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Sample records for valid scientific evidence

  1. Is Parental Alienation Disorder a Valid Concept? Not According to Scientific Evidence. A Review of "Parental Alienation, DSM-5 and ICD-11" by William Bernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiton, M. Brianna; Alvis, Lindsey J.; Allen, Kenneth; Logid, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a recent book arguing how a concept known as parental alienation syndrome--now parental alienation disorder--should be included in official psychiatric/psychological and medical classification diagnostic manuals. Anecdotal cases and opinion are presented as research and scientific evidence, and stories are presented as…

  2. Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project: Verification and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Jeff; Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rosea; Holecamp, Kara; Owen, Carolyn; Nicholson, Lamar; Dartez, Deanna

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project's verification,and validation process. The topics include: 1) What is Verification and Validation? 2) Why Verification and Validation? 3) Background; 4) ESE Data Purchas Validation Process; 5) Data Validation System and Ingest Queue; 6) Shipment Verification; 7) Tracking and Metrics; 8) Validation of Contract Specifications; 9) Earth Watch Data Validation; 10) Validation of Vertical Accuracy; and 11) Results of Vertical Accuracy Assessment.

  3. The Square Curve Paradigm for Research in Alternative, Complementary, and Holistic Medicine: A Cost-Effective, Easy, and Scientifically Valid Design for Evidence-Based Medicine and Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new research paradigm for alternative, complementary, and holistic medicine — a low-cost, effective, and scientifically valid design for evidence-based medicine. Our aim is to find the simplest, cheapest, and most practical way to collect data of sufficient quality and validity to determine: (1 which kinds of treatment give a clinically relevant improvement to quality of life, health, and/or functionality; (2 which groups of patients can be aided by alternative, complementary, or holistic medicine; and (3 which therapists have the competence to achieve the clinically relevant improvements. Our solution to the problem is that a positive change in quality of life must be immediate to be taken as caused by an intervention. We define “immediate” as within 1 month of the intervention. If we can demonstrate a positive result with a group of chronic patients (20 or more patients who have had their disease or state of suffering for 1 year or more, who can be significantly helped within 1 month, and the situation is still improved 1 year after, we find it scientifically evidenced that this cure or intervention has helped the patients. We call this characteristic curve a “square curve”. If a global, generic, quality-of-life questionnaire like QOL5 or, even better, a QOL-Health-Ability questionnaire (a quality-of-life questionnaire combined with a self-evaluated health and ability to function questionnaire is administered to the patients before and after the intervention, it is possible to document the effect of an intervention to a cost of only a few thousand Euros/USD. A general acceptance of this new research design will solve the problem that there is not enough money in alternative, complementary, and holistic medicine to pay the normal cost of a biomedical Cochrane study. As financial problems must not hinder the vital research in nonbiomedical medicine, we ask the scientific community to accept this new research

  4. Fever: Views in Anthroposophic Medicine and Their Scientific Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To conduct a scoping review to characterize how fever is viewed in anthroposophic medicine (AM and discuss the scientific validity of these views. Methods. Systematic searches were run in Medline, Embase, CAMbase, and Google Scholar. Material from anthroposophic medical textbooks and articles was also used. Data was extracted and interpreted. Results. Most of the anthroposophic literature on this subject is in the German language. Anthroposophic physicians hold a beneficial view on fever, rarely suppress fever with antipyretics, and often use complementary means of alleviating discomfort. In AM, fever is considered to have the following potential benefits: promoting more complete recovery; preventing infection recurrences and atopic diseases; providing a unique opportunity for caregivers to provide loving care; facilitating individual development and resilience; protecting against cancer and boosting the anticancer effects of mistletoe products. These views are discussed with regard to the available scientific data. Conclusion. AM postulates that fever can be of short-term and long-term benefit in several ways; many of these opinions have become evidence-based (though still often not practiced while others still need empirical studies to be validated, refuted, or modified.

  5. Evaluation of Scientific Journal Validity, It's Articles and Their Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    The science that deals with evaluation of a scientific article refer to the finding quantitative indicators (index) of the scientific research success is called scientometrics. Scientometrics is part of scientology (the science of science) that analyzes scientific papers and their citations in a selected sample of scientific journals. There are four indexes by which it is possible to measure the validity of scientific research: number of articles, impact factor of the journal, the number and order of authors and citations number. Every scientific article is a record of the data written by the rules recommended by several scientific associations and committees. Growing number of authors and lot of authors with same name and surname led to the introduction of the necessary identification agent - ORCID number.

  6. Validity evidence based on test content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen; Faulkner-Bond, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Validity evidence based on test content is one of the five forms of validity evidence stipulated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing developed by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education. In this paper, we describe the logic and theory underlying such evidence and describe traditional and modern methods for gathering and analyzing content validity data. A comprehensive review of the literature and of the aforementioned Standards is presented. For educational tests and other assessments targeting knowledge and skill possessed by examinees, validity evidence based on test content is necessary for building a validity argument to support the use of a test for a particular purpose. By following the methods described in this article, practitioners have a wide arsenal of tools available for determining how well the content of an assessment is congruent with and appropriate for the specific testing purposes.

  7. Masturbation: Scientific Evidence and Islam's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin

    2017-12-01

    Masturbation is the stimulation of sexual organs usually to the point of orgasm with an essential autoerotic component. Due to the high prevalence of this sexual behavior, it was and still is a matter of debate if masturbation is a normal action without any side effects and even if it is advantageous or it is associated with side effects necessitating public education how to avoid it. In addition, it is a common question if masturbation is religiously lawful or not. In this study, I assess the results of scientific studies about this sexual behavior and also shed some light on the Islam's view about it.

  8. Complementary medicine for axial spondyloarthritis: is there any scientific evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danve, Abhijeet; Deodhar, Atul

    2018-04-09

    Majority of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) report use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies before and even after the diagnosis, due to perceived efficacy and wide-spread belief that these modalities lack side effects. In this review, we describe the available scientific evidence for the CAM therapies in axSpA. Clinical trials of the CAM therapies in axSpA are generally hampered by small sample size, short duration, difficulties in blinding, lack of control groups and strong placebo effect. Nonetheless, exercise programs like Pilates and mind-body techniques such as Tai Chi may have favorable effect on the disease activity and function. Although not yet confirmed, the modulation of the microbiome with the help of probiotics or fecal transplant has face validity given the evolving scientific rationale. Diet has only limited role in the management of axSpA. Deep tissue massage, omega-3 fatty acids and Stanger bath were found to be useful in small studies. CAM therapies are not always entirely well tolerated, particularly the manipulative techniques like chiropractic and Tui-na in patients with advanced disease and osteoporosis. There are no trials of yoga in axSpA despite the wider acceptance and use of yoga as an effective mind-body technique. Larger and better quality clinical trials of CAM therapies are needed to confirm their efficacy and safety in the management of axSpA and to include them in the 'mainstream' medicine.

  9. Evidence of Construct Validity for Work Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of work values in the process of career adjustment (Dawis, 2002), little empirical research has focused on articulating the domains represented within the construct of work values and the examination of evidence of validity for the construct has been limited. Furthermore, the larger number of work values measures has made it…

  10. Evidence Based Validation of Indian Traditional Medicine – Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulok K Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based validation of the ethno-pharmacological claims on traditional medicine (TM is the need of the day for its globalization and reinforcement. Combining the unique features of identifying biomarkers that are highly conserved across species, this can offer an innovative approach to biomarker-driven drug discovery and development. TMs are an integral component of alternative health care systems. India has a rich wealth of TMs and the potential to accept the challenge to meet the global demand for them. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH medicine are the major healthcare systems in Indian Traditional Medicine. The plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of these systems may be explored with the modern scientific approaches for better leads in the healthcare. TM is the best sources of chemical diversity for finding new drugs and leads. Authentication and scientific validation of medicinal plant is a fundamental requirement of industry and other organizations dealing with herbal drugs. Quality control (QC of botanicals, validated processes of manufacturing, customer awareness and post marketing surveillance are the key points, which could ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of TM. For globalization of TM, there is a need for harmonization with respect to its chemical and metabolite profiling, standardization, QC, scientific validation, documentation and regulatory aspects of TM. Therefore, the utmost attention is necessary for the promotion and development of TM through global collaboration and co-ordination by national and international programme.

  11. Secondary school physics teachers' conceptions of scientific evidence: A collective case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joseph A.

    Engaging secondary school students in inquiry-oriented tasks that more closely simulate the scholarly activities of scientists has been recommended as a way to improve scientific literacy. Two tasks that are frequently recommended include students' design of original experiments, and students' evaluation of scientific evidence and conclusions. Yet, little is known about teachers' conceptions of experimentation. The principal aim of this study, therefore, was to describe the nature of prospective and practicing physics teachers' conceptions of scientific evidence. More specifically, the following research questions guided this study: (1) What types of issues related to the measurement reliability and experimental validity of scientific evidence do practicing and prospective physics teachers think about when designing experiments? (2) When presented with hypothetical scenarios that describe unsound experimental procedures or poorly supported conclusions (or both), what concerns will prospective and practicing physics teachers raise? And (3) When the participants' responses to parallel research prompts are compared across protocols, what similarities and differences exist? The nature of the teacher-participants' conceptions was described from an analysis of data collected from research prompts such as interviews and hand written artifacts. In these research prompts, the teachers "thought aloud" while designing experiments and critically evaluated student-collected evidence presented in hypothetical classroom scenarios. The data from this study suggested that the three teachers, while contemplating the reliability and validity of scientific evidence, frequently used their conceptions of evidence in conjunction with specific subject matter conceptions. The data also indicated that the relationship between subject matter knowledge and conceptions of evidence was more pronounced for some conceptions of evidence than for others. Suggestions for future research included

  12. Statistical Validation of Engineering and Scientific Models: Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, Richard G.; Trucano, Timothy G.

    1999-01-01

    A tutorial is presented discussing the basic issues associated with propagation of uncertainty analysis and statistical validation of engineering and scientific models. The propagation of uncertainty tutorial illustrates the use of the sensitivity method and the Monte Carlo method to evaluate the uncertainty in predictions for linear and nonlinear models. Four example applications are presented; a linear model, a model for the behavior of a damped spring-mass system, a transient thermal conduction model, and a nonlinear transient convective-diffusive model based on Burger's equation. Correlated and uncorrelated model input parameters are considered. The model validation tutorial builds on the material presented in the propagation of uncertainty tutoriaI and uses the damp spring-mass system as the example application. The validation tutorial illustrates several concepts associated with the application of statistical inference to test model predictions against experimental observations. Several validation methods are presented including error band based, multivariate, sum of squares of residuals, and optimization methods. After completion of the tutorial, a survey of statistical model validation literature is presented and recommendations for future work are made

  13. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  14. Bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based scientific approaches in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews contemporary approaches for bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based medicine. In doing so, the author presents a pragmatic assessment of quality, methodology and extent of scientific research in Ayurvedic medicine. The article discusses the meaning of evidence and indicates the need to adopt epistemologically sensitive methods and rigorous experimentation using modern science. The author critically analyzes the status of Ayurvedic medicine based on personal observations, peer interactions and published research. This review article concludes that traditional knowledge systems like Ayurveda and modern scientific evidence-based medicine should be integrated. The author advocates that Ayurvedic researchers should develop strategic collaborations with innovative initiatives like 'Horizon 2020' involving predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM).

  15. The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners' management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jessica C; Dicks, Lynn V; Sutherland, William J

    2015-02-01

    A major justification of environmental management research is that it helps practitioners, yet previous studies show it is rarely used to inform their decisions. We tested whether conservation practitioners focusing on bird management were willing to use a synopsis of relevant scientific literature to inform their management decisions. This allowed us to examine whether the limited use of scientific information in management is due to a lack of access to the scientific literature or whether it is because practitioners are either not interested or unable to incorporate the research into their decisions. In on-line surveys, we asked 92 conservation managers, predominantly from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, to provide opinions on 28 management techniques that could be applied to reduce predation on birds. We asked their opinions before and after giving them a summary of the literature about the interventions' effectiveness. We scored the overall effectiveness and certainty of evidence for each intervention through an expert elicitation process-the Delphi method. We used the effectiveness scores to assess the practitioners' level of understanding and awareness of the literature. On average, each survey participant changed their likelihood of using 45.7% of the interventions after reading the synopsis of the evidence. They were more likely to implement effective interventions and avoid ineffective actions, suggesting that their intended future management strategies may be more successful than current practice. More experienced practitioners were less likely to change their management practices than those with less experience, even though they were not more aware of the existing scientific information than less experienced practitioners. The practitioners' willingness to change their management choices when provided with summarized scientific evidence suggests that improved accessibility to scientific information would benefit conservation management

  16. International Symposium on Scientific Computing, Computer Arithmetic and Validated Numerics

    CERN Document Server

    DEVELOPMENTS IN RELIABLE COMPUTING

    1999-01-01

    The SCAN conference, the International Symposium on Scientific Com­ puting, Computer Arithmetic and Validated Numerics, takes place bian­ nually under the joint auspices of GAMM (Gesellschaft fiir Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik) and IMACS (International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation). SCAN-98 attracted more than 100 participants from 21 countries all over the world. During the four days from September 22 to 25, nine highlighted, plenary lectures and over 70 contributed talks were given. These figures indicate a large participation, which was partly caused by the attraction of the organizing country, Hungary, but also the effec­ tive support system have contributed to the success. The conference was substantially supported by the Hungarian Research Fund OTKA, GAMM, the National Technology Development Board OMFB and by the J6zsef Attila University. Due to this funding, it was possible to subsidize the participation of over 20 scientists, mainly from Eastern European countries. I...

  17. [Scientific evidence on the legalization of abortion in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayón-Vera, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    On April 24 2007, abortion before 12 weeks became legal in Mexico City. The arguments for this decision were: diminish the maternal morbidity and mortality, avoid a "severe health problem" and accomplish the women's physical, mental and social well being. To analyze the scientific evidences that support or reject this arguments. Retrospective study realized by bibliographic search of electronic data basis and Internet portals of interested groups. Mexico is considered by the World Health Organization, one of the countries in the world with low maternal mortality rates (abortion". In the hospitals of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, maternal deaths as consequence of induced abortions were, approximately, three every year. The evidences used as arguments in favor of abortion come from studies performed in Sub-Saharan African countries, which do not apply to Mexico. The scientific evidences show that induced abortion has important psychological sequels in women, a higher frequency of illegal drug abuse, alcoholism, child abuse, low birth weight in the following pregnancy, greater risk of subsequent miscarriage and greater mortality rate. There are no scientific evidences to support the arguments used for the legal approval of abortion in Mexico City.

  18. Reading for tracing evidence: developing scientific knowledge through science text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probosari, R. M.; Widyastuti, F.; Sajidan, S.; Suranto, S.; Prayitno, B. A.

    2018-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate students’ learning progression on reading activity, science concept comprehension and how they imply it in scientific communication in the classroom. Fifty-nine biology education students participated in this study. This classroom research was developed to portray students’ reading activity, factors affecting reading comprehension, and the development of reading motivation. Qualitative analysis was used to describe the whole activities, involve the instruction, process and the product of reading activity. The result concluded that each student has their own way in interpreting the information from scientific text, but generally, they can filter and apply it in their argument as a part of reasoning and evidence. The findings can be used to direct reading activity to the goal of inquiry in order to support the nature of reading as evidence.

  19. [Project evidência [evidence]: research and education about accessing scientific databases in Azores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Hélia; Pereira, Sandra M; Neves, Ajuda; Gomes, Amy; Teixeira, Bruno; Oliveira, Carolina; Sousa, Fábio; Tavares, Márcio; Tavares, Patrícia; Dutra, Raquel; Pereira, Hélder Rocha

    2013-04-01

    Project Evidência [Evidence] intends to promote the use of scientific databases among nurses. This study aims to design educational interventions that facilitate nurses' access to these databases, to determine nurses' habits regarding the use of scientific databases, and to determine the impact that educational interventions on scientific databases have on Azorean nurses who volunteered for this project. An intervention project was conducted, and a quantitative descriptive survey was designed to evaluate the impact two and five months after the educational intervention. This impact was investigated considering certain aspects, namely, the nurses' knowledge, habits and reasons for using scientific databases. A total of 192 nurses participated in this study, and the primary results indicate that the educational intervention had a positive impact based not only on the increased frequency of using platforms or databases of scientific information (DSIs) s but also on the competence and self-awareness regarding its use and consideration of the reasons for accessing this information.

  20. Scientific evidence of dockworker illness to nursing clinical reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Capa Verde de Almeida

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify scientific evidence of occupational illness of dockworkers published in the literature. METHOD systematic review of the literature, developed according to the Cochrane method. The databases searched were: Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL and SciELO. Studies from 1988 to 2014 were selected. The data were analyzed according to the level of evidence and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. RESULTS We included 14 studies, in which 11 (78.6% were from international journals. The year of 2012 showed greater number of studies. All studies were classified as: Level of Evidence 4, highlighting lung cancer, musculoskeletal and ischemic diseases, causal link in chemical risks. CONCLUSION The development of preventive measures should especially include chemical exposure of workers applying the clinical reasoning of nurses' environmental knowledge to care for illnesses.

  1. From scientifically based research to evidence based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay is a reflection on the peculiarities of the scientifically based research and on the distinctive elements of the EBL (evidence based learning, methodology used in the study on the “Relationship between Metacognition, Self-efficacy and Self-regulation in Learning”. The EBL method, based on the standardization of data, explains how the students’ learning experience can be considered as a set of “data” and can be used to explain how and when the research results can be considered generalizable and transferable to other learning situations. The reflections present in this study have also allowed us to illustrate the impact that its results have had on the micro and macro level of reality. They helped to fill in the gaps concerning the learning/teaching processes, contributed to the enrichment of the scientific literature on this subject and allowed to establish standards through rigorous techniques such as systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

  2. Brazilian scientific evidence on Fournier’s gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érick Igor dos Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the Brazilian scientific reports published over the past twenty years on Fournier’s gangrene. It is an integrative review conducted through incursions in the LILACS, MEDLINE, BDENF and Coleciona SUS databases with the descriptor ‘Fournier’s Gangrene’. Texts published between January 1994 and July 2014, in Portuguese, and freely available online were selected. According to the 14 articles found, the main symptoms of Fournier’s gangrene include discomfort with painful sensations, high fever, edema, malaise, and sweating. In most cases erythema and blistering are observed, evolving into a wound. The clinical profile assists in the selection of empirical antimicrobial therapy even before the culture results. It was concluded that early diagnosis and appropriate and aggressive treatment are crucial in patient prognosis. There is still a shortage of Brazilian scientific production with a high power of evidence on the subject.

  3. Expert opinions and scientific evidence for colonoscopy key performance indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Colin J; Bevan, Roisin; Zimmermann-Fraedrich, Katharina; Rutter, Matthew D; Rex, Douglas; Dekker, Evelien; Ponchon, Thierry; Bretthauer, Michael; Regula, Jaroslaw; Saunders, Brian; Hassan, Cesare; Bourke, Michael J; Rösch, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Colonoscopy is a widely performed procedure with procedural volumes increasing annually throughout the world. Many procedures are now performed as part of colorectal cancer screening programmes. Colonoscopy should be of high quality and measures of this quality should be evidence based. New UK key performance indicators and quality assurance standards have been developed by a working group with consensus agreement on each standard reached. This paper reviews the scientific basis for each of the quality measures published in the UK standards. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Development and Validation of a Multimedia-based Assessment of Scientific Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Che-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2015-09-01

    The potential of computer-based assessments for capturing complex learning outcomes has been discussed; however, relatively little is understood about how to leverage such potential for summative and accountability purposes. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a multimedia-based assessment of scientific inquiry abilities (MASIA) to cover a more comprehensive construct of inquiry abilities and target secondary school students in different grades while this potential is leveraged. We implemented five steps derived from the construct modeling approach to design MASIA. During the implementation, multiple sources of evidence were collected in the steps of pilot testing and Rasch modeling to support the validity of MASIA. Particularly, through the participation of 1,066 8th and 11th graders, MASIA showed satisfactory psychometric properties to discriminate students with different levels of inquiry abilities in 101 items in 29 tasks when Rasch models were applied. Additionally, the Wright map indicated that MASIA offered accurate information about students' inquiry abilities because of the comparability of the distributions of student abilities and item difficulties. The analysis results also suggested that MASIA offered precise measures of inquiry abilities when the components (questioning, experimenting, analyzing, and explaining) were regarded as a coherent construct. Finally, the increased mean difficulty thresholds of item responses along with three performance levels across all sub-abilities supported the alignment between our scoring rubrics and our inquiry framework. Together with other sources of validity in the pilot testing, the results offered evidence to support the validity of MASIA.

  5. Anticancer effects of Ganoderma lucidum: a review of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, John W M; Gohel, Mayur Danny I

    2005-01-01

    "Lingzhi" (Ganoderma lucidum), a popular medicinal mushroom, has been used in China for longevity and health promotion since ancient times. Investigations into the anticancer activity of lingzhi have been performed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, supporting its application for cancer treatment and prevention. The proposed anticancer activity of lingzhi has prompted its usage by cancer patients. It remains debatable as to whether lingzhi is a food supplement for health maintenance or actually a therapeutic "drug" for medical proposes. Thus far there has been no report of human trials using lingzhi as a direct anticancer agent, despite some evidence showing the usage of lingzhi as a potential supplement to cancer patients. Cellular immune responses and mitogenic reactivity of cancer patients have been enhanced by lingzhi, as reported in two randomized and one nonrandomized trials, and the quality of life of 65% of lung cancer patients improved in one study. The direct cytotoxic and anti-angiogenesis mechanisms of lingzhi have been established by in vitro studies; however, clinical studies should not be neglected to define the applicable dosage in vivo. At present, lingzhi is a health food supplement to support cancer patients, yet the evidence supporting the potential of direct in vivo anticancer effects should not be underestimated. Lingzhi or its products can be classified as an anticancer agent when current and more direct scientific evidence becomes available.

  6. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence of farmed and wild fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Sioen, Isabelle; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    . Primary data were collected through a consumer survey (April 2003) and focus group discussions (May 2004) with Belgian consumers. The majority of the consumer sample reported no perceived differences between farmed versus wild fish. However, mean perception scores were slightly in favour of wild fish......The increasing number of marketable fish being supplied from aquaculture is a response to the increasing demand for healthy food and is filling the gap left by depleting natural fish stocks. Little is known about the awareness and perception of the consumer in terms of farmed fish versus fish from...... capture fisheries. The consumer's subjective point of view is of overriding importance for the production system and product acceptance as well as for future market success. In this paper consumer perception in Belgium is explored and compared against scientific evidence of farmed versus wild fish...

  7. Scientific evidence of dockworker illness to nursing clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde de; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina

    2016-04-01

    To identify scientific evidence of occupational illness of dockworkers published in the literature. systematic review of the literature, developed according to the Cochrane method. The databases searched were: Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL and SciELO. Studies from 1988 to 2014 were selected. The data were analyzed according to the level of evidence and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. We included 14 studies, in which 11 (78.6%) were from international journals. The year of 2012 showed greater number of studies. All studies were classified as: Level of Evidence 4, highlighting lung cancer, musculoskeletal and ischemic diseases, causal link in chemical risks. The development of preventive measures should especially include chemical exposure of workers applying the clinical reasoning of nurses' environmental knowledge to care for illnesses. Identificar evidências científicas de adoecimento ocupacional do trabalhador portuário publicadas na literatura. Revisão sistemática da literatura, construída conforme o método Cochrane. As bases de dados pesquisadas foram Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL e SciELO. Foram selecionados artigos publicados de 1988 a 2014. Os dados foram analisados conforme o Nível de Evidência e Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. Foram selecionadas 14 publicações, das quais 11 (78,6%) de revistas internacionais. O ano de 2012 reuniu maior número de publicações no período de estudo. Todas as publicações pertenciam ao Nível de Evidência 4, destacando o câncer pulmonar, doenças osteomusculares e isquêmicas, com nexo causal nos riscos químicos. A elaboração de medidas preventivas deve prever especialmente a exposição química do trabalhador, aplicando ao raciocínio clínico do enfermeiro um conhecimento ambiental para a assistência aos adoecimentos.

  8. [Scientific Evidence on Preventive Interventions in Childhood Obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Martín, Raquel

    The increasing prevalence of obesity or overweight at all ages, their associated morbidity and mortality associated, and the increased perception of the problem by the society have generated several hypotheses in response to the scientific and the international community. Investigate the preventive interventions in childhood obesity so far. Integrative review during the study period from April 2013 to November 2014. The MEDLINE international database was used, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 4 2002), the national database Isooc (CSIC) national database, as well as the Internet. The review included health articles published in Spanish and English between 1990 and 2014 that focused on or included education, prevention, diagnostic, and treatment of obesity interventions. Of the 726 articles identified, 34 of most relevant (peer reviewed) were selected. It was noted that there is limited generisable evidence on interventions that could be implemented in Primary Care or referral services available, although numerous studies suggest that improvements in the overweight are possible. Despite the abundant literature and that many institutions place childhood obesity as one of the priorities of Public Health, we face the paradox that the evidence on cost-effectiveness of prevention interventions is sparse. Knowing these gaps in knowledge should lead to filling them with rigorous and well-designed studies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Cosmetic mesotherapy: between scientific evidence, science fiction, and lucrative business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ibrahim, Amir E; Dibo, Saad A

    2008-11-01

    Mesotherapy, originally conceived in Europe, is a minimally invasive technique that consists of the intra- or subcutaneous injection of variable mixtures of natural plant extracts, homeopathic agents, pharmaceuticals, vitamins, and other bioactive substances in microscopic quantities through dermal multipunctures. Its application in cosmetic medicine and surgery is gaining in popularity and acceptance and is rapidly growing in profile at an alarming rate. Despite their attraction as purported rejuvenating and ''fat-dissolving'' injections, the safety and efficacy of these novel cosmetic treatments remain ambiguous, making mesotherapy vulnerable to criticism by the generally more skeptical medical community. The technique is shrouded in mystery and the controversy surrounding it pertains to its efficacy and potential adverse effects that are subject of much concern. As with any new technology, it is important to assess the benefits, safety, experience, and standardization of mesotherapy. More studies are necessary before it can be advocated as a safe and effective treatment for body contouring and facial rejuvenation. Although the claims made about mesotherapy may be hard to believe at face value, we must be cautious about rejecting new ideas. Just as absence of proof is not proof of absence, lack of scientific validation is not proof that it does not work.

  10. A method for the statistical interpretation of friction ridge skin impression evidence: Method development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swofford, H J; Koertner, A J; Zemp, F; Ausdemore, M; Liu, A; Salyards, M J

    2018-04-03

    The forensic fingerprint community has faced increasing amounts of criticism by scientific and legal commentators, challenging the validity and reliability of fingerprint evidence due to the lack of an empirically demonstrable basis to evaluate and report the strength of the evidence in a given case. This paper presents a method, developed as a stand-alone software application, FRStat, which provides a statistical assessment of the strength of fingerprint evidence. The performance was evaluated using a variety of mated and non-mated datasets. The results show strong performance characteristics, often with values supporting specificity rates greater than 99%. This method provides fingerprint experts the capability to demonstrate the validity and reliability of fingerprint evidence in a given case and report the findings in a more transparent and standardized fashion with clearly defined criteria for conclusions and known error rate information thereby responding to concerns raised by the scientific and legal communities. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners’ management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jessica C; Dicks, Lynn V; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    A major justification of environmental management research is that it helps practitioners, yet previous studies show it is rarely used to inform their decisions. We tested whether conservation practitioners focusing on bird management were willing to use a synopsis of relevant scientific literature to inform their management decisions. This allowed us to examine whether the limited use of scientific information in management is due to a lack of access to the scientific literature or whether it is because practitioners are either not interested or unable to incorporate the research into their decisions. In on-line surveys, we asked 92 conservation managers, predominantly from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, to provide opinions on 28 management techniques that could be applied to reduce predation on birds. We asked their opinions before and after giving them a summary of the literature about the interventions’ effectiveness. We scored the overall effectiveness and certainty of evidence for each intervention through an expert elicitation process—the Delphi method. We used the effectiveness scores to assess the practitioners’ level of understanding and awareness of the literature. On average, each survey participant changed their likelihood of using 45.7% of the interventions after reading the synopsis of the evidence. They were more likely to implement effective interventions and avoid ineffective actions, suggesting that their intended future management strategies may be more successful than current practice. More experienced practitioners were less likely to change their management practices than those with less experience, even though they were not more aware of the existing scientific information than less experienced practitioners. The practitioners’ willingness to change their management choices when provided with summarized scientific evidence suggests that improved accessibility to scientific information would benefit conservation

  12. Racism and Health I: Pathways and Scientific Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the scientific research that indicates that despite marked declines in public support for negative racial attitudes in the United States, racism, in its multiple forms, remains embedded in American society. The focus of the article is on the review of empirical research that suggests that racism adversely affects the health of non-dominant racial populations in multiple ways. First, institutional racism developed policies and procedures that have reduced access to housing, neighborhood and educational quality, employment opportunities and other desirable resources in society. Second, cultural racism, at the societal and individual level, negatively affects economic status and health by creating a policy environment hostile to egalitarian policies, triggering negative stereotypes and discrimination that are pathogenic and fostering health damaging psychological responses such as stereotype threat and internalized racism. Finally, a large and growing body of evidence indicates that experiences of racial discrimination are an important type of psychosocial stressor that can lead to adverse changes in health status and altered behavioural patterns that increase health risks.

  13. Is there any evidence for the validity of diagnostic criteria used for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Cacho-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Scientific literature reveals differences between authors according to diagnostic criteria for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions. Diagnostic accuracy studies show that there is only certain evidence for accommodative conditions. For binocular anomalies there is only evidence about a validated questionnaire for convergence insufficiency with no data of diagnostic accuracy.

  14. Brain Training in Children and Adolescents: Is It Scientifically Valid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rossignoli-Palomeque

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain training products are becoming increasingly popular for children and adolescents. Despite the marketing aimed at their use in the general population, these products may provide more benefits for specific neurologically impaired populations. A review of Brain Training (BT products analyzing their efficacy while considering the methodological limitations of supporting research is required for practical applications.Method: searches were made of the PubMed database (until March 2017 for studies including: (1 empirical data on the use of brain training for children or adolescents and any effects on near transfer (NT and/or far transfer (FT and/or neuroplasticity, (2 use of brain training for cognitive training purposes, (3 commercially available training applications, (4 computer-based programs for children developed since the 1990s, and (5 relevant printed and peer-reviewed material.Results: Database searches yielded a total of 16,402 references, of which 70 met the inclusion criteria for the review. We classified programs in terms of neuroplasticity, near and far transfer, and long-term effects and their applied methodology. Regarding efficacy, only 10 studies (14.2% have been found that support neuroplasticity, and the majority of brain training platforms claimed to be based on such concepts without providing any supporting scientific data. Thirty-six studies (51.4% have shown far transfer (7 of them are non-independent and only 11 (15.7% maintained far transfer at follow-up. Considering the methodology, 40 studies (68.2% were not randomized and controlled; for those randomized, only 9 studies (12.9% were double-blind, and only 13 studies (18.6% included active controls in their trials.Conclusion: Overall, few independent studies have found far transfer and long-term effects. The majority of independent results found only near transfer. There is a lack of double-blind randomized trials which include an active control group as

  15. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Merma Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the American Psychological Association (APA. The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific article is coherent with these rules. Overall, the rubric will concentrate on General Aspects of the article and on the Citation System. To do this, 10 articles that were published within 2012-2016 and included in the Journal Citation Report will be analyzed using technical expertise. After doing 5 pilot studies, the results showed the validity and the reliability of the instrument. Furthermore, the process showed the evidence of the possibilities of the rubric to contribute to uniform criteria that can be used as a didactic tool in different scenarios.

  16. Strengthen scientific evidence and its use to inform policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will deliver an expanded resource pool of climate scientists, negotiators, and ... dialogues, six national adaptation documents, and two scientific papers. ... Adaptation strategies for two Colombian cities were discussed at ADAPTO's ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  17. Promoting Scientific Faculties: Does It Work? Evidence from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    In reaction to the OECD-wide declining trend in scientific enrollments, the Italian government launched a policy in 2005 to promote the study of science at the university. The policy promoted extra-curricular activities for secondary school students in Chemistry, Physics, Math and Materials Science. This article evaluates the policy impact on…

  18. Authorization of Animal Experiments Is Based on Confidence Rather than Evidence of Scientific Rigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, Christina; Würbel, Hanno

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates high risk of bias in preclinical animal research, questioning the scientific validity and reproducibility of published research findings. Systematic reviews found low rates of reporting of measures against risks of bias in the published literature (e.g., randomization, blinding, sample size calculation) and a correlation between low reporting rates and inflated treatment effects. That most animal research undergoes peer review or ethical review would offer the possibility to detect risks of bias at an earlier stage, before the research has been conducted. For example, in Switzerland, animal experiments are licensed based on a detailed description of the study protocol and a harm–benefit analysis. We therefore screened applications for animal experiments submitted to Swiss authorities (n = 1,277) for the rates at which the use of seven basic measures against bias (allocation concealment, blinding, randomization, sample size calculation, inclusion/exclusion criteria, primary outcome variable, and statistical analysis plan) were described and compared them with the reporting rates of the same measures in a representative sub-sample of publications (n = 50) resulting from studies described in these applications. Measures against bias were described at very low rates, ranging on average from 2.4% for statistical analysis plan to 19% for primary outcome variable in applications for animal experiments, and from 0.0% for sample size calculation to 34% for statistical analysis plan in publications from these experiments. Calculating an internal validity score (IVS) based on the proportion of the seven measures against bias, we found a weak positive correlation between the IVS of applications and that of publications (Spearman’s rho = 0.34, p = 0.014), indicating that the rates of description of these measures in applications partly predict their rates of reporting in publications. These results indicate that the authorities licensing

  19. 20 CFR 219.33 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 219.33... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.33 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a deemed valid marriage is— (1) Evidence of a ceremonial marriage...

  20. Scientific Evidence on the Supportive Cancer Care with Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William CS CHO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.

  1. [Evidence-based medicine: modern scientific methods for determining usefulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J G

    1999-01-01

    For quite some time, clinical epidemiology has introduced the art of critical appraisal of evidence as well as the methods of how to design sound clinical studies and trials. Almost unnoticed by most medical institutions a new hierarchy of evidence has emerged which puts well thought out trials, able to document unbiased treatment benefit in terms of patient suffering, above pathophysiological theory. Many controlled trials have shown, in the meantime, that the control of laboratory or other kind of pathologies and the correction of anatomical abnormalities do not necessarily mean a benefit for the patient. Concepts relating to this dissection of evidence include: Surrogate fallacy ("cosmetics" of laboratory results or ligament or cartilage "cosmetics" in surgery), confounding (spurious causal relationships), selection bias (comparison with selected groups) as well as lead-time bias (mistaking earlier diagnosis as increase of survival), length bias (overlooking differences in the aggressiveness of diseases as determinants of disease stage distributions) and overdiagnosis bias (mistaking the increasing detection of clinically silent pathologies as improvement of prognosis). Moreover, absolute instead of relative risk reduction needs to be used to measure patient benefit. The incorporation of decision-analysis and of the concepts or clinical epidemiology will improve the efficiency and quality of medicine much more effectively than the sole focus on technical medical performance. Evidence based medicine is the systematic and critical appraisal of medical interventions, based on the understanding how to avoid the fallacies and biases mentioned.

  2. Validity of a structured method of selecting abstracts for a plastic surgical scientific meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, LPE; Hage, JJ; Kon, M; Monstrey, SJ

    In 1999, the European Association of Plastic Surgeons accepted a structured method to assess and select the abstracts that are submitted for its yearly scientific meeting. The two criteria used to evaluate whether such a selection method is accurate were reliability and validity. The authors

  3. Extending Validity Evidence for Multidimensional Measures of Coaching Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Maier, Kimberly S.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Reckase, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    This study extended validity evidence for multidimensional measures of coaching competency derived from the Coaching Competency Scale (CCS; Myers, Feltz, Maier, Wolfe, & Reckase, 2006) by examining use of the original rating scale structure and testing how measures related to satisfaction with the head coach within teams and between teams.…

  4. Literature evidence in open targets - a target validation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Dunham, Ian; McEntyre, Johanna

    2017-06-06

    We present the Europe PMC literature component of Open Targets - a target validation platform that integrates various evidence to aid drug target identification and validation. The component identifies target-disease associations in documents and ranks the documents based on their confidence from the Europe PMC literature database, by using rules utilising expert-provided heuristic information. The confidence score of a given document represents how valuable the document is in the scope of target validation for a given target-disease association by taking into account the credibility of the association based on the properties of the text. The component serves the platform regularly with the up-to-date data since December, 2015. Currently, there are a total number of 1168365 distinct target-disease associations text mined from >26 million PubMed abstracts and >1.2 million Open Access full text articles. Our comparative analyses on the current available evidence data in the platform revealed that 850179 of these associations are exclusively identified by literature mining. This component helps the platform's users by providing the most relevant literature hits for a given target and disease. The text mining evidence along with the other types of evidence can be explored visually through https://www.targetvalidation.org and all the evidence data is available for download in json format from https://www.targetvalidation.org/downloads/data .

  5. What Constitutes Science and Scientific Evidence: Roles of Null Hypothesis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We briefly discuss the philosophical basis of science, causality, and scientific evidence, by introducing the hidden but most fundamental principle of science: the similarity principle. The principle's use in scientific discovery is illustrated with Simpson's paradox and other examples. In discussing the value of null hypothesis statistical…

  6. An Integrative Review of Scientific Evidence for Reconnective Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Natalie L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Biofield therapies offer a novel, non-invasive approach to treating chronic diseases based on assessing and adjusting an individual's physiological and emotional responses through their bio-energetic field. Reconnective Healing™ (RH) is defined as: “…not just energy healing, but instead a more comprehensive spectrum of healing composed of energy, light, and information.” Objectives: Several biofield therapies, such as Reiki, Therapeutic Touch and Johrei, have already been reviewed in the literature but RH has received little attention even though it is taught and practiced worldwide. This review provides a critical assessment of RH as a healing modality. Methods: Scientific research articles published in peer-reviewed journals addressing RH were identified using relevant databases and archives. Information was extracted from each article that met selection criteria for evaluation of quality of reporting and design. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the five currently published peer-reviewed research papers involving RH and assesses whether RH provides consistent physiological outcomes between the studies. Results: These results, taken together, suggest: (i) exposure of a healer or healee to RH, either directly or indirectly, amplifies their degree of autonomic arousal and energy, (ii) RH can reduce pain and improve range of motion in people with shoulder limitations, and (iii) when individuals experience RH as a group, their autonomic nervous systems simultaneously show sudden similar responses consistent with the idea that RH is mitigated by entrainment of biofields. Conclusions: Since these studies are extremely varied in design it is not possible at this point to reach conclusions about the general effectiveness of RH. More clinical and physiological research performed on different populations under a range of conditions is needed in order to support this healthcare approach. PMID:28654301

  7. Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Nunn, Charles L.; Vincent, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat destruction and infectious disease are dual threats to nature and people. The potential to simultaneously advance conservation and human health has attracted considerable scientific and popular interest; in particular, many authors have justified conservation action by pointing out potential public health benefits . One major focus of this debate—that biodiversity conservation often decreases infectious disease transmission via the dilution effect—remains contentious. Studies that test for a dilution effect often find a negative association between a diversity metric and a disease risk metric, but how such associations should inform conservation policy remains unclear for several reasons. For one, diversity and infection risk have many definitions, making it possible to identify measures that conform to expectations. Furthermore, the premise that habitat destruction consistently reduces biodiversity is in question, and disturbance or conservation can affect disease in many ways other than through biodiversity change. To date, few studies have examined the broader set of mechanisms by which anthropogenic disturbance or conservation might increase or decrease infectious disease risk to human populations. Due to interconnections between biodiversity change, economics and human behaviour, moving from ecological theory to policy action requires understanding how social and economic factors affect conservation.This Theme Issue arose from a meeting aimed at synthesizing current theory and data on ‘biodiversity, conservation and infectious disease’ (4–6 May 2015). Ecologists, evolutionary biologists, economists, epidemiologists, veterinary scientists, public health professionals, and conservation biologists from around the world discussed the latest research on the ecological and socio-economic links between conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease, and the open questions and controversies in these areas. By combining ecological understanding

  8. Developing instruments concerning scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two survey instruments to evaluate high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The initial relationships between the sampled students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science were also investigated. A final valid sample of 600 volunteer Taiwanese high school students participated in this survey by responding to the Scientific Epistemic Beliefs Instrument (SEBI) and the Goal Orientations in Learning Science Instrument (GOLSI). Through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the SEBI and GOLSI were proven to be valid and reliable for assessing the participants' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The path analysis results indicated that, by and large, the students with more sophisticated epistemic beliefs in various dimensions such as Development of Knowledge, Justification for Knowing, and Purpose of Knowing tended to adopt both Mastery-approach and Mastery-avoidance goals. Some interesting results were also found. For example, the students tended to set a learning goal to outperform others or merely demonstrate competence (Performance-approach) if they had more informed epistemic beliefs in the dimensions of Multiplicity of Knowledge, Uncertainty of Knowledge, and Purpose of Knowing.

  9. 20 CFR 404.727 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 404.727... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.727 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) General. A deemed valid marriage is a ceremonial marriage we consider valid even...

  10. Design and validation of general biology learning program based on scientific inquiry skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, R.; Mardiana, D.; Noviantoro, N.

    2018-03-01

    Scientific inquiry is highly recommended to teach science. The reality in the schools and colleges is that many educators still have not implemented inquiry learning because of their lack of understanding. The study aims to1) analyze students’ difficulties in learning General Biology, 2) design General Biology learning program based on multimedia-assisted scientific inquiry learning, and 3) validate the proposed design. The method used was Research and Development. The subjects of the study were 27 pre-service students of general elementary school/Islamic elementary schools. The workflow of program design includes identifying learning difficulties of General Biology, designing course programs, and designing instruments and assessment rubrics. The program design is made for four lecture sessions. Validation of all learning tools were performed by expert judge. The results showed that: 1) there are some problems identified in General Biology lectures; 2) the designed products include learning programs, multimedia characteristics, worksheet characteristics, and, scientific attitudes; and 3) expert validation shows that all program designs are valid and can be used with minor revisions. The first section in your paper.

  11. Evidence of Validity of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Silva de Carvalho Chinelato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractJob crafting behavior refers to the changes made by workers in their job context for adjusting their activities to their preferences. We sought to adapt and collect validity evidences of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale for the Brazilian context, in a sample of 491 workers, with a mean age of 26.7 years. Factor analysis revealed that the final instrument consisted of three dimensions (increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, increasing challenging job demands, which showed good internal consistency indexes. These dimensions showed low or moderate correlations with work engagement, positive psychological capital, positive job affect, and in-role performance. The scale showed evidence of validity, the use of which is recommended for future research on the changes that people make in their jobs.

  12. Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

  13. Certainty in Stockpile Computing: Recommending a Verification and Validation Program for Scientific Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.

    1998-11-01

    As computing assumes a more central role in managing the nuclear stockpile, the consequences of an erroneous computer simulation could be severe. Computational failures are common in other endeavors and have caused project failures, significant economic loss, and loss of life. This report examines the causes of software failure and proposes steps to mitigate them. A formal verification and validation program for scientific software is recommended and described.

  14. Predicting environmental aspects of CCSR leachates through the application of scientifically valid leaching protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassett, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The disposal of solid wastes from energy production, particularly solid wastes from coal conversion processes, requires a thorough understanding of the waste material as well as the disposal environment. Many coal conversion solid residues (CCSRs) have chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties advantageous for use as engineering construction materials and in other industrial applications. If disposal is to be the final disposition of CCSRs from any source, the very properties that can make ash useful also contribute to behavior that must be understood for scientifically logical and environmentally responsible disposal. This paper describes the application of scientifically valid leaching and characterization tests designed to predict field phenomena. The key to proper characterization of these unique materials is the recognition of and compensation for the hydration reactions that can occur during long-term leaching. Many of these reactions, such as the formation of the mineral ettringite, can have a profound effect on the concentration of potentially problematic trace elements such as boron, chromium, and selenium. The mobility of these elements, which may be concentrated in CCSRs due to the conversion process, must be properly evaluated for the formation of informed and scientifically sound decisions regarding safe disposal. Groundwater is an extremely important and relatively scarce resource. Contamination of this resource is a threat to life, which is highly dependent on it, so management of materials that can impact groundwater must be carefully planned and executed. The application of scientifically valid leaching protocols and complete testing are critical to proper waste management

  15. Frames of scientific evidence: How journalists represent the (un)certainty of molecular medicine in science television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhrmann, Georg; Guenther, Lars; Kessler, Sabrina Heike; Milde, Jutta

    2015-08-01

    For laypeople, media coverage of science on television is a gateway to scientific issues. Defining scientific evidence is central to the field of science, but there are still questions if news coverage of science represents scientific research findings as certain or uncertain. The framing approach is a suitable framework to classify different media representations; it is applied here to investigate the frames of scientific evidence in film clips (n=207) taken from science television programs. Molecular medicine is the domain of interest for this analysis, due to its high proportion of uncertain and conflicting research findings and risks. The results indicate that television clips vary in their coverage of scientific evidence of molecular medicine. Four frames were found: Scientific Uncertainty and Controversy, Scientifically Certain Data, Everyday Medical Risks, and Conflicting Scientific Evidence. They differ in their way of framing scientific evidence and risks of molecular medicine. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Scientific Basis and Clinical Application-A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greher, Michael R; Wodushek, Thomas R

    2017-03-01

    Performance validity testing refers to neuropsychologists' methodology for determining whether neuropsychological test performances completed in the course of an evaluation are valid (ie, the results of true neurocognitive function) or invalid (ie, overly impacted by the patient's effort/engagement in testing). This determination relies upon the use of either standalone tests designed for this sole purpose, or specific scores/indicators embedded within traditional neuropsychological measures that have demonstrated this utility. In response to a greater appreciation for the critical role that performance validity issues play in neuropsychological testing and the need to measure this variable to the best of our ability, the scientific base for performance validity testing has expanded greatly over the last 20 to 30 years. As such, the majority of current day neuropsychologists in the United States use a variety of measures for the purpose of performance validity testing as part of everyday forensic and clinical practice and address this issue directly in their evaluations. The following is the first article of a 2-part series that will address the evolution of performance validity testing in the field of neuropsychology, both in terms of the science as well as the clinical application of this measurement technique. The second article of this series will review performance validity tests in terms of methods for development of these measures, and maximizing of diagnostic accuracy.

  17. Examining the impact of sexism on evaluations of social scientific evidence in discrimination litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anita; Tidwell, Natasha

    2014-12-01

    The present 2 studies involved undergraduate participants and investigated whether various types of sexism and other correlated predictors, such as political conservatism and scientific discounting, can predict people's evaluations of social science research on sex stereotypes, sexism, and sex discrimination. In Study 1, participants high in hostile sexism, scientific discounting, and/or political conservatism were more critical of scientific studies that provided evidence for sexism than identical studies showing null results. Study 2 showed that participants high in modern sexism, hostile sexism, and political conservatism evaluated social scientific studies more negatively; in addition, assessments of social scientific evidence quality mediated the effect of modern sexism on admissibility ratings (b = -0.15, z = -4.16, p = .00). Overall, these results suggest that sexist beliefs can bias one's judgments of social scientific evidence. Future research should explore whether the same psychological processes operate for judges and jurors as they evaluate the admissibility of evidence and examine ways to attenuate the effect of sexism on evaluations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Homosexuality and scientific evidence: On suspect anecdotes, antiquated data, and broad generalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Kinney, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association have suggested for many years now that there is significant empirical evidence supporting the claim that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation as opposed to a mental disorder. This paper summarizes and analyzes that purported scientific evidence and explains that much (if not all) of the evidence is irrelevant and does not support the homosexuality-is-not-a-mental-disorder claim. As a resul...

  19. Potential Use of Euphorbia hirta for Dengue: A Systematic Review of Scientific Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sashini D. Perera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia hirta commonly known as Tawa-Tawa is a plant used in folklore medicine in the Philippines for the treatment of dengue. Though, E. hirta has been extensively investigated for numerous bioactivities, limited studies have been conducted on the antidengue activity. Thus, the present study provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted on the antidengue activity of E. hirta. A systematic literature survey was carried out in scientific databases, PubMed®, Scopus, and Google Scholar, for research carried on the antidengue activity of E. hirta. The literature search identified a total of 867 articles: databases PubMed = 6, Scopus SciVerse® = 423, and Google Scholar = 437; one additional article was identified by searching reference lists. Eight full papers were entitled to the review; out of those, two studies focused on ethnobotanical surveys, three on animal experiments, one on human trial, and two on in vitro antiviral activities, and one was computational study. The available evidence conclusively demonstrates the potential of E. hirta against dengue as it holds significant antiviral and platelet increasing activities. However, the number of studies conducted to validate its antidengue activity was found to be inadequate. Hence, well-controlled clinical trials and contemporary pharmacological approaches including activity guided fractionation and elucidation of the mode of action are encouraged to establish the use of E. hirta for dengue.

  20. Homosexuality and scientific evidence: On suspect anecdotes, antiquated data, and broad generalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    The American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association have suggested for many years now that there is significant empirical evidence supporting the claim that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation as opposed to a mental disorder. This paper summarizes and analyzes that purported scientific evidence and explains that much (if not all) of the evidence is irrelevant and does not support the homosexuality-is-not-a-mental-disorder claim. As a result of their deficiencies and arbitrariness, the credibility those two groups that are typically deemed authoritative and trustworthy is called into question. Lay summary: At one time, homosexuality was considered to be mentally disordered. Since the 1970s, however, major medical associations in the U.S. have labeled homosexuality as a normal counterpart of heterosexuality. Those medical associations have proposed that their homosexuality-is-normal claim is based on "scientific evidence." This article critically reviews that "scientific evidence" and finds that much of their literature does not support the claim that homosexuality is normal. This article suggests that instead of supporting their claim with scientific evidence, those major medical associations arbitrarily label homosexuality as normal.

  1. 20 CFR 404.725 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.725 Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. (a) General. A valid ceremonial marriage is one that follows procedures set by law in...

  2. Criminal profiling as expert witness evidence: The implications of the profiler validity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Palermo, George B

    The use and development of the investigative tool colloquially known as criminal profiling has steadily increased over the past five decades throughout the world. Coupled with this growth has been a diversification in the suggested range of applications for this technique. Possibly the most notable of these has been the attempted transition of the technique from a tool intended to assist police investigations into a form of expert witness evidence admissible in legal proceedings. Whilst case law in various jurisdictions has considered with mutual disinclination the evidentiary admissibility of criminal profiling, a disjunction has evolved between these judicial examinations and the scientifically vetted research testing the accuracy (i.e., validity) of the technique. This article offers an analysis of the research directly testing the validity of the criminal profiling technique and the extant legal principles considering its evidentiary admissibility. This analysis reveals that research findings concerning the validity of criminal profiling are surprisingly compatible with the extant legal principles. The overall conclusion is that a discrete form of crime behavioural analysis is supported by the profiler validity research and could be regarded as potentially admissible expert witness evidence. Finally, a number of theoretical connections are also identified concerning the skills and qualifications of individuals who may feasibly provide such expert testimony. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SEE: structured representation of scientific evidence in the biomedical domain using Semantic Web techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölling, Christian; Weidlich, Michael; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2014-01-01

    Accounts of evidence are vital to evaluate and reproduce scientific findings and integrate data on an informed basis. Currently, such accounts are often inadequate, unstandardized and inaccessible for computational knowledge engineering even though computational technologies, among them those of the semantic web, are ever more employed to represent, disseminate and integrate biomedical data and knowledge. We present SEE (Semantic EvidencE), an RDF/OWL based approach for detailed representation of evidence in terms of the argumentative structure of the supporting background for claims even in complex settings. We derive design principles and identify minimal components for the representation of evidence. We specify the Reasoning and Discourse Ontology (RDO), an OWL representation of the model of scientific claims, their subjects, their provenance and their argumentative relations underlying the SEE approach. We demonstrate the application of SEE and illustrate its design patterns in a case study by providing an expressive account of the evidence for certain claims regarding the isolation of the enzyme glutamine synthetase. SEE is suited to provide coherent and computationally accessible representations of evidence-related information such as the materials, methods, assumptions, reasoning and information sources used to establish a scientific finding by adopting a consistently claim-based perspective on scientific results and their evidence. SEE allows for extensible evidence representations, in which the level of detail can be adjusted and which can be extended as needed. It supports representation of arbitrary many consecutive layers of interpretation and attribution and different evaluations of the same data. SEE and its underlying model could be a valuable component in a variety of use cases that require careful representation or examination of evidence for data presented on the semantic web or in other formats.

  4. Validity of Scientific Based Chemistry Android Module to Empower Science Process Skills (SPS) in Solubility Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrakusuma, B.; Masykuri, M.; Ulfa, M.

    2018-04-01

    Evolution of Android technology can be applied to chemistry learning, one of the complex chemistry concept was solubility equilibrium. this concept required the science process skills (SPS). This study aims to: 1) Characteristic scientific based chemistry Android module to empowering SPS, and 2) Validity of the module based on content validity and feasibility test. This research uses a Research and Development approach (RnD). Research subjects were 135 s1tudents and three teachers at three high schools in Boyolali, Central of Java. Content validity of the module was tested by seven experts using Aiken’s V technique, and the module feasibility was tested to students and teachers in each school. Characteristics of chemistry module can be accessed using the Android device. The result of validation of the module contents got V = 0.89 (Valid), and the results of the feasibility test Obtained 81.63% (by the student) and 73.98% (by the teacher) indicates this module got good criteria.

  5. Scientific Data and Its Limits: Rethinking the Use of Evidence in Local Climate Change Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Climate policy is typically seen as informed by scientific evidence that anthropogenic carbon emissions require reducing in order to avoid dangerous consequences. However, agreement on these matters has not translated into effective policy. Using interviews with local authority officials in the UK's East Midlands region, this paper argues that the…

  6. CryoSat Mission over the Ocean: A Review of Product Validations, Evolutions and Scientific Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, J.; Abdalla, S.; Bojkov, B.; Calafat, F. M.; Cipollini, P.; Féménias, P.; Leuliette, E. W.; Naeije, M.; Parrinello, T.; Schrama, E. J. O.; Snaith, H. M.; Urien, S.

