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Sample records for valid grading procedures

  1. Study of verification and validation of standard welding procedure specifications guidelines for API 5L X-70 grade line pipe welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi H. A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Verification and validation of welding procedure specifications for X-70 grade line pipe welding was performed as per clause 8.2, Annexure B and D of API 5L, 45th Edition to check weld integrity in its future application conditions. Hot rolled coils were imported from China, de-coiling, strip edge milling, three roller bending to from pipe, inside and outside submerged arc welding of pipe, online ultrasonic testing of weld, HAZ and pipe body, cutting at fixed random length of pipe, visual inspection of pipe, Fluoroscopic inspection of pipe, welding procedure qualification test pieces marking at weld portion of the pipe, tensile testing, guided bend testing, CVN Impact testing were performed. Detailed study was conducted to explore possible explanations and variation in mechanical properties, WPS is examined and qualified as per API 5L 45th Edition.

  2. 7 CFR 70.105 - Procedures for appeal gradings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conducting the appeal grading. Whether defrosting poultry or rabbit carcasses for other types of appeals will... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for appeal gradings. 70.105 Section 70.105... PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Appeal of A Grading Or...

  3. Method Validation Procedure in Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes the methodology followed for the application of ISO 17025 standards in gamma spectroscopy laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission including the management and technical requirements. A set of documents, written procedures and records were prepared to achieve the management part. The technical requirements, internal method validation was applied through the estimation of trueness, repeatability , minimum detectable activity and combined uncertainty, participation in IAEA proficiency tests assure the external method validation, specially that the gamma spectroscopy lab is a member of ALMERA network (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurements of Environmental Radioactivity). Some of these results are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Integrated System Validation Usability Questionnaire: Computerized Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, Ma. I.; Torralba, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Research and Development (R&D) project on “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Integrated System Validation of Control Rooms, 2014-2015”, in which the research activities described in this report are framed, has two main objectives: to develop the items for an usability methodology conceived as a part of the measurement framework for performance-based control room evaluation that the OECD Halden Reactor Project will test in the experiments planned for 2015; and the statistical analysis of the data generated in the experimental activities of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) facility, with previous usability questionnaires, in 2010 and 2011. In this report, the procedure designed to meet the first goal of the project is described, in particular, the process followed to identify the items related to operating procedures, both computer and paper-based, one of the elements to be included in the usability questionnaire. Three phases are performed, in the first one, the approaches developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, are reviewed, the models used by the nuclear industry and their technical support organizations, mainly, the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, are analyzed, and scientist advances are also explored. In the remaining stages, general and specific guidelines for computerized and paper-based procedures are compared and criteria for the preliminary selection of the items that should be incorporated into the usability questionnaire are defined. This proposal will be reviewed and adapted by the Halden Reactor Project to the design of the specific experiments performed in HAMLAB.

  5. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  6. Prospective validation of a surgical complications grading system in a cohort of 2114 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeh, Haggi; Cohen, Oded; Mizrahi, Ido; Hamburger, Tamar; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Abu-Wasel, Bassam; Alaiyan, Bilal; Freund, Herbert R; Eid, Ahmed; Nissan, Aviram

    2014-05-01

    We recently reported a grading system for surgical complications. This system proved to have a high sensitivity for recording minor but meaningful complications prolonging hospital stay in patients after colorectal surgery. We aimed to prospectively validate the complication grading system in a general surgery department over 1 year. All surgical procedures and related complications were prospectively recorded between January 1st and December 31st, 2009. Surgical complications were graded on a severity scale of 1-5. The system classifies short-term outcome by grade emphasizing intensity of therapy required for treatment of the defined complication. During the study period, 2114 patients underwent surgery. Elective and oncological surgeries were performed in 1606 (76%) and 465 (22%) patients, respectively. There were 422 surgical complications in 304 (14%) patients (Grade 1/2: 203 [67%]; Grade 3/4: 90 [29%]; Grade 5: 11 [4%]). Median length of stay correlated significantly with complication severity: 2.3 d for no complication, 6.2 and 11.8 d for Grades 1/2 and 3/4, respectively (P 2 (OR 2.07, P Grade (OR 1.85, P = 0.001), oncological (OR 2.82, P 120 min (OR 2.08, P grading surgical complications permits standardized reporting of surgical morbidity according to the severity of impact. Prospective validation of this system supports its use in a general surgery setting as a tool for surgical outcome assessment and quality assurance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Guy's stone score--grading the complexity of percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kay; Smith, Naomi C; Hegarty, Nicholas; Glass, Jonathan M

    2011-08-01

    To report the development and validation of a scoring system, the Guy's stone score, to grade the complexity of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Currently, no standardized method is available to predict the stone-free rate after PCNL. The Guy's stone score was developed through a combination of expert opinion, published data review, and iterative testing. It comprises 4 grades: grade I, solitary stone in mid/lower pole or solitary stone in the pelvis with simple anatomy; grade II, solitary stone in upper pole or multiple stones in a patient with simple anatomy or a solitary stone in a patient with abnormal anatomy; grade III, multiple stones in a patient with abnormal anatomy or stones in a caliceal diverticulum or partial staghorn calculus; grade IV, staghorn calculus or any stone in a patient with spina bifida or spinal injury. It was assessed for reproducibility using the kappa coefficient and validated on a prospective database of 100 PCNL procedures performed in a tertiary stone center. The complications were graded using the modified Clavien score. The clinical outcomes were recorded prospectively and assessed with multivariate analysis. The Guy's stone score was the only factor that significantly and independently predicted the stone-free rate (P = .01). It was found to be reproducible, with good inter-rater agreement (P = .81). None of the other factors tested, including stone burden, operating surgeon, patient weight, age, and comorbidity, correlated with the stone-free rate. The Guy's stone score accurately predicted the stone-free rate after PCNL. It was easy to use and reproducible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Procedure for Validation of Aggregators Providing Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Gehrke, Oliver; Thavlov, Anders

    2016-01-01

    of small heterogeneous resources that are geographically distributed. Therefore, a new test procedure must be designed for the aggregator validation. This work proposes such a procedure and exemplifies is with a study case. The validation of aggregators is essential if aggregators are to be integrated...... succesfully into the power system....

  9. Post-Mission Quality Assurance Procedure for Survey-Grade Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstinga, A. P.; Friess, P.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) consist of terrestrial-based moving platforms that integrate a set of imaging sensors (typically digital cameras and laser scanners) and a Position and Orientation System (POS), designed to collect data of the surrounding environment. MMS can be classified as "mapping-grade" or "survey-grade" depending on the system's attainable accuracy. Mapping-grade MMS produce geospatial data suitable for GIS applications (e.g., asset management) while survey-grade systems should satisfy high-accuracy applications such as engineering/design projects. The delivered accuracy of an MMS is dependent on several factors such as the accuracy of the system measurements and calibration parameters. It is critical, especially for survey-grade systems, to implement a robust Quality Assurance (QA) procedure to ensure the achievement of the expected accuracy. In this paper, a new post-mission QA procedure is presented. The presented method consists of a fully-automated self-calibration process that allows for the estimation of corrections to the system calibration parameters (e.g., boresight angles and lever-arm offsets relating the lidar sensor(s) to the IMU body frame) as well as corrections to the system measurements (e.g., post-processed trajectory position and orientation, scan angles and ranges). As for the system measurements, the major challenge for MMS is related to the trajectory determination in the presence of multipath signals and GNSS outages caused by buildings, underpasses and high vegetation. In the proposed self-calibration method, trajectory position errors are properly modelled while utilizing an efficient/meaningful trajectory segmentation technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using a dataset collected under unfavorable GNSS conditions.

  10. Validating the applicability of the GUM procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Maurice G.; Harris, Peter M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper is directed at practitioners seeking a degree of assurance in the quality of the results of an uncertainty evaluation when using the procedure in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) (JCGM 100 : 2008). Such assurance is required in adhering to general standards such as International Standard ISO/IEC 17025 or other sector-specific standards. We investigate the extent to which such assurance can be given. For many practical cases, a measurement result incorporating an evaluated uncertainty that is correct to one significant decimal digit would be acceptable. Any quantification of the numerical precision of an uncertainty statement is naturally relative to the adequacy of the measurement model and the knowledge used of the quantities in that model. For general univariate and multivariate measurement models, we emphasize the use of a Monte Carlo method, as recommended in GUM Supplements 1 and 2. One use of this method is as a benchmark in terms of which measurement results provided by the GUM can be assessed in any particular instance. We mainly consider measurement models that are linear in the input quantities, or have been linearized and the linearization process is deemed to be adequate. When the probability distributions for those quantities are independent, we indicate the use of other approaches such as convolution methods based on the fast Fourier transform and, particularly, Chebyshev polynomials as benchmarks.

  11. 大型資料庫國小四年級自然科學習成就評量標準設定結果之效度評估 Validation of the Standard Setting Procedure for a Large Scale 4th Grade Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    謝進昌 Jin-Chang Hsieh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available 學習成就評量資料庫建置目的之一,在於描述學生於各學科的學習成就表現概況;而學習成就表現的描述,即牽涉到標準設定議題。隨著臺灣學生學習成就評量資料庫對於國小四年級自然科之評量架構調整,致使沿用的表現標準已多不符合實務運用,而興起重新修訂之舉。本研究主要目的在於評估2009 年自然科學習成就評量國小四年級標準設定結果之效度,以Kane(1994, 2001)的效度評估證據為依據,藉由效度的過程證據、內部證據以及外部證據,作為標準設定結果之效度證據來源。結果發現,從各項效度證據來看,國小四年級自然科標準設定可由標準設定成員的組成及其回應、設定結果的一致性,以及外推論於數學成就的效度外部證據得到支持。本研究最後提出數項建議,供未來標準設定研究者參考。 One of the main purposes for constructing an academic achievement database is to understand the students’ academic performance for each content area. Standard setting is the main issue in the academic achievement. Due to the adjustment of the test blueprint for Taiwan Assessment of Student Achievement 4th grade science, the previous performance level description is outmoded for practice. Therefore, modifying the standards is necessary. The purpose of this study is to validate a science standard setting procedure designed for 2009 4th grade science students. Based on Kane’s (1994, 2001 framework for validation, this study collected procedural evidence, internal evidence, as well as external evidence using mathematics academic performance. Several suggestions are provided in the conclusion for further studies.

  12. POST-MISSION QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURE FOR SURVEY-GRADE MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kerstinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS consist of terrestrial-based moving platforms that integrate a set of imaging sensors (typically digital cameras and laser scanners and a Position and Orientation System (POS, designed to collect data of the surrounding environment. MMS can be classified as “mapping-grade” or “survey-grade” depending on the system’s attainable accuracy. Mapping-grade MMS produce geospatial data suitable for GIS applications (e.g., asset management while survey-grade systems should satisfy high-accuracy applications such as engineering/design projects. The delivered accuracy of an MMS is dependent on several factors such as the accuracy of the system measurements and calibration parameters. It is critical, especially for survey-grade systems, to implement a robust Quality Assurance (QA procedure to ensure the achievement of the expected accuracy. In this paper, a new post-mission QA procedure is presented. The presented method consists of a fully-automated self-calibration process that allows for the estimation of corrections to the system calibration parameters (e.g., boresight angles and lever-arm offsets relating the lidar sensor(s to the IMU body frame as well as corrections to the system measurements (e.g., post-processed trajectory position and orientation, scan angles and ranges. As for the system measurements, the major challenge for MMS is related to the trajectory determination in the presence of multipath signals and GNSS outages caused by buildings, underpasses and high vegetation. In the proposed self-calibration method, trajectory position errors are properly modelled while utilizing an efficient/meaningful trajectory segmentation technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using a dataset collected under unfavorable GNSS conditions.

  13. Grade IV fibrosis interferes in biliary drainage after Kasai procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzedas-Netto, A A; Chinen, E; de Oliveira, D F; Pasquetti, A F; Azevedo, R A; da Silva Patricio, F F; Cury, E K; Gonzalez, A M; Vicentine, F P P; Martins, J L

    2014-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is the most common cause of liver transplantation in children. The earlier the treatment is done, the better the prognosis. The aim is to evaluate the impact of late diagnosis in children with BA, including the histopathological findings and success rate of biliary drainage in patients submitted to hepatic portoenterostomy (HPE). A retrospective study of cases of BA in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) between 1998-2011. We found 63 cases of BA; of these, 42 underwent HPE and 21 were referred for liver transplantation. Clinic and pathologic data were evaluated. The HPE was performed with a mean age of 86.5 days, with 16.6% having the operation at 60 days or earlier; 59.2% between 61 and 90 days; and 23.8% after 90 days. Successful biliary drainage occurred in 31% of surgeries, Mean days when HPE drained was 69.1 days, and 94.3 days when the surgery did not drain (P = .05). All patients who were successfully drained, did not have grade IV fibrosis on histology. In cases in which surgery was performed after 60 days that had not drained, 25% had grade IV fibrosis on biopsy (P = .0469). The age of HPE relates to better prognosis of the disease. It was found that the rate of grade IV fibrosis is higher in no drainage patients. All patients with grade IV fibrosis had no biliary drainage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. DMM assessments of attachment and adaptation: Procedures, validity and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnfield, Steve; Hautamäki, Airi; Nørbech, Peder; Sahhar, Nicola

    2010-07-01

    This article gives a brief over view of the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM; Crittenden, 2008) together with the various DMM assessments of attachment that have been developed for specific stages of development. Each assessment is discussed in terms of procedure, outcomes, validity, advantages and limitations, comparable procedures and areas for further research and validation. The aims are twofold: to provide an introduction to DMM theory and its application that underlie the articles in this issue of CCPP; and to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to DMM assessments.

  15. Improvement and Validation of Weld Residual Stress Modelling Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Weilin; Gunnars, Jens; Dong, Pingsha; Hong, Jeong K.

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this work is to identify and evaluate improvements for the residual stress modelling procedure currently used in Sweden. There is a growing demand to eliminate any unnecessary conservatism involved in residual stress assumptions. The study was focused on the development and validation of an improved weld residual stress modelling procedure, by taking advantage of the recent advances in residual stress modelling and stress measurement techniques. The major changes applied in the new weld residual stress modelling procedure are: - Improved procedure for heat source calibration based on use of analytical solutions. - Use of an isotropic hardening model where mixed hardening data is not available. - Use of an annealing model for improved simulation of strain relaxation in re-heated material. The new modelling procedure is demonstrated to capture the main characteristics of the through thickness stress distributions by validation to experimental measurements. Three austenitic stainless steel butt-welds cases are analysed, covering a large range of pipe geometries. From the cases it is evident that there can be large differences between the residual stresses predicted using the new procedure, and the earlier procedure or handbook recommendations. Previously recommended profiles could give misleading fracture assessment results. The stress profiles according to the new procedure agree well with the measured data. If data is available then a mixed hardening model should be used

  16. Improvement and Validation of Weld Residual Stress Modelling Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, Weilin; Gunnars, Jens (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Dong, Pingsha; Hong, Jeong K. (Center for Welded Structures Research, Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States))

    2009-06-15

    The objective of this work is to identify and evaluate improvements for the residual stress modelling procedure currently used in Sweden. There is a growing demand to eliminate any unnecessary conservatism involved in residual stress assumptions. The study was focused on the development and validation of an improved weld residual stress modelling procedure, by taking advantage of the recent advances in residual stress modelling and stress measurement techniques. The major changes applied in the new weld residual stress modelling procedure are: - Improved procedure for heat source calibration based on use of analytical solutions. - Use of an isotropic hardening model where mixed hardening data is not available. - Use of an annealing model for improved simulation of strain relaxation in re-heated material. The new modelling procedure is demonstrated to capture the main characteristics of the through thickness stress distributions by validation to experimental measurements. Three austenitic stainless steel butt-welds cases are analysed, covering a large range of pipe geometries. From the cases it is evident that there can be large differences between the residual stresses predicted using the new procedure, and the earlier procedure or handbook recommendations. Previously recommended profiles could give misleading fracture assessment results. The stress profiles according to the new procedure agree well with the measured data. If data is available then a mixed hardening model should be used

  17. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: robsonpetroni@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  18. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  19. A practical approach to perform graded verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, Carlos; Woolley, J.

    2000-01-01

    Modernization of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants often implies to go from analog to digital systems. One condition for the upgrade to be successful is that the new systems achieve at least the same quality level as the analog they replace. The most important part of digital systems quality assurance (QA) is verification and validation (V and V). V and V is concerned with the process as much as the product, it is a systematic program of review and testing activities performed throughout the system development life cycle. Briefly, we can say that verification is to build the product correctly, and validation is to build the correct product. Since V and V is necessary but costly, it is helpful to tailor the effort that should be performed to achieve the quality goal for each particular case. To do this, an accepted practice is to establish different V and V levels, each one with a proper degree of stringency or rigor. This paper shows a practical approach to estimate the appropriate level of V and V, and the resulting V and V techniques recommended for each specific system. The firs step purposed is to determine 'What to do', that is the selection of the V and V class. The main factors considered here are: required integrity, functional complexity, defense in depth and development environment. A guideline to classify the particular system using these factors and show how they lead to the selection of the V and V class is presented. The second step is to determine 'How to do it', that is to choose an appropriate set of V and V methods according to the attributes of the system and the V and V class already selected. A list of possible V and V methods that are recommended for each V and V level during different stages of the development life cycle is included. As a result of the application of this procedure, solutions are found for generalists interested in 'What to do', as well as for specialists, interested in 'How to do'. Finally

  20. Consistency of FMEA used in the validation of analytical procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldenhof, M.T.; van Leeuwen, J.F.; Nauta, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    is always carried out under the supervision of an experienced FMEA-facilitator and that the FMEA team has at least two members with competence in the analytical method to be validated. However, the FMEAs of both teams contained valuable information that was not identified by the other team, indicating......In order to explore the consistency of the outcome of a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in the validation of analytical procedures, an FMEA was carried out by two different teams. The two teams applied two separate FMEAs to a High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection...

