of the AGDISP model for predicting airborne atrazine spray drift: a South African ground application case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nsibande, SA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Air dispersion software models for evaluating pesticide spray drift during application have been developed that can potentially serve as a cheaper convenient alternative to field monitoring campaigns. Such models require validation against field...

  19. Toward validation of the cepstral spectral index of dysphonia (CSID) as an objective treatment outcomes measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Elizabeth A; Roy, Nelson; Awan, Shaheen N; Merrill, Ray M; Banks, Russell; Tanner, Kristine

    2013-07-01

    To examine the validity of the Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID) as an objective treatment outcomes measure of dysphonia severity. Pre- and posttreatment samples of sustained vowel and connected speech productions were elicited from 112 patients across six diagnostic categories: unilateral vocal fold paralysis, adductor spasmodic dysphonia, primary muscle tension dysphonia, benign vocal fold lesions, presbylaryngis, and mutational falsetto. Listener ratings of severity in connected speech were compared with a three-factor CSID model consisting of the cepstral peak prominence (CPP), the low-to-high spectral energy ratio, and its standard deviation. Two additional variables, the CPP standard deviation and gender, were included in the five-factor CSID model to estimate severity of vowels. CSID-estimated severity for sustained vowels and connected speech was strongly associated with listener ratings pretreatment, posttreatment, and change observed pre- to posttreatment. Spectrum effects were examined, and severity of dysphonia did not influence the relationship between listener perceived severity and CSID-estimated severity. The results confirm a robust relationship between listener perceived and CSID-derived dysphonia severity estimates in sustained vowels and connected speech across diverse diagnoses and severity levels and support the clinical utility of the CSID as an objective treatment outcomes measure. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An accurate calibration method of the multileaf collimator valid for conformal and intensity modulated radiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastre-Padro, Maria; Heide, Uulke A van der; Welleweerd, Hans [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-06-21

    Because for IMRT treatments the required accuracy on leaf positioning is high, conventional calibration methods may not be appropriate. The aim of this study was to develop the tools for an accurate MLC calibration valid for conventional and IMRT treatments and to investigate the stability of the MLC. A strip test consisting of nine adjacent segments 2 cm wide, separated by 1 mm and exposed on Kodak X-Omat V films at D{sub max} depth, was used for detecting leaf-positioning errors. Dose profiles along the leaf-axis were taken for each leaf-pair. We measured the dose variation on each abutment to quantify the relative positioning error (RPE) and the absolute position of the abutment to quantify the absolute positioning error (APE). The accuracy of determining the APE and RPE was 0.15 and 0.04 mm, respectively. Using the RPE and the APE the MLC calibration parameters were calculated in order to obtain a flat profile on the abutment at the correct position. A conventionally calibrated Elekta MLC was re-calibrated using the strip test. The stability of the MLC and leaf-positioning reproducibility was investigated exposing films with 25 adjacent segments 1 cm wide during three months and measuring the standard deviation of the RPE values. A maximum shift over the three months of 0.27 mm was observed and the standard deviation of the RPE values was 0.11 mm.

  1. An accurate calibration method of the multileaf collimator valid for conformal and intensity modulated radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre-Padro, Maria; Heide, Uulke A van der; Welleweerd, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Because for IMRT treatments the required accuracy on leaf positioning is high, conventional calibration methods may not be appropriate. The aim of this study was to develop the tools for an accurate MLC calibration valid for conventional and IMRT treatments and to investigate the stability of the MLC. A strip test consisting of nine adjacent segments 2 cm wide, separated by 1 mm and exposed on Kodak X-Omat V films at D max depth, was used for detecting leaf-positioning errors. Dose profiles along the leaf-axis were taken for each leaf-pair. We measured the dose variation on each abutment to quantify the relative positioning error (RPE) and the absolute position of the abutment to quantify the absolute positioning error (APE). The accuracy of determining the APE and RPE was 0.15 and 0.04 mm, respectively. Using the RPE and the APE the MLC calibration parameters were calculated in order to obtain a flat profile on the abutment at the correct position. A conventionally calibrated Elekta MLC was re-calibrated using the strip test. The stability of the MLC and leaf-positioning reproducibility was investigated exposing films with 25 adjacent segments 1 cm wide during three months and measuring the standard deviation of the RPE values. A maximum shift over the three months of 0.27 mm was observed and the standard deviation of the RPE values was 0.11 mm

  2. Validation of an algorithm-based definition of treatment resistance in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajnakina, Olesya; Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Lally, John; MacCabe, James H; Murray, Robin M; Gasse, Christiane; Wimberley, Theresa

    2018-02-19

    Large-scale pharmacoepidemiological research on treatment resistance relies on accurate identification of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) based on data that are retrievable from administrative registers. This is usually approached by operationalising clinical treatment guidelines by using prescription and hospital admission information. We examined the accuracy of an algorithm-based definition of TRS based on clozapine prescription and/or meeting algorithm-based eligibility criteria for clozapine against a gold standard definition using case notes. We additionally validated a definition entirely based on clozapine prescription. 139 schizophrenia patients aged 18-65years were followed for a mean of 5years after first presentation to psychiatric services in South-London, UK. The diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm-based measure against the gold standard was measured with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). A total of 45 (32.4%) schizophrenia patients met the criteria for the gold standard definition of TRS; applying the algorithm-based definition to the same cohort led to 44 (31.7%) patients fulfilling criteria for TRS with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 62.2%, 83.0%, 63.6% and 82.1%, respectively. The definition based on lifetime clozapine prescription had sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 40.0%, 94.7%, 78.3% and 76.7%, respectively. Although a perfect definition of TRS cannot be derived from available prescription and hospital registers, these results indicate that researchers can confidently use registries to identify individuals with TRS for research and clinical practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Calibration and validation of coarse-grained models of atomic systems: application to semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kathryn; Oden, J. Tinsley

    2014-07-01

    Coarse-grained models of atomic systems, created by aggregating groups of atoms into molecules to reduce the number of degrees of freedom, have been used for decades in important scientific and technological applications. In recent years, interest in developing a more rigorous theory for coarse graining and in assessing the predictivity of coarse-grained models has arisen. In this work, Bayesian methods for the calibration and validation of coarse-grained models of atomistic systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are developed. For specificity, only configurational models of systems in canonical ensembles are considered. Among major challenges in validating coarse-grained models are (1) the development of validation processes that lead to information essential in establishing confidence in the model's ability predict key quantities of interest and (2), above all, the determination of the coarse-grained model itself; that is, the characterization of the molecular architecture, the choice of interaction potentials and thus parameters, which best fit available data. The all-atom model is treated as the "ground truth," and it provides the basis with respect to which properties of the coarse-grained model are compared. This base all-atom model is characterized by an appropriate statistical mechanics framework in this work by canonical ensembles involving only configurational energies. The all-atom model thus supplies data for Bayesian calibration and validation methods for the molecular model. To address the first challenge, we develop priors based on the maximum entropy principle and likelihood functions based on Gaussian approximations of the uncertainties in the parameter-to-observation error. To address challenge (2), we introduce the notion of model plausibilities as a means for model selection. This methodology provides a powerful approach toward constructing coarse-grained models which are most plausible for given all-atom data. We demonstrate the theory and

  4. PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR TREATMENT WETLAND APPLICATION FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN DISPERSED DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gajewska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the conducted analyses of pre-feasibility study of different approaches for wastewater management in a settlement of 180 persons. In the assessment both technical and economic aspects were analyzed. The costs were calculated for three different and, at the same time, most popular as well as possible technical solutions like: (i construction of local wastewater treatment plant with gravitational and pressurized networks, (ii construction of single family wastewater treatment plants, (iii construction of sealed septic tanks. Carried out analyses of investment and maintenance costs revealed that at the stage of construction the most expensive is local sewer network with treatment plant, while the construction of a single family treatment plant has similar cost regardless of the technology used. When the long term operation and investment cost are accounted the most economical reasonable solution is the application of wetland treatment for household wastewater treatment.

  5. Modeling and experimental validation of a Hybridized Energy Storage System for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenti, Simone; Guanetti, Jacopo; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the development and experimental validation of a dynamic model of a Hybridized Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of a parallel connection of a lead acid (PbA) battery and double layer capacitors (DLCs), for automotive applications. The dynamic modeling of both the PbA battery and the DLC has been tackled via the equivalent electric circuit based approach. Experimental tests are designed for identification purposes. Parameters of the PbA battery model are identified as a function of state of charge and current direction, whereas parameters of the DLC model are identified for different temperatures. A physical HESS has been assembled at the Center for Automotive Research The Ohio State University and used as a test-bench to validate the model against a typical current profile generated for Start&Stop applications. The HESS model is then integrated into a vehicle simulator to assess the effects of the battery hybridization on the vehicle fuel economy and mitigation of the battery stress.

  6. Development and validation of three-dimensional CFD techniques for reactor safety applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Sebastian; Palazzo, Simone; Papukchiev, Angel; Scheurer Martina

    2016-12-01

    The overall goal of the project RS 1506 ''Development and Validation of Three Dimensional CFD Methods for Reactor Safety Applications'' is the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software for the simulation of three -dimensional thermo-hydraulic heat and fluid flow phenomena in nuclear reactors. For this purpose a wide spectrum of validation and test cases was selected covering fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in the downcomer and in the core of pressurized water reactors. In addition, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the CFD code ANSYS CFX was further developed and validated. The first choice were UPTF experiments where turbulent single- and two-phase flows were investigated in a 1:1 scaled model of a German KONVOI reactor. The scope of the CFD calculations covers thermal mixing and stratification including condensation in single- and two-phase flows. In the complex core region, the flow in a fuel assembly with spacer grid was simulated as defined in the OECD/NEA Benchmark MATIS-H. Good agreement are achieved when the geometrical and physical boundary conditions were reproduced as realistic as possible. This includes, in particular, the consideration of heat transfer to walls. The influence of wall modelling on CFD results was investigated on the TALL-3D T01 experiment. In this case, the dynamic three dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena were simulated in a Generation IV liquid metal cooled reactor. Concurrently to the validation work, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the ANSYS CFX software was optimized and expanded for two-phase flows. Different coupling approaches were investigated, in order to overcome the large difference between CPU-time requirements of system and CFD codes. Finally, the coupled simulation system was validated by applying it to the simulation of the PSI double T-junction experiment, the LBE-flow in the MYRRA Spallation experiment and a demonstration test case simulating a pump trip

  7. Experimental validation of hyperthermia SAR treatment planning using MR B1+ imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Cornelis A T van den; Bartels, Lambertus W; Leeuw, Astrid A C De; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Kamer, Jeroen B Van de

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the concept of using B 1+ imaging as a means to validate SAR models for radiofrequency hyperthermia is presented. As in radiofrequency hyperthermia, in common clinical MR imaging which applies RF frequencies between 64 and 128 MHz, the RF field distribution inside a patient is largely determined by the dielectric distribution of the anatomy. Modern MR imaging techniques allow measurement of the RF magnetic field component B 1+ making it possible to measure at high resolution the dielectric interaction of the RF field with the patient. Given these considerations, we propose to use MR imaging to verify the validity of our dielectric patient model used for SAR models of radiofrequency hyperthermia. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of this concept by performing B 1+ measurements and simulations on cylindrical split phantoms consisting of materials with dielectric properties similar to human tissue types. Important topics of investigation were the accuracy and sensitivity of B 1+ measurements and the validity of the electric model of the MR body coil. The measurements were performed on a clinical 1.5 T MR scanner with its quadrature body coil operating at 64 MHz. It was shown that even small B 1+ variations of 2 to 5% could be measured reliably in the phantom experiments. An electrical model of the transmit coil was implemented on our FDTD-based hyperthermia treatment planning platform and the RF field distributions were calculated assuming an idealized quadrature current distribution in the coil. A quantitatively good correlation between measurements and simulations was found for phantoms consisting of water and oil, while highly conductive phantoms show considerable deviations. However, assuming linear excitation for these conductive phantoms resulted in good correspondence. As an explanation it is suggested that the coil is being detuned due to the inductive nature of the conductive phantoms, breaking up the phase difference of

  8. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Gordon; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Motmans, Filip; Khraisheh, Marwan; Atieh, Muataz

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling. PMID:29304024

  9. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kayvani Fard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling.

  10. Application of Apium Graveolens in treatment of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkarati AR

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Apium graveolence has an small brown olyptical seed with pharmacological activity. To evaluate it's application in treatment of hypertension, 37 hypertensive patients (20 female, 17 male with the age range of 45-65 were given 6 grams of powder of Apium graveolence seed and then the blood pressures before and after the remedy were compared. Before treatment, the mean systolic blood pressure was 171.35 mlHg and the mean diastolic blood pressure was 94 mlHg. After they became 154.3 mlHg and 89.6 mlHg respectively. The difference of blood pressure before and after treatment was statistically significant (P<0.05, so we concluded that Apium graveolence seed can be used as is a safe and effective treatment for high blood pressure. Further controlled studies should be done to compare it with available anti-hypertensive drugs.

  11. Application of laser therapy for the treatment of dentinal hyperesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumero Sanchez, Yanisley; Rodriguez Jorrin, Daimy; Castanneda Marin, Raul

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out, to evaluate the effectiveness of the low - power laser combined with fluoride varnish to 2% (Profilac) in the treatment of the Dentinal Hyperesthesia in patients attended to in the Stomatology Clinic of Ciro Redondo in the period from October 2007 to January 2008. The universe of study was constituted by 75 patients diagnosed with dentinal hyperesthesia in the period of time indicated above, being conformed the sample by those 25 who fulfilled the pre-established criteria for the study. With the application of the laser combined with Lacquer Fluorine (Profilac), a remission of the pain was observed that increased gradually with the treatment sessions, having been obtained to almost eliminate in the totality of the cases the group of symptoms when finalizing it, evaluating the treatment of effective in 100% of the cases. We only found a recidivism after a year of treatment

  12. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Application for Treatment of Polluted Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašić, V.

    2011-07-01

    the photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds is generally more efficient in the gas phase than in the liquid phase, and the fact that the treatment cost may be significantly lower than that of the water phase photocatalytic treatment, the scientific interest has shifted towards the application of photocatalysis for air treatment. This paper describes the basics of heterogeneous photocatalysis, mainly on TiO2 and the application of photocatalytic processes for air treatment purposes. Review of more interesting practical application of heterogeneous photocatalysis for the treatment of polluted air is presented. Special efforts are made to describe the technical aspects of the photocatalytic processes and to characterize different photocatalytic reactors in use for air treatment.

  13. An updated PREDICT breast cancer prognostication and treatment benefit prediction model with independent validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido Dos Reis, Francisco J; Wishart, Gordon C; Dicks, Ed M; Greenberg, David; Rashbass, Jem; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van den Broek, Alexandra J; Ellis, Ian O; Green, Andrew; Rakha, Emad; Maishman, Tom; Eccles, Diana M; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2017-05-22

    PREDICT is a breast cancer prognostic and treatment benefit model implemented online. The overall fit of the model has been good in multiple independent case series, but PREDICT has been shown to underestimate breast cancer specific mortality in women diagnosed under the age of 40. Another limitation is the use of discrete categories for tumour size and node status resulting in 'step' changes in risk estimates on moving between categories. We have refitted the PREDICT prognostic model using the original cohort of cases from East Anglia with updated survival time in order to take into account age at diagnosis and to smooth out the survival function for tumour size and node status. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to fit separate models for ER negative and ER positive disease. Continuous variables were fitted using fractional polynomials and a smoothed baseline hazard was obtained by regressing the baseline cumulative hazard for each patients against time using fractional polynomials. The fit of the prognostic models were then tested in three independent data sets that had also been used to validate the original version of PREDICT. In the model fitting data, after adjusting for other prognostic variables, there is an increase in risk of breast cancer specific mortality in younger and older patients with ER positive disease, with a substantial increase in risk for women diagnosed before the age of 35. In ER negative disease the risk increases slightly with age. The association between breast cancer specific mortality and both tumour size and number of positive nodes was non-linear with a more marked increase in risk with increasing size and increasing number of nodes in ER positive disease. The overall calibration and discrimination of the new version of PREDICT (v2) was good and comparable to that of the previous version in both model development and validation data sets. However, the calibration of v2 improved over v1 in patients diagnosed under the age

  14. Application of hydrodynamic cavitation in ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Martina; Kompare, Boris; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd

    2015-05-01

    Ballast water is, together with hull fouling and aquaculture, considered the most important factor of the worldwide transfer of invasive non-indigenous organisms in aquatic ecosystems and the most important factor in European Union. With the aim of preventing and halting the spread of the transfer of invasive organisms in aquatic ecosystems and also in accordance with IMO's International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments, the systems for ballast water treatment, whose work includes, e.g. chemical treatment, ozonation and filtration, are used. Although hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is used in many different areas, such as science and engineering, implied acoustics, biomedicine, botany, chemistry and hydraulics, the application of HC in ballast water treatment area remains insufficiently researched. This paper presents the first literature review that studies lab- and large-scale setups for ballast water treatment together with the type-approved systems currently available on the market that use HC as a step in their operation. This paper deals with the possible advantages and disadvantages of such systems, as well as their influence on the crew and marine environment. It also analyses perspectives on the further development and application of HC in ballast water treatment.

  15. Application of ozone in the treatment of periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Adusumilli; Sathish, Manthena; Sri Harsha, Anumolu Venkatanaga

    2013-01-01

    Gingivitis and periodontitis are most common inflammatory diseases of supporting tissues of teeth. Role of microbial etiology and host response in progression of gingival and periodontal diseases has been well established. Because of the beneficial biological effects of ozone, due to its antimicrobial and immunostimulating effect, it is well indicated in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The objective of this article is to provide a general review about clinical applications of ozone in treatment of periodontal diseases and to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. PMID:23946585

  16. The Development and Full-Scale Experimental Validation of an Optimal Water Treatment Solution in Improving Chiller Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An optimal solution, in combining physical and chemical water treatment methods, has been developed. This method uses a high voltage capacitance based (HVCB electrodes, coupled with biocides to form a sustainable solution in improving chiller plant performances. In this study, the industrial full-scale tests, instead of laboratory tests, have been conducted on chiller plants at the size of 5000 RT to 10,000 RT cooling capacities under commercial operation for more than two years. The experimental results indicated that the condenser approach temperatures can be maintained at below 1 °C for over two years. It has been validated that the coefficient of performance (COP of a chiller can be improved by over 5% by implementing this solution. Every 1 °C reduction in condenser approach temperature can yield approximately 3% increase on chiller COP, which warrants its future application potential in the HVAC industry, where Ta can degrade by 1 °C every three to six months. The solution developed in this study could also reduce chemical dosages and conserve makeup water substantially and is more environment friendly.

  17. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-01

    , the process byproduct demonstrated better settling characteristics in bench scale testing. The field testing conducted in the second project budget period demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex technology to meet industry requirements for AMD water chemical composition so that it can be used as source water in HF activities. System and operational improvements were identified in an additional series of confirmatory tests to achieve competitive cost targets. Finally, the application of the HydroFlex process byproduct in produced water treatment was demonstrated, further supporting the commercial implementation of the technology. Overall, the project results demonstrate a path to the economic treatment of AMD to support its increased use as source water in HF, particularly in regions with limited local freshwater availability.

  18. Validated simulator for space debris removal with nets and other flexible tethers applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Wojciech; Michalczyk, Rafał; Dyrek, Michał; Battista, Umberto; Wormnes, Kjetil

    2016-12-01

    In the context of active debris removal technologies and preparation activities for the e.Deorbit mission, a simulator for net-shaped elastic bodies dynamics and their interactions with rigid bodies, has been developed. Its main application is to aid net design and test scenarios for space debris deorbitation. The simulator can model all the phases of the debris capturing process: net launch, flight and wrapping around the target. It handles coupled simulation of rigid and flexible bodies dynamics. Flexible bodies were implemented using Cosserat rods model. It allows to simulate flexible threads or wires with elasticity and damping for stretching, bending and torsion. Threads may be combined into structures of any topology, so the software is able to simulate nets, pure tethers, tether bundles, cages, trusses, etc. Full contact dynamics was implemented. Programmatic interaction with simulation is possible - i.e. for control implementation. The underlying model has been experimentally validated and due to significant gravity influence, experiment had to be performed in microgravity conditions. Validation experiment for parabolic flight was a downscaled process of Envisat capturing. The prepacked net was launched towards the satellite model, it expanded, hit the model and wrapped around it. The whole process was recorded with 2 fast stereographic camera sets for full 3D trajectory reconstruction. The trajectories were used to compare net dynamics to respective simulations and then to validate the simulation tool. The experiments were performed on board of a Falcon-20 aircraft, operated by National Research Council in Ottawa, Canada. Validation results show that model reflects phenomenon physics accurately enough, so it may be used for scenario evaluation and mission design purposes. The functionalities of the simulator are described in detail in the paper, as well as its underlying model, sample cases and methodology behind validation. Results are presented and

  19. Review of biotechnology applications to nuclear waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, N.V.; Roach, D.J.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the feasibility of the application of biotechnology to nuclear waste treatment. Many living and dead organisms accumulate heavy metals and radionuclides. The controlled use of this phenomenon forms the basis for the application of biotechnology to the removal of radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. An overview of biotechnology areas, namely the use of biopolymers and biosorption using biomass applicable to the removal of radionuclides from industrial nuclear effluents is given. The potential of biomagnetic separation technology, genetic engineering and monoclonal antibody technology is also to be examined. The most appropriate technologies to develop for radionuclide removal in the short term appear to be those based on biosorption of radionuclides by biomass and the use of modified and unmodified biopolymers in the medium term. (author)

  20. Treatment of TBI with Hormonal and Pharmacological Support, Preclinical Validation Using Diffuse and Mechanical TBI Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Award Number: PT075653 (grant) W81XWH-08-2-0153 (contract) TITLE: Treatment of TBI with Hormonal and Pharmacological Support, Preclinical...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0153 Treatment of TBI with Hormonal and Pharmacological Support, Preclinical Validation Using...rats. Our in vivo tests also included MRI imaging, focusing on edema resolution and reduction of diffuse axonal damage (fractional anisotropy

  1. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Li, Qilin

    2013-08-01

    Providing clean and affordable water to meet human needs is a grand challenge of the 21st century. Worldwide, water supply struggles to keep up with the fast growing demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated water management cannot be overstated. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of unconventional water sources. Here we review recent development in nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment. The discussion covers candidate nanomaterials, properties and mechanisms that enable the applications, advantages and limitations as compared to existing processes, and barriers and research needs for commercialization. By tracing these technological advances to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, the present review outlines the opportunities and limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for sustainable water management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The economics of improving medication adherence in osteoporosis: validation and application of a simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Amanda R; Schousboe, John T; Losina, Elena; Solomon, Daniel H

    2011-09-01

    Adherence to osteoporosis treatment is low. Although new therapies and behavioral interventions may improve medication adherence, questions are likely to arise regarding their cost-effectiveness. Our objectives were to develop and validate a model to simulate the clinical outcomes and costs arising from various osteoporosis medication adherence patterns among women initiating bisphosphonate treatment and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical intervention to improve medication adherence. We constructed a computer simulation using estimates of fracture rates, bisphosphonate treatment effects, costs, and utilities for health states drawn from the published literature. Probabilities of transitioning on and off treatment were estimated from administrative claims data. Patients were women initiating bisphosphonate therapy from the general community. We evaluated a hypothetical behavioral intervention to improve medication adherence. Changes in 10-yr fracture rates and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were evaluated. A hypothetical intervention with a one-time cost of $250 and reducing bisphosphonate discontinuation by 30% had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $29,571 per quality-adjusted life year in 65-yr-old women initiating bisphosphonates. Although the ICER depended on patient age, intervention effectiveness, and intervention cost, the ICERs were less than $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year for the majority of intervention cost and effectiveness scenarios evaluated. Results were sensitive to bisphosphonate cost and effectiveness and assumptions about the rate at which intervention and treatment effects decline over time. Our results suggests that behavioral interventions to improve osteoporosis medication adherence will likely have favorable ICERs if their efficacy can be sustained.

  3. Measuring Participants' Attitudes Toward Mobile Device Conference Applications in Continuing Medical Education: Validation of an Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittich, Christopher M; Wang, Amy T; Fiala, Justin A; Mauck, Karen F; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Ratelle, John T; Beckman, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Mobile device applications (apps) may enhance live CME courses. We aimed to (1) validate a measure of participant attitudes toward using a conference app and (2) determine associations between participant characteristics and attitudes toward CME apps with conference app usage. We conducted a cross-sectional validation study of participants at the Mayo Clinic Selected Topics in Internal Medicine Course. A conference app was developed that included presentation slides, note-taking features, search functions, social networking with other attendees, and access to presenter information. The CME app attitudes survey instrument (CMEAPP-10) was designed to determine participant attitudes toward conference apps. Of the 602 participants, 498 (82.7%) returned surveys. Factor analysis revealed a two-dimensional model for CMEAPP-10 scores (Cronbach α, 0.97). Mean (SD) CMEAPP-10 scores (maximum possible score of five) were higher for women than for men (4.06 [0.91] versus 3.85 [0.92]; P = .04). CMEAPP-10 scores (mean [SD]) were significantly associated (P = .02) with previous app usage as follows: less than once per month, 3.73 (1.05); monthly, 3.41 (1.16); weekly, 4.03 (0.69); and daily or more, 4.06 (0.89). Scores were unrelated to participant age, specialty, practice characteristics, or previous app use. This is the first validated measure of attitudes toward CME apps among course participants. App usage was higher among younger participants who had previously used educational or professional apps. Additionally, attitudes were more favorable among women and those who had previously used apps. These findings have important implications regarding efforts to engage participants with portable and accessible technology.

  4. The translation and validation of Chinese overactive bladder symptom score for assessing overactive bladder syndrome and response to solifenacin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chieh-Lung Chou

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The Chinese OABSS has been validated as a reliable instrument for assessing OAB. Solifenacin 5 mg once daily improved urgency and other symptoms of OAB including frequency, urge incontinence, OABSS and International Prostatic Symptom Score. The adverse effects were acceptable and became less significant with time in the three months of treatment.

  5. NCTPlan. The new PC version of MacNCTPlan improvements and validation of the treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.J.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Yam, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The treatment planning system that has been used routinely in phase-I clinical trials of BNCT at Harvard/MIT consists of the MacNCTPlan interactive planning software coupled to the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The physical and mathematical principles of MacNCTPlan as well as its architecture, operation and application have been previously described elsewhere. The use of this software in clinical trials together with a detailed analysis of the code led to the identification of some limitations and deficiencies. The motivation for this PC version, Neutron Capture Therapy Planning, relies basically in two major reasons: the need to integrate the different steps for making a plan and the need to improve some features of the Macintosh version. NCTPlan aims to reproduce all the features and capabilities present in the Macintosh version. Working on this, some deficiencies were corrected and several changes in the interface were performed in order to provide a more friendly and reliable program. Among the changes intended to facilitate the treatment planning process, the most important are the integration of the auxiliary program MPREP to NCTPlan and a great improvement in the visualization of isodose contours. NCTPlan has the ability to show the isodose distributions superimposed on two orthogonal planes of the CT volume, these planes being updated in real time as the orientation of the planes is changed. The major modifications to the mathematical algorithms concerned the material assignment in the geometric model, dose distribution calculations and three-dimensional dose-volume histogram (DVH) derivation. Therefore, NCTPlan provides a user-friendly interface thanks to the integration of the different steps involved in treatment planning. Complete control of the MCNP radiation transport code is under study. Cross-validation of NCTPlan against reference calculations made apparent the improvements performed on the mathematical algorithms

  6. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc for solid fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Kwong, Chi Wai; Broström, Markus; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on char and liquid properties. • Liquid pH had a statistically significant effect only on liquid carbon yield. • Higher treatment temperature increased char volatiles that can enhance ignitability. • Char showed promising fuel properties if elevated ash phosphorus can be tolerated. - Abstract: The treatment and disposal of grape marc, a residue from grape processing, represents a significant economic and environmental challenge for the winemaking industry. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc could be an efficient way for producing solid fuels on-site at the wineries. In this work the effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on grape marc char and liquid properties were determined based on laboratory experiments and the combustion characteristics of char were assessed through thermogravimetric analysis and fuel ash classification. The results showed that hydrothermal treatment increased the energy and carbon contents and decreased the ash content of grape marc. The effect of liquid pH was statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for the determined carbon yield of liquid samples. The energy yield from grape marc was maximized at lower treatment temperatures, which also decreased the content of less thermally stable compounds in the attained char. Higher treatment temperatures decreased grape marc solid, carbon and energy yields and led to an increase in thermally labile compounds compared to lower temperatures likely due to the condensation of liquid compounds or volatiles trapped in the pores of char particles. The alkali metal contents of char ash were reduced coupled with an increase in respective phosphorus. Overall the results support the use of hydrothermally treated grape marc in solid fuel applications, if elevated levels of ash phosphorus can be tolerated.

  7. ASTEC code development, validation and applications for severe accident management within the CESAM European project - 15392

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Chatelard, P.; Chevalier-Jabet, K.; Nowack, H.; Herranz, L.E.; Pascal, G.; Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H.

    2015-01-01

    ASTEC, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS, is considered as the European reference code since it capitalizes knowledge from the European research on the domain. The CESAM project aims at its enhancement and extension for use in severe accident management (SAM) analysis of the nuclear power plants (NPP) of Generation II-III presently under operation or foreseen in near future in Europe, spent fuel pools included. Within the CESAM project 3 main types of research activities are performed: -) further validation of ASTEC models important for SAM, in particular for the phenomena being of importance in the Fukushima-Daichi accidents, such as reflooding of degraded cores, pool scrubbing, hydrogen combustion, or spent fuel pools behaviour; -) modelling improvements, especially for BWR or based on the feedback of validation tasks; and -) ASTEC applications to severe accident scenarios in European NPPs in order to assess prevention and mitigation measures. An important step will be reached with the next major ASTEC V2.1 version planned to be delivered in the first part of 2015. Its main improvements will concern the possibility to simulate in details the core degradation of BWR and PHWR and a model of reflooding of severely degraded cores. A new user-friendly Graphic User Interface will be available for plant analyses

  8. Mathematical modeling and validation in physiology applications to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bachar, Mostafa; Kappel, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This volume synthesizes theoretical and practical aspects of both the mathematical and life science viewpoints needed for modeling of the cardiovascular-respiratory system specifically and physiological systems generally.  Theoretical points include model design, model complexity and validation in the light of available data, as well as control theory approaches to feedback delay and Kalman filter applications to parameter identification. State of the art approaches using parameter sensitivity are discussed for enhancing model identifiability through joint analysis of model structure and data. Practical examples illustrate model development at various levels of complexity based on given physiological information. The sensitivity-based approaches for examining model identifiability are illustrated by means of specific modeling  examples. The themes presented address the current problem of patient-specific model adaptation in the clinical setting, where data is typically limited.

  9. Efficient generalized cross-validation with applications to parametric image restoration and resolution enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N; Milanfar, P; Golub, G

    2001-01-01

    In many image restoration/resolution enhancement applications, the blurring process, i.e., point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system, is not known or is known only to within a set of parameters. We estimate these PSF parameters for this ill-posed class of inverse problem from raw data, along with the regularization parameters required to stabilize the solution, using the generalized cross-validation method (GCV). We propose efficient approximation techniques based on the Lanczos algorithm and Gauss quadrature theory, reducing the computational complexity of the GCV. Data-driven PSF and regularization parameter estimation experiments with synthetic and real image sequences are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  10. Issues of verification and validation of application-specific integrated circuits in reactor trip systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Alley, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    Concepts of using application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in nuclear reactor safety systems are evaluated. The motivation for this evaluation stems from the difficulty of proving that software-based protection systems are adequately reliable. Important issues concerning the reliability of computers and software are identified and used to evaluate features of ASICS. These concepts indicate that ASICs have several advantages over software for simple systems. The primary advantage of ASICs over software is that verification and validation (V ampersand V) of ASICs can be done with much higher confidence than can be done with software. A method of performing this V ampersand V on ASICS is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of the method's being developed is to help eliminate design and fabrication errors. It will not solve problems with incorrect requirements or specifications

  11. Application of the Naive Bayesian Classifier to optimize treatment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmierska, Joanna; Malicki, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To study the accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the Naive Bayesian Classifier (NBC) in the assessment of individual risk of cancer relapse or progression after radiotherapy (RT). Materials and methods: Data of 142 brain tumour patients irradiated from 2000 to 2005 were analyzed. Ninety-six attributes related to disease, patient and treatment were chosen. Attributes in binary form consisted of the training set for NBC learning. NBC calculated an individual conditional probability of being assigned to: relapse or progression (1), or no relapse or progression (0) group. Accuracy, attribute selection and quality of classifier were determined by comparison with actual treatment results, leave-one-out and cross validation methods, respectively. Clinical setting test utilized data of 35 patients. Treatment results at classification were unknown and were compared with classification results after 3 months. Results: High classification accuracy (84%), specificity (0.87) and sensitivity (0.80) were achieved, both for classifier training and in progressive clinical evaluation. Conclusions: NBC is a useful tool to support the assessment of individual risk of relapse or progression in patients diagnosed with brain tumour undergoing RT postoperatively

  12. Community Priority Index: utility, applicability and validation for priority setting in community-based participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamisu M. Salihu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods. Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results. For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00, lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00. For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00, and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00. For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94, and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR.

  13. Validity of activity trackers, smartphones, and phone applications to measure steps in various walking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höchsmann, C; Knaier, R; Eymann, J; Hintermann, J; Infanger, D; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A

    2018-02-20

    To examine the validity of popular smartphone accelerometer applications and a consumer activity wristband compared to a widely used research accelerometer while assessing the impact of the phone's position on the accuracy of step detection. Twenty volunteers from 2 different age groups (Group A: 18-25 years, n = 10; Group B 45-70 years, n = 10) were equipped with 3 iPhone SE smartphones (placed in pants pocket, shoulder bag, and backpack), 1 Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge (pants pocket), 1 Garmin Vivofit 2 wristband, and 2 ActiGraph wGTX+ devices (worn at wrist and hip) while walking on a treadmill (1.6, 3.2, 4.8, and 6.0 km/h) and completing a walking course. All smartphones included 6 accelerometer applications. Video observation was used as gold standard. Validity was evaluated by comparing each device with the gold standard using mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE). The MAPE of the iPhone SE (all positions) and the Garmin Vivofit was small (Samsung Galaxy and hip-worn ActiGraph showed small MAPE only for treadmill walking at 4.8 and 6.0 km/h and for free walking. The wrist-worn ActiGraph showed high MAPE (17-47) for all walking conditions. The iPhone SE and the Garmin Vivofit 2 are accurate tools for step counting in different age groups and during various walking conditions, even during slow walking. The phone's position does not impact the accuracy of step detection, which substantially improves the versatility for physical activity assessment in clinical and research settings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Validating the Patient Experience with Treatment and Self-Management (PETS), a patient-reported measure of treatment burden, in people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Elizabeth A; Yost, Kathleen J; Rosedahl, Jordan K; Linzer, Mark; Boehm, Deborah H; Thakur, Azra; Poplau, Sara; Anderson, Roger T; Eton, David T

    2017-01-01

    To validate a comprehensive general measure of treatment burden, the Patient Experience with Treatment and Self-Management (PETS), in people with diabetes. We conducted a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey study with 120 people diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and at least one additional chronic illness. Surveys included established patient-reported outcome measures and a 48-item version of the PETS, a new measure comprised of multi-item scales assessing the burden of chronic illness treatment and self-care as it relates to nine domains: medical information, medications, medical appointments, monitoring health, interpersonal challenges, health care expenses, difficulty with health care services, role activity limitations, and physical/mental exhaustion from self-management. Internal reliability of PETS scales was determined using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was determined through correlation of PETS scores with established measures (measures of chronic condition distress, medication satisfaction, self-efficacy, and global well-being), and known-groups validity through comparisons of PETS scores across clinically distinct groups. In an exploratory test of predictive validity, step-wise regressions were used to determine which PETS scales were most associated with outcomes of chronic condition distress, overall physical and mental health, and medication adherence. Respondents were 37-88 years old, 59% female, 29% non-white, and 67% college-educated. PETS scales showed good reliability (Cronbach's alphas ≥0.74). Higher PETS scale scores (greater treatment burden) were correlated with more chronic condition distress, less medication convenience, lower self-efficacy, and worse general physical and mental health. Participants less (versus more) adherent to medications and those with more (versus fewer) health care financial difficulties had higher mean PETS scores. Medication burden was the scale that was most consistently associated with

  15. Development, Verification and Validation of Parallel, Scalable Volume of Fluid CFD Program for Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff; Yang, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    There are many instances involving liquid/gas interfaces and their dynamics in the design of liquid engine powered rockets such as the Space Launch System (SLS). Some examples of these applications are: Propellant tank draining and slosh, subcritical condition injector analysis for gas generators, preburners and thrust chambers, water deluge mitigation for launch induced environments and even solid rocket motor liquid slag dynamics. Commercially available CFD programs simulating gas/liquid interfaces using the Volume of Fluid approach are currently limited in their parallel scalability. In 2010 for instance, an internal NASA/MSFC review of three commercial tools revealed that parallel scalability was seriously compromised at 8 cpus and no additional speedup was possible after 32 cpus. Other non-interface CFD applications at the time were demonstrating useful parallel scalability up to 4,096 processors or more. Based on this review, NASA/MSFC initiated an effort to implement a Volume of Fluid implementation within the unstructured mesh, pressure-based algorithm CFD program, Loci-STREAM. After verification was achieved by comparing results to the commercial CFD program CFD-Ace+, and validation by direct comparison with data, Loci-STREAM-VoF is now the production CFD tool for propellant slosh force and slosh damping rate simulations at NASA/MSFC. On these applications, good parallel scalability has been demonstrated for problems sizes of tens of millions of cells and thousands of cpu cores. Ongoing efforts are focused on the application of Loci-STREAM-VoF to predict the transient flow patterns of water on the SLS Mobile Launch Platform in order to support the phasing of water for launch environment mitigation so that vehicle determinantal effects are not realized.