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the status of the CryoSat (CS) Mission over the ocean. Launched in 2010, the polar-orbiting CS was primarily developed to measure the changes in the thickness of polar sea ice and the elevation of the ice sheets. Going beyond its ice-monitoring objective, CS is also a valuable source of data for the oceanographic community. The satellite's radar altimeter can indeed measure high resolution Sea-Level Height (SSH), Significant Wave Height (SWH), and Wind Speed (WS) from the open-ocean to the coast. To enable their full scientific and operational exploitation, the CS ocean products continuously evolve and need to be thoroughly validated via science-oriented diagnostics based on in situ data, models and other satellite missions. In support to ESA, the CS ocean validation team (NOCS, ECMWF and TU Delft/DEOS) conjointly conduct these analysis for both the near real time and offline products for the SSH, the SWH, and the WS parameters. The SSH is validated at the coast against sea level measured by a set of carefully selected tide gauges, HF radars and with the help of tools from the Radar Altimetry Database System (RADS). In the open ocean, the SSH is compared globally with the steric heights derived from ARGO temperature and salinity profiles. Near real time WS and SWH are monitored and validated against the corresponding parameters from ECMWF Integrated Forecast System (IFS), the Wavewatch III model, in-situ buoy and platform instruments as well as from other altimetric missions (Jason2 and Saral/AltiKa). Numerical experiments with CS SWH data assimilation have been recently conducted, showing positive impact on ECMWF model analysis and forecasts and leading to the operational assimilation of CS SWH in IFS. Based on the outcomes from these analysis and the scientific exploitations of CS over the ocean, ESA intends to upgrade the CryoSat Ocean processing chain for 2016.

  7. 76 FR 28781 - Independent Scientific Peer Review Panel Report: Evaluation of the Validation Status of an In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM) recommended that the BG1Luc ER TA... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Independent Scientific Peer Review Panel Report: Evaluation of the Validation Status of an In Vitro Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activation Test Method...

  8. An evidence-based patient-centered method makes the biopsychosocial model scientific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert C; Fortin, Auguste H; Dwamena, Francesca; Frankel, Richard M

    2013-06-01

    To review the scientific status of the biopsychosocial (BPS) model and to propose a way to improve it. Engel's BPS model added patients' psychological and social health concerns to the highly successful biomedical model. He proposed that the BPS model could make medicine more scientific, but its use in education, clinical care, and, especially, research remains minimal. Many aver correctly that the present model cannot be defined in a consistent way for the individual patient, making it untestable and non-scientific. This stems from not obtaining relevant BPS data systematically, where one interviewer obtains the same information another would. Recent research by two of the authors has produced similar patient-centered interviewing methods that are repeatable and elicit just the relevant patient information needed to define the model at each visit. We propose that the field adopt these evidence-based methods as the standard for identifying the BPS model. Identifying a scientific BPS model in each patient with an agreed-upon, evidence-based patient-centered interviewing method can produce a quantum leap ahead in both research and teaching. A scientific BPS model can give us more confidence in being humanistic. In research, we can conduct more rigorous studies to inform better practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence about health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the gap between consumer perception and scientific evidence related to health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption. Consumer perceptions from a cross-sectional survey in March 2003 in Belgium were compared with scientific evidence based on a literature review. A quota sampling procedure was used with age as quota control variable. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire including health benefit beliefs from fish, fish content and effect beliefs for nutrients and harmful substances. Adults (n=429), who were the main person responsible for food purchasing in the household (284 women; 145 men), aged 18-83 years, from different regional, education, family size and income groups. Fish is predominantly perceived as a healthy food that reduces risk for coronary heart disease, which corroborates scientific evidence. This perception is stronger among women than among men. In contrast with scientific evidence, 46% of the consumers believe that fish contains dietary fibre, whereas less than one-third is aware that fish contains omega-3 fatty acids and that this nutrient has a positive impact on human health. The gap between perception and evidence is larger among consumers with lower education. In general, consumers are better aware of the content and effect of harmful substances than of nutrients in fish. Despite conclusive evidence about the content and positive effect of omega-3 fatty acids in fish, related consumer awareness and beliefs are poor and often wrong. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about the health benefits of fish consumption.

  10. [Phytotherapy in urology. Current scientific evidence of its application in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, E; Budía, A; Broseta, E; Boronat, F

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of phytotherapy in the treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic adenocarcinoma (ADCP). Systematic review of the evidence published until January 2011 using the following scientific terms: phytotherapy, benign prostate hyperplasia, prostatic adenocarcinoma, prostate cancer and the scientific names of compounds following the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. The databases used were Medline and The Cochrane Library. We included articles published until January 2011 written in English and Spanish. We included studies in vitro/in vivo on animal models or human beings. Exclusion criteria were literature not in English and Spanish or articles with serious methodological flaws. We included 65 articles of which 40 met the inclusion criteria. BPH: the most studied products are serenoa repens and pygeum africanum. There are many studies in favour of the use of phytotherapy but its conclusions are inconsistent due to the small number of patients, the lack of control with placebo or short follow-up. However the use of these products is common in our environment. ADCP: there is no evidence to recommend phytotherapy in the treatment of the ADCP. There are works on prevention but only at experimental level so there is no evidence for its recommendation. The scientific evidence on the use of phytotherapy in prostatic pathology is conclusive not recommend ing the use of it for BPH or the ADCP. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. High spatial resolution satellite observations for validation of MODIS land products: IKONOS observations acquired under the NASA scientific data purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey T. Morisette; Jaime E. Nickeson; Paul Davis; Yujie Wang; Yuhong Tian; Curtis E. Woodcock; Nikolay Shabanov; Matthew Hansen; Warren B. Cohen; Doug R. Oetter; Robert E. Kennedy

    2003-01-01

    Phase 1I of the Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) has provided NASA investigators access to data from four different satellite and airborne data sources. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) land discipline team (MODLAND) sought to utilize these data in support of land product validation activities with a lbcus on tile EOS Land Validation Core Sites. These...

  12. Korean consumers' perceptions of health/functional food claims according to the strength of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Eun Jin; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we investigated that consumers could differentiate between levels of claims and clarify how a visual aid influences consumer understanding of the different claim levels. We interviewed 2,000 consumers in 13 shopping malls on their perception of and confidence in different levels of health claims using seven point scales. The average confidence scores given by participants were 4.17 for the probable level and 4.07 for the possible level; the score for the probable level was significantly higher than that for the possible level (P consumers understand the strength of scientific evidence behind those claims. Moreover, when a visual aid was included, consumers perceived the scientific levels more clearly and had greater confidence in their meanings than when a visual aid was not included. Although this result suggests that consumers react differently to different claim levels, it is not yet clear whether consumers understand the variations in the degree of scientific support.

  13. Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) as a superfood: Review of the scientific evidence behind the statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamec, Dunja; Urlić, Branimir; Salopek-Sondi, Branka

    2018-03-20

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a cruciferous vegetable, characterized by leaves along the stem, which, in recent years, have gained a great popularity as a ´superfood´. Consequently, in a popular culture it is listed in many ´lists of the healthiest vegetables´. Without the doubt, a scientific evidences support the fact that cruciferous vegetables included in human diet can positively affect health and well-being, but remains unclear why kale is declared superior in comparison with other cruciferous. It is questionable if this statement about kale is triggered by scientific evidence or by some other factors. Our review aims to bring an overview of kale's botanical characteristics, agronomic requirements, contemporary and traditional use, macronutrient and phytochemical content and biological activity, in order to point out the reasons for tremendous kale popularity.

  14. From empiricism to scientific evidence: The value of proverbs in food and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Celada

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our life is full of sayings, which reflect the tradition of millennia and speak in the mouth of experience, and this is even more evident when it comes to nutrition or food, which is the link between health, disease, food security and happiness. In this short paper we have reviewed some central proverbs that are part of our daily work, its meaning and the scientific evidence and studies that endorse or deny such aphorisms. A total of 55 have been collected, which we believe to be very relevant, since a higher number of them would probably tire the reader and make our effort vain.

  15. Applying hospital evidence to paramedicine: issues of indirectness, validity and knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Blair; Welsford, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    The practice of emergency medicine (EM) has been intertwined with emergency medical services (EMS) for more than 40 years. In this commentary, we explore the practice of translating hospital based evidence into the prehospital setting. We will challenge both EMS and EM dogma-bringing hospital care to patients in the field is not always better. In providing examples of therapies championed in hospitals that have failed to translate into the field, we will discuss the unique prehospital environment, and why evidence from the hospital setting cannot necessarily be translated to the prehospital field. Paramedicine is maturing so that the capability now exists to conduct practice-specific research that can inform best practices. Before translation from the hospital environment is implemented, evidence must be evaluated by people with expertise in three domains: critical appraisal, EM, and EMS. Scientific evidence should be assessed for: quality and bias; directness, generalizability, and validity to the EMS population; effect size and anticipated benefit from prehospital application; feasibility (including economic evaluation, human resource availability in the mobile environment); and patient and provider safety.

  16. Herbs with potential nephrotoxic effects according to traditional Persian medicine: Review and assessment of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolangi, Fatemeh; Memariani, Zahra; Bozorgi, Mahboubeh; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali; Mirzapour, Mohaddeseh

    2018-04-03

    The increased use of herbal remedies particularly in patients with kidney diseases indicated the importance of studies which focused on nephrotoxic plants. The present study aimed to review and assess the kidney-damaging herbs mentioned in the Persian medicine [PM] books. The main PM books were searched for nephrotoxic herbs and their relevant reformers traditionally proposed for preventing renal damage. PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were investigated for evaluation of the scientific evidence relating to the nephrotoxicity of herbs. A total of 64 plants with kidney damage potential and their reformer medicaments were recorded in 7 sources included in this review. Allium schoenoprasum and Marrubium vulgare were the most repeated and emphasized nephrotoxic plants in PM books, but there was not any relevant scientific evidence. Despite the lack of clinical studies, some evidence was found for 38% of plants that were related to renal damage. The most repeated reformers for reducing the renal side effects mainly consisted of gum tragacanth, gum Arabic, mastic gum, anise, jujube and honey and some evidence was found for their nephroprotective activities. The present study reviewed and assessed the herbs with adverse renal effects in the main PM books. Some evidence was in line with the potential nephrotoxicity of plants and their ‎reformers. Despite the lack of clinical research for evaluation of their renal damage, the herbs may be focused in term of their nephrotoxicity; and there is a need for further studies on the scientific basis of their nephrotoxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Stem cell therapy in spinal trauma: Does it have scientific validity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvinder Singh Chhabra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based interventions aim to use special regenerative cells (stem cells to facilitate neuronal function beyond the site of the injury. Many studies involving animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI suggest that certain stem cell-based therapies may restore function after SCI. Currently, in case of spinal cord injuries, new discoveries with clinical implications have been continuously made in basic stem cell research, and stem cell-based approaches are advancing rapidly toward application in patients. There is a huge base of preclinical evidence in vitro and in animal models which suggests the safety and clinical efficacy of cellular therapies after SCI. Despite this, data from clinical studies is not very encouraging and at times confounding. Here, we have attempted to cover preclinical and clinical evidence base dealing with safety, feasibility and efficacy of cell based interventions after SCI. The limitations of preclinical data and the reasons underlying its failure to translate in a clinical setting are also discussed. Based on the evidence base, it is suggested that a multifactorial approach is required to address this situation. Need for standardized, stringently designed multi-centric clinical trials for obtaining validated proof of evidence is also highlighted.

  18. [Complementary medicine for low back pain : what is the scientific evidence ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveni, Éléonore; Berna, Chantal; Rodondi, Pierre-Yves

    2017-06-21

    Complementary medicines are frequently used by chronic pain patients. It is a challenge for the primary care physician to provide objective information based on the scientific literature. Meta-analyses have shown favourable effects of acupuncture, therapeutic massage and osteopathy for patients with acute low back pain. Concerning chronic low back pain, meta-analyses have shown positive results with acupuncture, osteopathy, yoga and tai-chi. Other therapies have shown positive effects, but further trials are necessary to fully validate them. This article reviews the literature supporting the most studied complementary medicines.

  19. Concussions: What a neurosurgeon should know about current scientific evidence and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Matthew T.; Wilson, Jonathan L.; Hsu, Wesley; Powers, Alexander K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There has been a tremendous amount of interest focused on the topic of concussions over the past few decades. Neurosurgeons are frequently consulted to manage patients with mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) that have radiographic evidence of cerebral injury. These injuries share significant overlap with concussions, injuries that typically do not reveal radiographic evidence of structural injury, in the realms of epidemiology, pathophysiology, outcomes, and management. Further, neurosurgeons often manage patients with extracranial injuries that have concomitant concussions. In these cases, neurosurgeons are often the only “concussion experts” that patients encounter. Results: The literature has been reviewed and data have been synthesized on the topic including sections on historical background, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic advances, clinical sequelae, and treatment suggestions, with neurosurgeons as the intended target audience. Conclusions: Neurosurgeons should have a fundamental knowledge of the scientific evidence that has developed regarding concussions and be prepared to guide patients with treatment plans. PMID:22439107

  20. EVIDENCES OF SCIENTIFIC MIRACLE OF AL-QUR’AN IN THE MODERN ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sukmanila Sayska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the miracles of al-Qur’an is i’jaz ilmi, it’s meant the information of al-Qur’an about science which is then able revealed and proven in accordance with the development of science. I’jaz ilmi does not present itself, but should be explored and researched, so that the evidence of i’jaz ilmi can be more and more and grow over time. Scientists gave the parable is like a spring that never runs dry. Every time always comes new discoveries and scientific provisions which already hinted at al-Qur’an for 14 centuries ago as evidence of i’jaz. I’jaz ilmi later became a effective propaganda media, especially among scientists. Many cases found confession of scientists when they were able to prove the truth of which is informed by al-Qur’an. In addition, evidence of ilmi i’jaz is able to ward off external oblique view of Islam that al-Qur’an is man work, because when they know that what is described by al- Qur’an has been proved by modern scientific discoveries, and eventually they acknowledges that al-Qur’an is really the word of God

  1. Arthroplasty knee registry of Catalonia: What scientific evidence supports the implantation of our prosthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego Alonso, R; Gaviria Parada, E; Pons Cabrafiga, M; Espallargues Carreras, M; Martinez Cruz, O

    2018-02-28

    In our environment, it is increasingly necessary to perform an activity based on scientific evidence and the field of prosthetic surgery should be governed by the same principles. The national arthroplasty registries allow us to obtain a large amount of data in order to evaluate this technique. The aim of our study is to analyse the scientific evidence that supports the primary total knee arthroplasties implanted in Catalonian public hospitals, based on the Arthoplasty Registry of Catalonia (RACat) MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review of the literature was carried out on knee prostheses (cruciate retaining, posterior stabilized, constricted and rotational) recorded in RACat between the period 2005-2013 in the following databases: Orthopedic Data Evaluation Panel, PubMed, TripDatabase and Google Scholar. The prostheses implanted in fewer than 10 units (1,358 prostheses corresponding to 62 models) were excluded. 41,947 prostheses (96.86%) were analysed out of 43,305 implanted, corresponding to 74 different models. In 13 models (n = 4,715) (11.24%) no clinical evidence to support their use was found. In the remaining 36 models (n = 13,609) (32.45%), level iv studies were the most predominant evidence. There was a significant number of implanted prostheses (11.24%) for which no clinical evidence was found. The number of models should be noted, 36 out of 110, with fewer than 10 units implanted. The use of arthroplasty registries has proved an extremely useful tool that allows us to analyse and draw conclusions in order to improve the efficiency of this surgical technique. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation of three different scientific ozone products retrieved from IASI spectra using ozonesondes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dufour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Three scientific ozone products from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI aboard MetOp-A, retrieved in three different research teams (LA, LATMOS/ULB, LISA with different retrieval schemes, are characterized and validated using ozonesondes measurements. The characteristics of the products are analyzed in terms of retrieval sensitivity, systematic and random errors, and ability to retrieve the natural variability of ozone and focus on different partial columns from the lower troposphere up to 30 km. The validation covers the midlatitudes and the tropics and the period from January to December 2008. The products present degrees of freedom (DOF in the troposphere between 1 and 1.2 on average in the midlatitudes and between 1 and 1.4 in the tropics. The DOF are distributed differently on the vertical depending on the profiles and the season: summer leading to a better sensitivity to the lower troposphere, as expected. The error estimates range between 10 and 20% from the lower tropospheric partial columns (0–6 km and 0–8 km for the midlatitudes and the tropics respectively to the UTLS partial columns (8–16 km and 11–20 km for the midlatitudes and the tropics respectively for all the products and are about 5% in the stratosphere (16–30 km and for the column up to 30 km. The main feature that arises from the comparison with the ozonesondes is a systematic overestimation of ozone in the UTLS (between 10 and 25% by the three products in the midlatitudes and the tropics, attributed to the moderate vertical resolution of IASI and possibly to spectroscopic inconsistencies. The ability of the products to reproduce natural variability of tropospheric ozone is fairly good and depends on the considered season and region.

  3. Health literacy, emotionality, scientific evidence: Elements of an effective communication in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasio, Luigi Roberto; Carducci, Annalaura; Fara, Gaetano Maria; Giammanco, Giuseppe; Lopalco, Pier Luigi

    2018-01-30

    The importance of healthcare providers' communication abilities is still underestimated. Informing the population on the basis of documented evidence is essential but not enough to induce a change in the beliefs of who is doubtful or does not accept preventive interventions, such as vaccination. Lining up the offer of prevention to the knowledge of the citizens, also improving Health Literacy skills, is a critical step toward their empowerment and behavior change. The 2017 Erice Declaration was drafted to propose to the Institutions and the scientific community the main goals to improve communication and counteract Vaccine Hesitancy, at a very critical time, when mandatory vaccination was introduced in Italy.

  4. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  5. Scientific evidence-based effects of hydrotherapy on various systems of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooventhan, A; Nivethitha, L

    2014-05-01

    The use of water for various treatments (hydrotherapy) is probably as old as mankind. Hydrotherapy is one of the basic methods of treatment widely used in the system of natural medicine, which is also called as water therapy, aquatic therapy, pool therapy, and balneotherapy. Use of water in various forms and in various temperatures can produce different effects on different system of the body. Many studies/reviews reported the effects of hydrotherapy only on very few systems and there is lack of studies/reviews in reporting the evidence-based effects of hydrotherapy on various systems. We performed PubMed and PubMed central search to review relevant articles in English literature based on "effects of hydrotherapy/balneotherapy" on various systems of the body. Based on the available literature this review suggests that the hydrotherapy has a scientific evidence-based effect on various systems of the body.

  6. European Union research in support of environment and health: Building scientific evidence base for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Tuomo; Hoeveler, Arnd; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2017-06-01

    Opinion polls show that the European Union citizens are increasingly concerned about the impact of environmental factors on their health. In order to respond and provide solid scientific evidence for the numerous policies related to the protection of human health and the environment managed at the Union level, the European Union made a substantial investment in research and innovation in the past two decades through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, including the current programme, Horizon 2020, which started in 2014. This policy review paper analysed the portfolio of forty collaborative projects relevant to environment and health, which received a total amount of around 228 million euros from the EU. It gives details on their contents and general scientific trends observed, the profiles of the participating countries and institutions, and the potential policy implications of the results obtained. The increasing knowledge base is needed to make informed policy decisions in Europe and beyond, and should be useful to many stakeholders including the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The nature of the scientific evidence leading to drug withdrawals for pharmacovigilance reasons in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Pascale; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2006-11-01

    Because of design, objectives and number of included subjects, clinical studies are insufficient to assess the safety of new drugs. Sometimes, serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) led to withdrawal of the drug from the market after their approval. The objective of our study was to determine the scientific evidences leading to drug withdrawal for pharmacovigilance reasons in France. Data coming from French Health Products Safety Agency, literature and Toulouse Pharmacovigilance Center allowed to identify all drugs withdrawn from the French market for pharmacovigilance reasons from 1998 to 2004. We classified data according to their study design (Randomized Clinical Trial [RCT], case serie or case report, case-control study, cohort study, observational study, animal study), the organ/system affected and the type of ADR. A total of 21 drugs were withdrawn for safety reasons between 1998 and 2004 in France. The most frequent ADRs were hepatic (n = 7), cardiovascular (n = 4) or neurological (n = 3) ones. Eleven withdrawals were due to type-B ('unexpected') reactions (52%). For 19 out of 21 drugs, scientific evidence leading to drug withdrawal came from spontaneous case reports (or case series). Among these, case reports were the sole evidence in 12 cases. Withdrawals were based on evidence from case reports in combination with case-control or cohort study in four cases, in combination with observational study in two cases or in combination with animal study in two other cases. In only one case, a RCT supported the decision. This study underlines the importance of spontaneous case reports in detecting signals and supporting withdrawal of drug for pharmacovigilance reasons in France. Health authorities suffer from lack of comparative data resource. In this perspective, a pharmaco-epidemiological population-based database could represent a helpful tool to both generate and test safety hypotheses.

  8. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merma Molina, Gladys; Peña Alfaro, Hilda; Peña Alfaro González, Silvia Rosa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the "American Psychological Association" (APA). The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific…

  9. Medicinal plants used to treat snakebite in Central America: Review and assessment of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2017-03-06

    Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. In Central America an estimated 5500 snakebite cases are reported by health centres, but this is likely to be an underestimate due to unreported cases in rural regions. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat snakebites in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. A literature search was performed on published primary data on medicinal plants of Central America and those specifically pertaining to use against snakebites. Plant use reports for traditional snakebite remedies identified in primary sources were extracted and entered in a database, with data analysed in terms of the most frequent numbers of use reports. The scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most frequently reported species was also examined. A total of 260 independent plant use reports were recorded in the 34 sources included in this review, encompassing 208 species used to treat snakebite in Central America. Only nine species were reported in at least three studies: Cissampelos pareira L., Piper amalago L., Aristolochia trilobata L., Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce, Strychnos panamensis Seem., Dorstenia contrajerva L., Scoparia dulcis L., Hamelia patens Jacq., and Simaba cedron Planch. Genera with the highest number of species used to treat snakebite were Piper, Aristolochia, Hamelia, Ipomoea, Passiflora and Peperomia. The extent of the scientific evidence available to understand any pharmacological basis for their use against snakebites varied between different plant species. At least 208 plant species are traditionally used to treat snakebite in Central America but there is a lack of clinical research to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Available pharmacological data suggest different plant species may target different symptoms of

  10. New Ways of Delivering Marine Scientific Evidence for Policy Needs in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, T.

    2016-12-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (Defra) is responsible for safeguarding the natural environment, supporting a world-leading food and farming industry, and sustaining a thriving rural economy. This includes the marine environment which makes a significant contribution to the economy of the UK through fisheries, aquaculture, transport, leisure and recreation, energy (including renewable), coastal tourism, and naval defence. The overall vision for the Defra marine programme is to therefore achieve clean, healthy, safe, productive and biologically diverse oceans and seas. In order to attain this it is essential that the decisions that government makes can be justified and that these decisions use the best available evidence and allow for any uncertainty. However, reductions across the budgets of departments such as Defra means that new ways of delivering evidence for policy needs must be sought. To do this we must consider marine monitoring efficiencies including the use of novel technologies, more integrated monitoring programmes, and greater collaboration with the research councils, industry, and academia. We must also seek to leverage other sources of funding from the European Union and other international partners. This presentation will address the main policy drivers (e.g. EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive) and future needs of the marine programme, the Defra Evidence Action Plan (EAP), and how we plan to use new avenues of gaining high quality marine scientific evidence in an era of declining budgets.

  11. [Handbook for the preparation of evidence-based documents. Tools derived from scientific knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Camacho, M R; Martínez-Brocca, M A; Paneque-Sánchez-Toscano, I; Valencia-Martín, R; Palomino-García, A; Muñoz-Durán, C; Tamayo-López, M J; González-Eiris-Delgado, C; Otero-Candelera, R; Ortega-Ruiz, F; Sobrino-Márquez, J M; Jiménez-García-Bóveda, R; Fernández-Quero, M; Campos-Pareja, A M

    2013-01-01

    This handbook is intended to be an accessible, easy-to-consult guide to help professionals produce or adapt Evidence-Based Documents. Such documents will help standardize both clinical practice and decision-making, the quality always being monitored in such a way that established references are complied with. Evidence-Based Health Care Committee, a member of "Virgen del Rocío" University Hospital quality structure, proposed the preparation of a handbook to produce Evidence-Based Documents including: a description of products, characteristics, qualities, uses, methodology of production, and application scope of every one of them. The handbook consists of seven Evidence-Based tools, one chapter on critical analysis methodology of scientific literature, one chapter with internet resources, and some appendices with different assessment tools. This Handbook provides general practitioners with a great opportunity to improve quality and as a guideline to standardize clinical healthcare, and managers with a strategy to promote and encourage the development of documents in an effort to reduce clinical practice variability, as well as giving patients the opportunity of taking part in planning their own care. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Rating the strength of scientific evidence: relevance for quality improvement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Kathleen N

    2004-02-01

    To summarize an extensive review of systems for grading the quality of research articles and rating the strength of bodies of evidence, and to highlight for health professionals and decision-makers concerned with quality measurement and improvement the available "best practices" tools by which these steps can be accomplished. Drawing on an extensive review of checklists, questionnaires, and other tools in the field of evidence-based practice, this paper discusses clinical, management, and policy rationales for rating strength of evidence in a quality improvement context, and documents best practices methods for these tasks. After review of 121 systems for grading the quality of articles, 19 systems, mostly specific, met a priori scientific standards for grading systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and diagnostic tests; eight systems (of 40 reviewed) met similar standards for rating the overall strength of evidence. All can be used as is or adapted for particular types of evidence reports or systematic reviews. Formally grading study quality and rating overall strength of evidence, using sound instruments and procedures, can produce reasonable levels of confidence about the science base for parts of quality improvement programs. With such information, health care professionals and administrators concerned with quality improvement can understand better the level of science (versus only clinical consensus or opinion) that supports practice guidelines, review criteria, and assessments that feed into quality assurance and improvement programs. New systems are appearing and research is needed to confirm the conceptual and practical underpinnings of these grading and rating systems, but the need for those developing systematic reviews, practice guidelines, and quality or audit criteria to understand and undertake these steps is becoming increasingly clear.

  13. Materials and techniques for coiling of cerebral aneurysms: how much scientific evidence do we have?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurre, W.; Berkefeld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Since coils were approved for aneurysm treatment, materials and techniques developed rapidly. It still remains an open question whether one material or method is superior. This article reviews the literature on various coil types and treatment approaches assessing the scientific evidence of its use. Studies on aneurysm treatment with Guglielmi detachable platinum coils, bioactive coils, hydrogel coated coils, and complex designs as well as balloon- and stent-assisted techniques were retrieved by a PubMed database search from 1990 until May 2008. Data were analyzed in terms of aneurysm occlusion, permanent morbidity and mortality, recanalization, and retreatment. We also assessed the level of evidence of the published studies. Only the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial provides level I evidence proving the superiority of endovascular over surgical therapy in ruptured aneurysms. Randomized trials comparing bioactive or hydrogel coated devices with bare coils are ongoing. Other studies were based on registries or case series mainly conducted without control groups. Morbidity, mortality, and initial occlusion rates appear similar for all devices. No clear evidence exists for the superiority of bioactive- or hydrocoils regarding long-term stability. It remains ambiguous whether morbidity and mortality rises with the use of balloons and stents. There is no evidence that routine use of balloons improves treatment durability. Mid-term results of stent-assisted coiling of complex aneurysms appear favorable. There is a lack of studies with a high level of evidence comparing different coiling materials and techniques. Case series and registries were not able to prove the superiority of any device or method. (orig.)

  14. Identifying and Evaluating External Validity Evidence for Passing Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Becker, Susan L.; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    A critical component of the standard setting process is collecting evidence to evaluate the recommended cut scores and their use for making decisions and classifying students based on test performance. Kane (1994, 2001) proposed a framework by which practitioners can identify and evaluate evidence of the results of the standard setting from (1)…

  15. Medical marijuana: the conflict between scientific evidence and political ideology. Part one of two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Whether "medical marijuana" (Cannabis sativa used to treat a wide variety of pathologic states) should be accorded the status of a legitimate pharmaceutical agent has long been a contentious issue. Is it a truly effective drug that is arbitrarily stigmatized by many and criminalized by the federal government? Or is it without any medical utility, its advocates hiding behind a screen of misplaced (or deliberately misleading) compassion for the ill? Should Congress repeal its declaration that smoked marijuana is without "current medical benefit"? Should cannabis be approved for medical use by a vote of the people as already has been done in 13 states? Or should medical marijuana be scientifically evaluated for safety and efficacy as any other new investigational drug? How do the competing--and sometimes antagonistic--roles of science, politics and prejudice affect society's attempts to answer this question? This article examines the legal, political, policy, and ethical problems raised by the recognition of medical marijuana by over one-fourth of our states although its use remains illegal under federal law. Although draconian punishment can be imposed for the "recreational" use of marijuana, I will not address the contentious question of whether to legalize or decriminalize the use of marijuana solely for its psychotropic effects, a fascinating and important area of law and policy that is outside the scope of this paper. Instead, the specific focus of this article will be on the conflict between the development of policies based on evidence obtained through the use of scientific methods and those grounded on ideological and political considerations that have repeatedly entered the longstanding debate regarding the legal status of medical marijuana. I will address a basic question: Should the approval of medical marijuana be governed by the same statute that applies to all other drugs or pharmaceutical agents, the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), after the

  16. Alcohol-induced blackout as a criminal defense or mitigating factor: an evidence-based review and admissibility as scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Mark R; Caudill, David S

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol-related amnesia--alcohol blackout--is a common claim of criminal defendants. The generally held belief is that during an alcohol blackout, other cognitive functioning is severely impaired or absent. The presentation of alcohol blackout as scientific evidence in court requires that the science meets legal reliability standards (Frye, FRE702/Daubert). To determine whether "alcohol blackout" meets these standards, an evidence-based analysis of published scientific studies was conducted. A total of 26 empirical studies were identified including nine in which an alcohol blackout was induced and directly observed. No objective or scientific method to verify the presence of an alcoholic blackout while it is occurring or to confirm its presence retrospectively was identified. Only short-term memory is impaired and other cognitive functions--planning, attention, and social skills--are not impaired. Alcoholic blackouts would not appear to meet standards for scientific evidence and should not be admissible. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Subtle Scientific Fallacies Undermine the Validity of Neuroendocrinological Research: Do Not Draw Premature Conclusions on the Role of Female Sex Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Major scientific flaws such as reporting and publication biases are well documented, even though acknowledgment of their importance appears to be lacking in various psychological and medical fields. Subtle and less obvious biases including selective reviews of the literature and empirically unsupported conclusions and recommendations have received even less attention. Using the literature on the association between transition to menopause, hormones and the onset of depression as a guiding example, I outline how such scientific fallacies undermine the validity of neuroendocrinological research. It is shown that in contrast to prominent claims, first, most prospective studies do not support the notion that the menopausal transition relates to increased risk for depression, second, that associations between hormone levels and depression are largely inconsistent and irreproducible, and, third, that the evidence for the efficacy of hormone therapy for the treatment of depression is very weak and at best inconclusive. I conclude that a direct and uniform association between female sex hormones and depression is clearly not supported by the literature and that more attention should be paid to the manifold scientific biases that undermine the validity of findings in psychological and medical research, with a specific focus on the behavioral neurosciences.

  18. A brief review of current scientific evidence involving aromatherapy use for nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, Pei Lin; Zakaria, Noor Salihah

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compile existing scientific evidence regarding the effects of essential oils (EOs) administered via inhalation for the alleviation of nausea and vomiting. CINAHL, PubMed, and EBSCO Host and Science Direct databases were searched for articles related to the use of EOs and/or aromatherapy for nausea and vomiting. Only articles using English as a language of publication were included. Eligible articles included all forms of evidence (nonexperimental, experimental, case report). Interventions were limited to the use of EOs by inhalation of their vapors to treat symptoms of nausea and vomiting in various conditions regardless of age group. Studies where the intervention did not utilize EOs or were concerned with only alcohol inhalation and trials that combined the use of aromatherapy with other treatments (massage, relaxations, or acupressure) were excluded. Five (5) articles met the inclusion criteria encompassing trials with 328 respondents. Their results suggest that the inhaled vapor of peppermint or ginger essential oils not only reduced the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting but also decreased antiemetic requirements and consequently improved patient satisfaction. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to methodological flaws in the existing research articles and an acute lack of additional research in this area. The existing evidence is encouraging but yet not compelling. Hence, further well-designed large trials are needed before confirmation of EOs effectiveness in treating nausea and vomiting can be strongly substantiated.

  19. Cannabis and joints: scientific evidence for the alleviation of osteoarthritis pain by cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Melissa; McDougall, Jason J

    2018-04-07

    Cannabis has been used for millennia to treat a multitude of medical conditions including chronic pain. Osteoarthritis (OA) pain is one of the most common types of pain and patients often turn to medical cannabis to manage their symptoms. While the majority of these reports are anecdotal, there is a growing body of scientific evidence which supports the analgesic potential of cannabinoids to treat OA pain. OA pain manifests as a combination of inflammatory, nociceptive, and neuropathic pain, each requiring modality-specific analgesics. The body's innate endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been shown to ameliorate all of these pain subtypes. This review summarizes the components of the ECS and details the latest research pertaining to plant-based and man-made cannabinoids for the treatment of OA pain. Recent pre-clinical evidence supporting a role for the ECS to control OA pain is described as well as current clinical evidence of the efficacy of cannabinoids for treating OA pain in mixed patient populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validity evidence and reliability of a simulated patient feedback instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Claudia; Woermann, Ulrich; Rethans, Jan-Joost; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2012-01-27

    In the training of healthcare professionals, one of the advantages of communication training with simulated patients (SPs) is the SP's ability to provide direct feedback to students after a simulated clinical encounter. The quality of SP feedback must be monitored, especially because it is well known that feedback can have a profound effect on student performance. Due to the current lack of valid and reliable instruments to assess the quality of SP feedback, our study examined the validity and reliability of one potential instrument, the 'modified Quality of Simulated Patient Feedback Form' (mQSF). Content validity of the mQSF was assessed by inviting experts in the area of simulated clinical encounters to rate the importance of the mQSF items. Moreover, generalizability theory was used to examine the reliability of the mQSF. Our data came from videotapes of clinical encounters between six simulated patients and six students and the ensuing feedback from the SPs to the students. Ten faculty members judged the SP feedback according to the items on the mQSF. Three weeks later, this procedure was repeated with the same faculty members and recordings. All but two items of the mQSF received importance ratings of > 2.5 on a four-point rating scale. A generalizability coefficient of 0.77 was established with two judges observing one encounter. The findings for content validity and reliability with two judges suggest that the mQSF is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the quality of feedback provided by simulated patients.

  1. Medical marijuana: the conflict between scientific evidence and political ideology. Part two of two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    In Part I of this article, I examined the role of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in drug approval and then detailed the known risks of medical marijuana (any form of Cannabis sativa used--usually by smoking--to treat a wide variety of pathologic states and diseases). Part II of the article will begin by reviewing the benefits of Cannabis sativa as documented by well designed scientific studies that have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. I will then propose that ability of scientists to conduct impartial studies designed to answer the question of marijuana's role in medical therapy has been greatly hampered by political considerations. I will posit that in spite of the considerable efforts of policymakers, it is becoming apparent that marijuana's benefits should be weighed against its well-described risks. I will conclude that political advocacy is a poor substitute for dispassionate analysis and that neither popular votes nor congressional "findings" should be permitted to trump scientific evidence in deciding whether or not marijuana is an appropriate pharmaceutical agent to use in modern medical practice. Whether or not marijuana is accepted as a legitimate medical therapy should remain in the hands of the usual drug-approval process and that the statutory role of the Food and Drug Administration should be dispositive.

  2. Collation of Scientific Evidence on Consumer Acceptance of New Food Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, A. R. H; van Trijp, H. C. M.; Hofenk,, D.

    The current report investigates consumer acceptance of new food technologies by reviewing the scientific literature. The review is organised along three routes to consumer acceptance of new technologies: The consumer benefit road: the central road of technology features influencing experienced...... be made how the different roads contribute to consumer acceptance or rejection of a novel food technology dependent on technology characteristics. A checklist for the introduction of novel food technologies taking account of all the roads and the technology is presented at the end of this report.......; and Novel packaging and storage technologies is reviewed along these roads. The results show that research remains fragmented in approach and usually adopts the point of view of a single road to consumer acceptance of a novel technology. Nevertheless by combining the available evidence recommendation can...

  3. Further Validation of the IDAS: Evidence of Convergent, Discriminant, Criterion, and Incremental Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Chmielewski, Michael; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A.; Koffel, Erin; Naragon, Kristin; Stuart, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The authors explicated the validity of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS; D. Watson et al., 2007) in 2 samples (306 college students and 605 psychiatric patients). The IDAS scales showed strong convergent validity in relation to parallel interview-based scores on the Clinician Rating version of the IDAS; the mean convergent…

  4. Validity evidence as a key marker of quality of technical skill assessment in OTL-HNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Mathilde; Young, Meredith; Nguyen, Lily H P

    2018-01-13

    Quality monitoring of assessment practices should be a priority in all residency programs. Validity evidence is one of the main hallmarks of assessment quality and should be collected to support the interpretation and use of assessment data. Our objective was to identify, synthesize, and present the validity evidence reported supporting different technical skill assessment tools in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OTL-HNS). We performed a secondary analysis of data generated through a systematic review of all published tools for assessing technical skills in OTL-HNS (n = 16). For each tool, we coded validity evidence according to the five types of evidence described by the American Educational Research Association's interpretation of Messick's validity framework. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted. All 16 tools included in our analysis were supported by internal structure and relationship to variables validity evidence. Eleven articles presented evidence supporting content. Response process was discussed only in one article, and no study reported on evidence exploring consequences. We present the validity evidence reported for 16 rater-based tools that could be used for work-based assessment of OTL-HNS residents in the operating room. The articles included in our review were consistently deficient in evidence for response process and consequences. Rater-based assessment tools that support high-stakes decisions that impact the learner and programs should include several sources of validity evidence. Thus, use of any assessment should be done with careful consideration of the context-specific validity evidence supporting score interpretation, and we encourage deliberate continual assessment quality-monitoring. NA. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. An Econometric Validation of Malthusian Theory: Evidence in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abdullahi Sakanko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising population is an asset, provided, the skills of the workforce are used to the maximum extent. If not appropriately channelized, it can be a liability for a nation. A skilled and hardworking population can emerge as a foundation for a country’s development. This study examines the validity of Malthusian Theory in Nigeria using time series data from 1960 to 2016, employs the ARDL bound test techniques. The result shows that in the long-run, population growth and food production move proportionately, while population growth poses a depleting effect on food production in the short-run, thus validating the incidence of Malthusian impact in Nigerian economy in the short-run. The researcher recommended the government should strategize plans, which will further intensify family planning and birth control measure, compulsory western education and revitalization of the agricultural sector.DOI: 10.150408/sjie.v7i1.6461

  6. Expert consensus on scientific evidence available on the use of botulinum toxin in overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, M; Salinas, J; Arlandis, S; Díez, J; Jiménez, M; Rebassa, M; Angulo, J C

    2014-05-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a pathology impairing patients' quality of life and with a high percentage of patients who are refractory to medication. In this paper, technical opinion of an «expert panel» is assessed in order to gain the most reliable professional consensus on scientific evidence available on the criteria of use of Onabotulinumtoxin A (OnabotA) in OAB. according to DELPHI method, 42 panelists answered a survey of 93 items divided into four strategic areas including clinical criteria and recommendations in order to improve, at different levels, the current approach to patients with OAB. The recent advances in the field, areas of controversy and their real application possibilities in the different areas of our health care system were taken into consideration. Two rounds of the questionnaire were completed by all experts. In the first round, a criteria consensus was reached for 64 of 93 (68.8%) questions analyzed; in the second round the consensus reached was for 83 items evaluated (89.25%). An agreement among panelist was reached for: 1) definition, classification, detection and differential diagnosis; 2) medical treatment; 3) surgical treatment; 4) role of OnabotA in the treatment of OAB. the consensus is broadly in line with the latest scientific evidence on OAB. The panelists believe that it is necessary to propose a change in the current definition of OAB and that it seems necessary to improve the screening tools too. Medical treatment of OAB must be tailored to each patient, staged and progressive. The use of OnabotA (Botox(®)) could imply therapeutic advantages with respect to other treatments, and positions itself as a safe and effective alternative to treat drug refractory OAB. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. 20 CFR 219.31 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 219... marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a ceremonial marriage is— (1) A copy of the public record of the marriage, certified by the custodian of the record or by a Board employee; (2) A copy of a...

  8. 26th Hohenheim Concensus Conference, September 11, 2010 Scientific substantiation of health claims: Evidence-based nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesalski, H.K.; Aggett, P.J.; Anton, R.; Bernstein, P.S.; Blumberg, J.; Heaney, R.P.; Henry, J.; Nolan, J.M.; Richardson, D.P.; Ommen, van B.; Witkamp, R.F.; Rijkers, G.T.; Zollner, I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective was to define the term evidence based nutrition on the basis of expert discussions and scientific evidence. Methods and procedures The method used is the established Hohenheim Consensus Conference. The term “Hohenheim Consensus Conference” defines conferences dealing with

  9. 26th Hohenheim Consensus Conference, September 11, 2010 Scientific substantiation of health claims: Evidence-based nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesalski, H.K.; Aggett, P.J.; Anton, R.; Bernstein, P.S.; Blumberg, J.; Heaney, R.P.; Henry, J.; Nolan, J.M.; Richardson, D.P.; Ommen, B. van; Witkamp, R.F.; Rijkers, G.T.; Zöllner, I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to define the term evidence based nutrition on the basis of expert discussions and scientific evidence. Methods and procedures: The method used is the established Hohenheim Consensus Conference. The term "Hohenheim Consensus Conference" defines conferences dealing with

  10. Whose consensus is it anyway? Scientific versus legalistic conceptions of validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.

    2012-01-01

    Paul E. Newton provides an insightful and scholarly overview of central issues in validity theory. As he notes, many of the conceptual problems in validity theory derive from the fact that the word validity has two meanings. First, it indicates whether a test measures what it purports to measure.

  11. Validity of Qualis database as a predictor of evidence hierarchy and risk of bias in randomized controlled trials: a case study in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Alves Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the Qualis database in identifying the levels of scientific evidence and the quality of randomized controlled trials indexed in the Lilacs database. METHODS: We selected 40 open-access journals and performed a page-by-page hand search, to identify published articles according to the type of study during a period of six years. Classification of studies was performed by independent reviewers assessed for their reliability. Randomized controlled trials were identified for separate evaluation of risk of bias using four dimensions: generation of allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. The Qualis classification was considered to be the outcome variable. The statistical tests used included Kappa, Spearman's correlation, Kendall-tau and ordinal regressions. RESULTS: Studies with low levels of scientific evidence received similar Qualis classifications when compared to studies with high levels of evidence. In addition, randomized controlled trials with a high risk of bias for the generation of allocation sequences and allocation concealment were more likely to be published in journals with higher Qualis levels. DISCUSSION: The hierarchy level of the scientific evidence as classified by type of research design, as well as by the validity of studies according to the bias control level, was not correlated or associated with Qualis stratification. CONCLUSION: Qualis classifications for journals are not an approximate or indirect predictor of the validity of randomized controlled trials published in these journals and are therefore not a legitimate or appropriate indicator of the validity of randomized controlled trials.

  12. What should we mean by empirical validation in hypnotherapy: evidence-based practice in clinical hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladin, Assen; Sabatini, Linda; Amundson, Jon K

    2007-04-01

    This paper briefly surveys the trend of and controversy surrounding empirical validation in psychotherapy. Empirical validation of hypnotherapy has paralleled the practice of validation in psychotherapy and the professionalization of clinical psychology, in general. This evolution in determining what counts as evidence for bona fide clinical practice has gone from theory-driven clinical approaches in the 1960s and 1970s through critical attempts at categorization of empirically supported therapies in the 1990s on to the concept of evidence-based practice in 2006. Implications of this progression in professional psychology are discussed in the light of hypnosis's current quest for validation and empirical accreditation.

  13. How does the entrepreneurial orientation of scientists affect their scientific performance? Evidence from the Quadrant Model

    OpenAIRE

    Naohiro Shichijo; Silvia Rita Sedita; Yasunori Baba

    2013-01-01

    Using Stokes's (1997) "quadrant model of scientific research", this paper deals with how the entrepreneurial orientation of scientists affects their scientific performance by considering its impact on scientific production (number of publications), scientific prestige (number of forward citations), and breadth of research activities (interdisciplinarity). The results of a quantitative analysis applied to a sample of 1,957 scientific papers published by 66 scientists active in advanced materia...

  14. [Workplace violence in Latin America: A review of the scientific evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Gómez-Rubio, Constanza; Mauro, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Workplace Violence has acquired social relevance given the evidence regarding there its health consequences. Has identified various effects such as mood disorders and sleep disorders, hostility, isolation, insecurity, among others. To describe and analyze scientific evidence published on workplace violence in studies in Latin American countries between 2009 and 2014. A descriptive and quantitative study. A search was made on the basis of Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost) Academic Source Premier, PSICODOC, Scielo.org, JSTOR and SCOPUS. And indexed empirical studies were considered. We worked with 46 selected articles. The studies showed a higher amount of psychological violence at work, with a potential risk in women and health professionals. Also, the analysis categories were the most reported behaviors that express violence, health implications and facilitators. The literature on the study of workplace violence in Latin America is recent. Items are descriptive, interpretative studies with insufficient or analytical nature. Health personnel, particularly women, have conditions of vulnerability, with relevance with regard to sexual harassment, wage inequality and bullying.

  15. Validating evidence based decision making in health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüssler, Emil Karl; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak

    Surgeons who perform prolapse surgeries face the dilemma of choosing to use mesh, with its assumed benefits, and the risks associated with mesh. In this paper, we examine whether decisions to use mesh is evidence based. Based on data of 30,398 patients from the Swedish National Quality Register o...... are highly influenced by the geographical placement of surgeons. Therfore, decisions to use mesh are boundedly rationality, rather than rational.......Surgeons who perform prolapse surgeries face the dilemma of choosing to use mesh, with its assumed benefits, and the risks associated with mesh. In this paper, we examine whether decisions to use mesh is evidence based. Based on data of 30,398 patients from the Swedish National Quality Register...... of Gynecological Surgery we examine factors related to decisions to use mesh. Our results indicate that decisions to use mesh are not evidence based, and cannot be explained neither by FDA safety communications, nor by medical conditions usually assumed to predict its usage. Instead, decisions to use mesh...

  16. Automatically quantifying the scientific quality and sensationalism of news records mentioning pandemics: validating a maximum entropy machine-learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Justicz, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    To develop and validate a method for automatically quantifying the scientific quality and sensationalism of individual news records. After retrieving 163,433 news records mentioning the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 pandemics, a maximum entropy model for inductive machine learning was used to identify relationships among 500 randomly sampled news records that correlated with systematic human assessments of their scientific quality and sensationalism. These relationships were then computationally applied to automatically classify 10,000 additional randomly sampled news records. The model was validated by randomly sampling 200 records and comparing human assessments of them to the computer assessments. The computer model correctly assessed the relevance of 86% of news records, the quality of 65% of records, and the sensationalism of 73% of records, as compared to human assessments. Overall, the scientific quality of SARS and H1N1 news media coverage had potentially important shortcomings, but coverage was not too sensationalizing. Coverage slightly improved between the two pandemics. Automated methods can evaluate news records faster, cheaper, and possibly better than humans. The specific procedure implemented in this study can at the very least identify subsets of news records that are far more likely to have particular scientific and discursive qualities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Controversies about instrumented surgery and pain relief in degenerative lumbar spine pain. Results of scientific evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina-Padrón, F J

    2007-10-01

    Investigation and development of new techniques for intrumented surgery of the spine is not free of conflicts of interest. The influence of financial forces in the development of new technologies an its immediately application to spine surgery, shows the relationship between the published results and the industry support. Even authors who have defend eagerly fusion techniques, it have been demonstrated that them are very much involved in the revision of new articles to be published and in the approval process of new spinal technologies. When we analyze the published results of spine surgery, we must bear in mind what have been call in the "American Stock and Exchange" as "the bubble of spine surgery". The scientific literature doesn't show clear evidence in the cost-benefit studies of most instrumented surgical interventions of the spine compare with the conservative treatments. It has not been yet demonstrated that fusion surgery and disc replacement are better options than the conservative treatment. It's necessary to point out that at present "there are relationships between the industry and back pain, and there is also an industry of the back pain". Nonetheless, the "market of the spine surgery" is growing up because patients are demanding solutions for their back problems. The tide of scientific evidence seams to go against the spinal fusions in the degenerative disc disease, discogenic pain and inespecific back pain. After decades of advances in this field, the results of spinal fusions are mediocre. New epidemiological studies show that "spinal fusion must be accepted as a non proved or experimental method for the treatment of back pain". The surgical literature on spinal fusion published in the last 20 years following the Cochrane's method establish that: 1- this is at least incomplete, not reliable and careless; 2- the instrumentation seems to slightly increase the fusion rate; 3- the instrumentation doesn't improve the clinical results in general, lacking

  18. [Transformations in the management of diabetes: an analysis of the scientific evidence published by two scientific societies (1980-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Mónica Serena

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyze changes in the definition of diabetes as a disease and the relationship between these changes and subsequent modifications in the therapeutic management of the disease. A content analysis was performed using articles, guidelines, and consensuses published by the Argentina Diabetes Society and the Latin American Diabetes Association between 1980 and 2010. The different classifications, values used to define a person as diabetic, and treatments were assessed and the changes and modifications discovered were critically analyzed using categories such as medicalization, risk and lifestyles. As a result of the analysis we can observe how the growing process of medicalization, the dependence on the scientific knowledge of central countries, the interests of the pharmaceutical industry, and the crucial role played by pharmacological treatments are all inscribed within the management of diabetes, which can be made visible through the changes that have taken place over the last 30 years.

  19. Validation of Likelihood Ratio Methods Used for Forensic Evidence Evaluation: Application in Forensic Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haraksim, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter the Likelihood Ratio (LR) inference model will be introduced, the theoretical aspects of probabilities will be discussed and the validation framework for LR methods used for forensic evidence evaluation will be presented. Prior to introducing the validation framework, following

  20. Evaluating Existing and New Validity Evidence for the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; Horst, S. Jeanne; Finney, Sara J.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    The current study evaluates existing and new validity evidence for the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS; Vallerand et al., 1992). We first provide a narrative review synthesizing past research, and then conduct a validity investigation of the scores from the measure. Data analysis using a sample of 1406 American college students provided construct…

  1. Importance of Statistical Evidence in Estimating Valid DEA Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Darold T; Johnson, Matthew; Gleason, John M

    2016-03-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) allows healthcare scholars to measure productivity in a holistic manner. It combines a production unit's multiple outputs and multiple inputs into a single measure of its overall performance relative to other units in the sample being analyzed. It accomplishes this task by aggregating a unit's weighted outputs and dividing the output sum by the unit's aggregated weighted inputs, choosing output and input weights that maximize its output/input ratio when the same weights are applied to other units in the sample. Conventional DEA assumes that inputs and outputs are used in different proportions by the units in the sample. So, for the sample as a whole, inputs have been substituted for each other and outputs have been transformed into each other. Variables are assigned different weights based on their marginal rates of substitution and marginal rates of transformation. If in truth inputs have not been substituted nor outputs transformed, then there will be no marginal rates and therefore no valid basis for differential weights. This paper explains how to statistically test for the presence of substitutions among inputs and transformations among outputs. Then, it applies these tests to the input and output data from three healthcare DEA articles, in order to identify the effects on DEA scores when input substitutions and output transformations are absent in the sample data. It finds that DEA scores are badly biased when substitution and transformation are absent and conventional DEA models are used.

  2. Preventive dentistry: practitioners' recommendations for low-risk patients compared with scientific evidence and practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, P S; Sawai, R; Bowen, W H; Meyerowitz, C

    2000-02-01

    and polishing to prevent periodontal disease in low-risk persons. There is no scientific evidence that dental examinations, including scaling and polishing, at 6 month intervals, as recommended by the dentists surveyed in this study, is superior to annual or less frequent examinations for low-risk populations. There is also no evidence that in-office fluoride applications offer incremental benefit over less costly methods of delivering fluoride for low-risk populations.

  3. Development and Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Values in Scientific Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tammy; Antes, Alison L; Baldwin, Kari A; DuBois, James M

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we describe the development and initial psychometric evaluation of a new measure, the values in scientific work (VSW). This scale assesses the level of importance that investigators attach to different VSW. It taps a broad range of intrinsic, extrinsic, and social values that motivate the work of scientists, including values specific to scientific work (e.g., truth and integrity) and more classic work values (e.g., security and prestige) in the context of science. Notably, the values represented in this scale are relevant to scientists regardless of their career stage and research focus. We administered the VSW and a measure of global values to 203 NIH-funded investigators. Exploratory factor analyses suggest the delineation of eight VSW, including autonomy, research ethics, social impact, income, collaboration, innovation and growth, conserving relationships, and job security. These VSW showed predictable and distinct associations with global values. Implications of these findings for work on research integrity and scientific misconduct are discussed.

  4. Synchronous international scientific mobility in the space of affiliations: evidence from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Yulia V; Shmatko, Natalia A; Katchanov, Yurij L

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a survey of Russian researchers' synchronous international scientific mobility as an element of the global system of scientific labor market. Synchronous international scientific mobility is a simultaneous holding of scientific positions in institutions located in different countries. The study explores bibliometric data from the Web of Science Core Collection and socio-economic indicators for 56 countries. In order to examine international scientific mobility, we use a method of affiliations. The paper introduces a model of synchronous international scientific mobility. It enables to specify country's involvement in the international division of scientific labor. Synchronous international scientific mobility is a modern form of the international division of labor in science. It encompasses various forms of part-time, temporary and remote employment of scientists. The analysis reveals the distribution of Russian authors in the space of affiliations, and directions of upward/downward international scientific mobility. The bibliometric characteristics of mobile authors are isomorphic to those of receiver country authors. Synchronous international scientific mobility of Russian authors is determined by differences in scientific impacts between receiver and donor countries.