  1. Validation of EOPs/FRGs Procedures Using LOHS Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajs, T.; Konjarek, D.; Vukovic, J.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of EOPs (Emergency Operating Procedures) and FRGs (Function Restoration Guidelines) can be achieved either through plant full scope simulator or on desk top exercises. The desk top exercise is conducted when for the given scenario plant full scope simulator is not suitable. In either verification cases predefined scenario should be evaluated and possible branching foreseen. The scenario presented is LOHS, with bleed and feed procedure initiated. Best estimate light water reactor transient analysis code RELAP5/mod3.3 was used in calculation. Standardized detailed plant model was used. Operator actions were modelled from beginning of the scenario to its termination.(author).

  2. Disentangling the Predictive Validity of High School Grades for Academic Success in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulperhorst, Jonne; Lutz, Christel; de Kleijn, Renske; van Tartwijk, Jan

    2018-01-01

    To refine selective admission models, we investigate which measure of prior achievement has the best predictive validity for academic success in university. We compare the predictive validity of three core high school subjects to the predictive validity of high school grade point average (GPA) for academic achievement in a liberal arts university…

  3. Measuring Anatomic Severity in Pediatric Appendicitis: Validation of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Appendicitis Severity Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Matthew C; Polites, Stephanie F; Aho, Johnathon M; Haddad, Nadeem N; Kong, Victor Y; Saleem, Humza; Bruce, John L; Laing, Grant L; Clarke, Damian L; Zielinski, Martin D

    2018-01-01

    To assess whether the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system accurately corresponds with appendicitis outcomes in a US pediatric population. This single-institution retrospective review included patients appendicitis from 2008 to 2012. Demographic, clinical, procedural, and follow-up data (primary outcome was measured as Clavien-Dindo grade of complication severity) were abstracted. AAST grades were generated based on intraoperative findings. Summary, univariate, and multivariable regression analyses were performed to compare AAST grade and outcomes. Overall, 331 patients (46% female) were identified with a median age of 12 (IQR, 8-15) years. Appendectomy was laparoscopic in 90% and open in 10%. AAST grades included: Normal (n = 13, 4%), I (n = 152, 46%), II (n = 90, 27%), III (n = 43, 13%), IV (n = 24 7.3%), and V (n = 9 2.7%). Increased AAST grade was associated with increased Clavien-Dindo severity, P =.001. The overall complication rate was 13.6% and was comprised by superficial surgical site infection (n = 13, 3.9%), organ space infection (n = 15, 4.5%), and readmission (n = 17, 5.1%). Median duration of stay increased with AAST grade (P appendicitis grading system is valid in a single-institution pediatric population. Increasing AAST grade incrementally corresponds with patient outcomes including increased risk of complications and severity of complications. Determination of the generalizability of this grading system is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In-Trail Procedure Air Traffic Control Procedures Validation Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Ryan C.; Hewitt, Katrin P.; Sweeney, Peter B.; Graff, Thomas J.; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2007, Airservices Australia (Airservices) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a validation experiment of the air traffic control (ATC) procedures associated with the Automatic Dependant Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) In-Trail Procedure (ITP). ITP is an Airborne Traffic Situation Awareness (ATSA) application designed for near-term use in procedural airspace in which ADS-B data are used to facilitate climb and descent maneuvers. NASA and Airservices conducted the experiment in Airservices simulator in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve current operational air traffic controllers participated in the experiment, which identified aspects of the ITP that could be improved (mainly in the communication and controller approval process). Results showed that controllers viewed the ITP as valid and acceptable. This paper describes the experiment design and results.

  5. CARVEDILOL POPULATION PHARMACOKINETIC ANALYSIS – APPLIED VALIDATION PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Catić-Đorđević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carvedilol is a nonselective beta blocker/alpha-1 blocker, which is used for treatment of essential hypertension, chronic stable angina, unstable angina and ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to describe carvedilol population pharmacokinetic (PK analysis as well as the validation of analytical procedure, which is an important step regarding this approach. In contemporary clinical practice, population PK analysis is often more important than standard PK approach in setting a mathematical model that describes the PK parameters. Also, it includes the variables that have particular importance in the drugs pharmacokinetics such as sex, body mass, dosage, pharmaceutical form, pathophysiological state, disease associated with the organism or the presence of a specific polymorphism in the isoenzyme important for biotransformation of the drug. One of the most frequently used approach in population PK analysis is the Nonlinear Modeling of Mixed Effects - NONMEM modeling. Analytical methods used in the data collection period is of great importance for the implementation of a population PK analysis of carvedilol in order to obtain reliable data that can be useful in clinical practice. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of carvedilol is used to confirm the identity of a drug and provide quantitative results and also to monitor the efficacy of the therapy. Analytical procedures used in other studies could not be fully implemented in our research as it was necessary to perform certain modification and validation of the method with the aim of using the obtained results for the purpose of a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Validation process is a logical terminal phase of analytical procedure development that provides applicability of the procedure itself. The goal of validation is to ensure consistency of the method and accuracy of results or to confirm the selection of analytical method for a given sample

  6. [Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-11-01

    So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ≥ 93%, seed moisture ≤ 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 26%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 266 g, purity ≥ 73%, seed moisture ≤9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 10%, purity ≥ 50%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 08 g, seed moisture ≤ 13%.

  7. Academic Self-Esteem and Perceived Validity of Grades: A Test of Self-Verification Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Fournet, Lee M.

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis derived from self-verification theory that semester grade point average would be positively related to perceived validity of grade scores among high self-esteem undergraduates and inversely related for low self-esteem students was not supported in a study with 281 undergraduates. (SLD)

  8. Validation of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for First-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Lisa Pericola; Speece, Deborah L.; Silverman, Rebecca; Ritchey, Kristen D.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Cooper, David H.; Montanaro, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study was designed to validate a short-term supplemental reading intervention for at-risk first-grade children. Although substantial research on long-term supplemental reading interventions exists, less is known about short-term interventions. Thirty first-grade children were randomly assigned to intervention or control…

  9. An Assessment of Reliability and Validity of a Rubric for Grading APA-Style Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellmack, Mark A.; Konheim-Kalkstein, Yasmine L.; Manor, Julia E.; Massey, Abigail R.; Schmitz, Julie Ann P.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the empirical evaluation of the reliability and validity of a grading rubric for grading APA-style introductions of undergraduate students. Levels of interrater agreement and intrarater agreement were not extremely high but were similar to values reported in the literature for comparably structured rubrics. Rank-order…

  10. Stepwise Procedure for Development and Validation of a Multipesticide Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrus, A. [Hungarian Food Safety Office, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-07-15

    The stepwise procedure for development and the validation of so called multi-pesticide methods are described. Principles, preliminary actions, criteria for the selection of chromatographic separation, detection and performance verification of multi-pesticide methods are outlined. Also the long term repeatability and reproducibility, as well as the necessity for the documentation of laboratory work are highlighted. Appendix I hereof describes in detail the calculation of calibration parameters, whereas Appendix II focuses on the calculation of the significance of differences of concentrations obtained on two different separation columns. (author)

  11. A procedure validation for high conversion reactors fuel elements calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, V.N.; Patino, N.E.; Abbate, M.J.; Sbaffoni, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The present work includes procedure validation of cross sections generation starting from nuclear data and the calculation system actually used at the Bariloche Atomic Center Reactor and Neutrons Division for its application to fuel elements calculation of a high conversion reactor (HCR). To this purpose, the fuel element calculation belonging to a High Conversion Boiling water Reactor (HCBWR) was chosen as reference problem, employing the Monte Carlo method. Various cases were considered: with and without control bars, cold of hot, at different vacuum fractions. Multiplication factors, reaction rates, power maps and peak factors were compared. A sensitivity analysis of typical cells used, the approximations employed to solve the transport equation (Sn or Diffusion), the 1-D or 2-D representation and densification of the spatial network used, with the aim of evaluating their influence on the parameters studied and to come to an optimum combination to be used in future design calculations. (Author) [es

  12. Consistency of FMEA used in the validation of analytical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenhof, M T; van Leeuwen, J F; Nauta, M J; de Kaste, D; Odekerken-Rombouts, Y M C F; Vredenbregt, M J; Weda, M; Barends, D M

    2011-02-20

    In order to explore the consistency of the outcome of a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in the validation of analytical procedures, an FMEA was carried out by two different teams. The two teams applied two separate FMEAs to a High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) analytical procedure used in the quality control of medicines. Each team was free to define their own ranking scales for the probability of severity (S), occurrence (O), and detection (D) of failure modes. We calculated Risk Priority Numbers (RPNs) and we identified the failure modes above the 90th percentile of RPN values as failure modes needing urgent corrective action; failure modes falling between the 75th and 90th percentile of RPN values were identified as failure modes needing necessary corrective action, respectively. Team 1 and Team 2 identified five and six failure modes needing urgent corrective action respectively, with two being commonly identified. Of the failure modes needing necessary corrective actions, about a third were commonly identified by both teams. These results show inconsistency in the outcome of the FMEA. To improve consistency, we recommend that FMEA is always carried out under the supervision of an experienced FMEA-facilitator and that the FMEA team has at least two members with competence in the analytical method to be validated. However, the FMEAs of both teams contained valuable information that was not identified by the other team, indicating that this inconsistency is not always a drawback. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for First-Grade Children

    OpenAIRE

    Case, Lisa Pericola; Speece, Deborah L.; Silverman, Rebecca; Ritchey, Kristen D.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Cooper, David H.; Montanaro, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study was designed to validate a short-term supplemental reading intervention for at-risk first-grade children. Although substantial research on long-term supplemental reading interventions exists, less is known about short-term interventions. Thirty first-grade children were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Students in the intervention received 16 hours of instruction. Analyses of pre- and posttest data and growth measures suggest that short-term sup...

  14. A Multistage Sulphidisation Flotation Procedure for a Low Grade Malachite Copper Ore

    OpenAIRE

    Tebogo P. Phetla; Edison Muzenda

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to develop a flotation procedure for an oxide copper ore from a Region in Central Africa for producing an 18% copper concentrate for downstream processing at maximum recovery from a 4% copper feed grade. The copper recoveries achieved from the test work were less than 50% despite changes in reagent conditions (multistage sulphidisation, use of RCA emulsion and mixture, use of AM 2, etc). The poor recoveries were attributed to the mineralogy of t...

  15. A Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System: A Validated Alternative to the Gleason Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Nelson, Joel B.; Egevad, Lars; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Vickers, Andrew J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.; Eastham, James A.; Wiklund, Peter; Han, Misop; Reddy, Chandana A.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Nyberg, Tommy; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    accurate grade stratification than current systems, simplified grading system of five grades, and lowest grade is 1, as opposed to 6, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of PCa. Patient summary We looked at outcomes for prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy and validated a new grading system with more accurate grade stratification than current systems, including a simplified grading system of five grades and a lowest grade is 1, as opposed to 6, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of PCa. PMID:26166626

  16. The Predictive Validity of CBM Writing Indices for Eighth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Janelle M.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is an alternative to traditional assessment techniques. Technical work has begun to identify CBM writing indices that are psychometrically sound for monitoring older students' writing proficiency. This study examined the predictive validity of CBM writing indices in a sample of 447 eighth-grade students.…

  17. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  18. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5. Technical Report #1310

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic…

  19. Application of Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methods to a Validation Study for Weapons-Grade Mixed-Oxide Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) analysis methods and a Generalized Linear Least-Squares Methodology (GLLSM) have been developed to quantitatively determine the similarity or lack thereof between critical benchmark experiments and an application of interest. The S/U and GLLSM methods provide a mathematical approach, which is less judgment based relative to traditional validation procedures, to assess system similarity and estimate the calculational bias and uncertainty for an application of interest. The objective of this paper is to gain experience with the S/U and GLLSM methods by revisiting a criticality safety evaluation and associated traditional validation for the shipment of weapons-grade (WG) MOX fuel in the MO-1 transportation package. In the original validation, critical experiments were selected based on a qualitative assessment of the MO-1 and MOX contents relative to the available experiments. Subsequently, traditional trending analyses were used to estimate the Δk bias and associated uncertainty. In this paper, the S/U and GLLSM procedures are used to re-evaluate the suite of critical experiments associated with the original MO-1 evaluation. Using the S/U procedures developed at ORNL, critical experiments that are similar to the undamaged and damaged MO-1 package are identified based on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the criticals and the MO-1 package configurations. Based on the trending analyses developed for the S/U and GLLSM procedures, the Δk bias and uncertainty for the most reactive MO-1 package configurations are estimated and used to calculate an upper subcritical limit (USL) for the MO-1 evaluation. The calculated bias and uncertainty from the S/U and GLLSM analyses lead to a calculational USL that supports the original validation study for the MO-1

  20. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: validation of World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Julien; Delahunt, Brett; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Egevad, Lars; Srigley, John R; Coughlin, Geoffrey; Dunglinson, Nigel; Gianduzzo, Troy; Kua, Boon; Malone, Greg; Martin, Ben; Preston, John; Pokorny, Morgan; Wood, Simon; Yaxley, John; Samaratunga, Hemamali

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced a novel grading system for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. This system is incorporated into the latest World Health Organization renal tumour classification, being designated WHO/ISUP grading. This study was undertaken to compare WHO/ISUP and Fuhrman grading and to validate WHO/ISUP grading as a prognostic parameter in a series of clear cell RCC. Analysis of 681 cases of ccRCC showed that 144 tumours could not be assigned a Fuhrman grade on the basis of ambiguous grading features. The application of WHO/ISUP grading resulted in a general down-grading of cases when compared with Fuhrman grading. In a sub-group of 374 cases, for which outcome data were available, 9.3% were WHO/ISUP grade 1, 50.3% were grade 2, 24.1% grade 3 and 16.3% grade 4, while the distribution of Fuhrman grades was 0.4% grade 1, 48.7% grade 2, 29.4% grade 3 and 21.5% grade 4. There were no recurrence/metastases amongst patients with WHO/ISUP grade 1 tumours and there was a significant difference in outcome for WHO/ISUP grades 2, 3 and 4. For Fuhrman grading the cancer-free survival was not significantly different for grade 2 and grade 3 tumours. On multivariate analysis WHO/ISUP grade and pT staging category were found to retain prognostic significance. The study demonstrates that FG cannot be applied in >20% of cases of ccRCC and the WHO/ISUP provides superior prognostic information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire: validation with grades six to eight students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Rhona M; Royall, Dawna; Toews, Jenn E; Blashill, Lindsay; Wegener, Jessica; Driezen, Pete

    2009-01-01

    The web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire (FBQ) includes a 24-hour diet recall, a food frequency questionnaire, and questions addressing knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and food-related behaviours. The survey has been revised since it was developed and initially validated. The current study was designed to obtain qualitative feedback and to validate the FBQ diet recall. "Think aloud" techniques were used in cognitive interviews with dietitian experts (n=11) and grade six students (n=21). Multi-ethnic students (n=201) in grades six to eight at urban southern Ontario schools completed the FBQ and, subsequently, one-on-one diet recall interviews with trained dietitians. Food group and nutrient intakes were compared. Users provided positive feedback on the FBQ. Suggestions included adding more foods, more photos for portion estimation, and online student feedback. Energy and nutrient intakes were positively correlated between FBQ and dietitian interviews, overall and by gender and grade (all p<0.001). Intraclass correlation coefficients were ≥0.5 for energy and macro-nutrients, although the web-based survey underestimated energy (10.5%) and carbohydrate (-15.6%) intakes (p<0.05). Under-estimation of rice and pasta portions on the web accounted for 50% of this discrepancy. The FBQ is valid, relative to 24-hour recall interviews, for dietary assessment in diverse populations of Ontario children in grades six to eight.

  2. Social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the primary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings indicated that teachers generally perceived the SSIS-CIP as a socially valid and feasible intervention for primary grades; however, teachers' ratings regarding ease of implementation and relevance and sequence demonstrated differences across grade levels in the second year of implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Social Validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E.; DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings…

  4. An Investigation of Seventh Grade Students’ Performances on Conceptual, Procedural and Graphical Problems Regarding Circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfi İncikabı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine seventh grade students’ preferences among the procedural, conceptual and graphical questions in the subject of circles, to define their success levels in their preferences, and to compare students’ success levels in one question type with their performances in other question types. The methodology adopted during this research was case study. Based on criterion-based purposive sampling strategy, 98 middle school students were selected as the participants. Data were collected through an achievement test consisting of nine questions (three per question type. The results obtained from the study indicated that students mostly preferred graphical question types. Moreover, majority of students could not succeeded high levels in their preferred question types. In addition, the students performed better in graphical question types; however, the failure in procedural question types was remarkable. Keywords: Multiple representations, middle school students, mathematics education, circles

  5. Biology Procedural Knowledge at Eleventh Grade of Senior High School in West Lampung Based on Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, T. M.; Paidi; Mercuriani, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study was aim to determine Biology procedural knowledge of senior high school in West Lampung based on curriculum at 11th grade in even semester. This research was descriptive research. The population was all students of senior high school in West Lampung. The sampling technique in this research used purposive sampling technique, so the researcher obtained 3 schools using K13 and 3 schools using KTSP. Data collecting technique used instrument test. Data analysis technique used U-Mann Whitney test. The result showed that p=0.028 (p<0.05), so there was significant differences between school using K13 and KTSP. The procedural knowledge of schools which using K13 is higher than school which using KTSP, with the mean score K13=4.35 and KTSP=4.00

  6. Procedural confidence in hospital based practitioners: implications for the training and practice of doctors at all grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagkaraki Petroula A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical doctors routinely undertake a number of practical procedures and these should be performed competently. The UK Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board (PMETB curriculum lists the procedures trainees should be competent in. We aimed to describe medical practitioner's confidence in their procedural skills, and to define which practical procedures are important in current medical practice. Methods A cross sectional observational study was performed measuring procedural confidence in 181 hospital practitioners at all grades from 2 centres in East Anglia, England. Results Both trainees and consultants provide significant service provision. SpR level doctors perform the widest range and the highest median number of procedures per year. Most consultants perform few if any procedures, however some perform a narrow range at high volume. Cumulative confidence for the procedures tested peaks in the SpR grade. Five key procedures (central line insertion, lumbar puncture, pleural aspiration, ascitic aspiration, and intercostal drain insertion are the most commonly performed, are seen as important generic skills, and correspond to the total number of procedures for which confidence can be maintained. Key determinants of confidence are gender, number of procedures performed in the previous year and total number of procedures performed. Conclusion The highest volume of service requirement is for six procedures. The procedural confidence is dependent upon gender, number of procedures performed in the previous year and total number of procedures performed. This has implications for those designing the training curriculum and with regards the move to shorten the duration of training.