  16. Commissioning and first clinical application of mARC treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Nuesken, Frank G.; Kremp, Stephanie; Palm, Jan; Licht, Norbert P.; Ruebe, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The modulated arc (mARC) technique has recently been introduced for Siemens ARTISTE linear accelerators. We present the first experiences with the commissioning of the system and first patient treatments. Treatment planning and delivery are presented for the Prowess Panther treatment planning system or, alternatively, an in-house code. Dosimetric verification is performed both by point dose measurements and in 3D dose distribution. Depending on the target volume, one or two arcs can be used to create highly conformal plans. Dosimetric verification of the converted mARC plans with step-and-shoot plans shows deviations below 1 % in absolute point dose; in the 3D dose distribution, over 95 % of the points pass the 3D gamma criteria (3 % deviation in local dose and 3 mm distance to agreement for doses > 20 % of the maximum). Patient specific verification of the mARC dose distribution with the calculations has a similar pass rate. Treatment times range between 2 and 5 min for a single arc. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical application of the mARC technique. The mARC offers the possibility to save significant amounts of time, with single-arc treatments of only a few minutes achieving comparable dose distribution to IMRT plans taking up to twice as long. (orig.) [de

  17. Application of Ozone MBBR Process in Refinery Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2018-01-01

    Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) is a kind of sewage treatment technology based on fluidized bed. At the same time, it can also be regarded as an efficient new reactor between active sludge method and the biological membrane method. The application of ozone MBBR process in refinery wastewater treatment is mainly studied. The key point is to design the ozone +MBBR combined process based on MBBR process. The ozone +MBBR process is used to analyze the treatment of concentrated water COD discharged from the refinery wastewater treatment plant. The experimental results show that the average removal rate of COD is 46.0%~67.3% in the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrated water by ozone MBBR process, and the effluent can meet the relevant standard requirements. Compared with the traditional process, the ozone MBBR process is more flexible. The investment of this process is mainly ozone generator, blower and so on. The prices of these items are relatively inexpensive, and these costs can be offset by the excess investment in traditional activated sludge processes. At the same time, ozone MBBR process has obvious advantages in water quality, stability and other aspects.

  18. CATHARE 2 V2.5 : a fully validated CATHARE version for various applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, M.; Farvacque, M.; Parent, M.; Faydide, B.

    2003-01-01

    The CATHARE code is devoted to best estimate calculations of thermal-hydraulic transients in nuclear reactors. The code is based on a 2-fluid 6-equation model including non-condensable gases equations and additional equations for radio-chemical components transport. It allows the coolant circuits of any reactor to be represented by assembling 1D, 0D and 3D modules. The outcome of more than 20 years of joint development effort by CEA, EDF, FRAMATOME-ANP and IRSN, is the CATHARE 2 V2.5 version, to be released at the end of 2003. The development strategy of this version was to include in one single version the functionalities and the models needed for all the various applications the CATHARE partners have to deal with, in the scope of thermal-hydraulic nuclear safety analysis. Physical assessment is a highly time consuming activity for this kind of code. The 'single version' strategy results in putting together the validation efforts required for each application, thus significantly reducing the global validation effort. It also makes the maintenance process more efficient. The main objective of CATHARE 2 V2.5 is to perform safety analyses for Pressurized Water Reactors postulated accidents or other incidents, such as primary LOCAs, SGTR, loss of RHR, secondary breaks, loss of feed-water, etc. The 3D module of CATHARE has been developed in connection with the future safety methodologies based on the 3D modelling of the vessel. The main application is the large break LOCA where significant 3D effects take place, and in particular the phenomena related to the core radial temperature profile, the 3D core quenching pattern, the bypass of the accumulator water to the break and CCFL phenomena in the down-comer during the refill phase. These effects are exemplified with a PWR large break LOCA calculation using a 3D modeling of the vessel. Another major application of this version of CATHARE is to be used without modification in the SIPA French reactor simulator. This

  19. Low fertility awareness in United States reproductive-aged women and medical trainees: creation and validation of the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Chernyak, Elizabeth; McAvey, Beth

    2017-10-01

    To create, validate, and use a fertility awareness survey based on current U.S. Cross-sectional study. Not applicable. Phase 1 included U.S. women ages 18-45; phase 2 included female medical students and obstetrics and gynecology trainees at two urban academic programs. Survey including demographics, the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS) instrument, and General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire. Knowledge of natural fertility and infertility treatments. The FIT-KS was validated through detailed item and validity analyses. In phase 1, 127 women participated; their median age was 31 years, and 43.7% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 16.2 ± 3.5 (55.9% correct). In phase 2, 118 medical trainees participated; their median age was 25 years, and 12.4% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 18.8 ± 2.1 (64.9% correct), with year of training correlating to a higher score (r=0.40). Participant awareness regarding lifestyle factors varied, but it was particularly low regarding the effects of lubricants. The majority underestimated the spontaneous miscarriage rate and overestimated the fecundability of 40-year-old women. There was general overestimation of success rates for assisted reproductive technologies, particularly among medical trainees. The FIT-KS is validated to current U.S. data for use in both general and medical populations as a quick assessment of fertility knowledge. The knowledge gaps demonstrated in this study correlate with national trends in delayed childbearing and time to initiate treatment. For medical trainees, these results raise concerns about the quality of fertility counseling they may be able to offer patients. Greater educational outreach must be undertaken to enhance fertility awareness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of Align Technology's Treat III digital model superimposition tool and its case application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R J; Kuo, E; Choi, W

    2003-01-01

    An assessment of the efficacy and accuracy of three-dimensional computer-based predictive orthodontic systems requires that new methods of treatment analysis be developed and validated. Invisalign is a digitally fabricated, removable orthodontic appliance that has been commercially available since 1999. It is made up of two main components: 1) computerized graphical images of a patient's teeth moving through a series of stages from initial to final position; 2) pressure formed clear plastic appliances made from stereolithography models of the images in the first component. The manufacturer of Invisalign (Align Technology, Inc.) has created a software tool that can be used to superimpose digital models to evaluate treatment outcomes in three dimensions. Using this software, research was conducted to determine if a single operator could repeatedly superimpose two identical digital models using 12 selected points from the palatal rugae over 10 trials. The tool was then applied to one subject's orthodontic treatment. EXPERIMENT VARIABLES: The output from this tool includes rotations, translations and morphological changes. For this study, translations and rotations were chosen. The results showed that the digital superimposition was reproducible, and that after multiple trials, the superimposition error decreased. The average error in x, y, z, Rx, Ry and Rz after 10 trials was determined to approach approximately 0.2 mm in translation and less than 1 degree in rotation, with a standard deviation of 0.15 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively. The treatment outcome from a single Invisalign-treated bicuspid extraction case was also evaluated tooth-by-tooth in x, y, z, Rx, Ry and Rz dimensions. Using the palate, as a stable reference seemed to work well and the evaluation of the single case showed that many, but not all, of the planned movements occurred.

  1. Translation and validation of the Persian version of the treatment adherence ‎questionnaire for patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlagha Dehghan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a global public health crisis. Poorly controlled high blood pressure is one of the major factors contributed to this crisis. As lack of treatment adherence is often considered the main reason for this failure, the Treatment Adherence Questionnaire for Patient with Hypertension (TAQPH was developed. Since this questionnaire should be reliable and strongly valid to be used in clinics and research, this study was performed to test the reliability and validity of the TAQPH. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to validate the Persian version of TAQPH after using a modified forward/backward translation procedure. A total of 330 hypertensive patients were participated in this study. Construct and criterion validity, Cronbach¢s alpha, and test-retest reliability were used to validate the Persian scale. RESULTS: Data analysis showed that the scale had excellent stability (intraclass correlation = 0.95 and good acceptability of internal consistency (α = 0.80. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA was meaningful but was not confirmed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The scale score was correlated with Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS score (Ρ = 0.27. CONCLUSION: In total, most of the psychometric properties of the 25-item P-TAQHP achieved the standard level and were sufficient to recommend for general use. 

  2. Generation, Validation, and Application of Abundance Map Reference Data for Spectral Unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, McKay D.

    Reference data ("ground truth") maps traditionally have been used to assess the accuracy of imaging spectrometer classification algorithms. However, these reference data can be prohibitively expensive to produce, often do not include sub-pixel abundance estimates necessary to assess spectral unmixing algorithms, and lack published validation reports. Our research proposes methodologies to efficiently generate, validate, and apply abundance map reference data (AMRD) to airborne remote sensing scenes. We generated scene-wide AMRD for three different remote sensing scenes using our remotely sensed reference data (RSRD) technique, which spatially aggregates unmixing results from fine scale imagery (e.g., 1-m Ground Sample Distance (GSD)) to co-located coarse scale imagery (e.g., 10-m GSD or larger). We validated the accuracy of this methodology by estimating AMRD in 51 randomly-selected 10 m x 10 m plots, using seven independent methods and observers, including field surveys by two observers, imagery analysis by two observers, and RSRD using three algorithms. Results indicated statistically-significant differences between all versions of AMRD, suggesting that all forms of reference data need to be validated. Given these significant differences between the independent versions of AMRD, we proposed that the mean of all (MOA) versions of reference data for each plot and class were most likely to represent true abundances. We then compared each version of AMRD to MOA. Best case accuracy was achieved by a version of imagery analysis, which had a mean coverage area error of 2.0%, with a standard deviation of 5.6%. One of the RSRD algorithms was nearly as accurate, achieving a mean error of 3.0%, with a standard deviation of 6.3%, showing the potential of RSRD-based AMRD generation. Application of validated AMRD to specific coarse scale imagery involved three main parts: 1) spatial alignment of coarse and fine scale imagery, 2) aggregation of fine scale abundances to produce

  3. Validation of the 3D finite element transport theory code EVENT for shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Paul; Oliveira, R.E. de

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the validation of the 3D deterministic neutral-particle transport theory code EVENT for shielding applications. The code is based on the finite element-spherical harmonics (FE-P N ) method which has been extensively developed over the last decade. A general multi-group, anisotropic scattering formalism enables the code to address realistic steady state and time dependent, multi-dimensional coupled neutron/gamma radiation transport problems involving high scattering and deep penetration alike. The powerful geometrical flexibility and competitive computational effort makes the code an attractive tool for shielding applications. In recognition of this, EVENT is currently in the process of being adopted by the UK nuclear industry. The theory behind EVENT is described and its numerical implementation is outlined. Numerical results obtained by the code are compared with predictions of the Monte Carlo code MCBEND and also with the results from benchmark shielding experiments. In particular, results are presented for the ASPIS experimental configuration for both neutron and gamma ray calculations using the BUGLE 96 nuclear data library. (author)

  4. Applicability and trends of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seung Joo; Kim, Tak-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes have been continuously developed, although the anaerobic sludge granulation process was not clearly understood. In this review, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), an expanded granule sludge blanket (EGSB), and a static granular bed reactor (SGBR) were introduced as components of a representative anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. The characteristics and application trends of each reactor were presented. The UASB reactor was developed in the late 1970s and its use has been rapidly widespread due to the excellent performance. With the active granules, this reactor is able to treat various high-strength wastewaters as well as municipal wastewater. Most soluble industrial wastewaters can be efficiently applied using a UASB. The EGSB reactor was developed owing to give more chance to contact between wastewater and the granules. Dispersed sludge is separated from mature granules using the rapid upward velocity in this reactor. The EGSB reactor shows the excellent performance in treating low-strength and/or high-strength wastewater, especially under low temperatures. The SGBR, developed at Iowa State University, is one of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. Although the configuration of the SGBR is very simple, the performance of this system is similar to that of the UASB or EGSB reactor. The anaerobic sludge granulation processes showed excellent performance for various wastewaters at a broad range of organic loading rate in lab-, pilot-scale tests. This leads to erect thousands of full-scale granular processes, which has been widely operated around the world. -- Highlights: • Anaerobic sludge granulation is a key parameter for maintaining granular processes. • Anaerobic granular digestion processes are applicable for various wastewaters. • The UASB is an economic high-rate anaerobic granular process. • The EGSB can treat high-strength wastewater using expanding granules. • The SGBR is

  5. Development, validation, and administration of a treatment-satisfaction questionnaire for caregivers of dependent type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aparicio, Judit; Herrero-Herrero, José-Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Satisfaction with treatment is considered a relevant factor for assessing results in clinical practice. However, when assessing satisfaction in dependent patients, the opinion of their caregivers becomes crucial, since implicit in satisfaction is the degree of caregiver involvement, of adherence to treatment, and lastly of better care of these patients. The purpose of this study was to develop, validate, and administer two versions of a specific questionnaire to assess satisfaction with blood glucose-lowering treatment in caregivers of dependent type 2 diabetic patients. This was an observational, descriptive, epidemiological study conducted in the Los Montalvos Internal Medicine Department at the University Hospital of Salamanca (Spain). Two versions of the questionnaire to assess caregivers' satisfaction with current treatment and after introducing changes in therapy were created and validated according to model procedures. Once validated, the questionnaires were implemented in 219 cases. Cronbach's α-coefficient, correlation between all the items, intraclass correlation coefficient, and correlation between the obtained scores and satisfaction with blood glucose levels all satisfied the standard for validation. Significant levels of correlation were observed between the degree of satisfaction and the number of daily administrations of the blood glucose-lowering medication (Spearman's r=-0.21, Ppatients receiving more frequent administration of their antidiabetic medication prior to the change were more satisfied with the change (r=0.24, Psatisfaction (r=-0.43, Psatisfaction was validated. When applied to our cohort of cases, the obtained data suggest that simplicity in antidiabetic therapy should be considered in the management of dependent type 2 diabetic patients when caregivers' satisfaction is an additional objective.

  6. Advancements and applications of plasma arc centrifugal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschenbach, R.C.; Leland, L.B.; Chen, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    A process using a transferred arc plasma to heat material charged into a spinning tube inside a sealed, water-cooled container has been applied to radioactive and hazardous waste treatment in several countries. Inorganic material in the feed is melted into a leach-resistant slag, while organic material is vaporized and reacted to form carbon dioxide and water vapor. Any acid gases formed plus particulates are removed in a gas cleanup system. Design features and their relations to design objectives are described. Current and near-future applications are reported for treating nuclear power plant wastes and for remediating contamination from past nuclear weapons activities

  7. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  8. External validation of the ability of the DRAGON score to predict outcome after thrombolysis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Christian Aavang; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, J K

    2013-01-01

    Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant plasmino......Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant...... and their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was assessed after 3 months. Three hundred and three patients were included in the analysis. The DRAGON scale proved to have a good discriminative ability for predicting highly unfavourable outcome (mRS 5-6) (area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic [AUC-ROC]: 0...

  9. Development and validation of the insulin treatment appraisal scale (ITAS) in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Frank J; Skovlund, Søren E; Pouwer, Frans

    2007-01-01

    . Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and item-total correlations were determined to test the reliability of the instrument. Concurrent validity was examined by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients between the different measures. Discriminant validity was examined...... 20-item scale was 0.89, suggesting high homogeneity and allowing for calculation of an overall score. Item-total correlations were in the range of 0.46-0.74 for the negative and 0.34 - 0.53 for the positive appraisal scale. The item pertaining to weight gain, as part of the negative appraisal...... subscale, showed low communality and deserves further testing. Concurrent validity was confirmed with low to moderate correlations in the expected direction between ITAS and WHO-5 and PAID. Discriminant validity was confirmed by the fact that patients using insulin had significantly less negative...

  10. Final Report for 'Verification and Validation of Radiation Hydrodynamics for Astrophysical Applications'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zingale, M.; Howell, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for this work is to gain experience in the methodology of verification and validation (V and V) of astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics codes. In the first period of this work, we focused on building the infrastructure to test a single astrophysical application code, Castro, developed in collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). We delivered several hydrodynamic test problems, in the form of coded initial conditions and documentation for verification, routines to perform data analysis, and a generalized regression test suite to allow for continued automated testing. Astrophysical simulation codes aim to model phenomena that elude direct experimentation. Our only direct information about these systems comes from what we observe, and may be transient. Simulation can help further our understanding by allowing virtual experimentation of these systems. However, to have confidence in our simulations requires us to have confidence in the tools we use. Verification and Validation is a process by which we work to build confidence that a simulation code is accurately representing reality. V and V is a multistep process, and is never really complete. Once a single test problem is working as desired (i.e. that problem is verified), one wants to ensure that subsequent code changes do not break that test. At the same time, one must also search for new verification problems that test the code in a new way. It can be rather tedious to manually retest each of the problems, so before going too far with V and V, it is desirable to have an automated test suite. Our project aims to provide these basic tools for astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics codes.

  11. Validation of a Rapid Bacteria Endospore Enumeration System for Planetary Protection Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Kazarians, Gayane; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    NASA monitors spacecraft surfaces to assure that the presence of bacterial endospores meets strict criteria at launch, to minimize the risk of inadvertent contamination of the surface of Mars. Currently, the only approved method for enumerating the spores is a culture based assay that requires three days to produce results. In order to meet the demanding schedules of spacecraft assembly, a more rapid spore detection assay is being considered as an alternate method to the NASA standard culture-based assay. The Millipore Rapid Microbiology Detection System (RMDS) has been used successfully for rapid bioburden enumeration in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The RMDS is rapid and simple, shows high sensitivity (to 1 colony forming unit [CFU]/sample), and correlates well with traditional culture-based methods. It combines membrane filtration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence chemistry, and image analysis based on photon detection with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera. In this study, we have optimized the assay conditions and evaluated the use of the RMDS as a rapid spore detection tool for NASA applications. In order to select for spores, the samples were subjected to a heat shock step before proceeding with the RMDS incubation protocol. Seven species of Bacillus (nine strains) that have been repeatedly isolated from clean room environments were assayed. All strains were detected by the RMDS in 5 hours and these assay times were repeatedly demonstrated along with low image background noise. Validation experiments to compare the Rapid Sore Assay (RSA) and NASA standard assay (NSA) were also performed. The evaluation criteria were modeled after the FDA Guideline of Process Validation, and Analytical Test Methods. This body of research demonstrates that the Rapid Spore Assay (RSA) is quick, and of equivalent sensitivity to the NASA standard assay, potentially reducing the assay time for bacterial endospores from over 72 hours to less than 8 hours

  12. Validation and application of a death proxy in adult cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealing, Nicole M; Dobbins, Timothy A; Pearson, Sallie-Anne

    2012-07-01

    PURPOSE: Fact of death is not always available on data sets used for pharmacoepidemiological research. Proxies may be an appropriate substitute in the absence of death data. The purposes of this study were to validate a proxy for death in adult cancer patients and to assess its performance when estimating survival in two cohorts of cancer patients. METHODS: We evaluated 30-, 60-, 90- and 180-day proxies overall and by cancer type using data from 12 394 Australian veterans with lung, colorectal, breast or prostate cancer. The proxy indicated death if the difference between the last dispensing record and the end of the observational period exceeded the proxy cutoff. We then compared actual survival to 90-day proxy estimates in a subset of 4090 veterans with 'full entitlements' for pharmaceutical items and in 3704 Australian women receiving trastuzumab for HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. RESULTS: The 90-day proxy was optimal with an overall sensitivity of 99.3% (95%CI: 98.4-99.7) and a specificity of 97.6% (95%CI: 91.8-99.4). These measures remained high when evaluated by cancer type and spread of disease. The application of the proxy using the most conservative date of death estimate (date of last dispensing) generally underestimated survival, with estimates up to 3 months shorter than survival based on fact of death. CONCLUSIONS: A 90-day death proxy is a robust substitute to identify death in a chronic population when fact of death is not available. The proxy is likely to be valid across a range of chronic diseases as it relies on the presence of 'regular' dispensing records for individual patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Treatment and Combination of Data Quality Monitoring Histograms to Perform Data vs. Monte Carlo Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Nolan

    2013-01-01

    In CMS's automated data quality validation infrastructure, it is not currently possible to assess how well Monte Carlo simulations describe data from collisions, if at all. In order to guarantee high quality data, a novel work flow was devised to perform `data vs. Monte Carlo' validation. Support for this comparison was added by allowing distributions from several Monte Carlo samples to be combined, matched to the data and then displayed in a histogram stack, overlaid with the experimental data.

  14. The side-effects to CPAP treatment inventory: the development and initial validation of a new tool for the measurement of side-effects to CPAP treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Arestedt, Kristofer Franzén; Nilsen, Per; Strömberg, Anna; Ulander, Martin; Svanborg, Eva

    2010-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), but side-effects are common. No validated self-rating scale measuring side-effects to CPAP treatment exists today. The aim was to develop the side-effects to CPAP treatment inventory (SECI), and investigate the validity and reliability of the instrument among patients with OSAS. SECI was developed on the basis of: (1) in-depth interviews with 23 patients; (2) examination of the scientific literature and (3) consensus agreement of a multi-professional expert panel. This yielded 15 different types of side-effects related to CPAP treatment. Each side-effect has three sub-questions (scales): perceived frequency (a) and magnitude (b) of the side-effect, as well as its perceived impact on CPAP use (c). A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 329 patients with OSAS with an average use of CPAP treatment for 39 months (2 weeks to 182 months) were recruited. Data were collected with SECI, and obtained from medical records (clinical variables and data related to CPAP treatment). Construct validity was confirmed with factor analysis (principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation). A logical two-factor solution, the device subscale and symptom subscale, emerged across all three scales. The symptom subscale describing physical and psychological side-effects and the device subscale described mask and device-related side-effects. Internal consistency reliability of the three scales was good (Cronbach's α = 0.74-0.86) and acceptable for the subscales (Cronbach's α = 0.62-0.86). The satisfactory measurement properties of this new instrument are promising and indicate that SECI can be used to measure side-effects to CPAP treatment. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Validating Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Properties for Weather and Climate Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Bedka, K. M.; Smith, W., Jr.; Yost, C. R.; Bedka, S. T.; Palikonda, R.; Spangenberg, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Trepte, Q.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances are increasingly used in weather and climate applications, particularly in nowcasting, model assimilation and validation, trend monitoring, and precipitation and radiation analyses. The value of using the satellite-derived cloud parameters is determined by the accuracy of the particular parameter for a given set of conditions, such as viewing and illumination angles, surface background, and cloud type and structure. Because of the great variety of those conditions and of the sensors used to monitor clouds, determining the accuracy or uncertainties in the retrieved cloud parameters is a daunting task. Sensitivity studies of the retrieved parameters to the various inputs for a particular cloud type are helpful for understanding the errors associated with the retrieval algorithm relative to the plane-parallel world assumed in most of the model clouds that serve as the basis for the retrievals. Real world clouds, however, rarely fit the plane-parallel mold and generate radiances that likely produce much greater errors in the retrieved parameter than can be inferred from sensitivity analyses. Thus, independent, empirical methods are used to provide a more reliable uncertainty analysis. At NASA Langley, cloud properties are being retrieved from both geostationary (GEO) and low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for climate monitoring and model validation as part of the NASA CERES project since 2000 and from AVHRR data since 1978 as part of the NOAA CDR program. Cloud properties are also being retrieved in near-real time globally from both GEO and LEO satellites for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. This paper discusses the various independent datasets and approaches that are used to assessing the imager-based satellite cloud retrievals. These include, but are not limited to data from ARM sites, CloudSat, and CALIPSO. This paper discusses the use of the various

  16. Benchmark validation of statistical models: Application to mediation analysis of imagery and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P; Valente, Matthew J; Wurpts, Ingrid C

    2018-03-29

    This article describes benchmark validation, an approach to validating a statistical model. According to benchmark validation, a valid model generates estimates and research conclusions consistent with a known substantive effect. Three types of benchmark validation-(a) benchmark value, (b) benchmark estimate, and (c) benchmark effect-are described and illustrated with examples. Benchmark validation methods are especially useful for statistical models with assumptions that are untestable or very difficult to test. Benchmark effect validation methods were applied to evaluate statistical mediation analysis in eight studies using the established effect that increasing mental imagery improves recall of words. Statistical mediation analysis led to conclusions about mediation that were consistent with established theory that increased imagery leads to increased word recall. Benchmark validation based on established substantive theory is discussed as a general way to investigate characteristics of statistical models and a complement to mathematical proof and statistical simulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Epigenetics application in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb-de la Rosa, Alfredo; Acker, Matthew; Kumar, Raj A; Manoharan, Murugesan

    2015-10-01

    Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the Western world. Patients with bladder cancer require close monitoring, which may include frequent cystoscopy and urine cytology. Such monitoring results in significant health care cost. The application of epigenetics may allow for a risk adapted approach and more cost-effective method of monitoring. A number of epigenetic changes have been described for many cancer sites, including the urinary bladder. In this review, we discuss the use of epigenetics in bladder cancer and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A comprehensive search of the English medical literature was conducted in PubMed using the terms microRNA regulation, DNA methylation, histone modification and bladder cancer. The most important epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. Both DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation have been associated with higher rate of cancer. The association of epigenetic changes with bladder cancer has led to the research of its diagnostic and prognostic implications as well as to the development of novel drugs to target these changes with the aim of achieving a survival benefit. Recently, epigenetics has been shown to play a much greater role than previously anticipated in the initiation and propagation of many tumors. The use of epigenetics for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is an evolving and promising field. The possibility of reversing epigenetic changes may facilitate additional cancer treatment options in the future.

  18. Experimental validation of a true-scale morphing flap for large civil aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, R.; Amoroso, F.; Arena, M.; Noviello, M. C.; Rea, F.

    2017-04-01

    Within the framework of the JTI-Clean Sky (CS) project, and during the first phase of the Low Noise Configuration Domain of the Green Regional Aircraft - Integrated Technological Demonstration (GRA-ITD, the preliminary design and technological demonstration of a novel wing flap architecture were addressed. Research activities were carried out to substantiate the feasibility of morphing concepts enabling flap camber variation in compliance with the demanding safety requirements applicable to the next generation green regional aircraft, 130- seats with open rotor configuration. The driving motivation for the investigation on such a technology was found in the opportunity to replace a conventional double slotted flap with a single slotted camber-morphing flap assuring similar high lift performances -in terms of maximum attainable lift coefficient and stall angle- while lowering emitted noise and system complexity. Studies and tests were limited to a portion of the flap element obtained by slicing the actual flap geometry with two cutting planes distant 0.8 meters along the wing span. Further activities were then addressed in order to increase the TRL of the validated architecture within the second phase of the CS-GRA. Relying upon the already assessed concept, an innovative and more advanced flap device was designed in order to enable two different morphing modes on the basis of the A/C flight condition / flap setting: Mode1, Overall camber morphing to enhance high-lift performances during take-off and landing (flap deployed); Mode2, Tab-like morphing mode. Upwards and downwards deflection of the flap tip during cruise (flap stowed) for load control at high speed. A true-scale segment of the outer wing flap (4 meters span with a mean chord of 0.9 meters) was selected as investigation domain for the new architecture in order to duly face the challenges posed by real wing installation. Advanced and innovative solutions for the adaptive structure, actuation and control

  19. Validation and application of help code used for design and review of cover of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in near-surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhiwen; Gu Cunli; Zhang Jinsheng; Liu Xiuzhen

    1996-01-01

    The authors describes validation and application of HELP code used by the United States Environmental Protective Agency for design and review of cover of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in near-surface facilities. The HELP code was validated using data of field aerated moisture movement test by China Institute for Radiation Protection. The results show that simulation of HELP code is reasonable. Effects of surface layer thickness and surface treatment on moisture distribution in a cover was simulated with HELP code in the conditions of south-west China. The simulation results demonstrated that surface plantation of a cover plays very important role in moisture distribution in the cover. Special attention should be paid in cover design. In humid area, radioactive waste disposal safety should take full consideration with functions of chemical barrier. It was recommended that engineering economy should be added in future cover research so as to achieve optimization of cover design

  20. Grid workflow validation using ontology-based tacit knowledge: A case study for quantitative remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Longli; Xue, Yong; Dong, Jing; Hu, Yingcui; Hill, Richard; Guang, Jie; Li, Chi

    2017-01-01

    Workflow for remote sensing quantitative retrieval is the ;bridge; between Grid services and Grid-enabled application of remote sensing quantitative retrieval. Workflow averts low-level implementation details of the Grid and hence enables users to focus on higher levels of application. The workflow for remote sensing quantitative retrieval plays an important role in remote sensing Grid and Cloud computing services, which can support the modelling, construction and implementation of large-scale complicated applications of remote sensing science. The validation of workflow is important in order to support the large-scale sophisticated scientific computation processes with enhanced performance and to minimize potential waste of time and resources. To research the semantic correctness of user-defined workflows, in this paper, we propose a workflow validation method based on tacit knowledge research in the remote sensing domain. We first discuss the remote sensing model and metadata. Through detailed analysis, we then discuss the method of extracting the domain tacit knowledge and expressing the knowledge with ontology. Additionally, we construct the domain ontology with Protégé. Through our experimental study, we verify the validity of this method in two ways, namely data source consistency error validation and parameters matching error validation.

  1. Development and validation of a novel patient-reported treatment satisfaction measure for hyperfunctional facial lines: facial line satisfaction questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilus, Farrah; Burgess, Somali; Hudgens, Stacie; Banderas, Benjamin; Daniels, Selena

    2015-12-01

    Facial lines or wrinkles are among the most visible signs of aging, and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures are becoming increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Facial Line Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLSQ) for use in adults with upper facial lines (UFL). A literature review, concept elicitation interviews (n = 33), and cognitive debriefing interviews (n = 23) of adults with UFL were conducted to develop the FLSQ. The FLSQ comprises Baseline and Follow-up versions and was field-tested with 150 subjects in a US observational study designed to assess its psychometric performance. Analyses included acceptability (item and scale distribution [i.e. missingness, floor, and ceiling effects]), reliability, and validity (including concurrent validity). In total, 69 concepts were elicited during patient interviews. Following cognitive debriefing interviews, the FLSQ-Baseline version included 11 items and the Follow-up version included 13 items. Response rates for the FLSQ were 100% and 73% at baseline and follow-up, respectively; no items had excessive missing data. Questionnaire scale scores were normally distributed. Most domain scores demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70). Most items within their respective domains exhibited good convergent (item-scale correlations > 0.40) and discriminant (items had higher correlation with their hypothesized scales than other scales) validity. Concurrent validity correlation coefficients of the FLSQ domain scores with the associated concurrent measures were acceptable (range: r = 0.40-0.70). Six FLSQ items demonstrated reliability and validity as stand-alone items outside their domains. The FLSQ is a valid questionnaire for assessing treatment expectations, satisfaction, impact, and preference in adults with UFL. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Methodology for Computational Fluid Dynamic Validation for Medical Use: Application to Intracranial Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Nikhil; Damiano, Robert J; Varble, Nicole A; Tutino, Vincent M; Dou, Zhongwang; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Meng, Hui

    2017-12-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a promising tool to aid in clinical diagnoses of cardiovascular diseases. However, it uses assumptions that simplify the complexities of the real cardiovascular flow. Due to high-stakes in the clinical setting, it is critical to calculate the effect of these assumptions in the CFD simulation results. However, existing CFD validation approaches do not quantify error in the simulation results due to the CFD solver's modeling assumptions. Instead, they directly compare CFD simulation results against validation data. Thus, to quantify the accuracy of a CFD solver, we developed a validation methodology that calculates the CFD model error (arising from modeling assumptions). Our methodology identifies independent error sources in CFD and validation experiments, and calculates the model error by parsing out other sources of error inherent in simulation and experiments. To demonstrate the method, we simulated the flow field of a patient-specific intracranial aneurysm (IA) in the commercial CFD software star-ccm+. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) provided validation datasets for the flow field on two orthogonal planes. The average model error in the star-ccm+ solver was 5.63 ± 5.49% along the intersecting validation line of the orthogonal planes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that our validation method is superior to existing validation approaches by applying three representative existing validation techniques to our CFD and experimental dataset, and comparing the validation results. Our validation methodology offers a streamlined workflow to extract the "true" accuracy of a CFD solver.

  3. Validating the Patient Experience with Treatment and Self-Management (PETS, a patient-reported measure of treatment burden, in people with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers EA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Rogers,1,2 Kathleen J Yost,3 Jordan K Rosedahl,3 Mark Linzer,4 Deborah H Boehm,5 Azra Thakur,5 Sara Poplau,5 Roger T Anderson,6 David T Eton3 1Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Department of Health Services Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 5Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 6University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA Aims: To validate a comprehensive general measure of treatment burden, the Patient Experience with Treatment and Self-Management (PETS, in people with diabetes. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey study with 120 people diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and at least one additional chronic illness. Surveys included established patient-reported outcome measures and a 48-item version of the PETS, a new measure comprised of multi-item scales assessing the burden of chronic illness treatment and self-care as it relates to nine domains: medical information, medications, medical appointments, monitoring health, interpersonal challenges, health care expenses, difficulty with health care services, role activity limitations, and physical/mental exhaustion from self-management. Internal reliability of PETS scales was determined using Cronbach’s alpha. Construct validity was determined through correlation of PETS scores with established measures (measures of chronic condition distress, medication satisfaction, self-efficacy, and global well-being, and known-groups validity through comparisons of PETS scores across clinically distinct groups. In an exploratory test of predictive validity, step-wise regressions were used to determine which PETS scales were most associated with outcomes of chronic condition

  4. Validity and Reliability of Assessing Body Composition Using a Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Elizabeth Z; Vehrs, Pat R; Fellingham, Gilbert W; Eggett, Dennis; George, James D; Hager, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the LeanScreen (LS) mobile application that estimates percent body fat (%BF) using estimates of circumferences from photographs. The %BF of 148 weight-stable adults was estimated once using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Each of two administrators assessed the %BF of each subject twice using the LS app and manually measured circumferences. A mixed-model ANOVA and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare the estimates of %BF obtained from each method. Interrater and intrarater reliabilities values were determined using multiple measurements taken by each of the two administrators. The LS app and manually measured circumferences significantly underestimated (P < 0.05) the %BF determined using DXA by an average of -3.26 and -4.82 %BF, respectively. The LS app (6.99 %BF) and manually measured circumferences (6.76 %BF) had large limits of agreement. All interrater and intrarater reliability coefficients of estimates of %BF using the LS app and manually measured circumferences exceeded 0.99. The estimates of %BF from manually measured circumferences and the LS app were highly reliable. However, these field measures are not currently recommended for the assessment of body composition because of significant bias and large limits of agreements.

  5. Development and validation of a 3D-printed interfacial stress sensor for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszczak, P; Jiang, L; Bader, D L; Moser, D; Zahedi, S

    2015-01-01

    A novel capacitance-based sensor designed for monitoring mechanical stresses at the stump-socket interface of lower-limb amputees is described. It provides practical means of measuring pressure and shear stresses simultaneously. In particular, it comprises of a flexible frame (20 mm × 20 mm), with thickness of 4mm. By employing rapid prototyping technology in its fabrication, it offers a low-cost and versatile solution, with capability of adopting bespoke shapes of lower-limb residua. The sensor was first analysed using finite element analysis (FEA) and then evaluated using lab-based electromechanical tests. The results validate that the sensor is capable of monitoring both pressure and shear at stresses up to 350 kPa and 80 kPa, respectively. A post-signal processing model is developed to induce pressure and shear stresses, respectively. The effective separation of pressure and shear signals can be potentially advantageous for sensor calibration in clinical applications. The sensor also demonstrates high linearity (approx. 5-8%) and high pressure (approx. 1.3 kPa) and shear (approx. 0.6 kPa) stress resolution performance. Accordingly, the sensor offers the potential for exploitation as an assistive tool to both evaluate prosthetic socket fitting in clinical settings and alert amputees in home settings of excessive loading at the stump-socket interface, effectively preventing stump tissue breakdown at an early stage. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of industry-standard guidelines for the validation of avionics software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Shagnea, Anita M.

    1990-01-01

    The application of industry standards to the development of avionics software is discussed, focusing on verification and validation activities. It is pointed out that the procedures that guide the avionics software development and testing process are under increased scrutiny. The DO-178A guidelines, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification, are used by the FAA for certifying avionics software. To investigate the effectiveness of the DO-178A guidelines for improving the quality of avionics software, guidance and control software (GCS) is being developed according to the DO-178A development method. It is noted that, due to the extent of the data collection and configuration management procedures, any phase in the life cycle of a GCS implementation can be reconstructed. Hence, a fundamental development and testing platform has been established that is suitable for investigating the adequacy of various software development processes. In particular, the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the development method recommended by the DO-178A guidelines are being closely examined.

  7. Parallel Resolved Open Source CFD-DEM: Method, Validation and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hager

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the authors present a fully parallelized Open Source method for calculating the interaction of immersed bodies and surrounding fluid. A combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD and a discrete element method (DEM accounts for the physics of both the fluid and the particles. The objects considered are relatively big compared to the cells of the fluid mesh, i.e. they cover several cells each. Thus this fictitious domain method (FDM is called resolved. The implementation is realized within the Open Source framework CFDEMcOupling (www.cfdem.com, which provides an interface between OpenFOAM® based CFD-solvers and the DEM software LIGGGHTS (www.liggghts.com. While both LIGGGHTS and OpenFOAM® were already parallelized, only a recent improvement of the algorithm permits the fully parallel computation of resolved problems. Alongside with a detailed description of the method, its implementation and recent improvements, a number of application and validation examples is presented in the scope of this paper.

  8. Application of Kramers-Kronig relationships for titanium impedance data validation in a Ringer's solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastidas, D. M.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the applicability of Kramers-Kronig (KK relationships to assess the validity of real and imaginary impedance measurements for titanium in a Ringer's solution using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS method. Nyquist and Bode plots showed a capacitive behaviour with a high impedance modulus including two time constants. Two procedures were employed in the implementation of the KK integral relationships based on an equivalent circuit which satisfies KK relationships and an ohmic resistance shunted to the measured EIS data. The titanium's EIS data satisfied the KK relationships.

    Este artículo estudia la aplicabilidad de las relaciones de Kramers-Kronig (KK al estudio de la validez de las medidas de impedancia (EIS, parte real y parte imaginaria, del titanio en contacto con la solución de Ringer. Los diagramas de Nyquist y Bode muestran un comportamiento capacitivo, con un módulo de impedancia elevado y con dos constantes de tiempo. En la implementación de las integrales de KK se emplearon dos procedimientos, que se basan en un circuito equivalente que cumple las relaciones de KK y en una resistencia óhmica en paralelo añadida a los datos de impedancia medidos. Los resultados de impedancia del titanio satisfacen las relaciones de KK.