  5. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.

  6. Evidence based policy making in the European Union. The role of the scientific community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majcen, Spela [Euro-Mediterranean Univ. (EMUNI), Portoroz (Slovenia)

    2017-03-15

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  7. Evidence based policy making in the European Union: the role of the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcen, Špela

    2017-03-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  8. [Therapeutic potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa: a review of the scientific evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Soledad; Mach, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Infusion of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) is a very popular drink in many parts of the world. Its phytochemical composition is associated to antioxidant, hypotensive, and antiatherosclerotic effects. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes are not well known. The aim of this review was to report the scientific evidence supporting that regular use of H. sabdariffa decreases oxidative stress, atherosclerosis, lipid profile, and blood pressure. A search of recent publications was made in the following specialized electronic databases: Elsevier Journal, SciELO, FSTA, Science Direct, Springer Link, and NCBI. Results of research conducted in clinical trials in humans and in animal models and cell cultures were recorded. Keywords used included Hibiscus sabdariffa, oxidative stress, polyphenols, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and lipid profile. Results of the different articles suggested a possible therapeutic effect of H. sabdariffa extracts on oxidative stress, lipid profile, hypertension, and atherosclerosis thanks to its composition rich in phenolic compounds. Anthocyanins significantly decrease LDL oxidation, inhibit adipogenesis by regulating adipogenic signaling pathways and transcription factors, and modulate gene expression of certain microRNAs. No adverse events or side effects were reported. Further more homogeneous, placebo-controlled studies in humans are needed to state that H. sabdariffa has therapeutic efficacy in humans. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS ENEMIES: A REPLY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Vázquez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology has been the subject of passionate attacks. Its novelty, its scientific scope, its intentions and even the honesty of its followers have been questioned. Furthermore, by extension, the concern of psychology on a whole with human well-being has been placed in doubt. In this review, we offer an answer to some disproportionate criticism and make an overview of the existing overwhelming evidence derived from the active, robust research agenda on positive emotions and cognitions (e.g., optimism and their relationship to health and psychological wellness. Psychology cannot ignore a growing general movement in social sciences and in political and economic discussion that places psychological well-being in the legitimate focus of attention. In this regard, positive psychology is contributing, with the best standard tools psychological research, to articulate and support a good part of the research in and promotion of those crucial issues. Finally, it is argued that, based on a true and respectful academic dialogue, psychology must inevitably and fluently integrate the focus on positive functioning for a more inclusive explanation of human nature.

  10. Evidence based policy making in the European Union. The role of the scientific community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, Spela

    2017-01-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  11. Understanding the Validity of Data: A Knowledge-Based Network Underlying Research Expertise in Scientific Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ros

    2016-01-01

    This article considers what might be taught to meet a widely held curriculum aim of students being able to understand research in a discipline. Expertise, which may appear as a "chain of practice," is widely held to be underpinned by networks of understanding. Scientific research expertise is considered from this perspective. Within…

  12. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  13. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5. Technical Report #1310

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic…

  14. Poststroke Fatigue: Emerging Evidence and Approaches to Management: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Janice L; Becker, Kyra J; Kim, Jong S; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Saban, Karen L; McNair, Norma; Mead, Gillian E

    2017-07-01

    At least half of all stroke survivors experience fatigue; thus, it is a common cause of concern for patients, caregivers, and clinicians after stroke. This scientific statement provides an international perspective on the emerging evidence surrounding the incidence, prevalence, quality of life, and complex pathogenesis of poststroke fatigue. Evidence for pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for management are reviewed, as well as the effects of poststroke fatigue on both stroke survivors and caregivers. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Developing resident learning profiles: Do scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, EBM self-efficacy beliefs and EBM skills matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Nancy J.

    This study investigated resident scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, evidence based medicine (EBM) self-efficacy beliefs, and EBM skills. A convenience sample of fifty-one residents located in six U.S. based residency programs completed an online instrument. Hofer's epistemology survey questionnaire was modified to test responses based on four types of scientific evidence encountered in medical practice (Clinical Trial Phase 1, Clinical Trial Phase 3, Meta-analysis and Qualitative). It was hypothesized that epistemology beliefs would differ based on the type of scientific evidence considered. A principal components analysis produced a two factor solution that was significant across type of scientific evidence suggesting that when evaluating epistemology beliefs context does matter. Factor 1 is related to the certainty of research methods and the certainty of medical conclusions and factor 2 denotes medical justification. For each type of scientific evidence, both factors differed on questions comprising the factor structure with significant differences found for the factor 1 and 2 questions. A justification belief case problem using checklist format was triangulated with the survey results, and as predicted the survey and checklist justification z scores indicated no significant differences, and two new justification themes emerged. Modified versions of Finney and Schraw's statistical self-efficacy and skill instruments produced expected significant EBM score correlations with unexpected results indicating that the number of EBM and statistics courses are not significant for EBM self-efficacy and skill scores. The study results were applied to the construction of a learning profile that provided residents belief and skill feedback specific to individual learning needs. The learning profile design incorporated core values related to 'Believer' populations that focus on art, harmony, tact and diplomacy. Future research recommendations include testing context

  16. A guideline for the validation of likelihood ratio methods used for forensic evidence evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwly, Didier; Ramos, Daniel; Haraksim, Rudolf

    2017-07-01

    This Guideline proposes a protocol for the validation of forensic evaluation methods at the source level, using the Likelihood Ratio framework as defined within the Bayes' inference model. In the context of the inference of identity of source, the Likelihood Ratio is used to evaluate the strength of the evidence for a trace specimen, e.g. a fingermark, and a reference specimen, e.g. a fingerprint, to originate from common or different sources. Some theoretical aspects of probabilities necessary for this Guideline were discussed prior to its elaboration, which started after a workshop of forensic researchers and practitioners involved in this topic. In the workshop, the following questions were addressed: "which aspects of a forensic evaluation scenario need to be validated?", "what is the role of the LR as part of a decision process?" and "how to deal with uncertainty in the LR calculation?". The questions: "what to validate?" focuses on the validation methods and criteria and "how to validate?" deals with the implementation of the validation protocol. Answers to these questions were deemed necessary with several objectives. First, concepts typical for validation standards [1], such as performance characteristics, performance metrics and validation criteria, will be adapted or applied by analogy to the LR framework. Second, a validation strategy will be defined. Third, validation methods will be described. Finally, a validation protocol and an example of validation report will be proposed, which can be applied to the forensic fields developing and validating LR methods for the evaluation of the strength of evidence at source level under the following propositions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Is there any evidence for the validity of diagnostic criteria used for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho-Martínez, Pilar; García-Muñoz, Ángel; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the diagnostic criteria used in the scientific literature published in the past 25 years for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions and to explore if the epidemiological analysis of diagnostic validity has been used to propose which clinical criteria should be used for diagnostic purposes. We carried out a systematic review of papers on accommodative and non-strabic binocular disorders published from 1986 to 2012 analysing the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS databases. We admitted original articles about diagnosis of these anomalies in any population. We identified 839 articles and 12 studies were included. The quality of included articles was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. The review shows a wide range of clinical signs and cut-off points between authors. Only 3 studies (regarding accommodative anomalies) assessed diagnostic accuracy of clinical signs. Their results suggest using the accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility for diagnosing accommodative insufficiency and a high positive relative accommodation for accommodative excess. The remaining 9 articles did not analyze diagnostic accuracy, assessing a diagnosis with the criteria the authors considered. We also found differences between studies in the way of considering patients' symptomatology. 3 studies of 12 analyzed, performed a validation of a symptom survey used for convergence insufficiency. Scientific literature reveals differences between authors according to diagnostic criteria for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions. Diagnostic accuracy studies show that there is only certain evidence for accommodative conditions. For binocular anomalies there is only evidence about a validated questionnaire for convergence insufficiency with no data of diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine; Soedamah-muthu, Sabita S.; Givens, Ian; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat.
    Objective: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of

  19. Scientific Reasoning in Early and Middle Childhood: The Development of Domain-General Evidence Evaluation, Experimentation, and Hypothesis Generation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation,…

  20. Scientific reasoning in early and middle childhood: the development of domain-general evidence evaluation, experimentation, and hypothesis generation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation, and non-covariation evidence emerges, (b) when experimentation emerges, (c) when hypothesis generation skills emerge, and (d), whether these abilities develop synchronously during childhood. We administered three scientific reasoning tasks referring to the three components to 223 children of five age groups (from age 4.0 to 13.5 years). Our results show that the three cognitive components of domain-general scientific reasoning emerge asynchronously. The development of domain-general scientific reasoning begins with the ability to handle unambiguous data, progresses to the interpretation of ambiguous data, and leads to a flexible adaptation of hypotheses according to the sufficiency of evidence. When children understand the relation between the level of ambiguity of evidence and the level of confidence in hypotheses, the ability to differentiate conclusive from inconclusive experiments accompanies this development. Implications of these results for designing science education concepts for young children are briefly discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  1. When Assessment Data Are Words: Validity Evidence for Qualitative Educational Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Kuper, Ayelet; Hatala, Rose; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative scores fail to capture all important features of learner performance. This awareness has led to increased use of qualitative data when assessing health professionals. Yet the use of qualitative assessments is hampered by incomplete understanding of their role in forming judgments, and lack of consensus in how to appraise the rigor of judgments therein derived. The authors articulate the role of qualitative assessment as part of a comprehensive program of assessment, and translate the concept of validity to apply to judgments arising from qualitative assessments. They first identify standards for rigor in qualitative research, and then use two contemporary assessment validity frameworks to reorganize these standards for application to qualitative assessment.Standards for rigor in qualitative research include responsiveness, reflexivity, purposive sampling, thick description, triangulation, transparency, and transferability. These standards can be reframed using Messick's five sources of validity evidence (content, response process, internal structure, relationships with other variables, and consequences) and Kane's four inferences in validation (scoring, generalization, extrapolation, and implications). Evidence can be collected and evaluated for each evidence source or inference. The authors illustrate this approach using published research on learning portfolios.The authors advocate a "methods-neutral" approach to assessment, in which a clearly stated purpose determines the nature of and approach to data collection and analysis. Increased use of qualitative assessments will necessitate more rigorous judgments of the defensibility (validity) of inferences and decisions. Evidence should be strategically sought to inform a coherent validity argument.

  2. Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions: Scientific Basis, Evidence of Impact, and Implementation Considerations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children’s linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208

  3. Fostering Scientific Reasoning in Education--Meta-Analytic Evidence from Intervention Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Katharina; Neuhaus, Birgit J.; Fischer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reasoning skills are not just for researchers, they are also increasingly relevant for making informed decisions in our everyday lives. How can these skills be facilitated? The current state of research on supporting scientific reasoning includes intervention studies but lacks an integrated analysis of the approaches to foster…

  4. An index to quantify an individual's scientific research valid across disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Pablo Diniz; Campiteli, Monica Guimaraes; Kinouchi, Osame; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2005-01-01

    The number h of papers with at least h citations has been proposed to evaluate individual's scientific research production. This index is robust in several ways but yet strongly dependent on the research field. We propose a complementary index hI = h^2/N_t, with N_t being the total number of authors in the considered h papers. A researcher with index hI has hI papers with at least hI citation if he/she had published alone. We have obtained the rank plots of h and hI for four Brazilian scienti...

  5. Scientometric Dilemma: Is H-index Adequate for Scientific Validity of Academic's Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2016-07-16

    H-index is an index that attempts to measure the productivity and impact of published work of scientists. H-index has several advantages - it combines productivity with echo, is not sensitive to extreme values in terms of articles without citation or to articles with above-average number of citations and directly enables the identification of the most relevant articles with regard to the number of citations received. H-index has great potential in the academic community, but it still has not realistic indicator of the quality of work of one author. Authors described most used indices for scientific assessment.

  6. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    , particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer...... of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most prevalent chronic diseases, whereas very few adverse effects have been reported.......BACKGROUND: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta...

  7. Claiming the validity of scientific evidence in post-truth times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Diego J; Samamé, Cecilia; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2017-12-01

    This letter is written in response to a review recently published in the journal. The aim is to highlight a potential methodological limitation common to many studies comparing bipolar patients with few previous episodes versus those with multiple episodes, and in which the results are interpreted as indicating the longitudinal course of the illness.

  8. Proposed guidelines to evaluate scientific validity and evidence for genotype-based dietary advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimaldi, K.A.; Ommen, B. van; Ordovas, J.M.; Parnell, L.D.; Mathers, J.C.; Bendik, I.; Brennan, L.; Celis-Morales, C.; Cirillo, E.; Daniel, H.; Kok, B. de; El-Sohemy, A.; Fairweather-Tait, S.J.; Fallaize, R.; Fenech, M.; Ferguson, L.R.; Gibney, E.R.; Gibney, M.; Gjelstad, I.M.F.; Kaput, J.; Karlsen, A.S.; Kolossa, S.; Lovegrove, J.; Macready, A.L.; Marsaux, C.F.M.; Alfredo Martinez, J.; Milagro, F.; Navas-Carretero, S.; Roche, H.M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Traczyk, I.; Kranen, H. van; Verschuren, L.; Virgili, F.; Weber, P.; Bouwman, J.

    2017-01-01

    Nutrigenetic research examines the effects of inter-individual differences in genotype on responses to nutrients and other food components, in the context of health and of nutrient requirements. A practical application of nutrigenetics is the use of personal genetic information to guide

  9. Examination of the "CSI Effect" on Perceptions of Scientific and Testimonial Evidence in a Hong Kong Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2017-05-01

    Television is a powerful medium through which to convey information and messages to the public. The recent proliferation of forensic science and criminal justice information throughout all forms of media, coupled with raised expectations toward forensic evidence, has led some to suspect that a "CSI effect" ( Crime Scene Investigation effect) is taking place. The present study contributes to the literature addressing the CSI effect in two ways. First, it examines whether the CSI effect exists in the Chinese population of Hong Kong. Second, using a mock-jury paradigm, it empirically examines a more integrative perspective of the CSI effect. It was found that, although the amount of media coverage involving forensic evidence does influence participants' perception of legal evidence to some degree, such a perception does not affect participants' legal decision making. Viewers of forensic dramas were not more likely to convict the defendant when forensic evidence was presented and not less likely to convict when only testimonial evidence was presented. The only significant predictor of the defendant's culpability when scientific evidence was presented was participants' ratings of the reliability of scientific evidence. Results from the present study lend no support to the existence of the CSI effect in Hong Kong.

  10. Validity evidence for the measurement of the strength of motivation for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle

    2011-05-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as the sources of validity evidence. The SMMS questionnaire was filled out by 1,494 medical students in different years of medical curriculum. The validity evidence for the internal structure was analyzed by principal components analysis with promax rotation. Validity evidence for relations to other variables was tested by comparing the SMMS scores with scores on the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and the exhaustion scale of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) for measuring study stress. Evidence for internal consistency was determined through the Cronbach's alpha for reliability. The analysis showed that the SMMS had a 3-factor structure. The validity in relations to other variables was established as both, the subscales and full scale scores significantly correlated positively with the intrinsic motivation scores and with the more autonomous forms of extrinsic motivation, the correlation decreasing and finally becoming negative towards the extrinsic motivation end of the spectrum. They also had significant negative correlations with amotivation scale of the AMS and exhaustion scale of MBI-SS. The Cronbach's alpha for reliability of the three subscales and full SMMS scores was 0.70, 0.67, 0.55 and 0.79. The strength of motivation for medical school has a three factor structure and acceptable validity evidence was found in our study.

  11. Scientific Evidence in the Study and Treatment of Addictive Behaviours in Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the importance and relevance of substance dependence and other addictive behaviours has generated great interest among the scientific community. Since its creation in 1992, Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life has transmitted the needs and training demands of psychologists, paying special attention to those aspects related to prevention, health outcomes and psychosocial factors involved in the onset and maintenance of drug addiction, psychosocial intervention and the treatment of addictive behaviours. As an introduction to this report on the Scientific evidence in the study and treatment of addictive behaviours, all topics covered by this journal throughout the years will be addressed.

  12. Computer simulation, rhetoric, and the scientific imagination how virtual evidence shapes science in the making and in the news

    CERN Document Server

    Roundtree, Aimee Kendall

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulations help advance climatology, astrophysics, and other scientific disciplines. They are also at the crux of several high-profile cases of science in the news. How do simulation scientists, with little or no direct observations, make decisions about what to represent? What is the nature of simulated evidence, and how do we evaluate its strength? Aimee Kendall Roundtree suggests answers in Computer Simulation, Rhetoric, and the Scientific Imagination. She interprets simulations in the sciences by uncovering the argumentative strategies that underpin the production and disseminati

  13. Delusions About Evidence: On Why Scientific Evidence Should Not Be the Main Concern in Socioscientific Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2013-01-01

    This article takes issue with the widespread assumption that students’ socioscientific decisions ought to be evidence based. On the basis of a careful conceptual analysis, it is argued that it is misleading to think in terms of evidence in socioscientific decision making because such decision mak...

  14. Reliability and validity evidence of the Assessment of Language Use in Social Contexts for Adults (ALUSCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana Rita S; Hall, Andreia; Alvelos, Helena; Leahy, Margaret; Jesus, Luis M T

    2018-04-12

    The appropriate use of language in context depends on the speaker's pragmatic language competencies. A coding system was used to develop a specific and adult-focused self-administered questionnaire to adults who stutter and adults who do not stutter, The Assessment of Language Use in Social Contexts for Adults, with three categories: precursors, basic exchanges, and extended literal/non-literal discourse. This paper presents the content validity, item analysis, reliability coefficients and evidences of construct validity of the instrument. Content validity analysis was based on a two-stage process: first, 11 pragmatic questionnaires were assessed to identify items that probe each pragmatic competency and to create the first version of the instrument; second, items were assessed qualitatively by an expert panel composed by adults who stutter and controls, and quantitatively and qualitatively by an expert panel composed by clinicians. A pilot study was conducted with five adults who stutter and five controls to analyse items and calculate reliability. Construct validity evidences were obtained using the hypothesized relationships method and factor analysis with 28 adults who stutter and 28 controls. Concerning content validity, the questionnaires assessed up to 13 pragmatic competencies. Qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed ambiguities in items construction. Disagreement between experts was solved through item modification. The pilot study showed that the instrument presented internal consistency and temporal stability. Significant differences between adults who stutter and controls and different response profiles revealed the instrument's underlying construct. The instrument is reliable and presented evidences of construct validity.

  15. Collation of Scientific Evidence on Consumer Acceptance of New Food Technologies: Three roads to consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Hofenk, D.J.B.; Ronteltap, A.; Tudoran, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The current report investigates consumer acceptance of new food technologies by reviewing the scientific literature. The review is organised along three routes to consumer acceptance of new technologies: The consumer benefit road: the central road of technology features influencing experienced

  16. Preservice teachers' discursive approaches to constructing scientific arguments from evidence to claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Brent David

    Scientific argumentation has recently become required in K-12 classrooms, but preservice teachers often do not have prior experiences with this practice. The lack of prior experiences has made engaging in argumentation during inquiry-based content courses a priority for science teacher educators because of its importance in science education. Previous research has not examined how preservice teachers construct arguments in classroom interactions. A discourse analysis of twenty-one preservice teachers was conducted to study how preservice teachers constructed arguments within small group activities. Specifically, I drew upon discursive psychology (Potter & Wetherell, 1987) and conversation analysis (Sacks, 1972) to consider how preservice teachers' talk functioned to build arguments, as well as how their talk evolved over the course of the four targeted activities. Findings indicated that the preservice teachers oriented towards institutional norms in constructing arguments. These norms shaped the ways that arguments were constructed. The construction of arguments also included negotiating epistemic authority. This authority was used by a member of the group to take up a leadership position, which they used to direct the group's actions. However, there were moments that other group members attempted to take up epistemic stances, which created instances where members used various talk moves (e.g., overlapping speech, ignoring, and holding the conversational floor) to implicitly disagree with each other. As the activities progressed the students spontaneously adopted asynchronous online collaborative tools that seemed to shape their discourse by decreasing conceptually rich talk. The transition from talk to text also coincided with an increased reliance on the teacher, which changed from focusing on expectations of the assignment to how evidence should be organized. Overall, the findings demonstrated how preservice teachers used discourse, specifically talk, to

  17. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 1: Data entry and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    Data collection for the purposes of analysis, after the planning and execution of a research study, commences with data input and validation. The process of data entry and analysis may appear daunting to the uninitiated, but as pointed out in the 1970s in a series of papers by British Medical Journal Deputy Editor TDV Swinscow, modern hardware and software (he was then referring to the availability of hand calculators) permits the performance of statistical testing outside a computer laboratory. In this day and age, modern software, such as the ubiquitous and almost universally familiar Microsoft Excel™ greatly facilitates this process. This first paper comprises the first of a collection of papers which will emulate Swinscow's series, in his own words, "addressed to readers who want to start at the beginning, not to those who are already skilled statisticians." These papers will have less focus on the actual arithmetic, and more emphasis on how to actually implement simple statistics, step by step, using Excel, thereby constituting the equivalent of Swinscow's papers in the personal computer age. Data entry can be facilitated by several underutilised features in Excel. This paper will explain Excel's little-known form function, data validation implementation at input stage, simple coding tips and data cleaning tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Program of neuropsychological stimulation of cognition in students: Emphasis on executive functions - development and evidence of content validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of this study was to describe the construction process and content validity evidence of an early and preventive intervention program for stimulating executive functions (EF in Elementary School children within the school environment. Methods: The process has followed the recommended steps for creating neuropsychological instruments: internal phase of program organization, with literature search and analyses of available materials in the classroom; program construction; analysis by expert judges; data integration and program finalization. To determine the level of agreement among the judges, a Content Validity Index (CVI was calculated. Results: Content validity was evidenced by the agreement among the experts with regards to the program, both in general and for each activity. All steps taken were deemed necessary because they contributed to the identification of positive aspects and possible flaws in the process Conclusion: The steps also helped to adapt stimuli and improve program tasks and activities. Methodological procedures implemented in this study can be adopted by other researchers to create or adapt neuropsychological stimulation and rehabilitation programs. Furthermore, the methodological approach allows the reader to understand, in detail, the technical and scientific rigor adopted in devising this program.

  19. Statistical validation of engineering and scientific models : bounds, calibration, and extrapolation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Hills, Richard Guy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)

    2005-04-01

    Numerical models of complex phenomena often contain approximations due to our inability to fully model the underlying physics, the excessive computational resources required to fully resolve the physics, the need to calibrate constitutive models, or in some cases, our ability to only bound behavior. Here we illustrate the relationship between approximation, calibration, extrapolation, and model validation through a series of examples that use the linear transient convective/dispersion equation to represent the nonlinear behavior of Burgers equation. While the use of these models represents a simplification relative to the types of systems we normally address in engineering and science, the present examples do support the tutorial nature of this document without obscuring the basic issues presented with unnecessarily complex models.

  20. What Is (Or Should Be) Scientific Evidence Use in K-12 Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Berland, Leema

    2017-01-01

    Research and reform efforts frequently identify evidence as an essential component of science classroom instruction to actively engage students in science practices. Despite this agreement on the primacy of evidence, there is a lack of consensus around what counts as "evidence" in k-12 classrooms (e.g., ages 5-18): scholarship and…

  1. [The Problems with Domestic Introduction of rTMS from the Three Viewpoints of Scientific Evidence, Specialty and Social Responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The domestic introduction of rTMS is expected as a new treatment option for treatment-resistant depression. I discussed some problems with the introduction from three viewpoints : scientific evidence, specialty, and social responsibility. I surveyed scientific evidence for rTMS regarding the action mechanism, effectiveness, side effects, and its positioning in the treatment guidelines. To secure the quality of rTMS treatment, I proposed rTMS guidelines, nurturing of the specialists, and a center hospital plan, and pointed out some medium-term problems after its introduction and the consistency of rTMS treatment and standard depression treatment. From the viewpoint of social responsibility, rTMS treatment should be a medical service covered by health insurance to avoid its misuse. We should prepare to overcome the public suspicion of brain stimulation treatment for mental disease.

  2. An Australian Version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale: Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    This study examined validity evidence for the Australian version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS-AU). A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design was used to recruit 2,650 adults from Adelaide (Australia). The sample was drawn from residential addresses within eight high-walkable and eight low-walkable suburbs matched…

  3. Validity-Supporting Evidence of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Jennifer R.; Wang, Chuang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide evidence of reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument (SETMI). Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest provided insights into the…

  4. Logic Brightens My Day: Evidence for Implicit Sensitivity to Logical Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Verde, Michael F.; Morsanyi, Kinga

    2016-01-01

    A key assumption of dual process theory is that reasoning is an explicit, effortful, deliberative process. The present study offers evidence for an implicit, possibly intuitive component of reasoning. Participants were shown sentences embedded in logically valid or invalid arguments. Participants were not asked to reason but instead rated the…

  5. A Brazilian Portuguese Survey of School Climate: Evidence of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Holst, Bruna; Lisboa, Carolina; Chen, Dandan; Yang, Chunyan; Chen, Fang Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence of the validity and reliability of scores for the newly developed Brazilian Portuguese version of the Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (Brazilian DSCS-S). The sample consisted of 378 students, grades 5 through 9, attending four private and three public schools in southern Brazil. Confirmatory factor analyses…

  6. Validity Evidence for the Measurement of the Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle

    2011-01-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as…

  7. Measuring Students' Motivation: Validity Evidence for the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Skaggs, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study provides validity evidence for the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation Inventory (MUSIC Inventory; Jones, 2012), which measures college students' beliefs related to the five components of the MUSIC Model of Motivation (MUSIC model; Jones, 2009). The MUSIC model is a conceptual framework for five categories of teaching strategies (i.e.,…

  8. Is the readmission rate a valid quality indicator? A review of the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Claudia; Lingsma, Hester F.; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.; Kringos, Dionne S.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.

    2014-01-01

    Hospital readmission rates are increasingly used for both quality improvement and cost control. However, the validity of readmission rates as a measure of quality of hospital care is not evident. We aimed to give an overview of the different methodological aspects in the definition and measurement

  9. Validity Evidence for the Neuro-Endoscopic Ventriculostomy Assessment Tool (NEVAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breimer, Gerben E.; Haji, Faizal A.; Cinalli, Giuseppe; Hoving, Eelco W.; Drake, James M.

    BACKGROUND: Growing demand for transparent and standardized methods for evaluating surgical competence prompted the construction of the Neuro-Endoscopic Ventriculostomy Assessment Tool (NEVAT). OBJECTIVE: To provide validity evidence of the NEVAT by reporting on the tool's internal structure and its

  10. A Motor Speech Assessment for Children with Severe Speech Disorders: Reliability and Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Edythe A.; McCauley, Rebecca J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Stoeckel, Ruth E.; Baas, Becky S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors report reliability and validity evidence for the Dynamic Evaluation of Motor Speech Skill (DEMSS), a new test that uses dynamic assessment to aid in the differential diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: Participants were 81 children between 36 and 79 months of age who were referred to the…

  11. Validity of 'post-traumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features': a review of the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, M. H.; Kortmann, F. A. M.; van den Brink, W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence from empirical studies regarding the validity of 'post-traumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features' (PTSD-SP) as a separate diagnostic entity. METHOD: The authors performed a review tracing publications between 1980 and January 2008. RESULTS:

  12. Gender gaps and scientific productivity in middle-income countries: Evidence from Mexico - prepared for the Institutions for Development Department

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera León, Lorena; Mairesse, Jacques; Cowan, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides evidence of the existence and determinants of the publication productivity gender gap in Mexico at the individual level, and its consequences for the Mexican scientific system and productivity at both the individual discipline and the aggregate levels. The paper specifies and performs a panel data econometric analysis based on a sample of Mexican researchers who are members of the National System of Researchers (SNI) of Mexico in the period 2002-13. It corrects for a selec...

  13. Validity evidence of the Social and Emotional Nationwide Assessment (SENNA 1.0 Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Pancorbo

    Full Text Available Abstract: Given the necessity of adequate instruments to measure socio-emotional skills, this study aimed to obtain validity evidence of the Social and Emotional Nationwide Assessment inventory (SENNA 1.0. The instrument was administered to a sample of 634 students (59% females with a mean age of 16.3 years (SD = 1.21, from eight secondary schools of the Federal District ] of Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a six factor structure that explained 42.7% of the common variance, while confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equational modeling analysis showed a moderate fit to the data. Reliability coefficients of the factor scores varied between .66 and .89. The coefficients of the convergent validity with the Reduced Scale of the Big Five Personality Factors (ER5FP had a mean value of .59. In conclusion, the results indicate satisfactory evidence for the score validity of the SENNA 1.0 inventory.

  14. Does the scientific evidence support the advertising claims made for products containing Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium lactis? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Illanes, Lorena; González-Díaz, Cristina; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    To analyse the scientific evidence that exists for the advertising claims made for two products containing Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium lactis and to conduct a comparison between the published literature and what is presented in the corporate website. Systematic review, using Medline through Pubmed and Embase. We included human clinical trials that exclusively measured the effect of Lactobacillus casei or Bifidobacterium lactis on a healthy population, and where the objective was related to the health claims made for certain products in advertising. We assessed the levels of evidence and the strength of the recommendation according to the classification criteria established by the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM). We also assessed the outcomes of the studies published on the website that did not appear in the search. Of the 440 articles identified, 16 met the inclusion criteria. Only four (25%) of these presented a level of evidence of 1b and a recommendation grade of A, all corresponding to studies on product containing Bifidobacterium lactis, and only 12 of the 16 studies were published on the corporate website (47). There is insufficient scientific evidence to support the health claims made for these products, especially in the case of product containing Lactobacillus casei. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Teamwork assessment in internal medicine: a systematic review of validity evidence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havyer, Rachel D A; Wingo, Majken T; Comfere, Nneka I; Nelson, Darlene R; Halvorsen, Andrew J; McDonald, Furman S; Reed, Darcy A

    2014-06-01

    Valid teamwork assessment is imperative to determine physician competency and optimize patient outcomes. We systematically reviewed published instruments assessing teamwork in undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education in general internal medicine and all medical subspecialties. We searched MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-process, CINAHL and PsycINFO from January 1979 through October 2012, references of included articles, and abstracts from four professional meetings. Two content experts were queried for additional studies. Included studies described quantitative tools measuring teamwork among medical students, residents, fellows, and practicing physicians on single or multi-professional (interprofessional) teams. Instrument validity and study quality were extracted using established frameworks with existing validity evidence. Two authors independently abstracted 30 % of articles and agreement was calculated. Of 12,922 citations, 178 articles describing 73 unique teamwork assessment tools met inclusion criteria. Interrater agreement was intraclass correlation coefficient 0.73 (95 % CI 0.63-0.81). Studies involved practicing physicians (142, 80 %), residents/fellows (70, 39 %), and medical students (11, 6 %). The majority (152, 85 %) assessed interprofessional teams. Studies were conducted in inpatient (77, 43 %), outpatient (42, 24 %), simulation (37, 21 %), and classroom (13, 7 %) settings. Validity evidence for the 73 tools included content (54, 74 %), internal structure (51, 70 %), relationships to other variables (25, 34 %), and response process (12, 16 %). Attitudes and opinions were the most frequently assessed outcomes. Relationships between teamwork scores and patient outcomes were directly examined for 13 (18 %) of tools. Scores from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire and Team Climate Inventory have substantial validity evidence and have been associated with improved patient outcomes. Review is limited to quantitative assessments of teamwork in internal

  16. The behavioral regulation in sport questionnaire (BRSQ): instrument development and initial validity evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Rose, Elaine A

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the four studies described in this article was to develop and test a new measure of competitive sport participants' intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation (self-determination theory; Deci & Ryan, 1985). The items for the new measure, named the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), were constructed using interviews, expert review, and pilot testing. Analyses supported the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and factorial validity of the BRSQ scores. Nomological validity evidence was also supportive, as BRSQ subscale scores were correlated in the expected pattern with scores derived from measures of motivational consequences. When directly compared with scores derived from the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS; Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tuson, & Blais, 1995) and a revised version of that questionnaire (SMS-6; Mallett, Kawabata, Newcombe, Otero-Forero, & Jackson, 2007), BRSQ scores demonstrated equal or superior reliability and factorial validity as well as better nomological validity.

  17. Establishing Trustworthiness When Students Read Multiple Documents Containing Conflicting Scientific Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråten, Ivar; Braasch, Jason L. G.; Strømsø, Helge I.; Ferguson, Leila E.

    2015-01-01

    Students read six documents that varied in terms of their perspectives on a scientific issue and the trustworthiness of the source features. After reading, students wrote essays, rank-ordered the documents according to perceived trustworthiness, and provided reasons for their rank-order decisions. Students put the most trust in a textbook and a…

  18. Talking Relative Age Effects: A Fictional Analysis Based on Scientific Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    During the past 30 years, there has been a considerable amount of scientific attention dedicated to the reported age discrimination which occurs in youth and elite sport. The purpose of this paper is to examine the notion of relative age effects (RAEs) through a slightly different lens. This paper therefore presents a fictional conversation…

  19. Training Scientific Thinking Skills: Evidence from an MCAT[superscript 2015]-Aligned Classroom Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Witkow, Melissa R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports on the development and evaluation of a classroom module to train scientific thinking skills. The module was implemented in two of four parallel sections of introductory psychology. To assess learning, a passage-based question set from the medical college admissions test (MCAT[superscript 2015]) preview guide was included…

  20. Cluster analysis of novel isometric strength measures produces a valid and evidence-based classification structure for wheelchair track racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connick, Mark J; Beckman, Emma; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Malone, Laurie A; Blomqvist, Sven; Tweedy, Sean M

    2017-11-25

    The Para athletics wheelchair-racing classification system employs best practice to ensure that classes comprise athletes whose impairments cause a comparable degree of activity limitation. However, decision-making is largely subjective and scientific evidence which reduces this subjectivity is required. To evaluate whether isometric strength tests were valid for the purposes of classifying wheelchair racers and whether cluster analysis of the strength measures produced a valid classification structure. Thirty-two international level, male wheelchair racers from classes T51-54 completed six isometric strength tests evaluating elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, trunk flexors and forearm pronators and two wheelchair performance tests-Top-Speed (0-15 m) and Top-Speed (absolute). Strength tests significantly correlated with wheelchair performance were included in a cluster analysis and the validity of the resulting clusters was assessed. All six strength tests correlated with performance (r=0.54-0.88). Cluster analysis yielded four clusters with reasonable overall structure (mean silhouette coefficient=0.58) and large intercluster strength differences. Six athletes (19%) were allocated to clusters that did not align with their current class. While the mean wheelchair racing performance of the resulting clusters was unequivocally hierarchical, the mean performance of current classes was not, with no difference between current classes T53 and T54. Cluster analysis of isometric strength tests produced classes comprising athletes who experienced a similar degree of activity limitation. The strength tests reported can provide the basis for a new, more transparent, less subjective wheelchair racing classification system, pending replication of these findings in a larger, representative sample. This paper also provides guidance for development of evidence-based systems in other Para sports. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of

  1. Isaac Newton's scientific method turning data into evidence about gravity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Harper, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, but also have those phenomena accurately measure the parameters which explain them. Harper explores the ways in which Newton's method aims to turn theoretical questions into ones which can be answered empirically by measurement from phenomena, and to establish that propositions inferred from phenomena are provisionally accepted as guides to further research. This methodology, guided by its rich ideal of empirical success, supports a conception of scientific progress that does not require construing it as progr...

  2. [Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles on evidence-based nursing of burn in the mainland of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, L Q; Pi, X Q; Fan, X G

    2016-07-20

    To analyze the current research status of evidence-based nursing of burn in the mainland of China, in order to provide basis for the improvement of scientificity of burn nursing practice. Chinese scientific articles on evidence-based nursing of burn in the mainland of China published from January 1997 to December 2015 were retrieved from Chinese Biology Medicine disc, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, Wanfang Database, and VIP Database. From the results retrieved, date with regard to publication year, region of affiliation of the first author, journal distribution, literature type, literature quality assessment, topic of evidence-based research, fund program support, implementation of evidence-based practice steps, and language and quantity of reference. Data were processed with Microsoft Excel software. A total of 50 articles conforming to the criteria were retrieved. (1) Articles about evidence-based nursing of burn arose in 2004. Compared with that in the previous year, there was no obvious increase in the number of relevant articles in each year from 2004 to 2011. The number of literature in 2012 was obviously increased than that in each year from 2004 to 2011, while the number of literature in each year from 2012 to 2015 was not obviously increased compared with that in the previous year. (2) The regions of affiliation of the first author were distributed in 13 provinces, 3 minority autonomous regions, and 3 municipalities, with the largest distribution in East China, and Northwest China and Southwest China in the follow. (3) The articles were published in 32 domestic journals, with 9 (28.12%) nursing journals, 5 (15.62%) burn medical related journals, and 18 (56.25%) other journals. Twenty (40%) articles were published in Source Journal for Chinese Scientific and Technical Papers. (4) Regarding the literature type, 31 (62%) articles dealt with clinical experiences, 17 (34%) articles dealt with scientific research, and 2 (4%) articles dealt with case report

  3. Collation of Scientific Evidence on Consumer Acceptance of New Food Technologies: Three roads to consumer choice

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van, J.C.M.; Hofenk, D.J.B.; Ronteltap, A.; Tudoran, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The current report investigates consumer acceptance of new food technologies by reviewing the scientific literature.The review is organised along three routes to consumer acceptance of new technologies: The consumer benefit road: the central road of technology features influencing experienced product attributes; the technology apprehension road: a socio-political road where unfamiliarity and dread may lead to negative technologyattitudes, which may create categorical rejection of any product ...

  4. Beyond black lung: scientific evidence of health effects from coal use in electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Susan; Burt, Erica; Orris, Peter

    2014-08-01

    While access to electricity affects health positively, combustion of coal in power plants causes well-documented adverse health effects. We review respiratory, cardiovascular, reproductive, and neurologic health outcomes associated with exposure to coal-fired power plant emissions. We also discuss population-level health effects of coal combustion and its role in climate change. Our review of scientific studies suggests that those we present here can be used to inform energy policy.

  5. Collecting Validity Evidence for Simulation-Based Assessment of Point-of-Care Ultrasound Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Kørup; Dyre, Liv; Jørgensen, Mattis Enggaard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the validity of a simulator test designed to evaluate focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) skills. METHODS: Participants included a group of ultrasound novices (n = 25) and ultrasound experts (n = 10). All participants had their FAST...... skills assessed using a virtual reality ultrasound simulator. Procedural performance on the 4 FAST windows was assessed by automated simulator metrics, which received a passing or failing score. The validity evidence for these simulator metrics was examined by a stepwise approach according...

  6. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Erich

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI, and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musculoskeletal research. Methods The group narrowed the field to fracture research. The consensus opinion resulting from this workshop can be summarized as follows: Results & Conclusion Anaesthesia and pain management protocols for research animals should follow standard protocols applied in clinical work for the species involved. This will improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. A database should be established to facilitate selection of anaesthesia and pain management protocols for specific experimental surgical procedures and adopted as an International Standard (IS according to animal species selected. A list of 10 golden rules and requirements for conduction of animal experiments in musculoskeletal research was drawn up comprising 1 Intelligent study designs to receive appropriate answers; 2 Minimal complication rates (5 to max. 10%; 3 Defined end-points for both welfare and scientific outputs analogous to quality assessment (QA audit of protocols in GLP studies; 4 Sufficient details for materials and methods applied; 5 Potentially confounding variables (genetic background, seasonal, hormonal, size, histological, and biomechanical differences; 6 Post-operative management with emphasis on analgesia and follow-up examinations; 7 Study protocols to satisfy criteria established for a "justified animal study"; 8 Surgical expertise to conduct surgery on animals; 9 Pilot studies as a critical part of model validation and powering of the definitive study design

  7. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kongerslev Thorning

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. Objective: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Results: The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. Conclusion: The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most

  8. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Givens, Ian; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most prevalent chronic diseases, whereas very few adverse effects have

  9. Hybrid regimes of knowledge? Challenges for constructing scientific evidence in the context of the GMO-debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böschen, Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a remarkable shift of attention to the scientific and political fundamentals of the precautionary principle. The application of this principle has become a main strategy of coping with the different forms and problems related to non-knowledge. Thus, societies are increasingly confronted with the challenging and hitherto unresolved problem of political and technological decision-making under conditions of diverging framings of non-knowledge. At present, there seems to be no generally accepted scientific or institutional approach. This is why the fundamental question of how different scientific actors define and construct evidence is not answered yet. Hence, this paper is based on the consideration that the conflicts in risk policy concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO) depend on the unresolved conflicts about the diverging scientific strategies and structures of evidence-making between the epistemic cultures involved. Thus, this study investigates two questions: (1) do the epistemic strategies of evidence-making differ systematically with the scientific actors involved in the GMO-debate? (2) What consequences emerge considering institutionalized procedures of decision-making? This article is based on a secondary analysis of findings and perspectives reported in the literature and on the methods of qualitative social empirical research, i.e., interviews with experts. A total number of 34 interviews were conducted to explore the different strategies of handling non-knowledge and constructing evidence. Actors from science, administration, business and NGOs were interviewed. In this way, typical epistemic cultures can be described. An epistemic culture is the constellation of methodological strategies, theoretical assumptions and practical-experimental settings which define in every speciality the ways how we know what we know. There are two main results. Firstly, it was worked out that the epistemic cultures involved

  10. Acceleromyography for use in scientific and clinical practice: a systematic review of the evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C.; Viby-Mogensen, J.

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review describes the evidence on the use of acceleromyography for perioperative neuromuscular monitoring in clinical practice and research. The review documents that although acceleromyography is widely used in research, it cannot be used interchangeably with mechanomyography...

  11. Validity Evidence for the Reduced Version of the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Valentini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To gain more insight in family processes, psychometrically tests are required. The present study aimed to adapt a reduced version of the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI to the Portuguese language and to obtain evidence of its validity. The instrument was administered to a sample of 920 persons (59% female with an average age of 21.3 years. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of five factors explaining approximately 45% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis showed fit indices above.80. In comparison with other models, the five factor model showed a better fit to the data. Between the YPI and Familiograma (another test of family processes moderate correlations were observed. The results of this study suggest satisfactory evidence of the validity for the YPI in Brazil.

  12. Evidences of validity and reliability of the Luria-Nebraska Test for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Franco de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aimed to verify evidences of validity and reliability of Luria-Nebraska Test for Children (TLN-C, in Portuguese. Three hundred eighty-seven students aged 6–13 years old, with learning difficulties, comprised the study. They were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III and TLN-C; and effect of age differences, as well as accuracy rating by internal consistency were investigated. Age effects were found for all subtests and in the general score, except for receptive speech subtest, even when total IQ effect was controlled. Reliability analysis had satisfactory results (0.79. The TLN-C showed evidences of validity and reliability. Receptive speech subtest requires revision.

  13. Cheating Admission Self Report Scale: Evidence of Factorial Validity and Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to adapt the Cheating Admission Self Report Scale (CASRSto the Brazilian context and collect evi-dence on factorial validity and internal consistency. 441 students participated (M=16 years, 54.6% females, randomly divided in two groups. All responded to CASRS and to demographic questions. The analysis of the main components demonstrated a bifactor structure, whose factors presented Cronbach’s alphas (α greater than .80 (G1. This structure was corroborated by means of confirmatory factor analysis (for example, CFI=.87 and RMSEA=.08. The scale was shown to be psychometrically adequate and there was evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency; the scale can be used to measure plagiarism in the academic context.

  14. Recent evidence of the validity of the export-led growth hypothesis for Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Komain Jiranyakul

    2010-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have devoted to analyze the role of exports in the growth process. This paper examines the relationship between real exports and real GDP in Thailand using quarterly data from 1993 to 2008. The results from the bounds testing for cointegration in a multivariate framework show that there is evidence of the validity of the export-led growth hypothesis, even though some previous studies that used Thailand data reject it. There exists the long-run causation running from...

  15. Validity evidence of non-technical skills assessment instruments in simulated anaesthesia crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirativanont, T; Raksamani, K; Aroonpruksakul, N; Apidechakul, P; Suraseranivongse, S

    2017-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the validity of two non-technical skills evaluation instruments, the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) behavioural marker system and the Ottawa Global Rating Scale (GRS), to apply them to anaesthesia training. The content validity, response process, internal structure, relations with other variables and consequences were described for validity evidence. Simulated crisis management sessions were initiated during which two trained raters evaluated the performance of postgraduate first-, second- and third-year (PGY-1, PGY-2 and PGY-3) anaesthesia residents. The study included 70 participants, composed of 24 PGY-1, 24 PGY-2 and 22 PGY-3 residents. Both instruments differentiated the non-technical skills of PGY-1 from PGY-3 residents ( P skills were 0.86, 0.83, 0.84, 0.87, 0.80 and 0.86, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency of the ANTS instrument was 0.93, and was 0.96 for the Ottawa GRS. There was a high correlation between the ANTS and Ottawa GRS. The raters reported the ease of use of the Ottawa GRS compared to the ANTS. We found sufficient evidence of validity in the ANTS instrument and the Ottawa GRS for the evaluation of non-technical skills in a simulated anaesthesia setting, but the Ottawa GRS was more practical and had higher reliability.

  16. The Tobacco Industry’s Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkyu Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS, is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO report’s argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word “deadly” from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  17. Validity Evidence for the Neuro-Endoscopic Ventriculostomy Assessment Tool (NEVAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breimer, Gerben E; Haji, Faizal A; Cinalli, Giuseppe; Hoving, Eelco W; Drake, James M

    2017-02-01

    Growing demand for transparent and standardized methods for evaluating surgical competence prompted the construction of the Neuro-Endoscopic Ventriculostomy Assessment Tool (NEVAT). To provide validity evidence of the NEVAT by reporting on the tool's internal structure and its relationship with surgical expertise during simulation-based training. The NEVAT was used to assess performance of trainees and faculty at an international neuroendoscopy workshop. All participants performed an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) on a synthetic simulator. Participants were simultaneously scored by 2 raters using the NEVAT procedural checklist and global rating scale (GRS). Evidence of internal structure was collected by calculating interrater reliability and internal consistency of raters' scores. Evidence of relationships with other variables was collected by comparing the ETV performance of experts, experienced trainees, and novices using Jonckheere's test (evidence of construct validity). Thirteen experts, 11 experienced trainees, and 10 novices participated. The interrater reliability by the intraclass correlation coefficient for the checklist and GRS was 0.82 and 0.94, respectively. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) for the checklist and the GRS was 0.74 and 0.97, respectively. Median scores with interquartile range on the checklist and GRS for novices, experienced trainees, and experts were 0.69 (0.58-0.86), 0.85 (0.63-0.89), and 0.85 (0.81-0.91) and 3.1 (2.5-3.8), 3.7 (2.2-4.3) and 4.6 (4.4-4.9), respectively. Jonckheere's test showed that the median checklist and GRS score increased with performer expertise ( P = .04 and .002, respectively). This study provides validity evidence for the NEVAT to support its use as a standardized method of evaluating neuroendoscopic competence during simulation-based training. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  18. Insufficient scientific evidence for efficacy of widely used electrotherapy, laser therapy, and ultrasound treatment in physiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch Health Council recently published a report on the efficacy of electrotherapy, laser therapy and ultrasound treatment for musculoskeletal disorders. The assessment was based on three systematic reviews, including 169 randomized clinical trials, and focused on a best-evidence synthesis.

  19. Does Scientific Evidence for the Use of Natural Products in the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis Exist? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lacet Silva Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the limitations of antifungal agents used in the treatment of oral candidiasis and the wide variety of natural products that have been studied as treatment of this disease, this systematic literature review proposed to evaluate whether scientific evidence attesting to the efficacy of natural products in the treatment of this disease exists. A systematic search in PubMed, MEDLINE, SciELO, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases was accomplished using the associations among the keywords Candida albicans, phytotherapy, biological products, denture stomatitis, and oral candidiasis in both English and Portuguese. Four independent observers evaluated the methodological quality of the resulting articles. Three studies were included for detailed analysis and evaluated according to the analysis protocol based on the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 statement. The tested products were different in all studies. Two studies mentioned random samples, but no study described the sample allocation. No study mentioned sample calculations, a prior pilot study, or examiner calibration, and only one trial reported sample losses. Differences between the tested products and the methodological designs among these studies did not allow the existence of scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of these products for the proposed subjects to be confirmed.

  20. Sudden Cardiac Risk Stratification with Electrocardiographic Indices - A Review on Computational Processing, Technology Transfer, and Scientific Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier eGimeno-Blanes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Great effort has been devoted in recent years to the development of sudden cardiac risk predictors as a function of electric cardiac signals, mainly obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG analysis. But these prediction techniques are still seldom used in clinical practice, partly due to its limited diagnostic accuracy and to the lack of consensus about the appropriate computational signal processing implementation. This paper addresses a three-fold approach, based on ECG indexes, to structure this review on sudden cardiac risk stratification. First, throughout the computational techniques that had been widely proposed for obtaining these indexes in technical literature. Second, over the scientific evidence, that although is supported by observational clinical studies, they are not always representative enough. And third, via the limited technology transfer of academy-accepted algorithms, requiring further meditation for future systems. We focus on three families of ECG derived indexes which are tackled from the aforementioned viewpoints, namely, heart rate turbulence, heart rate variability, and T-wave alternans. In terms of computational algorithms, we still need clearer scientific evidence, standardizing, and benchmarking, siting on advanced algorithms applied over large and representative datasets. New scenarios like electronic health recordings, big data, long-term monitoring, and cloud databases, will eventually open new frameworks to foresee suitable new paradigms in the near future.

  1. Validation of the Oregon Scientific BPU 330 for self-monitoring of blood pressure according to the International Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Li Li1, XinYu Zhang1, ChunHong Yan1, QingXiang Liang21Biomedical Engineering Lab, Faculty of Information Engineering, ShenZhen University, ShenZhen, China; 2Bao An People’s Hospital, ShenZhen, ChinaObjective: Extensive marketing of devices for self-measurement of blood pressure has created a need for purchasers to be able to satisfy themselves that such devices have been evaluated according to agreed criteria. The Oregon Scientific BPU 330 blood pressure monitor is an electronic device for upper arm measurement. This study assessed the accuracy of the Oregon Scientific BPU 330 blood pressure monitor according to the International Protocol by the Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring of the European Society of Hypertension for validation of blood pressure measuring devices.Method: 52 participants over 30 years of age were studied in the validation. Nine blood pressure measurements were taken alternately with a mercury sphygmomanometer by two observers, and by the supervisor, using the BPU 330 device. A total of 33 participants were selected for the analysis. The validation was divided into two phases. Phase 1 included 15 participants. If the device passed phase 1, 18 more participants were included. The 99 pairs of measurements were compared according to the International Protocol. The device was given a pass/fail recommendation based on its accuracy compared with the mercury standard (within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, as well as the number met in the ranges specified by the International Protocol.Results: The mean and standard deviation of the difference between the mean of the observers and the BPU 330 device were 1.7 ± 4.7 mmHg and 2.8 ± 3.9 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, respectively. In phase 1, the device passed with a total of 33, 43, and 44 SBP readings; 38, 44, and 45 DBP readings were within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively. In phase 2.1, 81, 95, and 96 for SBP, and 83, 95, and 98 for DBP

  2. Trainees' Perceptions of Feedback: Validity Evidence for Two FEEDME (Feedback in Medical Education) Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-You, Robert; Ramesh, Saradha; Hayes, Victoria; Varaklis, Kalli; Ward, Denham; Blanco, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Construct: Medical educators consider feedback a core component of the educational process. Effective feedback allows learners to acquire new skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Learners' perceptions of feedback are an important aspect to assess with valid methods in order to improve the feedback skills of educators and the feedback culture. Although guidelines for delivering effective feedback have existed for several decades, medical students and residents often indicate that they receive little feedback. A recent scoping review on feedback in medical education did not reveal any validity evidence on instruments to assess learner's perceptions of feedback. The purpose of our study was to gather validity evidence on two novel FEEDME (Feedback in Medical Education) instruments to assess medical students' and residents' perceptions of the feedback that they receive. After the authors developed an initial instrument with 54 items, cognitive interviews with medical students and residents suggested that 2 separate instruments were needed, one focused on the feedback culture (FEEDME-Culture) and the other on the provider of feedback (FEEDME-Provider). A Delphi study with 17 medical education experts and faculty members assessed content validity. The response process was explored involving 31 medical students and residents at 2 academic institutions. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses were performed on completed instruments. Two Delphi consultation rounds refined the wording of items and eliminated several items. Learners found both instruments easy and quick to answer; it took them less than 5 minutes to complete. Learners preferred an electronic format of the instruments over paper. Factor analysis revealed a two- and three-factor solution for the FEEDME-Culture and FEEDME-Provider instruments, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.80 for all factors. Items on both instruments were moderately to highly correlated (range, r = .3-.7). Our

  3. Validity Evidence for a Serious Game to Assess Performance on Critical Pediatric Emergency Medicine Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, James M; Scalzo, Anthony J; Borgman, Matthew A; Watson, Christopher M; Byrnes, Chelsie E; Chang, Todd P; Auerbach, Marc; Kessler, David O; Feldman, Brian L; Payne, Brian S; Nibras, Sohail; Chokshi, Riti K; Lopreiato, Joseph O

    2018-01-26

    We developed a first-person serious game, PediatricSim, to teach and assess performances on seven critical pediatric scenarios (anaphylaxis, bronchiolitis, diabetic ketoacidosis, respiratory failure, seizure, septic shock, and supraventricular tachycardia). In the game, players are placed in the role of a code leader and direct patient management by selecting from various assessment and treatment options. The objective of this study was to obtain supportive validity evidence for the PediatricSim game scores. Game content was developed by 11 subject matter experts and followed the American Heart Association's 2011 Pediatric Advanced Life Support Provider Manual and other authoritative references. Sixty subjects with three different levels of experience were enrolled to play the game. Before game play, subjects completed a 40-item written pretest of knowledge. Game scores were compared between subject groups using scoring rubrics developed for the scenarios. Validity evidence was established and interpreted according to Messick's framework. Content validity was supported by a game development process that involved expert experience, focused literature review, and pilot testing. Subjects rated the game favorably for engagement, realism, and educational value. Interrater agreement on game scoring was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.89-0.9). Game scores were higher for attendings followed by residents then medical students (Pc game and written test scores (r = 0.84, P game scores to assess knowledge of pediatric emergency medicine resuscitation.