  7. Graded changes in enamel component volumes resulted from a short tooth bleaching procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Artemisa Fernanda Moura; Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes Ramos; Limeira Júnior, Francisco de Assis; de Moura, Mirella de Fátima Liberato; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2016-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that changes in enamel component volumes (mineral, organic, and water volumes, and permeability) are graded from outer to inner enamel after a short bleaching procedure. Extracted unerupted human third molars had half of their crowns bleached (single bleaching session, 3 × 15 min), and tooth shade changes in bleached parts were analyzed with a spectrophotometer. Ground sections were prepared, component volumes and permeability were quantified at histological points located at varying distances from the enamel surface (n=10 points/location), representing conditions before and after bleaching. Tooth shade changes were significant (pbleaching, except at the outer layers. Multiple analysis of covariances revealed that most of the variance of the change in enamel composition after bleaching was explained by the combination of the set of types of component volume (in decreasing order of relevance: mineral loss, organic gain, water gain, and decrease in permeability) with the set of distances from the enamel surface (graded from the enamel surface inward) (canonical R(2)=0.97; p99%). Changes in enamel composition after a short bleaching procedure followed a gradient within component volumes (mineral loss>organic gain>water gain>decrease in permeability) and decreased from the enamel surface inward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and... imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by charitable institutions or distribution by...

  9. Prostatectomy-based validation of combined urine and plasma test for predicting high grade prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars; Shahbaba, Babak; Uchio, Edward; Feddersen, Søren; Moylan, Donald; Wojno, Kirk; Shore, Neal

    2018-03-01

    Distinguishing between low- and high-grade prostate cancers (PCa) is important, but biopsy may underestimate the actual grade of cancer. We have previously shown that urine/plasma-based prostate-specific biomarkers can predict high grade PCa. Our objective was to determine the accuracy of a test using cell-free RNA levels of biomarkers in predicting prostatectomy results. This multicenter community-based prospective study was conducted using urine/blood samples collected from 306 patients. All recruited patients were treatment-naïve, without metastases, and had been biopsied, designated a Gleason Score (GS) based on biopsy, and assigned to prostatectomy prior to participation in the study. The primary outcome measure was the urine/plasma test accuracy in predicting high grade PCa on prostatectomy compared with biopsy findings. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using standard formulas, while comparisons between groups were performed using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Fisher's exact test. GS as assigned by standard 10-12 core biopsies was 3 + 3 in 90 (29.4%), 3 + 4 in 122 (39.8%), 4 + 3 in 50 (16.3%), and > 4 + 3 in 44 (14.4%) patients. The urine/plasma assay confirmed a previous validation and was highly accurate in predicting the presence of high-grade PCa (Gleason ≥3 + 4) with sensitivity between 88% and 95% as verified by prostatectomy findings. GS was upgraded after prostatectomy in 27% of patients and downgraded in 12% of patients. This plasma/urine biomarker test accurately predicts high grade cancer as determined by prostatectomy with a sensitivity at 92-97%, while the sensitivity of core biopsies was 78%. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the graded chronic pain scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Peña, Raúl; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Pardo-Montero, Joaquín; Jiménez-Penick, Virginia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    To adapt the Graded Chronic Pain Scale for use in Primary care patients in Spain, and to assess its psychometric properties. Clinical measures observational study investigating the severity of chronic pain. The methodology included a process of translation and back-translation following the international guidelines. Study participants were 75 patients who experienced lower back pain for more than six months and were sent to Primary Care physiotherapy units. Internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, floor and ceiling effects, and answering capacity were analysed. The Spanish version of the Graded Chronic Pain Scale had a high internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.87 and intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.81. Regarding construct validity, it was identified that two factors explained 72.37% of the variance. Convergent validity showed a moderate positive correlation with the Visual Analogue Scale, the activity avoidance subscale of the Tampa Scale of Kinesophobia, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Roland-Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire, and the FearAvoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. A moderate negative correlation was identified with the Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale. The mean time of questionnaire administration was 2minutes and 28seconds. The Spanish version of the Graded Chronic Pain Scale appears to be a valid, reliable, and useful tool for measuring chronic pain at an early stage in Primary Care settings in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  11. On a Bayesian estimation procedure for determining the average ore grade of a uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.; Zamora-Reyes, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    A Bayesian procedure is applied to estimate the average ore grade of a specific uranium deposit (the Morrison formation in New Mexico). Experimental data taken from drilling tests for this formation constitute deposit specific information, E 2 . This information is combined, through a single stage application of Bayes' theorem, with the more extensive and well established information on all similar formations in the region, E 1 . It is assumed that the best estimate for the deposit specific case should include the relevant experimental evidence collected from other like formations giving incomplete information on the specific deposit. This follows traditional methods for resource estimation, which presume that previous collective experience obtained from similar formations in the geological region can be used to infer the geologic characteristics of a less well characterized formation. (Author)

  12. Reliability and Validity of 10 Different Standard Setting Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald

    Research indicating that different cut-off points result from the use of different standard-setting techniques leaves decision makers with a disturbing dilemma: Which standard-setting method is best? This investigation of the reliability and validity of 10 different standard-setting approaches was designed to provide information that might help…

  13. Validation of calibration procedures for freeform parts on CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the validation of a new method for establishment of traceability of freeform measurements on coordinate measuring machines currently being considered for development as a new ISO standard. The method deals with calibration by: i) repeated measurements of a given uncalibrated...

  14. The Validity of the New York Radiological Grading Criteria in Diagnosing Sacroiliitis by Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geijer, M.; Gadeholt Goethlin, G.; Goethlin, J.H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    Background: Sacroiliitis in ankylosing spondylitis has frequently been graded radiographically using the New York (NY) criteria, which also have been applied in computed tomography (CT). Purpose: To validate the grading of the NY criteria in CT of the sacroiliac joints. Material and Methods: With the aid of the NY criteria, assessment of inflammatory and degenerative changes was made in 1304 CT studies. Assessment included erosions, the distribution, type, and width of sclerosis, and the involvement of the joints in sacroiliitis, as well as of normal anatomic variants such as joint space width and shape. Results: There was definite radiological sacroiliitis in 420 joints in 251 patients. Among these, more than two-thirds of the joint was involved in 71.0% of the affected joints. Sclerosis of the ilium was much more prevalent than sacral sclerosis. With increasing NY grade, iliac sclerosis, width, and extent increased, transition from sclerosis to normal bone became indistinct, and the structure of sclerosis was more inhomogeneous. Erosions of the joint surfaces were localized predominantly on the iliac side. Conclusion: Only erosions seem to be a valid solitary diagnostic sign. Solitary erosions need supplemental evidence from other inflammatory signs. Inflammatory sclerosis may be distinguished from degenerative sclerosis, and can sometimes support early diagnosis. Joint space width, joint shape, bone mineral content, or enthesopathy have no place in sacroiliitis diagnosis on CT. The NY criteria are not ideal for use with CT. A practical classification of sacroiliitis on CT is proposed, with a grading of no disease, suspected disease, and definite disease

  15. Simple procedure for phase-space measurement and entanglement validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, R. P.; Mills, P. W.; Tilma, Todd; Samson, J. H.; Everitt, M. J.

    2017-08-01

    It has recently been shown that it is possible to represent the complete quantum state of any system as a phase-space quasiprobability distribution (Wigner function) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 180401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.180401]. Such functions take the form of expectation values of an observable that has a direct analogy to displaced parity operators. In this work we give a procedure for the measurement of the Wigner function that should be applicable to any quantum system. We have applied our procedure to IBM's Quantum Experience five-qubit quantum processor to demonstrate that we can measure and generate the Wigner functions of two different Bell states as well as the five-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Because Wigner functions for spin systems are not unique, we define, compare, and contrast two distinct examples. We show how the use of these Wigner functions leads to an optimal method for quantum state analysis especially in the situation where specific characteristic features are of particular interest (such as for spin Schrödinger cat states). Furthermore we show that this analysis leads to straightforward, and potentially very efficient, entanglement test and state characterization methods.

  16. Developing and Validating a Science Notebook Rubric for Fifth-Grade Non-Mainstream Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Margarita; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.

    2014-07-01

    We present the development and validation of a science notebook rubric intended to measure the academic language and conceptual understanding of non-mainstream students, specifically fifth-grade male and female economically disadvantaged Hispanic English language learner (ELL) and African-American or Hispanic native English-speaking students. The science notebook rubric is based on two main constructs: academic language and conceptual understanding. The constructs are grounded in second-language acquisition theory and theories of writing and conceptual understanding. We established content validity and calculated reliability measures using G theory and percent agreement (for comparison) with a sample of approximately 144 unique science notebook entries and 432 data points. Results reveal sufficient reliability estimates, indicating that the instrument is promising for use in future research studies including science notebooks in classrooms with populations of economically disadvantaged Hispanic ELL and African-American or Hispanic native English-speaking students.

  17. 41 CFR 60-3.6 - Use of selection procedures which have not been validated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978... validation techniques contemplated by these guidelines. In such circumstances, the user should utilize... techniques contemplated by these guidelines usually should be followed if technically feasible. Where the...

  18. Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2009-01-01

    There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation, however the nature of the phenomenon as it equilibrates over longer flights has not been determined. This dysregulation may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. The clinical risk (if any) for exploration-class space flight is unknown, but may include increased incidence of infection, allergy, hypersensitivity, hematological malignancy or altered wound healing. The objective of this Supplemental Medical Objective (SMO) is to determine the status of the immune system, physiological stress and latent viral reactivation (a clinical outcome that can be measured) during both short and long-duration spaceflight. In addition, this study will develop and validate an immune monitoring strategy consistent with operational flight requirements and constraints. Pre-mission, in-flight and post-flight blood and saliva samples will be obtained from participating crewmembers. Assays included peripheral immunophenotype, T cell function, cytokine profiles (RNA, intracellular, secreted), viral-specific immunity, latent viral reactivation (EBV, CMV, VZV), and stress hormone measurements. This study is currently ongoing. To date, 10 short duration and 5 long-duration crewmembers have completed the study. Technically, the study is progressing well. In-flight blood samples are being collected, and returned for analysis, including functional assays that require live cells. For all in-flight samples to date, sample viability has been acceptable. Preliminary data (n = 4/7; long/short duration, respectively) indicate that distribution of most peripheral leukocyte subsets is largely unaltered during flight. Exceptions include elevated T cells, reduced B/NK cells, increased memory T cells and increased central memory CD8+ T cells. General T cell function, early blastogenesis response to mitogenic stimulation, is markedly

  19. A Neural Networks Based Operation Guidance System for Procedure Presentation and Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung, Kun Mo; Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a neural network based operator support system is proposed to reduce operator's errors in abnormal situations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). There are many complicated situations, in which regular and suitable operations should be done by operators accordingly. In order to regulate and validate operators' operations, it is necessary to develop an operator support system which includes computer based procedures with the functions for operation validation. Many computerized procedures systems (CPS) have been recently developed. Focusing on the human machine interface (HMI) design and procedures' computerization, most of CPSs used various methodologies to enhance system's convenience, reliability and accessibility. Other than only showing procedures, the proposed system integrates a simple CPS and an operation validation system (OVS) by using artificial neural network (ANN) for operational permission and quantitative evaluation

  20. Validity, reliability and support for implementation of independence-scaled procedural assessment in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Kelvin H; van Det, Marc J; Veeger, Nic J G M; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N

    2016-06-01

    There is no widely used method to evaluate procedure-specific laparoscopic skills. The first aim of this study was to develop a procedure-based assessment method. The second aim was to compare its validity, reliability and feasibility with currently available global rating scales (GRSs). An independence-scaled procedural assessment was created by linking the procedural key steps of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy to an independence scale. Subtitled and blinded videos of a novice, an intermediate and an almost competent trainee, were evaluated with GRSs (OSATS and GOALS) and the independence-scaled procedural assessment by seven surgeons, three senior trainees and six scrub nurses. Participants received a short introduction to the GRSs and independence-scaled procedural assessment before assessment. The validity was estimated with the Friedman and Wilcoxon test and the reliability with the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). A questionnaire was used to evaluate user opinion. Independence-scaled procedural assessment and GRS scores improved significantly with surgical experience (OSATS p = 0.001, GOALS p < 0.001, independence-scaled procedural assessment p < 0.001). The ICCs of the OSATS, GOALS and independence-scaled procedural assessment were 0.78, 0.74 and 0.84, respectively, among surgeons. The ICCs increased when the ratings of scrub nurses were added to those of the surgeons. The independence-scaled procedural assessment was not considered more of an administrative burden than the GRSs (p = 0.692). A procedural assessment created by combining procedural key steps to an independence scale is a valid, reliable and acceptable assessment instrument in surgery. In contrast to the GRSs, the reliability of the independence-scaled procedural assessment exceeded the threshold of 0.8, indicating that it can also be used for summative assessment. It furthermore seems that scrub nurses can assess the operative competence of surgical trainees.

  1. Maintenance Procedures for North American Visually-graded Dimension Lumber Design Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Kretschmann; Don DeVisser; Kevin Cheung; Bob Browder; Al Rozek

    2014-01-01

    ASTM International D1990 Standard Practice for Establishing Allowable Properties for Visually-Graded Dimension Lumber from In-Grade Tests of Full-Size Specimens, that governs the development of design values for dimension lumber in North America, was first adopted in 1991with recognition that the resource and manufacturing of lumber could change over time impacting...

  2. Validity of diagnoses, procedures, and laboratory data in Japanese administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, Hayato; Moriwaki, Mutsuko; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kodan, Mariko; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2017-10-01

    Validation of recorded data is a prerequisite for studies that utilize administrative databases. The present study evaluated the validity of diagnoses and procedure records in the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) data, along with laboratory test results in the newly-introduced Standardized Structured Medical Record Information Exchange (SS-MIX) data. Between November 2015 and February 2016, we conducted chart reviews of 315 patients hospitalized between April 2014 and March 2015 in four middle-sized acute-care hospitals in Shizuoka, Kochi, Fukuoka, and Saga Prefectures and used them as reference standards. The sensitivity and specificity of DPC data in identifying 16 diseases and 10 common procedures were identified. The accuracy of SS-MIX data for 13 laboratory test results was also examined. The specificity of diagnoses in the DPC data exceeded 96%, while the sensitivity was below 50% for seven diseases and variable across diseases. When limited to primary diagnoses, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.9% and 93.2%, respectively. The sensitivity of procedure records exceeded 90% for six procedures, and the specificity exceeded 90% for nine procedures. Agreement between the SS-MIX data and the chart reviews was above 95% for all 13 items. The validity of diagnoses and procedure records in the DPC data and laboratory results in the SS-MIX data was high in general, supporting their use in future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Issues of validity and generalisability in the Grade 12 English Home Language examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Plessis, Colleen Lynne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Very little research has been devoted to evaluating the national English Home Language (HL curriculum and assessment system. Not only is there a lack of clarity on whether the language subject is being offered at an adequately high level to meet the declared objectives of the curriculum, but the reliability of the results obtained by Grade 12 learners in the exit-level examination has been placed under suspicion. To shed some light on the issue, this study takes a close look at the language component of the school-leaving examination covering the period 2008-2012, to see whether evidence of high language ability can be generated through the current selection of task types and whether the inferred ability can be generalised to non-examination contexts. Of primary interest here are the validity of the construct on which the examination is built and the sub-abilities that are being measured, as well as the validity of the scoring. One of the key findings of the study is that the language papers cannot be considered indicators of advanced and differential language ability, only of basic and general proficiency. The lack of specifications in the design of the examination items and construction of the marking memoranda undermine the validity and reliability of the assessment. As a consequence hereof, the inferences made on the basis of the scores obtained by examinees are highly subjective and cannot be generalised to other domains of language use. The study hopes to draw attention to the importance of the format and design of the examination papers in maintaining educational standards.