  9. Development and validation of the Patient Experience with Treatment and Self-management (PETS): a patient-reported measure of treatment burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eton, David T; Yost, Kathleen J; Lai, Jin-Shei; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Egginton, Jason S; Rosedahl, Jordan K; Linzer, Mark; Boehm, Deborah H; Thakur, Azra; Poplau, Sara; Odell, Laura; Montori, Victor M; May, Carl R; Anderson, Roger T

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new comprehensive patient-reported measure of treatment burden-the Patient Experience with Treatment and Self-management (PETS). A conceptual framework was used to derive the PETS with items reviewed and cognitively tested with patients. A survey battery, including a pilot version of the PETS, was mailed to 838 multi-morbid patients from two healthcare institutions for validation. A total of 332 multi-morbid patients returned completed surveys. Diagnostics supported deletion and consolidation of some items and domains. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a domain model for scaling comprised of 9 factors: medical information, medications, medical appointments, monitoring health, interpersonal challenges, medical/healthcare expenses, difficulty with healthcare services, role/social activity limitations, and physical/mental exhaustion. Scales showed good internal consistency (α range 0.79-0.95). Higher PETS scores, indicative of greater treatment burden, were correlated with more distress, less satisfaction with medications, lower self-efficacy, worse physical and mental health, and lower convenience of healthcare (Ps health literacy, less adherence to medications, and more financial difficulties reported higher PETS scores (Ps < 0.01). A comprehensive patient-reported measure of treatment burden can help to better characterize the impact of treatment and self-management burden on patient well-being and guide care toward minimally disruptive medicine.

  10. Discriminant content validity: a quantitative methodology for assessing content of theory-based measures, with illustrative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marie; Dixon, Diane; Hart, Jo; Glidewell, Liz; Schröder, Carin; Pollard, Beth

    2014-05-01

    In studies involving theoretical constructs, it is important that measures have good content validity and that there is not contamination of measures by content from other constructs. While reliability and construct validity are routinely reported, to date, there has not been a satisfactory, transparent, and systematic method of assessing and reporting content validity. In this paper, we describe a methodology of discriminant content validity (DCV) and illustrate its application in three studies. Discriminant content validity involves six steps: construct definition, item selection, judge identification, judgement format, single-sample test of content validity, and assessment of discriminant items. In three studies, these steps were applied to a measure of illness perceptions (IPQ-R) and control cognitions. The IPQ-R performed well with most items being purely related to their target construct, although timeline and consequences had small problems. By contrast, the study of control cognitions identified problems in measuring constructs independently. In the final study, direct estimation response formats for theory of planned behaviour constructs were found to have as good DCV as Likert format. The DCV method allowed quantitative assessment of each item and can therefore inform the content validity of the measures assessed. The methods can be applied to assess content validity before or after collecting data to select the appropriate items to measure theoretical constructs. Further, the data reported for each item in Appendix S1 can be used in item or measure selection. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There are agreed methods of assessing and reporting construct validity of measures of theoretical constructs, but not their content validity. Content validity is rarely reported in a systematic and transparent manner. What does this study add? The paper proposes discriminant content validity (DCV), a systematic and transparent method

  11. On various metrics used for validation of predictive QSAR models with applications in virtual screening and focused library design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kunal; Mitra, Indrani

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have important applications in drug discovery research, environmental fate modeling, property prediction, etc. Validation has been recognized as a very important step for QSAR model development. As one of the important objectives of QSAR modeling is to predict activity/property/toxicity of new chemicals falling within the domain of applicability of the developed models and QSARs are being used for regulatory decisions, checking reliability of the models and confidence of their predictions is a very important aspect, which can be judged during the validation process. One prime application of a statistically significant QSAR model is virtual screening for molecules with improved potency based on the pharmacophoric features and the descriptors appearing in the QSAR model. Validated QSAR models may also be utilized for design of focused libraries which may be subsequently screened for the selection of hits. The present review focuses on various metrics used for validation of predictive QSAR models together with an overview of the application of QSAR models in the fields of virtual screening and focused library design for diverse series of compounds with citation of some recent examples.

  12. The Perceptions of Fair Interpersonal Treatment Scale: development and validation of a measure of interpersonal treatment in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, M A; Drasgow, F; Munson, L J

    1998-10-01

    The Perceptions of Fair Interpersonal Treatment (PFIT) scale was designed to assess employees' perceptions of the interpersonal treatment in their work environment. Analyses of the factor structure and reliability of this new instrument indicate that the PFIT scale is a reliable instrument composed of 2 factors: supervisor treatment and coworker treatment. It was hypothesized that the PFIT scale would be positively correlated with job satisfaction variables and negatively correlated with work withdrawal, job withdrawal, experiences of sexual harassment, and an organization's tolerance of sexual harassment. Results based on 509 employees in a private-sector organization and 217 female faculty and staff members at a large midwestern university supported these hypotheses. Arguments that common method variance and employees' dispositions are responsible for the significant correlations between the PFIT scale and other job-related variables were eliminated. The implications of these results are discussed.

  13. Potential applications of plasma science techniques for water treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, D.

    1994-01-01

    The historical evolution of water treatment techniques and their impact on man and his environment are presented. Ancient man recognized the relationship between good water and good health. However, it was not until the late 1800's that man's own contribution to the pollution of water via biological and chemical contamination of the water stream was recognized as having adverse affects on water quality. Since that time virtually every nation has adopted laws and regulations to ensure that safe sources of unpolluted water are available to its citizens. In the United States, water quality is governed by the Clean Water Act of 1972 administered at the federal level by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Further, each state has established its equivalent agency which administers its own laws and regulations. Different biological and chemical biohazards present in the water system are discussed. Biological contaminants include various types of viruses, bacteria, fungii, molds, yeasts, algae, amoebas, and parasites. Chemical contaminates include elemental heavy metals and other organic and inorganic compounds which interfere with normal biological functions. Conventional water treatments for both consumption and sewage effluent commonly employ four different principals: mechanical filtration, quiescent gravity settling, biological oxidation, and chemical treatment. Although these techniques have greatly reduced the incidence of water-borne disease recent studies suggest that more effective means of eliminating biohazards are needed. Regulatory requirements for more aggressive treatment and elimination of residual contaminants present a significant opportunity for the application of various forms of electromagnetic radiation techniques. A comparison between conventional techniques and more advanced methods using various forms of electromagnetic radiation is discussed

  14. Validation of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System for assessing the treatment outcomes of Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guang-Ying; Baumrind, Sheldon; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Wu, Wei-Zi; Ren, Chong; Weng, Xuan-Rong; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min

    2013-09-01

    Orthodontics in China has developed rapidly, but there is no standard index of treatment outcomes. We assessed the validity of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System (ABO-OGS) for the classification of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. We randomly selected 108 patients who completed treatment between July 2005 and September 2008 in 6 orthodontic treatment centers across China. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontists made subjective assessments of the end-of-treatment casts for each patient. Three examiners then used the ABO-OGS to measure the casts. Pearson correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were conducted to evaluate the correspondence between the ABO-OGS cast measurements and the orthodontists' subjective assessments. The average subjective grading scores were highly correlated with the ABO-OGS scores (r = 0.7042). Four of the 7 study cast components of the ABO-OGS score-occlusal relationship, overjet, interproximal contact, and alignment-were statistically significantly correlated with the judges' subjective assessments. Together, these 4 accounted for 58% of the variability in the average subjective grading scores. The ABO-OGS cutoff score for cases that the judges deemed satisfactory was 16 points; the corresponding cutoff score for cases that the judges considered acceptable was 21 points. The ABO-OGS is a valid index for the assessment of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. By comparing the objective scores on this modification of the ABO-OGS with the mean subjective assessment of a panel of highly qualified Chinese orthodontists, a cutoff point for satisfactory treatment outcome was defined as 16 points or fewer, with scores of 16 to 21 points denoting less than satisfactory but still acceptable treatment. Cases that scored greater than 21 points were considered unacceptable. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of the GRAPPA psoriatic arthritis treatment recommendations in clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mumtaz, Aizad

    2012-02-01

    Psoriatic disease presents with a complex array of clinical features, including peripheral synovitis and skin psoriasis, but there is also variable involvement of the nail, dactylitis, enthesitis, and spinal disease. Composite assessment of disease activity and response taking into account the impact of the disease as a whole on an individual\\'s health and quality of life is of vital importance. Following an extensive literature review, discussions, and consensus, the Group for Research in Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) published guidelines to help clinicians make treatment decisions. The utility of these guidelines in routine clinical practice is further enhanced by incorporating them into a Composite Psoriatic Disease Activity Index (CPDAI). The potential application of the CPDAI in typical psoriatic disease patients is presented and discussed. Validation and possible modification of a composite disease activity and responder index is currently being undertaken by GRAPPA.

  16. Development and validation of a new questionnaire measuring treatment satisfaction in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: SAFUCA®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Miguel A; González-Porras, José Ramón; Aranguren, José Luis; Franco, Eduardo; Villasante, Fernando; Tuñón, José; González-López, Tomás José; de Salas-Cansado, Marina; Soto, Javier

    2017-03-01

    To develop a new questionnaire with good psychometric properties to measure satisfaction with medical care in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The initial instrument was composed of 37 items, arranged in 6 dimensions: efficacy, ease and convenience, impact on daily activities, satisfaction with medical care, undesired effects of medication, and overall satisfaction. Items and dimensions were extracted from reviewing existing instruments, 3 focus groups with chronic patients, and a panel of 8 experts. Additionally, 3 visual analog scales measuring quality of life, effectiveness, and overall satisfaction were administered. A convenience sample of 119 patients was used for item reduction. Classic psychometric theory and item analysis techniques were used (exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analysis, test-retest, and correlation with visual scales). A validation sample of 230 patients was used to assess convergent validity, and an additional 220 patients sample was used to discriminate between treatment and compliance groups. The questionnaire was reduced in length to 25 items, but the impact dimension had split in treatment inconvenience and treatment control. Overall reliability was high (α = 0.861) with acceptable dimensional reliabilities (α = 0.764-0.908). Individual dimensions correlated to varying degrees. Test-retest correlations were high (r = 0.784-0.965), and correlations with visual and already validated scales were substantial. Differences were detected between antivitamin K and new-oral-anticoagulant treatments in several dimensions (p satisfaction was related with compliance. This new 25-item questionnaire has good psychometric properties for measuring satisfaction with medical care in patients with this condition. It is capable of detecting differences between different treatments.

  17. ABA versus TEACCH: The Case for Defining and Validating Comprehensive Treatment Models in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Kevin; Shukla-Mehta, Smita; Magee, Sandy; Wie, Min

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyzed the results of a social validation survey to determine if autism service providers including special education teachers, parents, and administrators demonstrate a preference for the intervention components of Applied Behavior Analysis or Training and Education of Autistic and other Communication Handicapped Children. They also…

  18. Binge or control? : assessment of the validity, treatment and underlying mechanisms of Binge Eating Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on patients with Binge Eating Disorder. The thesis consists of three parts. In the first part the validity of the diagnosis of BED will be discussed. The results of two literature reviews and an empirical cross-sectional study suggested that BED is a distinct eating disorder and

  19. Cultural adaptation and validation of a peninsular Spanish version of the MSTCQ© (Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Concerns Questionnaire).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntéis Olivas, E; Navarro Mascarell, G; Meca Lallana, J; Maestre Martínez, A; Pérez Sempere, Á; Gracia Gil, J; Pato Pato, A

    Although subcutaneous treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) have been shown to be effective, adverse reactions and pain may adversely affect treatment satisfaction and adherence. This study presents an adapted and validated Spanish version of the Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Concerns Questionnaire © (MSTCQ), which evaluates satisfaction with the injection device (ID) across 4 domains: injection system (A), side effects (B) (flu-like symptoms, reactions, and satisfaction), experience with treatment (C) and benefits (D). Two study phases: 1) Cultural adaptation process with input from experts (n=6) and patients (n=30). 2) Validation obtained by means of an observational, cross-sectional, multi-centre study evaluating 143 adult MS patients using an ID. Tools employed: MSTCQ © , Patient-Reported Indices for Multiple Sclerosis (PRIMUS © ), and Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM © ). Psychometric properties: Feasibility (percentage of valid cases and floor/ceiling effects); Reliability (Cronbach α) and test-retest correlation (n=41, intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC); and construct validity (factor analysis of domains A and B) and convergent validity (Spearman rank-order correlation for MSTCQ © vs TSQM © ). Mean age (SD) was 41.94 (10.47) years, 63% of the group were women, and 88.11% presented relapsing-remitting MS. Mean (SD) EDSS score was 2.68 (1.82) points. MSTCQ © completion was high (0%-2.80% missing data). Internal consistency was high at α=0.89 for the total score (A+B) and α=0.76, 0.89, and 0.92 for domains A, B, and C, respectively. The version demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability for the total (ICC=0.98) and for domains A, B, and C: ICC=0.82, 0.97, and 0.89, respectively. Factor analysis corroborated the internal structure of the original questionnaire. The association between total and domain scores on both the MSTCQ © and the TSQM © was moderately strong (Rho=0.42-0.74) and significant (P<.05 and P<.01

  20. Treatment of waters before use. Processes and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchet, P.

    2006-01-01

    Some industrial processes require a water without any particulate in suspension and stable with respect to various aspects: no post-precipitations, no interference with storage and distribution equipments (corrosion or fouling), no development of bacterial, algal or other type of fauna (no chemical nutrients) etc. The water preparation process used will be different depending on the origin of the water (surface or underground). This article describes, first, the different type of treatments depending on the origin of the water and on the quality requested (clear and stable water, drinkable water, specific complementary processes, different processing files). Then, in a second part, the application of these processes to some industries are given (beverage, food, textile, paper, steel-making, aerospace and automotive, petroleum, power plants, ultra-pure waters) and in particular the preparation of demineralized water for nuclear power plants is described. (J.S.)

  1. Application of Fenton oxidation to cosmetic wastewaters treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, P; Mohedano, A F; Gilarranz, M A; Casas, J A; Rodriguez, J J

    2007-05-08

    The removal of organic matter (TOC and COD) from a cosmetic wastewater by Fenton oxidation treatment has been evaluated. The operating conditions (temperature as well as ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide dosage) have been optimized. Working at an initial pH equal to 3.0, a Fe(2+) concentration of 200 mg/L and a H(2)O(2) concentration to COD initial weight ratio corresponding to the theoretical stoichiometric value (2.12), a TOC conversion higher than 45% at 25 degrees C and 60% at 50 degrees C was achieved. Application of the Fenton oxidation process allows to reach the COD regional limit for industrial wastewaters discharges to the municipal sewer system. A simple kinetic analysis based on TOC was carried out. A second-order equation describes well the overall kinetics of the process within a wide TOC conversion range covering up to the 80-90% of the maximum achievable conversion.

  2. Treatment of emulsified oils by electrocoagulation: pulsed voltage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ayten; Bakirci, Busra

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage application on energy consumption during electrocoagulation was investigated. Three voltage profiles having the same arithmetic average with respect to time were applied to the electrodes. The specific energy consumption for these profiles were evaluated and analyzed together with oil removal efficiencies. The effects of applied voltages, electrode materials, electrode configurations, and pH on oil removal efficiency were determined. Electrocoagulation experiments were performed by using synthetic and real wastewater samples. The pulsed voltages saved energy during the electrocoagulation process. In continuous operation, energy saving was as high as 48%. Aluminum electrodes used for the treatment of emulsified oils resulted in higher oil removal efficiencies in comparison with stainless steel and iron electrodes. When the electrodes gap was less than 1 cm, higher oil removal efficiencies were obtained. The highest oil removal efficiencies were 95% and 35% for the batch and continuous operating modes, respectively.

  3. Surface treatments for biological, chemical and physical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karaman, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to the topic with a mix of theory and practice in the fields of biology, chemistry and physics. Straightforward and well-structured, the first chapter introduces fundamental aspects of surface treatments, after which examples from nature are given. Subsequent chapters discuss various methods to surface modification, including chemical and physical approaches, followed by the characterization of the functionalized surfaces. Applications discussed include the lotus effect, diffusion barriers, enzyme immobilization and catalysis. Finally, the book concludes with a look at future technology advances. Throughout the text, tutorials and case studies are used for training purposes to grant a deeper understanding of the topic, resulting in an essential reference for students as well as for experienced engineers in R&D.

  4. Application of nanofiltration to the treatment of uranium mill effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnaughton, S.J.; McCulloch, J.K.; Marshall, K.; Ring, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Nanofiltration is widely used in water treatment due to the lower energy requirements and higher yields than reverse osmosis. Separation characteristics are dependent on both the molecular size and charge of the dissolved species in the feed solution as well as membrane properties. In this investigation the potential of nanofiltration to remove dissolved species from uranium mill effluent has been studied. The background behind the application is discussed and the results of the first testwork programme are presented. An initial screening of seventeen commercially available membranes was completed and it was found that uranium rejections of greater than 75% were consistently achieved. Selected membranes also showed potential for the separation of radium, sulfate and manganese. (author)

  5. The ASCAT soil moisture product. A Review of its specifications, validation results, and emerging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sebastian; Kidd, Richard [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Dept. of Geodesy and Geoinformation] [and others

    2013-02-15

    provide a comprehensive overview of the major characteristics and caveats of the ASCAT soil moisture product, this paper describes the ASCAT instrument and the soil moisture processor and near-real-time distribution service implemented by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). A review of the most recent validation studies shows that the quality of ASCAT soil moisture product is - with the exception of arid environments -comparable to, and over some regions (e.g. Europe) even better than currently available soil moisture data derived from passive microwave sensors. Further, a review of applications studies shows that the use of the ASCAT soil moisture product is particularly advanced in the fields of numerical weather prediction and hydrologic modelling. But also in other application areas such as yield monitoring, epidemiologic modelling, or societal risks assessment some first progress can be noted. Considering the generally positive evaluation results, it is expected that the ASCAT soil moisture product will increasingly be used by a growing number of rather diverse land applications. (orig.)

  6. The ASCAT Soil Moisture Product: A Review of its Specifications, Validation Results, and Emerging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Wagner

    2013-02-01

    applications. To provide a comprehensive overview of the major characteristics and caveats of the ASCAT soil moisture product, this paper describes the ASCAT instrument and the soil moisture processor and near-real-time distribution service implemented by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT. A review of the most recent validation studies shows that the quality of ASCAT soil moisture product is - with the exception of arid environments -comparable to, and over some regions (e.g. Europe even better than currently available soil moisture data derived from passive microwave sensors. Further, a review of applications studies shows that the use of the ASCAT soil moisture product is particularly advanced in the fields of numerical weather prediction and hydrologic modelling. But also in other application areas such as yield monitoring, epidemiologic modelling, or societal risks assessment some first progress can be noted. Considering the generally positive evaluation results, it is expected that the ASCAT soil moisture product will increasingly be used by a growing number of rather diverse land applications.

  7. Validation of a Polyimide Foam Model for Use in Transmission Loss Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kwanwoo; Bolton, J. Stuart; Cano, Roberto J.; Weiser, Erik S.; Jensen, Brian J.; Silcox, Rich; Howerton, Brian M.; Maxon, John; Wang, Tongan; Lorenzi, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this paper was focused on the use of a new polyimide foam in a double wall sound transmission loss application. Recall that polyimide foams are functionally attractive, compared to polyurethane foams, for example, owing to their fire resistance. The foam considered here was found to have a flow resistivity that was too high for conventional acoustical applications, and as a result, it was processed by partial crushing to lower the flow resistivity into an acceptable range. Procedures for measuring the flow resistivity and Young s modulus of the material have been described, as was an inverse characterization procedure for estimating the remaining Biot parameters based on standing wave tube measurements of transmission loss and absorption coefficient. The inverse characterization was performed using a finite element model implementation of the Biot poro-elastic material theory. Those parameters were then used to predict the sound transmission loss of a double panel system lined with polyimide foam, and the predictions were compared with full-scale transmission loss measurements. The agreement between the two was reasonable, especially in the high and low frequency limits; however, it was found that the SEA model resulted in an under-prediction of the transmission loss in the mid-frequency range. Nonetheless, it was concluded that the performance of polyimide foam could be predicted using conventional poro-elastic material models and that polyimide foam may offer an attractive alternative to other double wall linings in certain situations: e.g., when fire resistance is a key issue. Future work will concentrate on reducing the density of the foam to values similar to those used in current aircraft sidewall treatments, and developing procedures to improve the performance of the foam in transmission loss applications.

  8. Validity of the Elite HRV Smartphone Application for Examining Heart Rate Variability in a Field-Based Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Andrew S; Jeklin, Andrew T; Hives, Ben A; Meanwell, Leah E; Warburton, Darren E R

    2017-08-01

    Perrotta, AS, Jeklin, AT, Hives, BA, Meanwell, LE, and Warburton, DER. Validity of the elite HRV smartphone application for examining heart rate variability in a field-based setting. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2296-2302, 2017-The introduction of smartphone applications has allowed athletes and practitioners to record and store R-R intervals on smartphones for immediate heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. This user-friendly option should be validated in the effort to provide practitioners confidence when monitoring their athletes before implementing such equipment. The objective of this investigation was to examine the relationship and validity between a vagal-related HRV index, rMSSD, when derived from a smartphone application accessible with most operating systems against a frequently used computer software program, Kubios HRV 2.2. R-R intervals were recorded immediately upon awakening over 14 consecutive days using the Elite HRV smartphone application. R-R recordings were then exported into Kubios HRV 2.2 for analysis. The relationship and levels of agreement between rMSSDln derived from Elite HRV and Kubios HRV 2.2 was examined using a Pearson product-moment correlation and a Bland-Altman Plot. An extremely large relationship was identified (r = 0.92; p smartphone HRV application may offer a reliable platform when assessing parasympathetic modulation.

  9. Ultrasound applications and ionizing radiations in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oraby, M.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Application of ultrasound irradiation is one of the innovative techniques that was used for improvement of water treatment process and lowering levels of contaminants in waste water. The main mechanism of sonication is based on the cavitation phenomenon which includes the whole procedure of creation, expansion and collapsing of micro bubbles throughout liquid phase when negative pressure is applied to the medium during sonication. Consequently, hydroxyl and hydrogen radicals would be formed by thermal dissociation of water and hydrogen. These radicals penetrate into water and oxidize dissolved organic compounds. Hydrogen peroxide is formed as a consequence of hydroxyl and water radical recombination. During the free radical attack, the cell membranes of microorganisms are ruptured physically. The application of ionizing radiation for the removal of odorific substances and organic pollutants from water is an advanced oxidation process based on fast reactions with hydroxyl radicals formed as a result of radiolysis of water. GEO and MIB are the main responsible organic composites for the taste and odor in water. These compounds and other organic pollutants such as herbicide 2,4-DCP can be removed by different doses of gamma rays depending on magnitude, rate of radiation dose, chemical condition of the process and other factors. (author)

  10. Commissioning and first clinical application of mARC treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Nuesken, Frank G.; Kremp, Stephanie; Palm, Jan; Licht, Norbert P.; Ruebe, Christian [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Homburg, Saarland (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    The modulated arc (mARC) technique has recently been introduced for Siemens ARTISTE linear accelerators. We present the first experiences with the commissioning of the system and first patient treatments. Treatment planning and delivery are presented for the Prowess Panther treatment planning system or, alternatively, an in-house code. Dosimetric verification is performed both by point dose measurements and in 3D dose distribution. Depending on the target volume, one or two arcs can be used to create highly conformal plans. Dosimetric verification of the converted mARC plans with step-and-shoot plans shows deviations below 1 % in absolute point dose; in the 3D dose distribution, over 95 % of the points pass the 3D gamma criteria (3 % deviation in local dose and 3 mm distance to agreement for doses > 20 % of the maximum). Patient specific verification of the mARC dose distribution with the calculations has a similar pass rate. Treatment times range between 2 and 5 min for a single arc. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical application of the mARC technique. The mARC offers the possibility to save significant amounts of time, with single-arc treatments of only a few minutes achieving comparable dose distribution to IMRT plans taking up to twice as long. (orig.) [German] Die mARC (modulated arc) Technik wurde vor kurzen fuer Siemens ARTISTE Linearbeschleuniger eingefuehrt. Wir zeigen die ersten Erfahrungen mit der Kommissionierung des Systems sowie die ersten Patientenbestrahlungen. Bestrahlungsplanung und Behandlung werden fuer das Prowess Panther Bestrahlungsplanungssystem oder alternativ in einer in-house-Loesung praesentiert. Die dosimetrische Verifikation wurde sowohl mit Punktmessungen als auch fuer die 3D-Dosisverteilung durchgefuehrt. Je nach Zielvolumen koennen mit einem oder zwei Boegen hochkonformale Plaene erzeugt werden. Die dosimetrische Verifikation konvertierter mARC-Plaene gegen step-and-shoot-Plaene weicht in absoluter Dosis um

  11. Evaluation and Treatment of Coal Fly Ash for Adsorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Oluwaseyi BADA

    Full Text Available Many researchers had investigated fly ash as an adsorbent for the uptake of organic compounds from petrochemical waste effluents. The availability, inexpensive and its adsorption characteristic had made it an alternative media for the removal of organic compounds from aqueous solution. The physical property of South African Coal Fly Ash (SACFA was investigated to determine its adsorption capability and how it can be improved. Chemical treatment using 1M HCl solution in the ratio of (1 g fly ash to (2 ml of acid was used and compared with untreated heat-treated samples. The chemically treated fly ash has a higher specific surface area of 5.4116 m2/g than the heat-treated fly ash with 2.9969 m2/g. More attention had to be given to the utilization of SACFA for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic compounds through the application of Liquid phase adsorption process that was considered as an inexpensive and environmentally friendly technology.

  12. Discriminant validity, diagnostic utility, and parent-child agreement on the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in treatment- and non-treatment-seeking youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, B I; Pagliaccio, D; Pine, D S; Klein, D N; Jarcho, J M

    2017-10-01

    The Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorder (SCARED) may be differentially sensitive to detecting specific or comorbid anxiety diagnoses in treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking youth. We assessed the SCARED's discriminant validity, diagnostic utility, and informant agreement using parent- and self-report from healthy and treatment-seeking anxious youth (Study 1, N=585) and from non-treatment-seeking anxious youth (Study 2, N=331) diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), or comorbid GAD+SAD. Among treatment-seeking youth, the SCARED showed good diagnostic utility and specificity, differentiating healthy, comorbid, and non-comorbid anxious youth. Child-parent agreement was modest: healthy child self-reports were higher than parent-reports whereas anxious child self-reports were similar or lower than parent-reports. Less consistent results emerged for diagnostic utility, specificity, and informant agreement among non-treatment-seeking youth. Given the number of non-treatment seeking anxious youth (N=33), generalizability of these findings may be limited. Together, results suggest informants may provide distinct information about children's anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface treatments of metal supports for photocatalysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montecchio, Francesco, E-mail: fmon@kth.se [KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Chinungi, Don [KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Lanza, Roberto [Verdant Chemical Technologies AB, 114 28 Stockholm (Sweden); Engvall, Klas [KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Treated metals can be used as photocatalyst support in full-scale applications. • Various electrochemical treatments were performed, checking the surface corrugation. • Stainless steel etched in DC and aqua regia shows the highest surface modification. • P25 coated on the DC etched sample has a high stability, with constant activity. • The support modification increases the UV irradiated area and the activity of P25. - Abstract: One of the most important challenges, for scaling up a photocatalytic system for VOCs abatement to full-scale, is the design of a suitable photocatalyst support. The support has to firmly immobilize the photocatalyst, without using an organic adhesive, and should also withstand relatively high mechanical stresses. Metals may be effectively implemented as a support material, after a corrugation of the surface with electrochemical treatments. In the present work, we treated stainless steel and aluminum supports, evaluating the surface modifications due to the electrochemical treatments, with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. Five samples showing the highest degree of restructuring were selected and spray coated with P25, a TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst, evaluating the mechanical stability of the coating with a standard tape test method. One particular stainless steel sample presented a superior surface restructuring and coating stability. The photocatalytic activity of this sample, evaluated measuring the complete oxidation of acetaldehyde, was tested for 15 h, and compared with sample of TiO{sub 2}-P25 on a ceramic support. The stainless steel exhibited a constant performance after an initial stabilization period. The stainless steel sample showed a slightly higher activity, due to the surface restructuring, increasing the irradiated area available for the coated photocatalyst.

  14. Validation and application of an high-order spectral difference method for flow induced noise simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to develop an efficient numerical algorithm to compute the radiated far field noise provided by an unsteady flow field from bodies in arbitrary motion. The method computes a turbulent flow field in the near fields using a high-order spectral difference method coupled with large-eddy simulation approach. The unsteady equations are solved by advancing in time using a second-order backward difference formulae scheme. The nonlinear algebraic system arising from the time discretization is solved with the nonlinear lowerupper symmetric GaussSeidel algorithm. In the second step, the method calculates the far field sound pressure based on the acoustic source information provided by the first step simulation. The method is based on the Ffowcs WilliamsHawkings approach, which provides noise contributions for monopole, dipole and quadrupole acoustic sources. This paper will focus on the validation and assessment of this hybrid approach using different test cases. The test cases used are: a laminar flow over a two-dimensional (2D) open cavity at Re = 1.5 × 10 3 and M = 0.15 and a laminar flow past a 2D square cylinder at Re = 200 and M = 0.5. In order to show the application of the numerical method in industrial cases and to assess its capability for sound field simulation, a three-dimensional turbulent flow in a muffler at Re = 4.665 × 10 4 and M = 0.05 has been chosen as a third test case. The flow results show good agreement with numerical and experimental reference solutions. Comparison of the computed noise results with those of reference solutions also shows that the numerical approach predicts noise accurately. © 2011 IMACS.

  15. Validating self-reported mobile phone use in adults using a newly developed smartphone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. 107 participants (mean age 41.4 years) in the Netherlands either downloaded the software app on their smartphone or were provided with a study smartphone for 4 weeks. The app recorded the number and duration of calls, text messages, data transfer, laterality and hands-free use. Self-reported mobile phone use was collected before using the app and after 6 months through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 95% CI) and Spearman correlations (r) of self-reported (after 6 months) versus recorded number and duration of calls were: GMR=0.65 (0.53 to 0.80), r=0.53; and GMR=1.11 (0.86 to 1.42), r=0.57 respectively. Participants held the phone on average for 86% of the total call time near the head. Self-reported right side users held the phone for 70.7% of the total call time on the right side of the head, and left side users for 66.2% on the left side of the head. The percentage of total call time that the use of hands-free devices (headset, speaker mode, Bluetooth) was recorded increased with increasing frequency of reported hands-free device usage. The observed recall errors and precision of reported laterality and hands-free use can be used to quantify and improve radiofrequency exposure models based on self-reported mobile phone use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Android Application Install-time Permission Validation and Run-time Malicious Pattern Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    The open source structure of Android applications introduces security vulnerabilities that can be readily exploited by third-party applications. We address certain vulnerabilities at both installation and runtime using machine learning. Effective classification techniques with neural networks can be used to verify the application categories on installation. We devise a novel application category verification methodology that involves machine learning the application permissions...

  17. Application of Ferulic Acid for Alzheimer's Disease: Combination of Text Mining and Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guilin; Meng, Xiulin; Ma, Xiaoye; Zhang, Gengping; Hu, Xiaolin; Jin, Aiping; Zhao, Yanxin; Liu, Xueyuan

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an increasing concern in human health. Despite significant research, highly effective drugs to treat AD are lacking. The present study describes the text mining process to identify drug candidates from a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database, along with associated protein target mechanisms. We carried out text mining to identify literatures that referenced both AD and TCM and focused on identifying compounds and protein targets of interest. After targeting one potential TCM candidate, corresponding protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were assembled in STRING to decipher the most possible mechanism of action. This was followed by validation using Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation in an AD cell model. The text mining strategy using a vast amount of AD-related literature and the TCM database identified curcumin, whose major component was ferulic acid (FA). This was used as a key candidate compound for further study. Using the top calculated interaction score in STRING, BACE1 and MMP2 were implicated in the activity of FA in AD. Exposure of SHSY5Y-APP cells to FA resulted in the decrease in expression levels of BACE-1 and APP, while the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 increased in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that FA induced BACE1 and MMP2 pathways maybe novel potential mechanisms involved in AD. The text mining of literature and TCM database related to AD suggested FA as a promising TCM ingredient for the treatment of AD. Potential mechanisms interconnected and integrated with Aβ aggregation inhibition and extracellular matrix remodeling underlying the activity of FA were identified using in vitro studies.

  18. Validation of radiosterilization dose of human skin dressings for burnt treatment: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Due to the need for better materials to treat burnt patients, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) and the Rosa Guerzoni Chambergo Tissue Bank are collaborating for developing human skin dressings. Skin was procured from living donors, who surgically were performed a dermolipectomy. Exclusion criteria, stated by the Peruvian Organization for Transplant and Donation were observed. Glycerolized human skin dressings were processed at the tissue bank and sent to IPEN, where the gamma irradiation sterilizing dose was determined. The purpose of this work is to validate the radiation sterilization dose delivered to human skin dressings using the IAEA Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control. A batch of human skin dressings was tested. Average values of bioburden present in ten samples was 30 UFC/item, obtaining a sub-sterilization dose of 4 kGy. Irradiations were performed in the GammacellExcel 220. Sterility tests performed fulfilled the requirements established by the Code, achieving a validated dose value of 19.7 kGy. This preliminary study, that should be repeated in two other batches of processed human skin, allows to diminish 25 kGy the sterilizing dose to the stated above dose value, in a frame of a quality assurance system that also comprises the processes held at tissue banks previous irradiation. It also permit the availability of these materials in Peruvian hospitals. (Author)

  19. Validation of Likelihood Ratio Methods Used for Forensic Evidence Evaluation: Application in Forensic Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haraksim, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter the Likelihood Ratio (LR) inference model will be introduced, the theoretical aspects of probabilities will be discussed and the validation framework for LR methods used for forensic evidence evaluation will be presented. Prior to introducing the validation framework, following

  20. Validity in Mixed Methods Research in Education: The Application of Habermas' Critical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods approach has developed into the third methodological movement in educational research. Validity in mixed methods research as an important issue, however, has not been examined as extensively as that of quantitative and qualitative research. Additionally, the previous discussions of validity in mixed methods research focus on research…

  1. Weightbath hydrotraction treatment: application, biomechanics, and clinical effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Kurutz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Márta Kurutz1, Tamás Bender21Department of Structural Mechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary; 2Department of Physical Medicine, Polyclinic and Hospital of the Hospitaller Brothers of St. John of God, Budapest, Medical University of Szeged, HungaryBackground and purpose: Weightbath hydrotraction treatment (WHT is a simple noninvasive effective method of hydro- or balneotherapy to stretch the spine or lower limbs, applied successfully in hospitals and health resort sanitaria in Hungary for more than fifty years. This study aims to introduce WHT with its biomechanical and clinical effects. History, development, equipment, modes of application, biomechanics, spinal traction forces and elongations, indications and contraindications of WHT are precented.Subjects and methods: The calculation of traction forces acting along the spinal column during the treatment is described together with the mode of suspension and the position of extra weight loads applied. The biomechanics of the treatment are completed by in vivo measured elongations of lumbar segments using a special underwater ultrasound measuring method. The clinical effects, indications, and contraindications of the treatment are also presented.Results: In the underwater cervical suspension of a human body, approximately 25 N stretching load occurs in the cervical spine, and about 11 N occurs in the lumbar spine. By applying extra weights, the above tensile forces along the spinal column can be increased. Thus, the traction effect can be controlled by applying such loads during the treatment. Elongations of segments L3–L4, L4–L5, and L5–S1 were measured during the usual WHT of patients suspended cervically in water for 20 minutes, loaded by 20–20 N lead weights on the ankles. The mean initial elastic elongations of spinal segments were about 0.8 mm for patients aged under 40 years, 0.5 mm between 40–60 years, and 0.2 mm for patients over 60 years. The mean

  2. Applications of nanotechnology for melanoma treatment, diagnosis, and theranostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jiezhong Chen,1,2 Renfu Shao,3 Xu Dong Zhang,4 Chen Chen1 1School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 3GeneCology Research Centre, School of Science, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, QLD, Australia; 4School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Abstract: Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and has very high rates of mortality. An early stage melanoma can be surgically removed, with a survival rate of 99%. However, metastasized melanoma is difficult to cure. The 5-year survival rates for patients with metastasized melanoma are still below 20%. Metastasized melanoma is currently treated by chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy. The outcome of most of the current therapies is far from optimistic. Although melanoma patients with a mutation in the oncogene v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF have an initially higher positive response rate to targeted therapy, the majority develop acquired drug resistance after 6 months of the therapy. To increase treatment efficacy, early diagnosis, more potent pharmacological agents, and more effective delivery systems are urgently needed. Nanotechnology has been extensively studied for melanoma treatment and diagnosis, to decrease drug resistance, increase therapeutic efficacy, and reduce side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the development of various nanoparticles for melanoma treatment and diagnosis. Several common nanoparticles, including liposome, polymersomes, dendrimers, carbon-based nanoparticles, and human albumin, have been used to deliver chemotherapeutic agents, and small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs against signaling molecules have also been tested for the treatment of melanoma. Indeed

  3. [Application of neuroendoscope in the treatment of skull base chordoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Zhuo; Wang, Zong-Cheng; Zong, Xu-Yi; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Gui, Song-Bai; Zhao, Peng; Li, Chu-Zhong; He, Yue; Wang, Hong-Yun

    2011-07-05

    To further explore the application, approach, indication and prognosis of neuroendoscope treatment for skull base chordoma. A total of 101 patients of skull base chordoma were admitted at our hospital from May 2000 to April 2010. There were 59 males and 42 females. Their major clinical manifestations included headache, cranial nerve damage and dyspnea. They were classified according to the patterns of tumor growth: Type I (n = 13): tumor location at a single component of skull base, i. e. clivus or sphenoid sinus with intact cranial dura; Type II (n = 56): tumor involving more than two components of skull e. g clivus, sphenoid and nasal/oral cavity, etc. But there was no intracranial invasion; Type III (n = 32) : tumor extending widely and intradurally forming compression of brain stems and multiple cranial nerves. Based on the types of chordoma, different endoscopic approaches were employed, viz. transnasal, transoral, trans-subtemporal fossa and plus microsurgical craniotomy for staging in some complex cases. Among all patients, total resection was achieved (n = 19), subtotal (n = 58) and partial (n = 24). In partial resection cases, 16 cases were considered to be subtotal due to a second-stage operation. Most cases had conspicuous clinical improvements. Self-care recovery within one week post-operation accounted for 58.4%, two weeks 30.7%, one month 6.9% and more than one month 1.9%. Postoperative complications occurred in 13 cases (12.8%) and included CSF leakage (n = 4) cranial nerve palsy (n = 5), hemorrhagic nasal wounds (n = 3) and delayed intracranial hemorrhage (n = 1). All of these were cured or improved after an appropriate treatment. A follow-up of 6 - 60 months was conducted in 56 cases. Early detection and early treatment are crucial for achieving a better outcome in chordoma. Neuroendoscopic treatment plays an important role in managing those complicated cases. Precise endoscopic techniques plus different surgical approaches and staging procedures

  4. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather; Fontenot, Stephanie; Correro, Anthony; Allen, Ray; Martin, Corby K; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2013-01-01

    While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these "next-generation" assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST) in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r = 0.515, psmartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries of cognitive and motor function in the elderly is discussed.