  4. Validity evidence for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) program as an assessment tool: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendejas, Benjamin; Ruparel, Raaj K; Cook, David A

    2016-02-01

    The Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) program uses five simulation stations (peg transfer, precision cutting, loop ligation, and suturing with extracorporeal and intracorporeal knot tying) to teach and assess laparoscopic surgery skills. We sought to summarize evidence regarding the validity of scores from the FLS assessment. We systematically searched for studies evaluating the FLS as an assessment tool (last search update February 26, 2013). We classified validity evidence using the currently standard validity framework (content, response process, internal structure, relations with other variables, and consequences). From a pool of 11,628 studies, we identified 23 studies reporting validity evidence for FLS scores. Studies involved residents (n = 19), practicing physicians (n = 17), and medical students (n = 8), in specialties of general (n = 17), gynecologic (n = 4), urologic (n = 1), and veterinary (n = 1) surgery. Evidence was most common in the form of relations with other variables (n = 22, most often expert-novice differences). Only three studies reported internal structure evidence (inter-rater or inter-station reliability), two studies reported content evidence (i.e., derivation of assessment elements), and three studies reported consequences evidence (definition of pass/fail thresholds). Evidence nearly always supported the validity of FLS total scores. However, the loop ligation task lacks discriminatory ability. Validity evidence confirms expected relations with other variables and acceptable inter-rater reliability, but other validity evidence is sparse. Given the high-stakes use of this assessment (required for board eligibility), we suggest that more validity evidence is required, especially to support its content (selection of tasks and scoring rubric) and the consequences (favorable and unfavorable impact) of assessment.

  5. The validation of forensic DNA extraction systems to utilize soil contaminated biological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasu, Mohaimin; Shires, Karen

    2015-07-01

    The production of full DNA profiles from biological evidence found in soil has a high failure rate due largely to the inhibitory substance humic acid (HA). Abundant in various natural soils, HA co-extracts with DNA during extraction and inhibits DNA profiling by binding to the molecular components of the genotyping assay. To successfully utilize traces of soil contaminated evidence, such as that found at many murder and rape crime scenes in South Africa, a reliable HA removal extraction system would often be selected based on previous validation studies. However, for many standard forensic DNA extraction systems, peer-reviewed publications detailing the efficacy on soil evidence is either lacking or is incomplete. Consequently, these sample types are often not collected or fail to yield suitable DNA material due to the use of unsuitable methodology. The aim of this study was to validate the common forensic DNA collection and extraction systems used in South Africa, namely DNA IQ, FTA elute and Nucleosave for processing blood and saliva contaminated with HA. A forensic appropriate volume of biological evidence was spiked with HA (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/ml) and processed through each extraction protocol for the evaluation of HA removal using QPCR and STR-genotyping. The DNA IQ magnetic bead system effectively removed HA from highly contaminated blood and saliva, and generated consistently acceptable STR profiles from both artificially spiked samples and crude soil samples. This system is highly recommended for use on soil-contaminated evidence over the cellulose card-based systems currently being preferentially used for DNA sample collection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Model validation and the role of the proposed Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield. Proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, H.

    1996-01-01

    Proof of Evidence is given by an expert witness on behalf of Greenpeace Ltd as part of their submission to a Planning Inquiry in 1995 hearing the application of UK Nirex Ltd for permission to construct an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site near Sellafield. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste. An examination of the groundwater flow models used by Nirex and the procedure for their validation have led to the following conclusions: no evidence has been presented by Nirex to show that the construction of the RCF will improve the confidence they claim to have in the site; the prospects are slim for validating the models of present groundwater flow so that they satisfy the criteria to meet the risk target; it is extremely unlikely that results from the RCF will increase confidence in a safety assessment of this site; all the evidence available to date suggests that the risk assessment is not, and will not become, robust to variations in flux through the repository. (1 figure; 8 references). (UK)

  7. Is there any scientific evidence for the use of glucosamine in the management of human osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrotin, Yves; Mobasheri, Ali; Marty, Marc

    2012-01-30

    Glucosamine in its acetylated form is a natural constituent of some glycosaminoglycans (for example, hyaluronic acid and keratan sulfate) in the proteoglycans found in articular cartilage, intervertebral disc and synovial fluid. Glucosamine can be extracted and stabilized by chemical modification and used as a drug or a nutraceutical. It has been approved for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) in Europe to promote cartilage and joint health and is sold over the counter as a dietary supplement in the United States. Various formulations of glucosamine have been tested, including glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride. In vitro and in vivo studies have uncovered glucosamine's mechanisms of action on articular tissues (cartilage, synovial membrane and subchondral bone) and justified its efficacy by demonstrating structure-modifying and anti-inflammatory effects at high concentrations. However, results from clinical trials have raised many concerns. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that glucosamine is easily absorbed, but the current treatment doses (for example, 1,500 mg/day) barely reach the required therapeutic concentration in plasma and tissue. The symptomatic effect size of glucosamine varies greatly depending on the formulation used and the quality of clinical trials. Importantly, the effect size reduces when evidence is accumulated chronologically and evidence for the structure-modifying effects of glucosamine are sparse. Hence, glucosamine was at first recommended by EULAR and OARSI for the management of knee pain and structure improvement in OA patients, but not in the most recent NICE guidelines. Consequently, the published recommendations for the management of OA require revision. Glucosamine is generally safe and although there are concerns about potential allergic and salt-related side effects of some formulations, no major adverse events have been reported so far. This paper examines all the in vitro and in vivo evidence for the mechanism

  8. Analysis of Orthopedic Resident Ability to Apply Levels of Evidence Criteria to Scientific Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandizio, Louis C; Shim, Stephanie S; Graham, Jove; Costopoulos, Callista; Cush, Gerard; Klena, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    In the era of evidence-based medicine, understanding study design and levels of evidence (LoE) criteria is an important component of resident education and aids practicing surgeons in making informed clinical decisions. The purpose of this study is to analyze the ability of orthopedic residents to accurately determine LoE criteria for published articles compared with medical students. Basic science article. Geisinger Medical Center (Danville, PA), tertiary referral center. Overall, 25 U.S. orthopedic residents and 15 4th year medical students interviewing for a residency position in orthopedic surgery voluntarily participated and provided baseline demographic information. A total of 15 articles from the American Volume of Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery were identified. Study participants were provided with the article title, the abstract, and the complete methods section. The assigned LoE designation was withheld and access to the LoE criteria used by Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery was provided. Each participant was assigned a study type and LoE designation for each article. There were more correct responses regarding the article type (67%) than for LoE designation (39%). For LoE, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.30. The percentage of correct responses for article type and LoE increased with more years of training (p = 0.005 and p = 0.002). Although residents had a higher proportion of correct LoE responses overall than medical students, this difference did not reach statistical significance (42% vs. 35%, p = 0.07). Although improvements in accurately determining both article type and LoE were seen among residents with increasing years of training, residents were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement for determining LoE or article type when compared with medical students. Strategies to improve resident understanding of LoE guidelines need to be incorporated into orthopedic residencies, especially when considering the

  9. Evidence of Reliability and Validity for a Children’s Auditory Continuous Performance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Lasee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs are commonly utilized clinical measures of attention and response inhibition. While there have been many studies of CPTs that utilize a visual format, there is considerably less research employing auditory CPTs. The current study provides initial reliability and validity evidence for the Auditory Vigilance Screening Measure (AVSM, a newly developed CPT. Participants included 105 five- to nine-year-old children selected from two rural Midwestern school districts. Reliability data for the AVSM was collected through retesting of 42 participants. Validity was evaluated through correlation of AVSM scales with subscales from the ADHD Rating Scale–IV. Test–retest reliability coefficients ranged from .62 to .74 for AVSM subscales. A significant (r = .31 correlation was obtained between the AVSM Impulsivity Scale and teacher ratings of inattention. Limitations and implications for future study are discussed.

  10. Accumulation of Content Validation Evidence for the Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girija Gopinathan; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    2017-04-01

    Critical thinking skills (CTS) are essential for nurses; assessing students' acquisition of these skills is a mandate of nursing curricula. This study aimed to develop a self-assessment instrument of critical thinking skills (Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale [CTSAS]) for students' self-monitoring. An initial pool of 196 items across 6 core cognitive skills and 16 subskills were generated using the American Philosophical Association definition of CTS. Experts' content review of the items and their ratings provided evidence of content relevance using the item-level content validity index (I-CVI) and Aiken's content validity coefficient (VIk). 115 items were retained (range of I-CVI values = .70 to .94 and range of VIk values = .69-.95; significant at pself-assessment purposes.

  11. Scientific Evidence for Different Options for GDM Screening and Management: Controversies and Review of the Literature

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    Claudia Caissutti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gestational diabetes (GDM affects up to 7% of pregnant women and is associated with several maternal and perinatal morbidities. International organizations suggest several different recommendations regarding how to screen and to manage GDM. Objective. We aimed to analyze the most important and employed guidelines about screening and management of GDM and we investigated existing related literature. Results. We found several different criteria for screening for GDM, for monitoring GDM, and for starting pharmacological therapy. When using IADPSG criteria, GDM rate increased, perinatal outcomes improved, and screening became cost-effective. Compared to no treatment, treatment of women meeting criteria for GDM by IADPSG criteria but not by other less strict criteria has limited evidence for an effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Characteristics and evidence of nursing scientific production for medication errors at the hospital environment

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    Lolita Dopico da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the characteristics of nurses’ publications about medication errors. It was used an Integrative methodology review covering January 2005 to October 2010 with "medication errors" and "nursing" descriptors and it was also collected data from electronic databases via “Capes Portal”. Results show four categories, the conduct of health professionals in medication errors, types and rates of errors, medication system weaknesses, and barriers to error. Discussion of the prevalent practice was not to notify the error. The prevalent error type was administration and error rates which ranged from 14.8 to 56.7%. Ilegible handwriting, communication failures among professionals, and lack of technical knowledge were weaknesses. Among the barriers, the civility from patient, nurses and technology were evident. Advances in researches for testing barriers were found and some gaps were apparent concerning lack of study that address pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetic aspects of drugs involved in errors.

  13. New Evidence of Construct Validity Problems for Pettigrew and Meertens' (1995) Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ruiz, Miguel Á; Blanco, Amalio; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Given the current debate over the distinction between subtle and blatant prejudice, this study provides new evidence regarding problems with the construct validity of the Pettigrew and Meertens' Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale. To assess these issues, an existing data sample of 896 Chilean participants collected in 2010 was reanalyzed. The main analysis method used was a confirmatory factor analysis. The model that best represented the original theory (a model of two correlated second-order factors) had an improper solution due to the unidentified model. The scale has substantial psychometric problems, and it was not possible to distinguish between subtle and blatant prejudice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Review of available scientific and technical evidence regarding liquid-based cytology

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    Alberto Frutos Pérez-Surio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cervical cancer can be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment of patients with abnormal results, thus decreasing their incidence and mortality. In contrast to conventional techniques (Papanicolau, diagnostic techniques have been developed based on the preservation of the sample in a stabilizing solution (liquid-based cytology. The different methods of liquid-based cytology used in the screening of cervical cancer against the Papanicolau technique are evaluated. Material and methods. A systematic review of the literature has been performed (2010-2015. The search was developed by including MeSH terms as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and papilloma virus infection in the MedLine, Embase, Cochrane Library, CRD, LILACS and IBECS databases. Inclusion criteria were adult women screened for cervical cancer using liquid-based cytology techniques, compared with conventional methods. Results. 464 references were found related to the reliability-precision of the test, of which 13 were included in the report. A health technology assessment report was conducted in 2013 by the Agency for Health Technology Assessment of Andalusia (AETSA. The quality of the studies was moderate and moderate-low. AETSA found studies that included more than 700,000 women between 14 and 90 years old, who were screened by liquid-based cytology, compared to the conventional one. Studies have shown that liquid-based cytology techniques reduce the percentage of unsatisfactory samples compared to conventional ones. The analysis of detection of cellular abnormalities and diagnostic validity indexes showed significant differences when comparing both methods. Conclusions. The studies analyzed presented methodological limitations. Hence, the results should be interpreted with caution. Liquid-based cytology did not present greater diagnostic capacity than conventional methods, but it reduced, with statistically significant results, the number of samples unsatisfactory

  15. Clinical practice of acute respiratory distress syndrome in Japan: A nationwide survey and scientific evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-07-01

    There has been limited information about epidemiology and clinical practice of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in Japan. An invitation letter to the web-based survey was mailed to all 871 board certified hospitals of the Japanese Respiratory Society. The questionnaires were designed to collect data on epidemiology and clinical practice of ARDS, including diagnostic measures and therapeutics. Within 4 months of the survey period, valid responses were obtained from 296 (34%) hospitals. The incidence of ARDS was estimated to be 3.13 cases/100 hospital beds or 1.91 cases/ICU bed per year. The most frequent underlying disease was pneumonia (34%), followed by sepsis (29%). In hospitals with fewer ICU beds, pulmonologists tended to be in charge of management of ARDS patients. Routine diagnostic measures included computed tomography of the chest (69.6% of the hospitals) and Swan-Ganz catheterization was rarely performed for diagnosis. In 87.4% of the hospitals, non-invasive ventilation was applied to management of ARDS patients, especially those with mild disease. Prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for ARDS patients was more widely adopted in hospitals with larger numbers of ICU beds and intensivists. In 58.2% of the responding hospitals, corticosteroid was considered as a treatment option for ARDS, among which pulse therapy was routinely introduced to ARDS patients in 35.4%. The incidence of ARDS in Japan was estimated to be lower than that in the recent international study. The scale and equipment of hospitals and the number of intensivists might influence clinical practice of ARDS. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stroke treatment in Stroke Unit: from scientific evidences to clinical practice

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    Michele Stornello

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In themanagement of stroke disease, evidences fromthe literature demonstrate that the introduction of stroke units, hospital wards with dedicated beds providing intensive care within 48 hours of symptoms’ onset, produced a real improvement in the outcome, reducing in-hospital fatality cases and increasing the proportion of patients independently living in long term follow-up. Discussion: The article focuses on stroke disease-management, suggesting a stroke integrated approach for the admission of patients on dedicated beds, in order to extend the ‘‘stroke care’’ approach outcomes to as many hospitals as possible in Italy. This approach implies the set up of a stroke network for an effective patients’ stratification according to the severity of the illness at debut; the set up of an integrated team of specialists in hospital management of the acute phase (first 48 hours and a timely rehabilitation treatment. Ultimately the hospital should be organized according to department’s semi-intensive areas in order to assure to the patients, in the early stage of the disease, a timely high intensity care aimed to improve the long term outcome.

  17. The internet racing ahead of the scientific evidence: the case of "liberation treatment" for multiple sclerosis

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    Yára Dadalti Fragoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic neurological disease that typically affects young adults. A recent publication suggested that MS might originate from insufficient blood drainage in certain areas of the central nervous system. The condition was named chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI. Other papers have not confirmed these findings and, therefore, the matter remains controversial. Nineteen months after the original publication on CCSVI and MS, another 22 papers have been published addressing the matter. No clinical trials have been carried out on the subject and there is no evidence-based indication to perform surgical vascular procedures in MS patients. However, over the same nineteen-month period, the internet discussion on the subject of CCSVI and MS has led to countless websites advertising treatment using vascular surgery for patients with MS all over the world. The treatment based on the CCSVI theory has appealingly been called "liberation treatment", thus making it difficult to explain to patients why a treatment that has been highly praised (on the internet cannot be recommended based on partial medical results that await confirmation.

  18. Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Vascular Dementia: An Overview of Scientific Evidence

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    Dennis Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a leading cause of mental and physical disability. Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease (AD constituting 10–15% of the dementia population. Currently there are no approved pharmaceutical options for VaD and the conventional anti-AD therapies provide only modest, short-term relief of symptoms associated with VaD. Herbal medicines have been used for the management of dementia-like symptoms for centuries and may provide viable therapies for VaD due to their multicomponent and multitarget approach. This review is designed to provide an updated overview on the current status of herbal medicine research, with an emphasis on Chinese herbal medicine, for the treatment of VaD or dementia. A case study is also provided to demonstrate the development process of a novel standardized complex herbal formulation for VaD. The article reveals some preliminary evidence to support the use of single and complex herbal preparations for VaD and dementia. Multiple issues in relation to clinical and preclinical research have been identified and future research directions are discussed.

  19. Rééducation Posturale Globale in musculoskeletal diseases: scientific evidence and clinical practice

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    D. Tosarelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on the treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with physiotherapy and clinical experiences on the basis of a method called Rééducation Posturale Globale (RPG, have highlighted the usefulness of this treatment. Although such treatment technique is commonly used in physical therapy practice, only few studies support its therapeutic effectiveness. Objective: To search the literature for evidence of RPG effectiveness, in order to identify the most appropriate therapeutic contexts for its use. Methods: A review of the literature through the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, Pedro, and Medscape. The keywords used for the search in the databases are: Rééducation Posturale Globale, Souchard, Posture, and Manual Therapy. The following clinical studies were selected: randomized controlled studies, non-randomized controlled studies, observation studies, and case reports, in English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian. Results: Out of 18 studies found, 9 were analyzed: 2 randomized controlled studies, 2 non-randomized controlled studies, 3 non-controlled studies, and 2 case reports. Conclusions: The RPG method has been shown to be an effective treatment technique for musculoskeletal diseases, in particular for ankylosing spondylitis, acute and chronic low back pain, and lumbar discherniation. Although the scarcity of rigorous experimental trials on a large scale does not allow the drawing of undisputable conclusions, the results gathered up to now are an encouragement to carry on research in the field of conservative treatment.

  20. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Multiple Balance Assessments in Athletes With a Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nicholas; Salvatore, Anthony; Powell, Douglas; Reed-Jones, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Context: An estimated 300 000 sport-related concussion injuries occur in the United States annually. Approximately 30% of individuals with concussions experience balance disturbances. Common methods of balance assessment include the Clinical Test of Sensory Organization and Balance (CTSIB), the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), and the Romberg test; however, the National Collegiate Athletic Association recommended the Wii Fit as an alternative measure of balance in athletes with a concussion. A central concern regarding the implementation of the Wii Fit is whether it is reliable and valid for measuring balance disturbance in athletes with concussion. Objective: To examine the reliability and validity evidence for the CTSIB, SOT, BESS, Romberg test, and Wii Fit for detecting balance disturbance in athletes with a concussion. Data Sources: Literature considered for review included publications with reliability and validity data for the assessments of balance (CTSIB, SOT, BESS, Romberg test, and Wii Fit) from PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. Data Extraction: We identified 63 relevant articles for consideration in the review. Of the 63 articles, 28 were considered appropriate for inclusion and 35 were excluded. Data Synthesis: No current reliability or validity information supports the use of the CTSIB, SOT, Romberg test, or Wii Fit for balance assessment in athletes with a concussion. The BESS demonstrated moderate to high reliability (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.87) and low to moderate validity (sensitivity = 34%, specificity = 87%). However, the Romberg test and Wii Fit have been shown to be reliable tools in the assessment of balance in Parkinson patients. Conclusions: The BESS can evaluate balance problems after a concussion. However, it lacks the ability to detect balance problems after the third day of recovery. Further investigation is needed to establish the use of the CTSIB, SOT, Romberg test, and Wii Fit for

  1. Reliability and validity evidence of multiple balance assessments in athletes with a concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nicholas; Salvatore, Anthony; Powell, Douglas; Reed-Jones, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 300 000 sport-related concussion injuries occur in the United States annually. Approximately 30% of individuals with concussions experience balance disturbances. Common methods of balance assessment include the Clinical Test of Sensory Organization and Balance (CTSIB), the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), and the Romberg test; however, the National Collegiate Athletic Association recommended the Wii Fit as an alternative measure of balance in athletes with a concussion. A central concern regarding the implementation of the Wii Fit is whether it is reliable and valid for measuring balance disturbance in athletes with concussion. To examine the reliability and validity evidence for the CTSIB, SOT, BESS, Romberg test, and Wii Fit for detecting balance disturbance in athletes with a concussion. Literature considered for review included publications with reliability and validity data for the assessments of balance (CTSIB, SOT, BESS, Romberg test, and Wii Fit) from PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. We identified 63 relevant articles for consideration in the review. Of the 63 articles, 28 were considered appropriate for inclusion and 35 were excluded. No current reliability or validity information supports the use of the CTSIB, SOT, Romberg test, or Wii Fit for balance assessment in athletes with a concussion. The BESS demonstrated moderate to high reliability (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.87) and low to moderate validity (sensitivity = 34%, specificity = 87%). However, the Romberg test and Wii Fit have been shown to be reliable tools in the assessment of balance in Parkinson patients. The BESS can evaluate balance problems after a concussion. However, it lacks the ability to detect balance problems after the third day of recovery. Further investigation is needed to establish the use of the CTSIB, SOT, Romberg test, and Wii Fit for assessing balance in athletes with concussions.

  2. The complementary medicine (CAM) for the treatment of chronic pain: scientific evidence regarding the effects of healing touch massage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marletta, Giuseppe; Canfora, Angela; Roscani, Francesco; Cernicchiaro, Lucia; Cutrera, Maria; Russo, Marianna; Artioli, Giovanna; Sarli, Leopoldo

    2015-09-09

    Evidence-based medicine offers effective pathways of pharmacological treatment for chronic pain that may compromise the quality of life of patients; this is one of the main reasons why more and more people resort to traditional and complementary approaches, to try to maintain or regain their health. The effectiveness of the various forms of complementary treatments often cannot be proven objectively, which is why, given the need to find more concrete evidence of the effectiveness of complementary therapies with particular reference to the method of healing touch massage, a review of the literature was conducted in order to gather evidence of the efficacy of the specific method regarding pain and other health outcomes of patients with malignant disease to support a proposal for improvement, based on the practice of healing touch massage conducted by nurses. Systematic review. There are several examples (in some cases specifically regarding patients with tumors) of the positive effects of healing touch massage on pain, anxiety and fatigue, and also on biochemical parameters. The way to full recognition by both the institutional and the scientific community seems to promise fairly well, although it should be noted that the achievement of this goal will require further research avoiding the limitations of previous studies.

  3. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  4. Validation of the Portuguese version of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire

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    Rui Pedro Gomes Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to describe the process of translation and linguistic and cultural validation of the Evidence Based Practice Questionnaire for the Portuguese context: Questionário de Eficácia Clínica e Prática Baseada em Evidências (QECPBE. METHOD: a methodological and cross-sectional study was developed. The translation and back translation was performed according to traditional standards. Principal Components Analysis with orthogonal rotation according to the Varimax method was used to verify the QECPBE's psychometric characteristics, followed by confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's alpha. Data were collected between December 2013 and February 2014. RESULTS: 358 nurses delivering care in a hospital facility in North of Portugal participated in the study. QECPBE contains 20 items and three subscales: Practice (α=0.74; Attitudes (α=0.75; Knowledge/Skills and Competencies (α=0.95, presenting an overall internal consistency of α=0.74. The tested model explained 55.86% of the variance and presented good fit: χ2(167=520.009; p = 0.0001; χ2df=3.114; CFI=0.908; GFI=0.865; PCFI=0.798; PGFI=0.678; RMSEA=0.077 (CI90%=0.07-0.08. CONCLUSION: confirmatory factor analysis revealed the questionnaire is valid and appropriate to be used in the studied context.

  5. Performance of a cognitive load inventory during simulated handoffs: Evidence for validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John Q; Boscardin, Christy K; van Dijk, Savannah M; Abdullah, Ruqayyah; Irby, David M; Sewell, Justin L; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2016-01-01

    Advancing patient safety during handoffs remains a public health priority. The application of cognitive load theory offers promise, but is currently limited by the inability to measure cognitive load types. To develop and collect validity evidence for a revised self-report inventory that measures cognitive load types during a handoff. Based on prior published work, input from experts in cognitive load theory and handoffs, and a think-aloud exercise with residents, a revised Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs was developed. The Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs has items for intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load. Students who were second- and sixth-year students recruited from a Dutch medical school participated in four simulated handoffs (two simple and two complex cases). At the end of each handoff, study participants completed the Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs, Paas' Cognitive Load Scale, and one global rating item for intrinsic load, extraneous load, and germane load, respectively. Factor and correlational analyses were performed to collect evidence for validity. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single factor that combined intrinsic and germane loads. The extraneous load items performed poorly and were removed from the model. The score from the combined intrinsic and germane load items associated, as predicted by cognitive load theory, with a commonly used measure of overall cognitive load (Pearson's r = 0.83, p load during handoffs may be measured via a self-report measure. Additional work is required to develop an adequate measure of extraneous load.

  6. Validity of Quinpirole Sensitization Rat Model of OCD: Linking Evidence from Animal and Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlik, Ales; Radostová, Dominika; Hatalova, Hana; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Koprivova, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Horacek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with 1-3% prevalence. OCD is characterized by recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions). The pathophysiology of OCD remains unclear, stressing the importance of pre-clinical studies. The aim of this article is to critically review a proposed animal model of OCD that is characterized by the induction of compulsive checking and behavioral sensitization to the D2/D3 dopamine agonist quinpirole. Changes in this model have been reported at the level of brain structures, neurotransmitter systems and other neurophysiological aspects. In this review, we consider these alterations in relation to the clinical manifestations in OCD, with the aim to discuss and evaluate axes of validity of this model. Our analysis shows that some axes of validity of quinpirole sensitization model (QSM) are strongly supported by clinical findings, such as behavioral phenomenology or roles of brain structures. Evidence on predictive validity is contradictory and ambiguous. It is concluded that this model is useful in the context of searching for the underlying pathophysiological basis of the disorder because of the relatively strong biological similarities with OCD.

  7. Scientific evidence and the toxic tort. A socio-legal study of the issues, expert evidence and judgement in Reay and Hope v. British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Providing a socio-legal analysis of the issues, expert evidence and judgment in Reay and Hope v BNFL plc., the thesis offers an insight into the complexity of the toxic tort. Starting with an overview of the history of Sellafield, the thesis reflects on the scientific and epidemiological concerns surrounding the link between childhood cancer and nuclear installations. Drawing on scientific knowledge and epistemological considerations, the thesis moves on to the difficulties of verifying causation in science and the problems of establishing causation in law. Outlining the role of the expert witness and scientific expert evidence, the thesis proceeds with a case analysis, before broaching the thorny issue of judicial decision making and in particular, the difference between the 'discovery' and 'justification' process. Moving on to the Judgment in Reay and Hope, attention is given to the potential application of probability theory to the judicial decision making process. Lasting just short of one hundred days and including the testimony of numerous scientific experts, Reay and Hope marked new ground in a number of ways; it was the first personal injury claim to test the concept of genetic damage from radiation; the only time that a Queen's Bench Division Judge had been allocated a full-time judicial assistant, and one of the first trials to endorse a satellite video link for examination of international expert witnesses. As far as judicial management is concerned, the case was a forerunner in having Counsels' Opening Statements in writing in advance of the trial, as well as having written daily submissions of key issues from plaintiffs and defendants upon conclusion of oral evidence. The circumstances that led to the trial relate to events in excess of thirty to forty years ago when the fathers of Dorothy Reay and Vivien Hope were employed by the Defendants and their predecessors (the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) as fitters for the Sellafield Plant

  8. Scientific evidence and the toxic tort. A socio-legal study of the issues, expert evidence and judgement in Reay and Hope v. British Nuclear Fuels plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, R.J

    1999-07-01

    Providing a socio-legal analysis of the issues, expert evidence and judgment in Reay and Hope v BNFL plc., the thesis offers an insight into the complexity of the toxic tort. Starting with an overview of the history of Sellafield, the thesis reflects on the scientific and epidemiological concerns surrounding the link between childhood cancer and nuclear installations. Drawing on scientific knowledge and epistemological considerations, the thesis moves on to the difficulties of verifying causation in science and the problems of establishing causation in law. Outlining the role of the expert witness and scientific expert evidence, the thesis proceeds with a case analysis, before broaching the thorny issue of judicial decision making and in particular, the difference between the 'discovery' and 'justification' process. Moving on to the Judgment in Reay and Hope, attention is given to the potential application of probability theory to the judicial decision making process. Lasting just short of one hundred days and including the testimony of numerous scientific experts, Reay and Hope marked new ground in a number of ways; it was the first personal injury claim to test the concept of genetic damage from radiation; the only time that a Queen's Bench Division Judge had been allocated a full-time judicial assistant, and one of the first trials to endorse a satellite video link for examination of international expert witnesses. As far as judicial management is concerned, the case was a forerunner in having Counsels' Opening Statements in writing in advance of the trial, as well as having written daily submissions of key issues from plaintiffs and defendants upon conclusion of oral evidence. The circumstances that led to the trial relate to events in excess of thirty to forty years ago when the fathers of Dorothy Reay and Vivien Hope were employed by the Defendants and their predecessors (the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) as fitters for

  9. Evidence for validity within workplace assessment: the Longitudinal Evaluation of Performance (LEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott-Clements, Linda; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Schuwirth, Lambert W T; Hurst, Yvonne; Rennie, James S

    2008-05-01

    The drive towards valid and reliable assessment methods for health professions' training is becoming increasingly focused towards authentic models of workplace performance assessment. This study investigates the validity of such a method, longitudinal evaluation of performance (LEP), which has been implemented in the assessment of postgraduate dental trainees in Scotland. Although it is similar in format to the mini-CEX (mini clinical evaluation exercise) and other tools that use global ratings for assessing performance in the workplace, a number of differences exist in the way in which the LEP has been implemented. These include the use of a reference point for evaluators' judgement that represents the standard expected upon completion of the training, flexibility, a greater range of cases assessed and the use of frequency scores within feedback to identify trainees' progress over time. A range of qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed from 2 consecutive cohorts of trainees in Scotland (2002-03 and 2003-04). There is rich evidence supporting the validity, educational impact and feasibility of the LEP. In particular, a great deal of support was given by trainers for the use of a fixed reference point for judgements, despite initial concerns that this might be demotivating to trainees. Trainers were highly positive about this approach and considered it useful in identifying trainees' progress and helping to drive learning. The LEP has been successful in combining a strong formative approach to continuous assessment with the collection of evidence on performance within the workplace that (alongside other tools within an assessment system) can contribute towards a summative decision regarding competence.

  10. A Delphi Technology Foresight Study: Mapping Social Construction of Scientific Evidence on Metagenomics Tests for Water Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Birko

    Full Text Available Access to clean water is a grand challenge in the 21st century. Water safety testing for pathogens currently depends on surrogate measures such as fecal indicator bacteria (e.g., E. coli. Metagenomics concerns high-throughput, culture-independent, unbiased shotgun sequencing of DNA from environmental samples that might transform water safety by detecting waterborne pathogens directly instead of their surrogates. Yet emerging innovations such as metagenomics are often fiercely contested. Innovations are subject to shaping/construction not only by technology but also social systems/values in which they are embedded, such as experts' attitudes towards new scientific evidence. We conducted a classic three-round Delphi survey, comprised of 107 questions. A multidisciplinary expert panel (n = 24 representing the continuum of discovery scientists and policymakers evaluated the emergence of metagenomics tests. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first Delphi foresight study of experts' attitudes on (1 the top 10 priority evidentiary criteria for adoption of metagenomics tests for water safety, (2 the specific issues critical to governance of metagenomics innovation trajectory where there is consensus or dissensus among experts, (3 the anticipated time lapse from discovery to practice of metagenomics tests, and (4 the role and timing of public engagement in development of metagenomics tests. The ability of a test to distinguish between harmful and benign waterborne organisms, analytical/clinical sensitivity, and reproducibility were the top three evidentiary criteria for adoption of metagenomics. Experts agree that metagenomic testing will provide novel information but there is dissensus on whether metagenomics will replace the current water safety testing methods or impact the public health end points (e.g., reduction in boil water advisories. Interestingly, experts view the publics relevant in a "downstream capacity" for adoption of

  11. Screening tool for oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke - Part I: evidence of validity based on the content and response processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tatiana Magalhães de; Cola, Paula Cristina; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Magalhães, Hipólito Virgílio; Magnoni, Carlos Daniel; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2017-08-17

    The aim of the present study was to identify the evidence of validity based on the content and response process of the Rastreamento de Disfagia Orofaríngea no Acidente Vascular Encefálico (RADAVE; "Screening Tool for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Stroke"). The criteria used to elaborate the questions were based on a literature review. A group of judges consisting of 19 different health professionals evaluated the relevance and representativeness of the questions, and the results were analyzed using the Content Validity Index. In order to evidence validity based on the response processes, 23 health professionals administered the screening tool and analyzed the questions using a structured scale and cognitive interview. The RADAVE structured to be applied in two stages. The first version consisted of 18 questions in stage I and 11 questions in stage II. Eight questions in stage I and four in stage II did not reach the minimum Content Validity Index, requiring reformulation by the authors. The cognitive interview demonstrated some misconceptions. New adjustments were made and the final version was produced with 12 questions in stage I and six questions in stage II. It was possible to develop a screening tool for dysphagia in stroke with adequate evidence of validity based on content and response processes. Both validity evidences obtained so far allowed to adjust the screening tool in relation to its construct. The next studies will analyze the other evidences of validity and the measures of accuracy.

  12. Ethics issues in scientific data and service provision: evidence and challenges for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Freda, Carmela; Haslinger, Florian; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    Addressing Ethics issues is nowadays a relevant challenge for any initiative, program or project dealing with scientific data and products provision, access to services for scientific purposes and communication with different stakeholders, including society. This is corroborated by the evidence that Ethics has very high priority in EU funded research. Indeed, all the activities carried out under Horizon 2020 must comply with ethical principles and national, Union and international legislation. This implies that "For all activities funded by the European Union, Ethics is an integral part of research from beginning to end, and ethical compliance is seen as pivotal to achieve real research excellence." Here, we present the experience of EPOS, a public pan-European research infrastructure. EPOS aims at integrating data, data products, services and software (DDSS) for solid Earth science generated and provided by monitoring networks, observing systems and facilities belonging to European countries. EPOS fosters the integrated use of multidisciplinary solid Earth data to improve the understanding of physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and surface dynamics. The EPOS integration plan will make significant contributions to understanding and mitigating geo-hazards, yielding data for hazard assessment, data products for engaging different stakeholders, and services for training, education and communication to society. Numerous national research infrastructures engaged in EPOS are deployed for the monitoring of areas prone to geo-hazards and for the surveillance of the national territory including areas used for exploiting geo-resources. The EPOS community is therefore already trained to provide services to public (civil defence agencies, local and national authorities) and private (petroleum industry, mining industry, geothermal companies, aviation security) stakeholders. Our ability to

  13. A prospective multiple case study of the impact of emerging scientific evidence on established colorectal cancer screening programs: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddie, Hannah; Dobrow, Mark J; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Rabeneck, Linda

    2012-06-01

    Health-policy decision making is a complex and dynamic process, for which strong evidentiary support is required. This includes scientifically produced research, as well as information that relates to the context in which the decision takes place. Unlike scientific evidence, this "contextual evidence" is highly variable and often includes information that is not scientifically produced, drawn from sources such as political judgement, program management experience and knowledge, or public values. As the policy decision-making process is variable and difficult to evaluate, it is often unclear how this heterogeneous evidence is identified and incorporated into "evidence-based policy" decisions. Population-based colorectal cancer screening poses an ideal context in which to examine these issues. In Canada, colorectal cancer screening programs have been established in several provinces over the past five years, based on the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or the fecal immunochemical test. However, as these programs develop, new scientific evidence for screening continues to emerge. Recently published randomized controlled trials suggest that the use of flexible sigmoidoscopy for population-based screening may pose a greater reduction in mortality than the FOBT. This raises the important question of how policy makers will address this evidence, given that screening programs are being established or are already in place. This study will examine these issues prospectively and will focus on how policy makers monitor emerging scientific evidence and how both scientific and contextual evidence are identified and applied for decisions about health system improvement. This study will employ a prospective multiple case study design, involving participants from Ontario, Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Quebec. In each province, data will be collected via document analysis and key informant interviews. Documents will include policy briefs, reports, meeting minutes, media

  14. Public policy and the social determinants of health: the challenge of the production and use of scientific evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pellegrini Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article serves as an introduction to the others published in this thematic issue of the Cadernos de Saúde Pública. The author makes a brief historical review of the concepts, approaches and methodologies used to study the relationships between social determinants and health outcomes. By analyzing the current global movement around social determinants of health he emphasizes that the distinctive feature of this movement is the explicit commitment to action through intersectoral public policies that are based on evidence and implemented with the support and participation of broad segments of society. As this special issue of the Cadernos de Saúde Pública is dedicated to presenting the results of research related to social determinants of health, the author focuses on an analysis of the difficulties in the production and use of scientific evidence that supports the definition, implementation and evaluation of policies to combat health inequities through action on social determinants of health. To conclude, he presents some recommendations for overcoming these difficulties.

  15. Moderators and Mediators in Social Work Research: Toward a More Ecologically Valid Evidence Base for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Summary Evidence-based practice involves the consistent and critical consumption of the social work research literature. As methodologies advance, primers to guide such efforts are often needed. In the present work, common statistical methods for testing moderation and mediation are identified, summarized, and corresponding examples, drawn from the substance abuse, domestic violence, and mental health literature, are provided. Findings While methodologically complex, analyses of these third variable effects can provide an optimal fit for the complexity involved in the provision of evidence-based social work services. While a moderator may identify the trait or state requirement for a causal relationship to occur, a mediator is concerned with the transmission of that relationship. In social work practice, these are questions of “under what conditions and for whom?” and of the “how?” of behavior change. Implications Implications include a need for greater attention to these methods among practitioners and evaluation researchers. With knowledge gained through the present review, social workers can benefit from a more ecologically valid evidence base for practice. PMID:22833701

  16. Oligosaccharides in infant formula: more evidence to validate the role of prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Zakharova, Irina; Dmitrieva, Yulia

    2015-05-14

    The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota differs between breast-fed and classic infant formula-fed infants. Breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS) and may also contain some probiotics, but scientific societies do not recommend the addition of prebiotic OS or probiotics to standard infant formula. Nevertheless, many infant formula companies often add one or the other or both. Different types of prebiotic OS are used in infant formula, including galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and mixtures of these OS, but none adds human milk OS. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to infant formula brings the GI microbiota of formula-fed infants closer to that of breast-fed infants. Prebiotics change gut metabolic activity (by decreasing stool pH and increasing SCFA), have a bifidogenic effect and bring stool consistency and defecation frequency closer to those of breast-fed infants. Although there is only limited evidence that these changes in GI microbiota induce a significant clinical benefit for the immune system, interesting positive trends have been observed in some markers. Additionally, adverse effects are extremely seldom. Prebiotics are added to infant formula because breast milk contains human milk OS. Because most studies suggest a trend of beneficial effects and because these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to the golden standard of breast milk.

  17. Evidence of validity for the Japanese version of the foot and ankle ability measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hidetomo; Sasaki, Shogo; Nagano, Yasuharu; Shinozuka, Nobuyuki; Sunagawa, Norihiko; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a valid, reliable, and self-reported outcome instrument for the foot and ankle region. To provide evidence for translation, cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Japanese version of the FAAM (FAAM-J). Cross-sectional study. Collegiate athletic training/sports medicine clinical setting. Eighty-three collegiate athletes. All participants completed the Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J and the Physical Functioning and Mental Health subscales of the Japanese version of the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36). Also, 19 participants (23%) whose conditions were expected to be stable completed another FAAM-J 2 to 6 days later for test-retest reliability. We analyzed the scores of those subscales for convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. The Activities of Daily Living and Sports subscales of the FAAM-J had correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.75, respectively, with the Physical Functioning section of the SF-36 for convergent validity. For divergent validity, the correlation coefficients with Mental Health of the SF-36 were 0.29 and 0.27 for each subscale, respectively. Cronbach α for internal consistency was 0.99 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.98 for the Sports subscale. A 95% confidence interval with a single measure was ±8.1 and ±14.0 points for each subscale. The test-retest reliability measures revealed intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.87 for the Activities of Daily Living and 0.91 for the Sports subscales with minimal detectable changes of ±6.8 and ±13.7 for the respective subscales. The FAAM was successfully translated for a Japanese version, and the FAAM-J was adapted cross-culturally. Thus, the FAAM-J can be used as a self-reported outcome measure for Japanese-speaking individuals; however, the scores must be interpreted with caution, especially when applied to different populations and other types of

  18. Validation of water vapour profiles (version 13 retrieved by the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor based on full resolution spectra measured by MIPAS on board Envisat

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    M. Milz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of stratospheric water vapour measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS with the full resolution mode between September 2002 and March 2004 and retrieved with the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor were compared to a number of independent measurements in order to estimate the bias and to validate the existing precision estimates of the MIPAS data. The estimated precision for MIPAS is 5 to 10% in the stratosphere, depending on altitude, latitude, and season. The independent instruments were: the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE, the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS, the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instrument, the Middle Atmospheric Water Vapour Radiometer (MIAWARA, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, balloon-borne version (MIPAS-B, the Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System (AMSOS, the Fluorescent Stratospheric Hygrometer for Balloon (FLASH-B, the NOAA frostpoint hygrometer, and the Fast In Situ Hygrometer (FISH. For the in-situ measurements and the ground based, air- and balloon borne remote sensing instruments, the measurements are restricted to central and northern Europe. The comparisons to satellite-borne instruments are predominantly at mid- to high latitudes on both hemispheres. In the stratosphere there is no clear indication of a bias in MIPAS data, because the independent measurements in some cases are drier and in some cases are moister than the MIPAS measurements. Compared to the infrared measurements of MIPAS, measurements in the ultraviolet and visible have a tendency to be high, whereas microwave measurements have a tendency to be low. The results of χ2-based precision validation are somewhat controversial among the comparison estimates. However, for comparison instruments whose error budget also includes

  19. The gender identity/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults: further validity evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devita; Deogracias, Joseph J; Johnson, Laurel L; Bradley, Susan J; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to provide further validity evidence for the dimensional measurement of gender identity and gender dysphoria in both adolescents and adults. Adolescents and adults with gender identity disorder (GID) were compared to clinical control (CC) adolescents and adults on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA), a 27-item scale originally developed by Deogracias et al. (2007). In Study 1, adolescents with GID (n = 44) were compared to CC adolescents (n = 98); and in Study 2, adults with GID (n = 41) were compared to CC adults (n = 94). In both studies, clients with GID self-reported significantly more gender dysphoria than did the CCs, with excellent sensitivity and specificity rates. In both studies, degree of self-reported gender dysphoria was significantly correlated with recall of cross-gender behavior in childhood-a test of convergent validity. The research and clinical utility of the GIDYQ-AA is discussed, including directions for further research in distinct clinical populations.

  20. The Spanish-Version of the Subjective Vitality Scale: Psychometric Properties and Evidence of Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isabel; Tomás, Inés; Balaguer, Isabel

    2017-06-05

    The Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS) assess the subjective experience of being full of energy and alive, a clinically relevant outcome measure of positive psychological well-being. The purpose of this paper was to translate the 7-item SVS into Spanish and examine its psychometric properties. In Study 1 (n = 790 adolescents) and Study 2 (n = 130 athletes) reliability and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were carried out. In Study 1 and Study 3 (n = 197 dancers) evidence of validity of inferences based on SVS scores estimating relationships with other variables (life satisfaction, global self-esteem and emotional and physical exhaustion) was obtained. In Study 2 invariance across time was tested. Finally in Study 3, the factorial structure was cross-validated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results of EFA showed a one-factor solution. CFA also supported a unidimensional factor structure for the Spanish 6-item SVS (RMSEA = .050 (90% CI = .00, .080); NNFI = .993; CFI = .996). Reliability analysis indicated a strong internal consistency in all study samples (α ranged from .82 to .89). Further, results from multi-sample analysis supported the replicability of SVS factor structure across time. Finally, the SVS scores showed the expected correlations patterns (all them significant, p < .01) with the measured outcomes. In conclusion, the Spanish version of the SVS demonstrated adequate psychometric properties, indicating that the scale can be confidently used to measure the experience of possessing energy and aliveness; furthermore, differences across time can be meaningfully carried out.

  1. Validation Evidence of the Motivation for Teaching Scale in Secondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abós, Ángel; Sevil, Javier; Martín-Albo, José; Aibar, Alberto; García-González, Luis

    2018-04-10

    Grounded in self-determination theory, the aim of this study was to develop a scale with adequate psychometric properties to assess motivation for teaching and to explain some outcomes of secondary education teachers at work. The sample comprised 584 secondary education teachers. Analyses supported the five-factor model (intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation and amotivation) and indicated the presence of a continuum of self-determination. Evidence of reliability was provided by Cronbach's alpha, composite reliability and average variance extracted. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported the partial invariance (configural and metric) of the scale in different sub-samples, in terms of gender and type of school. Concurrent validity was analyzed by a structural equation modeling that explained 71% of the work dedication variance and 69% of the boredom at work variance. Work dedication was positively predicted by intrinsic motivation (ß = .56, p amotivation (ß = -.49, p amotivation (ß = .68, p < .001). The Motivation for Teaching Scale in Secondary Education (Spanish acronym EME-ES, Escala de Motivación por la Enseñanza en Educación Secundaria) is discussed as a valid and reliable instrument. This is the first specific scale in the work context of secondary teachers that has integrated the five-factor structure together with their dedication and boredom at work.

  2. Using scientific evidence to inform public policy on the long distance transportation of animals: role of the European Food Safety Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribò, Oriol; Candiani, Denise; Aiassa, Elisa; Correia, Sandra; Afonso, Ana; De Massis, Fabrizio; Serratosa, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    The authors review the work of the previous Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare and the current European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in providing scientific advice on the welfare aspects of animal transport and the impact of this advice on the European Union (EU) regulatory framework. Through its Protocol on the Protection and Welfare of Animals, the Treaty of Amsterdam obliges European institutions to pay full regard to the welfare requirements of animals when formulating and implementing EU legislation. Regulation 1/2005 states that EU legislation should be amended to take into account new scientific evidence. Provisions for poultry, cats and dogs take into account the recommendations included in EFSA's Scientific Opinion which considers different species (poultry, deer, rabbits, dogs and cats, fish and exotic animals). Examples of the effect of the scientifically based conclusions and recommendations from the Scientific Opinion on the measures in Regulation 1/2005 are summarised and show the impact of scientific evidence on EU legislation.

  3. Using scientific evidence to inform public policy on the long distance transportation of animals: role of the European Food Safety Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Ribò

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors review the work of the previous Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare and the current European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in providing scientific advice on the welfare aspects of animal transport and the impact of this advice on the European Union (EU regulatory framework. Through its Protocol on the Protection and Welfare of Animals, the Treaty of Amsterdam obliges European institutions to pay full regard to the welfare requirements of animals when formulating and implementing EU legislation. Regulation 1/2005 states that EU legislation should be amended to take into account new scientific evidence. Provisions for poultry, cats and dogs take into account the recommendations included in EFSA's Scientific Opinion which considers different species (poultry, deer, rabbits, dogs and cats, fish and exotic animals. Examples of the effect of the scientifically based conclusions and recommendations from the Scientific Opinion on the measures in Regulation 1/2005 are summarised and show the impact of scientific evidence on EU legislation.

  4. The Educational Validity and Utility of Single-Case Design Research in Building Evidence-Based Practices in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourea, Lefki; Lo, Ya-yu

    2016-01-01

    Improving academic, behavioural, and social outcomes of students through empirical research has been a firm commitment among researchers, policy-makers, and other professionals in education across Europe and the United States (U.S.). To assist in building scientific evidences, executive bodies such as the European Commission and the Institute for…

  5. Ethical and Scientific Issues Surrounding Solid Organ Transplantation in Hiv-Positive Patients: Absence of Evidence Is Not Evidence of Absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Christie

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available End-stage liver disease is emerging as a leading cause of death among HIV-positive patients. Historically, an HIV diagnosis was a contraindication for a liver transplant; however, because of the efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, HIV-positive patients have one-year, two-year, and three-year post-transplantation survival rates similar to that of HIV-negative patients. Based on this evidence, HIV-positive patients are now considered eligible for transplantation. However, newly emerging guidelines include the stipulation that HIV-positive patients must be on HAART to be placed on a waiting list for transplantation. The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate the scientific and ethical probity of requiring HIV-positive patients to be on HAART as a condition for being on a liver transplant waiting list. It is argued that the emphasis should be placed on the probability of post-transplantation HAART tolerance, and that concerns about pretransplantation HAART tolerance are of secondary importance.

  6. Direct Observation of Clinical Skills Feedback Scale: Development and Validity Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halman, Samantha; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy; Pugh, Debra; Touchie, Claire; McAleer, Sean; Humphrey-Murto, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Construct: This article describes the development and validity evidence behind a new rating scale to assess feedback quality in the clinical workplace. Competency-based medical education has mandated a shift to learner-centeredness, authentic observation, and frequent formative assessments with a focus on the delivery of effective feedback. Because feedback has been shown to be of variable quality and effectiveness, an assessment of feedback quality in the workplace is important to ensure we are providing trainees with optimal learning opportunities. The purposes of this project were to develop a rating scale for the quality of verbal feedback in the workplace (the Direct Observation of Clinical Skills Feedback Scale [DOCS-FBS]) and to gather validity evidence for its use. Two panels of experts (local and national) took part in a nominal group technique to identify features of high-quality feedback. Through multiple iterations and review, 9 features were developed into the DOCS-FBS. Four rater types (residents n = 21, medical students n = 8, faculty n = 12, and educators n = 12) used the DOCS-FBS to rate videotaped feedback encounters of variable quality. The psychometric properties of the scale were determined using a generalizability analysis. Participants also completed a survey to gather data on a 5-point Likert scale to inform the ease of use, clarity, knowledge acquisition, and acceptability of the scale. Mean video ratings ranged from 1.38 to 2.96 out of 3 and followed the intended pattern suggesting that the tool allowed raters to distinguish between examples of higher and lower quality feedback. There were no significant differences between rater type (range = 2.36-2.49), suggesting that all groups of raters used the tool in the same way. The generalizability coefficients for the scale ranged from 0.97 to 0.99. Item-total correlations were all above 0.80, suggesting some redundancy in items. Participants found the scale easy to use (M = 4.31/5) and clear

  7. [New Scientific Evidence-based Public Health Guidelines and Practical Manual for Prevention of Sick House Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Araki, Atsuko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Azuma, Kenichi; Kawai, Toshio; Yamato, Hiroshi; Osawa, Haruki; Shibata, Eiji; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Masuchi, Ayumi; Minatoya, Machiko; Ait Bamai, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we have published a book containing evidence-based public health guidelines and a practical manual for the prevention of sick house syndrome. The manual is available through the homepage of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (http://www.mhlw.go.jp/file/06-Seisakujouhou-11130500-Shokuhinanzenbu/0000155147.pdf). It is an almost completely revised version of the 2009 version. The coauthors are 13 specialists in environmental epidemiology, exposure sciences, architecture, and risk communication. Since the 1970s, health problems caused by indoor chemicals, biological pollution, poor temperature control, humidity, and others in office buildings have been recognized as sick building syndrome (SBS) in Western countries, but in Japan it was not until the 1990s that people living in new or renovated homes started to describe a variety of nonspecific subjective symptoms such as eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, and general fatigue. These symptoms resembled SBS and were designated "sick house syndrome (SHS)." To determine the strategy for prevention of SHS, we conducted a nationwide epidemiological study in six cities from 2003-2013 by randomly sampling 5,709 newly built houses. As a result 1,479 residents in 425 households agreed to environmental monitoring for indoor aldehydes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). After adjustment for possible risk factors, some VOCs and formaldehyde were dose-dependently shown to be significant risk factors. We also studied the dampness of the houses, fungi, allergies, and others. This book is fully based on the scientific evidence collected through these studies and other newly obtained information, especially from the aspect of architectural engineering. In addition to SHS, we included chapters on recent information about "multi-chemical sensitivity."