  4. Validity and Reliability of Preschool, First and Second Grade Versions of Berkeley Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrbanoo Tajeri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of preschool, first and second grade versions of Berkeley Parenting self-efficacy scale. "nMethod:  The subjects were 317 mothers: (102 mothers of preschool children, 111 mothers of first grade children and 104 mothers of second grade children who were randomly selected from schools in Tehran. They completed Berkeley parenting self-efficacy and Rotter `s locus of control scales. Factor analysis using the principle component method was used to identify the factor structure of parenting self-efficacy scale. Cronbach`s alpha coefficient was used to identify the reliability of parenting self efficacy scale. "nResults: Results of this study indicated that the cronbach`s alpha coefficient was 0.84, 0.87, 0.64 for preschool, first grade and second grade versions respectively. Based on the scree test ,,factor analysis produced two factors of maternal strategy and child outcome, and it also produced the highest level of total variance explained by these 2 factors. The Parenting self-efficacy scale was negatively associated with measure of locus of control(r=-0.54 for the preschool version, -0.64 for the first grade version and -0.54 for the second grade version. "nConclusion: Due to relatively high reliability and validity of preschool, first and second grade versions of Berkeley Parenting Self-Efficacy scale, this scale could be used as a reliable and valid scale in other research areas

  5. Experimental Testing Procedures and Dynamic Model Validation for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at characterizing the electrochemical and thermal parameters of a 15 kW/320 kWh vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) installed in the SYSLAB test facility of the DTU Risø Campus and experimentally validating the proposed dynamic model realized in Matlab-Simulink. The adopted testing...... efficiency of the battery system. The test procedure has general validity and could also be used for other storage technologies. The storage model proposed and described is suitable for electrical studies and can represent a general model in terms of validity. Finally, the model simulation outputs...

  6. Validity of Alternative Fitnessgram Upper Body Tests of Muscular Strength and Endurance among Seventh and Eighth Grade Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobayan, Kalani; Patterson, Debra; Sherman, Clay; Wiersma, Lenny

    2014-01-01

    In a society in which obesity levels have tripled in the past 30 years, the importance of increased fitness levels within the academic setting has become even more critical. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of alternative Fitnessgram upper body tests of muscular strength and endurance among seventh and eighth grade males…

  7. Validity of the MicroDYN Approach: Complex Problem Solving Predicts School Grades beyond Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Fabian; Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the validity of the complex problem solving (CPS) test MicroDYN by investigating a) the relation between its dimensions--rule identification (exploration strategy), rule knowledge (acquired knowledge), rule application (control performance)--and working memory capacity (WMC), and b) whether CPS predicts school grades in…

  8. Assessing Women's Responses to Sexual Threat: Validity of a Virtual Role-Play Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment…

  9. Validating the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in First and Third Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Pakarinen, Eija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Muotka, Joona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM) in Finnish and Estonian first and third grade classrooms. The observation data were collected from 91 first grade teachers and 70 third grade teachers. Teachers' curriculum goals, teaching experience and the classroom size were…

  10. Validation of an advanced analytical procedure applied to the measurement of environmental radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Tran Thien; Vuong, Le Quang; Ho, Phan Long; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Nguyen, Vo Hoang; Tao, Chau Van

    2018-04-01

    In this work, an advanced analytical procedure was applied to calculate radioactivity in spiked water samples in a close geometry gamma spectroscopy. It included MCNP-CP code in order to calculate the coincidence summing correction factor (CSF). The CSF results were validated by a deterministic method using ETNA code for both p-type HPGe detectors. It showed that a good agreement for both codes. Finally, the validity of the developed procedure was confirmed by a proficiency test to calculate the activities of various radionuclides. The results of the radioactivity measurement with both detectors using the advanced analytical procedure were received the ''Accepted'' statuses following the proficiency test. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Construct validity of selected measures of physical activity beliefs and motives in fifth and sixth grade boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K; Saunders, Ruth P; McIver, Kerry L; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R

    2013-06-01

    Scales used to measure selected social-cognitive beliefs and motives for physical activity were tested among boys and girls. Covariance modeling was applied to responses obtained from large multi-ethnic samples of students in the fifth and sixth grades. Theoretically and statistically sound models were developed, supporting the factorial validity of the scales in all groups. Multi-group longitudinal invariance was confirmed between boys and girls, overweight and normal weight students, and non-Hispanic black and white children. The construct validity of the scales was supported by hypothesized convergent and discriminant relationships within a measurement model that included correlations with physical activity (MET • min/day) measured by an accelerometer. Scores from the scales provide valid assessments of selected beliefs and motives that are putative mediators of change in physical activity among boys and girls, as they begin the understudied transition from the fifth grade into middle school, when physical activity naturally declines.

  12. 76 FR 80278 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... challenge to the provisions of this rule. Regulatory Flexibility Act Pursuant to requirements set forth in... currently part of the official USDA cotton classification. Accurate assignment of leaf grade is of economic... cost factor associated with its removal. Furthermore, since small leaf particles cannot always be...

  13. 77 FR 20503 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... measurements for other quality factors are performed by precise HVI measurements, manual determinations for.... Accurate assignment of leaf grade is of economic importance to all participants along the cotton supply... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Fees paid by users of the service are...

  14. Collect Available Creep-Fatigue Data and Study Existing Creep-Fatigue Evaluation Procedures for Grade 91 and Hastelloy XR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayama, Tai; Tachibana, Yukio

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of investigation on Task 5 of DOE/ASME Materials Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 5 is to collect available creep-fatigue data and study existing creep-fatigue evaluation procedures for Grade 91 steel and Hastelloy XR. Part I of this report is devoted to Grade 91 steel. Existing creep-fatigue data were collected (Appendix A) and analyzed from the viewpoints of establishing a creep-fatigue procedure for VHTR design. A fair amount of creep-fatigue data has been obtained and creep-fatigue phenomena have been clarified to develop design standards mainly for fast breeder reactors. Following this, existing creep-fatigue procedures were studied and it was clarified that the creep-fatigue evaluation procedure of the ASME-NH has a lot of conservatisms and they were analyzed in detail from the viewpoints of the evaluation of creep damage of material. Based on the above studies, suggestions to improve the ASME-NH procedure along with necessary research and development items were presented. Part II of this report is devoted to Hastelloy XR. Existing creep-fatigue data used for development of the high temperature structural design guideline for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) were collected. Creep-fatigue evaluation procedure in the design guideline and its application to design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was described. Finally, some necessary research and development items in relation to creep-fatigue evaluation for Gen IV and VHTR reactors were presented.

  15. Validation of the new graded prognostic assessment scale for brain metastases: a multicenter prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villà, Salvador; Verger, Eugènia; Balañà, Carme; Graus, Francesc; Weber, Damien C; Moretones, Cristina; Mañes, Anabel; Combescure, Christophe; Jové, Josep; Puyalto, Paloma; Cuadras, Patricia; Bruna, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Prognostic indexes are useful to guide tailored treatment strategies for cancer patients with brain metastasis (BM). We evaluated the new Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) scale in a prospective validation study to compare it with two published prognostic indexes. A total of 285 newly diagnosed BM (n = 85 with synchronous BM) patients, accrued prospectively between 2000 and 2009, were included in this analysis. Mean age was 62 ± 12.0 years. The median KPS and number of BM was 70 (range, 20-100) and 3 (range, 1-50), respectively. The majority of primary tumours were lung (53%), or breast (17%) cancers. Treatment was administered to 255 (89.5%) patients. Only a minority of patients could be classified prospectively in a favourable prognostic class: GPA 3.5-4: 3.9%; recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) 1, 8.4% and Basic Score for BM (BSBM) 3, 9.1%. Mean follow-up (FU) time was 5.2 ± 4.7 months. During the period of FU, 225 (78.9%) patients died. The 6 months- and 1 year-OS was 36.9% and 17.6%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, performance status (P < 0.001), BSBM (P < 0.001), Center (P = 0.007), RPA (P = 0.02) and GPA (P = 0.03) were statistically significant for OS. The survival prediction performances' of all indexes were identical. Noteworthy, the significant OS difference observed within 3 months of diagnosis between the BSBM, RPA and GPA classes/groups was not observed after this cut-off time point. Harrell's concordance indexes C were 0.58, 0.61 and 0.58 for the GPA, BSBM and RPA, respectively. Our data suggest that the new GPA index is a valid prognostic index. In this prospective study, the prediction performance was as good as the BSBM or RPA systems. These published indexes may however have limited long term prognostication capability

  16. Validation of subclavian duplex velocity criteria to grade severity of subclavian artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Albeir Y; Morkous, Ramez; Broce, Mike; Yacoub, Michael; Sticco, Andrew; Viradia, Ravi; Bates, Mark C; AbuRahma, Ali F

    2017-06-01

    Validation of subclavian duplex ultrasound velocity criteria (SDUS VC) to grade the severity of subclavian artery stenosis has not been established or systematically studied. Currently, there is a paucity of published literature and lack of practitioner consensus for how subclavian duplex velocity findings should be interpreted in patients with subclavian artery stenosis. The objective of the present study was to validate SDUS measurements using subclavian conventional or computed tomography angiogram (subclavian angiogram [SA])-derived measurements. Secondary objectives included measuring the correlation between SDUS peak systolic velocities and SA measurements, and to determine the optimal cutoff value for predicting significant stenosis (>70%). This is a retrospective review of all patients with suspected subclavian artery stenosis and a convenience sample of carotid artery patients who underwent SDUS and SA from May 1999 to July 2013. SA reference vessel and intralesion minimal lumen diameters were measured and compared with SDUS velocities obtained within 3 months of the imaging study. Percent stenosis was calculated using the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial method for detecting stenosis in a sufficiently large cohort. Receiver operating characteristic curves was generated for SDUS VC to predict >70% stenosis. Velocity cutoff points were determined with equal weighting of sensitivity and specificity. We examined 268 arteries for 177 patients. The majority of the arteries were for female patients (52.5%) with a mean age of 66.7 ± 11.1 years. Twenty-three arteries had retrograde vertebral artery flow and excluded from further analysis. For the remaining 245 arteries, the average peak systolic velocity was 212.6 ± 110.7 cm/s, with a range of 45-626 cm/s. Average stenosis was 25.8% ± 28.2%, with a range of 0% to 100%. Following receiver operating characteristic analysis, we found a cutoff value of >240 cm/s to be most predictive

  17. Handling of radiopharmaceuticals drugs in hot cell: Implementation and validation of new hygiene procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levigoureux, E.; Hoffman, A.; Bolot, C.; Aulagner, G.; Brun, J.

    2012-01-01

    Exigencies associated with radiopharmaceutical drugs require validation of hygiene procedures. Different bio-cleaning processes were applied. For each, samples were collected from work surface, from preparation field and from the cap of multi-doses vial on agar contact. Twenty-two radiopharmaceutical preparations were inoculated in different liquid media. Results show that modification of bio-cleaning process enables a microbiological contamination reduction (p ≡ 0.0196). All preparations passed the sterility tests. Thus these results enabled the validation of new hygiene process in the radiopharmacy unit. (authors) [fr

  18. A formal language to describe a wide class of failure detection and signal validation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1996-01-01

    In the present article we make the first step towards the implementation of a user-friendly, object-oriented system devoted to failure detection and signal validation purposes. After overviewing different signal modelling, residual making and hypothesis testing procedures, a mathematical tool is suggested to describe a general failure detection problem. Three different levels of the abstraction are distinguished; direct examination, preliminary decision support mechanism and indirect examination. Possible scenarios are introduced depending both on the objective properties of the investigated signal and the particular requirements prescribed by the expert himself. Finally it is showed how to build up systematically a complete, general failure detection procedure. (author).

  19. Validity, reliability, feasibility, acceptability and educational impact of direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Naghma

    2013-01-01

    Direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS) is a new workplace assessment tool. The aim of this narrative review of literature is to summarize the available evidence about the validity, reliability, feasibility, acceptability and educational impact of DOPS. A PubMed database and Google search of the literature on DOPS published from January 2000 to January 2012 was conducted which yielded 30 articles. Thirteen articles were selected for full text reading and review. In the reviewed literature, DOPS was found to be a useful tool for assessment of procedural skills, but further research is required to prove its utility as a workplace based assessment instrument.

  20. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Reinders, Jan J; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2006-10-01

    To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in favour of students with higher GPAs. We studied the students (n = 398) admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Groningen, the Netherlands in 1982 and 1983. Data concerning drop-out and study progress were derived from the student administration. Data about career development were obtained from annual interviews with graduates (n = 318) between 1993 and 2000. Literature searches yielded data concerning scientific performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. The variables 'gender' and 'cohort' and their interaction were included in the analyses to account for variation in the general level of the dependent variable and the effect of GPA on the dependent variable. GPA scores had no effect on drop-out rate. High GPA scores were associated with significantly less time to graduation, more chance of a preferred placement for specialist training and higher scientific output. GPA was not related to income. Gender differences were found for study duration and scientific output. Women graduated earlier and published less. The GPA of school-leaving examinations was found to be related to study success, career development and scientific performance. In this study the usual problem of restriction of range was shown to be absent. The weighted lottery procedure even resulted in an over-dispersion of candidates relative to the applicants. The resulting effect sizes were in agreement with those reported in other studies.

  1. Validity and reliability of grade scoring in the diagnosis of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Hvedstrup, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    The current gold-standard method for diagnosing exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), with severity classified by a visual grade scoring system. We evaluated the precision of this approach, by evaluating test-retest reliability of CLE...... grade scoring system does not appear to be a robust means for reliably classifying severity of EILO....

  2. A validity generalization procedure to test relations between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and influence tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuto, John E; Moss, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    The relations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with use of consultative, legitimating, and pressure influence tactics were examined using validity generalization procedures. 5 to 7 field studies with cumulative samples exceeding 800 were used to test each relationship. Significance was found for relation between agents' intrinsic motivation and their use of consultative influence tactics and agents' extrinsic motivation and their use of legitimating influence tactics.

  3. Successful Written Subject-Verb Agreement: An Online Analysis of the Procedure Used by Students in Grades 3, 5 and 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamargot, Denis; Flouret, Lisa; Larocque, Denis; Caporossi, Gilles; Pontart, Virginie; Paduraru, Carmen; Morisset, Pauline; Fayol, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to (1) investigate the procedure responsible for successful written subject-verb agreement, and (2) describe how it develops across grades. Students in Grades 3, 5 and 12 were asked to read noun-noun-verb sentences aloud (e.g., "Le chien des voisins mange" ["The dog of the neighbors eats"]) and write out…

  4. Validation of a densimeter calibration procedure for a secondary calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpizar Herrera, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to quantify the need for calibration of a density measurement instrument at the research units at the Sede Rodrigo Facio of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A calibration procedure was documented for the instrument that presented the highest demand in the survey by the calibration service. A study of INTE-ISO/IEC 17025: 2005 and specifically in section 5.4 of this standard was done, to document the procedure for calibrating densimeters. Densimeter calibration procedures and standards were sought from different national and international sources. The method of hydrostatic weighing or Cuckow method was the basis of the defined procedure. Documenting the calibration procedure and creating other documents was performed for data acquisition log, intermediate calculation log and calibration certificate copy. A veracity test was performed using as reference laboratory a laboratory of calibration secondary national as part of the validation process of the documented procedure. The results of the E_n statistic of 0.41; 0.34 and 0.46 for the calibration points 90%, 50% and 10% were obtained for the densimeter scale respectively. A reproducibility analysis of the method was performed with satisfactory results. Different suppliers were contacted to estimate the economic costs of the equipment and materials, needed to develop the documented method of densimeter calibration. The acquisition of an analytical balance was recommended, instead of a precision scale, in order to improve the results obtained with the documented method [es

  5. Low-grade liquid silicone injections as a penile enhancement procedure: Is bigger better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Sasidaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To report our experience with 5 cases of complications of penile enhancement procedures secondary to liquid silicone injections and our method of management of its debilitating effects. All five patients were treated with excision of penile shaft skin down to buck′s fascia followed by resurfacing with split thickness skin grafting. We conclude that penile enhancement procedures with liquid silicone by non-medical personnel could result in devastating consequences. We also demonstrate that a simple method of excision of the entire penile shaft skin and resurfacing with split skin grafting showed improvement in cosmetic as well as functional outcome.

  6. Validation of science virtual test to assess 8th grade students' critical thinking on living things and environmental sustainability theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyati, Lilit; Firman, Harry

    2017-05-01

    This research was motivated by the importance of multiple-choice questions that indicate the elements and sub-elements of critical thinking and implementation of computer-based test. The method used in this research was descriptive research for profiling the validation of science virtual test to measure students' critical thinking in junior high school. The participant is junior high school students of 8th grade (14 years old) while science teacher and expert as the validators. The instrument that used as a tool to capture the necessary data are sheet of an expert judgment, sheet of legibility test, and science virtual test package in multiple choice form with four possible answers. There are four steps to validate science virtual test to measure students' critical thinking on the theme of "Living Things and Environmental Sustainability" in 7th grade Junior High School. These steps are analysis of core competence and basic competence based on curriculum 2013, expert judgment, legibility test and trial test (limited and large trial test). The test item criterion based on trial test are accepted, accepted but need revision, and rejected. The reliability of the test is α = 0.747 that categorized as `high'. It means the test instruments used is reliable and high consistency. The validity of Rxy = 0.63 means that the validity of the instrument was categorized as `high' according to interpretation value of Rxy (correlation).

  7. Clinical validation of a medical grade color monitor for chest radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J.; Zanca, F.; Verschakelen, J.; Marchal, G.; Bosmans, H.

    2009-02-01

    Until recently, the specifications of medical grade monochrome LCD monitors outperformed those of color LCD monitors. New generations of color LCD monitors, however, show specifications that are in many respects similar to those of monochrome monitors typically used in diagnostic workstations. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of different medical grade monitors in terms of detection of simulated lung nodules in chest x-ray images. Specifically, we wanted to compare a new medical grade color monitor (Barco Coronis 6MP color) to a medical grade grayscale monitor (Barco Coronis 3MP monochrome) and a consumer color monitor (Philips 200VW 1.7MP color) by means of an observer performance experiment. Using the free-response acquisition data paradigm, seven radiologists were asked to detect and locate lung nodules (170 in total), simulated in half of the 200 chest X-ray images used in the experiment. The jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis of the data showed a statistically significant difference between at least two monitors, F-value=3.77 and p-value =0.0481. The different Figure of Merit values were 0.727, 0.723 and 0.697 for the new color LCD monitor, the medical grade monitor and the consumer color monitor respectively. There was no difference between the needed reading times but there was a difference between the mean calculated Euclidian distances between the position marked by the observers and the center of the simulated nodule, indicating a better accuracy with both medical grade monitors. Present data suggests that the new generation of medical grade color monitors could be used as diagnostic workstations.