  5. TU-D-201-05: Validation of Treatment Planning Dose Calculations: Experience Working with MPPG 5.a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, J; Park, J; Kim, L; Wang, C [MD Anderson Cancer Center at Cooper, Camden, NJ (United States); Balter, P; Ohrt, J; Kirsner, S; Ibbott, G [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Newly published medical physics practice guideline (MPPG 5.a.) has set the minimum requirements for commissioning and QA of treatment planning dose calculations. We present our experience in the validation of a commercial treatment planning system based on MPPG 5.a. Methods: In addition to tests traditionally performed to commission a model-based dose calculation algorithm, extensive tests were carried out at short and extended SSDs, various depths, oblique gantry angles and off-axis conditions to verify the robustness and limitations of a dose calculation algorithm. A comparison between measured and calculated dose was performed based on validation tests and evaluation criteria recommended by MPPG 5.a. An ion chamber was used for the measurement of dose at points of interest, and diodes were used for photon IMRT/VMAT validations. Dose profiles were measured with a three-dimensional scanning system and calculated in the TPS using a virtual water phantom. Results: Calculated and measured absolute dose profiles were compared at each specified SSD and depth for open fields. The disagreement is easily identifiable with the difference curve. Subtle discrepancy has revealed the limitation of the measurement, e.g., a spike at the high dose region and an asymmetrical penumbra observed on the tests with an oblique MLC beam. The excellent results we had (> 98% pass rate on 3%/3mm gamma index) on the end-to-end tests for both IMRT and VMAT are attributed to the quality beam data and the good understanding of the modeling. The limitation of the model and the uncertainty of measurement were considered when comparing the results. Conclusion: The extensive tests recommended by the MPPG encourage us to understand the accuracy and limitations of a dose algorithm as well as the uncertainty of measurement. Our experience has shown how the suggested tests can be performed effectively to validate dose calculation models.

  6. The application of magnetic carriers in wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hredzák Slavomír

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic fluid is a kind of polyphase liquid, which is a stable colloid system of sufficiently small mono-domain magnetic particles covered by a film of surfactant and dispersed in a base liquid. Ferrofluids can be prepared in various base liquids such as water, hydrocarbons, mercury, etc., according to them utilisation. The basic properties of ferrofluids, i.e. the high magnetic polarisation of saturation and zero remanence predestine their application in various industrial branches including mineral processing and wastewater treatment.Wastewater treatment by the application of ferrofluids under magnetic field resides in the action of the field on the ferrofluid added to the oil substance. Strongly magnetically polarisable fluids enable to increase the magnetic susceptibility of oil substances to suitable level for their removal from water by a magnetic way. It was observed that the oil drop with the weight of 3.10 -3g and the ferrofluid concentration of 3% starts to move in the direction of the magnetic intensity growth at the minimal value of 105 A.m-1. It means that ordinary permanent magnet with the magnetic induction of 0.1 T causes the movement of the oil drops with a relatively small admixture of ferrofluid on the water level. This knowledge is very important for the design of magnetic filtration device which will be able to separate oil substances from water.Modification of magnetic properties of weakly magnetic materials by ferrofluids was also carried out in the case of magnetic filtration of water contaminated by fine grains of copper concentrate created by chalcopyrite. After admixing the ferrofluid into the suspension the recovery of mineral to the magnetic filter product ranges from 75 % to 98 % depending on the kind of ferrofluid and pH values. It was observed that in the case of water-based ferrofluid the recovery decreases with the increasing of pH value. But, on the other hand the increasing of pH value under the

  7. Social validity in single-case research: A systematic literature review of prevalence and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Melinda R; Chung, Moon Y; Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W

    2018-03-01

    Single-case research (SCR) has been a valuable methodology in special education research. Montrose Wolf (1978), an early pioneer in single-case methodology, coined the term "social validity" to refer to the social importance of the goals selected, the acceptability of procedures employed, and the effectiveness of the outcomes produced in applied investigations. Since 1978, many contributors to SCR have included social validity as a feature of their articles and several authors have examined the prevalence and role of social validity in SCR. We systematically reviewed all SCR published in six highly-ranked special education journals from 2005 to 2016 to establish the prevalence of social validity assessments and to evaluate their scientific rigor. We found relatively low, but stable prevalence with only 28 publications addressing all three factors of the social validity construct (i.e., goals, procedures, outcomes). We conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific rigor of these 28 publications. Social validity remains an understudied construct in SCR, and the scientific rigor of social validity assessments is often lacking. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive adaptation of a volumetric imaging radiotherapy treatment: development and validation of tools for its implementation in clinical routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huger, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    Changing anatomy during radiotherapy can lead to significant dosimetric consequences for organs at risk (OARs) and/or target volumes. Adaptive radiotherapy can compensate for these variations however its deployment for clinical work is hampered by the increased workload for the medical staff and there is still no commercialized software available for clinical use. We developed a simple in vivo dosimetric alert tool allowing rapid identification of patients who might benefit from an adaptive radiotherapy. Dosimetric evaluation of delivered treatment has been conducted onto 3D on board imaging (CBCT) whose dose calculation accuracy has been evaluated. The tool does not require a new volume of interest delineation. Tool alert is based on objectives and quantifiable criteria defined by the exceeding volumes of interest dose thresholds. Tool precision and detectability have been validated and applied in a retrospective study on 10 head and neck patients. The tool allows detecting patients where an adaptive treatment could have been considered. In its clinical implementation, adaptive radiotherapy process requires deformable matching algorithms to follow patient local's deformations occurring during treatment. Nevertheless, their use has not been validated. We conducted an evaluation of the Block Matching deformable algorithm, suitable for multimodality imaging (CT/CBCT), in comparison to rigid algorithm. A study has been conducted for 10 head and neck patients based on volume of interest contours comparison for 76 CBCT. Similarity parameters used consisted on Dice Similarity Index, Robust Hausdorff Distance (in mm) and the absolute volume difference (in cc). (author)

  9. Production and validation of nuclear data for reactor and fuel cycle applications; Production et validation des donnees nucleaires pour les applications reacteurs et cycle du combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trakas, C [Framatome ANP GmbH NBTT, Erlangen (Germany); Verwaerde, D [Electricite de France EDF, 75 - Paris (France); Toubon, H [Cogema, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); and others

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this technical meeting is the improvement of the existing nuclear data and the production of new data of interest for the upstream and downstream of the fuel cycle (enrichment, fabrication, management, storage, transport, reprocessing), for the industrial reactors, the research reactors and the new reactor concepts (criticality, dimensioning, exploitation), for the instrumentation systems (external and internal sensors), the radioprotection, the residual power, the structures (neutron bombardment effect on vessels, rods etc..), and for the activation of steel structures (Fr, Ni, Co). The expected result is the collection of more reliable and accurate data in a wider spectrum of energies and temperatures thanks to more precise computer codes and measurement techniques. This document brings together the communications presented at this meeting and dealing with: the process of production and validation of nuclear data; the measurement facilities and the big international programs; the users needs and the industrial priorities; the basic nuclear data (BND) needs at Cogema; the expression and evaluation of BND; the evaluation work: the efficient cross-sections; the processing of data and the creation of activation libraries; from the integral measurement to the qualification and the feedback on nuclear data. (J.S.)

  10. Reliability and validity enhancement: a treatment package for increasing fidelity of self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, P H; Hamilton, S B; Miller, R K; Quevillon, R P; Spitzform, M

    1977-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of reliability and validity "enhancers" on fidelity of self-report data in an analogue therapy situation. Under the guise of a Concentration Skills Training Program, 57 Ss were assigned randomly to one of the following conditions: (a) Reliability Enhancement; (b) Truth Talk; (c) No Comment Control. Results indicated significant differences among groups (p less than .05). In addition, tests of multiple comparisons revealed that Reliability Enhancement was significantly different from Truth Talk in occurrences of unreliability (p less than .05). These findings are discussed in light of the increased reliance on self-report data in behavioral intervention, and recommendations are made for future research.

  11. Pharmacokinetic modeling of gentamicin in treatment of infective endocarditis: Model development and validation of existing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wijk, Lars; Proost, Johannes H.; Sinha, Bhanu; Touw, Daan J.

    2017-01-01

    Gentamicin shows large variations in half-life and volume of distribution (Vd) within and between individuals. Thus, monitoring and accurately predicting serum levels are required to optimize effectiveness and minimize toxicity. Currently, two population pharmacokinetic models are applied for predicting gentamicin doses in adults. For endocarditis patients the optimal model is unknown. We aimed at: 1) creating an optimal model for endocarditis patients; and 2) assessing whether the endocarditis and existing models can accurately predict serum levels. We performed a retrospective observational two-cohort study: one cohort to parameterize the endocarditis model by iterative two-stage Bayesian analysis, and a second cohort to validate and compare all three models. The Akaike Information Criterion and the weighted sum of squares of the residuals divided by the degrees of freedom were used to select the endocarditis model. Median Prediction Error (MDPE) and Median Absolute Prediction Error (MDAPE) were used to test all models with the validation dataset. We built the endocarditis model based on data from the modeling cohort (65 patients) with a fixed 0.277 L/h/70kg metabolic clearance, 0.698 (±0.358) renal clearance as fraction of creatinine clearance, and Vd 0.312 (±0.076) L/kg corrected lean body mass. External validation with data from 14 validation cohort patients showed a similar predictive power of the endocarditis model (MDPE -1.77%, MDAPE 4.68%) as compared to the intensive-care (MDPE -1.33%, MDAPE 4.37%) and standard (MDPE -0.90%, MDAPE 4.82%) models. All models acceptably predicted pharmacokinetic parameters for gentamicin in endocarditis patients. However, these patients appear to have an increased Vd, similar to intensive care patients. Vd mainly determines the height of peak serum levels, which in turn correlate with bactericidal activity. In order to maintain simplicity, we advise to use the existing intensive-care model in clinical practice to avoid

  12. Pharmacokinetic modeling of gentamicin in treatment of infective endocarditis: Model development and validation of existing models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gomes

    Full Text Available Gentamicin shows large variations in half-life and volume of distribution (Vd within and between individuals. Thus, monitoring and accurately predicting serum levels are required to optimize effectiveness and minimize toxicity. Currently, two population pharmacokinetic models are applied for predicting gentamicin doses in adults. For endocarditis patients the optimal model is unknown. We aimed at: 1 creating an optimal model for endocarditis patients; and 2 assessing whether the endocarditis and existing models can accurately predict serum levels. We performed a retrospective observational two-cohort study: one cohort to parameterize the endocarditis model by iterative two-stage Bayesian analysis, and a second cohort to validate and compare all three models. The Akaike Information Criterion and the weighted sum of squares of the residuals divided by the degrees of freedom were used to select the endocarditis model. Median Prediction Error (MDPE and Median Absolute Prediction Error (MDAPE were used to test all models with the validation dataset. We built the endocarditis model based on data from the modeling cohort (65 patients with a fixed 0.277 L/h/70kg metabolic clearance, 0.698 (±0.358 renal clearance as fraction of creatinine clearance, and Vd 0.312 (±0.076 L/kg corrected lean body mass. External validation with data from 14 validation cohort patients showed a similar predictive power of the endocarditis model (MDPE -1.77%, MDAPE 4.68% as compared to the intensive-care (MDPE -1.33%, MDAPE 4.37% and standard (MDPE -0.90%, MDAPE 4.82% models. All models acceptably predicted pharmacokinetic parameters for gentamicin in endocarditis patients. However, these patients appear to have an increased Vd, similar to intensive care patients. Vd mainly determines the height of peak serum levels, which in turn correlate with bactericidal activity. In order to maintain simplicity, we advise to use the existing intensive-care model in clinical practice to

  13. Application of a methodology for the development and validation of reliable process control software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, C.V.; Mok, Y.R.; Bastani, F.B.; Chin, G.

    1980-01-01

    The necessity of a good methodology for the development of reliable software, especially with respect to the final software validation and testing activities, is discussed. A formal specification development and validation methodology is proposed. This methodology has been applied to the development and validation of a pilot software, incorporating typical features of critical software for nuclear power plants safety protection. The main features of the approach include the use of a formal specification language and the independent development of two sets of specifications. 1 ref

  14. Application of Irradiation. Application to polymer processing, exhaust gas treatment, sterilization of medical instruments and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawai, Takeshi; Sawai, Teruko

    2000-03-01

    Many fields such as industry, agriculture, medical treatment and environment use radiation. This report explained some examples of irradiation applications. Radiation source is {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray. Polymer industry use radiation for radiation curing (thermally stable polymer), tire, expanded polymer, radiation induced graft copolymerization and electron beam curing. On environmental conservation, radiation is used for elimination of NOx and SOx in exhaust combustion gas. In the medical treatment, radiation is applied to sterilization of medical instruments, that occupied about 50% volume, and blood for transfusion, which is only one method to prevent GVHD after transfusion. On agriculture, irradiation to spice, dry vegetable, frozen kitchen, potato and garlic are carried out in 30 countries. However, potato is only a kind food in Japan. Radiation breeding and pest control are put in practice. (S.Y.)

  15. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawayama Toru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low

  16. The Impact of PTSD on Functioning in Patients Seeking Treatment for Chronic Pain and Validation of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerblom, Sophia; Perrin, Sean; Rivano Fischer, Marcelo; McCracken, Lance M

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS); to investigate the prevalence of traumatic experiences, trauma types, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of patients seeking treatment for chronic pain; and to examine how indices of pain-related functioning vary with a history of traumatic exposure and PTSD diagnostic status. Participants were 463 consecutive patients with chronic pain referred for assessment at the Pain Rehabilitation Unit at Skåne University Hospital. The translated version of the PDS demonstrated high levels of internal consistency and a factor structure similar to that reported in previous validation studies using samples identified because of trauma exposure (not chronic pain), both of which provide preliminary support for the validity of this translated version. Based on their responses to the PDS, most patients (71.8%) reported one or more traumatic events with 28.9% fulfilling criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis. The patients with PTSD also reported significantly higher levels of pain interference, kinesiophobia, anxiety, and depression and significantly lower levels of life control, compared to patients exposed to trauma and not fulfilling criteria for PTSD and patients with no history of traumatic exposure. Consistent with previous research, a significant proportion of patients seeking treatment for chronic pain reported a history of traumatic exposure and nearly one third of these met current criteria for PTSD according to a standardized self-report measure. The presence of PTSD was associated with multiple indictors of poorer functioning and greater treatment need and provides further evidence that routine screening of chronic pain patients for PTSD is warranted. Self-report measures like the PDS appear to be valid for use in chronic pain samples and offer a relative low-cost method for screening for PTSD.

  17. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a prospective validation study in Pakistan and Bangladesh on measuring correct treatment of childhood pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabish Hazir

    Full Text Available Antibiotic treatment for pneumonia as measured by Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS is a key indicator for tracking progress in achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Concerns about the validity of this indicator led us to perform an evaluation in urban and rural settings in Pakistan and Bangladesh.Caregivers of 950 children under 5 y with pneumonia and 980 with "no pneumonia" were identified in urban and rural settings and allocated for DHS/MICS questions 2 or 4 wk later. Study physicians assigned a diagnosis of pneumonia as reference standard; the predictive ability of DHS/MICS questions and additional measurement tools to identify pneumonia versus non-pneumonia cases was evaluated. Results at both sites showed suboptimal discriminative power, with no difference between 2- or 4-wk recall. Individual patterns of sensitivity and specificity varied substantially across study sites (sensitivity 66.9% and 45.5%, and specificity 68.8% and 69.5%, for DHS in Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. Prescribed antibiotics for pneumonia were correctly recalled by about two-thirds of caregivers using DHS questions, increasing to 72% and 82% in Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively, using a drug chart and detailed enquiry.Monitoring antibiotic treatment of pneumonia is essential for national and global programs. Current (DHS/MICS questions and proposed new (video and pneumonia score methods of identifying pneumonia based on maternal recall discriminate poorly between pneumonia and children with cough. Furthermore, these methods have a low yield to identify children who have true pneumonia. Reported antibiotic treatment rates among these children are therefore not a valid proxy indicator of pneumonia treatment rates. These results have important implications for program monitoring and suggest that data in its current format from DHS/MICS surveys should not be used for the purpose of monitoring antibiotic

  18. Development and validation of an n-dodecane skeletal mechanism for spray combustion applications

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhaoyu; Som, Sibendu K.; Sarathy, Mani; Plomer, Max; Pitz, William J.; Longman, Douglas E.; Lu, Tianfeng

    2014-01-01

    relation graph with expert knowledge (DRGX) and sensitivity analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The skeletal mechanism was first extensively validated in 0-D and 1-D combustion systems, including auto-ignition, jet stirred reactor (JSR

  19. Validation and application of an high-order spectral difference method for flow induced noise simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo; Ghorbaniasl, Ghader; Lacor, C.

    2011-01-01

    . The method is based on the Ffowcs WilliamsHawkings approach, which provides noise contributions for monopole, dipole and quadrupole acoustic sources. This paper will focus on the validation and assessment of this hybrid approach using different test cases

  20. Design and validation of a general purpose robotic testing system for musculoskeletal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Lawrence D; Colbrunn, Robb W; Lee, Dong-Gil; van den Bogert, Antonie J; Davis, Brian L

    2010-02-01

    Orthopaedic research on in vitro forces applied to bones, tendons, and ligaments during joint loading has been difficult to perform because of limitations with existing robotic simulators in applying full-physiological loading to the joint under investigation in real time. The objectives of the current work are as follows: (1) describe the design of a musculoskeletal simulator developed to support in vitro testing of cadaveric joint systems, (2) provide component and system-level validation results, and (3) demonstrate the simulator's usefulness for specific applications of the foot-ankle complex and knee. The musculoskeletal simulator allows researchers to simulate a variety of loading conditions on cadaver joints via motorized actuators that simulate muscle forces while simultaneously contacting the joint with an external load applied by a specialized robot. Multiple foot and knee studies have been completed at the Cleveland Clinic to demonstrate the simulator's capabilities. Using a variety of general-use components, experiments can be designed to test other musculoskeletal joints as well (e.g., hip, shoulder, facet joints of the spine). The accuracy of the tendon actuators to generate a target force profile during simulated walking was found to be highly variable and dependent on stance position. Repeatability (the ability of the system to generate the same tendon forces when the same experimental conditions are repeated) results showed that repeat forces were within the measurement accuracy of the system. It was determined that synchronization system accuracy was 6.7+/-2.0 ms and was based on timing measurements from the robot and tendon actuators. The positioning error of the robot ranged from 10 microm to 359 microm, depending on measurement condition (e.g., loaded or unloaded, quasistatic or dynamic motion, centralized movements or extremes of travel, maximum value, or root-mean-square, and x-, y- or z-axis motion). Algorithms and methods for controlling

  1. A novel colourimetric technique to assess chewing function using two-coloured specimens: Validation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Martin; Christou, Panagiotis; Miyazaki, Hideo; Halazonetis, Demetrios; Herrmann, François R; Müller, Frauke

    2015-08-01

    Chewing efficiency may be evaluated using cohesive specimen, especially in elderly or dysphagic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate three two-coloured chewing gums for a colour-mixing ability test and to validate a new purpose built software (ViewGum©). Dentate participants (dentate-group) and edentulous patients with mandibular two-implant overdentures (IOD-group) were recruited. First, the dentate-group chewed three different types of two-coloured gum (gum1-gum3) for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 chewing cycles. Subsequently the number of chewing cycles with the highest intra- and inter-rater agreement was determined visually by applying a scale (SA) and opto-electronically (ViewGum©, Bland-Altman analysis). The ViewGum© software determines semi-automatically the variance of hue (VOH); inadequate mixing presents with larger VOH than complete mixing. Secondly, the dentate-group and the IOD-group were compared. The dentate-group comprised 20 participants (10 female, 30.3±6.7 years); the IOD-group 15 participants (10 female, 74.6±8.3 years). Intra-rater and inter-rater agreement (SA) was very high at 20 chewing cycles (95.00-98.75%). Gums 1-3 showed different colour-mixing characteristics as a function of chewing cycles, gum1 showed a logarithmic association; gum2 and gum3 demonstrated more linear behaviours. However, the number of chewing cycles could be predicted in all specimens from VOH (all pchewing efficiency, given an elastic specimen is chewed for 20 cycles and could be recommended for the evaluation of chewing efficiency in a clinical and research setting. Chewing is a complex function of the oro-facial structures and the central nervous system. The application of the proposed assessments of the chewing function in geriatrics or special care dentistry could help visualising oro-functional or dental comorbidities in dysphagic patients or those suffering from protein-energy malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  2. Topical cetirizine and oral vitamin D: a valid treatment for hypotrichosis caused by ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A; Miraglia, E; Fortuna, M C; Calvieri, S; Giustini, S

    2017-02-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by abnormal development of two or more of the following ectodermal-derived structures: hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. The hair is the most frequently affected structure. Hair shaft abnormalities are of great concern to these patients, but no effective treatments are available. We describe three girls with congenital hypotrichosis (9, 5 and 6 years old) caused by ectodermal dysplasia treated with topical cetirizine solution (2 mL. once daily) and oral vitamin D supplementation (1000 IU daily). After 6 months of treatment, the density of hair on the scalp increased in all patients. The vellus hair was replaced by terminal hair. Hair regrowth was evaluated both from the clinical and trichoscopic point of view. We propose a combination of topical cetirizine and oral vitamin D as a rational treatment of choice in congenital hypotrichosis caused by ectodermal dysplasia. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Selenium isotope studies in plants. Development and validation of a novel geochemical tool and its application to organic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banning, Helena

    2016-03-12

    Selenium (Se), being an essential nutrient and a toxin, enters the food chain mainly via plants. Selenium isotope signatures were proved to be an excellent redox tracer, making it a promising tool for the exploration of the Se cycle in plants. The analytical method is sensitive on organic samples and requires particular preparation methods, which were developed and validated in this study. Plant cultivation setups revealed the applicability of these methods to trace plant internal processes.

  4. Overview and example application of the Landscape Treatment Designer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Nicole M. Vaillant; David E. Owens; Stuart Brittain; Jeff. Hamann

    2012-01-01

    The Landscape Treatment Designer (LTD) is a multicriteria spatial prioritization and optimization system to help design and explore landscape fuel treatment scenarios. The program fills a gap between fire model programs such as FlamMap, and planning systems such as ArcFuels, in the fuel treatment planning process. The LTD uses inputs on spatial treatment objectives,...

  5. FACTAR validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.B.; Wadsworth, S.L.; Rock, R.C.; Sills, H.E.; Langman, V.J.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed strategy to validate fuel channel thermal mechanical behaviour codes for use of current power reactor safety analysis is presented. The strategy is derived from a validation process that has been recently adopted industry wide. Focus of the discussion is on the validation plan for a code, FACTAR, for application in assessing fuel channel integrity safety concerns during a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). (author)

  6. Optimization, validation and application of UV-Vis spectrophotometric-colorimetric methods for determination of trimethoprim in different medicinal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Stojković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, selective, precise, and accurate methods for determination of trimethoprim in different sulfonamide formulations intended for use in human and veterinary medicine were optimized and validated. The methods are based on the trimethoprim reaction with bromcresol green (BCG and 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene (DNFB. As extraction solvents we used 10 % N,N-dimethylacetamide in methanol and acetone for both methods, respectively. The colored products are quantified applying visible spectrophotometry at their corresponding absorption maxima. The methods were validated for linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. We tested the method applicability on four different medicinal products in tablet and powder forms containing sulfametrole and sulfamethoxazole in combination with trimethoprim. The results revealed that both methods are equally accurate with recoveries within the range 95-105 %. The obtained between-day precision for both methods, when applied on four different medicinal products, was within in the range 1.08-3.20 %. By applying the F-statistical test (P<0.05, it was concluded that for three medicinal products tested both methods are applicable with statistically insignificant difference in precision. The optimized and validated BCG and DNFB methods could find application in routine quality control of trimethoprim in various formulation forms, at different concentration levels, and in combination with different sulfonamides.

  7. The Incremental Validity of the MMPI-2: When Does Therapist Access Not Enhance Treatment Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elizabeth N.; Stanley, Sheila; Kaboski, Beth; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Richey, Anthony; Castro, Yezzennya; Williams, Foluso M.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R.; Stellrecht, Nadia E.; Jakobsons, Lara J.; Wingate, LaRicka R.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether therapist access to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) predicted favorable treatment outcome, above and beyond other assessment measures. A manipulated assessment design was used, in which patients were randomly assigned either to a group in which therapists had access to their MMPI-2 data…

  8. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Dutch Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version--Findings from a Sample of Male Adolescents in a Juvenile Justice Treatment Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo; Hillege, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability and validity of the separate dimensions of…

  9. Assessing the application and downstream effects of pulsed mode ultrasound as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Raed A; Aravinthan, Vasantha; Yusaf, Talal; Bowtell, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    The application of pulsed mode ultrasound (PMU) as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation was investigated at various alum dosages and pH levels. The effects of the treatments on turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and residual Al were evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the operating conditions of the applied treatments. The results showed that PMU pre-treatment increased turbidity and DOC removal percentages from maximum of 96.6% and 43% to 98.8% and 52%, respectively. It also helped decrease the minimum residual Al from 0.100 to 0.094 ppm. The multiple response optimization was carried out using the desirability function. A desirability value of >0.97 estimated respective turbidity removal, DOC removal and Al residual of 89.24%, 45.66% and ∼ 0.1 ppm for coagulation (control) and 90.61%, >55% and ∼ 0 for coagulation preceded by PMU. These figures were validated via confirmatory experiments. PMU pre-treatment increased total coliform removal from 80% to >98% and decreased trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 250 to 200 ppb CH3Cl. Additionally, PMU application prior to coagulation improved the settleability of sludge due to the degassing effects. The results of this study confirms that PMU pre-treatment can significantly improve coagulation performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment). Consensus validation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Older people experience more concurrent illnesses, are prescribed more medications and suffer more adverse drug events than younger people. Many drugs predispose older people to adverse events such as falls and cognitive impairment, thus increasing morbidity and health resource utilization. At the same time, older people are often denied potentially beneficial, clinically indicated medications without a valid reason. We aimed to validate a new screening tool of older persons\\' prescriptions incorporating criteria for potentially inappropriate drugs called STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' Prescriptions) and criteria for potentially appropriate, indicated drugs called START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right, i.e. appropriate, indicated Treatment). METHODS: A Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of STOPP\\/START. An 18-member expert panel from academic centers in Ireland and the United Kingdom completed two rounds of the Delphi process by mail survey. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by determining the kappa-statistic for measure of agreement on 100 data-sets. RESULTS: STOPP is comprised of 65 clinically significant criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people. Each criterion is accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the prescribing practice is potentially inappropriate. START consists of 22 evidence-based prescribing indicators for commonly encountered diseases in older people. Inter-rater reliability is favorable with a kappa-coefficient of 0.75 for STOPP and 0.68 for START. CONCLUSION: STOPP\\/START is a valid, reliable and comprehensive screening tool that enables the prescribing physician to appraise an older patient\\'s prescription drugs in the context of his\\/her concurrent diagnoses.

  11. Method for appraising model validity of randomised controlled trials of homeopathic treatment: multi-rater concordance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A method for assessing the model validity of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy is needed. To date, only conventional standards for assessing intrinsic bias (internal validity) of trials have been invoked, with little recognition of the special characteristics of homeopathy. We aimed to identify relevant judgmental domains to use in assessing the model validity of homeopathic treatment (MVHT). We define MVHT as the extent to which a homeopathic intervention and the main measure of its outcome, as implemented in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), reflect 'state-of-the-art' homeopathic practice. Methods Using an iterative process, an international group of experts developed a set of six judgmental domains, with associated descriptive criteria. The domains address: (I) the rationale for the choice of the particular homeopathic intervention; (II) the homeopathic principles reflected in the intervention; (III) the extent of homeopathic practitioner input; (IV) the nature of the main outcome measure; (V) the capability of the main outcome measure to detect change; (VI) the length of follow-up to the endpoint of the study. Six papers reporting RCTs of homeopathy of varying design were randomly selected from the literature. A standard form was used to record each assessor's independent response per domain, using the optional verdicts 'Yes', 'Unclear', 'No'. Concordance among the eight verdicts per domain, across all six papers, was evaluated using the kappa (κ) statistic. Results The six judgmental domains enabled MVHT to be assessed with 'fair' to 'almost perfect' concordance in each case. For the six RCTs examined, the method allowed MVHT to be classified overall as 'acceptable' in three, 'unclear' in two, and 'inadequate' in one. Conclusion Future systematic reviews of RCTs in homeopathy should adopt the MVHT method as part of a complete appraisal of trial validity. PMID:22510227

  12. Application of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer to the validation of redfish Centroberyx affinis age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalish, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Validation of methods used to estimate fish age is a critical element of the fish stock assessment process. Despite the importance of validation, few procedures are available that provide unbiased estimates of true fish age and those methods that are available are seldom used. The majority of these methods are unlikely to provide an indication of the true age of individual fish, data that are best suited to the validation process. Accelerator mass spectrometry analyses of radiocarbon in selected regions of Centroberyx affinis otoliths were used to validate the age estimation method for this species. Radiocarbon data from the otoliths of C. affinis with presumed birth dates between 1955 and 1985 described the increase in ocean radiocarbon attributable to the atmospheric detonation of nuclear weapons in the 1950s and 1960s. The results confirm the longevity of C. affinis and demonstrate the effectiveness of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer for the validation of age-estimation methods. (author). 31 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Commissioning and Validation of the First Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculation Algorithm Commercial Treatment Planning System in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Hernandez-Bojorquez, M.; Galvan de la Cruz, O. O.; Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the beam data commissioning and dose calculation validation of the first Monte Carlo (MC) based treatment planning system (TPS) installed in Mexico. According to the manufacturer specifications, the beam data commissioning needed for this model includes: several in-air and water profiles, depth dose curves, head-scatter factors and output factors (6x6, 12x12, 18x18, 24x24, 42x42, 60x60, 80x80 and 100x100 mm 2 ). Radiographic and radiochromic films, diode and ionization chambers were used for data acquisition. MC dose calculations in a water phantom were used to validate the MC simulations using comparisons with measured data. Gamma index criteria 2%/2 mm were used to evaluate the accuracy of MC calculations. MC calculated data show an excellent agreement for field sizes from 18x18 to 100x100 mm 2 . Gamma analysis shows that in average, 95% and 100% of the data passes the gamma index criteria for these fields, respectively. For smaller fields (12x12 and 6x6 mm 2 ) only 92% of the data meet the criteria. Total scatter factors show a good agreement ( 2 ) that show a error of 4.7%. MC dose calculations are accurate and precise for clinical treatment planning up to a field size of 18x18 mm 2 . Special care must be taken for smaller fields.

  14. Validation of an analytical method for simultaneous high-precision measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment plants using a gas chromatography-barrier discharge detector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Raffaella; Caivano, Marianna; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Mancini, Ignazio M; Bianco, Giuliana; Caniani, Donatella

    2017-01-13

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) emit CO 2 and N 2 O, which may lead to climate change and global warming. Over the last few years, awareness of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from WWTPs has increased. Moreover, the development of valid, reliable, and high-throughput analytical methods for simultaneous gas analysis is an essential requirement for environmental applications. In the present study, an analytical method based on a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a barrier ionization discharge (BID) detector was developed for the first time. This new method simultaneously analyses CO 2 and N 2 O and has a precision, measured in terms of relative standard of variation RSD%, equal to or less than 6.6% and 5.1%, respectively. The method's detection limits are 5.3ppm v for CO 2 and 62.0ppb v for N 2 O. The method's selectivity, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification were good at trace concentration levels. After validation, the method was applied to a real case of N 2 O and CO 2 emissions from a WWTP, confirming its suitability as a standard procedure for simultaneous GHG analysis in environmental samples containing CO 2 levels less than 12,000mg/L. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring stigma in children receiving mental health treatment: Validation of the Paediatric Self-Stigmatization Scale (PaedS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, A; Papachristou, E; Dima, D; Fewings, S; Kostaki, E; Ploubidis, G B; Kyriakopoulos, M

    2017-06-01

    Research on the impact of stigma associated with mental illness in children is scarce. Considering the known negative effects of stigma associated with mental illness in adults, it is crucial to explore the stigma experienced by children who access mental health treatment. However, no scale measuring self-stigmatization in younger children is available to date. This study aimed to develop and validate such a scale, the Paediatric Self-Stigmatization Scale (PaedS). A total of 156 children (119 receiving outpatient and 37 receiving inpatient treatment), aged 8-12 years, completed the PaedS, the Self-Perception Profile for Children and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL - Child Report, ages 8-12). In addition, parents completed the PedsQL (Parent Report for Children, ages 8-12), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and a modified subscale of the PaedS measuring the children's rejection by others due to their mental health difficulties. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that a four-factor structure, comprising Societal Devaluation, Personal Rejection, Self-Stigma and Secrecy scales, had excellent fit to the data (CFI=0.95; TLI=0.95; RMSEA=0.05). Child-reported PaedS scores were positively correlated with parental-reported PaedS scores and negatively with PedsQL, the SDQ, and 5 out of 6 subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for Children, suggesting adequate convergent validity (all P-values<0.05). The PaedS is a valid instrument, which is hoped to advance the understanding of self-stigmatization in children with mental health difficulties and contribute to its prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of cold plasma treatment for protein inactivation: a surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C; Leduc, A; Barbeau, J; Saoudi, B; Yahia, L'H; Crescenzo, G De

    2006-01-01

    Gas plasma is being proposed as an interesting and promising tool to achieve sterilization. The efficacy of gas plasma to destroy bacterial spores (the most resistant living microorganisms) has been demonstrated and documented over the last ten years. In addition to causing damage to deoxyribonucleic acid by UV radiation emitted by excited species originating from the plasma, gas plasma has been shown to promote erosion of the microorganism in addition to possible oxidation reactions within the microorganism. In this work, we used lysozyme as a protein model to assess the effect of gas plasma on protein inactivation. Lysozyme samples have been subjected to the flowing afterglow of a gas discharge achieved in a nitrogen-oxygen mixture. The efficiency of this plasma treatment on lysozyme has been tested by two different assays. These are an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor assay. The two methods showed that exposure to gas plasma can abrogate lysozyme interactions with lysozyme-specific antibodies, more likely by destroying the epitopes responsible for the interaction. More specifically, two SPR-based assays were developed since our ELISA approach did not allow us to discriminate between background and low, but still intact, quantities of lysozyme epitope after plasma treatment. Our SPR results clearly demonstrated that significant protein destruction or desorption was achieved when amounts of lysozyme less than 12.5 ng had been deposited in polystyrene 96-well ELISA plates. At higher lysozyme amounts, traces of available lysozyme epitopes were detected by SPR through indirect measurements. Finally, we demonstrated that a direct SPR approach in which biosensor-immobilized lysozyme activity is directly measured prior and after plasma treatment is more sensitive, and thus, more appropriate to define plasma treatment efficacy with more certainty

  17. Validation of cold plasma treatment for protein inactivation: a surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C.; Leduc, A.; Barbeau, J.; Saoudi, B.; Yahia, L'H.; DeCrescenzo, G.

    2006-08-01

    Gas plasma is being proposed as an interesting and promising tool to achieve sterilization. The efficacy of gas plasma to destroy bacterial spores (the most resistant living microorganisms) has been demonstrated and documented over the last ten years. In addition to causing damage to deoxyribonucleic acid by UV radiation emitted by excited species originating from the plasma, gas plasma has been shown to promote erosion of the microorganism in addition to possible oxidation reactions within the microorganism. In this work, we used lysozyme as a protein model to assess the effect of gas plasma on protein inactivation. Lysozyme samples have been subjected to the flowing afterglow of a gas discharge achieved in a nitrogen-oxygen mixture. The efficiency of this plasma treatment on lysozyme has been tested by two different assays. These are an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor assay. The two methods showed that exposure to gas plasma can abrogate lysozyme interactions with lysozyme-specific antibodies, more likely by destroying the epitopes responsible for the interaction. More specifically, two SPR-based assays were developed since our ELISA approach did not allow us to discriminate between background and low, but still intact, quantities of lysozyme epitope after plasma treatment. Our SPR results clearly demonstrated that significant protein destruction or desorption was achieved when amounts of lysozyme less than 12.5 ng had been deposited in polystyrene 96-well ELISA plates. At higher lysozyme amounts, traces of available lysozyme epitopes were detected by SPR through indirect measurements. Finally, we demonstrated that a direct SPR approach in which biosensor-immobilized lysozyme activity is directly measured prior and after plasma treatment is more sensitive, and thus, more appropriate to define plasma treatment efficacy with more certainty.

  18. Construction, internal validation and implementation in a mobile application of a scoring system to predict nonadherence to proton pump inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Mares-García

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Other studies have assessed nonadherence to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, but none has developed a screening test for its detection. Objectives To construct and internally validate a predictive model for nonadherence to PPIs. Methods This prospective observational study with a one-month follow-up was carried out in 2013 in Spain, and included 302 patients with a prescription for PPIs. The primary variable was nonadherence to PPIs (pill count. Secondary variables were gender, age, antidepressants, type of PPI, non-guideline-recommended prescription (NGRP of PPIs, and total number of drugs. With the secondary variables, a binary logistic regression model to predict nonadherence was constructed and adapted to a points system. The ROC curve, with its area (AUC, was calculated and the optimal cut-off point was established. The points system was internally validated through 1,000 bootstrap samples and implemented in a mobile application (Android. Results The points system had three prognostic variables: total number of drugs, NGRP of PPIs, and antidepressants. The AUC was 0.87 (95% CI [0.83–0.91], p < 0.001. The test yielded a sensitivity of 0.80 (95% CI [0.70–0.87] and a specificity of 0.82 (95% CI [0.76–0.87]. The three parameters were very similar in the bootstrap validation. Conclusions A points system to predict nonadherence to PPIs has been constructed, internally validated and implemented in a mobile application. Provided similar results are obtained in external validation studies, we will have a screening tool to detect nonadherence to PPIs.

  19. Psychometric validation of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede; Nordin, Andy; Lanceley, Anne

    2011-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24). This module was designed to assess disease and treatment specific aspects of...... of the quality of life (QoL) of patients with endometrial cancer.......A validation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24). This module was designed to assess disease and treatment specific aspects...