  8. Constructing a Validity Argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS): A Systematic Review of Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A.; Brydges, Ryan; Hawkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In order to construct and evaluate the validity argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), based on Kane's framework, we conducted a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, and selected reference lists through February 2013. Working in duplicate, we selected…

  9. Evidencia científica en medicina: ¿única alternativa? Scientific evidence in medicine: the only alternative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Sarrado

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende reflexionar acerca del momento actual de las ciencias médicas, incorporando una discusión crítica respecto de la atomización del conocimiento que el pragmatismo de la evidencia científica puede comportar. Propone integrar las aportaciones de las metodologías cuantitativa y cualitativa de las ciencias de la salud, recurriendo a diseños cualicuantitativos que aborden la complejidad del ser humano y de sus referentes axiológicos y socioculturales. Los autores defienden y argumentan la necesidad de que la investigación en salud contemple 5 dimensiones útiles para la toma de decisiones, abordando el objeto de estudio sin prescindir del sujeto y de sus circunstancias poliédricas y complejas. La medicina ha de considerar ineludiblemente el conocimiento tecnológico y técnico, pero dicha capacitación no debe eludir las necesarias competencias relacionales y comunicacionales. La actualización cientificomédica implica un constante maridaje entre rigor técnico y mejora de vínculos entre las personas implicadas (profesionales de la salud y ciudadanía, con una actitud cuidadosa y afable. La animación comunitaria y el establecimiento paulatino de complicidades se erigen en la base de un modelo sanitario integrador, de raigambre biopsicosocial, tanto teórico como práctico.The present article aims to reflect on the current situation of medical sciences by incorporating a critical discussion of knowledge atomization, which can be a consequence of the pragmatism of scientific evidence. The article proposes to integrate the contributions of quantitative and qualitative methodologies in health sciences, paying attention to qualitative and quantitative designs that take into account the complexity of human beings and their axiological, social, and cultural referents. The authors defend and argue for the need for health research to contemplate five useful dimensions for decision-making, approaching the object of the

  10. Is the Readmission Rate a Valid Quality Indicator? A Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Claudia; Lingsma, Hester F.; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.; Kringos, Dionne S.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hospital readmission rates are increasingly used for both quality improvement and cost control. However, the validity of readmission rates as a measure of quality of hospital care is not evident. We aimed to give an overview of the different methodological aspects in the definition and measurement of readmission rates that need to be considered when interpreting readmission rates as a reflection of quality of care. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review, using the bibliographic databases Embase, Medline OvidSP, Web-of-Science, Cochrane central and PubMed for the period of January 2001 to May 2013. Results The search resulted in 102 included papers. We found that definition of the context in which readmissions are used as a quality indicator is crucial. This context includes the patient group and the specific aspects of care of which the quality is aimed to be assessed. Methodological flaws like unreliable data and insufficient case-mix correction may confound the comparison of readmission rates between hospitals. Another problem occurs when the basic distinction between planned and unplanned readmissions cannot be made. Finally, the multi-faceted nature of quality of care and the correlation between readmissions and other outcomes limit the indicator's validity. Conclusions Although readmission rates are a promising quality indicator, several methodological concerns identified in this study need to be addressed, especially when the indicator is intended for accountability or pay for performance. We recommend investing resources in accurate data registration, improved indicator description, and bundling outcome measures to provide a more complete picture of hospital care. PMID:25379675

  11. Is the readmission rate a valid quality indicator? A review of the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fischer

    Full Text Available Hospital readmission rates are increasingly used for both quality improvement and cost control. However, the validity of readmission rates as a measure of quality of hospital care is not evident. We aimed to give an overview of the different methodological aspects in the definition and measurement of readmission rates that need to be considered when interpreting readmission rates as a reflection of quality of care.We conducted a systematic literature review, using the bibliographic databases Embase, Medline OvidSP, Web-of-Science, Cochrane central and PubMed for the period of January 2001 to May 2013.The search resulted in 102 included papers. We found that definition of the context in which readmissions are used as a quality indicator is crucial. This context includes the patient group and the specific aspects of care of which the quality is aimed to be assessed. Methodological flaws like unreliable data and insufficient case-mix correction may confound the comparison of readmission rates between hospitals. Another problem occurs when the basic distinction between planned and unplanned readmissions cannot be made. Finally, the multi-faceted nature of quality of care and the correlation between readmissions and other outcomes limit the indicator's validity.Although readmission rates are a promising quality indicator, several methodological concerns identified in this study need to be addressed, especially when the indicator is intended for accountability or pay for performance. We recommend investing resources in accurate data registration, improved indicator description, and bundling outcome measures to provide a more complete picture of hospital care.

  12. Representation and misrepresentation of scientific evidence in contemporary tobacco regulation: a review of tobacco industry submissions to the UK Government consultation on standardised packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Ulucanlar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardised packaging (SP of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for 'more evidence', but four months later a second 'independent review' was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP.We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, 'mimicked scientific critique' was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in 'evidential landscaping', promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach.The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely without foundation. The tools of Better

  13. Representation and misrepresentation of scientific evidence in contemporary tobacco regulation: a review of tobacco industry submissions to the UK Government consultation on standardised packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J; Hatchard, Jenny L; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-03-01

    Standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for 'more evidence', but four months later a second 'independent review' was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP. We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, 'mimicked scientific critique' was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific) model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in 'evidential landscaping', promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach. The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely without foundation. The tools of Better Regulation

  14. Evidence-based cross validation for acoustic power transmission for a novel treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihcin, Senay; Strehlow, Jan; Demedts, Daniel; Schwenke, Michael; Levy, Yoav; Melzer, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The novel Trans-Fusimo Treatment System (TTS) is designed to control Magnetic Resonance guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapy to ablate liver tumours under respiratory motion. It is crucial to deliver the acoustic power within tolerance limits for effective liver tumour treatment via MRgFUS. Before application in a clinical setting, evidence of reproducibility and reliability is a must for safe practice. The TTS software delivers the acoustic power via ExAblate-2100 Conformal Bone System (CBS) transducer. A built-in quality assurance application was developed to measure the force values, using a novel protocol to measure the efficiency for the electrical power values of 100 and 150W for 6s of sonication. This procedure was repeated 30 times by two independent users against the clinically approved ExAblate-2100 CBS for cross-validation. Both systems proved to deliver the power within the accepted efficiency levels (70-90%). Two sample t-tests were used to assess the differences in force values between the ExAblate-2100 CBS and the TTS (p > 0.05). Bland-Altman plots were used to demonstrate the limits of agreement between the two systems falling within the 10% limits of agreement. Two sample t-tests indicated that TTS does not have user dependency (p > 0.05). The TTS software proved to deliver the acoustic power without exceeding the safety levels. Results provide evidence as a part of ISO13485 regulations for CE marking purposes. The developed methodology could be utilised as a part of quality assurance system in clinical settings; when the TTS is used in clinical practice.

  15. Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B. C.; Malterud, Karl E.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety. PMID:23698166

  16. Can scientific evidence support using Bangladeshi traditional medicinal plants in the treatment of diarrhoea? A review on seven plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B C; Malterud, Karl E

    2013-05-22

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety.

  17. Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl E. Malterud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety.

  18. The 2018 Definition of Periprosthetic Hip and Knee Infection: An Evidence-Based and Validated Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Javad; Tan, Timothy L; Goswami, Karan; Higuera, Carlos; Della Valle, Craig; Chen, Antonia F; Shohat, Noam

    2018-05-01

    The introduction of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in 2011 resulted in improvements in diagnostic confidence and research collaboration. The emergence of new diagnostic tests and the lessons we have learned from the past 7 years using the MSIS definition, prompted us to develop an evidence-based and validated updated version of the criteria. This multi-institutional study of patients undergoing revision total joint arthroplasty was conducted at 3 academic centers. For the development of the new diagnostic criteria, PJI and aseptic patient cohorts were stringently defined: PJI cases were defined using only major criteria from the MSIS definition (n = 684) and aseptic cases underwent one-stage revision for a noninfective indication and did not fail within 2 years (n = 820). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, erythrocyte sedimentation rate were investigated, as well as synovial white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear percentage, leukocyte esterase, alpha-defensin, and synovial CRP. Intraoperative findings included frozen section, presence of purulence, and isolation of a pathogen by culture. A stepwise approach using random forest analysis and multivariate regression was used to generate relative weights for each diagnostic marker. Preoperative and intraoperative definitions were created based on beta coefficients. The new definition was then validated on an external cohort of 222 patients with PJI who subsequently failed with reinfection and 200 aseptic patients. The performance of the new criteria was compared to the established MSIS and the prior International Consensus Meeting definitions. Two positive cultures or the presence of a sinus tract were considered as major criteria and diagnostic of PJI. The calculated weights of an elevated serum CRP (>1 mg/dL), D-dimer (>860 ng/mL), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (>30 mm/h) were 2, 2, and 1 points, respectively. Furthermore, elevated

  19. Factor analysis methods and validity evidence: A systematic review of instrument development across the continuum of medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across the continuum of medical education had not been previously identified. Therefore, the purpose for this study was critical review of instrument development articles employing exploratory factor or principal component analysis published in medical education (2006--2010) to describe and assess the reporting of methods and validity evidence based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and factor analysis best practices. Data extraction of 64 articles measuring a variety of constructs that have been published throughout the peer-reviewed medical education literature indicate significant errors in the translation of exploratory factor analysis best practices to current practice. Further, techniques for establishing validity evidence tend to derive from a limited scope of methods including reliability statistics to support internal structure and support for test content. Instruments reviewed for this study lacked supporting evidence based on relationships with other variables and response process, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not evident. Findings suggest a need for further professional development within the medical education researcher community related to (1) appropriate factor analysis methodology and reporting and (2) the importance of pursuing multiple sources of reliability and validity evidence to construct a well-supported argument for the inferences made from the instrument. Medical education researchers and educators should be cautious in adopting instruments from the literature and carefully review available evidence. Finally, editors and reviewers are encouraged to recognize

  20. Assessing mental health clinicians' intentions to adopt evidence-based treatments: reliability and validity testing of the evidence-based treatment intentions scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J

    2016-05-05

    Intentions play a central role in numerous empirically supported theories of behavior and behavior change and have been identified as a potentially important antecedent to successful evidence-based treatment (EBT) implementation. Despite this, few measures of mental health clinicians' EBT intentions exist and available measures have not been subject to thorough psychometric evaluation or testing. This paper evaluates the psychometric properties of the evidence-based treatment intentions (EBTI) scale, a new measure of mental health clinicians' intentions to adopt EBTs. The study evaluates the reliability and validity of inferences made with the EBTI using multi-method, multi-informant criterion variables collected over 12 months from a sample of 197 mental health clinicians delivering services in 13 mental health agencies. Structural, predictive, and discriminant validity evidence is assessed. Findings support the EBTI's factor structure (χ (2) = 3.96, df = 5, p = .556) and internal consistency reliability (α = .80). Predictive validity evidence was provided by robust and significant associations between EBTI scores and clinicians' observer-reported attendance at a voluntary EBT workshop at a 1-month follow-up (OR = 1.92, p adoption at a 12-month follow-up (R (2) = .17, p adopt EBTs. Discussion focuses on research and practice applications.

  1. Listening into the Dark: An Essay Testing the Validity and Efficacy of Collaborative Developmental Action Inquiry for Describing and Encouraging Transformations of Self, Society, and Scientific Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Torbert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative Developmental Action Inquiry (CDAI is introduced as a meta-paradigmatic approach to social science and social action that encompasses seven other more familiar paradigms (e.g., Behaviorism, Empirical Positivism, and Postmodern Interpretivism and that triangulates among third-person, objectivity-seeking social scientific inquiry, second-person, transformational, mutuality-seeking political inquiry, and first-person, adult, spiritual inquiry and consciousness development in the emerging present. CDAI tests findings, not only against third-person criteria of validity as do quantitative, positivist studies and qualitative, interpretive studies, but also against first- and second-person criteria of validity, as well as criteria of efficacy in action. CDAI introduces the possibility of treating, not just formal third-person studies, but any and all activities in one’s daily life in an inquiring manner. The aim of this differently-scientific approach is not only theoretical, generalizable knowledge, but also knowledge that generates increasingly timely action in particular cases in the relationships that mean the most to the inquirer. To illustrate and explain why the CDAI approach can explain unusually high percentages of the variance in whether or not organizations actually transform, all three types of validity-testing are applied to a specific study of intended transformation in ten organizations. The ten organization study found that adding together the performance of each organization’s CEO and lead consultant pn a reliable, well-validated measure of developmental action-logic, predicted 59% of the variance, beyond the .01 level, in whether and how the organization transformed (as rated by three scorers who achieved between .90 and 1.0 reliability. The essay concludes with a comparison between the Empirical Positivist paradigm of inquiry and the Collaborative Developmental Action Inquiry paradigm.

  2. A Practical Measure of Student Motivation: Establishing Validity Evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost Scale in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovich, Jeff J.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Getty, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We present validity evidence for the Expectancy-Value-Cost (EVC) Scale of student motivation. Using a brief, 10-item scale, we measured middle school students' expectancy, value, and cost for their math and science classes in the Fall and Winter of the same academic year. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor structure of the EVC…

  3. Validity of CBCL-derived PTSD and dissociation scales: further evidence in a sample of neglected children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Tristan; Plamondon, André; Ethier, Louise S; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; St-Laurent, Diane; Rousseau, Michel

    2013-05-01

    There is growing evidence that child neglect is an important risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation. Considering that the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a widely used measure, the possibility of using validated CBCL-derived trauma symptoms scales could be particularly useful to better understand how trauma symptoms develop among neglected children and adolescents. This study examined the factor structure of three CBCL-derived measures of PTSD and dissociation (namely, PTSD scale, Dissociation scale, and PTSD/Dissociation scale) in a sample of 239 neglected children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years using the latest version of CBCL (CBCL 6-18). Evidence of convergent validity of these scales was also examined for participants aged 12 and under using two well-validated measures of PTSD and Dissociation: the Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Young Children and the Child Dissociation Checklist. Findings suggest that CBCL-derived measures of trauma symptoms, especially PTSD and Dissociations scales, may be of heuristic value in the study of trauma symptomatology in neglected samples. Factor structure and evidence of convergent validity were supported for these two scales. Results also provide further support to the well-established assumption that PTSD and dissociation are two related but different constructs.

  4. Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…

  5. The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child): Evidence of Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Wang, Hui-Yi; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Yao, Kai-Ping Grace; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) is the first health condition-specific questionnaire designed for measuring QOL in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its construct validity has not yet been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hence, this study assessed the construct validity of the caregiver…

  6. Validity Evidence for the Security Scale as a Measure of Perceived Attachment Security in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social…

  7. "EUROPART". Airborne particles in the indoor environment. A European interdisciplinary review of scientific evidence on associations between exposure to particles in buildings and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Sundell, Jan; Bischof, W.

    2003-01-01

    The relevance of particle mass, surface area or number concentration as risk indicators for health effects in non-industrial buildings has been assessed by a European interdisciplinary group of researchers (called EUROPART) by reviewing papers identified in Medline, Toxline, and OSH. Studies...... or number concentrations can be used as generally applicable risk indicators of health effects in non-industrial buildings and consequently that there is inadequate scientific evidence for establishing limit values or guidelines for particulate mass or number concentrations....

  8. KAMUTHE video microanalysis system for use in Brazil: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and evidence of validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Schulz Gattino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background KAMUTHE is a video microanalysis system which observes preverbal communication within the music therapy setting. This system is indicated for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD or multiple disabilities. The purpose of this study was to translate, adapt to Brazilian Portuguese language and analyze some psychometric properties (reliability and validity evidence of KAMUTHE administration in Brazil for individuals with ASD. Participants and procedure Translation, back translation, analysis by judges, and pilot application were performed to obtain evidence of content and face validity. The second part of this study was to administer KAMUTHE in 39 consecutive children with ASD. An individual session of improvisational music therapy was applied to assess the different behaviors included in KAMUTHE. The intra-rater reliability, concurrent validity and convergent validity were analyzed. Results Translation and cross-cultural adaptation were followed and some cultural adaptations were needed. Inter-rater reliability was very good (ICCs 0.95-0.99 for the three child’s behaviors analyzed. Criteria validity with a moderate negative association was found (r = –.38, p = .017 comparing the behavior “Gazes at therapist” and the level of ASD along with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Convergent validity was established between the behavior “Gazes at therapist” and the two nonlinguistic communication scales (social interaction and interests of the Children’s Communication Checklist (CCC with a moderate correlation (r = –.43, p = .005. Conclusions The administration of the KAMUTHE video microanalysis system showed positive results in children with ASD. Further studies are needed to improve the reliability and validity of the instrument in Brazil.

  9. Scale of attitudes toward alcohol - Spanish version: evidences of validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Erika Gisseth León; Vargas, Divane de

    2017-08-03

    validate the Scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders in its Spanish version. methodological study, involving 300 Colombian nurses. Adopting the classical theory, confirmatory factor analysis was applied without prior examination, based on the strong historical evidence of the factorial structure of the original scale to determine the construct validity of this Spanish version. To assess the reliability, Cronbach's Alpha and Mc Donalid's Omega coefficients were used. the confirmatory factor analysis indicated the good fit of the scale model in a four-factor distribution, with a cut-off point at 3.2, demonstrating 66.7% of sensitivity. the Scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders in Spanish presented robust psychometric qualities, affirming that the instrument possesses a solid factorial structure and reliability and is capable of precisely measuring the nurses' atittudes towards the phenomenon proposed. validar a Escala de atitudes frente ao álcool, ao alcoolismo e a pessoas com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool, versão espanhola. estudo metodológico, realizado com 303 enfermeiros colombianos. Seguindo a teoria clássica, foi aplicada a análise fatorial confirmatória sem exploração preliminar, com base na forte evidência histórica da estrutura fatorial do instrumento original para a validação de construto desta versão em espanhol. Para a avaliação da confiabilidade foram utilizados os coeficientes de Alfa de Cronbach e Ômega de Mc Donald. a análise fatorial confirmatória indicou o bom ajuste do modelo da escala na distribuição de quatro fatores, compreendendo 48 itens em sua versão espanhola. Os índices de confiabilidade foram satisfatórios, com ponto de corte observado em 3,2, demonstrando sensibilidade de 66,7%. a Escala de atitudes frente ao álcool, ao alcoolismo e a pessoas com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool no idioma

  10. Article Title: Physical activity in adolescents. Is there scientific evidence of how physical exercise affects sleep in the adolescent population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Reverter-Masia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Insomnia is a very common pediatric condition that causes a serious impact on psychophysical performance. The present paper, based on the scientific literature, aims to analyze some questions about how physical activity affects sleep in the adolescent population. Finally, some general and useful recommendations are established for professionals working in this population group.

  11. Ethical leadership: meta-analytic evidence of criterion-related and incremental validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the criterion-related and incremental validity of ethical leadership (EL) with meta-analytic data. Across 101 samples published over the last 15 years (N = 29,620), we observed that EL demonstrated acceptable criterion-related validity with variables that tap followers' job attitudes, job performance, and evaluations of their leaders. Further, followers' trust in the leader mediated the relationships of EL with job attitudes and performance. In terms of incremental validity, we found that EL significantly, albeit weakly in some cases, predicted task performance, citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior-even after controlling for the effects of such variables as transformational leadership, use of contingent rewards, management by exception, interactional fairness, and destructive leadership. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to strengthen the incremental validity of EL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...... level of evidence schema that evaluates biomarkers along 4 domains: Target, Study Design, Statistical Strength, and Penalties. Scores derived from 3 domains the Target that the marker is being substituted for, the Design of the (best) evidence, and the Statistical strength are additive. Penalties...... of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...

  13. Representation and Misrepresentation of Scientific Evidence in Contemporary Tobacco Regulation: A Review of Tobacco Industry Submissions to the UK Government Consultation on Standardised Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J.; Hatchard, Jenny L.; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for ‘more evidence’, but four months later a second ‘independent review’ was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP. Methods and Findings We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, ‘mimicked scientific critique’ was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific) model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in ‘evidential landscaping’, promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach. Conclusions The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely

  14. Further validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale: evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavot, W; Diener, E; Colvin, C R; Sandvik, E

    1991-08-01

    The structure of subjective well-being has been conceptualized as consisting of two major components: the emotional or affective component and the judgmental or cognitive component (Diener, 1984; Veenhoven, 1984). The judgmental component has also been conceptualized as life satisfaction (Andrews & Withey, 1976). Although the affective component of subjective well-being has received considerable attention from researchers, the judgmental component has been relatively neglected. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) was developed as a measure of the judgmental component of subjective well-being (SWB). Two studied designed to validate further the SWLS are reported. Peer reports, a memory measure, and clinical ratings are used as external criteria for validation. Evidence for the reliability and predictive validity of the SWLS is presented, and its performance is compared to other related scales. The SWLS is shown to be a valid and reliable measure of life satisfaction, suited for use with a wide range of age groups and applications, which makes possible the savings of interview time and resources compared to many measures of life satisfaction. In addition, the high convergence of self- and peer-reported measures of subjective well-being and life satisfaction provide strong evidence that subjective well-being is a relatively global and stable phenomenon, not simply a momentary judgment based on fleeting influences.

  15. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the French Version of the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the French version of the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents (QIDA in a sample of 957 adolescents (48.5% boys ranging in age from 11 to 18 years ('M' = 14.48, 'SD' = 1.85. A principal axis factoring (PAF and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA were performed to determine the fit of the factor structure of scores on the QIDA. PAF and CFA replicated the previously identified correlated five-factor structure of the QIDA: Assertiveness, Heterosexual Relationships, Public Speaking, Family Relationships, and Close Friendships. The QIDA yielded acceptable reliability scores for French adolescents. Validity evidence of QIDA was also established through correlations with scores on the School Anxiety Inventory and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. Most of the correlations were positive and exceeded the established criteria of statistical significance, but the magnitude of these varied according to the scales of the QIDA. Results supported the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the French version of the QIDA.

  16. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten; Tugwell, Peter; Brooks, Peter; Simon, Lee; Strand, Vibeke; Conaghan, Philip G; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Maksymowych, Walter P; Landewe, Robert; Bresnihan, Barry; Tak, Paul-Peter; Wakefield, Richard; Mease, Philip; Bingham, Clifton O; Hughes, Michael; Altman, Doug; Buyse, Marc; Galbraith, Sally; Wells, George

    2007-03-01

    There are clear advantages to using biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, but concerns about clinical and statistical validity and systematic methods to evaluate these aspects hinder their efficient application. Our objective was to review the literature on biomarkers and surrogates to develop a hierarchical schema that systematically evaluates and ranks the surrogacy status of biomarkers and surrogates; and to obtain feedback from stakeholders. After a systematic search of Medline and Embase on biomarkers, surrogate (outcomes, endpoints, markers, indicators), intermediate endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation level of evidence schema that evaluates biomarkers along 4 domains: Target, Study Design, Statistical Strength, and Penalties. Scores derived from 3 domains the Target that the marker is being substituted for, the Design of the (best) evidence, and the Statistical strength are additive. Penalties are then applied if there is serious counterevidence. A total score (0 to 15) determines the level of evidence, with Level 1 the strongest and Level 5 the weakest. It was proposed that the term "surrogate" be restricted to markers attaining Levels 1 or 2 only. Most stakeholders agreed that this operationalization of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery, development, and approval.

  17. Validation of an instrument to assess evidence-based practice knowledge, attitudes, access, and confidence in the dental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricson, William D; Rugh, John D; Hatch, John P; Stark, Debra L; Deahl, Thomas; Wallmann, Elizabeth R

    2011-02-01

    This article reports the validation of an assessment instrument designed to measure the outcomes of training in evidence-based practice (EBP) in the context of dentistry. Four EBP dimensions are measured by this instrument: 1) understanding of EBP concepts, 2) attitudes about EBP, 3) evidence-accessing methods, and 4) confidence in critical appraisal. The instrument-the Knowledge, Attitudes, Access, and Confidence Evaluation (KACE)-has four scales, with a total of thirty-five items: EBP knowledge (ten items), EBP attitudes (ten), accessing evidence (nine), and confidence (six). Four elements of validity were assessed: consistency of items within the KACE scales (extent to which items within a scale measure the same dimension), discrimination (capacity to detect differences between individuals with different training or experience), responsiveness (capacity to detect the effects of education on trainees), and test-retest reliability. Internal consistency of scales was assessed by analyzing responses of second-year dental students, dental residents, and dental faculty members using Cronbach coefficient alpha, a statistical measure of reliability. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing KACE scores for the three groups. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing pre- and post-training responses for dental students and residents. To measure test-retest reliability, the full KACE was completed twice by a class of freshman dental students seventeen days apart, and the knowledge scale was completed twice by sixteen faculty members fourteen days apart. Item-to-scale consistency ranged from 0.21 to 0.78 for knowledge, 0.57 to 0.83 for attitude, 0.70 to 0.84 for accessing evidence, and 0.87 to 0.94 for confidence. For discrimination, ANOVA and post hoc testing by the Tukey-Kramer method revealed significant score differences among students, residents, and faculty members consistent with education and experience levels. For responsiveness to training, dental students

  18. Implementing assessments of robot-assisted technical skill in urological education: a systematic review and synthesis of the validity evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Mitchell G; Lee, Jason Y; Kwong, Jethro C C; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Costello, Anthony

    2018-03-31

    To systematically review and synthesise the validity evidence supporting intraoperative and simulation-based assessments of technical skill in urological robot-assisted surgery (RAS), and make evidence-based recommendations for the implementation of these assessments in urological training. A literature search of the Medline, PsycINFO and Embase databases was performed. Articles using technical skill and simulation-based assessments in RAS were abstracted. Only studies involving urology trainees or faculty were included in the final analysis. Multiple tools for the assessment of technical robotic skill have been published, with mixed sources of validity evidence to support their use. These evaluations have been used in both the ex vivo and in vivo settings. Performance evaluations range from global rating scales to psychometrics, and assessments are carried out through automation, expert analysts, and crowdsourcing. There have been rapid expansions in approaches to RAS technical skills assessment, both in simulated and clinical settings. Alternative approaches to assessment in RAS, such as crowdsourcing and psychometrics, remain under investigation. Evidence to support the use of these metrics in high-stakes decisions is likely insufficient at present. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  20. Electronic self-monitoring of mood using IT platforms in adult patients with bipolar disorder: A systematic review of the validity and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Munkholm, Klaus; Frost, Mads; Bardram, Jakob E; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-01-15

    Various paper-based mood charting instruments are used in the monitoring of symptoms in bipolar disorder. During recent years an increasing number of electronic self-monitoring tools have been developed. The objectives of this systematic review were 1) to evaluate the validity of electronic self-monitoring tools as a method of evaluating mood compared to clinical rating scales for depression and mania and 2) to investigate the effect of electronic self-monitoring tools on clinically relevant outcomes in bipolar disorder. A systematic review of the scientific literature, reported according to the Preferred Reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library were searched and supplemented by hand search of reference lists. Databases were searched for 1) studies on electronic self-monitoring tools in patients with bipolar disorder reporting on validity of electronically self-reported mood ratings compared to clinical rating scales for depression and mania and 2) randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating electronic mood self-monitoring tools in patients with bipolar disorder. A total of 13 published articles were included. Seven articles were RCTs and six were longitudinal studies. Electronic self-monitoring of mood was considered valid compared to clinical rating scales for depression in six out of six studies, and in two out of seven studies compared to clinical rating scales for mania. The included RCTs primarily investigated the effect of heterogeneous electronically delivered interventions; none of the RCTs investigated the sole effect of electronic mood self-monitoring tools. Methodological issues with risk of bias at different levels limited the evidence in the majority of studies. Electronic self-monitoring of mood in depression appears to be a valid measure of mood in contrast to self-monitoring of mood in mania. There are yet few studies on the effect of electronic

  1. The Psychopathy Q-Sort. Construct Validity Evidence in a Nonclinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2007-01-01

    Scant research has examined the validity of instruments that permit observer ratings of psychopathy. Using a nonclinical (undergraduate) sample, the authors examined the associations between both self- and observer ratings on a psychopathy prototype (Psychopathy Q-Sort, PQS) and widely used measures of psychopathy, antisocial behavior, and…

  2. School Anxiety Inventory: Reliability and Validity Evidence in a Sample of Slovenian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levpušcek, Melita Puklek; Inglés, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; García-Fernández, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) using a sample of 646 Slovenian adolescents (48% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. Single confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated four-factor structure of scores on the SAI for anxiety-provoking school situations…

  3. Validation of the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Yeo, Lay See

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer…

  4. Investigating Validity Evidence of the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces the Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C) and presents psychometric findings regarding its validation. The SWLS-C was adapted from the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al. 1985), which is one of the most commonly used measures to assess satisfaction with life in adults. Three subject matter…

  5. A guideline for the validation of likelihood ratio methods used for forensic evidence evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Ramos, Daniel; Haraksim, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    This Guideline proposes a protocol for the validation of forensic evaluation methods at the source level, using the Likelihood Ratio framework as defined within the Bayes’ inference model. In the context of the inference of identity of source, the Likelihood Ratio is used to evaluate the strength of

  6. Assessing Irrational Beliefs and Emotional Distress: Evidence and Implications of Limited Discriminant Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurawski, Raymond M.; Smith, Timothy W.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the disciminant validity of measures of irrational beliefs. The Irrational Beliefs Test and the Rational Behavior Inventory were highly correlated but were equally highly correlated with self-report measures of depression and anxiety. Thus, rather than assessing beliefs correlated with emotional distress, the measures may actually assess…

  7. The Social Validity of "Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions Used in Classrooms": Inferences from Longitudinal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    2017-01-01

    In this retrospective commentary on "Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions Used in Classrooms: The Influence of Amount of Teacher Time, Severity of Behavior Problem, and Type of Intervention," I first examine the concept of social validity and related measurement challenges per Wolf's concerns about consumers' subjective reactions to…

  8. Was the Conconi test validated by sporting success, expert opinion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Was the Conconi test validated by sporting success, expert opinion or good science? ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Despite scientific evidence to the contrary, a popular incremental field test for endurance athletes (Conconi Test) ...

  9. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia: Validity evidence and norms for adolescents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Nunes-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA is a battery of tests that assesses six music processing components: scale, contour, interval, rhythm, metric, and music memory. The present study sought to verify the psychometric characteristics of the MBEA in a sample of 150 adolescents aged 14-18 years in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to develop specific norms for this population. We used statistical procedures that explored the dimensional structure of the MBEA and its items, evaluating their adequacy from empirical data, verifying their reliability, and providing evidence of validity. The results for the difficult levels for each test indicated a trend toward higher scores, corroborating previous studies. From the analysis of the criterion groups, almost all of the items were considered discriminatory. The global score of the MBEA was shown to be valid and reliable (r K-R20=0.896 for assessing the musical ability of normal teenagers. Based on the analysis of the items, we proposed a short version of the MBEA. Further studies with larger samples and amusic individuals are necessary to provide evidence of the validity of the MBEA in the Brazilian milieu. The present study brings to the Brazilian context a tool for diagnosing deficits in musical skills and will serve as a basis for comparisons with single case studies and studies of populations with specific neuropsychological syndromes.

  10. Structure validation of the Josephin domain of ataxin-3: Conclusive evidence for an open conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicastro, Giuseppe; Habeck, Michael; Masino, Laura; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Pastore, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    The availability of new and fast tools in structure determination has led to a more than exponential growth of the number of structures solved per year. It is therefore increasingly essential to assess the accuracy of the new structures by reliable approaches able to assist validation. Here, we discuss a specific example in which the use of different complementary techniques, which include Bayesian methods and small angle scattering, resulted essential for validating the two currently available structures of the Josephin domain of ataxin-3, a protein involved in the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and responsible for neurodegenerative spinocerebellar ataxia of type 3. Taken together, our results demonstrate that only one of the two structures is compatible with the experimental information. Based on the high precision of our refined structure, we show that Josephin contains an open cleft which could be directly implicated in the interaction with polyubiquitin chains and other partners

  11. Validity evidence for the Security Scale as a measure of perceived attachment security in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Leve, Leslie D

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social competence. With regards to convergent validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with all subscales of the Adult Attachment Scale (i.e., Depend, Anxiety, and Close) as measured 3 years later. Further, these links were found even after controlling for mother-child relationship quality as assessed by the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), and chi-square difference tests indicated that the Security Scale was generally a stronger predictor as compared to the IPPA. These results suggest that the Security Scale can be used to assess perceived attachment security across both childhood and adolescence, and thus could contribute significantly to developmental research during this period. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Europart - Airborne particles in the indoor environment. A European interdisciplinary review of scientific evidence on associations between exposure to particles in buildings and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Sundell, Jan; Bischof, W.

    2002-01-01

    The relevance of particle mass, surface area or number concentration as risk indicators for health effects in non-industrial buildings has been assessed by a European interdisciplinary group of researchers by reviewing papers identified in Medline, Toxline, and OSH. Studies dealing with dermal...... studies, and a longitudinal study among elderly with cardiovascular conditions. Given the limited and inconclusive scientific evidence, the group concluded that indoor particulate mass or number concentrations cannot be used as generally applicable risk indicators of health effects in non-industrial...

  13. Does Joint Fact-finding work for Water-energy-food Nexus Issues? A Role of Scientific Evidence in Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    A quite famous phrase in risk management "How safe is enough safe?" implies there exists a framing gap among experts, the general public and stakeholders. Scientific evidence that experts provide usually contains uncertainty, while the public tends to have the other type of qualitative local knowledge. As there is no zero-risk society, we have to build consensus on acceptable level of risk and trade-offs of risks based on expert knowledge and local knowledge. Therefore having a dialogue among them in the early stage of the policy process such as problem definition and agenda setting is essential to cultivate trust and to integrate their knowledge. To this end, we especially pay attention to Joint Fact-finding (JFF). The tentative definition of JFF is that a promising strategy for experts, decision makers, and key public rights-holders and stakeholders from opposing sides of an issue to work together to resolve or narrow factual disputes over public policy issues. JFF process usually begins with identifying stakeholders and holding interviews with them to determine their interests. We call this step stakeholder analysis. Then we define the scope of the study including the required scientific evidence and the preliminary list of experts. After that, stakeholders jointly select experts to participate in the study, then they work together on what they would like to clear about scientific evidence. They finally get the common understanding and findings through these collaboration. We applied the stakeholder analysis to the issue of groundwater in Obama City and the issues of hot spring water and geothermal power in Beppu City in Japan. We drew conclusions from these case studies to some extent but at the same time we found that the analysis method has a limitation in applying it to multiple nexus issues because the method based on stakeholders' cognition. For example, in Obama case, we identified a lack of cooperation among stakeholders that especially agricultural

  14. [Job stress and quality of life of primary care health-workers: evidence of validity of the PECVEC questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Fidalgo, María; Martín-Payo, Rubén; Rödel, Andreas

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) and stress at work among Primary Care workers, as evidence of the construct validity of the Spanish version (PECVEC) of the profile of quality of life in the chronically ill (PLC) questionnaire. In addition, to check its other psychometric properties. Cross-sectional study. Eighteen primary care centres in Health Area IV, Asturias (Oviedo), Spain, sharing similar socio-demographic conditions. Two hundred and thirty-three primary care nurses and physicians. HRQL was evaluated by the 6 general dimensions of the Spanish version of the PLC. Stress at work was evaluated by the three scales of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. The construct validity of the PECVEC was assessed by testing the inverse associations of QoL dimensions and job stress ones, when the most important confuser variables were monitored. The non-response rate was low (effects and only small ceiling effects were observed. Internal consistency analysis and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated high reliability, factorial validity and convergent/divergent validity of the PECVEC. The PECVEC demonstrates adequate psychometric properties for evaluating HRQL in healthy subjects.

  15. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  16. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...... of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...... are then applied if there is serious counterevidence. A total score (0 to 15) determines the level of evidence, with Level 1 the strongest and Level 5 the weakest. It was proposed that the term "surrogate" be restricted to markers attaining Levels 1 or 2 only. Most stakeholders agreed that this operationalization...

  17. Reflecting on Learner Assessments and Their Validity in the Presence of Emerging Evidence from Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watagodakumbura, Chandana

    2015-01-01

    We can now get purposefully directed in the way we assess our learners in light of the emergence of evidence from the field of neuroscience. Why higher-order learning or abstract concepts need to be the focus in assessment is elaborated using the knowledge of semantic and episodic memories. With most of our learning identified to be implicit, why…

  18. Building Evidence of Validity: The Relation between Work Values, Interests, Personality, and Personal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study used work values components (WVC) to examine the relationship between work values, vocational interests, personality, and personal values. Most intercorrelations between work values and other constructs were in the small effect range. Overall correlations between scale scores provided evidence of convergent and discriminant…

  19. Validation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Escherichia coli O157:H7 Real-Time PCR Assay for Raw Beef and Produce Matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Bastin, Ben; Flannery, Jonathan; Agin, James; Goins, David; Clark, Dorn; Radcliff, Roy; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific™ SureTect™ Escherichia coli O157:H7 Assay is a new real-time PCR assay which has been validated through the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods(SM) program for raw beef and produce matrixes. This validation study specifically validated the assay with 375 g 1:4 and 1:5 ratios of raw ground beef and raw beef trim in comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service, Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDS-FSIS/MLG) reference method and 25 g bagged spinach and fresh apple juice at a ratio of 1:10, in comparison to the reference method detailed in the International Organization for Standardization 16654:2001 reference method. For raw beef matrixes, the validation of both 1:4 and 1:5 allows user flexibility with the enrichment protocol, although which of these two ratios chosen by the laboratory should be based on specific test requirements. All matrixes were analyzed by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Vantaa, Finland, and Q Laboratories Inc, Cincinnati, Ohio, in the method developer study. Two of the matrixes (raw ground beef at both 1:4 and 1:5 ratios) and bagged spinach were additionally analyzed in the AOAC-RI controlled independent laboratory study, which was conducted by Marshfield Food Safety, Marshfield, Wisconsin. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, no significant difference was demonstrated by the SureTect kit in comparison to the USDA FSIS reference method for raw beef matrixes, or with the ISO reference method for matrixes of bagged spinach and apple juice. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was conducted with 58 E. coli O157:H7 and 54 non-E. coli O157:H7 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect assay was able to detect all isolates of E. coli O157:H7 analyzed. In addition, all but one of the nontarget isolates were correctly interpreted as negative by the SureTect Software. The single isolate giving a positive result was an E

  20. Exploring high school students' use of theory and evidence in an everyday context: the role of scientific thinking in environmental science decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was used to assess the participants' conceptual knowledge. The reasoning mode was assessed using a questionnaire with open-ended questions. Results showed that, although some weak to moderate associations were found between conceptual organization in memory and reasoning modes, the students' ability to incorporate theory and evidence was in general inadequate. It was also found that students' reasoning modes were consistent with their epistemological perspectives. Moreover, male and female students appear to have different reasoning approaches.

  1. Modelling the pre-assessment learning effects of assessment: evidence in the validity chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, Francois J; Schuwirth, Lambert W T; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2012-11-01

    We previously developed a model of the pre-assessment learning effects of consequential assessment and started to validate it. The model comprises assessment factors, mechanism factors and learning effects. The purpose of this study was to continue the validation process. For stringency, we focused on a subset of assessment factor-learning effect associations that featured least commonly in a baseline qualitative study. Our aims were to determine whether these uncommon associations were operational in a broader but similar population to that in which the model was initially derived. A cross-sectional survey of 361 senior medical students at one medical school was undertaken using a purpose-made questionnaire based on a grounded theory and comprising pairs of written situational tests. In each pair, the manifestation of an assessment factor was varied. The frequencies at which learning effects were selected were compared for each item pair, using an adjusted alpha to assign significance. The frequencies at which mechanism factors were selected were calculated. There were significant differences in the learning effect selected between the two scenarios of an item pair for 13 of this subset of 21 uncommon associations, even when a p-value of value. For a subset of uncommon associations in the model, the role of most assessment factor-learning effect associations and the mechanism factors involved were supported in a broader but similar population to that in which the model was derived. Although model validation is an ongoing process, these results move the model one step closer to the stage of usefully informing interventions. Results illustrate how factors not typically included in studies of the learning effects of assessment could confound the results of interventions aimed at using assessment to influence learning. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  2. Evidence for validity and reliability of a french version of the FAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballabeni Pierluigi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM is a self reported questionnaire for patients with foot and ankle disorders available in English, German, and Persian. This study plans to translate the FAAM from English to French (FAAM-F and assess the validity and reliability of this new version. Methods The FAAM-F Activities of Daily Living (ADL and sports subscales were completed by 105 French-speaking patients (average age 50.5 years presenting various chronic foot and ankle disorders. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients between the FAAM-F subscales and the SF-36 scales: Physical Functioning (PF, Physical Component Summary (PCS, Mental Health (MH and Mental Component Summary (MCS. Internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's Alpha (CA. To assess test re-test reliability, 22 patients filled out the questionnaire a second time to estimate minimal detectable changes (MDC and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC. Results Correlations for FAAM-F ADL subscale were 0.85 with PF, 0.81 with PCS, 0.26 with MH, 0.37 with MCS. Correlations for FAAM-F Sports subscale were 0.72 with PF, 0.72 with PCS, 0.21 with MH, 0.29 with MCS. CA estimates were 0.97 for both subscales. Respectively for the ADL and Sports subscales, ICC were 0.97 and 0.94, errors for a single measure were 8 and 10 points at 95% confidence and the MDC values at 95% confidence were 7 and 18 points. Conclusion The FAAM-F is valid and reliable for the self-assessment of physical function in French-speaking patients with a wide range of chronic foot and ankle disorders.

  3. The validity of PPP: evidence from Lagrange multiplier unit root tests for ASEAN countries

    OpenAIRE

    Alper ASLAN

    2010-01-01

    The univariate and panel Lagrange Multiplier (LM) unit root tests with one and two structural breaks proposed by Lee and Strazicich (2003, 2004) which are considerably more powerful than traditional tests are employed to investigate whether the purchasing power parity (PPP) theory holds true for ASEAN countries by using both black market and official exchange rates. We find strong evidence in favour of long-run PPP for six ASEAN countries namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sin...

  4. First evidence on the validity and reliability of the Safety Organizing Scale-Nursing Home version (SOS-NH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Anderson, Ruth A; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Schwendimann, René

    2013-08-01

    The Safety Organizing Scale is a valid and reliable measure on safety behaviors and practices in hospitals. This study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the Safety Organizing Scale-Nursing Home version (SOS-NH). In a cross-sectional analysis of staff survey data, we examined validity and reliability of the 9-item Safety SOS-NH using American Educational Research Association guidelines. This substudy of a larger trial used baseline survey data collected from staff members (n = 627) in a variety of work roles in 13 nursing homes (NHs) in North Carolina and Virginia. Psychometric evaluation of the SOS-NH revealed good response patterns with low average of missing values across all items (3.05%). Analyses of the SOS-NH's internal structure (eg, comparative fit indices = 0.929, standardized root mean square error of approximation = 0.045) and consistency (composite reliability = 0.94) suggested its 1-dimensionality. Significant between-facility variability, intraclass correlations, within-group agreement, and design effect confirmed appropriateness of the SOS-NH for measurement at the NH level, justifying data aggregation. The SOS-NH showed discriminate validity from one related concept: communication openness. Initial evidence regarding validity and reliability of the SOS-NH supports its utility in measuring safety behaviors and practices among a wide range of NH staff members, including those with low literacy. Further psychometric evaluation should focus on testing concurrent and criterion validity, using resident outcome measures (eg, patient fall rates). Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaccinations in migrants and refugees: a challenge for European health systems. A systematic review of current scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipatrini, Daniele; Stefanelli, Paola; Severoni, Santino; Rezza, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    The decline of immunization rates in countries of origin of migrants and refugees, along with risky conditions during the journey to Europe, may threaten migrants' health. We performed a systematic review of the scientific literature in order to assess the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases, and vaccination coverage among migrants and refugees in Europe. To this end, Medline and Cochrane databases were considered. After the screening and the selection process, 58 papers were included in the review. We focused on the following vaccine-preventable diseases: hepatitis B, measles, rubella, mumps, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, diphtheria, meningitis, and varicella. The results were presented as a qualitative synthesis. In summary, several studies highlighted that migrants and refugees have lower immunization rates compared to European-born individuals. Firstly, this is due to low vaccination coverage in the country of origin. Then, several problems may limit migrants' access to vaccination in Europe: (i) migrants are used to move around the continent, and many vaccines require multiple doses at regular times; (ii) information on the immunization status of migrants is often lacking; (iii) hosting countries face severe economic crises; (iv) migrants often refuse registration with medical authorities for fear of legal consequences and (v) the lack of coordination among public health authorities of neighboring countries may determine either duplications or lack of vaccine administration. Possible strategies to overcome these problems include tailoring immunization services on the specific needs of the target population, developing strong communication campaigns, developing vaccination registers, and promoting collaboration among public health authorities of European Countries.

  6. Zulliger e habilidade social: evidências de validade no contexto empresarial Zulliger and social skills: validity evidences in business context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelaine Bier Di Domenico Grazziotin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar evidências de validade do Zulliger no Sistema Compreensivo ZSC, focalizando a variável relacionamento, em correlação ao Inventário de Habilidades Sociais IHS. Participaram 19 sujeitos, entre 18 e 43 anos, de uma loja de supermercado. Nos indicadores, destacam-se as correlações das variáveis GHR, H, GPHR, Sum H do ZSC com os fatores GIHS, F3 e F1 do IHS, e variáveis AG, PHR, Sum T com os fatores GIHS e F5. Os resultados contribuíram para asseverar a validade do Zulliger no âmbito empresarial, e comprovaram a presença de um bom relacionamento interpessoal entre os profissionais que trabalham no atendimento ao público, confirmando as expectativas do estudo.The aim of this study was to verify the validity evidence of Zulliger Comprehensive System ZSC focusing the variable `relationship' in correlation to the Social Skills Inventory. Nineteen supermarket workers, aged between 18 and 43 years old, participated in the study. The indicators include the correlations of variables GHR, H, GPHR; Sum H of ZSC with the factors GIHS, F3 and F1 of HIS; and variables AG, PHR, Sum T with the factors GIHS and F5.The results contributed to certify the validity of Zulliger in the business field and prove the presence of good interpersonal relationships among professionals who work with the public, confirming the assumptions of the study.

  7. The thought-action fusion scale: further evidence for its reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P; Schmidt, H

    2001-05-01

    Thought-action fusion (TAF) refers to a set of cognitive biases that are thought to play a role in the development of obsessional phenomena. To measure these biases, R. Shafran, D. S. Thordarson, and S. Rachman (1996; Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 10, 379-391) developed the TAF-scale. They concluded that the TAF-scale possesses adequate psychometric qualities. The current study sought to further explore the reliability and validity of the TAF-scale. Results indicate that the TAF-scale has good internal consistency. TAF-scores correlated with self-reports of obsessional problems. Furthermore, mean scores in a mixed sample of anxiety disordered patients were higher than those in a normal sample. However, temporal consistency was somewhat disappointing. Also, the question remains whether TAF is specific to obsessive-compulsive disorder or taps more pervasive biases that play a role in a variety of disorders.

  8. The problem of fouling in submerged membrane bioreactors - Model validation and experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibranska, Irene; Vlaev, Serafim; Tylkowski, Bartosz

    2018-01-01

    Integrating biological treatment with membrane separation has found a broad area of applications and industrial attention. Submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBRs), based on membrane modules immersed in the bioreactor, or side stream ones connected in recycle have been employed in different biotechnological processes for separation of thermally unstable products. Fouling is one of the most important challenges in the integrated SMBRs. A number of works are devoted to fouling analysis and its treatment, especially exploring the opportunity for enhanced fouling control in SMBRs. The main goal of the review is to provide a comprehensive yet concise overview of modeling the fouling in SMBRs in view of the problematics of model validation, either by real system measurements at different scales or by analysis of the obtained theoretical results. The review is focused on the current state of research applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling techniques.

  9. Scale for Assessment of Giftedness - teacher's version: evidence of validity content

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    Tatiana de Cassia Nakano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of high abilities is of great importance in psychology, despite scarce studies in literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify, through content validity, the appropriateness of the items of the High Assessment Scale Skills - Teacher Version. The judges were six post-graduate students in the psychological assessment area who rated the 41 items of the instrument in six factors (academic intellectual ability, specific academic skills, leadership, creativity, artistic talent. The results demonstrated the suitability of the items, most of them with concordance rates above 80% (n = 29 and between 60 and 80% (n = 8. Only four items showed agreement at or below 50%, suggesting the need for reformulation. The analysis of the Kappa coefficients showed indices between 0.69 and 0.81. In general, the results indicated the suitability of the scale to the contents of the pretended model.

  10. Building the evidence on simulation validity: comparison of anesthesiologists' communication patterns in real and simulated cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Jennifer; Henderson, Robert; Webster, Craig S; Shulruf, Boaz; Torrie, Jane; Davies, Elaine; Henderson, Kaylene; Frampton, Chris; Merry, Alan F

    2014-01-01

    Effective teamwork is important for patient safety, and verbal communication underpins many dimensions of teamwork. The validity of the simulated environment would be supported if it elicited similar verbal communications to the real setting. The authors hypothesized that anesthesiologists would exhibit similar verbal communication patterns in routine operating room (OR) cases and routine simulated cases. The authors further hypothesized that anesthesiologists would exhibit different communication patterns in routine cases (real or simulated) and simulated cases involving a crisis. Key communications relevant to teamwork were coded from video recordings of anesthesiologists in the OR, routine simulation and crisis simulation and percentages were compared. The authors recorded comparable videos of 20 anesthesiologists in the two simulations, and 17 of these anesthesiologists in the OR, generating 400 coded events in the OR, 683 in the routine simulation, and 1,419 in the crisis simulation. The authors found no significant differences in communication patterns in the OR and the routine simulations. The authors did find significant differences in communication patterns between the crisis simulation and both the OR and the routine simulations. Participants rated team communication as realistic and considered their communications occurred with a similar frequency in the simulations as in comparable cases in the OR. The similarity of teamwork-related communications elicited from anesthesiologists in simulated cases and the real setting lends support for the ecological validity of the simulation environment and its value in teamwork training. Different communication patterns and frequencies under the challenge of a crisis support the use of simulation to assess crisis management skills.

  11. About my Child: measuring 'Complexity' in neurodisability. Evidence of reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzema, A M; Lach, L M; Rosenbaum, P; Nicholas, D

    2016-05-01

    About my Child, 26-item version (AMC-26) was developed as a measure of child health 'complexity' and has been proposed as a tool for understanding the functional needs of children and the priorities of families. The current study investigated the reliability and validity of AMC-26 with a sample of caregivers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD; n = 258) who completed AMC-26 as part of a larger study on parenting children with NDD. A subsample of children from the larger study (n = 49) were assessed using standardized measures of cognitive and adaptive functioning. Factor analysis revealed that a four-component model explained 51.12% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for each of the four factors and for the scale as a whole, and ranged from 0.75 to 0.85, suggesting a high level of internal consistency. Construct validity was tested through comparisons with the results of standardized measures of child functioning. Predicted relationships for factors one, two and three were statistically significant and in the expected directions. Predictions for factor four were partially supported. AMC-26 was also expected to serve as an indicator of caregiver distress. Drawing on a sample of caregivers from the larger study (n = 251) the model was found to be significant and explained 23% of the variance in caregiver depressive symptoms (R(2)  = .053, F (1, 249) = 14.06, P child function and child health complexity. Such a measure may help elucidate the relationships between child complexity and family well-being. This is an important avenue for further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Spatial repellents: from discovery and development to evidence-based validation

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    Achee Nicole L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract International public health workers are challenged by a burden of arthropod-borne disease that remains elevated despite best efforts in control programmes. With this challenge comes the opportunity to develop novel vector control paradigms to guide product development and programme implementation. The role of vector behaviour modification in disease control was first highlighted several decades ago but has received limited attention within the public health community. This paper presents current evidence highlighting the value of sub-lethal agents, specifically spatial repellents, and their use in global health, and identifies the primary challenges towards establishing a clearly defined and recommended role for spatial repellent products in disease control.

  13. AIMD - a validated, simplified framework of interventions to promote and integrate evidence into health practices, systems, and policies

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    Peter Bragge

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proliferation of terms describing the science of effectively promoting and supporting the use of research evidence in healthcare policy and practice has hampered understanding and development of the field. To address this, an international Terminology Working Group developed and published a simplified framework of interventions to promote and integrate evidence into health practices, systems, and policies. This paper presents results of validation work and a second international workgroup meeting, culminating in the updated AIMD framework [Aims, Ingredients, Mechanism, Delivery]. Methods Framework validity was evaluated against terminology schemas (n = 51; primary studies (n = 37; and reporting guidelines (n = 10. Framework components were independently categorized as fully represented, partly represented, or absent by two researchers. Opportunities to refine the framework were systematically recorded. A meeting of the expanded international Terminology Working Group updated the framework by reviewing and deliberating upon validation findings and refinement proposals. Results There was variation in representativeness of the components across the three types of literature, in particular for the component ‘causal mechanisms’. Analysis of primary studies revealed that representativeness of this concept lowered from 92 to 68% if only explicit, rather than explicit and non-explicit references to causal mechanisms were included. All components were very well represented in reporting guidelines, however the level of description of these was lower than in other types of literature. Twelve opportunities were identified to improve the framework, 9 of which were operationalized at the meeting. The updated AIMD framework comprises four components: (1 Aims: what do you want your intervention to achieve and for whom? (2 Ingredients: what comprises the intervention? (3 Mechanisms: how do you propose the intervention will

  14. About illegality determination of the validity of evidence through forensic examination Information letter

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    Smirnova S.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This letter prepared in connection with a growing number of complaints of investigators and making decisions on the appointment of psychological examination of the credibility of the video recording of interrogations and dictated by the need to arrange expert practice on the study of video footage of carrying out certain investigative actions with various actors in the criminal process. The newsletter discusses the purpose of such examinations and grounds the studies, in accordance with scientific principles of professional activity of experts. The letter was prepared under the supervision of the Director of the FBI, Federal center of forensic expertise under the Ministry of justice of Russia, doctor of legal Sciences, Professor, honored lawyer of the Russian Federation, honorary worker of justice of Russia of S. A. Smirnova, Deputy General Director for science of Federal State Budgetary Institution "V. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology" of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, doctor of medical Sciences, Professor E. V., Makushkina (doctor of juridical science A. Ya. Asnis, doctor of psychological Sciences, Vaske E. V., doctor of psychological Sciences, Professor E. G. Dozortseva, doctor of psychological Sciences, Professor F. S. Safuanov, PhD, associate Professor S. N. Shishkov, PhD, Professor S. S. Shipshin, PhD, associate Professor D. S. Oshevsky, PhD V. Berdnikov, PhD, associate Professor T. N. Sekerazh, PhD A. N. Kalinin. For investigators, judges, prosecutors, heads of Federal budgetary establishments of the Ministry of justice, judicial psychologists. For investigators, judges, prosecutors, heads of Federal budgetary establishments of the Ministry of justice, judicial psychologists.

  15. Does Current Scientific Evidence Support a Link Between Light at Night and Breast Cancer Among Female Night-Shift Nurses?