  8. Enhanced Oceanic Operations Human-In-The-Loop In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Bussink, Frank J. L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Palmer, Michael T.; Palmer, Susan O.

    2008-01-01

    The Enhanced Oceanic Operations Human-In-The-Loop In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Validation Simulation Study investigated the viability of an ITP designed to enable oceanic flight level changes that would not otherwise be possible. Twelve commercial airline pilots with current oceanic experience flew a series of simulated scenarios involving either standard or ITP flight level change maneuvers and provided subjective workload ratings, assessments of ITP validity and acceptability, and objective performance measures associated with the appropriate selection, request, and execution of ITP flight level change maneuvers. In the majority of scenarios, subject pilots correctly assessed the traffic situation, selected an appropriate response (i.e., either a standard flight level change request, an ITP request, or no request), and executed their selected flight level change procedure, if any, without error. Workload ratings for ITP maneuvers were acceptable and not substantially higher than for standard flight level change maneuvers, and, for the majority of scenarios and subject pilots, subjective acceptability ratings and comments for ITP were generally high and positive. Qualitatively, the ITP was found to be valid and acceptable. However, the error rates for ITP maneuvers were higher than for standard flight level changes, and these errors may have design implications for both the ITP and the study's prototype traffic display. These errors and their implications are discussed.

  9. Development and Validation of Extract the Base: An English Derivational Morphology Test for Third through Fifth Grade Monolingual Students and Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria; Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry; Louguit, Mohammed; August, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Extract the Base test (ETB), which assesses derivational morphological awareness. Scores on this test were validated for 580 monolingual students and 373 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in third through fifth grade. As part of the validation of the internal structure,…

  10. Validation of DWI pre-processing procedures for reliable differentiation between human brain gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellmer, Sebastian; Tonoyan, Aram S; Suter, Dieter; Pronin, Igor N; Maximov, Ivan I

    2018-02-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a powerful tool in clinical applications, in particular, in oncology screening. dMRI demonstrated its benefit and efficiency in the localisation and detection of different types of human brain tumours. Clinical dMRI data suffer from multiple artefacts such as motion and eddy-current distortions, contamination by noise, outliers etc. In order to increase the image quality of the derived diffusion scalar metrics and the accuracy of the subsequent data analysis, various pre-processing approaches are actively developed and used. In the present work we assess the effect of different pre-processing procedures such as a noise correction, different smoothing algorithms and spatial interpolation of raw diffusion data, with respect to the accuracy of brain glioma differentiation. As a set of sensitive biomarkers of the glioma malignancy grades we chose the derived scalar metrics from diffusion and kurtosis tensor imaging as well as the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) biophysical model. Our results show that the application of noise correction, anisotropic diffusion filtering, and cubic-order spline interpolation resulted in the highest sensitivity and specificity for glioma malignancy grading. Thus, these pre-processing steps are recommended for the statistical analysis in brain tumour studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Experimental design technique applied to the validation of an instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Uanda Paula de M. dos; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method were carried out for the determination of the elements bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and vanadium in biological matrix materials using short irradiations at a pneumatic system. 2 k experimental designs were applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. The chosen experimental designs were the 2 3 and the 2 4 , depending on the radionuclide half life. Different certified reference materials and multi-element comparators were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, irradiation time, counting time and sample distance to detector. Comparator concentration, sample mass and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations, it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN /CNEN-SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect, interaction effects and better irradiation conditions. (author)

  12. Experimental design technique applied to the validation of an instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Uanda Paula de M. dos; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves, E-mail: uandapaula@gmail.com, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method were carried out for the determination of the elements bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and vanadium in biological matrix materials using short irradiations at a pneumatic system. 2{sup k} experimental designs were applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. The chosen experimental designs were the 2{sup 3} and the 2{sup 4}, depending on the radionuclide half life. Different certified reference materials and multi-element comparators were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, irradiation time, counting time and sample distance to detector. Comparator concentration, sample mass and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations, it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN /CNEN-SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect, interaction effects and better irradiation conditions. (author)

  13. Manufacturing facilities of pharmaceutical products and measures for purification of its environment. Validation for sterilizing grade filter; Iyakuhin no seizo shisetsu to kankyo seijoka taisaku. Mekkin`yo firuta no barideshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, M.

    1994-07-31

    Validation is defined as firm establishment of a documentary evidence showing the system concerned is functioning as designed. Validation for sterilizing grade filter is not limited only to validation of the filter itself, but evaluation of its extract as well as adsorption and the sterilizing condition of the filter and system are the items to be examined. It is necessary to make validation of the filtering system as a whole taking into consideration any kind of element of composition in order to reach the target. In this article, in order to avoid description on diversified subjects, only validation for the filter is focused and its technique is introduced. The procedure for executing validation is stated first, and concerning validation for the sterilizing grade filter, a bacterial retention test is explained in detail, then with regard to an integrity test, sterilization of the devise concerned and pharmaceutical suitability/extract tests, the points which call special attention and testing items are introduced. Finally self inspection and evaluation of operating performance qualification are described. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Purification of melt-spun metallurgical grade silicon micro-flakes through a multi-step segregation procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, F. A.; Nordstrand, E. F.; Gibson, U. J.

    2013-01-01

    Melt-spun metallurgical grade (MG) micron dimension silicon flakes have been purified into near solar grade (SG) quality through a multi-step melting and re-solidification procedure. A wet oxidation-applied thermal oxide maintained the sample morphology during annealing while the interiors were melted and re-solidified. The small thickness of the flakes allowed for near elimination of in-plane grain boundaries, with segregation enhanced accumulation of impurities at the object surface and in the few remaining grain boundaries. A subsequent etch in 48% hydrofluoric acid (HF) removed the impure oxide layer, and part of the contamination at the oxide-silicon interface, as shown by electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and backscattered electron imaging (BEI). The sample grains were investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) after varying numbers of oxidation-annealing-etch cycles, and were observed to grow from ˜5 μm to ˜200 μm. The concentration of iron, titanium, copper and aluminium were shown by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS) to drop between five and six orders of magnitude. The concentration of boron was observed to drop approximately one order of magnitude. A good correlation was observed between impurity removal rates and segregation models, indicating that the purification effect is mainly caused by segregation. Deviations from these models could be explained by the formation of oxides and hydroxides later removed through etching.

  15. A Cross-Grade Study Validating the Evolutionary Pathway of Student Mental Models in Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Cross-grade studies are valuable for the development of sequential curriculum. However such studies are time and resource intensive and fail to provide a clear representation to integrate different levels of representational complexity. Lin (Lin, 2006; Lin & Chiu, 2006; Lin, Chiu, & Hsu, 2006) proposed a cladistics approach in conceptual…

  16. Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an "Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8". The study group included 691 students out of 10 schools in Eskisehir. Both Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted on the data (Burnout stem from school activities, burnout stem from family, feeling of…

  17. Student Evaluations of Teaching: Effects of the Big Five Personality Traits, Grades and the Validity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Carol Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the Big Five personality traits and expected student grades relate to student evaluations of teachers and courses at the college level. Extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were found to be personality traits favoured in instructors, whereas neuroticism was not. A…

  18. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Reinders, Jan J.; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in

  19. The validity and reliability of value-added and target-setting procedures with special reference to Key Stage 3

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Ian Robin

    2003-01-01

    The validity of value-added systems of measurement is crucially dependent upon there being a demonstrably unambiguous relationship between the so-called baseline, or intake measures, and any subsequent measure of performance at a later stage. The reliability of such procedures is dependent on the relationships between these two measures being relatively stable over time. A number of questions arise with regard to both the validity and reliability of value-added procedures at any level in educ...

  20. Procedure for the Selection and Validation of a Calibration Model I-Description and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desharnais, Brigitte; Camirand-Lemyre, Félix; Mireault, Pascal; Skinner, Cameron D

    2017-05-01

    Calibration model selection is required for all quantitative methods in toxicology and more broadly in bioanalysis. This typically involves selecting the equation order (quadratic or linear) and weighting factor correctly modelizing the data. A mis-selection of the calibration model will generate lower quality control (QC) accuracy, with an error up to 154%. Unfortunately, simple tools to perform this selection and tests to validate the resulting model are lacking. We present a stepwise, analyst-independent scheme for selection and validation of calibration models. The success rate of this scheme is on average 40% higher than a traditional "fit and check the QCs accuracy" method of selecting the calibration model. Moreover, the process was completely automated through a script (available in Supplemental Data 3) running in RStudio (free, open-source software). The need for weighting was assessed through an F-test using the variances of the upper limit of quantification and lower limit of quantification replicate measurements. When weighting was required, the choice between 1/x and 1/x2 was determined by calculating which option generated the smallest spread of weighted normalized variances. Finally, model order was selected through a partial F-test. The chosen calibration model was validated through Cramer-von Mises or Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality testing of the standardized residuals. Performance of the different tests was assessed using 50 simulated data sets per possible calibration model (e.g., linear-no weight, quadratic-no weight, linear-1/x, etc.). This first of two papers describes the tests, procedures and outcomes of the developed procedure using real LC-MS-MS results for the quantification of cocaine and naltrexone. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Validity of the Draw-a-Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP:SPED) in Strengths-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Holly C.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Clausen, Cinny

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This is the first validity study to date to examine the relationship between the Draw-A-Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP:SPED) and strengths-based emotional and behavioral measures. The incremental predictive validity of the DAP:SPED relative to the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale was examined. Method:…

  2. Validation of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System for assessing the treatment outcomes of Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guang-Ying; Baumrind, Sheldon; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Wu, Wei-Zi; Ren, Chong; Weng, Xuan-Rong; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min

    2013-09-01

    Orthodontics in China has developed rapidly, but there is no standard index of treatment outcomes. We assessed the validity of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System (ABO-OGS) for the classification of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. We randomly selected 108 patients who completed treatment between July 2005 and September 2008 in 6 orthodontic treatment centers across China. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontists made subjective assessments of the end-of-treatment casts for each patient. Three examiners then used the ABO-OGS to measure the casts. Pearson correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were conducted to evaluate the correspondence between the ABO-OGS cast measurements and the orthodontists' subjective assessments. The average subjective grading scores were highly correlated with the ABO-OGS scores (r = 0.7042). Four of the 7 study cast components of the ABO-OGS score-occlusal relationship, overjet, interproximal contact, and alignment-were statistically significantly correlated with the judges' subjective assessments. Together, these 4 accounted for 58% of the variability in the average subjective grading scores. The ABO-OGS cutoff score for cases that the judges deemed satisfactory was 16 points; the corresponding cutoff score for cases that the judges considered acceptable was 21 points. The ABO-OGS is a valid index for the assessment of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. By comparing the objective scores on this modification of the ABO-OGS with the mean subjective assessment of a panel of highly qualified Chinese orthodontists, a cutoff point for satisfactory treatment outcome was defined as 16 points or fewer, with scores of 16 to 21 points denoting less than satisfactory but still acceptable treatment. Cases that scored greater than 21 points were considered unacceptable. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality Control Assays for Clinical-Grade Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Validation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radrizzani, Marina; Soncin, Sabrina; Bolis, Sara; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Andriolo, Gabriella; Turchetto, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The present chapter focuses on the validation of the following analytical methods for the control of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for cell therapy clinical trials: Microbiological control for cellular product Endotoxin assay Mycoplasma assay Cell count and viability Immunophenotype Clonogenic potential (CFU-F assay) In our lab, these methods are in use for product release, process control or control of the biological starting materials. They are described in detail in the accompanying Chapter 19.For each method, validation goals and strategy are presented, and a detailed experimental scheme is proposed.

  4. Operator competence in fetoscopic laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome: validation of a procedure-specific evaluation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, S H P; Akkermans, J; Bustraan, J; Middeldorp, J M; Lopriore, E; Devlieger, R; Lewi, L; Deprest, J; Oepkes, D

    2016-03-01

    Fetoscopic laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome is a procedure for which no objective tools exist to assess technical skills. To ensure that future fetal surgeons reach competence prior to performing the procedure unsupervised, we developed a performance assessment tool. The aim of this study was to validate this assessment tool for reliability and construct validity. We made use of a procedure-specific evaluation instrument containing all essential steps of the fetoscopic laser procedure, which was previously created using Delphi methodology. Eleven experts and 13 novices from three fetal medicine centers performed the procedure on the same simulator. Two independent observers assessed each surgery using the instrument (maximum score: 52). Interobserver reliability was assessed using Spearman correlation. We compared the performance of novices and experts to assess construct validity. The interobserver reliability was high (Rs  = 0.974, P performed by experts and in 9/13 (69%) procedures performed by novices (P = 0.005). Multivariable analysis showed that the checklist score, independent of age and gender, predicted competence. The procedure-specific assessment tool for fetoscopic laser surgery shows good interobserver reliability and discriminates experts from novices. This instrument may therefore be a useful tool in the training curriculum for fetal surgeons. Further intervention studies with reassessment before and after training may increase the construct validity of the tool. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. P2-7: Encoding of Graded Changes in Validity of Spatial Priors in Human Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available If the spatial validity of prior information is varied systematically, does human behavioral performance improve in a graded fashion, and if so, does visual cortex represent the probability directly? Cortical activity was measured with fMRI while subjects performed a contrast-discrimination task in which the spatial validity of a prior cue for target location was systematically varied. Subjects viewed four sinusoidal gratings (randomized contrasts of 12.5, 25, and 50% shown in discrete visual quadrants presented twice. The contrast in one location (target was incremented in one of the two presentations. Subjects reported with a button press which presentation contained the greater contrast. The target grating was signaled in advance by a cue which varied in spatial validity; at trial onset, small lines pointed to four, two, or one of the possible target locations, thus indicating the target with 25, 50, or 100% probability. Behavioral performance was 2.1 and 3.3 times better in the 100% probability condition than the 50% and 25%, respectively (p < .001, ANOVA. Unlike behavioral performance, cortical activity in early visual areas showed the same increase in response amplitude for cued versus uncued stimuli for both 100% and 50% probability (V1-V4, V3A all p < .18, Student's t-test, 25% had no uncued condition. How could behavioral performance improve in a graded fashion if cortical activity showed the same effect for different probabilities? A model of efficient selection in which V1 responses were pooled according to their magnitude rather than as a simple average explained the observations (AIC difference = −15.

  6. Validation of the school lunch recall questionnaire to capture school lunch intake of third- to fifth-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Amy; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Fleming, Phyllis; Ammerman, Alice

    2011-03-01

    Children's dietary intake is a key variable in evaluations of school-based interventions. Current methods for assessing children's intake, such as 24-hour recalls and meal observations, are time- and resource-intensive. As part of a study to evaluate the impact of farm-to-school programs, the school lunch recall was developed from a need for a valid and efficient tool to assess school lunch intake among large samples of children. A self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire, the school lunch recall prompts for school lunch items by asking children whether they chose a menu item, how much of it they ate, how much they liked it, and whether they would choose it again. The school lunch recall was validated during summer school in 2008 with 18 third- to fifth-grade students (8 to 11 years old) in a North Carolina elementary school. For 4 consecutive days, trained observers recorded foods and amounts students ate during school lunch. Students completed the school lunch recall immediately after lunch. Thirty-seven total observation school lunch recall sets were analyzed. Comparison of school lunch recalls against observations indicated high accuracy, with means of 6% for omission rate (items observed but unreported), 10% for intrusion rate (items unobserved but reported), and 0.63 servings for total inaccuracy (a measure that combines errors for reporting items and amounts). For amounts, accuracy was high for matches (0.06 and 0.01 servings for absolute and arithmetic differences, respectively) but lower for omissions (0.47 servings) and intrusions (0.54 servings). In this pilot study, the school lunch recall was a valid, efficient tool for assessing school lunch intake for a small sample of third- to fifth-grade students. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. "INTRODUCING A FULL VALIDATED ANALYTICAL PROCEDURE AS AN OFFICIAL COMPENDIAL METHOD FOR FENTANYL TRANSDERMAL PATCHES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mehdizadeh

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and specific HPLC method and also a simple and fast extraction procedure were developed for quantitative analysis of fentanyl transdermal patches. Chloroform, methanol and ethanol were used as extracting solvents with recovery percent of 92.1, 94.3 and 99.4% respectively. Fentanyl was extracted with ethanol and the eluted fentanyl through the C18 column was monitored by UV detection at 230 nm. The linearity was at the range of 0.5-10 µg/mL with correlation coefficient (r2 of 0.9992. Both intra and inter-day accuracy and precision were within acceptable limits. The detection limit (DL and quantitation limit (QL were 0.15 and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. Other validation characteristics such as selectivity, robustness and ruggedness were evaluated. Following method validation, a system suitability test (SST including capacity factor (k´, plate number (N, tailing factor (T, and RSD was defined for routine test.