  20. Development of an integrated signal validation system and application to operating power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Holbert, K.E.; Kerlin, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the university-industry joint research program at the University of Tennessee and Combustion Engineering, Inc. is to develop and implement a comprehensive signal validation system for current power plants and future advanced reactors. The integrated system consists of several parallel signal processing modules. The multi-modular decision information is combined to detect, isolate and characterize faulty signals. The signal validation system has been implemented in a VAX workstation and applied to operational data from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The use of the various signal validation techniques may be extended to predictive maintenance advising, instrument calibration verification, and to the development of intelligent instrumentation systems. 18 refs., 6 figs

  1. Improving Coastal Ocean Color Validation Capabilities through Application of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how the different components of seawater alter the path of incident sunlight through scattering and absorption is essential to using remotely sensed ocean color observations effectively. This is particularly apropos in coastal waters where the different optically significant components (phytoplankton, detrital material, inorganic minerals, etc.) vary widely in concentration, often independently from one another. Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) form the link between these biogeochemical constituents and the Apparent Optical Properties (AOPs). understanding this interrelationship is at the heart of successfully carrying out inversions of satellite-measured radiance to biogeochemical properties. While sufficient covariation of seawater constituents in case I waters typically allows empirical algorithms connecting AOPs and biogeochemical parameters to behave well, these empirical algorithms normally do not hold for case I1 regimes (Carder et al. 2003). Validation in the context of ocean color remote sensing refers to in-situ measurements used to verify or characterize algorithm products or any assumption used as input to an algorithm. In this project, validation capabilities are considered those measurement capabilities, techniques, methods, models, etc. that allow effective validation. Enhancing current validation capabilities by incorporating state-of-the-art IOP measurements and optical models is the purpose of this work. Involved in this pursuit is improving core IOP measurement capabilities (spectral, angular, spatio-temporal resolutions), improving our understanding of the behavior of analytical AOP-IOP approximations in complex coastal waters, and improving the spatial and temporal resolution of biogeochemical data for validation by applying biogeochemical-IOP inversion models so that these parameters can be computed from real-time IOP sensors with high sampling rates. Research cruises supported by this project provides for collection and

  2. A cross-validation Delphi method approach to the diagnosis and treatment of personality disorders in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosowsky, Erlene; Young, Alexander S; Malloy, Mary C; van Alphen, S P J; Ellison, James M

    2018-03-01

    The Delphi method is a consensus-building technique using expert opinion to formulate a shared framework for understanding a topic with limited empirical support. This cross-validation study replicates one completed in the Netherlands and Belgium, and explores US experts' views on the diagnosis and treatment of older adults with personality disorders (PD). Twenty-one geriatric PD experts participated in a Delphi survey addressing diagnosis and treatment of older adults with PD. The European survey was translated and administered electronically. First-round consensus was reached for 16 out of 18 items relevant to diagnosis and specific mental health programs for personality disorders in older adults. Experts agreed on the usefulness of establishing criteria for specific types of treatments. The majority of psychologists did not initially agree on the usefulness of pharmacotherapy. Expert consensus was reached following two subsequent rounds after clarification addressing medication use. Study results suggest consensus among regarding psychosocial treatments. Limited acceptance amongst US psychologists about the suitability of pharmacotherapy for late-life PDs contrasted with the views expressed by experts surveyed in Netherlands and Belgium studies.

  3. Using digital photography in a clinical setting: a valid, accurate, and applicable method to assess food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Eva; Luger, Maria; Schindler, Karin

    2018-06-01

    Regular monitoring of food intake is hardly integrated in clinical routine. Therefore, the aim was to examine the validity, accuracy, and applicability of an appropriate and also quick and easy-to-use tool for recording food intake in a clinical setting. Two digital photography methods, the postMeal method with a picture after the meal, the pre-postMeal method with a picture before and after the meal, and the visual estimation method (plate diagram; PD) were compared against the reference method (weighed food records; WFR). A total of 420 dishes from lunch (7 weeks) were estimated with both photography methods and the visual method. Validity, applicability, accuracy, and precision of the estimation methods, and additionally food waste, macronutrient composition, and energy content were examined. Tests of validity revealed stronger correlations for photography methods (postMeal: r = 0.971, p < 0.001; pre-postMeal: r = 0.995, p < 0.001) compared to the visual estimation method (r = 0.810; p < 0.001). The pre-postMeal method showed smaller variability (bias < 1 g) and also smaller overestimation and underestimation. This method accurately and precisely estimated portion sizes in all food items. Furthermore, the total food waste was 22% for lunch over the study period. The highest food waste was observed in salads and the lowest in desserts. The pre-postMeal digital photography method is valid, accurate, and applicable in monitoring food intake in clinical setting, which enables a quantitative and qualitative dietary assessment. Thus, nutritional care might be initiated earlier. This method might be also advantageous for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of food waste, with a resultantly reduction in costs.

  4. An augmented reality system validation for the treatment of cockroach phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretón-López, Juani; Quero, Soledad; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa Maria; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2010-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a new technology in which various virtual elements are incorporated into the user's perception of the real world. The most significant aspect of AR is that the virtual elements add relevant and helpful information to the real scene. AR shares some important characteristics with virtual reality as applied in clinical psychology. However, AR offers additional features that might be crucial for treating certain problems. An AR system designed to treat insect phobia has been used for treating phobia of small animals, and positive preliminary data about the global efficacy of the system have been obtained. However, it is necessary to determine the capacity of similar AR systems and their elements that are designed to evoke anxiety in participants; this is achieved by testing the correspondence between the inclusion of feared stimuli and the induction of anxiety. The objective of the present work is to validate whether the stimuli included in the AR-Insect Phobia system are capable of inducing anxiety in six participants diagnosed with cockroach phobia. Results support the adequacy of each element of the system in inducing anxiety in all participants.

  5. Smartphone and Mobile Application Utilization Prior to and Following Treatment Among Individuals Enrolled in Residential Substance Use Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahne, Jennifer; Lejuez, C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Following completion of substance use treatment, it is crucial for patients to continue to utilize skills learned in treatment for optimal treatment outcomes. Mobile applications (apps) on smartphones offer a unique platform to promote utilization of evidence-based skills following completion of substance use treatment. Despite the promise of mobile apps and smartphones for treatment delivery, it remains unknown whether patients in substance use treatment in the United States have access to smartphones and utilize mobile apps on smartphones. The present study sought to determine smartphone utilization among individuals enrolled in one residential substance use treatment center in the U.S catering specifically to low-income adults. Methods Participants included 251 individuals at a residential substance use treatment center in Washington DC admitted to the center between March, 2014 and January, 2015. During the intake process, participants completed interviewer-administered demographics and psychiatric questionnaires as well as a self-report of technology utilization. Results Results indicated that the majority of patients in this residential substance use treatment center owned mobile phones prior to treatment entry (86.9%) and expected to own mobile phones after leaving treatment (92.6%). Moreover, the majority of these phones were (68.5%) or will be smartphones (72.4%) on which patients reported utilizing mobile applications (Prior to treatment: 61.3%; Post treatment: 64.3%) and accessing the internet (Prior to treatment: 61.3%; Post treatment: 65.9%). Conclusions Mobile phone and smartphone ownership among this sample were comparable to ownership among U.S. adults broadly. Findings suggest that smartphones and mobile apps may hold clinical utility for fostering continued use of treatment skills following substance use treatment completion. PMID:26231698

  6. Development and face validation of a Virtual Reality Epley Maneuver System (VREMS) for home Epley treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanfar, Reza; Chan, Harley H L; Lin, Vincent; Le, Trung; Irish, Jonathan C

    To develop and validate a smartphone based Virtual Reality Epley Maneuver System (VREMS) for home use. A smartphone application was designed to produce stereoscopic views of a Virtual Reality (VR) environment, which when viewed after placing a smartphone in a virtual reality headset, allowed the user to be guided step-by-step through the Epley maneuver in a VR environment. Twenty healthy participants were recruited and randomized to undergo either assisted Epleys or self-administered Epleys following reading instructions from an Instructional Handout (IH). All participants were filmed and two expert Otologists reviewed the videos, assigning each participant a score (out of 10) for performance on each step. Participants rated their perceived workload by completing a validated task-load questionnaire (NASA Task Load Index) and averages for both groups were calculated. Twenty participants were evaluated with average age 26.4±7.12years old in the VREMS group and 26.1±7.72 in the IH group. The VR assisted group achieved an average score of 7.78±0.99 compared to 6.65±1.72 in the IH group. This result was statistically significant with p=0.0001 and side dominance did not appear to play a factor. Analyzing each step of the Epley maneuver demonstrated that assisted Epleys were done more accurately with statically significant results in steps 2-4. Results of the NASA-TLX scores were variable with no significant findings. We have developed and demonstrated face validity for VREMS through our randomized controlled trial. The VREMS platform is promising technology, which may improve the accuracy and effectiveness of home Epley treatments. N/A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rilpivirine versus etravirine validity in NNRTI-based treatment failure in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeranaipong, Phairote; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Mekprasan, Suwanna; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Putcharoen, Opass

    2014-01-01

    Etravirine (ETR) and rilpivirine (RPV) are the second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) for treatment of HIV-1 infection. Etravirine is recommended for patients with virologic failure from first generation NNRTI-based regimen [1]. RPV has profile with similar properties to ETR but this agent is approved for treatment-naïve patients [2]. In Thailand, ETR is approximately 45 times more expensive than RPV. We aimed to study the patterns of genotypic resistance and possibility of using RPV in patients with virologic failure from two common NNRTI-based regimens: efavirenz (EFV)- or nevirapine (NVP)-based regimen. Data of clinical samples with confirmed virologic failure during 2003-2010 were reviewed. We selected the samples from patients who failed EFV- or NVP-based regimen. Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were determined by IAS-USA Drug Resistance Mutations. DUET, Monogram scoring system and Stanford Genotypic Resistance Interpretation were applied to determine the susceptibility of ETR and RPV. A total of 2086 samples were analyzed. Samples from 1482 patients with virologic failure from NVP-based regimen treatment failure (NVP group) and 604 patients with virologic failure from EFV-based regimen treatment failure (EFV group) were included. 95% of samples were HIV-1 CRF01_AE subtype. Approximately 80% of samples in each group had one to three NNRTI-RAMs and 20% had four to seven NNRTI-RAMs. 181C mutation was the most common NVP-associated RAM (54.3% vs 14.7%, p<0.01). 103N mutation was the most common EFV-associated RAM (56.5% vs 19.1%, p<0.01). The calculated scores from all three scoring systems were concordant. In NVP group, 165 (11.1%) and 161 (10.9%) patients were susceptible to ETR and RPV, respectively (p=0.81). In EFV group, 195 (32.2%) and 191 (31.6%) patients were susceptible to ETR and RPV, respectively (p=0.81). The proportions of viruses that remained susceptible to ETR and RPV in EFV group were significantly

  8. Rapid assessment of Schistosoma mansoni: the validity, applicability and cost-effectiveness of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Simon; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Myatt, Mark; Russell Stothard, J; Fenwick, Alan

    2005-07-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of communities at highest risk of morbidity from schistosomiasis is key for sustainable control. Although school questionnaires can effectively and inexpensively identify communities with a high prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, parasitological screening remains the preferred option for S. mansoni. To help reduce screening costs, we investigated the validity of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) in classifying schools according to categories of S. mansoni prevalence in Uganda, and explored its applicability and cost-effectiveness. First, we evaluated several sampling plans using computer simulation and then field tested one sampling plan in 34 schools in Uganda. Finally, cost-effectiveness of different screening and control strategies (including mass treatment without prior screening) was determined, and sensitivity analysis undertaken to assess the effect of infection levels and treatment costs. In identifying schools with prevalences > or =50%, computer simulations showed that LQAS had high levels of sensitivity and specificity (>90%) at sample sizes LQAS where 15 children were sampled had excellent diagnostic performance (sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 96.4%, positive predictive value: 85.7% and negative predictive value: 92.3%). Screening using LQAS was more cost-effective than mass treating all schools (US$218 vs. US$482/high prevalence school treated). Threshold analysis indicated that parasitological screening and mass treatment would become equivalent for settings where prevalence > or =50% in 75% of schools and for treatment costs of US$0.19 per schoolchild. We conclude that, in Uganda, LQAS provides a rapid, valid and cost-effective method for guiding decision makers in allocating finite resources for the control of schistosomiasis.

  9. 77 FR 18229 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Validation Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... reading skills administered in the same way to both groups). Experimental study means a study that employs...-experimental study (as defined in this notice) supporting the effectiveness of the practice, strategy, or...-4357.pdf . Validation grants provide funding to support practices, strategies, or programs that show...

  10. SWAT application in intensive irrigation systems: Model modification, calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmi, Farida; Burguete, Javier; Skhiri, Ahmed

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThe Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a well established, distributed, eco-hydrologic model. However, using the study case of an agricultural intensive irrigated watershed, it was shown that all the model versions are not able to appropriately reproduce the total streamflow in such system when the irrigation source is outside the watershed. The objective of this study was to modify the SWAT2005 version for correctly simulating the main hydrological processes. Crop yield, total streamflow, total suspended sediment (TSS) losses and phosphorus load calibration and validation were performed using field survey information and water quantity and quality data recorded during 2008 and 2009 years in Del Reguero irrigated watershed in Spain. The goodness of the calibration and validation results was assessed using five statistical measures, including the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). Results indicated that the average annual crop yield and actual evapotranspiration estimations were quite satisfactory. On a monthly basis, the values of NSE were 0.90 (calibration) and 0.80 (validation) indicating that the modified model could reproduce accurately the observed streamflow. The TSS losses were also satisfactorily estimated (NSE = 0.72 and 0.52 for the calibration and validation steps). The monthly temporal patterns and all the statistical parameters indicated that the modified SWAT-IRRIG model adequately predicted the total phosphorus (TP) loading. Therefore, the model could be used to assess the impacts of different best management practices on nonpoint phosphorus losses in irrigated systems.

  11. Developing a Scale for Culturally Responsive Practice: Validation, Relationship with School Organizational Factors, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Bum

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this dissertation is to develop and provide preliminary validation for a new measure of culturally responsive practice. This instrument, which is called the Culturally Responsive Practice Scale (CRPS), includes items that reflect ways that teachers teach multicultural students in their classrooms. To accomplish the goal, three…

  12. Application of EU guidelines for the validation of screening methods for veterinary drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Commission Decision (CD) 2002/657/EC describes detailed rules for method validation within the framework of residue monitoring programmes. The approach described in this CD is based on criteria. For (qualitative) screening methods, the most important criteria is that the CCß has to be below any

  13. Automated cerebellar segmentation: Validation and application to detect smaller volumes in children prenatally exposed to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Cardenas

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: These results demonstrate excellent reliability and validity of automated cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal area measurements, compared to manual measurements. These data also illustrate that this new technology for automatically delineating the cerebellum leads to conclusions regarding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum consistent with prior studies that used labor intensive manual delineation, even with a very small sample.

  14. Dosimetric validation of planning system Eclipse 10 in partial breast irradiation treatments with IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez T, J. J.; Gutierrez M, J. G.; Ortiz A, C. S.; Chagoya G, A.; Gutierrez C, J. G.

    2015-10-01

    Partial breast irradiation is a new type of external radiation therapy to treat breast cancer in early clinical stages. Consist of administering to the channel surgical high doses of radiation in few treatment sessions. In this paper the dose calculations of the planning system Eclipse version 10 for a treatment of partial breast irradiation with X-rays beams (6 MV) intensity modulated were compared against the measurements made with OSL dosimeters and radio-chromic dye film. An anthropomorphic mannequin was used in which OSL dosimeters were collocated near the surface, an inside the radio-chromic dye film one plate; with this latest one dimensional dose distribution was measured. Previously dosimeters were calibrated irradiating them with a beam of X-rays 6 MV under the conditions specified in the IAEA-398 protocol. The OSL dosimeters were read in the Micro star Landauer equipment, the radio-chromic dye films were read with a scanner Epson 10000-Xl and analyzed with FilmCal and PTW Verisoft programs. The differences between measured and calculated dose were as follows: 3.6±1% for the OSL dosimeter and 96.3±1% of the analyzed points approved the gamma index criterion (3%, 3m m) when comparing the matrices of calculated dose and measured with the radio-chromic dye film. These results confirm the good dosimetric performance of planning system used under specific conditions used in the partial breast irradiation technique. (Author)

  15. Automatic address validation and health record review to identify homeless Social Security disability applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Abbott, Kenneth; Susienka, Lucinda

    2018-06-01

    Homeless patients face a variety of obstacles in pursuit of basic social services. Acknowledging this, the Social Security Administration directs employees to prioritize homeless patients and handle their disability claims with special care. However, under existing manual processes for identification of homelessness, many homeless patients never receive the special service to which they are entitled. In this paper, we explore address validation and automatic annotation of electronic health records to improve identification of homeless patients. We developed a sample of claims containing medical records at the moment of arrival in a single office. Using address validation software, we reconciled patient addresses with public directories of homeless shelters, veterans' hospitals and clinics, and correctional facilities. Other tools annotated electronic health records. We trained random forests to identify homeless patients and validated each model with 10-fold cross validation. For our finished model, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.942. The random forest improved sensitivity from 0.067 to 0.879 but decreased positive predictive value to 0.382. Presumed false positive classifications bore many characteristics of homelessness. Organizations could use these methods to prompt early collection of information necessary to avoid labor-intensive attempts to reestablish contact with homeless individuals. Annually, such methods could benefit tens of thousands of patients who are homeless, destitute, and in urgent need of assistance. We were able to identify many more homeless patients through a combination of automatic address validation and natural language processing of unstructured electronic health records. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Adaptation, validation and application of the chemo-thermal oxidation method to quantify black carbon in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Tripti; Bucheli, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    The chemo-thermal oxidation method at 375 o C (CTO-375) has been widely used to quantify black carbon (BC) in sediments. In the present study, CTO-375 was tested and adapted for application to soil, accounting for some matrix specific properties like high organic carbon (≤39%) and carbonate (≤37%) content. Average recoveries of standard reference material SRM-2975 ranged from 25 to 86% for nine representative Swiss and Indian samples, which is similar to literature data for sediments. The adapted method was applied to selected samples of the Swiss soil monitoring network (NABO). BC content exhibited different patterns in three soil profiles while contribution of BC to TOC was found maximum below the topsoil at all three sites, however at different depths (60-130 cm). Six different NABO sites exhibited largely constant BC concentrations over the last 25 years, with short-term (6 months) prevailing over long-term (5 years) temporal fluctuations. - Research highlights: → The CTO-375 method was adapted and validated for BC analysis in soils. → Method validation figures of merit proofed satisfactory. → Application is shown with soil cores and topsoil temporal variability. → BC content can be elevated in subsurface soils. → BC contents in surface soils were largely constant over the last 25 years. - Although widely used also for soils, the chemo-thermal oxidation method at 375 o C to quantify black carbon has never been properly validated for this matrix before.

  17. Validation and Reliability of a Smartphone Application for the International Prostate Symptom Score Questionnaire: A Randomized Repeated Measures Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Ko, Young Myoung; Chun, Dong-Il; Yang, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphone-based assessment may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool for patients. There have been many attempts to create a smartphone diagnostic tool for clinical use in various medical fields but few have demonstrated scientific validity. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a smartphone application of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and to demonstrate its validity and reliability. Methods From June 2012 to May 2013, a total of 1581 male participants (≥40 years old), with or without lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), visited our urology clinic via the health improvement center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Republic of Korea) and were enrolled in this study. A randomized repeated measures crossover design was employed using a smartphone application of the IPSS and the conventional paper form of the IPSS. Paired t test under a hypothesis of non-inferior trial was conducted. For the reliability test, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured. Results The total score of the IPSS (P=.289) and each item of the IPSS (P=.157-1.000) showed no differences between the paper version and the smartphone version of the IPSS. The mild, moderate, and severe LUTS groups showed no differences between the two versions of the IPSS. A significant correlation was noted in the total group (ICC=.935, Psmartphones could participate. Conclusions The validity and reliability of the smartphone application version were comparable to the conventional paper version of the IPSS. The smartphone application of the IPSS could be an effective method for measuring lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24513507

  18. Validation and qualification of surface-applied fibre optic strain sensors using application-independent optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukar, Vivien G; Kadoke, Daniel; Kusche, Nadine; Münzenberger, Sven; Gründer, Klaus-Peter; Habel, Wolfgang R

    2012-01-01

    Surface-applied fibre optic strain sensors were investigated using a unique validation facility equipped with application-independent optical reference systems. First, different adhesives for the sensor's application were analysed regarding their material properties. Measurements resulting from conventional measurement techniques, such as thermo-mechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis, were compared with measurements resulting from digital image correlation, which has the advantage of being a non-contact technique. Second, fibre optic strain sensors were applied to test specimens with the selected adhesives. Their strain-transfer mechanism was analysed in comparison with conventional strain gauges. Relative movements between the applied sensor and the test specimen were visualized easily using optical reference methods, digital image correlation and electronic speckle pattern interferometry. Conventional strain gauges showed limited opportunities for an objective strain-transfer analysis because they are also affected by application conditions. (paper)

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging with direct cytopathological validation: characterisation of decorin treatment in experimental juvenile communicating hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aojula, Anuriti; Botfield, Hannah; McAllister, James Patterson; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Abdullah, Osama; Logan, Ann; Sinclair, Alexandra

    2016-05-31

    In an effort to develop novel treatments for communicating hydrocephalus, we have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist, decorin, inhibits subarachnoid fibrosis mediated ventriculomegaly; however decorin's ability to prevent cerebral cytopathology in communicating hydrocephalus has not been fully examined. Furthermore, the capacity for diffusion tensor imaging to act as a proxy measure of cerebral pathology in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury has recently been demonstrated. However, the use of diffusion tensor imaging to investigate cytopathological changes in communicating hydrocephalus is yet to occur. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether decorin treatment influences alterations in diffusion tensor imaging parameters and cytopathology in experimental communicating hydrocephalus. Moreover, the study also explored whether diffusion tensor imaging parameters correlate with cellular pathology in communicating hydrocephalus. Accordingly, communicating hydrocephalus was induced by injecting kaolin into the basal cisterns in 3-week old rats followed immediately by 14 days of continuous intraventricular delivery of either human recombinant decorin (n = 5) or vehicle (n = 6). Four rats remained as intact controls and a further four rats served as kaolin only controls. At 14-days post-kaolin, just prior to sacrifice, routine magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging was conducted and the mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, radial and axial diffusivity of seven cerebral regions were assessed by voxel-based analysis in the corpus callosum, periventricular white matter, caudal internal capsule, CA1 hippocampus, and outer and inner parietal cortex. Myelin integrity, gliosis and aquaporin-4 levels were evaluated by post-mortem immunohistochemistry in the CA3 hippocampus and in the caudal brain of the same cerebral structures analysed by diffusion tensor imaging. Decorin significantly

  20. Role and liabilities of the medical physicist in the validation of oncologic treatments in internal vectorized radiation therapy. S.F.P.M. report nr 31, June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farman, Bardia; Defez, Didier; Martineau, Antoine; Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Dieudonne, Arnaud; Giraud, Fabienne; Divry, Guillaume; Bardies, Manuel; Laffont, Sophie; Santoro, Lore; Ferrer, Ludovic; Guilhem, Marie-Therese; Meyer, Philippe; Simon, Luc

    2015-06-01

    According to legal arrangements and decrees, the medical physicist must validate the preparation of each treatment based on the use of radio-elements in non-sealed sources. As the medical physicist is therefore liable of this validation, this report addresses the approach to be followed to comply with the law. The authors first outline that this report only concerns oncologic internal vectorized radiation therapy, and does not address the dosimetric aspect of these treatments. After having recalled the principles of internal vectorized radiography, they describe the role of the different actors: nuclear physician, medical physicist, radio-pharmacist, radio-pharmacy dispenser, medical electro-radiology operator, state nurse. They address the various aspects of the process of validation of a treatment preparation: technical prerequisites, organisational prerequisite, validation process, traceability, dosimetry. Several examples are proposed in appendix regarding traceability, dosimetry software, examples of PRM files

  1. Modeling, planning and XiO R CMS validation of TBI treatment (extended SSD 400 cm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teijeiro, A.; Pereira, L.; Moral, F. del; Vazquez, J.; Lopez Medina, A.; Meal, A.; Andrade Alvarez, B.; Salgado Fernandez, M.; Munoz, V.

    2011-01-01

    The whole body irradiation (TBI) is a radiotherapy technique previously used a bone marrow transplant and for certain blood diseases, in which a patient is irradiated to extended distance (SSD from 350 to 400). The aim of the TBI is to kill tumor cells in the receiver and prevent rejection of transplanted bone marrow. The dose is prescribed at the midpoint of the abdomen around the navel wing. The most planners not permit the treatment of patients with a much higher SSD to 100 cm, also using the table LUT with spoiler to increase skin dose should be taken into account This requires measurements and checks ad hoc if you use a planner, because modeling is not optimized a priori for an SSD of 400 cm.

  2. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: A Prospective Validation Study in Pakistan and Bangladesh on Measuring Correct Treatment of Childhood Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Arifeen, Shams; Khan, Amira M.; Huque, M. Hamidul; Kazmi, Narjis; Roy, Sushmita; Abbasi, Saleem; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-ur; Theodoratou, Evropi; Khorshed, Mahmuda Shayema; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Bari, Sanwarul; Kaiser, M. Mahfuzul Islam; Saha, Samir K.; Ahmed, A. S. M. Nawshad Uddin; Rudan, Igor; Bryce, Jennifer; Qazi, Shamim Ahmad; Campbell, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic treatment for pneumonia as measured by Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) is a key indicator for tracking progress in achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Concerns about the validity of this indicator led us to perform an evaluation in urban and rural settings in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Methods and Findings Caregivers of 950 children under 5 y with pneumonia and 980 with “no pneumonia” were identified in urban and rural settings and allocated for DHS/MICS questions 2 or 4 wk later. Study physicians assigned a diagnosis of pneumonia as reference standard; the predictive ability of DHS/MICS questions and additional measurement tools to identify pneumonia versus non-pneumonia cases was evaluated. Results at both sites showed suboptimal discriminative power, with no difference between 2- or 4-wk recall. Individual patterns of sensitivity and specificity varied substantially across study sites (sensitivity 66.9% and 45.5%, and specificity 68.8% and 69.5%, for DHS in Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively). Prescribed antibiotics for pneumonia were correctly recalled by about two-thirds of caregivers using DHS questions, increasing to 72% and 82% in Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively, using a drug chart and detailed enquiry. Conclusions Monitoring antibiotic treatment of pneumonia is essential for national and global programs. Current (DHS/MICS questions) and proposed new (video and pneumonia score) methods of identifying pneumonia based on maternal recall discriminate poorly between pneumonia and children with cough. Furthermore, these methods have a low yield to identify children who have true pneumonia. Reported antibiotic treatment rates among these children are therefore not a valid proxy indicator of pneumonia treatment rates. These results have important implications for program monitoring and suggest that data in its current format from DHS/MICS surveys should not be used for the

  3. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B.K.; Althof, J.A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations. 33 refs., 69 figs., 38 tabs.

  4. A GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculation platform and its application toward validating an MRI-guided radiation therapy beam model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuhe; Mazur, Thomas R.; Green, Olga; Hu, Yanle; Li, Hua; Rodriguez, Vivian; Wooten, H. Omar; Yang, Deshan; Zhao, Tianyu; Mutic, Sasa; Li, H. Harold, E-mail: hli@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The clinical commissioning of IMRT subject to a magnetic field is challenging. The purpose of this work is to develop a GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculation platform based on PENELOPE and then use the platform to validate a vendor-provided MRIdian head model toward quality assurance of clinical IMRT treatment plans subject to a 0.35 T magnetic field. Methods: PENELOPE was first translated from FORTRAN to C++ and the result was confirmed to produce equivalent results to the original code. The C++ code was then adapted to CUDA in a workflow optimized for GPU architecture. The original code was expanded to include voxelized transport with Woodcock tracking, faster electron/positron propagation in a magnetic field, and several features that make gPENELOPE highly user-friendly. Moreover, the vendor-provided MRIdian head model was incorporated into the code in an effort to apply gPENELOPE as both an accurate and rapid dose validation system. A set of experimental measurements were performed on the MRIdian system to examine the accuracy of both the head model and gPENELOPE. Ultimately, gPENELOPE was applied toward independent validation of patient doses calculated by MRIdian’s KMC. Results: An acceleration factor of 152 was achieved in comparison to the original single-thread FORTRAN implementation with the original accuracy being preserved. For 16 treatment plans including stomach (4), lung (2), liver (3), adrenal gland (2), pancreas (2), spleen(1), mediastinum (1), and breast (1), the MRIdian dose calculation engine agrees with gPENELOPE with a mean gamma passing rate of 99.1% ± 0.6% (2%/2 mm). Conclusions: A Monte Carlo simulation platform was developed based on a GPU- accelerated version of PENELOPE. This platform was used to validate that both the vendor-provided head model and fast Monte Carlo engine used by the MRIdian system are accurate in modeling radiation transport in a patient using 2%/2 mm gamma criteria. Future applications of this

  5. A GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculation platform and its application toward validating an MRI-guided radiation therapy beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuhe; Mazur, Thomas R.; Green, Olga; Hu, Yanle; Li, Hua; Rodriguez, Vivian; Wooten, H. Omar; Yang, Deshan; Zhao, Tianyu; Mutic, Sasa; Li, H. Harold

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical commissioning of IMRT subject to a magnetic field is challenging. The purpose of this work is to develop a GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculation platform based on PENELOPE and then use the platform to validate a vendor-provided MRIdian head model toward quality assurance of clinical IMRT treatment plans subject to a 0.35 T magnetic field. Methods: PENELOPE was first translated from FORTRAN to C++ and the result was confirmed to produce equivalent results to the original code. The C++ code was then adapted to CUDA in a workflow optimized for GPU architecture. The original code was expanded to include voxelized transport with Woodcock tracking, faster electron/positron propagation in a magnetic field, and several features that make gPENELOPE highly user-friendly. Moreover, the vendor-provided MRIdian head model was incorporated into the code in an effort to apply gPENELOPE as both an accurate and rapid dose validation system. A set of experimental measurements were performed on the MRIdian system to examine the accuracy of both the head model and gPENELOPE. Ultimately, gPENELOPE was applied toward independent validation of patient doses calculated by MRIdian’s KMC. Results: An acceleration factor of 152 was achieved in comparison to the original single-thread FORTRAN implementation with the original accuracy being preserved. For 16 treatment plans including stomach (4), lung (2), liver (3), adrenal gland (2), pancreas (2), spleen(1), mediastinum (1), and breast (1), the MRIdian dose calculation engine agrees with gPENELOPE with a mean gamma passing rate of 99.1% ± 0.6% (2%/2 mm). Conclusions: A Monte Carlo simulation platform was developed based on a GPU- accelerated version of PENELOPE. This platform was used to validate that both the vendor-provided head model and fast Monte Carlo engine used by the MRIdian system are accurate in modeling radiation transport in a patient using 2%/2 mm gamma criteria. Future applications of this

  6. A GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculation platform and its application toward validating an MRI-guided radiation therapy beam model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhe; Mazur, Thomas R; Green, Olga; Hu, Yanle; Li, Hua; Rodriguez, Vivian; Wooten, H Omar; Yang, Deshan; Zhao, Tianyu; Mutic, Sasa; Li, H Harold

    2016-07-01

    The clinical commissioning of IMRT subject to a magnetic field is challenging. The purpose of this work is to develop a GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculation platform based on penelope and then use the platform to validate a vendor-provided MRIdian head model toward quality assurance of clinical IMRT treatment plans subject to a 0.35 T magnetic field. penelope was first translated from fortran to c++ and the result was confirmed to produce equivalent results to the original code. The c++ code was then adapted to cuda in a workflow optimized for GPU architecture. The original code was expanded to include voxelized transport with Woodcock tracking, faster electron/positron propagation in a magnetic field, and several features that make gpenelope highly user-friendly. Moreover, the vendor-provided MRIdian head model was incorporated into the code in an effort to apply gpenelope as both an accurate and rapid dose validation system. A set of experimental measurements were performed on the MRIdian system to examine the accuracy of both the head model and gpenelope. Ultimately, gpenelope was applied toward independent validation of patient doses calculated by MRIdian's kmc. An acceleration factor of 152 was achieved in comparison to the original single-thread fortran implementation with the original accuracy being preserved. For 16 treatment plans including stomach (4), lung (2), liver (3), adrenal gland (2), pancreas (2), spleen(1), mediastinum (1), and breast (1), the MRIdian dose calculation engine agrees with gpenelope with a mean gamma passing rate of 99.1% ± 0.6% (2%/2 mm). A Monte Carlo simulation platform was developed based on a GPU- accelerated version of penelope. This platform was used to validate that both the vendor-provided head model and fast Monte Carlo engine used by the MRIdian system are accurate in modeling radiation transport in a patient using 2%/2 mm gamma criteria. Future applications of this platform will include dose validation and

  7. Application of ionizing radiation in treatment of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlackova, J.

    1984-01-01

    Processes used for meat treatment for storage (cooling, radurization + cooling, freezing, heat treatment and radappertization) are compared with regard to energy demand. The effect of doses above 10 kGy and below 10 kGy are discussed. Doses of ionizing radiation may be combined with other techniques (heat treatment, the addition of certain chemicals or antibiotics). Czechoslovak experience with irradiation of meat with tapeworm cysticerci is described. (E.F.)

  8. Virtual reality image applications for treatment planning in prosthodontic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takumi; Ikawa, Tomoko; Shigeta, Yuko; Kasama, Shintaro; Ando, Eriko; Fukushima, Shunji; Hattori, Asaki; Suzuki, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    For successful occlusal reconstruction, the prosthodontists must take several points into consideration, such as those involving issues with functional and morphological findings and aesthetics. They then must unify this information into a coherent treatment plan. In this present study we focused on prosthodontic treatment and investigated how treatment planning and simulation could be applied to two cases. The personal occlusion condition can be reproduced on the virtual articulator in VR space. In addition, various simulations can be performed that involve prosthetesis design.

  9. A new application and experimental validation of moulding technology for ferrite magnet assisted synchronous reluctance machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qian; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new application of moulding technology to the installation of ferrite magnet material into the rotor flux barriers of Ferrite Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Machine (FASynRM). The feasibility of this application with respect to manufacturing process and motor...

  10. Validation of a cylindrical phantom for verification of radiotherapy treatments in head and neck with special techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Nicolas M.; Garcia, Marcia; Piriz, Gustavo; Perez, Niurka

    2011-01-01

    Verification of radiotherapy treatments in head and neck requires, among other things, small volume chambers and a phantom to reproduce the geometry and density of the anatomical structure. New documents from the ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements), Report 83, established the need for quality control in radiotherapy with special techniques such as IMRT (intensity-modulated radiation therapy). In this study, we built a cylindrical acrylic phantom with standing water, containing seven measuring points in the transverse plane and free location (0-20 cm) in the longitudinal plane. These points of measurement are constituted by cavities for the accommodation of the ionization chamber of 7 mm of mayor diameter (semi flex, pinpoint with build cup). The results of the phantom validation yielded percentage differences less than 1% in fixed beams and less than 2.5% in arc therapy for TPS Eclipse calculation. The preparation of this phantom, particularly made to verify the head and neck treatments, was simple and reliable for checking the dose in radiotherapy with fixed beams and/or special techniques such as arc therapy or IMRT, so that will be sent to various radiotherapy centers in the country for dosimetric verification in such treatments. (author)

  11. Validation of a cylindrical phantom for verification of radiotherapy treatments in head and neck with special techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Nicolas M.; Garcia, Marcia, E-mail: nimoralesv@gmail.com [Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Fisicas; Piriz, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional del Cancer, Santiago (Chile). Fisica Medica; Perez, Niurka [Instituto de Salud Publica, Santiago (Chile). QA Radioterapia. Inst. de Salud Publica

    2011-07-01

    Verification of radiotherapy treatments in head and neck requires, among other things, small volume chambers and a phantom to reproduce the geometry and density of the anatomical structure. New documents from the ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements), Report 83, established the need for quality control in radiotherapy with special techniques such as IMRT (intensity-modulated radiation therapy). In this study, we built a cylindrical acrylic phantom with standing water, containing seven measuring points in the transverse plane and free location (0-20 cm) in the longitudinal plane. These points of measurement are constituted by cavities for the accommodation of the ionization chamber of 7 mm of mayor diameter (semi flex, pinpoint with build cup). The results of the phantom validation yielded percentage differences less than 1% in fixed beams and less than 2.5% in arc therapy for TPS Eclipse calculation. The preparation of this phantom, particularly made to verify the head and neck treatments, was simple and reliable for checking the dose in radiotherapy with fixed beams and/or special techniques such as arc therapy or IMRT, so that will be sent to various radiotherapy centers in the country for dosimetric verification in such treatments. (author)

  12. The Nature of Coping in Treatment for Marijuana Dependence: Latent Structure and Validation of the Coping Strategies Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M; Tennen, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The Coping Strategies Scale (CSS) was designed to assess adaptive changes in substance-use specific coping that result from treatment. The present study sought to examine the latent structure of the CSS in the hope that it might shed light on the coping processes of drug users, and guide the development of a brief version of the CSS. Respondents on the CSS were 751 men and women treated in three clinical trials for marijuana dependence. Posttreatment CSS data were analyzed to determine the nature of coping responses in patients who have been trained to use specific strategies to deal with substance use disorders. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors, categorized as problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, but confirmatory factor analysis did not support this structure. When infrequently endorsed items were removed, however, confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit to the data. Contrary to expectations, practical strategies that often form the basis for coping skills training, such as avoiding those who smoke, were not frequently endorsed. Problem focused items reflected cognitive commitments to change. Emotion-focused items included cognitive reinterpretations of emotions, to help manage emotional reactions. Brief versions of the CSS based on these factors showed good convergent and discriminant validity. The CSS, and the brief versions of the CSS, may prove useful in future treatment trials to evaluate effects of treatment on coping skills acquisition and utilization in substance dependent individuals. PMID:22082345

  13. Consistency, Verification, and Validation of Turbulence Models for Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2009-01-01

    In current practice, it is often difficult to draw firm conclusions about turbulence model accuracy when performing multi-code CFD studies ostensibly using the same model because of inconsistencies in model formulation or implementation in different codes. This paper describes an effort to improve the consistency, verification, and validation of turbulence models within the aerospace community through a website database of verification and validation cases. Some of the variants of two widely-used turbulence models are described, and two independent computer codes (one structured and one unstructured) are used in conjunction with two specific versions of these models to demonstrate consistency with grid refinement for several representative problems. Naming conventions, implementation consistency, and thorough grid resolution studies are key factors necessary for success.