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    Dickerman, Barbra; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is increasingly prevalent in industrialized regions of the world, and exposure to light at night (LAN) has been proposed as a potential risk factor. Epidemiological observations have documented an increased breast cancer risk among female night-shift workers, and strong experimental evidence for this relationship has also been found in rodent models. Indirect support for the LAN hypothesis comes from studies involving blind women, sleep duration, bedroom light levels, and community nighttime light levels. This article reviews the literature, discusses possible mechanisms of action, and provides recommendations for occupational health nursing research, practice, and education. Research is needed to further explore the relationship between exposure to LAN and breast cancer risk and elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship before interventions can be designed for prevention and mitigation of breast cancer. PMID:22658734

  16. The Role of Forensic Botany in Solving a Case: Scientific Evidence on the Falsification of a Crime Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Gratteri, Santo; Sacco, Matteo A; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2018-05-01

    Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward. The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed. Botanical analysis showed some samples of Xanthium spinosum, thus leading to the discovery of the falsification of the crime scene although the location of the true crime scene remained a mystery. The botanical analysis, along with circumstantial data and autopsy findings, led to the discovery of the real crime scene and became crucial as part of the legal evidence regarding the falsity of the statements made to investigators. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Validity evidence for the situational judgment test paradigm in emotional intelligence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip

    2012-01-01

    To date, various measurement approaches have been proposed to assess emotional intelligence (EI). Recently, two new EI tests have been developed based on the situational judgment test (SJT) paradigm: the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU) and the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM). Initial attempts have been made to examine the construct-related validity of these new tests; we extend these findings by placing the tests in a broad nomological network. To this end, 850 undergraduate students completed a personality inventory, a cognitive ability test, a self-report EI test, a performance-based EI measure, the STEU, and the STEM. The SJT-based EI tests were not strongly correlated with personality and fluid cognitive ability. Regarding their relation with existing EI measures, the tests did not capture the same construct as self-report EI measures, but corresponded rather to performance-based EI measures. Overall, these results lend support for the SJT paradigm for measuring EI as an ability.

  18. Brief Self-Efficacy Scales for use in Weight-Loss Trials: Preliminary Evidence of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn E.; Harden, Samantha M.; Almeida, Fabio A.; You, Wen; Hill, Jennie L.; Goessl, Cody; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a commonly included cognitive variable in weight-loss trials, but there is little uniformity in its measurement. Weight-loss trials frequently focus on physical activity (PA) and eating behavior, as well as weight loss, but no survey is available that offers reliable measurement of self-efficacy as it relates to each of these targeted outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of brief, pragmatic self-efficacy scales specific to PA, healthful eating and weight-loss (4 items each). An adult sample (n=1790) from 28 worksites enrolled in a worksite weight-loss program completed the self-efficacy scale, as well as measures of PA, dietary fat intake, and weight, at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. The hypothesized factor structure was tested through confirmatory factor analysis, which supported the expected factor structure for three latent self-efficacy factors, specific to PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. Measurement equivalence/invariance between relevant demographic groups, and over time was also supported. Parallel growth processes in self-efficacy factors and outcomes (PA, fat intake, and weight) support the predictive validity of score interpretations. Overall, this initial series of psychometric analyses supports the interpretation that scores on these scales reflect self-efficacy for PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. The use of this instrument in large-scale weight-loss trials is encouraged. PMID:26619093

  19. Validating the psycholinguistic aspects of LITMUS-CLT: Evidence from Polish and Norwegian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pernille; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Haman, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The novel assessment tool Cross-Linguistic Lexical Tasks (LITMUS-CLT) aims for comparable cross-linguistic assessment of multilingual children's lexical skills by basing each language version on two language-specific variables: age of acquisition (AoA) and complexity index (CI), a novel measure related to phonology, morphology, exposure and etymology. This article investigates the validity of this methodology, asking whether the underlying properties are robust predictors of children's performance. The Polish and Norwegian CLTs were used to assess 32 bilingual Polish-Norwegian, 34 monolingual Norwegian and 36 monolingual Polish children. The effects of AoA and CI were contrasted with frequency in child directed speech (CDS) and imageability, two known predictors of lexical development. AoA was a reliable predictor of performance within all parts of CLT, in contrast to CI. Apart from AoA, only exposure and CDS frequency had a significant effect within both monolinguals and bilinguals. These results indicate that CLT assesses lexical skills in a cross-linguistically comparable manner, but suggest a revision of the CI measure.

  20. The counterfeit anti-malarial is a crime against humanity: a systematic review of the scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal

    2014-06-02

    The counterfeiting of anti-malarials represents a form of attack on global public health in which fake and substandard anti-malarials serve as de facto weapons of mass destruction, particularly in resource-constrained endemic settings, where malaria causes nearly 660,000 preventable deaths and threatens millions of lives annually. It has been estimated that fake anti-malarials contribute to nearly 450,000 preventable deaths every year. This crime against humanity is often underestimated or ignored. This study attempts to describe and characterize the direct and indirect effects of counterfeit anti-malarials on public health, clinical care and socio-economic conditions. A search was performed using key databases, WHO documents, and English language search engines. Of 262 potential articles that were identified using a fixed set of criteria, a convenience sample of 105 appropriate articles was selected for this review. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is an important tool in the fight against malaria, but a sizable number of patients are unable to afford to this first-line treatment. Consequently, patients tend to procure cheaper anti-malarials, which may be fake or substandard. Forensic palynology reveals that counterfeits originate in Asia. Fragile drug regulations, ineffective law-enforcement agencies and corruption further burden ailing healthcare facilities. Substandard/fake anti-malarials can cause (a) economic sabotage; (b) therapeutic failure; (c) increased risk of the emergence and spread of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax; (d) an undermining of trust/confidence in healthcare stakeholders/systems; and, (e) serious side effects or death. Combating counterfeit anti-malarials is a complex task due to limited resources and poor techniques for the detection and identification of fake anti-malarials. This situation calls for sustainable, global, scientific research and policy change. Further, responsible stakeholders in

  1. Tratamento da pré-eclâmpsia baseado em evidências Pre-eclampsia treatment according to scientific evidence

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    Carlos Noronha Neto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As síndromes hipertensivas na gestação merecem especial destaque no cenário da saúde pública mundial. Atualmente, respondem como terceira causa de mortalidade materna no mundo e primeira no Brasil. Do ponto de vista prático, a pré-eclâmpsia continua sendo uma síndrome que leva a graves repercussões maternas e fetais, conhecendo-se ainda pouco sobre sua etiologia. Atualmente, tem-se discutido a melhor terapêutica para os quadros de pré-eclâmpsia em diversos momentos do ciclo gravídico-puerperal, visando sempre à redução de altos índices de morbimortalidade materna e fetal. O parto, considerando-se a fisiopatologia do evento, representa a melhor forma de tratamento. O uso de sulfato de magnésio é recomendado em todos os casos de pré-eclâmpsia grave e eclâmpsia para prevenção e tratamento das crises convulsivas. Da mesma forma, o tratamento dos picos hipertensivos é recomendado. Hidralazina, nifedipina e labetalol têm sido as drogas mais utilizadas com essa finalidade, mas seu uso dependente da familiaridade do médico assistente. A corticoterapia antenatal está indicada sempre que existe risco iminente de prematuridade entre a 24º e 34º semana. Em contrapartida, não há evidências suficientes para recomendar repouso e administração de expansores plasmáticos de rotina, assim como há necessidade urgente de ensaios clínicos randomizados para determinar se o tratamento anti-hipertensivo de manutenção nas gestantes apresenta benefícios ou riscos para mães e fetos, em todas as formas clínicas da doença, em particular nos casos de pré-eclâmpsia pura.Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy deserve special attention in the setting of global public health. Currently, they represent the third cause of maternal mortality in the world and first in Brazil. From a practical standpoint, pre-eclampsia remains a syndrome that leads to serious repercussions on maternal and fetal mortality and its etiology is not well known

  2. Dogs Evaluate Threatening Facial Expressions by Their Biological Validity--Evidence from Gazing Patterns.

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    Sanni Somppi

    Full Text Available Appropriate response to companions' emotional signals is important for all social creatures. The emotional expressions of humans and non-human animals have analogies in their form and function, suggesting shared evolutionary roots, but very little is known about how animals other than primates view and process facial expressions. In primates, threat-related facial expressions evoke exceptional viewing patterns compared with neutral or positive stimuli. Here, we explore if domestic dogs (Canis familiaris have such an attentional bias toward threatening social stimuli and whether observed emotional expressions affect dogs' gaze fixation distribution among the facial features (eyes, midface and mouth. We recorded the voluntary eye gaze of 31 domestic dogs during viewing of facial photographs of humans and dogs with three emotional expressions (threatening, pleasant and neutral. We found that dogs' gaze fixations spread systematically among facial features. The distribution of fixations was altered by the seen expression, but eyes were the most probable targets of the first fixations and gathered longer looking durations than mouth regardless of the viewed expression. The examination of the inner facial features as a whole revealed more pronounced scanning differences among expressions. This suggests that dogs do not base their perception of facial expressions on the viewing of single structures, but the interpretation of the composition formed by eyes, midface and mouth. Dogs evaluated social threat rapidly and this evaluation led to attentional bias, which was dependent on the depicted species: threatening conspecifics' faces evoked heightened attention but threatening human faces instead an avoidance response. We propose that threatening signals carrying differential biological validity are processed via distinctive neurocognitive pathways. Both of these mechanisms may have an adaptive significance for domestic dogs. The findings provide a novel

  3. The EADC-ADNI Harmonized Protocol for manual hippocampal segmentation on magnetic resonance: Evidence of validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bocchetta, Martina; Bauer, Corinna; Frederiksen, Kristian S.; Liu, Yawu; Preboske, Gregory; Swihart, Tim; Blair, Melanie; Cavedo, Enrica; Grothe, Michel J.; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Martinez, Oliver; Nishikawa, Masami; Portegies, Marileen; Stoub, Travis; Ward, Chadwich; Apostolova, Liana G.; Ganzola, Rossana; Wolf, Dominik; Barkhof, Frederik; Bartzokis, George; DeCarli, Charles; Csernansky, John G.; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Killiany, Ronald J.; Lehéricy, Stephane; Matsuda, Hiroshi; O'Brien, John; Silbert, Lisa C.; Scheltens, Philip; Soininen, Hilkka; Teipel, Stefan; Waldemar, Gunhild; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Barnes, Josephine; Firbank, Michael; Gerritsen, Lotte; Henneman, Wouter; Malykhin, Nikolai; Pruessner, Jens C.; Wang, Lei; Watson, Craig; Wolf, Henrike; deLeon, Mony; Pantel, Johannes; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bosco, Paolo; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Duchesne, Simon; Duvernoy, Henri; Boccardi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background An international Delphi panel has defined a harmonized protocol (HarP) for the manual segmentation of the hippocampus on MR. The aim of this study is to study the concurrent validity of the HarP toward local protocols, and its major sources of variance. Methods Fourteen tracers segmented 10 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cases scanned at 1.5 T and 3T following local protocols, qualified for segmentation based on the HarP through a standard web-platform and resegmented following the HarP. The five most accurate tracers followed the HarP to segment 15 ADNI cases acquired at three time points on both 1.5 T and 3T. Results The agreement among tracers was relatively low with the local protocols (absolute left/right ICC 0.44/0.43) and much higher with the HarP (absolute left/right ICC 0.88/0.89). On the larger set of 15 cases, the HarP agreement within (left/right ICC range: 0.94/0.95 to 0.99/0.99) and among tracers (left/right ICC range: 0.89/0.90) was very high. The volume variance due to different tracers was 0.9% of the total, comparing favorably to variance due to scanner manufacturer (1.2), atrophy rates (3.5), hemispheric asymmetry (3.7), field strength (4.4), and significantly smaller than the variance due to atrophy (33.5%, P < .001), and physiological variability (49.2%, P < .001). Conclusions The HarP has high measurement stability compared with local segmentation protocols, and good reproducibility within and among human tracers. Hippocampi segmented with the HarP can be used as a reference for the qualification of human tracers and automated segmentation algorithms. PMID:25267715

  4. Male circumcision to prevent syphilis in 1855 and HIV in 1986 is supported by the accumulated scientific evidence to 2015: Response to Darby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian J; Wamai, Richard G; Krieger, John N; Banerjee, Joya; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-01

    An article by Darby disparaging male circumcision (MC) for syphilis prevention in Victorian times (1837-1901) and voluntary medical MC programs for HIV prevention in recent times ignores contemporary scientific evidence. It is one-sided and cites outlier studies as well as claims by MC opponents that support the author's thesis, but ignores high quality randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses. While we agree with Darby that risky behaviours contribute to syphilis and HIV epidemics, there is now compelling evidence that MC helps reduce both syphilis and HIV infections. Although some motivations for MC in Victorian times were misguided, others, such as protection against syphilis, penile cancer, phimosis, balanitis and poor hygiene have stood the test of time. In the absence of a cure or effective prophylactic vaccine for HIV, MC should help lower heterosexually acquired HIV, especially when coupled with other interventions such as condoms and behaviour. This should save lives, as well as reducing costs and suffering. In contrast to Darby, our evaluation of the evidence leads us to conclude that MC would likely have helped reduce syphilis in Victorian times and, in the current era, will help lower both syphilis and HIV, so improving global public health.

  5. Systematic analysis of the quality of the scientific evidence and conflicts of interest in osteoarthritis of the hip and knee practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Joseph D; Pelsis, Jonathan R; Lloyd, Samuel; Cheifetz, Adam S; Stone, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the validity of the hip and knee osteoarthritis guidelines. A systematic search of PubMed using a combination of Mesh and text terms with limitations to guidelines was performed to identify hip and knee osteoarthritis guidelines. The study was performed from April 17, 2014 to October 1, 2014. Guidelines were reviewed for graded levels of evidence, methods used to grade the evidence, and disclosures of conflicts of interest. Additionally, guidelines were also assessed for key quality measures using the AGREE II system for assessing the quality of guidelines. A total of 13 guidelines relevant to the diagnosis and/or treatment of hip/knee osteoarthritis was identified. The 180 recommendations reviewed were supported by 231 pieces of evidence. In total, 35% (n = 80; range: 0-26) were supported by level A evidence, 15% (n = 35; range: 0-10) were by level B, and 50% (n = 116; range: 0-62) were by level C. Median age of the guidelines was 4 years (±4.8; range: 0-16) with no comments on planned updates. In total, 31% of the guidelines included patients in the development process. Only one guideline incorporated cost consideration, and only 15% of the guidelines addressed the surgical management of osteoarthritis. Additionally, 46% of guidelines did not comment on conflicts of interest (COI). When present, there was an average 29.8 COI. Notably, 82% of the COI were monetary support/consulting. In total, 50% of the hip/knee osteoarthritis guideline recommendations are based on lower quality evidence. Nearly half the guidelines fail to disclose relevant COI and when disclosed, multiple potential COI are present. Future hip/knee osteoarthritis guideline development committees should strive to improve the transparency and quality of evidence used to formulate practice guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bi-national cross-validation of an evidence-based conduct problem prevention model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Carolyn M; Bloomquist, Michael L; Garcia-Huidobro, Diego; Gutiérrez, Rafael; Vega, Leticia; Balch, Rosita; Yu, Xiaohui; Cooper, Daniel K

    2018-04-01

    To (a) explore the preferences of Mexican parents and Spanish-speaking professionals working with migrant Latino families in Minnesota regarding the Mexican-adapted brief model versus the original conduct problems intervention and (b) identifying the potential challenges, and preferred solutions, to implementation of a conduct problems preventive intervention. The core practice elements of a conduct problems prevention program originating in the United States were adapted for prevention efforts in Mexico. Three focus groups were conducted in the United States, with Latino parents (n = 24; 2 focus groups) and professionals serving Latino families (n = 9; 1 focus group), to compare and discuss the Mexican-adapted model and the original conduct problems prevention program. Thematic analysis was conducted on the verbatim focus group transcripts in the original language spoken. Participants preferred the Mexican-adapted model. The following key areas were identified for cultural adaptation when delivering a conduct problems prevention program with Latino families: recruitment/enrollment strategies, program delivery format, and program content (i.e., child skills training, parent skills training, child-parent activities, and child-parent support). For both models, strengths, concerns, barriers, and strategies for overcoming concerns and barriers were identified. We summarize recommendations offered by participants to strengthen the effective implementation of a conduct problems prevention model with Latino families in the United States. This project demonstrates the strength in binational collaboration to critically examine cultural adaptations of evidence-based prevention programs that could be useful to diverse communities, families, and youth in other settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Escala de atitudes frente ao uso de drogas: evidências de validade fatorial e preditiva Attitudes toward drugs use scale: evidences of factor and predictive validity

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    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer evidências de validade fatorial e preditiva de uma medida de atitudes ante o uso de drogas em geral (EAAUD. MÉTODO: Participaram voluntariamente 276 estudantes universitários de vários cursos, provenientes de uma universidade pública (94,2% e outra particular (5,8% da cidade de João Pessoa (PB. Estes tinham idade média de 21 anos (DP = 3,40; 93,5% eram de jovens de 17 a 25 anos, a maioria solteira (91% e do sexo feminino (65,6%. Além de um conjunto de perguntas demográficas, os participantes preencheram a EAAUD. Esta compreende uma medida formada por quatro itens/adjetivos bipolares (positivo/negativo, gosto/desgosto, bom/ruim e desejável/indesejável respondidos em escala do tipo diferencial semântico, de 9 pontos, variando de - 4 a + 4. RESULTADOS: De acordo com a análise de componentes principais, um único componente emergiu, com todos os itens apresentando saturação acima de |0,40|; este teve valor próprio de 3,17, explicando 79,3% da variância total. Sua consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,91. Por meio de regressão logística, comprovou-se que as pontuações na EAAUD predisseram significativamente a condição de ser um usuário de drogas, B = 0,17, Wald (1 = 8,45, p = 0,004. CONCLUSÃO: Tais resultados indicam que esta medida reúne evidências de validade fatorial e preditiva, podendo ser empregada para conhecer o potencial envolvimento dos jovens com drogas. Não obstante, sugerem-se novas pesquisas com amostras maiores e mais diversificadas.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at knowing evidences of factor and predictive validity of a measure of attitudes toward drugs use (ATDUS. METHODS: Participants were 276 volunteer undergraduate students of several courses. They were of a public (94.2% and other private (5.8% university from João Pessoa city (Paraíba, with mean age of 21 years old (SD = 3.40; 93.5% were youths, with age ranging from 17 to 25. Most of

  8. Belford proactive flood solutions: scientific evidence to influence local and national policy by multi-purpose runoff management

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    Wilkinson, M.; Quinn, P. F.; Jonczyk, J.

    2010-12-01

    overall travel time of the flood peak in the catchment by 33%. The current maximum flood storage capacity of all the features stands at around 15,000 m3. The evidence also suggests that a dam like in-stream mitigation measure can significantly reduce sediment load. Other benefits of some mitigation features include large increase in the population of water voles over the past two years. The scheme also acts as a demonstration site for interested stakeholders where they can learn about this approach to flood risk management and see the multipurpose benefits. As the project has progressed and lessons have been learnt, it has been possible to develop a runoff management toolkit for implementing these mitigation measures in other catchments of similar size. Already, the local Environment Agency has utilised the tools and recently applied similar mitigation measures to other catchments. On-going modelling exercises in the project are using the data to explore the up-scaling of the features to larger catchments.

  9. Adaptation and validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Belief and Implementation scales for French-speaking Swiss nurses and allied healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloo, Henk; Desmedt, Mario; Morin, Diane

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate two psychometric properties of the French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales, namely their internal consistency and construct validity. The Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales developed by Melnyk et al. are recognised as valid, reliable instruments in English. However, no psychometric validation for their French versions existed. Secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey. Source data came from a cross-sectional descriptive study sample of 382 nurses and other allied healthcare providers. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate internal consistency, and principal axis factor analysis and varimax rotation were computed to determine construct validity. The French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales showed excellent reliability, with Cronbach's alphas close to the scores established by Melnyk et al.'s original versions. Principal axis factor analysis showed medium-to-high factor loading scores without obtaining collinearity. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 16-item Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs scale resulted in a four-factor loading structure. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 17-item Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale revealed a two-factor loading structure. Further research should attempt to understand why the French Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale showed a two-factor loading structure but Melnyk et al.'s original has only one. The French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales can both be considered valid and reliable instruments for measuring Evidence-Based Practice beliefs and implementation. The results suggest that the French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales are valid and reliable and can therefore be used to

  10. The predictive validity of selection for entry into postgraduate training in general practice: evidence from three longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Lievens, Filip; Kerrin, Máire; Munro, Neil; Irish, Bill

    2013-11-01

    The selection methodology for UK general practice is designed to accommodate several thousand applicants per year and targets six core attributes identified in a multi-method job-analysis study To evaluate the predictive validity of selection methods for entry into postgraduate training, comprising a clinical problem-solving test, a situational judgement test, and a selection centre. A three-part longitudinal predictive validity study of selection into training for UK general practice. In sample 1, participants were junior doctors applying for training in general practice (n = 6824). In sample 2, participants were GP registrars 1 year into training (n = 196). In sample 3, participants were GP registrars sitting the licensing examination after 3 years, at the end of training (n = 2292). The outcome measures include: assessor ratings of performance in a selection centre comprising job simulation exercises (sample 1); supervisor ratings of trainee job performance 1 year into training (sample 2); and licensing examination results, including an applied knowledge examination and a 12-station clinical skills objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; sample 3). Performance ratings at selection predicted subsequent supervisor ratings of job performance 1 year later. Selection results also significantly predicted performance on both the clinical skills OSCE and applied knowledge examination for licensing at the end of training. In combination, these longitudinal findings provide good evidence of the predictive validity of the selection methods, and are the first reported for entry into postgraduate training. Results show that the best predictor of work performance and training outcomes is a combination of a clinical problem-solving test, a situational judgement test, and a selection centre. Implications for selection methods for all postgraduate specialties are considered.

  11. An evidence-based environmental perspective of manufactured silver nanoparticle in syntheses and applications: A systematic review and critical appraisal of peer-reviewed scientific papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolaymat, Thabet M.; El Badawy, Amro M.; Genaidy, Ash; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Luxton, Todd P.; Suidan, Makram

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most recently, renewed interest has arisen in manufactured silver nanomaterials because of their unusually enhanced physicochemical properties and biological activities compared to the bulk parent materials. A wide range of applications has emerged in consumer products ranging from disinfecting medical devices and home appliances to water treatment. Because the hypothesized mechanisms that govern the fate and transport of bulk materials may not directly apply to materials at the nanoscale, there are great concerns in the regulatory and research communities about potential environmental impacts associated with the use of silver nanoparticles. In particular, the unlimited combinations of properties emerging from the syntheses and applications of silver nanoparticles are presenting an urgent need to document the predominant salt precursors, reducing agents and stabilizing agents utilized in the synthesis processes of silver nanoparticles to guide the massive efforts required for environmental risk assessment and management. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to present an evidence-based environmental perspective of silver nanoparticle properties in syntheses and applications. The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objective: Aim 1 - to document the salt precursors and agents utilized in synthesizing silver nanoparticles; Aim 2 - to determine the characteristics of silver nanoparticles currently in use in the scientific literature when integrated in polymer matrices to form nanocomposites and combined with other metal nanoparticles to form bimetallic nanoparticles; Aim 3 - to provide a summary of the morphology of silver nanoparticles; and (4) Aim 4 - to provide an environmental perspective of the evidence presented in Aims 1 to 3. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search of scientific databases was conducted in support of the study objectives. Specific inclusion criteria were applied to gather the most pertinent

  12. An evidence-based environmental perspective of manufactured silver nanoparticle in syntheses and applications: A systematic review and critical appraisal of peer-reviewed scientific papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolaymat, Thabet M., E-mail: tolaymat.thabet@epa.gov [USEPA Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); El Badawy, Amro M. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Genaidy, Ash [WorldTek Inc, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Scheckel, Kirk G.; Luxton, Todd P. [USEPA Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Suidan, Makram [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Background: Most recently, renewed interest has arisen in manufactured silver nanomaterials because of their unusually enhanced physicochemical properties and biological activities compared to the bulk parent materials. A wide range of applications has emerged in consumer products ranging from disinfecting medical devices and home appliances to water treatment. Because the hypothesized mechanisms that govern the fate and transport of bulk materials may not directly apply to materials at the nanoscale, there are great concerns in the regulatory and research communities about potential environmental impacts associated with the use of silver nanoparticles. In particular, the unlimited combinations of properties emerging from the syntheses and applications of silver nanoparticles are presenting an urgent need to document the predominant salt precursors, reducing agents and stabilizing agents utilized in the synthesis processes of silver nanoparticles to guide the massive efforts required for environmental risk assessment and management. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to present an evidence-based environmental perspective of silver nanoparticle properties in syntheses and applications. The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objective: Aim 1 - to document the salt precursors and agents utilized in synthesizing silver nanoparticles; Aim 2 - to determine the characteristics of silver nanoparticles currently in use in the scientific literature when integrated in polymer matrices to form nanocomposites and combined with other metal nanoparticles to form bimetallic nanoparticles; Aim 3 - to provide a summary of the morphology of silver nanoparticles; and (4) Aim 4 - to provide an environmental perspective of the evidence presented in Aims 1 to 3. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search of scientific databases was conducted in support of the study objectives. Specific inclusion criteria were applied to gather the most pertinent

  13. Initial construct validity evidence of a virtual human application for competency assessment in breaking bad news to a cancer patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guetterman TC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Timothy C Guetterman,1 Frederick W Kron,1 Toby C Campbell,2 Mark W Scerbo,3 Amy B Zelenski,4 James F Cleary,5 Michael D Fetters1 1Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, 3Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, 4Department of General Internal Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison, University of Wisconsin Medical Foundation, 5Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Clinical Science Center, Madison, WI, USA Background: Despite interest in using virtual humans (VHs for assessing health care ­communication, evidence of validity is limited. We evaluated the validity of a VH application, MPathic-VR, for assessing performance-based competence in breaking bad news (BBN to a VH patient.Methods: We used a two-group quasi-experimental design, with residents participating in a 3-hour seminar on BBN. Group A (n=15 completed the VH simulation before and after the seminar, and Group B (n=12 completed the VH simulation only after the BBN seminar to avoid the possibility that testing alone affected performance. Pre- and postseminar differences for Group A were analyzed with a paired t-test, and comparisons between Groups A and B were analyzed with an independent t-test.Results: Compared to the preseminar result, Group A’s postseminar scores improved significantly, indicating that the VH program was sensitive to differences in assessing performance-based competence in BBN. Postseminar scores of Group A and Group B were not significantly different, indicating that both groups performed similarly on the VH program.Conclusion: Improved pre–post scores demonstrate acquisition of skills in BBN to a VH patient. Pretest sensitization did not appear to influence posttest assessment. These results provide initial construct validity evidence that the VH program is effective for

  14. Scientific Evidence Supporting Policy Change: A Study on Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Areas of PC Rooms in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Yeol; Lim, Min Kyung; Yun, E Hwa; Park, Eun Young; Jeong, Bo Yoon; Yang, Wonho; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in personal computer (PC) rooms with the purpose of determining the strength of scientific evidence supporting the legislative ban on smoking in PC rooms located in the Republic of Korea. From June to September 2012, particulate matter (PM2.5) and air nicotine concentration (ANC) were measured in the smoking and non-smoking areas of PC rooms in Goyang City, Korea. In 28 randomly sampled PC rooms, field investigators completed an observational questionnaire on building characteristics, smoking policies, and evidence of smoking. The geometric means (GM) of PM2.5 and ANC in smoking and non-smoking areas were compared. Evidence of smoking was identified in both the smoking and non-smoking areas of all PC rooms. The GMs of PM2.5 and ANC in both areas were high and did not differ significantly (174.77 μg/m(3) and 48.95 μg/m(3) in smoking areas; 93.38 μg/m(3) and 41.30 μg/m(3) in non-smoking areas). Overall PM2.5 concentrations were 5.5-fold higher than those listed in the World Health Organization guidelines. This study supported previous reports that a partial smoking ban did not protect individuals from SHS exposure. Furthermore, the results from our study suggest how research can support policy. Countries in which smoke-free policies are not yet comprehensive may find our results useful.

  15. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ortodontia baseada em evidência científica: incorporando ciência na prática clínica Scientific evidence-based orthodontics: incorporating science within clinic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Scardua Mariano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é despertar o ortodontista e conscientizá-lo sobre a importância da tomada de decisão baseada em evidência científica no cuidado aos pacientes. Serão descritos os passos essenciais para a prática da Odontologia baseada em evidência (OBE, assim como os princípios da ciência e da pesquisa. Existem caminhos adequados para a busca da informação de qualidade, sendo esses a única garantia de encontrar artigos válidos. Na seleção de artigos científicos, o primeiro passo é definir o seu desenho, pois para cada dúvida clínica há um delineamento adequado capaz de respondê-la. Dessa maneira, questões sobre tratamento, etiologia, diagnóstico, prognóstico ou prevenção só podem ser respondidas por um artigo que tenha sido delineado para tal. O conhecimento da alocação randomizada, do mascaramento e do grupo-controle é fundamental para que possamos realizar uma leitura crítica dos artigos científicos, reconhecendo os que merecem credibilidade. Em meio a tantas publicações, precisamos definir, com segurança, o que deve ser incorporado ao nosso conhecimento e o que deve ser incorporado à prática clínica, mudando a nossa conduta. Desse modo, poderemos oferecer aos nossos pacientes opções terapêuticas mais consistentes e previsíveis.The aim of this article is to warn the orthodontist about the importance of making decision based on scientific evidence when taking care of the patients. It describes the main steps for the Dentistry practices based in evidence (EBD as well as the science and research principles. There are adequate ways for the search of quality information. While selecting the scientific articles, the first step would be defining its design, since for each question there is an adequate delineation able to answer it. Questions about treatment, etiology, diagnostic, prognostic or prevention could be answered in the article if it has been delineated for that. Understanding the meaning

  17. The Scientific Case against Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ivan

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  18. Design, Evaluation and Validation, and Analysis of a Five-Dimensional Leadership Questionnaire for a Project Leader in an International Scientific Research Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilfinger, Roman

    2008-01-01

    The basic goal of the study is to develop a five dimensional leadership questionnaire for a project leader in an international scientific research laboratory and to verify statistically the independency of the individual questions from each other to ensure low overlap in content and meaning by achieving low correlation coefficients. This leadership questionnaire is designed to examine the behavior, personality, and character attributes of a project or experiment team leader in an international scientific research laboratory as perceived by her/his team members during the planning, design, implementation, and execution of the project itself. The leadership questionnaire is applied to a sample of about 40 participants from different international scientific research laboratories. This sample should represent in age, rank, and profession the whole population of employees and team members currently working in different international scientific research laboratories dealing with physics, informatics, and engineeri...

  19. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E; Hall, Seth E; Wieland, Jamie R; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C; Mulligan, Christopher C

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Screening the risk of bipolar spectrum disorders: Validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather sources of validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in young adults for its use as a screening tool for bipolar spectrum disorders. The sample was composed of 1,002 participants, 268 men (26.7%). The mean age of participants was 21.1 years (SD=3.9). The results showed that between 3 and 59% of the sample reported some hypomanic experience. Gender differences were found in the total score of the MDQ. The analysis of the internal structure by exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors, called Energy-Activity and Disinhibition-Attention. This dimensional structure was replicated in the exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and also had factorial equivalence by gender. Participants who met the cut-off points of the MDQ reported a worse perceived mental health status and more consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, compared to the low scores group. These findings indicate that the MDQ has adequate psychometric properties in non-clinical samples, and could be useful as a screening tool in psychopathology, with the possibility of optimizing strategies for early identification and prevention in individuals at high risk for bipolar disorders. Future studies should further explore the role of subclinical bipolar phenotype and conduct longitudinal studies in samples of the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E.; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L.; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E.; Hall, Seth E.; Wieland, Jamie R.; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C.; Mulligan, Christopher C.

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  3. Claim Assessment Profile: A Method for Capturing Healthcare Evidence in the Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Lara; Jonas, Wayne B

    2017-02-01

    Grounding health claims in an evidence base is essential for determining safety and effectiveness. However, it is not appropriate to evaluate all healthcare claims with the same methods. "Gold standard" randomized controlled trials may skip over important qualitative and observational data about use, benefits, side effects, and preferences, issues especially salient in research on complementary and integrative health (CIH) practices. This gap has prompted a move toward studying treatments in their naturalistic settings. In the 1990s, a program initiated under the National Institutes of Health was designed to provide an outreach to CIH practices for assessing the feasibility of conducting retrospective or prospective evaluations. The Claim Assessment Profile further develops this approach, within the framework of Samueli Institute's Scientific Evaluation and Review of Claims in Health Care (SEaRCH) method. The goals of a Claim Assessment Profile are to clarify the elements that constitute a practice, define key outcomes, and create an explanatory model of these impacts. The main objective is to determine readiness and capacity of a practice to engage in evaluation of effectiveness. This approach is informed by a variety of rapid assessment and stakeholder-driven methods. Site visits, structured qualitative interviews, surveys, and observational data on implementation provide descriptive data about the practice. Logic modeling defines inputs, processes, and outcome variables; Path modeling defines an analytic map to explore. The Claim Assessment Profile is a rapid assessment of the evaluability of a healthcare practice. The method was developed for use on CIH practices but has also been applied in resilience research and may be applied beyond the healthcare sector. Findings are meant to provide sufficient data to improve decision-making for stakeholders. This method provides an important first step for moving existing promising yet untested practices into

  4. Elastic wave velocities, chemistry and modal mineralogy of crustal rocks sampled by the Outokumpu scientific drill hole: Evidence from lab measurements and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, H.; Mengel, K.; Strauss, K. W.; Ivankina, T. I.; Nikitin, A. N.; Kukkonen, I. T.

    2009-07-01

    The Outokumpu scientific deep drill hole intersects a 2500 m deep Precambrian crustal section comprising a 1300 m thick biotite-gneiss series (mica schists) at top, followed by a 200 m thick meta-ophiolite sequence, underlain again by biotite gneisses (mica schists) (500 m thick) with intercalations of amphibolite and meta-pegmatoids (pegmatitic granite). From 2000 m downward the dominating rock types are meta-pegmatoids (pegmatitic granite). Average isotropic intrinsic P- and S-wave velocities and densities of rocks were calculated on the basis of the volume fraction of the constituent minerals and their single crystal properties for 29 core samples covering the depth range 198-2491 m. The modal composition of the rocks is obtained from bulk rock (XRF) and mineral chemistry (microprobe), using least squares fitting. Laboratory seismic measurements on 13 selected samples representing the main lithologies revealed strong anisotropy of P- and S-wave velocities and shear wave splitting. Seismic anisotropy is strongly related to foliation and is, in particular, an important property of the biotite gneisses, which dominate the upper and lower gneiss series. At in situ conditions, velocity anisotropy is largely caused by oriented microcracks, which are not completely closed at the pressures corresponding to the relatively shallow depth drilled by the borehole, in addition to crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of the phyllosilicates. The contribution of CPO to bulk anisotropy is confirmed by 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction texture measurements. For vertical incidence of the wave train, the in situ velocities derived from the lab measurements are significantly lower than the measured and calculated intrinsic velocities. The experimental results give evidence that the strong reflective nature of the ophiolite-derived rock assemblages is largely affected by oriented microcracks and preferred crystallographic orientation of major minerals, in

  5. Virtual reconstruction of the roman villa in La Quintilla (Lorca based on the existing physical evidence and related scientific comparisons as a reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián F. Ramallos Asensio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The virtual reconstruction of archaeological sites using computer graphics is a very important tool for the verification or refutation of hypotheses in scientific research. It also is an excellent way to spread awareness Heritage with realistic images of scientific rigor.

  6. Validity of the Consensual Assessment Technique--Evidence with Three Groups of Judges and an Elementary School Student Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiying

    2012-01-01

    As one of the most widely used creativity assessment tools, the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) has been praised as a valid tool to assess creativity. In Amabile's (1982) seminal work, the inter-rater reliability was defined as construct validity of the CAT. During the past three decades, researchers followed this definition and…

  7. Financial decision-making abilities and financial exploitation in older African Americans: Preliminary validity evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Ficker, Lisa J; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2016-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool.

  8. Estudos de revisão sistemática: um guia para síntese criteriosa da evidência científica Systematic review studies: a guide for careful synthesis of the scientific evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RF Sampaio

    2007-02-01

    : Systematic reviews require straightforward questions, search strategy definition, establishment of study inclusion and exclusion criteria and careful analysis of the selected literature. The development process for reviews of this type includes characterization of each selected study, evaluation of their quality, identification of important concepts, comparison of statistical analyses used and conclusions regarding what the literature tells us about a specific intervention. Such reviews also suggest problems/questions that need further investigation. Systematic review studies follow the structure of original articles. CONCLUSION: Good systematic reviews are important resources, in the light of the accelerated growth of scientific information. These studies help in producing syntheses of the evidence available in the literature on specific interventions, and may help clinicians and researchers in their work process.

  9. Validity Evidence and Scoring Guidelines for Standardized Patient Encounters and Patient Notes From a Multisite Study of Clinical Performance Examinations in Seven Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon Soo; Hyderi, Abbas; Heine, Nancy; May, Win; Nevins, Andrew; Lee, Ming; Bordage, Georges; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    To examine validity evidence of local graduation competency examination scores from seven medical schools using shared cases and to provide rater training protocols and guidelines for scoring patient notes (PNs). Between May and August 2016, clinical cases were developed, shared, and administered across seven medical schools (990 students participated). Raters were calibrated using training protocols, and guidelines were developed collaboratively across sites to standardize scoring. Data included scores from standardized patient encounters for history taking, physical examination, and PNs. Descriptive statistics were used to examine scores from the different assessment components. Generalizability studies (G-studies) using variance components were conducted to estimate reliability for composite scores. Validity evidence was collected for response process (rater perception), internal structure (variance components, reliability), relations to other variables (interassessment correlations), and consequences (composite score). Student performance varied by case and task. In the PNs, justification of differential diagnosis was the most discriminating task. G-studies showed that schools accounted for less than 1% of total variance; however, for the PNs, there were differences in scores for varying cases and tasks across schools, indicating a school effect. Composite score reliability was maximized when the PN was weighted between 30% and 40%. Raters preferred using case-specific scoring guidelines with clear point-scoring systems. This multisite study presents validity evidence for PN scores based on scoring rubric and case-specific scoring guidelines that offer rigor and feedback for learners. Variability in PN scores across participating sites may signal different approaches to teaching clinical reasoning among medical schools.

  10. Método Mãe Canguru: aplicação no Brasil, evidências científicas e impacto sobre o aleitamento materno Kangaroo Mother Care: scientific evidences and impact on breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Isoyama Venancio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o histórico do Método Mãe Canguru e apresentar evidências científicas sobre os benefícios dessa prática para os bebês de baixo peso no tocante a morbimortalidade, desenvolvimento psicoafetivo, neurossensorial e amamentação. FONTES DE DADOS: Foram consultadas publicações sobre o Método Mãe Canguru abrangendo o período de 1983 até 2004, identificadas nas bases de dados MEDLINE e Lilacs, bem como livros, teses e publicações técnicas do Ministério da Saúde. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Desde sua primeira descrição, o Método Mãe Canguru tem sido amplamente estudado. A análise de experimentos randomizados mostrou que o mesmo consiste em fator de proteção para a amamentação exclusiva no momento da alta hospitalar (RR 0,41; IC95% 0,25-0,68. O método também está associado a redução do risco de infecção hospitalar com 41 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida (RR 0,49; IC95% 0,25-0,93; redução de enfermidades graves (RR 0,30; IC95% 0,14-0,67; redução de infecções do trato respiratório inferior aos 6 meses (RR 0,37; IC95% 0,15-0,89; e maior ganho ponderal diário (diferença de médias de 3,6 g/dia; IC95% 0,8-6,4. O desenvolvimento psicomotor foi semelhante entre bebês submetidos ao Método Mãe Canguru e controles aos 12 meses, e não houve evidências de impacto sobre a mortalidade infantil. CONCLUSÃO: Há evidências de impacto positivo do Método Mãe Canguru sobre a prática da amamentação. Embora o método pareça reduzir a morbidade infantil, as evidências são ainda insuficientes para que o mesmo seja recomendado rotineiramente. Por outro lado, não existem relatos sobre efeitos deletérios da aplicação do método. Há a necessidade de se realizar estudos sobre a efetividade, aplicabilidade e aceitabilidade do Método Mãe Canguru em nosso meio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the history of the Kangaroo Mother Care and present scientific evidence about benefits of this practice on morbidity and

  11. Modern scientific evidence pertaining to criminal investigations in the Chosun dynasty era (1392-1897 A.C.E.) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yun Sik; Won, Sung-Ok; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2014-07-01

    A guidebook detailing the process of forensic investigation was written in 1440 A.C.E. It outlines the fundamentals and details of each element of criminal investigation during the era of the Chosun dynasty in Korea. Because this old guidebook was written in terms of personal experience rather than on scientific basis, it includes many fallacies from the perspective of modern forensic science. However, the book describes methods to form a scientific basis for the experiments performed. We demonstrate the modern scientific basis for ancient methods to monitor trace amounts of blood and detect lethal arsenic poisoning from a postmortem examination as described in this old forensic guidebook. Traces of blood and arsenic poisoning were detected according to the respective color changes of brownish red, due to the reaction of ferric ions in blood with acetic ions of vinegar, and dark blue, due to the reaction of silver with arsenic sulfide. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Reexamining the validity and reliability of the clinical version of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence from a normal subject group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung eLin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good EV decks. However, the IGT has several validity and reliability problems. Some research groups have pointed out that the validity of IGT is influenced by the personality and emotional state of subjects. Additionally, several other studies have proposed that the prominent deck B phenomenon (PDB phenomenon – that is, normal subjects preferring bad deck B – may be the most serious problem confronting IGT validity. Specifically, deck B offers a high frequency of gains but negative EV. In the standard IGT administration, choice behavior can be understood with reference to gain-loss frequency (GLF rather than inferred future consequences (EV, the basic assumption of IGT. Furthermore, using two different criteria (basic assumption vs. professional norm results in significantly different classification results. Therefore, we recruited 72 normal subjects to test the validity and reliability of IGT. Each subject performed three runs of the computer-based clinical IGT version. The PDB phenomenon has been observed to a significant degree in the first and second stages of the clinical IGT version. Obviously, validity, reliability and the practice effect were unstable between two given stages. The present form of the clinical IGT version has only one stage, so its use should be reconsidered for examining normal decision makers; results from patient groups must also be interpreted with great care. GLF could be the main factor to be considered in establishing the constructional validity and reliability of the clinical IGT version.

  13. Limitations in conduct and reporting of cochrane reviews rarely inhibit the determination of the validity of evidence for clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Brian S; Fedorowicz, Zbys; van Zuuren, Esther J

    2015-08-01

    To determine how often clinical conclusions derived from Cochrane Reviews have uncertain validity due to review conduct and reporting deficiencies. We evaluated 5142 clinical conclusions in DynaMed (an evidence-based point-of-care clinical reference) based on 4743 Cochrane Reviews. Clinical conclusions with level 2 evidence due to shortcomings in the review's conduct or reporting (rather than deficiencies in the underlying evidence) were confirmed by a DynaMed editor and two Cochrane Review authors. Thirty-one Cochrane Reviews (0.65%) had confirmed deficiencies in conduct and reporting as the reason for classifying 37 assessed clinical conclusions (0.72%) as level 2 evidence. In all cases, it was not feasible for the assessors to specify a clear criticism of the studies included in the reviews. The deficiencies were specific to not accounting for dropouts (2) or inadequate assessment and reporting of allocation concealment (11), other specific trial quality criteria (14), or all trial quality criteria (4). Cochrane Reviews provide high-quality assessment and synthesis of evidence, with fewer than 1% of Cochrane Reviews having limitations which hinder the summary of best current evidence for clinical decision-making. We expect this will further decrease following recent Cochrane quality initiatives. © 2015 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Validating a Computer-Assisted Language Learning Attitude Instrument Used in Iranian EFL Context: An Evidence-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2016-01-01

    A few computer-assisted language learning (CALL) instruments have been developed in Iran to measure EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' attitude toward CALL. However, these instruments have no solid validity argument and accordingly would be unable to provide a reliable measurement of attitude. The present study aimed to develop a CALL…

  15. Structural Validity of the MACI Psychopathy and Narcissism Scales: Evidence of Multidimensionality and Implications for Use in Research and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Da Silva, Kimberley S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties and predictive validity of three self-report scales (the Psychopathy Content Scale, the Psychopathy-16 scale, and the Egotistic scale) derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) to screen for the presence of psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. Exploratory…

  16. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassere, Marissa N.; Johnson, Kent R.; Boers, Maarten; Tugwell, Peter; Brooks, Peter; Simon, Lee; Strand, Vibeke; Conaghan, Philip G.; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Maksymowych, Walter P.; Landewe, Robert; Bresnihan, Barry; Tak, Paul-Peter; Wakefield, Richard; Mease, Philip; Bingham, Clifton O.; Hughes, Michael; Altman, Doug; Buyse, Marc; Galbraith, Sally; Wells, George

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are clear advantages to using biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, but concerns about clinical and statistical validity and systematic methods to evaluate these aspects hinder their efficient application. Our objective was to review the literature on biomarkers and surrogates to

  17. Evidences of Validity of the Brazilian Scale of Learner's Attitude towards Distance Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco Antonio, Jr.; Cortat, Mariane; Flores, Clarissa Leite; Santos, Flávio Augusto Mendes; Alves, Gleidilson Costa; Faiad, Cristiane; Ramos, Wilsa Maria; Rodrigues da Silva, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Online learning is one of the fastest growing trends in educational uses of technology. In this study, an instrument to measure the social attitudes of the Brazilian students based on distance education was developed and validated. The study population consisted of public administration undergraduate students that has been providing by distance…

  18. Validity of Evidence-Derived Criteria for Reactive Attachment Disorder: Indiscriminately Social/Disinhibited and Emotionally Withdrawn/Inhibited Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy; Smyke, Anna; Egger, Helen L.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity of criteria for indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: As part of a longitudinal intervention trial of previously institutionalized children, caregiver interviews and direct observational measurements provided continuous and…

  19. Examining Evidence for External and Consequential Validity of the First Term General Chemistry Exam from the ACS Examinations Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Validity of educational research instruments and student assessments has appropriately become a growing interest in the chemistry education research community. Of particular concern is an attention to the consequences to students that result from the interpretation of assessment scores and whether those consequences are swayed by invalidity within…

  20. Criterion Validity Evidence for the easyCBM© CCSS Math Measures: Grades 6-8. Technical Report #1402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Rowley, Brock; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The easyCBM© CCSS Math tests were developed to help inform teachers' instructional decisions by providing relevant information on students' mathematical skills, relative to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). This technical report describes a study to explore the validity of the easyCBM© CCSS Math tests by evaluating the relation between…

  1. Capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice are associated with application of EBP and research use: validation of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Lars; Boström, Anne-Marie; Gustavsson, J Petter

    2012-08-01

    Beliefs about capabilities, or self-efficacy, is a construct originating in social cognitive psychology. Capability beliefs have been found to be positively associated with intention and healthcare practice behaviour. A measure of an individual's beliefs about his/her capability to apply the components of evidence-based practice (EBP) has potential to be useful in implementation research. To evaluate the concurrent validity and internal structure of a new scale measuring nurses' capability beliefs regarding EBP. Data were taken from a prospective longitudinal study in Sweden (the Longitudinal Analyses of Nursing Education and Entry in Worklife [LANE]). A cohort of nursing students who graduated in the autumn of 2004 that was followed up 2 years after their graduation was used (n= 1,256). Concurrent validity was tested relating different levels of capability beliefs to extent of research use and application of EBP. An item-response approach was applied in the evaluation of internal structure of the proposed scale (six items). The psychometric analyses indicated that the six items could be summed to reflect a one-dimensional scale. Nurses with the highest level of capability beliefs reported that they used research findings in clinical practice more than twice as often as those with lower levels of capability beliefs. They also participated in the implementation of evidence seven times more often. There is a need for further studies of the construct and predictive validity of the scale. It should also be validated in other groups of health professionals. Learning including mastery experiences, role modelling, social persuasion, and manageable stress could be used in undergraduate education as well as practice development to increase beliefs about capabilities which might open the way to increased application of EBP in healthcare practice. This new measure is well grounded in social cognitive theory, functions as a one-dimensional scale and possesses promising

  2. eHealth effectiveness : does scientific literature provide evidence of the effectiveness of eHealth and what does that mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurer, Margreet; Velthuijsen, Hugo

    Although the scientific literature consists of over 10,000 papers on eHealth, remarkably few applications are consistently being used in the healthcare domain. Numerous reasons for this lack of progression have been noted, one of these being the objection of medical professionals to the introduction

  3. Validity of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with International Index of Erectile Function-15 in Chinese men with evidence-based-defined premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Dong Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT is a brief diagnostic measure to assess premature ejaculation (PE. However, there is insufficient evidence regarding its validity in the new evidence-based-defined PE. This study was performed to evaluate the validity of PEDT and its association with IIEF-15 in different types of evidence-based-defined PE. From June 2015 to January 2016, a total of 260 men complaining of PE and defined as lifelong PE (LPE/acquired PE (APE according to the evidence-based definition from Andrology Clinic of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, along with 104 male healthy controls without PE from a medical examination center, were enrolled in this study. All individuals completed questionnaires including demographics, medical and sexual history, as well as PEDT and IIEF-15. After statistical analysis, it was found that men with PE reported higher PEDT scores (14.28 ± 3.05 and lower IIEF-15 (41.26 ± 8.20 than men without PE (PEDT: 5.32 ± 3.42, IIEF-15: 52.66 ± 6.86, P < 0.001 for both. It was suggested that a score of ≥9 indicated PE in both LPE and APE by sensitivity and specificity analyses (sensitivity: 0.875, 0.913; specificity: 0.865, 0.865, respectively. In addition, IIEF-15 were higher in men with LPE (42.64 ± 8.11 than APE (39.43 ± 7.84, P < 0.001. After adjusting for age, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with LPE (adjust r = −0.225, P < 0.001 and APE (adjust r = −0.378, P < 0.001. In this study, we concluded that PEDT was valid in the diagnosis of evidenced-based-defined PE. Furthermore, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with different types of PE.

  4. Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  5. Validity and reliability of instruments aimed at measuring Evidence-Based Practice in Physical Therapy: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Sesé-Abad, Albert; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Salinas-Bueno, Iosune; de Pedro-Gómez, Joan Ernest

    2014-12-01

    Our goal is to compile and analyse the characteristics - especially validity and reliability - of all the existing international tools that have been used to measure evidence-based clinical practice in physiotherapy. A systematic review conducted with data from exclusively quantitative-type studies synthesized in narrative format. An in-depth search of the literature was conducted in two phases: initial, structured, electronic search of databases and also journals with summarized evidence; followed by a residual-directed search in the bibliographical references of the main articles found in the primary search procedure. The studies included were assigned to members of the research team who acted as peer reviewers. Relevant information was extracted from each of the selected articles using a template that included the general characteristics of the instrument as well as an analysis of the quality of the validation processes carried out, by following the criteria of Terwee. Twenty-four instruments were found to comply with the review screening criteria; however, in all cases, they were found to be limited as regards the 'constructs' included. Besides, they can all be seen to be lacking as regards comprehensiveness associated to the validation process of the psychometric tests used. It seems that what constitutes a rigorously developed assessment instrument for EBP in physical therapy continues to be a challenge. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Stick Design Test on the assessment of older adults with low formal education: evidences of construct, criterion-related and ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Costa, Mônica Vieira; Bocardi, Matheus Bortolosso; Cortezzi, Mariana; De Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    The assessment of visuospatial abilities is usually performed by drawing tasks. In patients with very low formal education, the use of these tasks might be biased by their cultural background. The Stick Design Test was developed for the assessment of this population. We aim to expand the test psychometric properties by assessing its construct, criterion-related and ecological validity in older adults with low formal education. Healthy older adults (n = 63) and Alzheimer's disease patients (n = 92) performed the Stick Design Test, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span Forward and the Clock Drawing Test. Their caregivers answered Personal Care and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living). Construct validity was assessed by factor analysis, convergent correlations (with the Clock Drawing Test), and divergent correlations (with Digit Span Forward); criterion-related validity by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and binary logistic regression; and Ecological validity by correlations with ADL. The test factor structure was composed by one component (R 2 = 64%). Significant correlations with the Clock Drawing Test and Digit Span Forward were found, and the relationship was stronger with the first measure. The test was less associated with formal education than the Clock Drawing Test. It classified about 76% of the participants correctly and had and additive effect with the Mini-Mental State Examination (84% of correct classification). The test also correlated significantly with measures of ADL, suggesting ecological validity. The Stick Design Test shows evidence of construct, criterion-related and ecological validity. It is an interesting alternative to drawing tasks for the assessment of visuospatial abilities.

  7. Validity and power of association testing in family-based sampling designs: evidence for and against the common wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Stacey; Camp, Nicola J

    2011-04-01

    Current common wisdom posits that association analyses using family-based designs have inflated type 1 error rates (if relationships are ignored) and independent controls are more powerful than familial controls. We explore these suppositions. We show theoretically that family-based designs can have deflated type-error rates. Through simulation, we examine the validity and power of family designs for several scenarios: cases from randomly or selectively ascertained pedigrees; and familial or independent controls. Family structures considered are as follows: sibships, nuclear families, moderate-sized and extended pedigrees. Three methods were considered with the χ(2) test for trend: variance correction (VC), weighted (weights assigned to account for genetic similarity), and naïve (ignoring relatedness) as well as the Modified Quasi-likelihood Score (MQLS) test. Selectively ascertained pedigrees had similar levels of disease enrichment; random ascertainment had no such restriction. Data for 1,000 cases and 1,000 controls were created under the null and alternate models. The VC and MQLS methods were always valid. The naïve method was anti-conservative if independent controls were used and valid or conservative in designs with familial controls. The weighted association method was generally valid for independent controls, and was conservative for familial controls. With regard to power, independent controls were more powerful for small-to-moderate selectively ascertained pedigrees, but familial and independent controls were equivalent in the extended pedigrees and familial controls were consistently more powerful for all randomly ascertained pedigrees. These results suggest a more complex situation than previously assumed, which has important implications for study design and analysis. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. New Empirical Evidence on the Validity and the Reliability of the Early Life Stress Questionnaire in a Polish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Andrzej; Dragan, Wojciech Ł

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Early Life Stress Questionnaire (ELSQ) is widely used to estimate the prevalence of negative events during childhood, including emotional, physical, verbal, sexual abuse, negligence, severe conflicts, separation, parental divorce, substance abuse, poverty, and so forth. Objective: This study presents the psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of the ELSQ. It also verifies if early life stress (ELS) is a good predictor of psychopathology symptoms during adulthood. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from two samples. Sample 1 was selected by random quota method from across the country and included 609 participants aged 18-50 years, 306 women (50.2%) and 303 men (49.8%). Sample 2 contained 503 young adults (253 women and 250 men) aged 18-25. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to measure ELSQ internal consistency. The validity was based on the relation to psychopathological symptoms and substance misuse. Results: Results showed good internal consistency and validity. Exploratory factor analysis indicates a six-factor structure of the ELSQ. ELS was related to psychopathology in adulthood, including depressive, sociophobic, vegetative as well as pain symptoms. ELSQ score correlated also with alcohol use, but not nicotine dependence. Moreover, ELS was correlated with stress in adulthood. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the Polish version of the ELSQ is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing ELS in the Polish population and may be applied in both clinical and community samples.