  8. URANS simulations of the tip-leakage cavitating flow with verification and validation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huai-yu; Long, Xin-ping; Liang, Yun-zhi; Long, Yun; Ji, Bin

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, the Vortex Identified Zwart-Gerber-Belamri (VIZGB) cavitation model coupled with the SST-CC turbulence model is used to investigate the unsteady tip-leakage cavitating flow induced by a NACA0009 hydrofoil. A qualitative comparison between the numerical and experimental results is made. In order to quantitatively evaluate the reliability of the numerical data, the verification and validation (V&V) procedures are used in the present paper. Errors of numerical results are estimated with seven error estimators based on the Richardson extrapolation method. It is shown that though a strict validation cannot be achieved, a reasonable prediction of the gross characteristics of the tip-leakage cavitating flow can be obtained. Based on the numerical results, the influence of the cavitation on the tip-leakage vortex (TLV) is discussed, which indicates that the cavitation accelerates the fusion of the TLV and the tip-separation vortex (TSV). Moreover, the trajectory of the TLV, when the cavitation occurs, is close to the side wall.

  9. Validation of the in-flight calibration procedures for the MICROSCOPE space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Émilie; Levy, Agnès; Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Métris, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    The MICROSCOPE space mission aims to test the Equivalence Principle with an accuracy of 10-15. The drag-free micro-satellite will orbit around the Earth and embark a differential electrostatic accelerometer including two cylindrical test masses submitted to the same gravitational field and made of different materials. The experience consists in testing the equality of the electrostatic acceleration applied to the masses to maintain them relatively motionless. The accuracy of the measurements exploited for the test of the Equivalence Principle is limited by our a priori knowledge of several physical parameters of the instrument. These parameters are partially estimated on-ground, but with an insufficient accuracy, and an in-orbit calibration is therefore required to correct the measurements. The calibration procedures have been defined and their analytical performances have been evaluated. In addition, a simulator software including the dynamics model of the instrument, the satellite drag-free system and the perturbing environment has been developed to numerically validate the analytical results. After an overall presentation of the MICROSCOPE mission, this paper will describe the calibration procedures and focus on the simulator. Such an in-flight calibration is mandatory for similar space missions taking advantage of a drag-free system.

  10. Validation procedures of software applied in nuclear instruments. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    The IAEA has supported the availability of well functioning nuclear instruments in Member States over more than three decades. Some older or aged instruments are still being used and are still in good working condition. However, those instruments may not meet modern software requirements for the end-user in all cases. Therefore, Member States, mostly those with emerging economies, modernize/refurbish such instruments to meet the end-user demands. New advanced software is not only applied in case of new instrumentation, but often also for new and improved applications of modernized and/or refurbished instruments in many Member States for which in few cases the IAEA also provided support. Modern software applied in nuclear instrumentation plays a key role for their safe operation and execution of commands in a user friendly manner. Correct data handling and transfer has to be ensured. Additional features such as data visualization, interfacing to PC for control and data storage are often included. To finalize the task, where new instrumentation which is not commercially available is used, or aged instruments are modernized/refurbished, the applied software has to be verified and validated. A Technical Meeting on 'Validation Procedures of Software Applied in Nuclear Instruments' was organized in Vienna, 20-23 November 2006, to discuss the verification and validation process of software applied to operation and use of nuclear instruments. The presentations at the technical meeting included valuable information, which has been compiled and summarized in this publication, which should be useful for technical staff in Member States when modernizing/refurbishing nuclear instruments. 22 experts in the field of modernization/refurbishment of nuclear instruments as well as users of applied software presented their latest results. Discussion sessions followed the presentations. This publication is the outcome of deliberations during the meeting

  11. Prostatectomy-based validation of combined urine and plasma test for predicting high grade prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars

    2018-01-01

    standard formulas, while comparisons between groups were performed using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: GS as assigned by standard 10-12 core biopsies was 3 + 3 in 90 (29.4%), 3 + 4 in 122 (39.8%), 4 + 3 in 50 (16.3%), and > 4 + 3 in 44 (14.4%) patients....... CONCLUSIONS: This plasma/urine biomarker test accurately predicts high grade cancer as determined by prostatectomy with a sensitivity at 92-97%, while the sensitivity of core biopsies was 78%....... of a test using cell-free RNA levels of biomarkers in predicting prostatectomy results. METHODS: This multicenter community-based prospective study was conducted using urine/blood samples collected from 306 patients. All recruited patients were treatment-naïve, without metastases, and had been biopsied...

  12. Grade 11 Students' Interconnected Use of Conceptual Knowledge, Procedural Skills, and Strategic Competence in Algebra: A Mixed Method Study of Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena; Stoilescu, Dorian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate grade 11 university/college stream mathematics students' difficulties in applying conceptual knowledge, procedural skills, strategic competence, and algebraic thinking in solving routine (instructional) algebraic problems. A standardized algebra test was administered to thirty randomly…

  13. Examining Predictive Validity of Oral Reading Fluency Slope in Upper Elementary Grades Using Quantile Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunsoo; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon

    2017-07-01

    Within multitiered instructional delivery models, progress monitoring is a key mechanism for determining whether a child demonstrates an adequate response to instruction. One measure commonly used to monitor the reading progress of students is oral reading fluency (ORF). This study examined the extent to which ORF slope predicts reading comprehension outcomes for fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 102) participating in an intensive reading intervention. Quantile regression models showed that ORF slope significantly predicted performance on a sentence-level fluency and comprehension assessment, regardless of the students' reading skills, controlling for initial ORF performance. However, ORF slope was differentially predictive of a passage-level comprehension assessment based on students' reading skills when controlling for initial ORF status. Results showed that ORF explained unique variance for struggling readers whose posttest performance was at the upper quantiles at the end of the reading intervention, but slope was not a significant predictor of passage-level comprehension for students whose reading problems were the most difficult to remediate.

  14. Validity of anthropometric procedures to estimate body density and body fat percent in military men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romélio Rodriguez-Añez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the validity of the Katch e McArdle’s equation (1973,which uses the circumferences of the arm, forearm and abdominal to estimate the body density and the procedure of Cohen (1986 which uses the circumferences of the neck and abdominal to estimate the body fat percent (%F in military men. Therefore data from 50 military men, with mean age of 20.26 ± 2.04 years serving in Santa Maria, RS, was collected. The circumferences were measured according with Katch e McArdle (1973 and Cohen (1986 procedures. The body density measured (Dm obtained under water weighting was used as criteria and its mean value was 1.0706 ± 0.0100 g/ml. The residual lung volume was estimated using the Goldman’s e Becklake’s equation (1959. The %F was obtained with the Siri’s equation (1961 and its mean value was 12.70 ± 4.71%. The validation criterion suggested by Lohman (1992 was followed. The analysis of the results indicated that the procedure developed by Cohen (1986 has concurrent validity to estimate %F in military men or in other samples with similar characteristics with standard error of estimate of 3.45%. . RESUMO Através deste estudo objetivou-se verificar a validade: da equação de Katch e McArdle (1973 que envolve os perímetros do braço, antebraço e abdômen, para estimar a densidade corporal; e, o procedimento de Cohen (1986 que envolve os perímetros do pescoço e abdômen, para estimar o % de gordura (%G; para militares. Para tanto, coletou-se os dados de 50 militares masculinos, com idade média de 20,26 ± 2,04 anos, lotados na cidade de Santa Maria, RS. Mensurou-se os perímetros conforme procedimentos de Katch e McArdle (1973 e Cohen (1986. Utilizou-se a densidade corporal mensurada (Dm através da pesagem hidrostática como critério de validação, cujo valor médio foi de 1,0706 ± 0,0100 g/ml. Estimou-se o volume residual pela equação de Goldman e Becklake (1959. O %G derivado da Dm estimou

  15. Proposed Core Competencies and Empirical Validation Procedure in Competency Modeling: Confirmation and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczyńska, Anna K; Rowiński, Tomasz; Cybis, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Competency models provide insight into key skills which are common to many positions in an organization. Moreover, there is a range of competencies that is used by many companies. Researchers have developed core competency terminology to underline their cross-organizational value. The article presents a theoretical model of core competencies consisting of two main higher-order competencies called performance and entrepreneurship. Each of them consists of three elements: the performance competency includes cooperation, organization of work and goal orientation, while entrepreneurship includes innovativeness, calculated risk-taking and pro-activeness. However, there is lack of empirical validation of competency concepts in organizations and this would seem crucial for obtaining reliable results from organizational research. We propose a two-step empirical validation procedure: (1) confirmation factor analysis, and (2) classification of employees. The sample consisted of 636 respondents (M = 44.5; SD = 15.1). Participants were administered a questionnaire developed for the study purpose. The reliability, measured by Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.60 to 0.83 for six scales. Next, we tested the model using a confirmatory factor analysis. The two separate, single models of performance and entrepreneurial orientations fit quite well to the data, while a complex model based on the two single concepts needs further research. In the classification of employees based on the two higher order competencies we obtained four main groups of employees. Their profiles relate to those found in the literature, including so-called niche finders and top performers. Some proposal for organizations is discussed.

  16. Reliability and validity of procedure-based assessments in otolaryngology training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Zaid; Hayden, Lindsay; Robson, Andrew K; Muthuswamy, Keerthini; Tolley, Neil S

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the reliability and construct validity of procedure-based assessment (PBA) in assessing performance and progress in otolaryngology training. Retrospective database analysis using a national electronic database. We analyzed PBAs of otolaryngology trainees in North London from core trainees (CTs) to specialty trainees (STs). The tool contains six multi-item domains: consent, planning, preparation, exposure/closure, technique, and postoperative care, rated as "satisfactory" or "development required," in addition to an overall performance rating (pS) of 1 to 4. Individual domain score, overall calculated score (cS), and number of "development-required" items were calculated for each PBA. Receiver operating characteristic analysis helped determine sensitivity and specificity. There were 3,152 otolaryngology PBAs from 46 otolaryngology trainees analyzed. PBA reliability was high (Cronbach's α 0.899), and sensitivity approached 99%. cS correlated positively with pS and level in training (rs : +0.681 and +0.324, respectively). ST had higher cS and pS than CT (93% ± 0.6 and 3.2 ± 0.03 vs. 71% ± 3.1 and 2.3 ± 0.08, respectively; P reliable and valid for assessing otolaryngology trainees' performance and progress at all levels. It is highly sensitive in identifying competent trainees. The tool is used in a formative and feedback capacity. The technical domain is the best predictor and should be given close attention. NA. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Development and validation of a screening procedure to identify speech-language delay in toddlers with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Line Dahl; Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    condition based on assessment of consonant inventory using a real-time listening procedure in combination with parent-reported expressive vocabulary. These measures allowed evaluation of early speech-language skills found to correlate significantly with later speech-language difficulties in longitudinal......The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a clinically useful speech-language screening procedure for young children with cleft palate +/- cleft lip (CP) to identify those in need of speech-language intervention. Twenty-two children with CP were assigned to a +/- need for intervention...... studies of children with CP. The external validity of this screening procedure was evaluated by comparing the +/- need for intervention assignment determined by the screening procedure to experienced speech-language pathologists’ (SLPs’) clinical judgment of whether or not a child needed early...

  18. Verification and validation of a numeric procedure for flow simulation of a 2x2 PWR rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Andre A.C.; Barros Filho, Jose Afonso; Navarro, Moyses A.

    2011-01-01

    Before Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be considered as a reliable tool for the analysis of flow through rod bundles there is a need to establish the credibility of the numerical results. Procedures must be defined to evaluate the error and uncertainty due to aspects such as mesh refinement, turbulence model, wall treatment and appropriate definition of boundary conditions. These procedures are referred to as Verification and Validation (V and V) processes. In 2009 a standard was published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) establishing detailed procedures for V and V of CFD simulations. This paper presents a V and V evaluation of a numerical methodology applied to the simulation of a PWR rod bundle segment with a split vane spacer grid based on ASMEs standard. In this study six progressively refined meshes were generated to evaluate the numerical uncertainty through the verification procedure. Experimental and analytical results available in the literature were used in this study for validation purpose. The results show that the ASME verification procedure can give highly variable predictions of uncertainty depending on the mesh triplet used for the evaluation. However, the procedure can give good insight towards optimization of the mesh size and overall result quality. Although the experimental results used for the validation were not ideal, through the validation procedure the deficiencies and strengths of the presented modeling could be detected and reasonably evaluated. Even though it is difficult to obtain reliable estimates of the uncertainty of flow quantities in the turbulent flow, this study shows that the V and V process is a necessary step in a CFD analysis of a spacer grid design. (author)

  19. Are we really measuring what we say we're measuring? Using video techniques to supplement traditional construct validation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Podsakoff, Philip M; Mackenzie, Scott B; Klinger, Ryan L

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have persuasively argued that the most important evidence to consider when assessing construct validity is whether variations in the construct of interest cause corresponding variations in the measures of the focal construct. Unfortunately, the literature provides little practical guidance on how researchers can go about testing this. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe how researchers can use video techniques to test whether their scales measure what they purport to measure. First, we discuss how researchers can develop valid manipulations of the focal construct that they hope to measure. Next, we explain how to design a study to use this manipulation to test the validity of the scale. Finally, comparing and contrasting traditional and contemporary perspectives on validation, we discuss the advantages and limitations of video-based validation procedures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. Bryn; Gordon, Allegra R.; Kennedy, Grace A.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Blossom, Jeffrey; Blood, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA) and Seattle (WA), USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry. PMID:24322394

  1. Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bryn Austin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA and Seattle (WA, USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry.

  2. Validation procedures used in the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is (1) to document the data validation process developed for the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP); (2) to offer members of other project teams and potential data users the benefit of the experience gained in the BSCP in the area of developing project-specific data validation criteria and procedures based on best available guidance and technical information; and (3) to provide input and guidance to the efforts under way within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to develop standard operating procedures to streamline and optimize the analytical laboratory data validation process for general use by making it more technically rigorous, consistent, and cost effective. Lessons learned from the BSCP are also provided to meet this end (Sect. 1.3)

  3. A competency based selection procedure for Dutch postgraduate GP training: a pilot study on validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Margit I; Tromp, Fred; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Pieters, Ron H M; Damoiseaux, Roger A M J; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Background: Historically, semi-structured interviews (SSI) have been the core of the Dutch selection for postgraduate general practice (GP) training. This paper describes a pilot study on a newly designed competency-based selection procedure that assesses whether candidates have the competencies that are required to complete GP training. The objective was to explore reliability and validity aspects of the instruments developed. The new selection procedure comprising the National GP Knowledge Test (LHK), a situational judgement tests (SJT), a patterned behaviour descriptive interview (PBDI) and a simulated encounter (SIM) was piloted alongside the current procedure. Forty-seven candidates volunteered in both procedures. Admission decision was based on the results of the current procedure. Study participants did hardly differ from the other candidates. The mean scores of the candidates on the LHK and SJT were 21.9 % (SD 8.7) and 83.8% (SD 3.1), respectively. The mean self-reported competency scores (PBDI) were higher than the observed competencies (SIM): 3.7(SD 0.5) and 2.9(SD 0.6), respectively. Content-related competencies showed low correlations with one another when measured with different instruments, whereas more diverse competencies measured by a single instrument showed strong to moderate correlations. Moreover, a moderate correlation between LHK and SJT was found. The internal consistencies (intraclass correlation, ICC) of LHK and SJT were poor while the ICC of PBDI and SIM showed acceptable levels of reliability. Findings on content validity and reliability of these new instruments are promising to realize a competency based procedure. Further development of the instruments and research on predictive validity should be pursued.

  4. LASER treatment for women with high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: A propensity-matched analysis on the efficacy of ablative versus excisional procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Mosca, Lavinia; Chiappa, Valentina; Rossetti, Diego; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-05-14

    To investigate the long-term effectiveness of LASER treatment in women affected by high-grade vaginal intra-epithelial neoplasia. Data of consecutive women treated for high-grade vaginal intra-epithelial neoplasia were retrieved. Efficacy and long-term effectiveness of ablative and excisional procedures were tested using a propensity-matched algorithm. Risk of recurrence over the time was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. Overall, 204 patients met the inclusion criteria. LASER ablation and exicision were performed in 169 (82.8%) and 35 (17.2%) patients. A total of 41 (20%) patients developed high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia at a median follow-up of 65 (range, 6-120) months. We observed that only HPV persistence (HR: 2.37 [95%CI:1.03, 5.42]; P = 0.04) was associated with the risk of recurrence at multivariate analysis. Seven (3.4%) invasive cancers of the lower genital tract were observed in our population. Considering the efficacy of type of procedure (after we applied the propensity-matched analysis), we observed that type of procedure did not influence persistence of HPV infection (22.8% after excision and 15.7% after ablation; P = 0.424). Similarly, recurrence (17.1% vs. 18.6%; P = 1.00) and lower genital tract (2.8% vs. 1.4%; P = 1.00) rates were similar between groups. Women affected by high-grade vaginal intra-epithelial neoplasia are at high risk of recurrence. LASER ablation seems to be equivalent to excision in term of long-term effectiveness. Lasers Surg. Med. 9999:1-7, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Delphi Method Validation of a Procedural Performance Checklist for Insertion of an Ultrasound-Guided Internal Jugular Central Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Nicholas; Wittler, Mary; Askew, Kim; Manthey, David

    2016-01-01

    Placement of ultrasound-guided central lines is a critical skill for physicians in several specialties. Improving the quality of care delivered surrounding this procedure demands rigorous measurement of competency, and validated tools to assess performance are essential. Using the iterative, modified Delphi technique and experts in multiple disciplines across the United States, the study team created a 30-item checklist designed to assess competency in the placement of ultrasound-guided internal jugular central lines. Cronbach α was .94, indicating an excellent degree of internal consistency. Further validation of this checklist will require its implementation in simulated and clinical environments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. 29 CFR 1607.6 - Use of selection procedures which have not been validated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 1607.6 Section 1607.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY... circumstances in which a user cannot or need not utilize the validation techniques contemplated by these... which has an adverse impact, the validation techniques contemplated by these guidelines usually should...