  14. Validity and intra-rater reliability of an android phone application to measure cervical range-of-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, June; Brauer, Sandra G; Treleaven, Julia; Pua, Yong-Hao; Mentiplay, Benjamin; Clark, Ross Allan

    2014-04-17

    Concurrent validity and intra-rater reliability using a customized Android phone application to measure cervical-spine range-of-motion (ROM) has not been previously validated against a gold-standard three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) system. Twenty-one healthy individuals (age:31 ± 9.1 years, male:11) participated, with 16 re-examined for intra-rater reliability 1-7 days later. An Android phone was fixed on a helmet, which was then securely fastened on the participant's head. Cervical-spine ROM in flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation were performed in sitting with concurrent measurements obtained from both a 3DMA system and the phone.The phone demonstrated moderate to excellent (ICC = 0.53-0.98, Spearman ρ = 0.52-0.98) concurrent validity for ROM measurements in cervical flexion, extension, lateral-flexion and rotation. However, cervical rotation demonstrated both proportional and fixed bias. Excellent intra-rater reliability was demonstrated for cervical flexion, extension and lateral flexion (ICC = 0.82-0.90), but poor for right- and left-rotation (ICC = 0.05-0.33) using the phone. Possible reasons for the outcome are that flexion, extension and lateral-flexion measurements are detected by gravity-dependent accelerometers while rotation measurements are detected by the magnetometer which can be adversely affected by surrounding magnetic fields. The results of this study demonstrate that the tested Android phone application is valid and reliable to measure ROM of the cervical-spine in flexion, extension and lateral-flexion but not in rotation likely due to magnetic interference. The clinical implication of this study is that therapists should be mindful of the plane of measurement when using the Android phone to measure ROM of the cervical-spine.

  15. Application of Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methods to a Validation Study for Weapons-Grade Mixed-Oxide Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) analysis methods and a Generalized Linear Least-Squares Methodology (GLLSM) have been developed to quantitatively determine the similarity or lack thereof between critical benchmark experiments and an application of interest. The S/U and GLLSM methods provide a mathematical approach, which is less judgment based relative to traditional validation procedures, to assess system similarity and estimate the calculational bias and uncertainty for an application of interest. The objective of this paper is to gain experience with the S/U and GLLSM methods by revisiting a criticality safety evaluation and associated traditional validation for the shipment of weapons-grade (WG) MOX fuel in the MO-1 transportation package. In the original validation, critical experiments were selected based on a qualitative assessment of the MO-1 and MOX contents relative to the available experiments. Subsequently, traditional trending analyses were used to estimate the Δk bias and associated uncertainty. In this paper, the S/U and GLLSM procedures are used to re-evaluate the suite of critical experiments associated with the original MO-1 evaluation. Using the S/U procedures developed at ORNL, critical experiments that are similar to the undamaged and damaged MO-1 package are identified based on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the criticals and the MO-1 package configurations. Based on the trending analyses developed for the S/U and GLLSM procedures, the Δk bias and uncertainty for the most reactive MO-1 package configurations are estimated and used to calculate an upper subcritical limit (USL) for the MO-1 evaluation. The calculated bias and uncertainty from the S/U and GLLSM analyses lead to a calculational USL that supports the original validation study for the MO-1

  16. Automated identification of wound information in clinical notes of patients with heart diseases: Developing and validating a natural language processing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Maxim; Lai, Kenneth; Dowding, Dawn; Lei, Victor J; Zisberg, Anna; Bowles, Kathryn H; Zhou, Li

    2016-12-01

    Electronic health records are being increasingly used by nurses with up to 80% of the health data recorded as free text. However, only a few studies have developed nursing-relevant tools that help busy clinicians to identify information they need at the point of care. This study developed and validated one of the first automated natural language processing applications to extract wound information (wound type, pressure ulcer stage, wound size, anatomic location, and wound treatment) from free text clinical notes. First, two human annotators manually reviewed a purposeful training sample (n=360) and random test sample (n=1100) of clinical notes (including 50% discharge summaries and 50% outpatient notes), identified wound cases, and created a gold standard dataset. We then trained and tested our natural language processing system (known as MTERMS) to process the wound information. Finally, we assessed our automated approach by comparing system-generated findings against the gold standard. We also compared the prevalence of wound cases identified from free-text data with coded diagnoses in the structured data. The testing dataset included 101 notes (9.2%) with wound information. The overall system performance was good (F-measure is a compiled measure of system's accuracy=92.7%), with best results for wound treatment (F-measure=95.7%) and poorest results for wound size (F-measure=81.9%). Only 46.5% of wound notes had a structured code for a wound diagnosis. The natural language processing system achieved good performance on a subset of randomly selected discharge summaries and outpatient notes. In more than half of the wound notes, there were no coded wound diagnoses, which highlight the significance of using natural language processing to enrich clinical decision making. Our future steps will include expansion of the application's information coverage to other relevant wound factors and validation of the model with external data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. Validation of measures from the smartphone sway balance application: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeremy A; Amick, Ryan Z; Thummar, Tarunkumar; Rogers, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    A number of different balance assessment techniques are currently available and widely used. These include both subjective and objective assessments. The ability to provide quantitative measures of balance and posture is the benefit of objective tools, however these instruments are not generally utilized outside of research laboratory settings due to cost, complexity of operation, size, duration of assessment, and general practicality. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the value and validity of using software developed to access the iPod and iPhone accelerometers output and translate that to the measurement of human balance. Thirty healthy college-aged individuals (13 male, 17 female; age = 26.1 ± 8.5 years) volunteered. Participants performed a static Athlete's Single Leg Test protocol for 10 sec, on a Biodex Balance System SD while concurrently utilizing a mobile device with balance software. Anterior/posterior stability was recorded using both devices, described as the displacement in degrees from level, and was termed the "balance score." There were no significant differences between the two reported balance scores (p = 0.818. Mean balance score on the balance platform was 1.41 ± 0.90, as compared to 1.38 ± 0.72 using the mobile device. There is a need for a valid, convenient, and cost-effective tool to objectively measure balance. Results of this study are promising, as balance score derived from the Smartphone accelerometers were consistent with balance scores obtained from a previously validated balance system. However, further investigation is necessary as this version of the mobile software only assessed balance in the anterior/posterior direction. Additionally, further testing is necessary on a healthy populations and as well as those with impairment of the motor control system. Level 2b (Observational study of validity)(1.)

  18. Design of experiments in medical physics: Application to the AAA beam model validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufreneix, S; Legrand, C; Di Bartolo, C; Bremaud, M; Mesgouez, J; Tiplica, T; Autret, D

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the design of experiments in the analysis of multiparametric problems related to the quality assurance in radiotherapy. The main motivation is to use this statistical method to optimize the quality assurance processes in the validation of beam models. Considering the Varian Eclipse system, eight parameters with several levels were selected: energy, MLC, depth, X, Y 1 and Y 2 jaw dimensions, wedge and wedge jaw. A Taguchi table was used to define 72 validation tests. Measurements were conducted in water using a CC04 on a TrueBeam STx, a TrueBeam Tx, a Trilogy and a 2300IX accelerator matched by the vendor. Dose was computed using the AAA algorithm. The same raw data was used for all accelerators during the beam modelling. The mean difference between computed and measured doses was 0.1±0.5% for all beams and all accelerators with a maximum difference of 2.4% (under the 3% tolerance level). For all beams, the measured doses were within 0.6% for all accelerators. The energy was found to be an influencing parameter but the deviations observed were smaller than 1% and not considered clinically significant. Designs of experiment can help define the optimal measurement set to validate a beam model. The proposed method can be used to identify the prognostic factors of dose accuracy. The beam models were validated for the 4 accelerators which were found dosimetrically equivalent even though the accelerator characteristics differ. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application and validation of predictive computer programs describing the chemistry of radionuclides in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, M.; Duffield, J.R.; Griffiths, P.J.F.; Williams, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Chemval is an international project concerned with improving the data used to model the speciation chemistry of radionuclide migration from underground waste disposal sites. Chemval has two main aims: to produce a reliable database of thermodynamic equilibrium constants for use in such chemical modelling; to perform a series of test-case modelling exercises based upon real site and field data to verify and validate the existing tools used for simulating the chemical speciation and the transport of radionuclides in the environment

  20. Interlaboratory study for the validation of an ecotoxicological procedure to monitor the quality of septic sludge received at a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P Y; Choucri, A; Bastien, C; Sunahara, G I; López-Gastey, J

    2001-01-01

    Septic tank sludge is regularly hauled to the Montreal Urban Community (MUC) wastewater treatment plant. It is then discharged and mixed with the wastewater inflow before entering the primary chemical treatment process. An ecotoxicological procedure integrating chemical and toxicological analyses has been recently developed and applied to screen for the illicit discharge of toxic substances in septic sludge. The toxicity tests used were the Microtox, the bacterial-respiration, and the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) root elongation tests. In order to validate the applicability of the proposed procedure, a two-year interlaboratory study was carried out. In general, the results obtained by two independent laboratories (MUC and the Centre d'expertise en analyse environnementale du Quebec) were comparable and reproducible. Some differences were found using the Microtox test. Organic (e.g., phenol and formaldehyde) and inorganic (e.g., nickel and cyanide) spiked septic sludge were detected with good reliability and high efficiency. The relative efficiency to detect spiked substances was > 70% and confirms the results of previous studies. In addition, the respiration test was the most efficient toxicological tool to detect spiked substances, whereas the Microtox was the least efficient (septic sludge.

  1. Application of ionizing radiation in foods and feeds treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanis, T.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings contain 21 papers presented at the seminar which was held in Prague on November 28, 1983. The topic of the papers was current knowledge of ionizing radiation applications for treating foodstuffs and feeds and the confrontation of the applications thereof in Czechoslovakia and elsewhere in the world. (J.P.)

  2. Validation and applicability of the 3D core kinetics and thermal hydraulics coupled code SPARKLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Manabu; Maruyama, Manabu; Ogawa, Junto; Otake, Yukihiko; Miyake, Shuhei; Tabuse, Shigehiko; Tanaka, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The SPARKLE code is a coupled code system based on three individual codes whose physical models have already been verified and validated. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) confirmed the coupling calculation, including data transfer and the total reactor coolant system (RCS) behavior of the SPARKLE code. The confirmation uses the OECD/NEA MSLB benchmark problem, which is based on Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1) nuclear power plant data. This benchmark problem has been used to verify coupled codes developed and used by many organizations. Objectives of the benchmark program are as follows. Phase 1 is to compare the results of the system transient code using point kinetics. Phase 2 is to compare the results of the coupled three-dimensional (3D) core kinetics code and 3D core thermal-hydraulics (T/H) code, and Phase 3 is to compare the results of the combined coupled system transient code, 3D core kinetics code, and 3D core T/H code as a total validation of the coupled calculation. The calculation results of the SPARKLE code indicate good agreement with other benchmark participants' results. Therefore, the SPARKLE code is validated through these benchmark problems. In anticipation of applying the SPARKLE code to licensing analyses, MHI and Japanese PWR utilities have established a safety analysis method regarding the calculation conditions such as power distributions, reactivity coefficients, and event-specific features. (author)

  3. Discussion about the application of treatment process for dehydrated wet waste at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guanghua; Wu Qiang

    2009-01-01

    In nuclear power station, the most popular treatment about low level radioactive wet waste generated during the unit operating and maintenance is embedded by cement. For radioactive waste minimization, this article introduces a new treatment process to dehydrate and compress wet waste. According to the development and application of the treatment process for the wet waste, and comparing with the formerly treatment-the cement embedding, prove that the new treatment can meet the purpose for volume reduction of wet waste. (authors)

  4. Psychometric validation of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede; Nordin, Andy; Lanceley, Anne

    2011-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24). This module was designed to assess disease and treatment specific aspects of...

  5. Typology of Couples Entering Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy: An Empirical Approach and Test of Predictive Validity on Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Benjamin O; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether classification of couples in which one partner has an alcohol problem is similar to that reported in the general couples literature. Typologies of couples seeking alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) were developed via hierarchical cluster analysis using behavioral codes of couple interactions during their first ABCT session. Four couples types based on in-session behavior were established reliably, labeled avoider, validator, hostile, and ambivalent-detached. These couple types resembled couples types found in previous research. Couple type was associated with baseline relationship satisfaction, but not alcohol use. Results suggest heterogeneity in couples with alcohol problems presenting to treatment; further study is needed to investigate the function of alcohol within these different types. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  6. Application of nasointestinal feeding tube in treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the clinical effect of nasointestinal feeding tube for enteral nutrition in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Methods: A total of 128 patients with acute pancreatitis who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and randomized into the treatment group and the control group with 64 cases in each group. Routine pancreatitis treatments after admission in the two groups were performed. On the basis, nasointestinal feeding tube was indwelled in patients in the treatment group for nutrition support. The changes of biochemical and nutritional indicators before and after treatment in the two groups were compared. Results: LC, TP, ALB, and Hb after treatment in the two groups were significantly elevated, while AMY and Lipase were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05. Conclusions: Adoption of nasointestinal feeding tube for enteral nutrition in the treatment of acute pancreatitis can significantly improve the nutritional status; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  7. Application of spent fuel treatment technology to plutonium immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Ackerman, J.P.; Gay, E.C., Johnson, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the electrometallurgical treatment technology being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is to convert certain spent nuclear fuels into waste forms that are suitable for disposal in a geological repository for nuclear waste. The spent fuels of interest are those that cannot be safely stored for a long time in their current condition, and those that cannot be qualified for repository disposal. This paper explores the possibility of applying this electrometallurgical treatment technology to immobilization of surplus fissile materials, primarily plutonium. Immobilization of surplus fissile materials by electrometallurgical treatment could be done in the same facilities, at the same time. and in the same equipment as the proposed treatment of the present inventory of spent nuclear fuel. The cost and schedule savings of this simultaneous treatment scheme would be significant

  8. Modeling and simulation of maintenance treatment in first-line non-small cell lung cancer with external validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kelong; Claret, Laurent; Sandler, Alan; Das, Asha; Jin, Jin; Bruno, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance treatment (MTx) in responders following first-line treatment has been investigated and practiced for many cancers. Modeling and simulation may support interpretation of interim data and development decisions. We aimed to develop a modeling framework to simulate overall survival (OS) for MTx in NSCLC using tumor growth inhibition (TGI) data. TGI metrics were estimated using longitudinal tumor size data from two Phase III first-line NSCLC studies evaluating bevacizumab and erlotinib as MTx in 1632 patients. Baseline prognostic factors and TGI metric estimates were assessed in multivariate parametric models to predict OS. The OS model was externally validated by simulating a third independent NSCLC study (n = 253) based on interim TGI data (up to progression-free survival database lock). The third study evaluated pemetrexed + bevacizumab vs. bevacizumab alone as MTx. Time-to-tumor-growth (TTG) was the best TGI metric to predict OS. TTG, baseline tumor size, ECOG score, Asian ethnicity, age, and gender were significant covariates in the final OS model. The OS model was qualified by simulating OS distributions and hazard ratios (HR) in the two studies used for model-building. Simulations of the third independent study based on interim TGI data showed that pemetrexed + bevacizumab MTx was unlikely to significantly prolong OS vs. bevacizumab alone given the current sample size (predicted HR: 0.81; 95 % prediction interval: 0.59–1.09). Predicted median OS was 17.3 months and 14.7 months in both arms, respectively. These simulations are consistent with the results of the final OS analysis published 2 years later (observed HR: 0.87; 95 % confidence interval: 0.63–1.21). Final observed median OS was 17.1 months and 13.2 months in both arms, respectively, consistent with our predictions. A robust TGI-OS model was developed for MTx in NSCLC. TTG captures treatment effect. The model successfully predicted the OS outcomes of an independent study based on interim

  9. Modeling and simulation of maintenance treatment in first-line non-small cell lung cancer with external validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kelong; Claret, Laurent; Sandler, Alan; Das, Asha; Jin, Jin; Bruno, Rene

    2016-07-13

    Maintenance treatment (MTx) in responders following first-line treatment has been investigated and practiced for many cancers. Modeling and simulation may support interpretation of interim data and development decisions. We aimed to develop a modeling framework to simulate overall survival (OS) for MTx in NSCLC using tumor growth inhibition (TGI) data. TGI metrics were estimated using longitudinal tumor size data from two Phase III first-line NSCLC studies evaluating bevacizumab and erlotinib as MTx in 1632 patients. Baseline prognostic factors and TGI metric estimates were assessed in multivariate parametric models to predict OS. The OS model was externally validated by simulating a third independent NSCLC study (n = 253) based on interim TGI data (up to progression-free survival database lock). The third study evaluated pemetrexed + bevacizumab vs. bevacizumab alone as MTx. Time-to-tumor-growth (TTG) was the best TGI metric to predict OS. TTG, baseline tumor size, ECOG score, Asian ethnicity, age, and gender were significant covariates in the final OS model. The OS model was qualified by simulating OS distributions and hazard ratios (HR) in the two studies used for model-building. Simulations of the third independent study based on interim TGI data showed that pemetrexed + bevacizumab MTx was unlikely to significantly prolong OS vs. bevacizumab alone given the current sample size (predicted HR: 0.81; 95 % prediction interval: 0.59-1.09). Predicted median OS was 17.3 months and 14.7 months in both arms, respectively. These simulations are consistent with the results of the final OS analysis published 2 years later (observed HR: 0.87; 95 % confidence interval: 0.63-1.21). Final observed median OS was 17.1 months and 13.2 months in both arms, respectively, consistent with our predictions. A robust TGI-OS model was developed for MTx in NSCLC. TTG captures treatment effect. The model successfully predicted the OS outcomes of an independent study

  10. TH-CD-BRA-11: Implementation and Evaluation of a New 3D Dosimetry Protocol for Validating MRI Guided Radiation Therapy Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, S; Rankine, L; Adamovics, J; Li, H; Oldham, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, evaluate and apply a novel high-resolution 3D remote dosimetry protocol for validation of MRI guided radiation therapy treatments (MRIdian by ViewRay™). We demonstrate the first application of the protocol (including two small but required new correction terms) utilizing radiochromic 3D plastic PRESAGE™ with optical-CT readout. Methods: A detailed study of PRESAGE™ dosimeters (2kg) was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial stability of radiation induced optical density change (ΔOD) over 8 days. Temporal stability was investigated on 3 dosimeters irradiated with four equally-spaced square 6MV fields delivering doses between 10cGy and 300cGy. Doses were imaged (read-out) by optical-CT at multiple intervals. Spatial stability of ΔOD response was investigated on 3 other dosimeters irradiated uniformly with 15MV extended-SSD fields with doses of 15cGy, 30cGy and 60cGy. Temporal and spatial (radial) changes were investigated using CERR and MATLAB’s Curve Fitting Tool-box. A protocol was developed to extrapolate measured ΔOD readings at t=48hr (the typical shipment time in remote dosimetry) to time t=1hr. Results: All dosimeters were observed to gradually darken with time (<5% per day). Consistent intra-batch sensitivity (0.0930±0.002 ΔOD/cm/Gy) and linearity (R2=0.9996) was observed at t=1hr. A small radial effect (<3%) was observed, attributed to curing thermodynamics during manufacture. The refined remote dosimetry protocol (including polynomial correction terms for temporal and spatial effects, CT and CR) was then applied to independent dosimeters irradiated with MR-IGRT treatments. Excellent line profile agreement and 3D-gamma results for 3%/3mm, 10% threshold were observed, with an average passing rate 96.5%± 3.43%. Conclusion: A novel 3D remote dosimetry protocol is presented capable of validation of advanced radiation treatments (including MR-IGRT). The protocol uses 2kg radiochromic plastic dosimeters read-out by

  11. TH-CD-BRA-11: Implementation and Evaluation of a New 3D Dosimetry Protocol for Validating MRI Guided Radiation Therapy Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mein, S [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program (United States); Rankine, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine (United States); Adamovics, J [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Rider University, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States); Li, H [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine (United States); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop, evaluate and apply a novel high-resolution 3D remote dosimetry protocol for validation of MRI guided radiation therapy treatments (MRIdian by ViewRay™). We demonstrate the first application of the protocol (including two small but required new correction terms) utilizing radiochromic 3D plastic PRESAGE™ with optical-CT readout. Methods: A detailed study of PRESAGE™ dosimeters (2kg) was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial stability of radiation induced optical density change (ΔOD) over 8 days. Temporal stability was investigated on 3 dosimeters irradiated with four equally-spaced square 6MV fields delivering doses between 10cGy and 300cGy. Doses were imaged (read-out) by optical-CT at multiple intervals. Spatial stability of ΔOD response was investigated on 3 other dosimeters irradiated uniformly with 15MV extended-SSD fields with doses of 15cGy, 30cGy and 60cGy. Temporal and spatial (radial) changes were investigated using CERR and MATLAB’s Curve Fitting Tool-box. A protocol was developed to extrapolate measured ΔOD readings at t=48hr (the typical shipment time in remote dosimetry) to time t=1hr. Results: All dosimeters were observed to gradually darken with time (<5% per day). Consistent intra-batch sensitivity (0.0930±0.002 ΔOD/cm/Gy) and linearity (R2=0.9996) was observed at t=1hr. A small radial effect (<3%) was observed, attributed to curing thermodynamics during manufacture. The refined remote dosimetry protocol (including polynomial correction terms for temporal and spatial effects, CT and CR) was then applied to independent dosimeters irradiated with MR-IGRT treatments. Excellent line profile agreement and 3D-gamma results for 3%/3mm, 10% threshold were observed, with an average passing rate 96.5%± 3.43%. Conclusion: A novel 3D remote dosimetry protocol is presented capable of validation of advanced radiation treatments (including MR-IGRT). The protocol uses 2kg radiochromic plastic dosimeters read-out by

  12. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Brouillette

    Full Text Available While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these "next-generation" assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r = 0.515, p<0.0001 and multiple measures of processing speed and attention (Digit Span: r = 0.427, p<0.0001; Trail Making Test: r = -0.651, p<0.00001; Digit Symbol Test: r = 0.508, p<0.0001. The CST was not correlated with naming and verbal fluency tasks (Boston Naming Test, Vegetable/Animal Naming or memory tasks (Logical Memory Test. Test re-test reliability was observed to be significant (r = 0.726; p = 0.02. Together, these data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using a smartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries

  13. A Generic Approach for Inversion of Surface Reflectance over Land: Overview, Application and Validation Using MODIS and LANDSAT8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, E.; Roger, J. C.; Justice, C. O.; Franch, B.; Claverie, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a generic approach developed to derive surface reflectance over land from a variety of sensors. This technique builds on the extensive dataset acquired by the Terra platform by combining MODIS and MISR to derive an explicit and dynamic map of band ratio's between blue and red channels and is a refinement of the operational approach used for MODIS and LANDSAT over the past 15 years. We will present the generic approach and the application to MODIS and LANDSAT data and its validation using the AERONET data.

  14. CBF-measurement of Xe-133 inhalation. Validity and clinical applications in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risberg, J.

    1980-01-01

    Some methodological questions are dealt with, especially elimination of influence from non-cerebral sources of radiation. Experience from clinical applications of the method in psychiatry are briefly reviewed. (Auth.)

  15. Validation of COG10 and ENDFB6R7 on the Auk Workstation for General Application to Highly Enriched Uranium Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percher, Catherine G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-08

    The COG 10 code package1 on the Auk workstation is now validated with the ENBFB6R7 neutron cross section library for general application to highly enriched uranium (HEU) systems by comparison of the calculated keffective to the expected keffective of several relevant experimental benchmarks. This validation is supplemental to the installation and verification of COG 10 on the Auk workstation2.

  16. Positive Response Distortion by Police Officer Applicants: Association of Paulhus Deception Scales with MMPI-2 and Inwald Personality Inventory Validity Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of positive response distortion (socially desirable responding) in employment evaluations is an important validity issue. This study of police officer applicants examined the construct validity of the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS)--Moralistic Bias (MB; exaggerated adjustment/agreeableness) and Egoistic Bias (EB; exaggerated…

  17. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...... for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant...

  18. Engineering application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Nianjia; Ren, Hongqiang; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2017-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), a promising biological nitrogen removal process, has been verified as an efficient, sustainable and cost-effective alternative to conventional nitrification and denitrification processes. To date, more than 110 full-scale anammox plants have been installed and are in operation, treating industrial NH 4 + -rich wastewater worldwide, and anammox-based technologies are flourishing. This review the current state of the art for engineering applications of the anammox process, including various anammox-based technologies, reactor selection and attempts to apply it at different wastewater plants. Process control and implementation for stable performance are discussed as well as some remaining issues concerning engineering application are exposed, including the start-up period, process disturbances, greenhouse gas emissions and especially mainstream anammox applications. Finally, further development of the anammox engineering application is proposed in this review.

  19. Application of the Performance Validation Tool for the Evaluation of NSSS Control System Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Suk-whun

    2011-01-01

    When a control system is supplied to nuclear power plant (NPP) under construction, static tests and dynamic tests are typically performed for evaluating its performance. The dynamic test is not realistic for validating the performance of the replaced hardware in operating NPPs because of potential risks and economic burden. We have, therefore, developed a performance validation tool which can evaluate the dynamic performances of the control system without undertaking real plant tests. The window-based nuclear plant performance analyzer (Win-NPA) is used as a virtual NPP in the developed tool and provides appropriate control loads to the target control system via hardwired cables in a manner that the interfaces are identical to the field wiring. The outputs from the control system are used as the simulation inputs of the plant model within the Win-NPA. With this closed-loop configuration, major transient events were simulated to check the performance of the implemented control system by comparing it with that of the control system model of the Win-NPA and that of the old hardware. The developed tool and the methodology were successfully applied to the hardware replacement project for Yonggwang (YGN) 3 and 4 feedwater control system (FWCS) in 2008. Several errors in the implemented control system were fixed through the performance validation tests and the operability tests. As a result, the control system of the YGN 3 and 4 has demonstrated an excellent control performance since then. On the basis of YGN 3 and 4 project experiences, we are performing a similar project in Ulchin (UCN) 3 and 4. This methodology can also be applied to other NPPs under construction as a tool for pre-operational dynamic tests. These performance tests before performing power ascension tests (PATs) are conducive to preventing unnecessary plant transients or unwanted reactor trips caused by hidden errors of control systems during PATs. (author)

  20. Characterization of ion exchange resins for nuclear power plants: Application and validation of a dedicated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabrouk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In pressurized water reactor, ion exchange resins (IER) are used in systems purification. In this thesis, a qualitative study has been performed to predict the behavior of IER while used in nuclear plants conditions. Then, we searched to characterize the IER behavior in column through a quantitative study using analytical solutions. But these solutions worked only for particular cases. In order to find a general solution, we used a new numerical solution: OPTIPUR. To validate this general solution and get a better understanding of the kinetic in column, we performed an experimental study to characterize the resistance to mass transfer in column and to study the sensibility on the parameters influencing this phenomenon. This study is based on the characterization of the initial leakage (initial pollutant concentration at the column outlet). We tested numerous parameters on the initial leakage. We understood the importance of the superficial velocity and indeed of the hydrodynamic conditions on the initial leakage. These numerous results about initial leakage were modeled with an empirical correlation of Dwivedi and Upadhyay in order to validate it. Then, we modeled our results with the two options of OPTIPUR software: option Mass Transfer Coefficient (MTC) and Nernst-Planck (NP). These options encircle experimental results. The MTC option of OPTIPUR gives lower results while those obtained with the NP option are higher than the experimental results. We observed also that only the NP option was valid for a ternary exchange. We proposed solutions to get a better fit with the results obtained with OPTIPUR. We performed other simulations to check the prediction abilities of the software for longer experiments (until the IER saturation). The tendencies were those expected. The OPTIPUR software showed is accuracy and robustness to study column kinetic. (author)

  1. The reliability, validity, and applicability of an English language version of the Mini-ICF-APP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodynski, Andrew; Linden, Michael; Juckel, George; Yeeles, Ksenija; Anderson, Catriona; Vazquez-Montes, Maria; Burns, Tom

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed at establishing the validity and reliability of an English language version of the Mini-ICF-APP. One hundred and five patients under the care of secondary mental health care services were assessed using the Mini-ICF-APP and several well-established measures of functioning and symptom severity. 47 (45 %) patients were interviewed on two occasions to ascertain test-retest reliability and 50 (48 %) were interviewed by two researchers simultaneously to determine the instrument's inter-rater reliability. Occupational and sick leave status were also recorded to assess construct validity. The Mini-ICF-APP was found to have substantial internal consistency (Chronbach's α 0.869-0.912) and all 13 items correlated highly with the total score. Analysis also showed that the Mini-ICF-APP had good test-retest (ICC 0.832) and inter-rater (ICC 0.886) reliability. No statistically significant association with length of sick leave was found, but the unemployed scored higher on the Mini ICF-APP than those in employment (mean 18.4, SD 9.1 vs. 9.4, SD 6.4, p Mini-ICF-APP correlated highly with the other measures of illness severity and functioning considered in the study. The English version of the Mini-ICF-APP is a reliable and valid measure of disorders of capacity as defined by the International Classification of Functioning. Further work is necessary to establish whether the scale could be divided into sub scales which would allow the instrument to more sensitively measure an individual's specific impairments.

  2. Procedure for the Selection and Validation of a Calibration Model I-Description and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desharnais, Brigitte; Camirand-Lemyre, Félix; Mireault, Pascal; Skinner, Cameron D

    2017-05-01

    Calibration model selection is required for all quantitative methods in toxicology and more broadly in bioanalysis. This typically involves selecting the equation order (quadratic or linear) and weighting factor correctly modelizing the data. A mis-selection of the calibration model will generate lower quality control (QC) accuracy, with an error up to 154%. Unfortunately, simple tools to perform this selection and tests to validate the resulting model are lacking. We present a stepwise, analyst-independent scheme for selection and validation of calibration models. The success rate of this scheme is on average 40% higher than a traditional "fit and check the QCs accuracy" method of selecting the calibration model. Moreover, the process was completely automated through a script (available in Supplemental Data 3) running in RStudio (free, open-source software). The need for weighting was assessed through an F-test using the variances of the upper limit of quantification and lower limit of quantification replicate measurements. When weighting was required, the choice between 1/x and 1/x2 was determined by calculating which option generated the smallest spread of weighted normalized variances. Finally, model order was selected through a partial F-test. The chosen calibration model was validated through Cramer-von Mises or Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality testing of the standardized residuals. Performance of the different tests was assessed using 50 simulated data sets per possible calibration model (e.g., linear-no weight, quadratic-no weight, linear-1/x, etc.). This first of two papers describes the tests, procedures and outcomes of the developed procedure using real LC-MS-MS results for the quantification of cocaine and naltrexone. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The truncated Wigner method for Bose-condensed gases: limits of validity and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinatra, Alice; Lobo, Carlos; Castin, Yvan

    2002-01-01

    We study the truncated Wigner method applied to a weakly interacting spinless Bose-condensed gas which is perturbed away from thermal equilibrium by a time-dependent external potential. The principle of the method is to generate an ensemble of classical fields ψ(r) which samples the Wigner quasi-distribution function of the initial thermal equilibrium density operator of the gas, and then to evolve each classical field with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In the first part of the paper we improve the sampling technique over our previous work (Sinatra et al 2000 J. Mod. Opt. 47 2629-44) and we test its accuracy against the exactly solvable model of the ideal Bose gas. In the second part of the paper we investigate the conditions of validity of the truncated Wigner method. For short evolution times it is known that the time-dependent Bogoliubov approximation is valid for almost pure condensates. The requirement that the truncated Wigner method reproduces the Bogoliubov prediction leads to the constraint that the number of field modes in the Wigner simulation must be smaller than the number of particles in the gas. For longer evolution times the nonlinear dynamics of the noncondensed modes of the field plays an important role. To demonstrate this we analyse the case of a three-dimensional spatially homogeneous Bose-condensed gas and we test the ability of the truncated Wigner method to correctly reproduce the Beliaev-Landau damping of an excitation of the condensate. We have identified the mechanism which limits the validity of the truncated Wigner method: the initial ensemble of classical fields, driven by the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation, thermalizes to a classical field distribution at a temperature T class which is larger than the initial temperature T of the quantum gas. When T class significantly exceeds T a spurious damping is observed in the Wigner simulation. This leads to the second validity condition for the truncated Wigner method, T class - T

  4. Validation of the DNATyper™15 PCR Genotyping System for Forensic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Ye; Chengtao Jiang; Xingchun Zhao; Le Wang; Caixia Li; Anquan Ji; Li Yuan; Jing Sun; Shuaifeng Chen

    2015-01-01

    We describe the optimization and validation of the DNATyper™15 multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping system for autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) amplification at 14 autosomal loci (D6S1043, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D2S1338, D3S1358, D13S317, D8S1179, D16S539, Penta E, D5S818, vWA, D18S51, and FGA) and  amelogenin, a sex-determining locus. Several DNATyper™15 assay variables were optimized, including hot start Taq polymerase concentration, Taq polymerase activation time, magne...

  5. [Application of three-dimensional digital technology in the diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y X

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional(3D)digital technology has been widely used in the field of orthodontics in clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment and curative effect evaluation. 3D digital technology greatly improves the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment, and provides effective means for personalized orthodontic treatment. This review focuses on the application of 3D digital technology in the field of orthodontics.

  6. Disinfection of Water by Ultrasound: Application to Ballast Water Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brizzolara, Robert A; Holm, Eric R; Stamper, David M

    2006-01-01

    .... A contact time for one log kill of an E. coli pure culture of 0.6 minutes was measured when using higher average intensities resulting from reduced treatment cell diameters, a substantial improvement over previous work...

  7. [Application of enzymes for treatment of patients with hypertrophic cicatrices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, B A; Turkovskiĭ, I I; Bondarev, S V

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of 27 patients by electrophoresis with preparation "Polycollagenase K" was analyzed and it was shown that it gave positive results according to complex assessment by the scale developed by the authors.

  8. Telemedicine in radiotherapy treatment planning: requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.R.; Bruland, O.S.; Davis, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    Telemedicine facilitates decentralized radiotherapy services by allowing remote treatment planning and quality assurance of treatment delivery. A prerequisite is digital storage of relevant data and an efficient and reliable telecommunication system between satellite units and the main radiotherapy clinic. The requirements of a telemedicine system in radiotherapy is influenced by the level of support needed. In this paper we differentiate between three categories of telemedicine support in radiotherapy. Level 1 features video conferencing and display of radiotherapy images and dose plans. Level 2 involves replication of selected data from the radiotherapy database - facilitating remote treatment planning and evaluation. Level 3 includes real-time, remote operations, e.g. target volume delineation and treatment planning performed by the team at the satellite unit under supervision and guidance from more experienced colleagues at the main clinic. (author)

  9. Are patients at risk for psychological maladjustment during fertility treatment less willing to comply with treatment? Results from the Portuguese validation of the SCREENIVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, V; Canavarro, M C; Verhaak, C M; Boivin, J; Gameiro, S

    2014-02-01

    with lower compliance intentions for patients with higher helplessness cognitions (β = -0.33, P = 0.02), but not for patients with lower helplessness cognitions (β = 0.19, P = 0.30). Few men participated and thus only medium-to-large effect sizes could be detected for them. Forty-eight percent of participants were recruited online and this could have resulted in higher rates of patients at risk. The SCREENIVF is not useful to identify patients at risk for non-compliance. However, the clinic staff should be aware that patients who score high on helplessness cognitions and low on acceptance may need additional decisional aid to make autonomous and satisfying decisions about uptake of treatment. The Portuguese version of the SCREENIVF is valid and reliable and can be used with women undergoing any type of fertility treatment. S.G. received a postdoctoral fellowship from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT-SFRH/BPD/63063/2009). There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

  10. Halophyte filters as saline treatment wetlands; Applicators and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gaag, J.J.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Slim, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purification of wastewater rich in nutrients and organic pollutants is essential for the protection of receiving waters and to enable water reuse. This report investigates the possibilities and constraints of constructed wetlands for treatment of slightly saline wastewater from aquaculture systems. As the body of literature for saline treatment wetlands is relatively small, the reports starts with a summary of processes in freshwater systems. It is then explained that these processes are also...

  11. Development and Validation of a Smartphone Heart Rate Acquisition Application for Health Promotion and Wellness Telehealth Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gregoski, Mathew J.; Mueller, Martina; Vertegel, Alexey; Shaporev, Aleksey; Jackson, Brenda B.; Frenzel, Ronja M.; Sprehn, Sara M.; Treiber, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Current generation smartphones' video camera technologies enable photoplethysmographic (PPG) acquisition and heart rate (HR) measurement. The study objective was to develop an Android application and compare HRs derived from a Motorola Droid to electrocardiograph (ECG) and Nonin 9560BT pulse oximeter readings during various movement-free tasks. Materials and Methods. HRs were collected simultaneously from 14 subjects, ages 20 to 58, healthy or with clinical conditions, using the 3 ...

  12. Langmuir probe-based observables for plasma-turbulence code validation and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, Paolo; Theiler, C.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.

    2009-01-01

    The methodology for plasma-turbulence code validation is discussed, with focus on the quantities to use for the simulation-experiment comparison, i.e., the validation observables, and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. The considered validation observables are deduced from Langmuir probe measurements and are ordered into a primacy hierarchy, according to the number of model assumptions and to the combinations of measurements needed to form each of them. The lowest levels of the primacy hierarchy correspond to observables that require the lowest number of model assumptions and measurement combinations, such as the statistical and spectral properties of the ion saturation current time trace, while at the highest levels, quantities such as particle transport are considered. The comparison of the observables at the lowest levels in the hierarchy is more stringent than at the highest levels. Examples of the use of the proposed observables are applied to a specific TORPEX plasma configuration characterized by interchange-driven turbulence.