  9. The Boston Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury-Lifetime (BAT-L) semistructured interview: evidence of research utility and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Catherine Brawn; Amick, Melissa M; Grande, Laura; McGlynn, Susan; Kenna, Alexandra; Morra, Lindsay; Clark, Alexandra; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2014-01-01

    Report the prevalence of lifetime and military-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans and validate the Boston Assessment of TBI-Lifetime (BAT-L). The BAT-L is the first validated, postcombat, semistructured clinical interview to characterize head injuries and diagnose TBIs throughout the life span. Community-dwelling convenience sample of 131 OEF/OIF veterans. TBI criteria (alteration of mental status, posttraumatic amnesia, and loss of consciousness) were evaluated for all possible TBIs, including a novel evaluation of blast exposure. BAT-L, Ohio State University TBI Identification Method (OSU-TBI-ID). About 67% of veterans incurred a TBI in their lifetime. Almost 35% of veterans experienced at least 1 military-related TBI; all were mild in severity, 40% of them were due to blast, 50% were due to some other (ie, blunt) mechanism, and 10% were due to both types of injuries. Predeployment TBIs were frequent (45% of veterans). There was strong correspondence between the BAT-L and the OSU-TBI-ID (Cohen κ = 0.89; Kendall τ-b = 0.95). Interrater reliability of the BAT-L was strong (κs >0.80). The BAT-L is a valid instrument with which to assess TBI across a service member's lifetime and captures the varied and complex nature of brain injuries across OEF/OIF veterans' life span.

  10. Is compatible the idea of incommensurability with that of scientific progress? Some reasons in support of its compatibility [Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Jaramillo Uribe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of incommensurability and, particulary, the one of the scientific progress, is associated two names: Kuhn and Feyerabend, whose proposals caused than many put in doubt the apparent evidence of the call scientific progress, relativizing its validity to each school or paradigm. In this writing we will show that this type of epistemic relativism —just as convergentist theory of the truth— they lack of philosophical validity and historical and how the idea of scientific progress is compatible with the thesis of the incommensurability beyond the ontosemantics difficulties that it implies. This suppose to leave the the call statement view of the scientific theories and adopt a non-statement view where the intertheoretical relation of approach allows to subsink different non trivial incommensurability and to validate in them the notion oaf scientific progress.

  11. Electronic self-monitoring of mood using IT platforms in adult patients with bipolar disorder: A systematic review of the validity and evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Munkholm, Klaus; Frost, Mads

    2016-01-01

    -monitoring is limited by methodological issues and by a lack of RCTs. Although the idea of electronic self-monitoring of mood seems appealing, studies using rigorous methodology investigating the beneficial as well as possible harmful effects of electronic self-monitoring are needed.......Background: Various paper-based mood charting instruments are used in the monitoring of symptoms in bipolar disorder. During recent years an increasing number of electronic self-monitoring tools have been developed. The objectives of this systematic review were 1) to evaluate the validity...... of electronic self-monitoring tools as a method of evaluating mood compared to clinical rating scales for depression and mania and 2) to investigate the effect of electronic self-monitoring tools on clinically relevant outcomes in bipolar disorder. Methods: A systematic review of the scientific literature...

  12. Would science serve decision-making to adapt the impact of climate change? Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation – scientific evidence, assessment framework and decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Rong Liu Peiwen Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We live in challenging times with a heightened sense of uncertainty and unpredictability. Climate change, with its impact on disruptive events as well as gradual trends, has been addressed in scientific studies and become increasingly important in policymaking. This rises up a great need on scientific integration and knowledge transformation. The Taiwan Integrated Research Programme on Climate Change Adaptation Technology (TaiCCAT is formed under this concern. Directing by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST, it carries a strong intention to explore and to conduct adequate knowledge of climate change and adaptation strategies for decision-making supports. The TaiCCAT highly recommends the approach of cross-disciplinary collaboration from environmental studies to adaptation governance. The result can therefore be more contributive to reflect the complexity of the changing world.

  13. ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health

    OpenAIRE

    Marie E. Latulippe; Agnès Meheust; Livia Augustin; David Benton; Přemysl Berčík; Anne Birkett; Alison L. Eldridge; Joel Faintuch; Christian Hoffmann; Julie Miller Jones; Cyril Kendall; Franco Lajolo; Gabriela Perdigon; Pedro Antonio Prieto; Robert A. Rastall

    2013-01-01

    To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (12 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and g...

  14. Open Science: Open source licenses in scientific research

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Andres

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the validity of OSS (open source software) licenses for scientific, as opposed to creative works. It draws on examples of OSS licenses to consider their suitability for the scientific community and scientific research.

  15. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  16. Scientific millenarianism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO 2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  17. Scientific meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    One of the main aims of the IAEA is to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and one of the main ways of doing this is to convene international scientific meetings. They range from large international conferences bringing together several hundred scientists, smaller symposia attended by an average of 150 to 250 participants and seminars designed to instruct rather than inform, to smaller panels and study groups of 10 to 30 experts brought together to advise on a particular programme or to develop a set of regulations. The topics of these meetings cover every part of the Agency's activities and form a backbone of many of its programmes. (author)

  18. Structural validity and reliability of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): evidence from a large Brazilian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Hudson W de; Andreoli, Sérgio B; Lara, Diogo R; Patrick, Christopher J; Quintana, Maria Inês; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Melo, Marcelo F de; Mari, Jair de J; Jorge, Miguel R

    2013-01-01

    Positive and negative affect are the two psychobiological-dispositional dimensions reflecting proneness to positive and negative activation that influence the extent to which individuals experience life events as joyful or as distressful. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a structured questionnaire that provides independent indexes of positive and negative affect. This study aimed to validate a Brazilian interview-version of the PANAS by means of factor and internal consistency analysis. A representative community sample of 3,728 individuals residing in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, voluntarily completed the PANAS. Exploratory structural equation model analysis was based on maximum likelihood estimation and reliability was calculated via Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that the PANAS reliably measures two distinct dimensions of positive and negative affect. The structure and reliability of the Brazilian version of the PANAS are consistent with those of its original version. Taken together, these results attest the validity of the Brazilian adaptation of the instrument.

  19. Using G-Theory to Enhance Evidence of Reliability and Validity for Common Uses of the Paulhus Deception Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat

    2018-01-01

    We applied a new approach to Generalizability theory (G-theory) involving parallel splits and repeated measures to evaluate common uses of the Paulhus Deception Scales based on polytomous and four types of dichotomous scoring. G-theory indices of reliability and validity accounting for specific-factor, transient, and random-response measurement error supported use of polytomous over dichotomous scores as contamination checks; as control, explanatory, and outcome variables; as aspects of construct validation; and as indexes of environmental effects on socially desirable responding. Polytomous scoring also provided results for flagging faking as dependable as those when using dichotomous scoring methods. These findings argue strongly against the nearly exclusive use of dichotomous scoring for the Paulhus Deception Scales in practice and underscore the value of G-theory in demonstrating this. We provide guidelines for applying our G-theory techniques to other objectively scored clinical assessments, for using G-theory to estimate how changes to a measure might improve reliability, and for obtaining software to conduct G-theory analyses free of charge.

  20. Environmental risk, precaution, and scientific rationality in the context of WTO/NAFTA trade rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Pauwelyn, Joost; Smith, Kelly

    2004-04-01

    This article considers the role of scientific rationality in understanding statements of risk produced by a scientific community. An argument is advanced that, while scientific rationality does impose constraints on valid scientific justifications for restrictions on products and practices, it also provides flexibility in the judgments needed to both develop and apply characterizations of risk. The implications of this flexibility for the understanding of risk estimates in WTO and NAFTA deliberations are explored, with the goal of finding an intermediate ground between the view that science unambiguously justifies or rejects a policy, and the view that science is yet another cultural tool that can be manipulated in support of any decision. The result is a proposal for a dialogical view of scientific rationality in which risk estimates are depicted as confidence distributions that follow from a structured dialogue of scientific panels focused on judgments of evidence, evidential reasoning, and epistemic analysis.

  1. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eui Geum

    2016-06-01

    As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR), a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Geum Oh, PhD, RN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR, a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings.

  3. From Folklore to Scientific Evidence: Breast-Feeding and Wet-Nursing in Islam and the Case of Non-Puerperal Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lia; Gilad, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Breast-feeding practice has an important medical and socio-cultural role. It has many anthropological aspects concerning the “power structures” that find their expression in breast-feeding and the practices that formed around it, both socially, scientifically, and legally-speaking. Breast-feeding has been given much attention by religions and taboos, folklore, and misconception abound around it making it a topic of genuine curiosity. This paper aims at expanding the spectrum of folklore associated with breast-feeding. The paper deals with historical, religious, and folkloristic aspects of breast-feeding, especially wet-nursing, in Islam and focuses on an intriguing Islamic tale on breast-feeding - lactation by non-pregnant women (or non-puerperal lactation). Apparently, accounts of non-puerperal lactation are not restricted to Islam but have been documented in various societies and religions throughout centuries. Two medical situations - hyperprolactinemia and induced lactation, appear as possible explanations for this phenomenon. This serves as an excellent example for the value of utilizing contemporary scientific knowledge in order to elucidate the origin, anthropology and evolvement of ancient myth and superstition. PMID:23675050

  4. The Scientific & Democratic Revolution in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Flecha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main issue dealt with in this theoretical paper is the explanation of the starting scientific and democratic revolution both in the educative field and in the educative research. In addition, evidence-based arguments are included to provide validity of some affirmations. The first section argues that the social sciences are the daughters and an essential part of democracy. A few historical arguments about the way in which the dominant classes have slowed down the scientific progress and the development of people that make it possible. In the second section, it is analyzed the opposition of feudal universities to this unstoppable beginning of what could be called the scientific and democratic revolution. At the same time, we deal with its ambivalent character requiring to be supported and to be criticized so that it can be improved. In the third section, we expound the way in which this progress has provide some conditions that makes it possible to overcome the strong gender-based violence happening in our institutions of higher education and makes it also possible that women who were persecuted are now transforming our universities. Influences and criticism to our university feudalism, made by social movements such as the named 'Spanish Revolution', appear in the fourth section. In the fifth and last section, we offer a proposal to promote the scientific, democratic, and revolutionary approach of the university.

  5. Hardiness scales in Iranian managers: evidence of incremental validity in relationships with the five factor model and with organizational and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of Hardiness scales in a sample of Iranian managers. Along with measures of the Five Factor Model and of Organizational and Psychological Adjustment, Hardiness scales were administered to 159 male managers (M age = 39.9, SD = 7.5) who had worked in their organizations for 7.9 yr. (SD=5.4). Hardiness predicted greater Job Satisfaction, higher Organization-based Self-esteem, and perceptions of the work environment as being less stressful and constraining. Hardiness also correlated positively with Assertiveness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and negatively with Depression, Anxiety, Perceived Stress, Chance External Control, and a Powerful Others External Control. Evidence of incremental validity was obtained when the Hardiness scales supplemented the Five Factor Model in predicting organizational and psychological adjustment. These data documented the incremental validity of the Hardiness scales in a non-Western sample and thus confirmed once again that Hardiness has a relevance that extends beyond the culture in which it was developed.

  6. Preventing statistical errors in scientific journals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for a high prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology and other scientific fields. These errors display a systematic preference for statistically significant results, distorting the scientific literature. There are several possible causes for this systematic error

  7. Sensitivity of the Halstead and Wechsler Test Batteries to brain damage: Evidence from Reitan's original validation sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Larrabee, Glenn J

    2006-06-01

    The Halstead-Reitan Battery has been instrumental in the development of neuropsychological practice in the United States. Although Reitan administered both the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale and Halstead's test battery when evaluating Halstead's theory of biologic intelligence, the relative sensitivity of each test battery to brain damage continues to be an area of controversy. Because Reitan did not perform direct parametric analysis to contrast group performances, we reanalyze Reitan's original validation data from both Halstead (Reitan, 1955) and Wechsler batteries (Reitan, 1959a) and calculate effect sizes and probability levels using traditional parametric approaches. Eight of the 10 tests comprising Halstead's original Impairment Index, as well as the Impairment Index itself, statistically differentiated patients with unequivocal brain damage from controls. In addition, 13 of 14 Wechsler measures including Full-Scale IQ also differed statistically between groups (Brain Damage Full-Scale IQ = 96.2; Control Group Full Scale IQ = 112.6). We suggest that differences in the statistical properties of each battery (e.g., raw scores vs. standardized scores) likely contribute to classification characteristics including test sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Validating the cross-cultural factor structure and invariance property of the Insomnia Severity Index: evidence based on ordinal EFA and CFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Yi; Yang, Chien-Ming; Morin, Charles M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) across samples recruited from different countries. We tried to identify the most appropriate factor model for the ISI and further examined the measurement invariance property of the ISI across samples from different countries. Our analyses included one data set collected from a Taiwanese sample and two data sets obtained from samples in Hong Kong and Canada. The data set collected in Taiwan was analyzed with ordinal exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to obtain the appropriate factor model for the ISI. After that, we conducted a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), which is a special case of the structural equation model (SEM) that concerns the parameters in the measurement model, to the statistics collected in Canada and Hong Kong. The purposes of these CFA were to cross-validate the result obtained from EFA and further examine the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the ISI. The three-factor model outperforms other models in terms of global fit indices in Taiwan's population. Its external validity is also supported by confirmatory factor analyses. Furthermore, the measurement invariance analyses show that the strong invariance property between the samples from different cultures holds, providing evidence that the ISI results obtained in different cultures are comparable. The factorial validity of the ISI is stable in different populations. More importantly, its invariance property across cultures suggests that the ISI is a valid measure of the insomnia severity construct across countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fission track dating of volcanic glass: experimental evidence for the validity of the Size-Correction Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, C.; Hadler Neto, J.C.; Lattes, C.M.G.; Araya, A.M.O.; Bigazzi, G.; Cesar, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    Two techniques may be employed for correcting thermally lowered fission track ages on glass material: the so called 'size-correcting method' and 'Plateau method'. Several results from fission track dating on obsidian were analysed in order to compare the model rising size-correction method with experimental evidences. The results from this work can be summarized as follows: 1) The assumption that mean size of spontaneous and induced etched tracks are equal on samples unaffected by partial fading is supported by experimental results. If reactor effects such as an enhancing of the etching rate in the irradiated fraction due to the radiation damage and/or to the fact that induced fission releases a quantity of energy slightly greater than spontaneous one exist, their influence on size-correction method is very small. 2) The above two correction techniques produce concordant results. 3) Several samples from the same obsidian, affected by 'instantaneous' as well as 'continuous' natural fading to different degrees were analysed: the curve showing decreasing of spontaneous track mean-size vs. fraction of spontaneous tracks lost by fading is in close agreement with the correction curve constructed for the same obsidian by imparting artificial thermal treatements on induced tracks. By the above points one can conclude that the assumptions on which size-correction method is based are well supported, at least in first approximation. (Author) [pt

  10. Elimination of trachoma as a public health problem in Ghana: Providing evidence through a pre-validation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrah, Oscar; Mensah, Ernest O; Senyonjo, Laura; de Souza, Dziedzom K; Hervie, Tei E; Agyemang, David; Bakajika, Didier; Marfo, Benjamin; Ahorsu, Felix; Wanye, Seth; Bailey, Robin; Koroma, Joseph B; Aboe, Agatha; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo

    2017-12-01

    In order to achieve elimination of trachoma, a country needs to demonstrate that the elimination prevalence thresholds have been achieved and then sustained for at least a two-year period. Ghana achieved the thresholds in 2008, and since 2011 has been implementing its trachoma surveillance strategy, which includes community and school screening for signs of follicular trachoma and trichiasis, in trachoma-endemic districts. In 2015-2016, the country conducted a district level population-based survey to validate elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. As per WHO recommendations, a cross-sectional survey, employing a two-stage cluster random sampling methodology, was used across 18 previously trachoma endemic districts (evaluation units (EUs) in the Upper West and Northern Regions of Ghana. In each EU 24 villages were selected based on probability proportional to estimated size. A minimum of 40 households were targeted per village and all eligible residents were examined for clinical signs of trachoma, using the WHO simplified grading system. The number of trichiasis cases unknown to the health system was determined. Household environmental risk factors for trachoma were also assessed. Data from 45,660 individuals were examined from 11,099 households across 18 EUs, with 27,398 (60.0%) children aged 1-9 years and 16,610 (36.4%) individuals 15 years and above All EUs had shown to have maintained the WHO elimination threshold for Trachomatous inflammation-Follicular (TF) (health system in adults aged ≥15 years, ranged from 0.00% to 0.36%. In this EU, the estimated TT backlog is 417 All TT patients identified in the study, as well as through on-going surveillance efforts will require further management. A total of 75.9% (95% CI 72.1-79.3, EU range 29.1-92.6) of households defecated in the open but many households had access to an improved water source 75.9% (95%CI: 71.5-79.8, EU range 47.4-90.1%), with 45.5% (95% CI 41.5-49.7%, EU range 28.4-61.8%) making a

  11. Transfusão de plaquetas: do empirismo ao embasamento científico Platelet transfusion: from empiricism to scientific evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline A. Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite major advances in Brazilian blood transfusion therapy with a growing number of scientific publications, an increased number of repeat donors and a decline in serological ineligibility, a lack of conformity in the application of pre-transfusion tests that may compromise transfusion safety is still observed at transfusion agencies in the fringes of the blood transfusion therapy system. Additionally, although high rates of platelet transfusion refractoriness and significant rates of alloimmunization have been demonstrated in the international literature, few Brazilian centers have been concerned with the study of platelet alloimmunization and even fewer centers have evaluated the efficacy of platelet concentrate transfusion. As more than one million Brazilians, including many repeat blood donors, are listed in the National Bone Marrow Donor Registry (Redome, why not grant transfusion therapy services access to the HLA typing of these blood and marrow donors after obtaining their consent? And why not make use of the Redome data to evaluate the HLA compatibility of donors for alloimmunized patients who are candidates for bone marrow transfusion and who have already been typed? These measures, together with the identification of ABO and HPA antigens, will permit a complete assessment of platelet immunology, will guarantee the transfusion safety of this blood component, and will put Brazil at the same level as the so-called developed countries in terms of transfusion medicine.

  12. A New Proposal for the Pathogenic Mechanism of Non-Coeliac/Non-Allergic Gluten/Wheat Sensitivity: Piecing Together the Puzzle of Recent Scientific Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Leccioli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-coeliac/non-allergic gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS is a gluten-related disorder, the pathogenesis of which remains unclear. Recently, the involvement of an increased intestinal permeability has been recognized in the onset of this clinical condition. However, mechanisms through which it takes place are still unclear. In this review, we attempt to uncover these mechanisms by providing, for the first time, an integrated vision of recent scientific literature, resulting in a new hypothesis about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in NCG/WS. According to this, the root cause of NCG/WS is a particular dysbiotic profile characterized by decreased butyrate-producing-Firmicutes and/or Bifidobacteria, leading to low levels of intestinal butyrate. Beyond a critical threshold of the latter, a chain reaction of events and vicious circles occurs, involving other protagonists such as microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP and wheat α-amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs. NCG/WS is likely to be a multi-factor-onset disorder, probably transient and preventable, related to quality and balance of the diet, and not to the presence of gluten in itself. If future studies confirm our proposal, this would have important implications both for the definition of the disease, as well as for the prevention and therapeutic-nutritional management of individuals with NCG/WS.

  13. Cardiovascular Consequences of Childhood Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Prevailing Evidence, Burden, and Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuveer, Geetha; White, David A; Hayman, Laura L; Woo, Jessica G; Villafane, Juan; Celermajer, David; Ward, Kenneth D; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Zachariah, Justin

    2016-10-18

    Although public health programs have led to a substantial decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking, the adverse health effects of tobacco smoke exposure are by no means a thing of the past. In the United States, 4 of 10 school-aged children and 1 of 3 adolescents are involuntarily exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), with children of minority ethnic backgrounds and those living in low-socioeconomic-status households being disproportionately affected (68% and 43%, respectively). Children are particularly vulnerable, with little control over home and social environment, and lack the understanding, agency, and ability to avoid SHS exposure on their own volition; they also have physiological or behavioral characteristics that render them especially susceptible to effects of SHS. Side-stream smoke (the smoke emanating from the burning end of the cigarette), a major component of SHS, contains a higher concentration of some toxins than mainstream smoke (inhaled by the smoker directly), making SHS potentially as dangerous as or even more dangerous than direct smoking. Compelling animal and human evidence shows that SHS exposure during childhood is detrimental to arterial function and structure, resulting in premature atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular consequences. Childhood SHS exposure is also related to impaired cardiac autonomic function and changes in heart rate variability. In addition, childhood SHS exposure is associated with clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Individualized interventions to reduce childhood exposure to SHS are shown to be at least modestly effective, as are broader-based policy initiatives such as community smoking bans and increased taxation. The purpose of this statement is to summarize the available evidence on the cardiovascular health consequences of childhood SHS exposure; this will support ongoing efforts to further reduce and eliminate SHS exposure in this

  14. [Criteria of scientific validity in research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Céline; Pagé, Ginette

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the evaluative criteria of qualitative and quantitative research. Philosophical foundations of positivism, postpositivism and constructivism are explored. Triangulation and crystallization expose the controversies about them. Finally, Lincoln and Guba criteria are retained for the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative research.

  15. Validation as a Pragmatic, Scientific Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    This response to the comments contains three main sections, each addressing a subset of the comments. In the first section, I will respond to the comments by Brennan, Haertel, and Moss. All of these comments suggest ways in which my presentation could be extended or improved; I generally agree with their suggestions, so my response to their…

  16. Development of Lesson Plans and Student Worksheets Based Socio-Scientific Issues on Pollution Environmental Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, S.; Meyliana, M.; Arlingga, A.; Reny, R.; Siahaan, P.; Hernani, H.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop lesson plans and student worksheets based socio-scientific issues on pollution environmental topic for seventh-grade junior high school students. Environmental pollution topic split into several subtopics namely air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution. The composing of lesson plans were developed based on socio-scientific issues with five stages, namely (1) Motivate; (2) Challenge; (3) Collect scientific evidence; (4) Analyse the evidence; (5) Build knowledge and make connections; and (6) Use evidence. While student worksheets contain articles on socio-scientific issues, practice, and there are a few questions to determine students’ reasoning. The method that is used in this research is research and development (R & D method). Development model used in this study is a model of Plomp that consists of four stages, namely: (1) Initial Research; (2) Design; (3) Realization or Construction; (4) Testing, evaluation and revision; (5) Implementation, while the research was limited to the fourth stage. Lesson plans and student worksheets based on socio-scientific issues was validated through an expert validation. The result showed that lesson plans and student worksheets based socio-scientific issues on pollution theme have a very decent and be able to apply in science classroom.

  17. Experimental evidence of the validity of Bahe–Varela theory to describe the volumetric properties of ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rilo, E.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Varela, L.M.; Cabeza, O.

    2012-01-01

    tetrafluoroborate at T = 298 K and four with 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium alkyl sulphate at (288, 298, 308 and 318) K. Also we analyze seven mixtures with ethanol of the two same IL families and for the same temperatures than the aqueous systems. From the original data, we calculated the partial molar volume of the IL for all concentrations, being its variation lower than 2% for the aqueous systems (except that with EMIM-BF 4 , where it is 5%) and lower than 4% for those with ethanol. In spite of the simplicity of the Bahe–Varela equation, with only three fitting parameters, and of the three different forms of the partial molar volume versus concentration behaviour observed, the fitting quality of the B–V equation is excellent for all analyzed systems, which tends to confirm its universal validity.

  18. Evidence for Therapeutic Patient Education Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Patient Self-Management: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnason, Susan; White-Williams, Connie; Rossi, Laura P; Centeno, Mae; Crabbe, Deborah L; Lee, Kyoung Suk; McCabe, Nancy; Nauser, Julie; Schulz, Paula; Stamp, Kelly; Wood, Kathryn

    2017-06-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease as a chronic illness increasingly requires patients to assume more responsibility for their self-management. Patient education is believed to be an essential component of cardiovascular care; however, there is limited evidence about specific therapeutic patient education approaches used and the impact on patient self-management outcomes. An integrative review of the literature was conducted to critically analyze published research studies of therapeutic patient education for self-management in selected cardiovascular conditions. There was variability in methodological approaches across settings and disease conditions. The most effective interventions were tailored to individual patient needs, used multiple components to improve self-management outcomes, and often used multidisciplinary approaches. This synthesis of evidence expands the base of knowledge related to the development of patient self-management skills and provides direction for more rigorous research. Recommendations are provided to guide the implementation of therapeutic patient education in clinical practice and the design of comprehensive self-management interventions to improve outcomes for cardiovascular patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Effects of Scaffolds and Scientific Reasoning Ability on Web-Based Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Ling; Weng, Hsiao-Lan; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how background knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, and various scaffolding forms influenced students' science knowledge and scientific inquiry achievements. The students participated in an online scientific inquiry program involving such activities as generating scientific questions and drawing evidence-based conclusions,…

  20. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...... as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion...

  1. geo-scientific indicators for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J.; Bruno, G.; Deguchi, A.; Fein, E.; Larue, P.J.; Lei, S.; Leung, H.; Norris, S.; Violette, S.; Wollrath, J.

    2007-01-01

    Working Group A was continuation of Working Group B of AMIGO-1, but participants explored more deeply the issues surrounding geo-scientific indicators for safety. The following outcomes were expected. - List different geo-scientific arguments or indicators for safety (with motivation) for various host rocks and sites. Consider dividing the arguments into those that support isolation or retention and discuss their applicability for different time frames. - What actual measurable field evidence supports these arguments/indicators? - What kind of field evidence would go counter to these safety arguments? - What key messages are the most promising in terms of scientific credibility to contribute to the safety case? Possibly examine the same message but in terms of potential ease of communication. The session started with two introductory presentations: - Following the presentations, in discussion the Working Group listed: - Safety Functions where geo-scientific support is needed; - Commonly used chains of argument for supporting these safety functions; - Whether the applicability of the arguments are host rock or site specific and how they apply for different time frames; - Field evidence or other issues that would go counter to the safety arguments; - Key messages most promising in terms of scientific credibility to contribute to the safety case. Overall it was concluded by the Working Group that: - The most important argument is to present a clear understanding of past geological evolution at the particular site, consistent with the global understanding of geological evolution. Efforts should be made to achieve a broad consensus on this from many independent experts. - The supporting arguments are seldom based on a single piece of evidence. It is the chain of arguments rather than individual arguments that is important. - We are primarily interested in 'reasonable' predictability of the geological system. We recognize that most geological systems evolve with time

  2. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review of scientific evidence from across the world in 2007-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Thomas R; Acs, Annabel; Ludwig, Craig; Panton, Ulrik H

    2018-06-08

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common comorbidity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CVD's prevalence has been growing over time. To estimate the current prevalence of CVD among adults with T2DM by reviewing literature published within the last 10 years (2007-March 2017). We searched Medline, Embase, and proceedings of major scientific meetings for original research documenting the prevalence of CVD in T2DM. CVD included stroke, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular death. No restrictions were placed on country of origin or publication language. Two reviewers independently searched for articles and extracted data, adjudicating results through consensus. Data were summarized descriptively. Risk of bias was examined by applying the STROBE checklist. We analyzed data from 57 articles with 4,549,481 persons having T2DM. Europe produced the most articles (46%), followed by the Western Pacific/China (21%), and North America (13%). Overall in 4,549,481 persons with T2DM, 52.0% were male, 47.0% were obese, aged 63.6 ± 6.9 years old, with T2DM duration of 10.4 ± 3.7 years. CVD affected 32.2% overall (53 studies, N = 4,289,140); 29.1% had atherosclerosis (4 studies, N = 1153), 21.2% had coronary heart disease (42 articles, N = 3,833,200), 14.9% heart failure (14 studies, N = 601,154), 14.6% angina (4 studies, N = 354,743), 10.0% myocardial infarction (13 studies, N = 3,518,833) and 7.6% stroke (39 studies, N = 3,901,505). CVD was the cause of death in 9.9% of T2DM patients (representing 50.3% of all deaths). Risk of bias was low; 80 ± 12% of STROBE checklist items were adequately addressed. Globally, overall CVD affects approximately 32.2% of all persons with T2DM. CVD is a major cause of mortality among people with T2DM, accounting for approximately half of all deaths over the study period. Coronary artery

  3. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA) or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores). Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC) were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles) were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89). Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66) and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91). Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67) and moderate for local health department data (0

  4. Scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Trangenstein, John A

    2017-01-01

    This is the third of three volumes providing a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals of scientific computing. This volume discusses topics that depend more on calculus than linear algebra, in order to prepare the reader for solving differential equations. This book and its companions show how to determine the quality of computational results, and how to measure the relative efficiency of competing methods. Readers learn how to determine the maximum attainable accuracy of algorithms, and how to select the best method for computing problems. This book also discusses programming in several languages, including C++, Fortran and MATLAB. There are 90 examples, 200 exercises, 36 algorithms, 40 interactive JavaScript programs, 91 references to software programs and 1 case study. Topics are introduced with goals, literature references and links to public software. There are descriptions of the current algorithms in GSLIB and MATLAB. This book could be used for a second course in numerical methods, for either ...

  5. Los límites de la Evidencia Científica o idoneidad metodológica en la investigación en Terapias Complementarias The limits of the scientific evidence or Suitability methodological research in Complementary Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Echevarría Pérez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo forma parte de la tesis doctoral de la autora, titulada "Hacia una medicina integral. Convivencia de los modelos de salud oriental y occidental en España y Japón". Se cuestiona si la legitimación de las Terapias Complementarias pasa por la evidencia científica tal y como la entiende la biomedicina, que reconoce que las TC funcionan, pero no puede aceptar que funcionen si no se somete a los criterios de cientifismo dominantes, y únicamente argumenta el placebo como causa de su éxito. La Medicina o la Enfermería Basada en la Evidencia se han convertido en un nuevo ritual que ha pasado a ser considerado por encima de la persona y de la experiencia clínica personal del profesional. Sin embargo, se requiere de una idoneidad metodológica para unas terapias basadas más en el empirismo que en el positivismo. Se exponen dos propuestas metodológicas mixtas. La Enfermería tomó la evidencia científica como método para afianzarse disciplinalmente, pero debe conocer sus límites, ya que el cuidado enfermero lleva implícita la consideración de cuidado integral y personal. Es necesario investigar sin miedo en las TC o en otros temas relacionados y profundizar en la parte cualitativa y social, sin que ello suponga un menoscabo de su carácter "científico".The article is part of the author's doctoral thesis, entitled "Towards an integrative medicine. Coexistence of eastern and western model health care between Spain and Japan. "It is questioned whether the legitimization of Complementary Therapies goes by the scientific evidence as biomedicine understands, acknowledging that the CT work, but could not agree to work if do not respect the criteria of scientist dominant, and only argues placebo as a cause of its success. Medicine or Nursing Evidence Based has become a new ritual that has come to be seen above the individual and the clinical experience of the professional staff. However, it is required a methodological suitability for

  6. On the rumors about the silent spring: review of the scientific evidence linking occupational and environmental pesticide exposure to endocrine disruption health effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocco Pierluigi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to some pesticides, and particularly DBCP and chlordecone, may adversely affect male fertility. However, apart from the therapeutic use of diethylstilbestrol, the threat to human reproduction posed by "endocrine disrupting" environmental contaminants has not been supported by epidemiological evidence thus far. As it concerns other endocrine effects described in experimental animals, only thyroid inhibition following occupational exposure to amitrole and mancozeb has been confirmed in humans. Cancer of the breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, testis, and thyroid are hormone-dependent, which fostered research on the potential risk associated with occupational and environmental exposure to the so-called endocrine-disrupting pesticides. The most recent studies have ruled out the hypothesis of DDT derivatives as responsible for excess risks of cancer of the reproductive organs. Still, we cannot exclude a role for high level exposure to o,p'-DDE, particularly in post-menopausal ER+ breast cancer. On the other hand, other organochlorine pesticides and triazine herbicides require further investigation for a possible etiologic role in some hormone-dependent cancers.

  7. Thematic Analysis of Persian Documents in the Field of Quran Study and Medicine in National Scientific-Research Journals from 1992 to 2013 "An Opportunity for Evidence Based Decision Making".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Pezhman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nematollah

    2017-06-01

    Several documents have investigated the area of Quran study and medicine from different points of view; the present study has been assessing all the documents about Quran study and medicine, published in Iranian scientific-research journals, to create an opportunity of revising the interventions executed in this areas and targeting the decisions in order to draw a clear and more realistic vision. In this simple review study, scientific-research and general informative websites in the period of 1992-2013 were explored by taking advantage of critical keywords such as Islamic medicine and Islamic lifestyle. After the initial retrieval, 348 articles were finally ready for the evaluation process. Chi-square test was used to assess the significance of patterns differences between years of study. Minimum and maximum numbers of articles were published in 1992 (0.28 %) and 2011 (12.35 %), respectively. The level of execution of studies by using different methods was as follows: about 3.44 % qualitative, 29.59 % cross-sectional descriptive-analytical, 30.45 % review, 1.14 % case-control, 17.52 % experimental, 3.73 % cohort methods and 12.93 % were performed by other methods. The most common subject study was "The effects of fasting and Ramadan on health" (21.83 %). The most important journals hosting this field articles were the journals of medicine and refinement (27.01 %), as well as the Quran and medicine (12.64 %), respectively. Chi-square test showed significant thematic differences during the 21 years of study. Based on the available evidences, the number of descriptive papers was yet more than the analytical, interventional and scientific-comparative articles. Also, the most studies had been reviewing the medical-Islamic documents. This reflects the need for revising the search strategies of Quran study and medicine.

  8. An experimental study on providing a scientific evidence for seven-time alcohol-steaming of Rhei Rhizoma when clinically used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Hyein; Oh, Dal-Seok; Kim, Namkwon; Gu, Pil Sung; Choi, Jin Gyu; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kang, Tong Ho; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-10-27

    Rhei Rhizoma (RR) has been widely used as laxative and processed to alter its therapeutic actions or reduce its side effects. In this study, we evaluated experimentally the clinical application guideline that RR should be alcohol-steamed seven times before being used in elderly patients, as described in Dongeuibogam, the most famous book on Korean traditional medicine. Unprocessed RR (RR-U) was soaked in rice wine, steamed and then fully dried (RR-P1). The process was repeated four (RR-P4) or seven times (RR-P7). Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the RR-U, RR-P1, RR-P4 and RR-P7 (RRs) constituents. To evaluate the effect of RRs on liver toxicity, human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were treated with RRs at 100 μg/mL for 4 h and then cell viabilities were measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. To confirm the effects in vivo, 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with RRs at 3 g/kg/day for 21 days. Body weight and serum biochemical parameters were measured and liver histology was assessed. The levels of sennosides decreased in processed RRs in an iteration-dependent manner, while the emodin level was unaffected. In HepG2 cells, cell viability was reduced with RR-U, while the toxicity decreased according to the number of processing cycles. The changes in body weight, relative liver weight and liver enzymes of RR-U-treated rats were reduced in processed RRs-treated rats. Histopathological analysis indicated swelling and cholestasis improved following seven times alcohol-steaming cycles. These results provide experimental evidence that RR-P7 almost completely reduces RR hepatotoxicity.

  9. Is risk analysis scientific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part). © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. The Myth of Discovering Absolute Truth through Science:How Szasz Mistook Scientific Evidence for Absolute Truth in An Attempt to Deny the Existence of Mental Illness, and Invalidated Experiences of Those Affected by Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsad Serdarevic

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to illustrate limitations of Dr. Thomas S. Szasz's absolutist approach in critiquing psychiatry, psychotherapy, and the concept of mental illness most famously expressed in The Myth of Mental Illness (Szasz, 1961. This article illustrates that Szasz mistook scientific proof for absolute truth. First, a comparison of scientific proof to its superior relation, mathematical proof, illustrates its theoretical short-comings. Szasz relies, sometimes subtly, sometimes quite overtly, but always selectively on "real science" to present psychiatry and the mental health fields as imposters in the field of medicine or health, while neglecting to see or discuss limitations of "science" in general and medicine in particular. Secondly, a summary of evidence supporting psychotherapy's effectiveness will be presented, the discussion of which was either consciously or unconsciously omitted in Szasz's (1978; 1988 The Myth of Psychotherapy. Third, summary of Pennington's (2002 integration of both biological and psychological basis of psychopathology through cognitive neuroscientific theoretical framework is presented as it reasonably addresses Szasz's confusion about and critique of mental illness and the mind-body problem.

  11. Evidências científicas sobre o gol do futebol: Uma revisão sistemática / Scientific evidences about the goal of the football: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Marques Junior, Nelson Kautzner; Mestre em Ciência da Motricidade Humana pela Universidade Castelo Branco, RJ, Brasil.

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi determinar as evidências científicas sobre o gol do futebol. A revisão sistemática utilizou metodologia proposta pelo PRISMA. Os estudos foram identificados em bases eletrônicas. Os resultados foram os seguintes: mais gols ocorreram durante 76 a 90 minutos do 2º tempo e as equipes que praticaram gols antes de 15 minutos geralmente venceram. A região do campo que os jogadores de futebol praticaram mais gols foi dentro da área. Em conclusão, estudo sobre os gols é impor...

  12. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  13. LTDNA Evidence on Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  14. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  15. Is self-rated health a valid measure to use in social inequities and health research? Evidence from the PAPFAM women’s data in six Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahim Sawsan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Some evidence from high-income countries suggests that self-rated health (SRH is not a consistent predictor of objective health across social groups, and that its use may lead to inaccurate estimates of the effects of inequities on health. Given increased interest in studying and monitoring social inequities in health worldwide, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of SRH as a consistent measure of health across socioeconomic categories in six Arab countries. Methods We employed the PAPFAM population-based survey data on women from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the strength of the association between fair/poor SRH and objective health (reporting at least one chronic condition, adjusting for available socio-demographic and health-related variables. Analyses were then stratified by two socioeconomic indicators: education and household economic status. Results The association between SRH and objective health is strong in Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and OPT, but weak in Morocco. The strength of the association between reporting fair/poor health and objective health was not moderated by education or household economic status in any of the six countries. Conclusion As the SRH-objective health association does not vary across social categories, the use of the measure in social inequities in health research is justified. These results should not preclude the need to carry out other validation studies using longitudinal data on men and women, or the need to advocate for improving the quality of morbidity and mortality data in the Arab region.

  16. Validity and clinical utility of the DSM-5 severity specifier for bulimia nervosa: results from a multisite sample of patients who received evidence-based treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Bartoli, Francesco; Caslini, Manuela; Crocamo, Cristina; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    A new "severity specifier" for bulimia nervosa (BN), based on the frequency of inappropriate weight compensatory behaviours (IWCBs), was added to the DSM-5 as a means of documenting heterogeneity and variability in the severity of the disorder. Yet, evidence for its validity in clinical populations, including prognostic significance for treatment outcome, is currently lacking. Existing data from 281 treatment-seeking patients with DSM-5 BN, who received the best available treatment for their disorder (manual-based cognitive behavioural therapy; CBT) in an outpatient setting, were re-analysed to examine whether these patients subgrouped based on the DSM-5 severity levels would show meaningful and consistent differences on (a) a range of clinical variables assessed at pre-treatment and (b) post-treatment abstinence from IWCBs. Results highlight that the mild, moderate, severe, and extreme severity groups were statistically distinguishable on 22 variables assessed at pre-treatment regarding eating disorder pathological features, maintenance factors of BN, associated (current) and lifetime psychopathology, social maladjustment and illness-specific functional impairment, and abstinence outcome. Mood intolerance, a maintenance factor of BN but external to eating disorder pathological features (typically addressed within CBT), emerged as the primary clinical variable distinguishing the severity groups showing a differential treatment response. Overall, the findings speak to the concurrent and predictive validity of the new DSM-5 severity criterion for BN and are important because a common benchmark informing patients, clinicians, and researchers about severity of the disorder and allowing severity fluctuation and patient's progress to be tracked does not exist so far. Implications for future research are outlined.

  17. Traits across the personality hierarchy differentially relate to positive and negative affect: Evidence for the predictive validity of empirically derived meta-traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Graf, Markus; Schreiber, Marc

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the construct validity of higher-order domains of the Big Five personality traits. A total of 831 persons from the Swiss population completed the International Personality Item Pool and an adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales. Using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, we found evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) and the two meta-traits of positive emotionality (blend of low neuroticism and high extraversion) and constraint (blend of high agreeableness and conscientiousness). In association with positive affect, the explanatory power of the GFP (r = 0.43) and positive emotionality (r = 0.37) was largely superior to extraversion (r = 0.24), conscientiousness (r = 0.18), agreeableness (r = 0.09) and openness (r = 0.04), although not neuroticism (r = -0.34). In association with negative affect, neuroticism (r = 0.41), the GFP (r = -0.36) and positive emotionality (r = -0.35) were the most powerful single predictors. We conclude that the higher-order structure of personality is best explained by the meta-traits of positive emotionality and constraint, which correspond closely to the well-established superfactors of internalizing and externalizing. We further demonstrate that these have substantial criterion validity when broad positive and negative affect is the outcome of interest. These findings help to relate Big Five meta-traits to pathological personality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Is self-rated health a valid measure to use in social inequities and health research? Evidence from the PAPFAM women's data in six Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; El Asmar, Khalil

    2012-09-17

    Some evidence from high-income countries suggests that self-rated health (SRH) is not a consistent predictor of objective health across social groups, and that its use may lead to inaccurate estimates of the effects of inequities on health. Given increased interest in studying and monitoring social inequities in health worldwide, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of SRH as a consistent measure of health across socioeconomic categories in six Arab countries. We employed the PAPFAM population-based survey data on women from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the strength of the association between fair/poor SRH and objective health (reporting at least one chronic condition), adjusting for available socio-demographic and health-related variables. Analyses were then stratified by two socioeconomic indicators: education and household economic status. The association between SRH and objective health is strong in Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and OPT, but weak in Morocco. The strength of the association between reporting fair/poor health and objective health was not moderated by education or household economic status in any of the six countries. As the SRH-objective health association does not vary across social categories, the use of the measure in social inequities in health research is justified. These results should not preclude the need to carry out other validation studies using longitudinal data on men and women, or the need to advocate for improving the quality of morbidity and mortality data in the Arab region.

  19. Is self-rated health a valid measure to use in social inequities and health research? Evidence from the PAPFAM women’s data in six Arab countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Some evidence from high-income countries suggests that self-rated health (SRH) is not a consistent predictor of objective health across social groups, and that its use may lead to inaccurate estimates of the effects of inequities on health. Given increased interest in studying and monitoring social inequities in health worldwide, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of SRH as a consistent measure of health across socioeconomic categories in six Arab countries. Methods We employed the PAPFAM population-based survey data on women from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the strength of the association between fair/poor SRH and objective health (reporting at least one chronic condition), adjusting for available socio-demographic and health-related variables. Analyses were then stratified by two socioeconomic indicators: education and household economic status. Results The association between SRH and objective health is strong in Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and OPT, but weak in Morocco. The strength of the association between reporting fair/poor health and objective health was not moderated by education or household economic status in any of the six countries. Conclusion As the SRH-objective health association does not vary across social categories, the use of the measure in social inequities in health research is justified. These results should not preclude the need to carry out other validation studies using longitudinal data on men and women, or the need to advocate for improving the quality of morbidity and mortality data in the Arab region. PMID:22985471

  20. Scientific Reporting: Raising the Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Garney, Whitney; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Grant, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a presentation that was made at the 2014 annual meeting of the editorial board of "Health Education & Behavior." The article addresses critical issues related to standards of scientific reporting in journals, including concerns about external and internal validity and reporting bias. It reviews current…

  1. Validation of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Programs for Adults with Intellectual and/or Developmental Disorders: A Modified Otago Exercise Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Mindy; Bainbridge, Donna B; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based fall prevention (EBFP) programs significantly decrease fall risk, falls, and fall-related injuries in community-dwelling older adults. To date, EBFP programs are only validated for use among people with normal cognition and, therefore, are not evidence-based for adults with intellectual and/or developmental disorders (IDD) such as Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, cerebral vascular accident, or traumatic brain injury. Adults with IDD experience not only a higher rate of falls than their community-dwelling, cognitively intact peers but also higher rates and earlier onset of chronic diseases, also known to increase fall risk. Adults with IDD experience many barriers to health care and health promotion programs. As the lifespan for people with IDD continues to increase, issues of aging (including falls with associated injury) are on the rise and require effective and efficient prevention. A modified group-based version of the Otago Exercise Program (OEP) was developed and implemented at a worksite employing adults with IDD in Montana. Participants were tested pre- and post-intervention using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Stopping Elderly Accidents Deaths and Injuries (STEADI) tool kit. Participants participated in progressive once weekly, 1-h group exercise classes and home programs over a 7-week period. Discharge planning with consumers and caregivers included home exercise, walking, and an optional home assessment. Despite the limited number of participants ( n  = 15) and short length of participation, improvements were observed in the 30-s Chair Stand Test, 4-Stage Balance Test, and 2-Minute Walk Test. Additionally, three individuals experienced an improvement in ambulation independence. Participants reported no falls during the study period. Promising results of this preliminary project underline the need for further study of this modified OEP among adults with IDD. Future multicenter study should include more

  2. Evidências de validade das Matrizes Progressivas Avançadas de Raven em universitários Validity Evidence of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Oliveira Rosseti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi encontrar evidências de validade das Matrizes Progressivas Avançadas de Raven em universitários. Participaram 369 universitários de duas universidades privadas do estado de São Paulo, sendo 104 (28,2% do sexo masculino e 265 (71,8% do feminino. Em relação aos cursos, 167 (45,3% são de Psicologia, 111 (30,1% de Administração de Empresas, 54 (14,6% de Gestão de Recursos Humanos e 37 (10% de Pedagogia. Os resultados demonstraram que houve diferença significativa com relação ao gênero, com um melhor desempenho do sexo masculino (t=4,21 e pThe aim of the study was to find validity evidence of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices in university students. The sample consisted of 369 university students from two private universities in the state of Sao Paulo, being a 104 (28,2% of the masculine and 265 (71,8% of the feminine. Regarding the courses, 167 (45,3% is of Psychology, 111 (30,1% is of Business Administration, 54 (14,6 % is of Management of Human Resources and 37 (10% is of Pedagogy. The results showed statistically significant difference of sex, with males having better performance in the instrument (t=4.21; p<0.01. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed significant difference between averages of the courses (F=13,8; p<0,00, and the courses that are differentiated in accordance with the test ad-hoc of Tukey were Administration and Psychology that obtained scores bigger than the others courses. The results demonstrated what the used instrument showed precisely to value aspects of the general intelligence at university students.

  3. RBANS memory percentage retention: No evidence of incremental validity beyond RBANS scores for diagnostic classification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia and for prediction of daily function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodouin, Kara A; O'Connell, Megan E; Morgan, Debra G

    2017-01-01

    RBANS percentage retention scores may be useful for diagnosis, but their incremental validity is unclear. Percentage retention versus RBANS immediate and delayed memory subtests and delayed index scores were compared for diagnostic classification and for prediction of function. Data from 173 memory clinic patients with an interdisciplinary diagnosis (no cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI], and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease [AD]) and complete RBANS data were analyzed. Across diagnostic contrasts, list percentage retention classification accuracy was similar to List Learning delayed recall, but below the Delayed Memory Index (DMI). Similarly, for classifying no cognitive impairment versus aMCI or dementia due to AD, story percentage retention was similar to Story Memory subtests and below the DMI. For classifying aMCI versus AD; however, Story Memory exceeded the DMI, but was similar to Story Memory subtest scores. Similarly, for prediction of function percentage retention measures did not predict variance beyond that predicted by the RBANS subtest or index scores. In sum, there is no evidence that calculation of percentage retention for RBANS adds clinical utility beyond those provided by the standard RBANS scores.

  4. Patient perceived participation in decision making on their antipsychotic treatment: Evidence of validity and reliability of the COMRADE scale in a sample of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Revuelta, José; Villagrán-Moreno, José María; Moreno-Sánchez, Luisa; Pascual-Paño, Juan Manuel; González-Saiz, Francisco

    2018-03-23

    The aim of this paper is to provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the COMRADE scale (Combined Outcome Measure for Risk communication And treatment Decision making Effectiveness) in patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders. 150 patients recruited at five mental health centers were assessed using a cross-sectional study design. The COMRADE, WAIS-S (therapeutic alliance) and TSQM (satisfaction with medication) scales were used. Exploratory Factor Analysis identified three factors from the COMRADE (F1: "Risk communication"; F2: "Confidence in decision" and F3: "Knowledge of decisional balance") which explain 45.2, 8.5 and 6% of the variance, respectively. Statistically significant correlations were observed between the scores of the COMRADE subscales with the subscales of the WAI-S and the TSQM. The internal consistency observed for each of the factorial scores of the COMRADE were (Cronbach's alpha values) 0.90, 0.89 and 0.74, respectively. The COMRADE scale offers appropriate psychometric properties for its use as a measure of perceived patient involvement in the shared decision making process in antipsychotic treatment. The use of the COMRADE measure in psychiatric clinical practice and in research studies provides an outcome measure of interventions from the shared decision making model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Job-related affective well-being scale (Jaws: evidences of factor validity and reliability / Escala de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho (Jaws: evidências de validade fatorial e consistência interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at adapting a measure of job-related affective well-being for the Brazilian milieu. Specifically, it was proposed to know evidences of factor validity and reliability of the Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS, assessing if its scores are influenced by participants' gender and age. The participants were 298 individuals employed in small or middle shopping malls in the city of João Pessoa, PB; most of them were female (76.8%, with a mean age of 26 years old (SD = 6.87. A main component analysis (with promax rotation was performed, revealing two components that jointly accounted for 48.1% of the total variance. They were named as positive affect (α = .94; 14 items and negative affect (α = .87; 13 items. A general factor of affective well-being was also identified (α = .95; 27 items. Participants' scores on these factors were not influenced by their gender or age. These findings are discussed based on literature that describes the psychometric parameters of the JAWS as well as the correlation of affects with demographic variables.

  6. Validation of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Programs for Adults with Intellectual and/or Developmental Disorders (FallPAIDD: A Modified Otago Exercise Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy Renfro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based fall prevention (EBFP programs significantly decrease fall risk, falls, and fall-related injuries in community-dwelling older adults. To date, EBFP programs are only validated for use among people with normal cognition and, therefore, are not evidence-based for adults with intellectual and/or developmental disorders (IDD such as Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD, cerebral vascular accident (CVA, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. BACKGROUND: Adults with IDD experience not only a higher rate of falls than their community-dwelling, cognitively intact peers, but also higher rates and earlier onset of chronic diseases, also known to increase fall risk. Adults with IDD experience many barriers to healthcare and health promotion programs. As the lifespan for people with IDD continues to increase, issues of aging (including falls with associated injury are on the rise and require effective and efficient prevention. METHODS: A modified group-based version of the Otago Exercise Program (OEP was developed and implemented at a worksite employing adults with IDD in Montana. Participants were tested pre and post-intervention using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC STopping Elderly Accidents Deaths and Injuries (STEADI tool kit. Participants participated in progressive once weekly, one-hour group exercise classes and home programs over a 7-week period. Discharge planning with consumers and caregivers included home exercise, walking, and an optional home assessment. RESULTS: Despite the limited number of participants (n=15 and short length of participation, improvements were observed in the 30-Second Chair Stand Test, 4-Stage Balance Test, and 2-Minute Walk Test. Additionally, three individuals experienced an improvement in ambulation independence. Participants reported no falls during the study period. DISCUSSION: Promising results of this preliminary project underline the need for further study

  7. Derivation, evidence and physical validity of a weighted beam-zone method for dose determination in blocked photon fields of arbitrary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, L.; Quast, U.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, practical procedure for dose determination at any point of an arbitrarily shaped field has been derived: Square-field photon beams are sectioned into a set of pyramid-shell-like parts (beam zones), nested into each other around the smallest realizable square field, of different sizes but with equal dose contributions (thus weighted) with respect to a central dose reference point. The dose at any reference point in an irregular field can be determined simply by counting the number of non-shielded dose-contributing zones (or zone fractions), leading to the associated order of square-field size (with the same number of zones), the equivalent field with known dose. For experimental evidence of the validity of the weighted beam-zone method, measurements were carried out with different high-energy photon beams with one or more beam zones shielded by absorbing blocks. Measurements were made at points in unshielded and shielded parts of the field, on and off the beam axis and at different depths in a phantom. Calculations and measurements were compared. While relative depth doses were shown to be equal to within +-2% over a range of 5 cm ahead of and behind the dose reference point, the absolute dose deviations were within +-4%. The sources of error were analysed. They were mainly determined by scattered radiation from the beam limiting device and the partial shielding deriving from the shielding blocks. The same errors also occur in most of the known methods of dose calculation in irregular fields. (author)

  8. Extracellular miRNA-21 as a novel biomarker in glioma: evidence from meta-analysis, clinical validation and experimental investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Wang, Zhixin; Tai, Minghui; Meng, Fandi; Zhang, Jingyao; Wan, Yong; Mao, Ping; Dong, Xiaoqun; Liu, Chang; Niu, Wenquan; Dong, Shunbin

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating highlighting the importance of extracellular miRNA as a novel biomarker for diagnosing various kinds of malignancies. MiR-21 is one of the most studied miRNAs and is over-expressed in cancer tissues. To explore the clinical implications and secretory mechanisms of extracellular miR-21, we firstly meta-analyzed the diagnostic efficiency of extracellular miR-21 in different cancer types. Eighty-one studies based on 59 articles were finally included. In our study, extracellular miR-21 was observed to exhibit an outstanding diagnostic accuracy in detecting brain cancer (area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve or AUC = 0.94), and this accuracy was more obvious in glioma diagnosis (AUC = 0.95). Our validation study (n = 45) further confirmed the diagnostic and prognostic role of miR-21 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for glioma. These findings inspired us to explore the biological function of miR-21. We next conducted mechanistic investigations to explain the secretory mechanisms of extracellular miR-21 in glioma. TGF-β/Smad3 signaling was identified to participate in mediating the release of miR-21 from glioma cells. Further targeting TGF-β/Smad3 signaling using galunisertib, an inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor kinase, can attenuate the secretion of miR-21 from glioma cells. Taken together, CSF-based miR-21 might serve as a potential biomarker for diagnosing brain cancer, especially for patients with glioma. Moreover, extracellular levels of miR-21 were affected by exogenous TGF-β activity and galunisertib treatment. PMID:27166186

  9. Evidências de validade da bateria de provas de raciocínio (BPR-5 para seleção de pessoal Evidences on the validity of the battery of reasoning tests (BPR-5 for employment selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Oliveira Baumgartl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de testes psicológicos é uma prática comum em empresas brasileiras. Estas avaliações, no entanto, muitas vezes são realizadas sem levar em conta a eficácia dos instrumentos utilizados em discriminar critérios relevantes para um bom de desempenho do funcionário em seu posto de trabalho. Nesse sentido o presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar as evidências de validade do BPR-5 em um contexto organizacional. Os participantes foram 79 funcionários de uma empresa de energia elétrica brasileira. Como critério foi utilizado o número de acidentes de trabalho dos funcionários. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatísticas descritivas e análises correlacionais. Nos resultados, o critério utilizado, referente ao número de acidentes de trabalho, correlacionou-se com a inteligência principalmente para funcionários com menor tempo na função (-0,39; pThe use of psychological tests is a common practice among Brazilian companies. These evaluations, however, are done many times without taking into account the efficiency of the instruments that are used for discriminating relevant criteria for a good performance of the employee at work. The purpose of this study was to check evidences on the validity of the BPR-5 test in an organizational context. The sample consisted of 79 employees of a Brazilian electric company. The number of injuries at the workplace was used as criteria. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation analyses. The results showed that the criteria of injuries at the workplace presented significant correlations with the tests, indicating correlation with intelligence, especially for employees with less job experience (-0,39; p<0,05. The implications of these results for both research and practice are discussed.