  7. Validity of Three Recently Proposed Prognostic Grading Indexes for Breast Cancer Patients With Radiosurgically Treated Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: BCD06275@nifty.com [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center E, Tokyo (Japan); Kawabe, Takuya [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Higuchi, Yoshinori [Department of Neurosurgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Sato, Yasunori [Clinical Research Center, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Barfod, Bierta E. [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Kasuya, Hidetoshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center E, Tokyo (Japan); Urakawa, Yoichi [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: We tested the validity of 3 recently proposed prognostic indexes for breast cancer patients with brain metastases (METs) treated radiosurgically. The 3 indexes are Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA), New Breast Cancer (NBC)-Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA), and our index, sub-classification of RPA class II patients into 3 sub-classes (RPA class II-a, II-b and II-c) based on Karnofsky performance status, tumor number, original tumor status, and non-brain METs. Methods and Materials: This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using our database of 269 consecutive female breast cancer patients (mean age, 55 years; range, 26-86 years) who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) alone, without whole-brain radiation therapy, for brain METs during the 15-year period between 1996 and 2011. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the absolute risk of each event. Results: Kaplan-Meier plots of our patient series showed statistically significant survival differences among patients stratified into 3, 4, or 5 groups based on the 3 systems (P<.001). However, the mean survival time (MST) differences between some pairs of groups failed to reach statistical significance with all 3 systems. Thus, we attempted to regrade our 269 breast cancer patients into 3 groups by modifying our aforementioned index along with the original RPA class I and III, (ie, RPA I+II-a, II-b, and II-c+III). There were statistically significant MST differences among these 3 groups without overlap of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between any 2 pairs of groups: 18.4 (95% CI = 14.0-29.5) months in I+II-a, 9.2 in II-b (95% CI = 6.8-12.9, P<.001 vs I+II-a) and 5.0 in II-c+III (95% CI = 4.2-6.8, P<.001 vs II-b). Conclusions: As none of the new grading systems, DS-GPS, BC-RPA and our system, was applicable to our set of radiosurgically treated patients for comparing survivals after GKRS, we slightly modified our system for breast cancer

  8. Validity of Students Worksheet Based Problem-Based Learning for 9th Grade Junior High School in living organism Inheritance and Food Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefriadi, J.; Ahda, Y.; Sumarmin, R.

    2018-04-01

    Based on preliminary research of students worksheet used by teachers has several disadvantages such as students worksheet arranged directly drove learners conduct an investigation without preceded by directing learners to a problem or provide stimulation, student's worksheet not provide a concrete imageand presentation activities on the students worksheet not refer to any one learning models curicullum recommended. To address problems Reviews these students then developed a worksheet based on problem-based learning. This is a research development that using Ploom models. The phases are preliminary research, development and assessment. The instruments used in data collection that includes pieces of observation/interviews, instrument self-evaluation, instruments validity. The results of the validation expert on student worksheets get a valid result the average value 80,1%. Validity of students worksheet based problem-based learning for 9th grade junior high school in living organism inheritance and food biotechnology get valid category.

  9. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of

  10. Model validation using CFD-grade experimental database for NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems with water and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manera, Annalisa [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Corradini, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Petrov, Victor [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tompkins, Casey [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Nunez, Daniel [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2018-02-13

    This project has been focused on the experimental and numerical investigations of the water-cooled and air-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) designs. At this aim, we have leveraged an existing experimental facility at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), and we have designed and built a separate effect test facility at the University of Michigan. The experimental facility at UW has underwent several upgrades, including the installation of advanced instrumentation (i.e. wire-mesh sensors) built at the University of Michigan. These provides highresolution time-resolved measurements of the void-fraction distribution in the risers of the water-cooled RCCS facility. A phenomenological model has been developed to assess the water cooled RCCS system stability and determine the root cause behind the oscillatory behavior that occurs under normal two-phase operation. Testing under various perturbations to the water-cooled RCCS facility have resulted in changes in the stability of the integral system. In particular, the effects on stability of inlet orifices, water tank volume have and system pressure been investigated. MELCOR was used as a predictive tool when performing inlet orificing tests and was able to capture the Density Wave Oscillations (DWOs) that occurred upon reaching saturation in the risers. The experimental and numerical results have then been used to provide RCCS design recommendations. The experimental facility built at the University of Michigan was aimed at the investigation of mixing in the upper plenum of the air-cooled RCCS design. The facility has been equipped with state-of-theart high-resolution instrumentation to achieve so-called CFD grade experiments, that can be used for the validation of Computational Fluid Dynanmics (CFD) models, both RANS (Reynold-Averaged) and LES (Large Eddy Simulations). The effect of risers penetration in the upper plenum has been investigated as well.

  11. Analytical validation of an ultraviolet-visible procedure for determining lutein concentration and application to lutein-loaded nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jéssica Thaís do Prado; Silva, Anderson Clayton da; Geiss, Julia Maria Tonin; de Araújo, Pedro Henrique Hermes; Becker, Daniela; Bracht, Lívia; Leimann, Fernanda Vitória; Bona, Evandro; Guerra, Gustavo Petri; Gonçalves, Odinei Hess

    2017-09-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid presenting known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Lutein-rich diets have been associated with neurological improvement as well as reduction of the risk of vision loss due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Micro and nanoencapsulation have demonstrated to be effective techniques in protecting lutein against degradation and also in improving its bioavailability. However, actual lutein concentration inside the capsules and encapsulation efficiency are key parameters that must be precisely known when designing in vitro and in vivo tests. In this work an analytical procedure was validated for the determination of the actual lutein content in zein nanoparticles using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Method validation followed the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines which evaluate linearity, detection limit, quantification limit, accuracy and precision. The validated methodology was applied to characterize lutein-loaded nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  13. Effects of Grading Leniency and Low Workload on Students' Evaluations of Teaching: Popular Myth, Bias, Validity, or Innocent Bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Roche, Lawrence A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses two studies that debunk the popular myths that student evaluations of teaching (SETs) are substantially biased by low workload and grading leniency. Results imply teaching effects were related to SETs. Contrary to predictions workload, expected grades, and their relations to SETs were stable over 12 years. (Author/MKA)

  14. Procedure for validating the life extension for the WWER-440 internals at NV NPP unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, V.M.; Evropin, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    The design lifetime (30 years) of the 1st generation WWER-440 reactor facilities is nearing completion in Russia. One of the major problems is to validate the life extension (LE) of the reactor internals ensuring the core arrangement and free passage of the control and protection system components during different operating modes, emergency modes included. The internals at the 1st generation units are designed so that to enable their replacement. But it requires a lot of funds and time. The work has been done to demonstrate that the internals may be further safely operated without their components being replaced provided their strength, longevity and serviceability are sufficiently validated. (author)

  15. Validation of standard operating procedures in a multicenter retrospective study to identify -omics biomarkers for chronic low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Dagostino

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (CLBP is one of the most common medical conditions, ranking as the greatest contributor to global disability and accounting for huge societal costs based on the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Large genetic and -omics studies provide a promising avenue for the screening, development and validation of biomarkers useful for personalized diagnosis and treatment (precision medicine. Multicentre studies are needed for such an effort, and a standardized and homogeneous approach is vital for recruitment of large numbers of participants among different centres (clinical and laboratories to obtain robust and reproducible results. To date, no validated standard operating procedures (SOPs for genetic/-omics studies in chronic pain have been developed. In this study, we validated an SOP model that will be used in the multicentre (5 centres retrospective "PainOmics" study, funded by the European Community in the 7th Framework Programme, which aims to develop new biomarkers for CLBP through three different -omics approaches: genomics, glycomics and activomics. The SOPs describe the specific procedures for (1 blood collection, (2 sample processing and storage, (3 shipping details and (4 cross-check testing and validation before assays that all the centres involved in the study have to follow. Multivariate analysis revealed the absolute specificity and homogeneity of the samples collected by the five centres for all genetics, glycomics and activomics analyses. The SOPs used in our multicenter study have been validated. Hence, they could represent an innovative tool for the correct management and collection of reliable samples in other large-omics-based multicenter studies.

  16. Methods and procedures for the verification and validation of artificial neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    Neural networks are members of a class of software that have the potential to enable intelligent computational systems capable of simulating characteristics of biological thinking and learning. This volume introduces some of the methods and techniques used for the verification and validation of neural networks and adaptive systems.

  17. Validation of a Video-based Game-Understanding Test Procedure in Badminton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Minna T.; Luhtanen, Pekka; Laakso, Lauri; Keskinen, Esko

    2000-01-01

    Reports the development and validation of video-based game-understanding tests in badminton for elementary and secondary students. The tests included different sequences that simulated actual game situations. Players had to solve tactical problems by selecting appropriate solutions and arguments for their decisions. Results suggest that the test…

  18. Technical Note: Procedure for the calibration and validation of kilo-voltage cone-beam CT models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilches-Freixas, Gloria; Létang, Jean Michel; Rit, Simon, E-mail: simon.rit@creatis.insa-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1206, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon 69373 Cedex 08 (France); Brousmiche, Sébastien [Ion Beam Application, Louvain-la-Neuve 1348 (Belgium); Romero, Edward; Vila Oliva, Marc [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1206, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon 69373 Cedex 08, France and Ion Beam Application, Louvain-la-Neuve 1348 (Belgium); Kellner, Daniel; Deutschmann, Heinz; Keuschnigg, Peter; Steininger, Philipp [Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg 5020 (Austria)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to propose a general and simple procedure for the calibration and validation of kilo-voltage cone-beam CT (kV CBCT) models against experimental data. Methods: The calibration and validation of the CT model is a two-step procedure: the source model then the detector model. The source is described by the direction dependent photon energy spectrum at each voltage while the detector is described by the pixel intensity value as a function of the direction and the energy of incident photons. The measurements for the source consist of a series of dose measurements in air performed at each voltage with varying filter thicknesses and materials in front of the x-ray tube. The measurements for the detector are acquisitions of projection images using the same filters and several tube voltages. The proposed procedure has been applied to calibrate and assess the accuracy of simple models of the source and the detector of three commercial kV CBCT units. If the CBCT system models had been calibrated differently, the current procedure would have been exclusively used to validate the models. Several high-purity attenuation filters of aluminum, copper, and silver combined with a dosimeter which is sensitive to the range of voltages of interest were used. A sensitivity analysis of the model has also been conducted for each parameter of the source and the detector models. Results: Average deviations between experimental and theoretical dose values are below 1.5% after calibration for the three x-ray sources. The predicted energy deposited in the detector agrees with experimental data within 4% for all imaging systems. Conclusions: The authors developed and applied an experimental procedure to calibrate and validate any model of the source and the detector of a CBCT unit. The present protocol has been successfully applied to three x-ray imaging systems. The minimum requirements in terms of material and equipment would make its implementation suitable in

  19. A procedure to validate and correct the {sup 13}C chemical shift calibration of RNA datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeschbacher, Thomas; Schubert, Mario, E-mail: schubert@mol.biol.ethz.ch; Allain, Frederic H.-T., E-mail: allain@mol.biol.ethz.ch [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Molecular Biology and Biophysics (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    Chemical shifts reflect the structural environment of a certain nucleus and can be used to extract structural and dynamic information. Proper calibration is indispensable to extract such information from chemical shifts. Whereas a variety of procedures exist to verify the chemical shift calibration for proteins, no such procedure is available for RNAs to date. We present here a procedure to analyze and correct the calibration of {sup 13}C NMR data of RNAs. Our procedure uses five {sup 13}C chemical shifts as a reference, each of them found in a narrow shift range in most datasets deposited in the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank. In 49 datasets we could evaluate the {sup 13}C calibration and detect errors or inconsistencies in RNA {sup 13}C chemical shifts based on these chemical shift reference values. More than half of the datasets (27 out of those 49) were found to be improperly referenced or contained inconsistencies. This large inconsistency rate possibly explains that no clear structure-{sup 13}C chemical shift relationship has emerged for RNA so far. We were able to recalibrate or correct 17 datasets resulting in 39 usable {sup 13}C datasets. 6 new datasets from our lab were used to verify our method increasing the database to 45 usable datasets. We can now search for structure-chemical shift relationships with this improved list of {sup 13}C chemical shift data. This is demonstrated by a clear relationship between ribose {sup 13}C shifts and the sugar pucker, which can be used to predict a C2 Prime - or C3 Prime -endo conformation of the ribose with high accuracy. The improved quality of the chemical shift data allows statistical analysis with the potential to facilitate assignment procedures, and the extraction of restraints for structure calculations of RNA.

  20. Validation of a new analytical procedure for determination of residual solvents in [18F]FDG by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Flávia M.; Costa, Cassiano L.S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Ferreira, Soraya M.Z.M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Fludeoxyglucose F 18 ([ 18 F]FDG) is the most used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography, especially on oncology. Organic solvents such as ether, ethanol and acetonitrile might be used in the synthesis of [ 18 F]FDG; however, they might not be completely removed during purification steps. The determination of residual solvents in [ 18 F]FDG is required in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monographs. While the procedure described in the EP is quite general, the one described in the USP requires a long runtime (about 13 minutes). In this work a simple and fast (4-minute) analytical procedure was developed and validated for determination of residual solvents in [ 18 F]FDG. Analyses were carried out in a Perkin Elmer gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The separation was obtained on a 0.53-mm x 30 m fused-silica column. Validation included the evaluation of various parameters, such as: specificity, linearity and range, limits of detection and quantitation, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy, and robustness. Results were found to be within acceptable limits, indicating the developed procedure is suitable for its intended application. Considering the short half-life of fluorine-18 (109.7 minutes), this new method could be a valuable alternative for routine quality control of [ 18 F]FDG. (author)

  1. Validation of a new analytical procedure for determination of residual solvents in [{sup 18}F]FDG by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Flávia M.; Costa, Cassiano L.S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Ferreira, Soraya M.Z.M.D., E-mail: flaviabiomedica@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (UPPR/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Produção de Radiofármacos

    2017-07-01

    Fludeoxyglucose F 18 ([{sup 18}F]FDG) is the most used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography, especially on oncology. Organic solvents such as ether, ethanol and acetonitrile might be used in the synthesis of [{sup 18}F]FDG; however, they might not be completely removed during purification steps. The determination of residual solvents in [{sup 18}F]FDG is required in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monographs. While the procedure described in the EP is quite general, the one described in the USP requires a long runtime (about 13 minutes). In this work a simple and fast (4-minute) analytical procedure was developed and validated for determination of residual solvents in [{sup 18}F]FDG. Analyses were carried out in a Perkin Elmer gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The separation was obtained on a 0.53-mm x 30 m fused-silica column. Validation included the evaluation of various parameters, such as: specificity, linearity and range, limits of detection and quantitation, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy, and robustness. Results were found to be within acceptable limits, indicating the developed procedure is suitable for its intended application. Considering the short half-life of fluorine-18 (109.7 minutes), this new method could be a valuable alternative for routine quality control of [{sup 18}F]FDG. (author)

  2. Experimental Validation Of An Innovative Procedure For The Rolling Noise Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viscardi Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide contest of the train vehicles rolling noise evaluation, the aim of the paper is the development, implementation and experimental testing of a new method for roughness calculation according to FprCEN/TR 16891:2015 and the successive evaluation of the correction parameters of the measured rolling noise due to the presence of not compliant rail roughness. It is, in-fact, a very often operative condition, the execution of rolling noise tests over standard in-operation rails that are characterized by roughness profiles very different from standard one as those prescribed within the ISO 3095 procedure. Very often, this difference lead to the presence of an exceeding noise that needs to be evaluated and revised for a correct definition of the phenomena. Within the paper, the procedure implementation is presented and later on verified in operative experimental contest; forecasted and measured data are compared and successively commented.

  3. D0 Central Tracking Solenoid Energization, Controls, Interlocks and Quench Protection Initial Validation Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.; Hance, R.

    1998-01-01

    This note presents the inspection and tests to be performed on the DZERO solenoid energization, controls, interlocks and quench protection system before it is energized for the first time. This test is to be performed with a 5000A jumper at the end of the bus instead of the solenoid. This system is based in DZERO room 511. A copy of this note shall be annotated, signed and dated by the person coordinating the procedure; and filed with the system maintenance records. Annotations shall include comments about any aspect of the procedure that is abnormal or unsuccessful. The following inspections and tests shall be performed by persons knowledgeable about the system. Each individual test step should be reviewed and understood before proceeding with that step.

  4. A Procedure for Identification of Appropriate State Space and ARIMA Models Based on Time-Series Cross-Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ramos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a cross-validation procedure is used to identify an appropriate Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model and an appropriate state space model for a time series. A minimum size for the training set is specified. The procedure is based on one-step forecasts and uses different training sets, each containing one more observation than the previous one. All possible state space models and all ARIMA models where the orders are allowed to range reasonably are fitted considering raw data and log-transformed data with regular differencing (up to second order differences and, if the time series is seasonal, seasonal differencing (up to first order differences. The value of root mean squared error for each model is calculated averaging the one-step forecasts obtained. The model which has the lowest root mean squared error value and passes the Ljung–Box test using all of the available data with a reasonable significance level is selected among all the ARIMA and state space models considered. The procedure is exemplified in this paper with a case study of retail sales of different categories of women’s footwear from a Portuguese retailer, and its accuracy is compared with three reliable forecasting approaches. The results show that our procedure consistently forecasts more accurately than the other approaches and the improvements in the accuracy are significant.

  5. Design of the measurements validation procedure and the expert system architecture for a cogeneration internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.