  13. CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Yassin; Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during steady-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the steady-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

  14. Advanced validation of CFD-FDTD combined method using highly applicable solver for reentry blackout prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    An analysis model of plasma flow and electromagnetic waves around a reentry vehicle for radio frequency blackout prediction during aerodynamic heating was developed in this study. The model was validated based on experimental results from the radio attenuation measurement program. The plasma flow properties, such as electron number density, in the shock layer and wake region were obtained using a newly developed unstructured grid solver that incorporated real gas effect models and could treat thermochemically non-equilibrium flow. To predict the electromagnetic waves in plasma, a frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain method was used. Moreover, the complicated behaviour of electromagnetic waves in the plasma layer during atmospheric reentry was clarified at several altitudes. The prediction performance of the combined model was evaluated with profiles and peak values of the electron number density in the plasma layer. In addition, to validate the models, the signal losses measured during communication with the reentry vehicle were directly compared with the predicted results. Based on the study, it was suggested that the present analysis model accurately predicts the radio frequency blackout and plasma attenuation of electromagnetic waves in plasma in communication. (paper)

  15. Development, validation and application of a device to measure e-cigarette users’ puffing topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony; Slayford, Sandra; Vas, Carl; Gee, Jodie; Costigan, Sandra; Prasad, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly rising popularity and substantial evolution of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the past 5–6 years, how these devices are used by vapers and consumers’ exposure to aerosol emissions need to be understood. We used puffing topography to measure directly product use. We adapted a cigarette puffing topography device for use with e-cigarettes. We performed validation using air and e-cigarette aerosol under multiple regimes. Consumer puffing topography was measured for 60 vapers provided with rechargeable “cig-a-like” or larger button-activated e-cigarettes, to use ad-libitum in two sessions. Under all regimes, air puff volumes were within 1 mL of the target and aerosol volumes within 5 mL for all device types, serving to validate the device. Vapers’ mean puff durations (2.0 s and 2.2 s) were similar with both types of e-cigarette, but mean puff volumes (52.2 mL and 83.0 mL) and mean inter-puff intervals (23.2 s and 29.3 s) differed significantly. The differing data show that product characteristics influence puffing topography and, therefore, the results obtained from a given e-cigarette might not read across to other products. Understanding the factors that affect puffing topography will be important for standardising testing protocols for e-cigarette emissions. PMID:27721496

  16. The negative self-portrayal scale: development, validation, and application to social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, David A; Huyder, Vanessa

    2011-06-01

    The Negative Self-Portrayal Scale (NSPS) is a new questionnaire designed to assess the extent to which individuals are concerned that specific self-attributes they view as being deficient will be exposed to scrutiny and evaluation by critical others in social situations. These concerns have been proposed to drive symptoms of social anxiety and account for individual differences in social fears and avoidance behaviors (Moscovitch, 2009). Here, we introduce the NSPS and examine its factor structure and psychometric properties across two large samples of North American undergraduate students with normally distributed symptoms of social anxiety. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 3-factor solution representing concerns about (a) social competence; (b) physical appearance; and (c) signs of anxiety. The NSPS was found to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, strong convergent validity, and adequate discriminant validity. In addition, NSPS total scores accounted for a significant proportion of unique variance in self-concealment (i.e., safety) behaviors over and above established symptom measures of social interaction anxiety, social performance anxiety, and depression. Results are discussed in relation to theoretical models of social anxiety and the potential utility of the NSPS for both clinical research and practice. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yassin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

    2014-07-14

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during steady-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the steady-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

  18. Reliability and validity of a smartphone pulse rate application for the assessment of resting and elevated pulse rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katy; Graff, Megan; Hedt, Corbin; Simmons, James

    2016-08-01

    Purpose/hypothesis: This study was designed to investigate the test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the standard error of measurement (SEm) of a pulse rate assessment application (Azumio®'s Instant Heart Rate) on both Android® and iOS® (iphone operating system) smartphones as compared to a FT7 Polar® Heart Rate monitor. Number of subjects: 111. Resting (sitting) pulse rate was assessed twice and then the participants were asked to complete a 1-min standing step test and then immediately re-assessed. The smartphone assessors were blinded to their measurements. Test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC 2,1] and 95% confidence interval) for the three tools at rest (time 1/time 2): iOS® (0.76 [0.67-0.83]); Polar® (0.84 [0.78-0.89]); and Android® (0.82 [0.75-0.88]). Concurrent validity at rest time 2 (ICC 2,1) with the Polar® device: IOS® (0.92 [0.88-0.94]) and Android® (0.95 [0.92-0.96]). Concurrent validity post-exercise (time 3) (ICC) with the Polar® device: iOS® (0.90 [0.86-0.93]) and Android® (0.94 [0.91-0.96]). The SEm values for the three devices at rest: iOS® (5.77 beats per minute [BPM]), Polar® (4.56 BPM) and Android® (4.96 BPM). The Android®, iOS®, and Polar® devices showed acceptable test-retest reliability at rest and post-exercise. Both the smartphone platforms demonstrated concurrent validity with the Polar® at rest and post-exercise. The Azumio® Instant Heart Rate application when used by either platform appears to be a reliable and valid tool to assess pulse rate in healthy individuals.

  19. Sewage-based epidemiology in monitoring the use of new psychoactive substances: Validation and application of an analytical method using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Juliet; Covaci, Adrian; Maho, Walid; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Neels, Hugo; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2015-09-01

    Sewage-based epidemiology (SBE) employs the analysis of sewage to detect and quantify drug use within a community. While SBE has been applied repeatedly for the estimation of classical illicit drugs, only few studies investigated new psychoactive substances (NPS). These compounds mimic effects of illicit drugs by introducing slight modifications to chemical structures of controlled illicit drugs. We describe the optimization, validation, and application of an analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of seven NPS in sewage: methoxetamine (MXE), butylone, ethylone, methylone, methiopropamine (MPA), 4-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA), and 4-methoxyamphetamine (PMA). Sample preparation was performed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with Oasis MCX cartridges. The LC separation was done with a HILIC (150 x 3 mm, 5 µm) column which ensured good resolution of the analytes with a total run time of 19 min. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was between 0.5 and 5 ng/L for all compounds. The method was validated by evaluating the following parameters: sensitivity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recoveries and matrix effects. The method was applied on sewage samples collected from sewage treatment plants in Belgium and Switzerland in which all investigated compounds were detected, except MPA and PMA. Furthermore, a consistent presence of MXE has been observed in most of the sewage samples at levels higher than LLOQ. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Implementation of the validation testing in MPPG 5.a "Commissioning and QA of treatment planning dose calculations-megavoltage photon and electron beams".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqmin, Dustin J; Bredfeldt, Jeremy S; Frigo, Sean P; Smilowitz, Jennifer B

    2017-01-01

    The AAPM Medical Physics Practice Guideline (MPPG) 5.a provides concise guidance on the commissioning and QA of beam modeling and dose calculation in radiotherapy treatment planning systems. This work discusses the implementation of the validation testing recommended in MPPG 5.a at two institutions. The two institutions worked collaboratively to create a common set of treatment fields and analysis tools to deliver and analyze the validation tests. This included the development of a novel, open-source software tool to compare scanning water tank measurements to 3D DICOM-RT Dose distributions. Dose calculation algorithms in both Pinnacle and Eclipse were tested with MPPG 5.a to validate the modeling of Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators. The validation process resulted in more than 200 water tank scans and more than 50 point measurements per institution, each of which was compared to a dose calculation from the institution's treatment planning system (TPS). Overall, the validation testing recommended in MPPG 5.a took approximately 79 person-hours for a machine with four photon and five electron energies for a single TPS. Of the 79 person-hours, 26 person-hours required time on the machine, and the remainder involved preparation and analysis. The basic photon, electron, and heterogeneity correction tests were evaluated with the tolerances in MPPG 5.a, and the tolerances were met for all tests. The MPPG 5.a evaluation criteria were used to assess the small field and IMRT/VMAT validation tests. Both institutions found the use of MPPG 5.a to be a valuable resource during the commissioning process. The validation testing in MPPG 5.a showed the strengths and limitations of the TPS models. In addition, the data collected during the validation testing is useful for routine QA of the TPS, validation of software upgrades, and commissioning of new algorithms. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  1. Development of Advanced Verification and Validation Procedures and Tools for the Certification of Learning Systems in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Stephen; Schumann, Johann; Gupta, Pramod; Richard, Michael; Guenther, Kurt; Soares, Fola

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable automatic flight control and vehicle recovery, autonomous flight, and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments. In order for adaptive control systems to be used in safety-critical aerospace applications, they must be proven to be highly safe and reliable. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification and validation must be developed to ensure that control system software failures will not occur. Of central importance in this regard is the need to establish reliable methods that guarantee convergent learning, rapid convergence (learning) rate, and algorithm stability. This paper presents the major problems of adaptive control systems that use learning to improve performance. The paper then presents the major procedures and tools presently developed or currently being developed to enable the verification, validation, and ultimate certification of these adaptive control systems. These technologies include the application of automated program analysis methods, techniques to improve the learning process, analytical methods to verify stability, methods to automatically synthesize code, simulation and test methods, and tools to provide on-line software assurance.

  2. Spinal cord stimulation: Current applications for treatment of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannemreddy, Prasad; Slavin, Konstantin V

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is thought to relieve chronic intractable pain by stimulating nerve fibers in the spinal cord. The resulting impulses in the fibers may inhibit the conduction of pain signals to the brain, according to the pain gate theory proposed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 and the sensation of pain is thus blocked. Although SCS may reduce pain, it will not eliminate it. After a period of concern about safety and efficacy, SCS is now regaining popularity among pain specialists for the treatment of chronic pain. The sympatholytic effect of SCS is one of its most interesting therapeutic properties. This effect is considered responsible for the effectiveness of SCS in peripheral ischemia, and at least some cases of complex regional pain syndrome. The sympatholytic effect has also been considered part of the management of other chronic pain states such as failed back surgery syndrome, phantom pain, diabetic neuropathy, and postherpetic neuralgia. In general, SCS is part of an overall treatment strategy and is used only after the more conservative treatments have failed. The concept of SCS has evolved rapidly following the technological advances that have produced leads with multiple contact electrodes and battery systems. The current prevalence of patients with chronic pain requiring treatment other than conventional medical management has significantly increased and so has been the need for SCS. With the cost benefit analysis showing significant support for SCS, it may be appropriate to offer this as an effective alternative treatment for these patients.

  3. Application of Liposomes in Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Quo Vadis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common treatments for rheumatoid arthritis include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, corticosteroids, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, and some biological agents. However, none of the treatments available is able to achieve the ultimate goal of treatment, that is, drug-free remission. This limitation has shifted the focus of treatment to delivery strategies with an ability to deliver the drugs into the synovial cavity in the proper dosage while mitigating side effects to other tissues. A number of approaches like microemulsions, microspheres, liposomes, microballoons, cocrystals, nanoemulsions, dendrimers, microsponges, and so forth, have been used for intrasynovial delivery of these drugs. Amongst these, liposomes have proven to be very effective for retaining the drug in the synovial cavity by virtue of their size and chemical composition. The fast clearance of intra-synovially administered drugs can be overcome by use of liposomes leading to increased uptake of drugs by the target synovial cells, which in turn reduces the exposure of nontarget sites and eliminates most of the undesirable effects associated with therapy. This review focuses on the use of liposomes in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes data relating to the liposome formulations of various drugs. It also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology.

  4. Biofeedback and neurofeedback application in the treatment of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martic-Biocina, Sanja; Zivoder, Ivana; Kozina, Goran

    2017-09-01

    Biofeedback is a non-invasive method of measurement of physiological functions. Precise instruments measure the slightest changes of different body functions-which are then in a clear and understandable manner shown in the form of feedback. Person gets an insight into what is going on inside the body and thus learns to change the patterns of behavior to improve health and performance. Any changes that are wanted are rewarded, which leads to learning of the new patterns of behavior. Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback which uses electrical activity in the brain. Certain disorders are associated with specific patterns of brain activity, and through neurofeedback it is possible to reduce or even remove symptoms of some disorders. In the treatment of migraine different biofeedback methods- such as breathing, training of vasoconstriction/vasodilatation and neurofeedback, may be applied. This paper will describe the successful treatment of 25 years old girl who suffered for many years from painful migraine. She had in total 25 treatments during which listed biofeedback methods were used. The first part of the treatment was neurofeedback training on the central sensorimotor area, followed by respiration training and at the end by biofeedback training of vasoconstriction/vasodilatation. The final result of the treatment was significant reduce in the frequency of migraine attacks and the pain reduction. Further study, have to be done with more patients and with placebo group to scientifically prove the effectiveness of the method.

  5. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO2 emissions : Application and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, S. W. L.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    The C-14 method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO2 emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO2 samples that have been sampled in I-h intervals at

  6. Treatment of chemical waste piassava for application in polymeric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Carvalho, G.G.P.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Piassava fibers were investigated with the aim of adding new business value. The surface of the fibers were treated with NaOH and H 2 SO 4 for 1 h at room temperature. The samples were characterized by FTIR, TGA, DSC, chemical composition, XRD, SEM and tensile tests. The micrographs of the fibers showed that treatment with NaOH cleaned the fiber surface of a large amount of impurities and cause fibrillation. Chemical analysis, using the Van Soest method, showed that the palm fiber is a fiber rich in lignin, as evidenced by their brown color and with alkali treatment there was partial removal of hemicellulose and lignin, increasing the crystallinity index of the fiber, observed by XRD. The acid treatment caused no significant changes in the properties of the fiber. Therefore, the mercerisation was efficient in the fiber of palm fiber, improving their properties, enabling thus their use as reinforcement in polymer composites. (author)

  7. Nanotechnology and HIV: potential applications for treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter S; Read, Sarah W

    2010-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic and is the leading infectious cause of death among adults. Although antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has dramatically improved the quality of life and increased the life expectancy of those infected with HIV, life-long suppressive treatment is required and a cure for HIV infection remains elusive; frequency of dosing and drug toxicity as well as the development of viral resistance pose additional limitations. Furthermore, preventative measures such as a vaccine or microbicide are urgently needed to curb the rate of new infections. The capabilities inherent to nanotechnology hold much potential for impact in the field of HIV treatment and prevention. This article reviews the potential for the multidisciplinary field of nanotechnology to advance the fields of HIV treatment and prevention. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Validation and application of an improved method for the rapid determination of proline in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienth, Markus; Romieu, Charles; Gregan, Rebecca; Walsh, Caroline; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T

    2014-04-16

    A rapid and sensitive method is presented for the determination of proline in grape berries. Following acidification with formic acid, proline is derivatized by heating at 100 °C for 15 min with 3% ninhydrin in dimethyl sulfoxide, and the absorbance, which is stable for at least 60 min, is read at 520 nm. The method was statistically validated in the concentration range from 2.5 to 15 mg/L, giving a repeatability and intermediate precision of generally amino acid analyzer. In terms of sample preparation, a simple dilution (5-20-fold) is required, and sugars, primary amino acids, and anthocyanins were demonstrated not to interfere, as the latter are bleached by ninhydrin under the experimental conditions. The method was applied to the study of proline accumulation in the fruits of microvines grown in phytotrons, and it was established that proline accumulation and concentrations closely resemble those of field-grown macrovines.

  9. A validated HPTLC method for determination of terbutaline sulfate in biological samples: Application to pharmacokinetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Faiyazuddin, Md.; Rauf, Abdul; Ahmad, Niyaz; Ahmad, Sayeed; Iqbal, Zeenat; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Khar, Roop K.; Ahmad, Farhan J.

    2011-01-01

    Terbutaline sulfate (TBS) was assayed in biological samples by validated HPTLC method. Densitometric analysis of TBS was carried out at 366 nm on precoated TLC aluminum plates with silica gel 60F254 as a stationary phase and chloroform–methanol (9.0:1.0, v/v) as a mobile phase. TBS was well resolved at RF 0.34 ± 0.02. In all matrices, the calibration curve appeared linear (r2 ⩾ 0.9943) in the tested range of 100–1000 ng spot−1 with a limit of quantification of 18.35 ng spot−1. Drug recovery f...

  10. OSL surface exposure dating of a lithic quarry in Tibet: Laboratory validation and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliganic, L.A.; Meyer, M.C.; Sohbati, R.

    2018-01-01

    developed OSL Surface exposure dating technique (OSL-Surf) to date flake scars at lithic quarry sites. We performed the first quantitative validation of the model describing the OSL-Surf dating technique using a controlled laboratory experiment. Our results show that longer laboratory bleaching durations......-depth profile that could be used to calibrate the model to estimate the exposure duration of a flake scar associated with human exploitation of the area. Finally, we observe that the μ parameter of the OSL-Surf model varies considerably between the laboratory-bleached and two naturally daylight-bleached...... datasets, despite having identical lithologies. We thus infer that, in addition to lithological controls, the μ parameter is primarily sensitive to the daylight irradiation geometry and only weakly dependent on spectrum of the incident light; this interpretation implies a narrow effective bleaching...

  11. Application and validation of the notch master curve in medium and high strength structural steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, Sergio; Garcia, Tiberio [Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Madrazo, Virginia [PCTCAN, Santander (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    This paper applies and validates the Notch master curve in two ferritic steels with medium (steel S460M) and high (steel S690Q) strength. The Notch master curve is an engineering tool that allows the fracture resistance of notched ferritic steels operating within their corresponding ductile-to-brittle transition zone to be estimated. It combines the Master curve and the Theory of critical distances in order to take into account the temperature and the notch effect respectively, assuming that both effects are independent. The results, derived from 168 fracture tests on notched specimens, demonstrate the capability of the Notch master curve for the prediction of the fracture resistance of medium and high strength ferritic steels operating within their ductile-to-brittle transition zone and containing notches.

  12. Evaluating the Validity and Applicability of Automated Essay Scoring in Two Massive Open Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Dawna Reilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of massive open online courses (MOOCs to expand students’ access to higher education has raised questions regarding the extent to which this course model can provide and assess authentic, higher level student learning. In response to this need, MOOC platforms have begun utilizing automated essay scoring (AES systems that allow students to engage in critical writing and free-response activities. However, there is a lack of research investigating the validity of such systems in MOOCs. This research examined the effectiveness of an AES tool to score writing assignments in two MOOCs. Results indicated that some significant differences existed between Instructor grading, AES-Holistic scores, and AES-Rubric Total scores within two MOOC courses. However, use of the AES system may still be useful given instructors’ assessment needs and intent. Findings from this research have implications for instructional technology administrators, educational designers, and instructors implementing AES learning activities in MOOC courses.

  13. Clinical Application of Neuroplastic Brain Research in Eating Disorder Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail H. Natenshon

    2016-12-01

    Neurophysiological and psychophysiological treatment interventions, by carving new neuronal pathways and creating connectivity that augments brain circuitry, carry the potential to remediate body image and self-image distortions, reintegrating the fragmented eating disordered core self. To date, intentional partnering between therapist, ED patient, and neuroplastic brain has been rarely applied in the clinical milieu and minimally referenced in the treatment literature. By bringing current neuroplasticity research into frontline practice, ED practitioners not only bridge the research/practice gap, but redefine new directions for future ED research.

  14. Electron beam application in gas waste treatment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haifeng

    2003-01-01

    In the most recent decade, electron beam waste treatment technology attracted serious attention from environment policymaker and industrial leaders in power industry in China. Starting in middle of 1980's, Chinese research institute began experiment of electron beam treatment on flue gas. By the end of 2000, two 10,000 cubic meters per hour small scale electron beam gas purifying station were established in Sichuang province and Beijing. Several electron beam gas purifying demonstration projects are under construction. With robust economy and strong energy demand, needless to say, in near future, electron beam gas purifying technology will have a bright prospect in China. (author)

  15. Open source deformable image registration system for treatment planning and recurrence CT scans. Validation in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukauskaite, Ruta; Brink, Carsten; Hansen, Christian Roenn; Bertelsen, Anders; Johansen, Joergen; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Grau, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Clinical application of deformable registration (DIR) of medical images remains limited due to sparse validation of DIR methods in specific situations, e. g. in case of cancer recurrences. In this study the accuracy of DIR for registration of planning CT (pCT) and recurrence CT (rCT) images of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients was evaluated. Twenty patients treated with definitive IMRT for HNSCC in 2010-2012 were included. For each patient, a pCT and an rCT scan were used. Median interval between the scans was 8.5 months. One observer manually contoured eight anatomical regions-of-interest (ROI) twice on pCT and once on rCT. pCT and rCT images were deformably registered using the open source software elastix. Mean surface distance (MSD) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) between contours were used for validation of DIR. A measure for delineation uncertainty was estimated by assessing MSD from the re-delineations of the same ROI on pCT. DIR and manual contouring uncertainties were correlated with tissue volume and rigidity. MSD varied 1-3 mm for different ROIs for DIR and 1-1.5 mm for re-delineated ROIs performed on pCT. DSC for DIR varied between 0.58 and 0.79 for soft tissues and was 0.79 or higher for bony structures, and correlated with the volumes of ROIs (r = 0.5, p < 0.001) and tissue rigidity (r = 0.54, p < 0.001). DIR using elastix in HNSCC on planning and recurrence CT scans is feasible; an uncertainty of the method is close to the voxel size length of the planning CT images. (orig.) [de

  16. Open source deformable image registration system for treatment planning and recurrence CT scans : Validation in the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukauskaite, Ruta; Brink, Carsten; Hansen, Christian Rønn; Bertelsen, Anders; Johansen, Jørgen; Grau, Cai; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2016-08-01

    Clinical application of deformable registration (DIR) of medical images remains limited due to sparse validation of DIR methods in specific situations, e. g. in case of cancer recurrences. In this study the accuracy of DIR for registration of planning CT (pCT) and recurrence CT (rCT) images of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients was evaluated. Twenty patients treated with definitive IMRT for HNSCC in 2010-2012 were included. For each patient, a pCT and an rCT scan were used. Median interval between the scans was 8.5 months. One observer manually contoured eight anatomical regions-of-interest (ROI) twice on pCT and once on rCT. pCT and rCT images were deformably registered using the open source software elastix. Mean surface distance (MSD) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) between contours were used for validation of DIR. A measure for delineation uncertainty was estimated by assessing MSD from the re-delineations of the same ROI on pCT. DIR and manual contouring uncertainties were correlated with tissue volume and rigidity. MSD varied 1-3 mm for different ROIs for DIR and 1-1.5 mm for re-delineated ROIs performed on pCT. DSC for DIR varied between 0.58 and 0.79 for soft tissues and was 0.79 or higher for bony structures, and correlated with the volumes of ROIs (r = 0.5, p elastix in HNSCC on planning and recurrence CT scans is feasible; an uncertainty of the method is close to the voxel size length of the planning CT images.

  17. Analytical and numerical study of validation test-cases for multi-physic problems: application to magneto-hydro-dynamic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cébron

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the numerical simulation of Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD problems with industrial tools. MHD has receivedattention some twenty to thirty years ago as a possible alternative inpropulsion applications; MHD propelled ships have even been designed forthat purpose. However, such propulsion systems have been proved of lowefficiency and fundamental researches in the area have progressivelyreceived much less attention over the past decades. Numerical simulationof MHD problem could however provide interesting solutions in the field ofturbulent flow control. The development of recent efficient numericaltechniques for multi-physic applications provide promising tool for theengineer for that purpose. In the present paper, some elementary testcases in laminar flow with magnetic forcing terms are analysed; equationsof the coupled problem are exposed, analytical solutions are derived ineach case and are compared to numerical solutions obtained with anumerical tool for multi-physic applications. The present work can be seenas a validation of numerical tools (based on the finite element method foracademic as well as industrial application purposes.

  18. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that

  19. Validation of the DNATyper™15 PCR Genotyping System for Forensic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the optimization and validation of the DNATyper™15 multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR genotyping system for autosomal short tandem repeat (STR amplification at 14 autosomal loci (D6S1043, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D2S1338, D3S1358, D13S317, D8S1179, D16S539, Penta E, D5S818, vWA, D18S51, and FGA and  amelogenin, a sex-determining locus. Several DNATyper™15 assay variables were optimized, including hot start Taq polymerase concentration, Taq polymerase activation time, magnesium concentration, primer concentration, annealing temperature, reaction volume, and cycle number. The performance of the assay was validated with respect to species specificity, sensitivity to template concentration, stability, accuracy, influence of the DNA extraction methods, and the ability to genotype the mixture samples. The performance of the DNATyper™15 system on casework samples was compared with that of two widely used STR amplification kits, Identifiler™ (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA, USA and PowerPlex 16 ® (Promega, Madison, WI, USA. The conditions for PCR-based DNATyper™15 genotyping were optimized. Contamination from forensically relevant nonhuman DNA was not found to impact genotyping results, and full profiles were generated for all the reactions containing ≥ 0.125 ng of DNA template. No significant difference in performance was observed even after the DNATyper™15 assay components were subjected to 20 freeze-thaw cycles. The performances of DNATyper™15, Identifiler™, and PowerPlex 16 ® were comparable in terms of sensitivity and the ability to genotype the mixed samples and case-type samples, with the assays giving the same genotyping results for all the shared loci. The DNA extraction methods did not affect the performance of any of the systems. Our results demonstrate that the DNATyper™15 system is suitable for genotyping in both forensic DNA database work and case-type samples.

  20. Partial Treatment Requests and Underlying Motives of Applicants for Gender Affirming Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Titia F; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Steensma, Thomas D

    2015-11-01

    Historically, only individuals with a cross-gender identity who wanted to receive a full treatment, were eligible for "complete sex reassignment" consisting of feminizing/masculinizing hormone treatment and several surgical interventions including genital surgery (full treatment). Currently, it is unclear what motives underlie a request for hormones only or surgery only or a combination of hormones and surgery (e.g., a mastectomy), but no genital surgery (partial treatment). The aims of this study were (i) to describe treatment requests of applicants at a specialized gender identity clinic in the Netherlands; and (ii) to explore the motives underlying a partial treatment request, including the role of (non-binary) gender identity. Information was collected on all 386 adults who applied for treatment at the Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria of the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in the year 2013. Treatment requests were available for 360 individuals: 233 natal men (64.7%) and 127 natal women (35.3%). Treatment requests were systematically collected during assessment. Individuals were classified as either desiring a full or partial treatment. The motives behind a partial treatment request were collected and categorized as well. The majority of applicants at our gender identity clinic requested full treatment. Among those who requested partial treatment, the most reported underlying motive was surgical risks/outcomes. Only a small number of applicants requested partial treatment to bring their body into alignment with their non-binary gender identity. It becomes clear that partial treatment is requested by a substantial number of applicants. This emphasizes the need for gender identity clinics to provide information about the medical possibilities and limitations, and careful introduction and evaluation of non-standard treatment options. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Xiao-xia; WANG Bo; MENG De-tao

    2005-01-01

    Current applications of artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are summarized. Wastewater treatment plants use expert system mainly in the operation decision-making and fault diagnosis of system operation, use artificial neuron network for system modeling, water quality forecast and soft measure, and use fuzzy control technology for the intelligence control of wastewater treatment process. Finally, the main problems in applying artificial intelligence technology to wastewater treatment in China are analyzed.

  2. Multi-functional micromotor: microfluidic fabrication and water treatment application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anqi; Ge, Xue-Hui; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Liyuan; Xu, Jian-Hong

    2017-12-05

    Micromotors are important for a wide variety of applications. Here, we develop a microfluidic approach for one-step fabrication of a Janus self-propelled micromotor with multiple functions. By fine tuning the fabrication parameters and loading functional nanoparticles, our micromotor reaches a high speed and achieves an oriented function to promote the water purification efficiency and recycling process.

  3. Dosimetric properties of a novel brachytherapy balloon applicator for the treatment of malignant brain-tumor resection-cavity margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, James F.; Williams, Jeffery A.; Stubbs, James B.; Patrick, Timothy J.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: This paper characterizes the dosimetric properties of a novel balloon brachytherapy applicator for the treatment of the tissue surrounding the resection cavity of a malignant brain tumor. Methods and Materials: The applicator consists of an inflatable silicone balloon reservoir attached to a positionable catheter that is intraoperatively implanted into the resection cavity and postoperatively filled with a liquid radionuclide solution. A simple dosimetric model, valid in homogeneous media and based on results from Monte Carlo photon-transport simulations, was used to determine the dosimetric characteristics of spherical geometry balloons filled with photon-emitting radionuclide solutions. Fractional depth-dose (FDD) profiles, along with activity densities, and total activities needed to achieve specified dose rates were studied as a function of photon energy and source-containment geometry. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were calculated to compare idealized balloon-applicator treatments to conventional 125 I seed volume implants. Results: For achievable activity densities and total activities, classical low dose rate (LDR) treatments of residual disease at distances of up to 1 cm from the resection cavity wall are possible with balloon applicators having radii between 0.5 cm and 2.5 cm. The dose penetration of these applicators increases approximately linearly with balloon radius. The FDD profile can be made significantly more or less penetrating by combining selection of radionuclide with source-geometry manipulation. Comparisons with 125 I seed-implant DVHs show that the applicator can provide a more conformal therapy with no target tissue underdosing, less target tissue overdosing, and no healthy tissue ''hot spots;'' however, more healthy tissue volume receives a dose of the prescribed dosage or less. Conclusions: This device, when filled with 125 I solution, is suitable for classical LDR treatments and may be preferable to 125 I interstitial

  4. TAPWAT: Definition structure and applications for modelling drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; Gaalen FW van; Rietveld LC; Evers EG; Aldenberg TA; Cleij P; Technische Universiteit Delft; LWD

    2001-01-01

    The 'Tool for the Analysis of the Production of drinking WATer' (TAPWAT) model has been developed for describing drinking-water quality in integral studies in the context of the Environmental Policy Assessment of the RIVM. The model consists of modules that represent individual steps in a treatment

  5. Hadron-therapy: applications of accelerator technologies to tumour treatments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    In the second part the technologies of dose delivery are described emphasising the main challenges of modern radiotherapy, in particular the treatment of moving organs. In this framework the properties of the beams produced by conventional accelerators (cyclotrons and synchrotrons) are compared with the ones due to two novel approaches based on fast cycling machines, as FFAGs and cyclinacs.

  6. Application of Ethics, Justice and Fair Treatment in Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper observed that ethics and fair treatment play important roles in managing employees at work. The paper also noticed that moral awareness, the managers themselves, moral engagement, morality, unmet goals, and rewards all influence ethical behaviour. The paper further recommended that employees. fair ...

  7. Application of microjet in heat treatment of aluminium bronzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Górny

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of a CuAl10Fe4Ni4 bronze subjected to solution heat treatment and toughening were examined. In solution heattreatment, a microjet was used to raise the cooling rate. A slight increase of mechanical properties was observed.

  8. The applicability of nanofiltration for the treatment and reuse of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of the study was to test the feasibility of using nanofiltration (NF) processes for the treatment of reactive dyebath effluents from the textile industry, in order to recover the water and chemicals (salts) for reuse purposes. The study of the reusability of nanofiltered water for dyeing has been given little or no ...

  9. 40 CFR 268.40 - Applicability of treatment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment sludges, spent catalysts, and wastes listed in § 261.31 or § 261.32). All F024 wastes2-Chloro-1,3.../water/solids separation sludge—Any sludge generated from the gravitational separation of oil/water... refineries. Such sludges include, but are not limited to, those generated in: oil/water/solids separators...

  10. Chemical treatment of radioactive liquid wastes from medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo A, J.

    1995-01-01

    This work is a study about the treatment of the most important radioactive liquid wastes from medical usages, generated in medical institutions with nuclear medicine services. The radionuclides take in account are 32 P, 35 S, 125 I. The treatments developed and improved were specific chemical precipitations for each one of the radionuclides. This work involve to precipitate the radionuclide from the liquid waste, making a chemical compound insoluble in the aqueous phase, for this process the radionuclide stay in the precipitate, lifting the aqueous phase with a very low activity than the begin. The 32 P precipitated in form of Ca 3 32 P O 4 and Ca 2 H 32 P O 4 with a value for Decontamination Factor (DF) at the end of the treatment of 32. The 35 S was precipitated in form of Ba 35 SO 4 with a DF of 26. The 125 I was precipitated in Cu 125 I to obtain a DF of 24. The results of the treatments are between the limits given for the International Atomic Energy Agency and the 10 Code of Federal Regulation 20, for the safety release at the environment. (Author)

  11. Application of macrophytes as biosorbents for radioactive liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste as any other type of waste should be treated and disposed adequately. It is necessary to consider its physical, chemical and radiological characteristics for choosing the appropriate action for the treatment and final disposal. Many treatment techniques currently used are economically costly, often invalidating its use and favoring the study of other treatment techniques. One of these techniques is biosorption, which demonstrates high potential when applied to radioactive waste. This technology uses materials of biological origin for removing metals. Among potential biosorbents found, macrophyte aquatics are useful because they may remove uranium present in the liquid radioactive waste at low cost. This study aims to evaluate the biosorption capacity of macrophyte aquatics Pistia stratiotes, Limnobium laevigatum, Lemna sp and Azolla sp in the treatment of liquid radioactive waste. This study was divided into two stages, the first one is characterization and preparation of biosorption and the other is tests, carried out with uranium solutions and real samples. The biomass was tested in its raw form and biosorption assays were performed in polypropylene vials containing 10 ml of solution of uranium or 10ml of radioactive waste and 0.20g of biomass. The behavior of biomass was evaluated by sorption kinetics and isotherm models. The highest sorption capacities found was 162.1 mg / g for the macrophyte Lemna sp and 161.8 mg / g for the Azolla sp. The equilibrium times obtained were 1 hour for Lemna sp, and 30 minutes for Azolla sp. With the real waste, the macrophyte Azolla sp presented a sorption capacity of 2.6 mg / g. These results suggest that Azolla sp has a larger capacity of biosorption, therefore it is more suitable for more detailed studies of treatment of liquid radioactive waste. (author)

  12. On Line Validation Exercise (OLIVE: A Web Based Service for the Validation of Medium Resolution Land Products. Application to FAPAR Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Weiss

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The OLIVE (On Line Interactive Validation Exercise platform is dedicated to the validation of global biophysical products such as LAI (Leaf Area Index and FAPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation. It was developed under the framework of the CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Land Product Validation (LPV sub-group. OLIVE has three main objectives: (i to provide a consistent and centralized information on the definition of the biophysical variables, as well as a description of the main available products and their performances (ii to provide transparency and traceability by an online validation procedure compliant with the CEOS LPV and QA4EO (Quality Assurance for Earth Observation recommendations (iii and finally, to provide a tool to benchmark new products, update product validation results and host new ground measurement sites for accuracy assessment. The functionalities and algorithms of OLIVE are described to provide full transparency of its procedures to the community. The validation process and typical results are illustrated for three FAPAR products: GEOV1 (VEGETATION sensor, MGVIo (MERIS sensor and MODIS collection 5 FPAR. OLIVE is available on the European Space Agency CAL/VAL portal, including full documentation, validation exercise results, and product extracts.

  13. Ocean model system for radionuclides - validation and application to the Rokkasho coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    Coastal areas have complex environmental systems and often a high influence from the atmosphere, rivers and the open sea. A nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan releases liquid radioactive waste from a discharge pipe to such a complex coastal area. Consequently, the development of radionuclide migration forecast system in the ocean plays an important rule for assessing the behavior of radionuclides in the coastal area. The development of ocean model systems will be presented and model application will also be described. (author)

  14. [Domestic external fixator application in the treatment of limb deformities: 7 289 cases application report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, S H; Guo, B F; Zheng, X J; Jiao, S F; Xia, H T; Peng, A M; Pan, Q; Zang, J C; Wang, Z J

    2017-09-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical application and effects of domestic external fixator in the treatment of patients with malformations of limbs. Methods: A total of 7 289 patients with malformation of limbs who had been operated in Qin Sihe orthopedic surgery team from January 1989 to June 2016 were retrospective analyzed. The patients were treated with domestic external fixator, including 4 033 males and 3 256 females, aging from 2 to 82 years with a mean age of 23.4 years. There were 2 732 patients using Ilizarov external fixator, 4 713 patients using hybrid external fixator, 57 patients using monobrachial external fixator, 232 patients using Ilizarov external fixator and hybrid external fixator. The Ilizarov, hybrid and monobrachial external fixator were used in 67, 65 and 0 patients on the upper limbs and in 2 665, 4 616 and 57 patients on the lower limbs. There were 3 028 patients operated on the left limbs, 3 260 patients operated on the right limbs and 1 001 patients operated on the bilateral limbs. The top three types of diseases were sequelae of poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy and post-traumatic stress disorder peromely. Deformity types inclued talipes equinovarus, knee flexion deformity, cavus foot and so on. Results: All the patients were followed up for a period of 2.5 months to 22.4 years, with an average follow-up time of 5.4 years. All of the external fixators were used for single once, and there was no substitute for external fixator quality problem. All the patients were completed surgery goal until removing external fixation except 1 patient gave up treatment and 1 removed the fixator because of metal allergy. The common complications included wire or pin infection and joint movement limitation and so on. Conclusions: The domestic external fixator developed and produced based on the characteristics of Chinese limb deformity disability. The domestic external fixator can be used to treat kinds of limb deformities with the advantages of practical

  15. Method development and validation of liquid chromatography-tandem/mass spectrometry for aldosterone in human plasma: Application to drug interaction study of atorvastatin and olmesartan combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of aldosterone (ALD a hormone responsible for blood pressure in human plasma. The developed method was validated and extended for application on human subjects to study drug interaction of atorvastatin (ATSV and olmesartan (OLM on levels of ALD. The ALD in plasma was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with 5 mL dichloromethane/ethyl ether (60/40% v/v. The chromatographic separation of ALD was carried on Xterra, RP-Column C18 (150 mm× 4.6 mm × 3.5 μm at 30°C followed by four-step gradient program composed of methanol and water. Step 1 started with 35% methanol for first 1 min and changed linearly to 90% in next 1.5 min in Step 2. Step 3 lasted for next 2 min with 90% methanol. The method finally concluded with Step 4 to achieve initial concentration of methanol that is, 35% thus contributing the total method run time of 17.5 min. The flow rate was 0.25 mL/min throughout the process. The developed method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, stability, linearity, sensitivity, and recovery. The method was linear and found to be acceptable over the range of 50-800 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied for the drug interaction study of ATSV + OLM in combination against OLM treatment on blood pressure by quantifying changes in levels of ALD in hypertensive patients. The study revealed levels of ALD were significantly higher in ATSV + OLM treatment condition when compared to OLM as single treated condition. This reflects the reason of low effectiveness of ATSV + OLM in combination instead of synergistic activity.