  10. Escala de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho (Jaws: evidências de validade fatorial e consistência interna Job-related affective well-being scale (Jaws: evidences of factor validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar uma medida de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho para o contexto brasileiro. Especificamente, pretendeu-se conhecer evidências de validade fatorial e consistência interna da Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS, avaliando se as pontuações nos seus fatores diferem em função do gênero e da idade dos participantes. Participaram 298 trabalhadores de centros comerciais de pequeno e médio porte da cidade de João Pessoa (PB. A maioria destes era do sexo feminino (76,8%, com idade média de 26 anos (DP = 6,87. Através de uma análise dos componentes principais (rotação promax foram identificados dois fatores que explicaram conjuntamente 48,1% da variância total: afetos positivos (α = 0,94; 14 itens e afetos negativos (α = 0,87; 13 itens; um fator geral de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho foi também computado (α = 0,95; 27 itens. As pontuações dos participantes nestes fatores não foram influenciadas pelas variáveis gênero e idade. Estes resultados são discutidos à luz do que tem sido escrito sobre os parâmetros desta escala e da relação dos afetos com estas variáveis demográficas.This study aimed at adapting a measure of job-related affective well-being for the Brazilian milieu. Specifically, it was proposed to know evidences of factor validity and reliability of the Job-Related Affective Well-Being Scale (JAWS, assessing if its scores are influenced by participants' gender and age. The participants were 298 individuals employed in small or middle shopping malls in the city of João Pessoa, PB; most of them were female (76.8%, with a mean age of 26 years old (SD = 6.87. A main component analysis (with promax rotation was performed, revealing two components that jointly accounted for 48.1% of the total variance. They were named as positive affect (α = .94; 14 items and negative affect (α = .87; 13 items. A general factor of affective well-being was also identified (α = .95; 27 items

  11. Consciência metatextual: evidências de validade para instrumento de medida Consciencia metatextual: evidencias de validez para instrumento de medida Metatextual awareness: evidence of validity for measuring instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácia Aparecida Angeli dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    descriptive-correlational study was to investigate the metatextual awareness through a questionnaire especially designed for this purpose, examining its validity in relation to measures of reading comprehension and the criterion for differentiating the school level. 315 students enrolled in the 3rd to 5th grade of elementary public schools, whose ages ranged from 8 to 13 years, with 169 boys. The scores obtained with the measure of the metatextual awareness (QACM were convergent with the score in reading comprehension and the instrument was sensitive to capture the children's progress in identifying the kinds of texts with the advancement of education. Thus, the study provided evidence of validity both in terms of convergence of constructs, identified based on measures related to criteria, distinguishing students by their level of education.

  12. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roberts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1 expert competence; (2 disciplinary domain; (3 methodological validity; (4 materiality; and (5 legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law’s fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. Section 2 then examines English and Northern Irish courts’ attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially concern the manner in which LTDNA profiling results are presented and explained to

  13. Articulating uncertainty as part of scientific argumentation during model-based exoplanet detection tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun; Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Teaching scientific argumentation has emerged as an important goal for K-12 science education. In scientific argumentation, students are actively involved in coordinating evidence with theory based on their understanding of the scientific content and thinking critically about the strengths and weaknesses of the cited evidence in the context of the investigation. We developed a one-week-long online curriculum module called "Is there life in space?" where students conduct a series of four model-based tasks to learn how scientists detect extrasolar planets through the “wobble” and transit methods. The simulation model allows students to manipulate various parameters of an imaginary star and planet system such as planet size, orbit size, planet-orbiting-plane angle, and sensitivity of telescope equipment, and to adjust the display settings for graphs illustrating the relative velocity and light intensity of the star. Students can use model-based evidence to formulate an argument on whether particular signals in the graphs guarantee the presence of a planet. Students' argumentation is facilitated by the four-part prompts consisting of multiple-choice claim, open-ended explanation, Likert-scale uncertainty rating, and open-ended uncertainty rationale. We analyzed 1,013 scientific arguments formulated by 302 high school student groups taught by 7 teachers. We coded these arguments in terms of the accuracy of their claim, the sophistication of explanation connecting evidence to the established knowledge base, the uncertainty rating, and the scientific validity of uncertainty. We found that (1) only 18% of the students' uncertainty rationale involved critical reflection on limitations inherent in data and concepts, (2) 35% of students' uncertainty rationale reflected their assessment of personal ability and knowledge, rather than scientific sources of uncertainty related to the evidence, and (3) the nature of task such as the use of noisy data or the framing of

  14. Ethics in scientific communication: study of a problem case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R L

    1994-12-01

    The hypothermia experiments performed on humans during the Second World War at the German concentration camp in Dachau have been regarded as crimes against humanity, disguised as medical research. For almost 50 years, scientists maintained that the study produced valuable, even if not totally reliable, information. In recent years, the results from the Dachau hypothermia project were glamorized with life-saving potential and a heated ethical dialogue was activated about the use of life-saving but tainted scientific information. In the wake of the debate, an in-depth examination of the scientific rigour of the project was performed and revealed that neither the science nor the scientists from Dachau could be trusted and that the data were worthless. The body of medical opinion accepted the unfavourable determination but a few scientists and ethicists have continued to endorse the validity, of at least parts, of the Dachau hypothermia data. The conduct of the scientific communications about the Dachau hypothermia experiments by the scientific and ethical communities invites serious consideration of a possible ethical misadventure. It appears that for almost 50 years, the results of the study had been endorsed without careful examination of the scientific base of the experiments and that secondary citation of relevant original material may have been commonly employed. These infractions contributed to a myth that good science was practised by the Nazis at Dachau. The more recent emphasis on the life-saving potential of the Dachau data, without citation of credible supporting evidence, has also been misleading. Similarly, acceptance of a determination by an in-depth examination that the 'whole' Dachau project if flawed with simultaneous endorsement of the validity of 'parts' of the results, poses an ethical problem. It is advisable that before seeking ethical consultation about the use of unethically obtained data, scientists should examine the quality of science behind

  15. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  16. Learners' Epistemic Criteria for Good Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, William J.; Chinn, Clark A.; Duncan, Ravit Golan

    2011-01-01

    Epistemic criteria are the standards used to evaluate scientific products (e.g., models, evidence, arguments). In this study, we analyzed epistemic criteria for good models generated by 324 middle-school students. After evaluating a range of scientific models, but before extensive instruction or experience with model-based reasoning practices,…

  17. Annual review of selected scientific literature: Report of the committee on scientific investigation of the American Academy of Restorative Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Terence E; Marzola, Riccardo; Murphy, Kevin R; Cagna, David R; Eichmiller, Frederick; McKee, James R; Metz, James E; Albouy, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    It is clear the contemporary dentist is confronted with a blizzard of information regarding materials and techniques from journal articles, advertisements, newsletters, the internet, and continuing education events. While some of that information is sound and helpful, much of it is misleading at best. This review identifies and discusses the most important scientific findings regarding outcomes of dental treatment to assist the practitioner in making evidence-based choices. This review was conducted to assist the busy dentist in keeping abreast of the latest scientific information regarding the clinical practice of dentistry. Each of the authors, who are considered experts in their disciplines, was asked to peruse the scientific literature published in 2015 in their discipline and review the articles for important information that may have an impact on treatment decisions. Comments on experimental methodology, statistical evaluation, and overall validity of the conclusions are included in many of the reviews. The reviews are not meant to stand alone but are intended to inform the interested reader about what has been discovered in the past year. The readers are then invited to go to the source if they wish more detail. Analysis of the scientific literature published in 2015 is divided into 7 sections, dental materials, periodontics, prosthodontics, occlusion and temporomandibular disorders, sleep-disordered breathing, cariology, and implant dentistry. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Network effects on scientific collaborations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahadat Uddin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analysis of co-authorship network aims at exploring the impact of network structure on the outcome of scientific collaborations and research publications. However, little is known about what network properties are associated with authors who have increased number of joint publications and are being cited highly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Measures of social network analysis, for example network centrality and tie strength, have been utilized extensively in current co-authorship literature to explore different behavioural patterns of co-authorship networks. Using three SNA measures (i.e., degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality, we explore scientific collaboration networks to understand factors influencing performance (i.e., citation count and formation (tie strength between authors of such networks. A citation count is the number of times an article is cited by other articles. We use co-authorship dataset of the research field of 'steel structure' for the year 2005 to 2009. To measure the strength of scientific collaboration between two authors, we consider the number of articles co-authored by them. In this study, we examine how citation count of a scientific publication is influenced by different centrality measures of its co-author(s in a co-authorship network. We further analyze the impact of the network positions of authors on the strength of their scientific collaborations. We use both correlation and regression methods for data analysis leading to statistical validation. We identify that citation count of a research article is positively correlated with the degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of its co-author(s. Also, we reveal that degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of authors in a co-authorship network are positively correlated with the strength of their scientific collaborations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Authors' network positions in co

  19. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  20. Evidence for the Psychometric Validity, Internal Consistency and Measurement Invariance of Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale Scores in Scottish and Irish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R

    2017-09-01

    Mental well-being is an important indicator of current, but also the future health of adolescents. The 14-item Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) has been well validated in adults world-wide, but less work has been undertaken to examine the psychometric validity and internal consistency of WEMWBS scores in adolescents. In particular, little research has examined scores on the short 7-item version of the WEMWBS. The present study used two large samples of school children in Scotland and Northern Ireland and found that for both forms of the WEMWBS, scores were psychometrically valid, internally consistent, factor saturated, and measurement invariant by country. Using the WEMWBS full form, males reported significantly higher scores than females, and Northern Irish adolescents reported significantly higher scores than their Scottish counterparts. Last, the lowest overall levels of well-being were observed among Scottish females. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [Evidence and Evidence Gaps - an Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, G; Löhler, J

    2016-04-01

    Treating patients requires the inclusion of existing evidence in any health care decision, to be able to choose the best diagnosis or treatment measure or to make valid prognosis statements for a particular patient in consideration of the physician's own expertise.The basis are clinical trials, the results of which are ideally gathered in systematic reviews, rated, summarized and published. In addition to the GCP (Good Clinical Practice)-compliant planning, conducting and analysis of clinical studies it is essential, that all study results are made publicly available, in order to avoid publication bias. This includes the public registration of planned and discontinued trials. In the last 25 years, the evidence-based medicine (EbM) has increasingly found its way into clinical practice and research. Here EbM is closely associated with the names Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. In Germany, both the German Cochrane Centre (DCZ) and the network of evidence-based medicine (DNEbM) were established approximately 15 years ago. In the international Cochrane Collaboration clinicians and other scientists like statisticians interdisciplinary work side by side to develop the methods of evidence-based medicine and to address the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as the transfer of knowledge. Challenge: Existing evidence primarily serves doctors to support their decision-making, but is also the basis for providing scientific proof for a health care intervention's benefit to patients and ultimately payers/health insurances. The closure of existing evidence gaps requires substantial human and financial resources, a complex organizational structure and can only succeed with the involvement of clinical and methodological expertise and specific knowledge in the field of clinical research. In addition, the knowledge must be transferred into practice, using journals, guidelines, conferences, databases, information portals with processed evidence and not least the

  2. Prescripción basada en evidencia científica en la atención primaria de salud Scientific evidence-based prescribing in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Alonso Carbonel

    2012-09-01

    información, aunque refieren con mayor frecuencia tomar en cuenta la disponibilidad del fármaco en el momento de la prescripción.Introduction: evidence-based medicine is a natural response to the need of creating a healthcare model that allows the integration of the results of the advances in clinical research into daily practice. Objectives: To characterize the use of evidence-based medicine in the act of prescribing. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study in the first level of care. We included, at random, 9 provinces (Santiago de Cuba, Havana, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Camagüey, Ciego de Avila, Holguín, Granma and Guantanamo that constitute 60 % and of these, 25 % of the clinics (82. The selection of these was by simple random sampling with the statistical program EPIDAT. 765 prescribers were included since they were serving in the selected areas at the time of the application of this instrument. For the collection of information a questionnaire "Prescribing scientific evidence" was designed in order to capture all the information on the variables defined. Results: Over half of respondents (442 noted that often feel the need to seek information, this necessity increases when less time professional experience, although the frequency of seeking for more information is annually low, with an average of 6, 48 times a year and a mode of zero. Concerning prescriptions, the respondents reported having more questions (69.4 % about drug interactions. Conclusions: Half of the respondents stated that they often feel a need for review of scientific literature to answer questions during the act of prescribing. However, the sources they use are printed and updating courses. Interactions and adverse reactions are the aspects that they usually seek about, but they refer they often take into account the availability of the drug at the time of prescribing.

  3. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  4. Validity Evidence for a Chinese Version of the Online Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire with Average Students and Mathematically Talented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joyce J. Y.; Yuen, Mantak; Yuen, Allan H. K.

    2018-01-01

    A Chinese version of the Online Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire (OLSQ) was administered to 412 Hong Kong students of average ability and 374 students talented in mathematics (Grades 4-9, age 9-15 years). Data indicated that the Chinese OLSQ provides valid and reliable scores when used with these students.

  5. Sixteen-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Confirmatory factor analytic evidence, internal consistency, and construct validity in a young adult sample from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420)from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively

  6. Emotional Arousal and Regulation: Further Evidence of the Validity of the "How I Feel" Questionnaire for Use with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea; Grazzani, Ilaria; Ornaghi, Veronica; Caprin, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ability to understand and manage emotional experience is critical to children's health. This study confirmed the validity of the How I Feel (HIF) Questionnaire, a measure of children's emotional arousal and regulation, exploring its associations with measures of emotional and social functioning. Methods: The sample was comprised of…

  7. Viability of Construct Validity of the Speaking Modules of International Language Examinations (IELTS vs. TOEFL iBT): Evidence from Iranian Test-Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Keivan; Shamsaee, Saeedeh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the viability of the construct validity of the speaking modules of two internationally recognized language proficiency examinations, namely IELTS and TOEFL iBT. High-stake standardized tests play a crucial and decisive role in determining the future academic life of many people. Overall obtained scores…

  8. Construct validity of the Groningen Frailty Indicator established in a large sample of home-dwelling elderly persons : Evidence of stability across age and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L. L.; Boter, H.; Burgerhof, J. G. M.; Slaets, J. P. J.; Buskens, E.

    Background: The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of the Groningen frailty Indicator (GFI) in a sample of Dutch elderly persons participating in LifeLines, a large population-based cohort study. Additional aims were to assess differences between frail and non-frail

  9. Do Low-quality Leader-Member Relationships Matter for Subordinates? Evidence from Three Samples on the Validity of the Norwegian LMX Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trude Furunes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Theories on the relations between leaders and subordinates have been of interest to researchers for decades; however, these theories have received less attention in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study is twofold: to investigate the validity of the Leader-Member-Exchange Scale, LMX-7, in three Norwegian samples, and to explore potentially negative relationships between leader–member relationships and work-environment quality indicators. Data were collected from teachers (n = 409, industrial workers (n = 406, and bus drivers (n = 1024. All hypotheses were supported. Results supported use of the measure LMX-7 as indicated by factor structure, high construct validity, sufficient criterion-related validity, discriminant validity, and internal reliability as measured by Cronbach’s alpha above 0.90. Poor quality relationships were associated with higher levels of role conflict, stress, bullying, turnover intentions, age discrimination, and negative affectivity, and lower levels of job satisfaction, commitment, skills utilization, autonomy, participation, perceived fairness, and social support. Potential consequences of low-quality relations and implications of findings are discussed.

  10. In Search of Validity Evidence in Support of the Interpretation and Use of Assessments of Complex Constructs: Discussion of Research on Assessing 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Oliveri, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Assessing complex constructs such as those discussed under the umbrella of 21st century constructs highlights the need for a principled assessment design and validation approach. In our discussion, we made a case for three considerations: (a) taking construct complexity into account across various stages of assessment development such as the…

  11. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 9. The Scientific Enterprise - Assumptions, Problems, and Goals in the Modern Scientific Framework. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 13 Issue 9 September 2008 pp 885-894 ...

  12. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  13. Desire thinking as a confounder in the relationship between mindfulness and craving: Evidence from a cross-cultural validation of the Desire Thinking Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun-Baggioni, Nadia; Corman, Maya; Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Gierski, Fabien

    2017-10-01

    Desire thinking and mindfulness have been associated with craving. The aim of the present study was to validate the French version of the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and to investigate the relationship between mindfulness, desire thinking and craving among a sample of university students. Four hundred and ninety six university students completed the DTQ and measures of mindfulness, craving and alcohol use. Results from confirmatory factor analyses showed that the two-factor structure proposed in the original DTQ exhibited suitable goodness-of-fit statistics. The DTQ also demonstrated good internal reliability, temporal stability and predictive validity. A set of linear regressions revealed that desire thinking had a confounding effect in the relationship between mindfulness and craving. The confounding role of desire thinking in the relationship between mindfulness and craving suggests that interrupting desire thinking may be a viable clinical option aimed at reducing craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined analysis of 19 common validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants shows moderate discriminative value and no evidence of gene-gene interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Grarup, N; Andreasen, C.

    2009-01-01

    study; and additional type 2 diabetic patients and glucose-tolerant individuals. The case-control studies involved 4,093 type 2 diabetic patients and 5,302 glucose-tolerant individuals. RESULTS: Single-variant analyses demonstrated allelic odds ratios ranging from 1.04 (95% CI 0.98-1.11) to 1.33 (95% CI...... analysis of the 19 validated variants enables detection of subgroups at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, the discrimination between glucose-tolerant and type 2 diabetes individuals is still too inaccurate to achieve clinical value.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The list of validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants has recently been expanded from three to 19. The variants identified are common and have low penetrance in the general population. The aim of the study is to investigate the combined effect of the 19 variants by applying...

  15. The Impact of Structural Break(s on the Validity of Purchasing Power Parity in Turkey: Evidence from Zivot-Andrews and Lagrange Multiplier Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP in Turkey for annual data from 1953 to 2009. While results from both the ADF unit root and the DF-GLS unit root test indicate mixed results, PPP holds for Turkey with the presence of structural breaks which are obtained by Zivot and Andrews and Lagrange Multiplier unit root tests.

  16. To transfer or not to transfer? Evidence from validity and reliability tests for international transfers of non-market adaptation benefits in river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Damigos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    The attempt to design cost-effective adaptation policies incorporating non-market values to inhibit climate change impacts on water resources may increase the interest in applying the Benefit Transfer method. Benefit Transfer is a practical way to consider non-market values using functions and estimates acquired through primary valuation methods from other sites. Among the primary methods, Choice Experiments appear to particularly accommodate Benefit Transfer. Nevertheless, validity and reliability of international value transfers obtained from Choice Experiments have not been adequately examined. To this end, two identical Choice Experiments were conducted in Greece and Italy in the context of river services adaptation, testing validity and reliability of Benefit Transfer. The application of validity and reliability tests for different types of transfers is supportive for the use of Benefit Transfer, at least for the value transfer types. In particular the reliability of value transfer was higher when income adjustments were taken into account. Overall, Benefit Transfer can be attentively considered to evaluate cost-effective adaptation policies across countries experiencing similar climate change trends. The latter gains more importance given that an international Benefit Transfer setting as regards the non-market benefits of adaptation to climate change for river services is absent in the relevant literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The bottom-up approach to integrative validity: a new perspective for program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey T

    2010-08-01

    The Campbellian validity model and the traditional top-down approach to validity have had a profound influence on research and evaluation. That model includes the concepts of internal and external validity and within that model, the preeminence of internal validity as demonstrated in the top-down approach. Evaluators and researchers have, however, increasingly recognized that in an evaluation, the over-emphasis on internal validity reduces that evaluation's usefulness and contributes to the gulf between academic and practical communities regarding interventions. This article examines the limitations of the Campbellian validity model and the top-down approach and provides a comprehensive, alternative model, known as the integrative validity model for program evaluation. The integrative validity model includes the concept of viable validity, which is predicated on a bottom-up approach to validity. This approach better reflects stakeholders' evaluation views and concerns, makes external validity workable, and becomes therefore a preferable alternative for evaluation of health promotion/social betterment programs. The integrative validity model and the bottom-up approach enable evaluators to meet scientific and practical requirements, facilitate in advancing external validity, and gain a new perspective on methods. The new perspective also furnishes a balanced view of credible evidence, and offers an alternative perspective for funding. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Popularization of science and scientific journalism: possibilities of scientific literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Augusto Barros Façanha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evidences the intersection between science education and communication in the perspective of the popularization of sciences based on the evidence produced in a specific column of a large circulation newspaper of the city of Teresina / PI. The discussions were based on the analysis of content carried out in the context of science classes in a school of basic education with elementary students, where journalistic texts were used with diverse themes that involved science and daily life in order to understand the interpretation of texts And the relationship with the context of scientific dissemination and citizenship. The analysis of the content was used and the answers were stratified into categories of conceptual nature and application of the themes. The analyses show that the texts of scientific dissemination have a contribution in relation to the popularization of Sciences, fomentation to the debate in the classroom, didactic increment in the classes of sciences, in spite of their insertion still incipient in the context of science education. However, the results of the research denote the difficulty faced by the students in understanding the text of dissemination in their conceptual comprehension and resolution of daily problems, as well as the distance between the context of the sciences in their theoretical scope and their presentation in everyday situations, Despite this, the texts of divulgation corroborated as an important way of real insertion in the process of scientific literacy and promotion of citizenship.

  19. Competent in evidence-based practice (EBP): validation of a measurement tool that measures EBP self-efficacy and task value in speech-language therapy students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, B.; Wieringa-de Waard, M.; Lucas, C.; van Dijk, N.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide speech-language therapy (SLT) students are educated in evidence-based practice (EBP). For students to use EBP in their future day-to-day clinical practice, they must value EBP as positive and must feel confident in using it. For curricula developers it is therefore important to know the

  20. Are the claims made in orthopaedic print advertisements valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Donald J; Rankin, Kenneth S; Jensen, Cyrus D; Moverley, Robert; Reed, Mike R; Sprowson, Andrew P

    2014-05-01

    Advertisements are commonplace in orthopaedic journals and may influence the readership with claims of clinical and scientific fact. Since the last assessment of the claims made in orthopaedic print advertisements ten years ago, there have been legislative changes and media scrutiny which have shaped this practice. The purpose of this study is to re-evaluate these claims. Fifty claims from 50 advertisements were chosen randomly from six highly respected peer-reviewed orthopaedic journals (published July-December 2011). The evidence supporting each claim was assessed and validated by three orthopaedic surgeons. The assessors, blinded to product and company, rated the evidence and answered the following questions: Does the evidence as presented support the claim made in the advertisement and what is the quality of that evidence? Is the claim supported by enough evidence to influence your own clinical practice? Twenty-eight claims cited evidence from published literature, four from public presentations, 11 from manufacturer "data held on file" and seven had no supporting evidence. Only 12 claims were considered to have high-quality evidence and only 11 were considered well supported. A strong correlation was seen between the quality of evidence and strength of support (Spearman r = 0.945, p advertisements. High-quality evidence is required by orthopaedic surgeons to influence clinical practice and this evidence should be sought by manufacturers wishing to market a successful product.

  1. Explaining the Alluring Influence of Neuroscience Information on Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…

  2. "May I Buy a Pack of Marlboros, Please?" A Systematic Review of Evidence to Improve the Validity and Impact of Youth Undercover Buy Inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Gregory, Kyle R.; Baker, Hannah M.; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2016-01-01

    Most smokers become addicted to tobacco products before they are legally able to purchase these products. We systematically reviewed the literature on protocols to assess underage purchase and their ecological validity. We conducted a systematic search in May 2015 in PubMed and PsycINFO. We independently screened records for inclusion. We conducted a narrative review and examined implications of two types of legal authority for protocols that govern underage buy enforcement in the United States: criminal (state-level laws prohibiting sales to youth) and administrative (federal regulations prohibiting sales to youth). Ten studies experimentally assessed underage buy protocols and 44 studies assessed the association between youth characteristics and tobacco sales. Protocols that mimicked real-world youth behaviors were consistently associated with substantially greater likelihood of a sale to a youth. Many of the tested protocols appear to be designed for compliance with criminal law rather than administrative enforcement in ways that limited ecological validity. This may be due to concerns about entrapment. For administrative enforcement in particular, entrapment may be less of an issue than commonly thought. Commonly used underage buy protocols poorly represent the reality of youths' access to tobacco from retailers. Compliance check programs should allow youth to present themselves naturally and attempt to match the community’s demographic makeup. PMID:27050671

  3. [Scientific concepts in clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, G

    2003-11-28

    The understanding of the scientific basis and the theory of knowledge are surprisingly heterogeneous in practical and clinical medicine. It is frequently influenced or based on the philosophical theory of critical rationalism founded by Sir Karl Popper. Because the theory of knowledge and the understanding of scientific truth is the central basis for cautious and good clinical practise it is necessary to discuss both points to avoid unscientific auto-immunisation against critique in a type of medicine that regards herself as science-based. Evidence-based medicine would not be possible without interpretation and explanation of existing data into the individual treatment context. Besides an inductive or deductive logic the historical and situative side-conditions of the gathering of knowledge and of experiments are of central importance for their interpretation and their relevance in clinical practice. This historical and situative context warrants reflection but must also be paid attention to in the reflections on medical ethics.

  4. Northern Territory perspectives on heart failure with comorbidities – understanding trial validity and exploring collaborative opportunities to broaden the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyngkaran, P; Majoni, W; Cass, A; Sanders, Prashanthan; Ronco, C; Brady, S; Kangaharan, N; Ilton, M; Hare, D L; Thomas, M C

    2015-06-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, rarely with cure. Outpatient based pharmacological management represents the main and most important aspect of care, and is usually lifelong. This narrative styled opinion review looks at the pharmacological agents recommended in the guidelines in context of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. We explore the concept of validity, a term used to describe the basis of standardising a particular trial or study and the population to which it is applicable. We aim to highlight the problems of the current guidelines based approach. We also present alternatives that could utilise the core principles from major trials, while incorporating regional considerations, which could benefit clients living in the NT and remote Australia. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Construct validity of the Groningen Frailty Indicator established in a large sample of home-dwelling elderly persons: Evidence of stability across age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, L L; Boter, H; Burgerhof, J G M; Slaets, J P J; Buskens, E

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) in a sample of Dutch elderly persons participating in LifeLines, a large population-based cohort study. Additional aims were to assess differences between frail and non-frail elderly and examine which individual characteristics were associated with frailty. By December 2012, 5712 elderly persons were enrolled in LifeLines and complied with the inclusion criteria of the present study. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the variability of GFI-scores among elderly subgroups that differed in demographic characteristics, morbidity, obesity, and healthcare utilization. Within subgroups Kruskal-Wallis tests were also used to examine differences in GFI-scores across age groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between individual characteristics and frailty. The GFI discriminated between subgroups: statistically significantly higher GFI-median scores (interquartile range) were found in e.g. males (1 [0-2]), the oldest old (2 [1-3]), in elderly who were single (1 [0-2]), with lower socio economic status (1 [0-3]), with increasing co-morbidity (2 [1-3]), who were obese (2 [1-3]), and used more healthcare (2 [1-4]). Overall age had an independent and statistically significant association with GFI scores. Compared with the non-frail, frail elderly persons experienced statistically significantly more chronic stress and more social/psychological related problems. In the multivariate logistic regression model, psychological morbidity had the strongest association with frailty. The present study supports the construct validity of the GFI and provides an insight in the characteristics of (non)frail community-dwelling elderly persons participating in LifeLines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. International External Validation Study of the 2014 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines on Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (EVIDENCE-HCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Constantinos; Jichi, Fatima; Ommen, Steve R; Christiaans, Imke; Arbustini, Eloisa; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo; Cecchi, Franco; Olivotto, Iacopo; Kitaoka, Hiroaki; Gotsman, Israel; Carr-White, Gerald; Mogensen, Jens; Antoniades, Loizos; Mohiddin, Saidi A; Maurer, Mathew S; Tang, Hak Chiaw; Geske, Jeffrey B; Siontis, Konstantinos C; Mahmoud, Karim D; Vermeer, Alexa; Wilde, Arthur; Favalli, Valentina; Guttmann, Oliver P; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Dominguez, Fernando; Tanini, Ilaria; Kubo, Toru; Keren, Andre; Bueser, Teofila; Waters, Sarah; Issa, Issa F; Malcolmson, James; Burns, Tom; Sekhri, Neha; Hoeger, Christopher W; Omar, Rumana Z; Elliott, Perry M

    2018-03-06

    Identification of people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who are at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and require a prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator is challenging. In 2014, the European Society of Cardiology proposed a new risk stratification method based on a risk prediction model (HCM Risk-SCD) that estimates the 5-year risk of SCD. The aim was to externally validate the 2014 European Society of Cardiology recommendations in a geographically diverse cohort of patients recruited from the United States, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. This was an observational, retrospective, longitudinal cohort study. The cohort consisted of 3703 patients. Seventy three (2%) patients reached the SCD end point within 5 years of follow-up (5-year incidence, 2.4% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.9-3.0]). The validation study revealed a calibration slope of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.93-1.12), C-index of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.68-0.72), and D-statistic of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.05-1.29). In a complete case analysis (n= 2147; 44 SCD end points at 5 years), patients with a predicted 5-year risk of <4% (n=1524; 71%) had an observed 5-year SCD incidence of 1.4% (95% CI, 0.8-2.2); patients with a predicted risk of ≥6% (n=297; 14%) had an observed SCD incidence of 8.9% (95% CI, 5.96-13.1) at 5 years. For every 13 (297/23) implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantations in patients with an estimated 5-year SCD risk ≥6%, 1 patient can potentially be saved from SCD. This study confirms that the HCM Risk-SCD model provides accurate prognostic information that can be used to target implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in patients at the highest risk of SCD. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Swarm Data Processing and First Scientific Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    , accelerometer, plasma and electric field measurements. These observations will be distributed by ESA as Level-1b data, which are the calibrated and formatted time series of e.g. the magnetic field measurements taken by each of the three Swarm satellites. The talks presents a first scientific validation of Swarm...... Level-1b data products....

  8. Scientific collaboration: genuine and false motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOLPATO, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, I emphasize the need for collaborative research among scientists. Such collaboration should aim to address the genuine integrative need to build knowledge rather than searching for visibility based on the international prestige of a collaborator, increased productivity, or funding. Scientists must provide a valid and honest counterpart, such as a solid scientific proposal and performance, and avoid opportunistic motivators.

  9. Adaptation and obtainment of evidence for the validity of the “Scale of Perceived Sacrifices Associated with Leaving (the organization” in the Brazilian context: a study among teachers of basic, technical, and technological education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gomes de Jesus

    Full Text Available Abstract The most widely-used model in studies of organizational commitment is the three-dimensional model developed by Meyer and Allen in 1991. This model understands the construct as being composed of instrumental, affective, and normative dimensions. However, it has been criticized by researchers who do not view instrumental commitment as related to the concept of commitment, but instead as a possible organizational link. In order to address the conceptual and empirical problems of the instrument, Powell and Meyer perfected the sub-scale of instrumental commitment and recommended that a new scale, named Perceived Sacrifices Associated with Leaving, be used in future research. This article aims to adapt and obtain evidence of the validity of the new scale, and analyze how teachers perceive the sacrifices associated with leaving a Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology. The scale has undergone cross-cultural adaptation and the adapted version was applied to teachers. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied, displaying evidence of the validity of the construct for the Brazilian version. The results revealed that teachers agree on the high intensity level of the sacrifices associated with leaving, and that teachers who occupy management positions perceive it to a higher degree than others. The proposed changes in the scale should be evaluated in future research, and other studies are important to confirm the results found.

  10. O conhecimento científico e tecnológico como evidência para políticas e atividades regulatórias em saúde Scientific and technological knowledge as evidence for policies and regulatory activities in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício L. Barreto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, têm-se observado mudanças na organização do modelo ocidental de Estado, com clara tendência de redução das suas atividades econômicas e sociais diretas. Ao mesmo tempo, percebe-se a ampliação de alguns dos seus papéis na elaboração de políticas e como regulador de uma série de parâmetros da vida social. Nesse contexto, consolida-se a noção de que são cada vez mais necessários conhecimentos científicos que fundamentem os processos de tomada de decisões. A idéia de política baseada em evidência foi apropriada pelo Estado moderno, e na saúde vem recebendo especial atenção. Avalia-se que, assim procedendo, se ampliam as chances de se tomar decisões mais efetivas, trazendo maiores benefícios à saúde da população, com menos custos econômicos ou sociais. Essa nova abordagem torna o Estado um crescente consumidor dos resultados da atividade científica. O objetivo deste ensaio é discutir alguns aspectos da relação entre o processo de produção do conhecimento científico e os processos gerais de tomada de decisões na área da saúde, com maior ênfase naqueles relacionados às atividades regulatórias. Após rever a literatura recente sobre o tema, comenta-se a importância dessa discussão no contexto do SUS no Brasil.In the last decades, significant changes in the occidental model of State have been observed. There is a clear trend towards reduction in the State direct role on social and economic activities. At the same time, an increasing participation in policy-making and regulation affairs is observed. In this context, there is a growing concern that scientific knowledge is necessary to subsidize the so complex State decision-making process in the large range of health-related matters. It is expected more effective decisions with great benefices to the population health and less social or economic costs. As consequence, it is increasing the participation of the State as consumer of the

  11. Explicating Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    How we choose to use a term depends on what we want to do with it. If "validity" is to be used to support a score interpretation, validation would require an analysis of the plausibility of that interpretation. If validity is to be used to support score uses, validation would require an analysis of the appropriateness of the proposed…

  12. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Lub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate, the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of connecting them with aspects of evaluation in social policy. It argues that different purposes of qualitative evaluations can be linked with different scientific paradigms and perspectives, thus transcending unproductive paradigmatic divisions as well as providing a flexible yet rigorous validity framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative evaluations.

  13. Validating a 1-D SVAT model in a range of USA and Australian ecosystems: evidence towards its use as a tool to study Earth's system interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, G. P.; North, M. R.; Ireland, G.; Srivastava, P. K.; Rendall, D. V.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the validation of the SimSphere SVAT model conducted at different ecosystem types in the USA and Australia. Specific focus was given to examining the models' ability in predicting Shortwave Incoming Solar Radiation (Rg), Net Radiation (Rnet), Latent Heat (LE), Sensible Heat (H), Air Temperature at 1.3 m (Tair 1.3 m) and Air Temperature at 50 m (Tair 50 m). Model predictions were compared against corresponding in situ measurements acquired for a total of 72 selected days of the year 2011 obtained from 8 sites belonging to the AmeriFlux (USA) and OzFlux (Australia) monitoring networks. Selected sites were representative of a variety of environmental, biome and climatic conditions, to allow for the inclusion of contrasting conditions in the model evaluation. The application of the model confirmed its high capability in representing the multifarious and complex interactions of the Earth system. Comparisons showed a good agreement between modelled and measured fluxes, especially for the days with smoothed daily flux trends. A good to excellent agreement between the model predictions and the in situ measurements was reported, particularly so for the LE, H, T1.3 m and T 50 m parameters (RMSD = 39.47, 55.06 W m-2, 3.23, 3.77 °C respectively). A systematic underestimation of Rg and Rnet (RMSD = 67.83, 58.69 W m-2, MBE = 67.83, 58.69 W m-2 respectively) was also found. Highest simulation accuracies were obtained for the open woodland savannah and mulga woodland sites for most of the compared parameters. Very high values of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index were also reported for all parameters ranging from 0.720 to 0.998, suggesting a very good model representation of the observations. To our knowledge, this study presents the first comprehensive validation of SimSphere, particularly so in USA and Australian ecosystem types. Findings are important and timely, given the rapidly expanding use of this model worldwide both as an educational and research

  14. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form: Evidence for Reliability and Construct Validity in a Sample of Community-Dwelling Italian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    To assess the reliability and construct validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form (PID-5-BF) among adolescents, 877 Italian high school students were administered the PID-5-BF. Participants were administered also the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning (MDPF) as a criterion measure. In the full sample, Cronbach's alpha values for the PID-5-BF scales ranged from .59 (Detachment) to .77 (Psychoticism); in addition, all PID-5-BF scales showed mean interitem correlation values in the .22 to .40 range. Cronbach's alpha values for the PID-5-BF total score was .83 (mean interitem r = .16). Although 2-month test-retest reliability could be assessed only in a small ( n = 42) subsample of participants, all PID-5-BF scale scores showed adequate temporal stability, as indexed by intraclass r values ranging from .78 (Negative Affectivity) to .97 (Detachment), all ps <.001. Exploratory structural equation modeling analyses provided at least moderate support for the a priori model of PID-5-BF items. Multiple regression analyses showed that PID-5-BF scales predicted a nonnegligible amount of variance in MDPF Non-Cooperativeness, adjusted R 2 = .17, p < .001, and Non-Coping scales, adjusted R 2 = .32, p < .001. Similarly, the PID-5-BF total score was a significant predictor of both MDPF Non-Coping, and Non-Cooperativeness scales.

  15. Clinician ratings of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) in a representative sample of Spanish prison inmates: New validity evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Gerardo; Ferrer, Ventura; García, Luis S; Crespo, María R; Pérez, Manuel; Saíz, Pilar A; Cooke, David J

    2018-01-01

    The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) is a concept map of psychopathic personality disorder (PPD). The CAPP- Institutional Rating Scale (IRS) is a tool designed to assess CAPP symptoms in institutional settings. The CAPP contains 33 personality traits organized in six domains: attachment, behavioural, cognitive, dominance, emotional and self. Until now, much of the CAPP research has been conducted out of clinical, forensic and correctional settings using self-ratings. In the current study, the psychometric properties and construct validity of the CAPP-IRS were evaluated in a non-convenience sample of 204 Spanish convicts. Clinician ratings were employed. Participants had been imprisoned for at least 6 months at Pereiro de Aguiar Penitentiary. This group of inmates was heterogeneous with respect to type of official charges, and representative as all convicts interned for at least 6 months in this prison were screened for participation. Classical test theory indexes of reliability, correlations between CAPP items and domains and external correlations and structural analyses demonstrated that CAPP assessment is a solid and robust way of evaluating psychopathy in a correctional setting. Best fit was found for a three-factor model: attachment and emotional items associated with a callous and unemotional trait, dominance and self items associated with a pathological interpersonal style, and behavioural and residual items from other domains associated with impulsivity.

  16. Age and Scientific Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    The long-standing belief that age is negatively associated with scientific productivity and creativity is shown to be based upon incorrect analysis of data. Studies reported in this article suggest that the relationship between age and scientific performance is influenced by the operation of the reward system. (Author)

  17. Scientific Notation Watercolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Kyle; Oltman, Kathleen; Daisey, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to describe visual literacy, an adapted version of Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS), and an art-integrated middle school mathematics lesson about scientific notation. The intent of this lesson was to provide students with a real life use of scientific notation and exponents, and to motivate them to apply their…

  18. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...

  20. Evidências de validade de uma versão brasileira do Inventário de Funções do Voluntariado - IFV Evidence of validity of a Brazilian version of the Volunteer Functions Inventory - VFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pilati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Entender os motivos que levam o indivíduo a iniciar e manter-se no voluntariado pode contribuir para o recrutamento de novos voluntários e para a retenção no serviço de pessoas já engajadas, pois permite aproximar os objetivos individuais de potenciais voluntários das exigências e benefícios associados às oportunidades concretas de ajuda que o ambiente proporciona. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos adaptar e validar para o Brasil o Inventário de Funções do Voluntariado (IFV e correlacionar o IFV com a versão reduzida do Questionário de Perfis de Valores (QPV21. Além de corroborar a validade convergente entre estes dois instrumentos, os resultados indicaram que as motivações dos 319 participantes agregaram-se em torno de quatro fatores (valores e entendimento, proteção, carreira e engrandecimento social, replicando parcialmente a estrutura fatorial do instrumento original e confirmando a existência de diferenças culturais nas motivações para o voluntariado. Outras implicações teóricas e empíricas são discutidas.Understanding the reasons why people begin and continue to volunteer can contribute to the recruitment of new volunteers and to the retention of those that already engaged, by bringing the individual goals of potential volunteers closer to the requirements and benefits associated with the existing work opportunities. This study aims to adapt and validate the Volunteers Function Inventory (VFI for Brazil as well as to correlate the VFI with the reduced version of Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ21. Results confirmed the convergent validity between these two instruments. In addition, the factor structure of the original instrument was partially replicated, with the motivations of the 319 participants grouping around four factors (values and understanding, protection, career, and social enhancement. These results suggest the existence of cultural differences in the motivations for volunteering

  1. Content validity--establishing and reporting the evidence in newly developed patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instruments for medical product evaluation: ISPOR PRO good research practices task force report: part 1--eliciting concepts for a new PRO instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Donald L; Burke, Laurie B; Gwaltney, Chad J; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Martin, Mona L; Molsen, Elizabeth; Ring, Lena

    2011-12-01

    The importance of content validity in developing patient reported outcomes (PRO) instruments is stressed by both the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. Content validity is the extent to which an instrument measures the important aspects of concepts that developers or users purport it to assess. A PRO instrument measures the concepts most significant and relevant to a patient's condition and its treatment. For PRO instruments, items and domains as reflected in the scores of an instrument should be important to the target population and comprehensive with respect to patient concerns. Documentation of target population input in item generation, as well as evaluation of patient understanding through cognitive interviewing, can provide the evidence for content validity. Developing content for, and assessing respondent understanding of, newly developed PRO instruments for medical product evaluation will be discussed in this two-part ISPOR PRO Good Research Practices Task Force Report. Topics include the methods for generating items, documenting item development, coding of qualitative data from item generation, cognitive interviewing, and tracking item development through the various stages of research and preparing this tracking for submission to regulatory agencies. Part 1 covers elicitation of key concepts using qualitative focus groups and/or interviews to inform content and structure of a new PRO instrument. Part 2 covers the instrument development process, the assessment of patient understanding of the draft instrument using cognitive interviews and steps for instrument revision. The two parts are meant to be read together. They are intended to offer suggestions for good practices in planning, executing, and documenting qualitative studies that are used to support the content validity of PRO instruments to be used in medical product evaluation. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR

  2. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798

  3. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M

    2014-10-01

    Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.

  4. Derivation and validation of the Personal Support Algorithm: an evidence-based framework to inform allocation of personal support services in home and community care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Chi-Ling Joanna; Jones, Aaron; McMullan, Janet Legge; Ackerman, Nancy; Curtin-Telegdi, Nancy; Eckel, Leslie; Hirdes, John P

    2017-11-25

    Personal support services enable many individuals to stay in their homes, but there are no standard ways to classify need for functional support in home and community care settings. The goal of this project was to develop an evidence-based clinical tool to inform service planning while allowing for flexibility in care coordinator judgment in response to patient and family circumstances. The sample included 128,169 Ontario home care patients assessed in 2013 and 25,800 Ontario community support clients assessed between 2014 and 2016. Independent variables were drawn from the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care and interRAI Community Health Assessment that are standardised, comprehensive, and fully compatible clinical assessments. Clinical expertise and regression analyses identified candidate variables that were entered into decision tree models. The primary dependent variable was the weekly hours of personal support calculated based on the record of billed services. The Personal Support Algorithm classified need for personal support into six groups with a 32-fold difference in average billed hours of personal support services between the highest and lowest group. The algorithm explained 30.8% of the variability in billed personal support services. Care coordinators and managers reported that the guidelines based on the algorithm classification were consistent with their clinical judgment and current practice. The Personal Support Algorithm provides a structured yet flexible decision-support framework that may facilitate a more transparent and equitable approach to the allocation of personal support services.

  5. Derivation and validation of the Personal Support Algorithm: an evidence-based framework to inform allocation of personal support services in home and community care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ling Joanna Sinn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal support services enable many individuals to stay in their homes, but there are no standard ways to classify need for functional support in home and community care settings. The goal of this project was to develop an evidence-based clinical tool to inform service planning while allowing for flexibility in care coordinator judgment in response to patient and family circumstances. Methods The sample included 128,169 Ontario home care patients assessed in 2013 and 25,800 Ontario community support clients assessed between 2014 and 2016. Independent variables were drawn from the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care and interRAI Community Health Assessment that are standardised, comprehensive, and fully compatible clinical assessments. Clinical expertise and regression analyses identified candidate variables that were entered into decision tree models. The primary dependent variable was the weekly hours of personal support calculated based on the record of billed services. Results The Personal Support Algorithm classified need for personal support into six groups with a 32-fold difference in average billed hours of personal support services between the highest and lowest group. The algorithm explained 30.8% of the variability in billed personal support services. Care coordinators and managers reported that the guidelines based on the algorithm classification were consistent with their clinical judgment and current practice. Conclusions The Personal Support Algorithm provides a structured yet flexible decision-support framework that may facilitate a more transparent and equitable approach to the allocation of personal support services.

  6. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods that... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM) AGENCY: National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of...

  7. Update on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Light of Recent Evidence: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Caroline S; Golden, Sherita Hill; Anderson, Cheryl; Bray, George A; Burke, Lora E; de Boer, Ian H; Deedwania, Prakash; Eckel, Robert H; Ershow, Abby G; Fradkin, Judith; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Nelson, Robert G; Patel, Mahesh J; Pignone, Michael; Quinn, Laurie; Schauer, Philip R; Selvin, Elizabeth; Vafiadis, Dorothea K

    2015-08-25

    Cardiovascular disease risk factor control as primary prevention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus has changed substantially in the past few years. The purpose of this scientific statement is to review the current literature and key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure and blood glucose control, cholesterol management, aspirin therapy, and lifestyle modification. We present a synthesis of the recent literature, new guidelines, and clinical targets, including screening for kidney and subclinical cardiovascular disease for the contemporary management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Update on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Light of Recent Evidence: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Anderson, Cheryl; Bray, George A.; Burke, Lora E.; de Boer, Ian H.; Deedwania, Prakash; Eckel, Robert H.; Ershow, Abby G.; Fradkin, Judith; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Nelson, Robert G.; Patel, Mahesh J.; Pignone, Michael; Quinn, Laurie; Schauer, Philip R.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Vafiadis, Dorothea K.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk factor control as primary prevention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus has changed substantially in the past few years. The purpose of this scientific statement is to review the current literature and key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure and blood glucose control, cholesterol management, aspirin therapy, and lifestyle modification. We present a synthesis of the recent literature, new guidelines, and clinical targets, including screening for kidney and subclinical cardiovascular disease for the contemporary management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26246459

  9. Novel SINE families from salmons validate Parahucho (Salmonidae) as a distinct genus and give evidence that SINEs can incorporate LINE-related 3'-tails of other SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Vitaliy; Nishihara, Hidenori; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-08-01

    among salmonids validates Parahucho (Japanese huchen) as a distinct monotypic genus.

  10. The Revista Scientific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Antonio Martínez Molina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Revista Scientific aims to publish quality papers that include the perspective of analysis in educational settings. Together with www.indtec.com.ve, this electronic publication aims to promote and disseminate, with seriousness and rigor, the academic production in this field. Editorial of the new stage Revista Scientific was created with the aim of constituting a reference space for scientific research in the field of research analysis that is carried out within the universities in Latin America, once the distribution list hosted on the INDTEC platform (http://www.indtec.com.ve is consolidated as a space for dissemination and development of new ideas and initiatives. The first presentation of INDTEC Magazine was held in August 2016 in Venezuela. Thanks to the support of the INDTEC platform, SCIENTIFIC Magazine has been able to develop from the cooperative work of the people who make up its Editorial Committee, Academic Committee and Scientific Committee in Electronic Edition, and of the referees of each one of the numbers. Part of the success is due to the motivation of its co-editors and excellent professionals from different parts of the world: Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Spain, Mexico, Venezuela, which form the various committees, with enthusiasm and joy participating in this project (whose organizational structure is presented in this edition and continues in increcendo. Also, the strategy adopted to edit a monographic number from the various events organized in the framework of the universities, has contributed to provide SCIENTIFIC with a point value speaker of intellectual progress in the field of education. SCIENTIFIC Magazine is currently indexed in ISI, International Scientific Indexing, Dubai - UAE; ROAD, the Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources (ISSN International Center, France; REVENCYT-ULA, Venezuela; Google Scholar (Google Scholar, International Index; Published in Calaméo; ISSUU; Academia

  11. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines.

  12. STMML. A markup language for scientific, technical and medical publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murray-Rust

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available STMML is an XML-based markup language covering many generic aspects of scientific information. It has been developed as a re-usable core for more specific markup languages. It supports data structures, data types, metadata, scientific units and some basic components of scientific narrative. The central means of adding semantic information is through dictionaries. The specification is through an XML Schema which can be used to validate STMML documents or fragments. Many examples of the language are given.

  13. [Strengthening the methodology of study designs in scientific researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ze-qin

    2010-06-01

    Many problems in study designs have affected the validity of scientific researches seriously. We must understand the methodology of research, especially clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, and recognize the urgency in selection and implement of right study design. Thereafter we can promote the research capability and improve the overall quality of scientific researches.

  14. How to write and read a scientific evaluation paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; Regnell, Björn

    Scientific evaluation papers investigate existing problem situations or validate proposed solutions with scientific means, such as by experiment or case study. There is a growing amount of literature about how to report about empirical research in software engineering, but there is still some

  15. Health system context and implementation of evidence-based practices-development and validation of the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool for low- and middle-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anna; Skeen, Sarah; Duc, Duong M; Blandon, Elmer Zelaya; Estabrooks, Carole; Gustavsson, Petter; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Källestål, Carina; Målqvist, Mats; Nga, Nguyen Thu; Persson, Lars-Åke; Pervin, Jesmin; Peterson, Stefan; Rahman, Anisur; Selling, Katarina; Squires, Janet E; Tomlinson, Mark; Waiswa, Peter; Wallin, Lars

    2015-08-15

    The gap between what is known and what is practiced results in health service users not benefitting from advances in healthcare, and in unnecessary costs. A supportive context is considered a key element for successful implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP). There were no tools available for the systematic mapping of aspects of organizational context influencing the implementation of EBPs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, this project aimed to develop and psychometrically validate a tool for this purpose. The development of the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool was premised on the context dimension in the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework, and is a derivative product of the Alberta Context Tool. Its development was undertaken in Bangladesh, Vietnam, Uganda, South Africa and Nicaragua in six phases: (1) defining dimensions and draft tool development, (2) content validity amongst in-country expert panels, (3) content validity amongst international experts, (4) response process validity, (5) translation and (6) evaluation of psychometric properties amongst 690 health workers in the five countries. The tool was validated for use amongst physicians, nurse/midwives and community health workers. The six phases of development resulted in a good fit between the theoretical dimensions of the COACH tool and its psychometric properties. The tool has 49 items measuring eight aspects of context: Resources, Community engagement, Commitment to work, Informal payment, Leadership, Work culture, Monitoring services for action and Sources of knowledge. Aspects of organizational context that were identified as influencing the implementation of EBPs in high-income settings were also found to be relevant in LMICs. However, there were additional aspects of context of relevance in LMICs specifically Resources, Community engagement, Commitment to work and Informal payment. Use of the COACH tool will allow

  16. Scientific meeting abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is a collection of the scientific meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, different aspects of energy and presents research done in 1999 in these fields

  17. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  18. Visualization in scientific computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielson, Gregory M; Shriver, Bruce D; Rosenblum, Lawrence J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide a reference source to scientists, engineers, and students who are new to scientific visualization or who are interested in expanding their knowledge in this subject...

  19. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    The phrase pre-modern scientific may be used to describe certain attitudes and ..... But unfortunately, in the general atmosphere of poor education and collective fears .... present day science and technology that old time beliefs and traditional ...

  20. WITHER SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No library or information service and especially in a developing .... Good public relations, consultancy services including bilateral and ... project proposal for the creation of a scientific and technological information ... For example, in 1995 the ...