  16. Validating carbonation parameters of alkaline solid wastes via integrated thermal analyses: Principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10673, Taiwan (China); Chang, E.-E. [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Kim, Hyunook [Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Yi-Hung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Pen-Chi, E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10673, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Key carbonation parameters of wastes are determined by integrated thermal analyses. • A modified TG-DTG interpretation is proposed, and validated by the DSC technique. • The modified TG-DTG interpretation is further verified by DTA, TG-MS and TG-FTIR. • Kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO{sub 3} decomposition in solid wastes are determined. • Implication to maximum carbonation conversion of various solid wastes is described. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline solid wastes is an attractive method for CO{sub 2} capture and utilization. However, the evaluation criteria of CaCO{sub 3} content in solid wastes and the way to interpret thermal analysis profiles were found to be quite different among the literature. In this investigation, an integrated thermal analyses for determining carbonation parameters in basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were proposed based on thermogravimetric (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. A modified method of TG-DTG interpretation was proposed by considering the consecutive weight loss of sample with 200–900 °C because the decomposition of various hydrated compounds caused variances in estimates by using conventional methods of TG interpretation. Different quantities of reference CaCO{sub 3} standards, carbonated BOFS samples and synthetic CaCO{sub 3}/BOFS mixtures were prepared for evaluating the data quality of the modified TG-DTG interpretation, in terms of precision and accuracy. The quantitative results of the modified TG-DTG method were also validated by DSC analysis. In addition, to confirm the TG-DTG results, the evolved gas analysis was performed by mass spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for detection of the gaseous compounds released during heating. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO{sub 3} in BOFS was evaluated using Arrhenius equation and Kissinger equation. The proposed

  17. Development and validation of an n-dodecane skeletal mechanism for spray combustion applications

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhaoyu

    2014-03-04

    n-Dodecane is a promising surrogate fuel for diesel engine study because its physicochemical properties are similar to those of the practical diesel fuels. In the present study, a skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane with 105 species and 420 reactions was developed for spray combustion simulations. The reduction starts from the most recent detailed mechanism for n-alkanes consisting of 2755 species and 11,173 reactions developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. An algorithm combining direct relation graph with expert knowledge (DRGX) and sensitivity analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The skeletal mechanism was first extensively validated in 0-D and 1-D combustion systems, including auto-ignition, jet stirred reactor (JSR), laminar premixed flame and counter flow diffusion flame. Then it was coupled with well-established spray models and further validated in 3-D turbulent spray combustion simulations under engine-like conditions. These simulations were compared with the recent experiments with n-dodecane as a surrogate for diesel fuels. It can be seen that combustion characteristics such as ignition delay and flame lift-off length were well captured by the skeletal mechanism, particularly under conditions with high ambient temperatures. Simulations also captured the transient flame development phenomenon fairly well. The results further show that ignition delay may not be the only factor controlling the stabilisation of the present flames since a good match in ignition delay does not necessarily result in improved flame lift-off length prediction. The work of Zhaoyu Luo, Sibendu Som, Max Plomer, William J. Pitz, Douglas E. Longman and Tianfeng Lu was authored as part of their official duties as Employees of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 USC. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under US Law. S. Mani Sarathy hereby waives his right to

  18. Validating carbonation parameters of alkaline solid wastes via integrated thermal analyses: Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chang, E.-E.; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Key carbonation parameters of wastes are determined by integrated thermal analyses. • A modified TG-DTG interpretation is proposed, and validated by the DSC technique. • The modified TG-DTG interpretation is further verified by DTA, TG-MS and TG-FTIR. • Kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO 3 decomposition in solid wastes are determined. • Implication to maximum carbonation conversion of various solid wastes is described. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline solid wastes is an attractive method for CO 2 capture and utilization. However, the evaluation criteria of CaCO 3 content in solid wastes and the way to interpret thermal analysis profiles were found to be quite different among the literature. In this investigation, an integrated thermal analyses for determining carbonation parameters in basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were proposed based on thermogravimetric (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. A modified method of TG-DTG interpretation was proposed by considering the consecutive weight loss of sample with 200–900 °C because the decomposition of various hydrated compounds caused variances in estimates by using conventional methods of TG interpretation. Different quantities of reference CaCO 3 standards, carbonated BOFS samples and synthetic CaCO 3 /BOFS mixtures were prepared for evaluating the data quality of the modified TG-DTG interpretation, in terms of precision and accuracy. The quantitative results of the modified TG-DTG method were also validated by DSC analysis. In addition, to confirm the TG-DTG results, the evolved gas analysis was performed by mass spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for detection of the gaseous compounds released during heating. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO 3 in BOFS was evaluated using Arrhenius equation and Kissinger equation. The proposed integrated thermal analyses for

  19. MEVA--An Interactive Visualization Application for Validation of Multifaceted Meteorological Data with Multiple 3D Devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Helbig

    differences between simulation runs. In an iterative development process, our easy-to-use application was developed in close cooperation with meteorologists and visualization experts. The usability of the application has been validated with user tests. We report on how this application supports the users to prove and disprove existing hypotheses and discover new insights. In addition, the application has been used at public events to communicate research results.

  20. Human applications of the INEL patient treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, F.; Wessol, D.; Atkinson, C.; Nigg, D.

    1995-01-01

    During the past few years, murine and large animal research, as well as human studies have provided data to the point where human clinical trials have been initiated at the BMRR using BPA-F for gliomas and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR) using BPA for melanomas of the extremeties. It is expected that glioma trials using BSH will proceed soon at the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR) in the Netherlands. The first human glioma epithermal boron neutron capture therapy application was performed at the BMRR in the fall of 1994. This was a collaborative effort by BNL, Beth Israel Manhattan hospital, and INEL. The INEL planning system was chosen to perform dose predictions for this application

  1. Main trends of radiation application for food stuff treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The methods of radiation treatment of food stuff using γ, X-rays and electrons are presented. Radiation doses of various products permitted by the Expert Committee of WHO and other international organizations are presented. The problem of grain disinfestation permitted irradiation doses are in the interval between 50 and 100 krad is stiudied. The harmless effect of these doses for products is shown. The experience of raw fish, fish products, raw meat, meat and vegetable products radappertization is reviewed. The intensification of technological processes of food production using radiation treatment is also considered. The advantages and disadvantages of radiation devices with different radiation sources are shown. It is shown that the choice of this or that type should be primarily determined by the parameter of irradiated objects, the periodicity of their coming to the device and conditions of treating these objects [ru

  2. The application of nanotechnology in medicine: treatment and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Andrew; Dufès, Christine; Moscatelli, Davide; Mayes, Eric; Lovell, Jonathan F; Katti, Kattesh V; Sokolov, Konstantin; Mazza, Mariarosa; Fontaine, Olivier; Rannard, Steve; Stone, Vicki

    2014-07-01

    Nanomedicine 2014 Edinburgh, UK, 26-27 March 2014 The British Society for Nanomedicine (BSNM), in collaboration with SELECTBIO, organized Nanomedicine 2014. BSNM is a registered charity created to allow open access for industry, academia, clinicians and the public to news and details of ongoing nanomedicine research. The Nanomedicine 2014 program provided insight across a number of emerging nanotechnologies spanning treatment to diagnostics. A key objective of the meeting was provision of opportunities to build collaborations and rationalize nanoenabled healthcare solutions.

  3. Application of a dummy eye shield for electron treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Park, Soah; Hwang, Taejin; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Oh, Do Hoon; Bae, Hoonsik

    2013-01-01

    Metallic eye shields have been widely used for near-eye treatments to protect critical regions, but have never been incorporated into treatment plans because of the unwanted appearance of the metal artifacts on CT images. The purpose of this work was to test the use of an acrylic dummy eye shield as a substitute for a metallic eye shield during CT scans. An acrylic dummy shield of the same size as the tungsten eye shield was machined and CT scanned. The BEAMnrc and the DOSXYZnrc were used for the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, with the appropriate material information and density for the aluminum cover, steel knob and tungsten body of the eye shield. The Pinnacle adopting the Hogstrom electron pencil-beam algorithm was used for the one-port 6-MeV beam plan after delineation and density override of the metallic parts. The results were confirmed with the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors and the Gafchromic EBT2 film measurements. For both the maximum eyelid dose over the shield and the maximum dose under the shield, the MC results agreed with the EBT2 measurements within 1.7%. For the Pinnacle plan, the maximum dose under the shield agreed with the MC within 0.3%; however, the eyelid dose differed by -19.3%. The adoption of the acrylic dummy eye shield was successful for the treatment plan. However, the Pinnacle pencil-beam algorithm was not sufficient to predict the eyelid dose on the tungsten shield, and more accurate algorithms like MC should be considered for a treatment plan. (author)

  4. Neurofeedback application in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivoder, Ivana; Martic-Biocina, Sanja; Kosic, Ana Vodanovic; Bosak, Josipa

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe neurofeedback (NFB) treatment in Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) children. There is no specific cure for autism and therapeutic guidelines are directed to improve the quality of life of people with autism by reducing the symptoms and by increasing their functioning. Neurofeedback is a computerized method based on tracking electrical activity of the brain (EEG) and giving a feedback about it. The method has been developed in neurophysiological labs of scientific institutes in USA and has been used very successfully for over last 20 years. It has proven its efficacy in practise, but also in scientific and clinical research. During 2010 and 2011 neurofeedback treatment was administered to 10 children (N=10, 7 males and 3 females) age range 4 to 7 years which have been diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (highly functional) with an unspecific impairment of speech development and trouble communicating. An evaluation of treatment was done according to estimation of changes in functioning (parents, teachers and therapists' ratings and all other experts that were monitoring the child before, during and after the treatment) and tracking of changes in electrophysiology. The results have shown most changes in behaviour (less aggressive, more cooperation, better communication), attention span and sensory motor skills. According to the assessment of parents, teachers, therapists and other experts all children have accomplished a certain degree of improvement in the level of daily functioning. Our experiences in usage of neurofeedback in Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) children confirmed previous data that this method can be applied to this category of patients.

  5. Application of radiation technology in healthcare: cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a standard treatment used as part of the multimodality treatment of several cancers. It is frequently employed in the role of primary and adjuvant therapy for cancers. Historically, RT planning was guided by fluoroscopic or X-ray imaging that provided two dimensional data to determine areas to be treated by using bony landmarks. Limited soft tissue delineation was sometimes possible, for example, by instilling contrast into the bowel and bladder. Definitive/Radical Chemoradiation in cancers significantly improved the local control and survival even in locally advanced cases, but at the cost of increased toxicity due to combined modality of treatment. For the past few years, there was increasing focus on attempts to reduce normal tissue toxicity especially in pelvic tumors. This concept leads to a major transition in radiotherapy techniques; from classical 2-dimensional approach to 3-dimensional high precision approach. These radiation techniques, involve various steps and each step plays a pivotal role in their successful implementation. The delivery technique is a critical part of the success of radiotherapy for these patients. Careful consideration of the related factors involved and critical assessment of the techniques available are fundamental to good and effective practice. Number of linear accelerators are growing rapidly in India especially in private centres, however there is need to keep same pace in government institutions

  6. Application of nanotechnology in treatment of leishmaniasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Maryam; Oryan, Ahmad; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2017-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by a protozoan species of the genus Leishmania affecting mostly the developing countries. The disease with current mortality rate of 50,000 deaths per year threatens approximately 350 million people in more than 90 countries all over the world. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are the most frequent forms of the disease. Chemotherapy still relies on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B and miltefosin. Treatment of leishmaniasis has remained insufficient since the current antileishmanial agents have several limitations including low efficacy, toxicity, adverse side effects, drug-resistance, length of treatment and cost lines. Consequently, there is an immediate requirement to search for new antileishmanial compounds. New drug delivery devices transport antileishmanial drug to the target cell specifically with minimizing the toxic effects to normal cells. This study attempts to present a comprehensive overview of different approaches of nanotechnology in treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which is related to many cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases, especially stroke. It can therefore increase cardiovascular mortality and all-cause death. The current treatments of AF remain to be western drugs and radiofrequency ablation which are limited by the tolerance of patients, adverse side effects, and high recurrence rate, especially for the elderly. On the contrary, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM with long history of use involves various treatment methods, including Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs or bioactive ingredients, Chinese patent medicines, acupuncture, Qigong, and Tai Chi Chuan. With more and more researches reported, the active roles of TCM in AF management have been discovered. Then it is likely that TCM would be effective preventive means and valuable additional remedy for AF. The potential mechanisms further found by numerous experimental studies showed the distinct characteristics of TCM. Some CHMs or bioactive ingredients are atrial-selective, while others are multichannel and multifunctional. Therefore, in this review we summarized the treatment strategies reported in TCM, with the purpose of providing novel ideas and directions for AF management.

  8. Development, validation and application of NAFA 2D-CFD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, A.M.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.

    2010-01-01

    A 2D axi-symmetric code named NAFA (Version 1.0) is developed for studying the pipe flow under various conditions. It can handle laminar/ turbulent flows, with or without heat transfer, under sub-critical/super-critical conditions. The code solves for momentum, energy equations with standard k-ε turbulence model (with standard wall functions). It solves pipe flow subjected to 'velocity inlet', 'wall', 'axis' and 'pressure outlet' boundary conditions. It is validated for several cases by comparing its results with experimental data/analytical solutions/correlations. The code has excellent convergence characteristics as verified from fall of equation residual in each case. It has proven capability of generating mesh independent results for laminar as well as turbulent flows. The code is applied to supercritical flows. For supercritical flows, the effect of mesh size on prediction of heat transfer coefficient is studied. With grid refinement, the Y + reduces and reaches the limiting value of 11.63. Hence the accuracy is found to increase with grid refinement. NAFA is able to qualitatively predict the effect of heat flux and operating pressure on heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient matches well with experimental values under various conditions. (author)

  9. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines: Numerical Methods, Applications, and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Asprion

    2014-01-01

    become complex systems. The exploitation of any leftover potential during transient operation is crucial. However, even an experienced calibration engineer cannot conceive all the dynamic cross couplings between the many actuators. Therefore, a highly iterative procedure is required to obtain a single engine calibration, which in turn causes a high demand for test-bench time. Physics-based mathematical models and a dynamic optimisation are the tools to alleviate this dilemma. This paper presents the methods required to implement such an approach. The optimisation-oriented modelling of diesel engines is summarised, and the numerical methods required to solve the corresponding large-scale optimal control problems are presented. The resulting optimal control input trajectories over long driving profiles are shown to provide enough information to allow conclusions to be drawn for causal control strategies. Ways of utilising this data are illustrated, which indicate that a fully automated dynamic calibration of the engine control unit is conceivable. An experimental validation demonstrates the meaningfulness of these results. The measurement results show that the optimisation predicts the reduction of the fuel consumption and the cumulative pollutant emissions with a relative error of around 10% on highly transient driving cycles.

  10. HPLC determination of plasma dimethylarginines: method validation and preliminary clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Mariela; Artusi, Carlo; Boffa, Giovanni Maria; Zaninotto, Martina; Plebani, Mario

    2010-11-11

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been suggested as a possible marker of endothelial dysfunction, and interest in its use in clinical practice is increasing. However, the potential role of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) as an endogenous marker of renal function, has been less widely investigated. The aims of the present study were therefore to determine reference values for dimethylarginines in plasma after method validation, and to ascertain ADMA plasma concentrations in patients with disorders characterized by endothelial dysfunction; a further end-point was to investigate the relationship between SDMA plasma concentrations and estimated GFR (eGFR) as well as plasmatic creatinine in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). HPLC with fluorescence detection was used for the determination of plasma dimethylarginines. To verify the clinical usefulness of ADMA and SDMA, values from 4 groups of patients at a high risk of cardiovascular complications as well renal dysfunction (chronic heart failure n=126; type II diabetes n=43; pulmonary arterial hypertension n=17; chronic kidney disease n=42) were evaluated, and compared with the reference values, obtained from 225 blood donors. The intra- and inter-assay CVs (peadiatric populations, for which the use of eGFR is not recommended. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine Technology Development: Inlet CFD Validation and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBonis, J. R.; Yungster, S.

    1996-01-01

    A CFD methodology has been developed for inlet analyses of Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engines. A full Navier-Stokes analysis code, NPARC, was used in conjunction with pre- and post-processing tools to obtain a complete description of the flow field and integrated inlet performance. This methodology was developed and validated using results from a subscale test of the inlet to a RBCC 'Strut-Jet' engine performed in the NASA Lewis 1 x 1 ft. supersonic wind tunnel. Results obtained from this study include analyses at flight Mach numbers of 5 and 6 for super-critical operating conditions. These results showed excellent agreement with experimental data. The analysis tools were also used to obtain pre-test performance and operability predictions for the RBCC demonstrator engine planned for testing in the NASA Lewis Hypersonic Test Facility. This analysis calculated the baseline fuel-off internal force of the engine which is needed to determine the net thrust with fuel on.

  12. Application of Monte Carlo cross-validation to identify pathway cross-talk in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxia; Liu, Cui; Wang, Jingna; Li, Xingxia

    2018-03-01

    To explore genetic pathway cross-talk in neonates with sepsis, an integrated approach was used in this paper. To explore the potential relationships between differently expressed genes between normal uninfected neonates and neonates with sepsis and pathways, genetic profiling and biologic signaling pathway were first integrated. For different pathways, the score was obtained based upon the genetic expression by quantitatively analyzing the pathway cross-talk. The paired pathways with high cross-talk were identified by random forest classification. The purpose of the work was to find the best pairs of pathways able to discriminate sepsis samples versus normal samples. The results found 10 pairs of pathways, which were probably able to discriminate neonates with sepsis versus normal uninfected neonates. Among them, the best two paired pathways were identified according to analysis of extensive literature. Impact statement To find the best pairs of pathways able to discriminate sepsis samples versus normal samples, an RF classifier, the DS obtained by DEGs of paired pathways significantly associated, and Monte Carlo cross-validation were applied in this paper. Ten pairs of pathways were probably able to discriminate neonates with sepsis versus normal uninfected neonates. Among them, the best two paired pathways ((7) IL-6 Signaling and Phospholipase C Signaling (PLC); (8) Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Signaling and Dendritic Cell Maturation) were identified according to analysis of extensive literature.

  13. XBT profilers for operational purposes: application and validation in real exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Machín

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for recovering salinity from expendable bathythermograph (XBT data is presented. The procedure exploits climatological relationships between temperature, salinity and depth to build regional characteristic curves by fitting a polynomial function that minimises both the variance of residuals and unknowns. Hence, salinity is computed and recovered as a function of temperature and depth. Empirical formula are provided to recover the salinity field from temperature-depth measurements for the Cantabrian Sea and Galician Area. The method is validated and applied in the context of two marine rescue exercises carried out in the Bay of Biscay close to the north coast of Spain and in the Finisterre region, where a series of XBT and conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD profiles were acquired during fast samplings. The results agree reasonably well with independent data in terms of the spatial structure, with the largest errors in the upper 100 m of the ocean and at intermediate levels. The first diagnoses of the surface geostrophic velocity fields obtained through the salinity reconstruction are coherent and may help in rescue and safety operations during marine emergencies. Hence, we recommend that a technical unit should consider this kind of expandable sampling strategy with both XBT and XCTD data during marine emergencies, since it provides useful and comprehensive information rapidly with minimal interference by means of formal operations on board search and rescue ships.

  14. Validation study of FLUENT for the application of dry-storage system thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng Yungshin; Wang Jongrong; Cheng Yihsiang; Shih Chunkuan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the commercial CFD code, FLUENT, has been selected to evaluate the accuracy of the temperature prediction for nuclear fuel dry storage system (DSS). The experimental results of VSC-17 DSS were employed for such purposes. Through a minimal assumptions and necessary simplifications (e.g., the lumped model of fuel), a high integrity geometry model with about 4.0 million meshes was employed to solve the conjugate heat transfer coupled with thermal radiation problem. First, the general scheme validation indicates that FLUENT can provide a result which agrees well with analytical solution. It means that the numerical scheme included in FLUENT is reliable and accurate. The comparisons with VSC-17 further points out that the maximum temperature difference between simulation and experimental solution is less than 10degC and the maximum deviation for whole DSS is less than 5%. Those findings mentioned above imply that FLUENT can be a highly accurate thermal analysis tool for d DSS design. Through a series modeling and scheme selecting, this code can be an efficient tool for the new DSS development in the future. (author)

  15. Modelling of macrosegregation in steel ingots: benchmark validation and industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wensheng; Shen Houfa; Liu Baicheng; Shen Bingzhen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the recent progress made by the authors on modelling of macrosegregation in steel ingots. A two-phase macrosegregation model was developed that incorporates descriptions of heat transfer, melt convection, solute transport, and solid movement on the process scale with microscopic relations for grain nucleation and growth. The formation of pipe shrinkage at the ingot top is also taken into account in the model. Firstly, a recently proposed numerical benchmark test of macrosegregation was used to verify the model. Then, the model was applied to predict the macrosegregation in a benchmark industrial-scale steel ingot. The predictions were validated against experimental data from the literature. Furthermore, macrosegregation experiment of an industrial 53-t steel ingot was performed. The simulation results were compared with the measurements. It is indicated that the typical macrosegregation patterns encountered in steel ingots, including a positively segregated zone in the hot top and a negative segregation in the bottom part of the ingot, are well reproduced with the model.

  16. Production and validation of nuclear data for reactor and fuel cycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakas, C.; Verwaerde, D.; Toubon, H.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this technical meeting is the improvement of the existing nuclear data and the production of new data of interest for the upstream and downstream of the fuel cycle (enrichment, fabrication, management, storage, transport, reprocessing), for the industrial reactors, the research reactors and the new reactor concepts (criticality, dimensioning, exploitation), for the instrumentation systems (external and internal sensors), the radioprotection, the residual power, the structures (neutron bombardment effect on vessels, rods etc..), and for the activation of steel structures (Fr, Ni, Co). The expected result is the collection of more reliable and accurate data in a wider spectrum of energies and temperatures thanks to more precise computer codes and measurement techniques. This document brings together the communications presented at this meeting and dealing with: the process of production and validation of nuclear data; the measurement facilities and the big international programs; the users needs and the industrial priorities; the basic nuclear data (BND) needs at Cogema; the expression and evaluation of BND; the evaluation work: the efficient cross-sections; the processing of data and the creation of activation libraries; from the integral measurement to the qualification and the feedback on nuclear data. (J.S.)

  17. The validation index: a new metric for validation of segmentation algorithms using two or more expert outlines with application to radiotherapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Evans, Philp M; Harris, Emma J

    2013-08-01

    Validation is required to ensure automated segmentation algorithms are suitable for radiotherapy target definition. In the absence of true segmentation, algorithmic segmentation is validated against expert outlining of the region of interest. Multiple experts are used to overcome inter-expert variability. Several approaches have been studied in the literature, but the most appropriate approach to combine the information from multiple expert outlines, to give a single metric for validation, is unclear. None consider a metric that can be tailored to case-specific requirements in radiotherapy planning. Validation index (VI), a new validation metric which uses experts' level of agreement was developed. A control parameter was introduced for the validation of segmentations required for different radiotherapy scenarios: for targets close to organs-at-risk and for difficult to discern targets, where large variation between experts is expected. VI was evaluated using two simulated idealized cases and data from two clinical studies. VI was compared with the commonly used Dice similarity coefficient (DSCpair - wise) and found to be more sensitive than the DSCpair - wise to the changes in agreement between experts. VI was shown to be adaptable to specific radiotherapy planning scenarios.

  18. Full-scale Applications of Membrane Filtration in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holba, Marek; Plotěný, K.; Dvořák, L.; Gómez, M.; Růžičková, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 5 (2012), s. 479-486 ISSN 1863-0650 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : membrane bioreactors * wastewater treatment * full-scale application Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2012

  19. Fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser followed by topical sodium stibogluconate application: A treatment option for pediatric cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilerowicz, Yuval; Koren, Amir; Mashiah, Jacob; Katz, Oren; Sprecher, Eli; Artzi, Ofir

    2018-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a protozoan zoonotic parasitic infection with cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral manifestations. Israel is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is a self-limited disease but is associated with scarring, which is often a source of psychological and social burden for patients. Scars can be especially devastating for children and teenagers. A wide range of physical and medical approaches is used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, among which intralesional injections of sodium stibogluconate rank among the most frequently used. Unfortunately, despite being effective, this therapeutic modality can be very painful. Fractional ablative laser creates a controlled mesh-like pattern of tissue ablation in the skin that promotes dermal remodeling and collagen production while at the same time facilitating enhanced delivery of topically applied medications. Patients were treated with fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser followed by immediate topical application of sodium stibogluconate. All children were diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis prior to treatment initiation.. Ten children were treated. One leishmania tropica-positive girl failed to respond. The other nine patients achieved clinical cure and demonstrated good to excellent final cosmesis. Self-rated patient satisfaction and tolerance were high No adverse effects were observed or reported during treatment. Fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser followed by topical sodium stibogluconate application appears to be a safe and promising treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis infection in children. Future controlled studies are required to validate these findings and compare this technique with traditional approaches. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy animal model and its treatment applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuman, Hideki

    2014-04-01

    Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is one of the most common acute unilaterally onset optic nerve diseases. One management problem in terms of NAION is the difficulty of differential diagnosis between NAION and anterior optic neuritis (ON). A second problem is that there is no established treatment for the acute stage of NAION. A third problem is that there is no preventive treatment for a subsequent attack on the fellow eye, estimated to occur in 15 to 25% of patients with NAION. For differentiation of acute NAION from anterior optic neuritis, we investigated the usefulness of laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG). In the normal control group, the tissue blood flow did not significantly differ between the right and left eyes. In the NAION group, all 6 patients had 29.5% decreased mean blur rate (MBR), which correlates to optic disc blood flow, of the NAION eye compared with the unaffected eye. In the anterior ON group, all 6 cases had 15.9% increased MBR of the anterior ON eye compared with the unaffected eye. Thus, LSFG showed a difference of the underlying pathophysiology between NAION and anterior ON despite showing disc swelling in both groups and could be useful for differentiating both groups. For the treatment of acute stage of NAION, we tried to reproduce the rodent model of NAION (rNAION) developed by Bernstein and colleagues. To induce rNAION, after the administration of rose bengal(RB) (2.5 mM) into the tail vein of SD rats, the small vessels of the left optic nerve were photoactivated using a 514 nm argon green laser (RB-laser-induction). In the RB-laser-induction eyes, the capillaries within the optic disc were reduced markedly, the optic disc became swollen, and fluorescein angiography showed filling defect in the choroid and the optic disc at an early stage, followed by hyperfluorescence at a late stage. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed that visual evoked potential (VEP) amplitude was significantly decreased but an electroretinogram

  1. Validation Calculations for the Application of MARS Code to the Safety Analysis of Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol; Kim, H.; Chae, H. T.; Lim, I. C

    2006-10-15

    In order to investigate the applicability of MARS code to the accident analysis of the HANARO and other RRs, the following test data were simulated. Test data of the HANARO design and operation, Test data of flow instability and void fraction from published documents, IAEA RR transient data in TECDOC-643, Brazilian IEA-R1 experimental data. For the simulation of the HANARO data with finned rod type fuels at low pressure and low temperature conditions, MARS code, developed for the transient analysis of power reactors, was modified. Its prediction capability was assessed against the experimental data for the HANARO. From the assessment results, it can be said that the modified MARS code could be used for analyzing the thermal hydraulic transient of the HANARO. Some other simulations such as flow instability test and reactor transients were also done for the application of MARS code to RRs with plate type fuels. In the simulation for these cases, no modification was made. The results of simulated cases show that the MARS code can be used to the transient analysis of RRs with careful considerations. In particular, it seems that an improvement on a void model may be necessary for dealing with the phenomena in high void conditions.

  2. Validation Calculations for the Application of MARS Code to the Safety Analysis of Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol; Kim, H.; Chae, H. T.; Lim, I. C.

    2006-10-01

    In order to investigate the applicability of MARS code to the accident analysis of the HANARO and other RRs, the following test data were simulated. Test data of the HANARO design and operation, Test data of flow instability and void fraction from published documents, IAEA RR transient data in TECDOC-643, Brazilian IEA-R1 experimental data. For the simulation of the HANARO data with finned rod type fuels at low pressure and low temperature conditions, MARS code, developed for the transient analysis of power reactors, was modified. Its prediction capability was assessed against the experimental data for the HANARO. From the assessment results, it can be said that the modified MARS code could be used for analyzing the thermal hydraulic transient of the HANARO. Some other simulations such as flow instability test and reactor transients were also done for the application of MARS code to RRs with plate type fuels. In the simulation for these cases, no modification was made. The results of simulated cases show that the MARS code can be used to the transient analysis of RRs with careful considerations. In particular, it seems that an improvement on a void model may be necessary for dealing with the phenomena in high void conditions

  3. Application of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure in Bulgaria and validation of the seismic input against Eurocode 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskaleva, I.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-03-01

    The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed. (author)

  4. Validation of a modified PENELOPE Monte Carlo code for applications in digital and dual-energy mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Lama, L. S.; Cunha, D. M.; Poletti, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    The presence and morphology of microcalcification clusters are the main point to provide early indications of breast carcinomas. However, the visualization of those structures may be jeopardized due to overlapping tissues even for digital mammography systems. Although digital mammography is the current standard for breast cancer diagnosis, further improvements should be achieved in order to address some of those physical limitations. One possible solution for such issues is the application of the dual-energy technique (DE), which is able to highlight specific lesions or cancel out the tissue background. In this sense, this work aimed to evaluate several quantities of interest in radiation applications and compare those values with works present in the literature to validate a modified PENELOPE code for digital mammography applications. For instance, the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), the scatter fraction (SF) and the normalized mean glandular dose (DgN) were evaluated by simulations and the resulting values were compared to those found in earlier studies. Our results present a good correlation for the evaluated quantities, showing agreement equal or better than 5% for the scatter and dosimetric-related quantities when compared to the literature. Finally, a DE imaging chain was simulated and the visualization of microcalcifications was investigated.

  5. Elementary Analysis of Petroleum Distillates by Gc-Aed: Validation and Application to the Calculation of Distillation Profile Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baco F.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of elementary analysis in the distillation profile of petroleum cuts by gas phase chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED coupling and shows the application perspectives to characterisation of middle distillates of a piece of information unheard of until now on a routine basis. The performances of the analytical assembly used have been studied for carbon, hydrogen, sulphur and nitrogen analysis. Simulated distillation, a gas phase chromatography analysis which enables determining the weight percentage of distilled matter in relation to the boiling point of petroleum cuts, has been adapted to GC-AED coupling. We have developed a method giving access to three types of information: global elementary composition, simulated distillation and elementary composition in distillation profile, i. e. by fraction (% of the distilled product. The analysis of the atmospheric distillates has been assessed in terms of precision and bias for these various types of information. The validation was carried out notably by comparison with the results obtained using reference analytical methods, on preparative distillation cuts of representative samples. The application of GC-AED to characterisation of distillates is discussed, in particular for classification purposes and for predicting petroleum properties in the distillation profile. The cetane number of gas oils was taken as an example to illustrate the latter application.

  6. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedlacek, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone, or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation. (author)

  7. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedláček, M.

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

  8. Validation of potential reference genes for qPCR in maize across abiotic stresses, hormone treatments, and tissue types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueai Lin

    Full Text Available The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful and widely used technique for the measurement of gene expression. Reference genes, which serve as endogenous controls ensure that the results are accurate and reproducible, are vital for data normalization. To bolster the literature on reference gene selection in maize, ten candidate reference genes, including eight traditionally used internal control genes and two potential candidate genes from our microarray datasets, were evaluated for expression level in maize across abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salinity, and PEG, phytohormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and gibberellins, and different tissue types. Three analytical software packages, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper, were used to assess the stability of reference gene expression. The results revealed that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α, tubulin beta (β-TUB, cyclophilin (CYP, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (EIF4A were the most reliable reference genes for overall gene expression normalization in maize, while GRP (Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, GLU1(beta-glucosidase, and UBQ9 (ubiquitin 9 were the least stable and most unsuitable genes. In addition, the suitability of EF1α, β-TUB, and their combination as reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of WRKY50 in various samples. The current study indicates the appropriate reference genes for the urgent requirement of gene expression normalization in maize across certain abiotic stresses, hormones, and tissue types.

  9. Prediction and validation of the duration of hemodialysis sessions for the treatment of acute ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliuta, Ioan-Andrei; Lachance, Philippe; Ghannoum, Marc; Bégin, Yannick; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Desmeules, Simon; De Serres, Sacha A; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Douville, Pierre; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    The duration of hemodialysis (HD) sessions for the treatment of acute ethylene glycol poisoning is dependent on concentration, the operational parameters used during HD, and the presence and severity of metabolic acidosis. Ethylene glycol assays are not readily available, potentially leading to undue extension or premature termination of HD. We report a prediction model for the duration of high-efficiency HD sessions based retrospectively on a cohort study of 26 cases of acute ethylene glycol poisoning in 24 individuals treated by alcohol dehydrogenase competitive inhibitors, cofactors and HD. Two patients required HD for more than 14 days, and two died. In 19 cases, the mean ethylene glycol elimination half-life during high-efficiency HD was 165 minutes (95% confidence interval of 151-180 minutes). In a training set of 12 patients with acute ethylene glycol poisoning, using the 90th percentile half-life (195 minutes) and a target ethylene glycol concentration of 2 mmol/l (12.4 mg/dl) allowed all cases to reach a safe ethylene glycol under 3 mmol/l (18.6 mg/dl). The prediction model was then validated in a set of seven acute ethylene glycol poisonings. Thus, the HD session time in hours can be estimated using 4.7 x (Ln [the initial ethylene glycol concentration (mmol/l)/2]), provided that metabolic acidosis is corrected. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wavelets an elementary treatment of theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koornwinder, T H

    1993-01-01

    Nowadays, some knowledge of wavelets is almost mandatory for mathematicians, physicists and electrical engineers. The emphasis in this volume, based on an intensive course on Wavelets given at CWI, Amsterdam, is on the affine case. The first part presents a concise introduction of the underlying theory to the uninitiated reader. The second part gives applications in various areas. Some of the contributions here are a fresh exposition of earlier work by others, while other papers contain new results by the authors. The areas are so diverse as seismic processing, quadrature formulae, and wavelet

  11. Validating carbonation parameters of alkaline solid wastes via integrated thermal analyses: Principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chang, E-E; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-04-15

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline solid wastes is an attractive method for CO2 capture and utilization. However, the evaluation criteria of CaCO3 content in solid wastes and the way to interpret thermal analysis profiles were found to be quite different among the literature. In this investigation, an integrated thermal analyses for determining carbonation parameters in basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were proposed based on thermogravimetric (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. A modified method of TG-DTG interpretation was proposed by considering the consecutive weight loss of sample with 200-900°C because the decomposition of various hydrated compounds caused variances in estimates by using conventional methods of TG interpretation. Different quantities of reference CaCO3 standards, carbonated BOFS samples and synthetic CaCO3/BOFS mixtures were prepared for evaluating the data quality of the modified TG-DTG interpretation, in terms of precision and accuracy. The quantitative results of the modified TG-DTG method were also validated by DSC analysis. In addition, to confirm the TG-DTG results, the evolved gas analysis was performed by mass spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for detection of the gaseous compounds released during heating. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO3 in BOFS was evaluated using Arrhenius equation and Kissinger equation. The proposed integrated thermal analyses for determining CaCO3 content in alkaline wastes was precise and accurate, thereby enabling to effectively assess the CO2 capture capacity of alkaline wastes for mineral carbonation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation and Application of Models to Predict Facemask Influenza Contamination in Healthcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Edward M.; Noti, John D.; Lindsley, William G.; Blachere, Francoise M.; Shaffer, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Facemasks are part of the hierarchy of interventions used to reduce the transmission of respiratory pathogens by providing a barrier. Two types of facemasks used by healthcare workers are N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and surgical masks (SMs). These can become contaminated with respiratory pathogens during use, thus serving as potential sources for transmission. However, because of the lack of field studies, the hazard associated with pathogen-exposed facemasks is unknown. A mathematical model was used to calculate the potential influenza contamination of facemasks from aerosol sources in various exposure scenarios. The aerosol model was validated with data from previous laboratory studies using facemasks mounted on headforms in a simulated healthcare room. The model was then used to estimate facemask contamination levels in three scenarios generated with input parameters from the literature. A second model estimated facemask contamination from a cough. It was determined that contamination levels from a single cough (≈19 viruses) were much less than likely levels from aerosols (4,473 viruses on FFRs and 3,476 viruses on SMs). For aerosol contamination, a range of input values from the literature resulted in wide variation in estimated facemask contamination levels (13–202,549 viruses), depending on the values selected. Overall, these models and estimates for facemask contamination levels can be used to inform infection control practice and research related to the development of better facemasks, to characterize airborne contamination levels, and to assist in assessment of risk from reaerosolization and fomite transfer because of handling and reuse of contaminated facemasks. PMID:24593662

  13. Validation of an arterial tortuosity measure with application to hypertension collection of clinical hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Karl T; Roberts, John A; Schmidt, Richard H; Kang, Chang-Ki; Cho, Zang-Hee; Parker, Dennis L

    2011-10-18

    Hypertension may increase tortuosity or twistedness of arteries. We applied a centerline extraction algorithm and tortuosity metric to magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) brain images to quantitatively measure the tortuosity of arterial vessel centerlines. The most commonly used arterial tortuosity measure is the distance factor metric (DFM). This study tested a DFM based measurement's ability to detect increases in arterial tortuosity of hypertensives using existing images. Existing images presented challenges such as different resolutions which may affect the tortuosity measurement, different depths of the area imaged, and different artifacts of imaging that require filtering. The stability and accuracy of alternative centerline algorithms was validated in numerically generated models and test brain MRA data. Existing images were gathered from previous studies and clinical medical systems by manually reading electronic medical records to identify hypertensives and negatives. Images of different resolutions were interpolated to similar resolutions. Arterial tortuosity in MRA images was measured from a DFM curve and tested on numerically generated models as well as MRA images from two hypertensive and three negative control populations. Comparisons were made between different resolutions, different filters, hypertensives versus negatives, and different negative controls. In tests using numerical models of a simple helix, the measured tortuosity increased as expected with more tightly coiled helices. Interpolation reduced resolution-dependent differences in measured tortuosity. The Korean hypertensive population had significantly higher arterial tortuosity than its corresponding negative control population across multiple arteries. In addition one negative control population of different ethnicity had significantly less arterial tortuosity than the other two. Tortuosity can be compared between images of different resolutions by interpolating from lower to higher

  14. Engineered nanomaterials for water treatment and remediation: Costs, benefits, and applicability

    OpenAIRE

    Adeleye, AS; Conway, JR; Garner, K; Huang, Y; Su, Y; Keller, AA

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The application of nanotechnology in drinking water treatment and pollution cleanup is promising, as demonstrated by a number of field-based (pilot and full scale) and bench scale studies. A number of reviews exist for these nanotechnology-based applications; but to better illustrate its importance and guide its development, a direct comparison between traditional treatment technologies and emerging approaches using nanotechnology is needed. In this review, the performanc...