    2005-01-01

    A research activity has been initiated to study the development of a diagnostic methodology, for the optimization of energy efficiency and the maximization of the operational time in those conditions, based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such as artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic. The diagnostic procedure, developed specifically for the cogeneration plant located at the Engineering Department of the University of Perugia, must be characterized by a modular architecture to obtain a flexible architecture applicable to different systems. The first part of the study deals with the identifying the principal modules and the corresponding variables necessary to evaluate the module 'health state'. Also the consequent upgrade of the monitoring system is described in this paper. Moreover it describes the structure proposed for the diagnostic procedure, consisting of a procedure for measurement validation and a fuzzy logic-based inference system. The first reveals the presence of abnormal conditions and localizes their source distinguishing between system failure and instrumentation malfunctions. The second provides an evaluation of module health state and the classification of the failures which have possibly occurred. The procedure was implemented in C++

  6. The validation of science virtual test to assess 7th grade students’ critical thinking on matter and heat topic (SVT-MH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sya’bandari, Y.; Firman, H.; Rusyati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The method used in this research was descriptive research for profiling the validation of SVT-MH to measure students’ critical thinking on matter and heat topic in junior high school. The subject is junior high school students of 7th grade (13 years old) while science teacher and expert as the validators. The instruments that used as a tool to obtain the data are rubric expert judgment (content, media, education) and rubric of readability test. There are four steps to validate SVT-MH in 7th grade Junior High School. These steps are analysis of core competence and basic competence based on Curriculum 2013, expert judgment (content, media, education), readability test and trial test (limited and larger trial test). The instrument validation resulted 30 items that represent 8 elements and 21 sub-elements to measure students’ critical thinking based on Inch in matter and heat topic. The alpha Cronbach (α) is 0.642 which means that the instrument is sufficient to measure students’ critical thinking matter and heat topic.

  7. The Consumer Motivation Scale: A detailed review of item generation, exploration, confirmation, and validation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Barbopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This data article offers a detailed description of analyses pertaining to the development of the Consumer Motivation Scale (CMS, from item generation and the extraction of factors, to confirmation of the factor structure and validation of the emergent dimensions. The established goal structure – consisting of the sub-goals Value for Money, Quality, Safety, Stimulation, Comfort, Ethics, and Social Acceptance – is shown to be related to a variety of consumption behaviors in different contexts and for different products, and should thereby prove useful in standard marketing research, as well as in the development of tailored marketing strategies, and the segmentation of consumer groups, settings, brands, and products.

  8. The Consumer Motivation Scale: A detailed review of item generation, exploration, confirmation, and validation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbopoulos, I; Johansson, L-O

    2017-08-01

    This data article offers a detailed description of analyses pertaining to the development of the Consumer Motivation Scale (CMS), from item generation and the extraction of factors, to confirmation of the factor structure and validation of the emergent dimensions. The established goal structure - consisting of the sub-goals Value for Money, Quality, Safety, Stimulation, Comfort, Ethics, and Social Acceptance - is shown to be related to a variety of consumption behaviors in different contexts and for different products, and should thereby prove useful in standard marketing research, as well as in the development of tailored marketing strategies, and the segmentation of consumer groups, settings, brands, and products.

  9. Validation of natural language processing to extract breast cancer pathology procedures and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arika E Wieneke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology reports typically require manual review to abstract research data. We developed a natural language processing (NLP system to automatically interpret free-text breast pathology reports with limited assistance from manual abstraction. Methods: We used an iterative approach of machine learning algorithms and constructed groups of related findings to identify breast-related procedures and results from free-text pathology reports. We evaluated the NLP system using an all-or-nothing approach to determine which reports could be processed entirely using NLP and which reports needed manual review beyond NLP. We divided 3234 reports for development (2910, 90%, and evaluation (324, 10% purposes using manually reviewed pathology data as our gold standard. Results: NLP correctly coded 12.7% of the evaluation set, flagged 49.1% of reports for manual review, incorrectly coded 30.8%, and correctly omitted 7.4% from the evaluation set due to irrelevancy (i.e. not breast-related. Common procedures and results were identified correctly (e.g. invasive ductal with 95.5% precision and 94.0% sensitivity, but entire reports were flagged for manual review because of rare findings and substantial variation in pathology report text. Conclusions: The NLP system we developed did not perform sufficiently for abstracting entire breast pathology reports. The all-or-nothing approach resulted in too broad of a scope of work and limited our flexibility to identify breast pathology procedures and results. Our NLP system was also limited by the lack of the gold standard data on rare findings and wide variation in pathology text. Focusing on individual, common elements and improving pathology text report standardization may improve performance.

  10. Development and External Validation of the Korean Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator for High-Grade Prostate Cancer: Comparison with Two Western Risk Calculators in an Asian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Young; Yoon, Sungroh; Park, Man Sik; Choi, Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Moon, Du Geon; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sang Eun; Park, Chanwang; Byun, Seok-Soo

    2017-01-01

    We developed the Korean Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator for High-Grade Prostate Cancer (KPCRC-HG) that predicts the probability of prostate cancer (PC) of Gleason score 7 or higher at the initial prostate biopsy in a Korean cohort (http://acl.snu.ac.kr/PCRC/RISC/). In addition, KPCRC-HG was validated and compared with internet-based Western risk calculators in a validation cohort. Using a logistic regression model, KPCRC-HG was developed based on the data from 602 previously unscreened Korean men who underwent initial prostate biopsies. Using 2,313 cases in a validation cohort, KPCRC-HG was compared with the European Randomized Study of Screening for PC Risk Calculator for high-grade cancer (ERSPCRC-HG) and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator 2.0 for high-grade cancer (PCPTRC-HG). The predictive accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and calibration plots. PC was detected in 172 (28.6%) men, 120 (19.9%) of whom had PC of Gleason score 7 or higher. Independent predictors included prostate-specific antigen levels, digital rectal examination findings, transrectal ultrasound findings, and prostate volume. The AUC of the KPCRC-HG (0.84) was higher than that of the PCPTRC-HG (0.79, pexternal validation. Calibration plots also revealed better performance of KPCRC-HG and ERSPCRC-HG than that of PCPTRC-HG on external validation. At a cut-off of 5% for KPCRC-HG, 253 of the 2,313 men (11%) would not have been biopsied, and 14 of the 614 PC cases with Gleason score 7 or higher (2%) would not have been diagnosed. KPCRC-HG is the first web-based high-grade prostate cancer prediction model in Korea. It had higher predictive accuracy than PCPTRC-HG in a Korean population and showed similar performance with ERSPCRC-HG in a Korean population. This prediction model could help avoid unnecessary biopsy and reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment in clinical settings.

  11. The development of a statistical procedure to correct the effects of restriction of range on validity coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Scheepers

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In the validation of tests used for selection purposes, the obtained validity coefficients are invariably underestimates of the true validities, due to explicit and implicit selection in respect of the relevant variables. Both explicit and implicit selection leads to restriction of range of the relevant variables, and this in turn reduces the obtained validites. A formal proof for this is given. A number of researchers have developed formulae for correcting sample validities in order to get better estimates of the true validities (Pearson/ 1903; Thorndike, 1949; Gulliksen, 1950; Rydberg, 1962 and Lord & Novick, 1968. It is, however, virtually impossible to obtain a complete view of the problem of restriction of range in this way. In the present paper a different approach has been followed: Population correlations have been computed for various degrees of truncation of the explicit selection variable. This has been done for population correlations ranging from 0,10 to 0,99. A graphical display, indicating the shrinkage of the population correlations for various truncation ratios, has been prepared. Opsomming In die geldigheidsbepaling van toetse wat vir keuringsdoeleindes gebruik word, is die verkree geldigheidskoeffisiente sender uitsondering onderskattings van die ware geldighede as gevolg van eksplisiete en implisiete keuring ten opsigte van die tersaaklike veranderlikes. Sowel eksplisiete as implisiete keuring lei tot inperking van die variasiewydte van die relevante veranderiikes, en dit reduseer om die beurt weer die verkree geldighede. 'n Formele bewys hiervoor word in die referaat gegee. 'n Aantal navorsers het formules ontwikkel om steekproefgeldighede te korrigeer ten einde beter beramings van die ware geldighede te verkry (Pearson/ 1903; horndike, 1949: Gulliksen, 1950; Rygberg, 1962 en Lord & Novick, 1968. Dit is egter bykans onmoontlik om op hierdie wyse 'n geheelbeeld van die probleem van inperking van variasiewydte te vorm. In die

  12. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Volume 5, Rationale and description of verification and validation guideline packages and procedures. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    This report is the fifth volume in a series of reports describing the results of the Expert System Verification and Validation (V ampersand V) project which is jointly funded by US NRC and EPRI toward formulating guidelines for V ampersand V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. This report provides the rationale for and description of those guidelines. The actual guidelines themselves (and the accompanying 11 step by step Procedures) are presented in Volume 7, User's Manual. Three factors determine what V ampersand V is needed: (1) the stage, of the development life cycle (requirements, design, or implementation), (2) whether the overall system or a specialized component needs be tested (knowledge base component, inference engine or other highly reusable element, or a component involving conventional software), and (3) the stringency of V ampersand V that is needed (as judged from an assessment of the system's complexity and the requirement for its integrity to form three Classes). A V ampersand V guideline package is provided for each of the combinations of these three variables. The package specifies the V ampersand V methods recommended and the order in which they should be administered, the assurances each method provides, the qualifications needed by the V ampersand V team to employ each Particular method, the degree to which the methods should be applied, the performance measures that should be taken, and the decision criteria for accepting, conditionally accepting, or rejecting an evaluated system. In addition to the guideline packages, highly detailed step-by-step procedures are provided for 11 of the more important methods, to ensure that they Can be implemented correctly. The guidelines can apply to conventional procedural software systems as well as all kinds of AI systems

  13. Predicting First Grade Reading Achievement for Spanish-Speaking Kindergartners: Is Early Literacy Screening in English Valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.; Huang, Francis

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the viability of using kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, and orthographic knowledge, administered in English, to predict first grade reading achievement of Spanish-speaking English language learners. The primary research question was: Do kindergarten measures of early literacy skills in…

  14. Validating "Value Added" in the Primary Grades: One District's Attempts to Increase Fairness and Inclusivity in Its Teacher Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Polasky, Sarah; Holloway-Libell, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    One urban district in the state of Arizona sought to use an alternative achievement test (i.e., the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress for Primary Grades (MAP)) to include more value-added ineligible teachers in the districts' growth and merit pay system. The goal was to allow for its K-2 teachers to be more…

  15. Application of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure in Bulgaria and validation of the seismic input against Eurocode 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskaleva, I.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-03-01

    The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed. (author)

  16. A study on a systematic approach of verification and validation of a computerized procedure system: ImPRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Wei; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2003-01-01

    Paper Based Procedure (PBP) and Computerized Procedure System (CPS) are studied to demonstrate that it is necessary to develop CPS in NPP I and C system. Computerized procedure system is actually a software system. All the desired and undesired properties of a software system can be described and evaluated as software qualities. Generally, software qualities can be categorized into product quality and process quality. In order to achieve product quality, the process quality of a software system should also be considered and achieved. Characteristics of CPS will be described to analyse the product and process of an example CPS: ImPRO. At the same time, several main product and process issues will be analysed from Verification and Validation (V and V) point of view. It is concluded and suggested that V and V activities can also be regarded as software development process, this point of view then is applied to the V and V activities of ImPRO as a systematic approach of V and V of ImPRO. To support and realize this approach, suitable testing technologies and testing strategies are suggested

  17. External validation of a PCA-3-based nomogram for predicting prostate cancer and high-grade cancer on initial prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Daniel J; Elshafei, Ahmed; Nyame, Yaw A; Kara, Onder; Malkoc, Ercan; Gao, Tianming; Jones, J Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to externally validate a previously developed PCA3-based nomogram for the prediction of prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade (intermediate and/or high-grade) prostate cancer (HGPCa) at the time of initial prostate biopsy. A retrospective review was performed on a cohort of 336 men from a large urban academic medical center. All men had serum PSA PCa, PSA at diagnosis, PCA3, total prostate volume (TPV), and abnormal finding on digital rectal exam (DRE). These variables were used to test the accuracy (concordance index) and calibration of a previously published PCA3 nomogram. Biopsy confirms PCa and HGPCa in 51.0% and 30.4% of validation patients, respectively. This differed from the original cohort in that it had significantly more PCa and HGPCA (51% vs. 44%, P = 0.019; and 30.4% vs. 19.1%, P PCa detection the concordance index was 75% and 77% for overall PCa and HGPCa, respectively. Calibration for overall PCa was good. This represents the first external validation of a PCA3-based prostate cancer predictive nomogram in a North American population. Prostate 76:1019-1023, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Clinical Validation of the 2005 ISUP Gleason Grading System in a Cohort of Intermediate and High Risk Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila F Faraj

    Full Text Available In 2005, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP introduced several modifications to the original Gleason system that were intended to enhance the prognostic power of Gleason score (GS. The objective of this study was to clinically validate the 2005 ISUP Gleason grading system for its ability to detect metastasis. We queried our institutional RP database for men with NCCN clinically localized intermediate to high-risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP between 1992 and 2010 with no additional treatment until the time of metastatic progression. A case-cohort design was utilized. A total of 333 available RP samples were re-reviewed and GS was reassigned per the 2005 ISUP Gleason system. Cumulative incidence of metastasis was 0%, 8.4%, 24.5% and 44.4% among specimens that were downgraded, unchanged, had one point GS increase and two point GS increase, respectively. The hazard ratio for metastasis raised in GS 8 and 9 compared to GS 7 from 2.77 and 5.91 to 3.49 and 9.31, respectively. The survival c-index of GS increased from 0.70 to 0.80 when samples were re-graded at 5 years post RP. The c-index of the reassigned GS was higher than the original GS (0.77 vs 0.64 for predicting PCSM at 10 years post RP. The regraded GS improved the prediction of metastasis and PCSM. This validates the updated Gleason grading system using an unambiguous clinical endpoint and highlights the need for reassignment of Gleason grading according to 2005 ISUP system when considering comparisons of novel biomarkers to clinicopathological variables in archival cohorts.

  19. Multicentre standardisation of a clinical grade procedure for the preparation of allogeneic platelet concentrates from umbilical cord blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebulla, Paolo; Pupella, Simonetta; Santodirocco, Michele; Greppi, Noemi; Villanova, Ida; Buzzi, Marina; De Fazio, Nicola; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to a largely prevalent use for bleeding prophylaxis, platelet concentrates from adult blood have also been used for many years to prepare platelet gels for the repair of topical skin ulcers. Platelet gel can be obtained by activation of fresh, cryopreserved, autologous or allogeneic platelet concentrates with calcium gluconate, thrombin and/or batroxobin. The high content of tissue regenerative factors in cord blood platelets and the widespread availability of allogeneic cord blood units generously donated for haematopoietic transplant but unsuitable for this use solely because of low haematopoietic stem cell content prompted us to develop a national programme to standardise the production of allogeneic cryopreserved cord blood platelet concentrates (CBPC) suitable for later preparation of clinical-grade cord blood platelet gel. Materials and methods Cord blood units collected at public banks with total nucleated cell counts 150×109/L and volume >50 mL, underwent soft centrifugation within 48 hours of collection. Platelet-rich plasma was centrifuged at high speed to obtain a CBPC with target platelet concentration of 800–1,200×109/L, which was cryopreserved, without cryoprotectant, below −40 °C. Results During 14 months, 13 banks produced 1,080 CBPC with mean (± standard deviation) volume of 11.4±4.4 mL and platelet concentration of 1,003±229×109/L. Total platelet count per CBPC was 11.3±4.9×109. Platelet recovery from cord blood was 47.7±17.8%. About one-third of cord blood units donated for haematopoietic transplant could meet the requirements for preparation of CBPC. The cost of preparation was € 160.92/CBPC. About 2 hours were needed for one technician to prepare four CBPC. Discussion This study yielded valuable scientific and operational information regarding the development of clinical trials using allogeneic CBPC. PMID:26509822

  20. Cost-effective master cell bank validation of multiple clinical-grade human pluripotent stem cell lines from a single donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, Liani; Petrova, Anastasia; Miere, Cristian; Codognotto, Stefano; Blakely, Nicola; Lovatt, Archie; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2014-10-01

    Standardization guidelines for human pluripotent stem cells are still very broadly defined, despite ongoing clinical trials in the U.S., U.K., and Japan. The requirements for validation of human embryonic (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in general follow the regulations for other clinically compliant biologics already in place but without addressing key differences between cell types or final products. In order to realize the full potential of stem cell therapy, validation criteria, methodology, and, most importantly, strategy, should address the shortfalls and efficiency of current approaches; without this, hESC- and, especially, iPSC-based therapy will not be able to compete with other technologies in a cost-efficient way. We addressed the protocols for testing cell lines for human viral pathogens and propose a novel strategy that would significantly reduce costs. It is highly unlikely that the multiple cell lines derived in parallel from a tissue sample taken from one donor would have different profiles of endogenous viral pathogens; we therefore argue that samples from the Master Cell Banks of sibling lines could be safely pooled for validation. We illustrate this approach with tiered validation of two sibling clinical-grade hESC lines, KCL033 and KCL034 (stage 1, sterility; stage 2, specific human pathogens; and stage 3, nonspecific human pathogens). The results of all tests were negative. This cost-effective strategy could also be applied for validation of Master Cell Banks of multiple clinical-grade iPSC lines derived from a single donor. ©AlphaMed Press.

  1. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R.; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis. PMID:28270777

  2. Development of Advanced Verification and Validation Procedures and Tools for the Certification of Learning Systems in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Stephen; Schumann, Johann; Gupta, Pramod; Richard, Michael; Guenther, Kurt; Soares, Fola

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable automatic flight control and vehicle recovery, autonomous flight, and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments. In order for adaptive control systems to be used in safety-critical aerospace applications, they must be proven to be highly safe and reliable. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification and validation must be developed to ensure that control system software failures will not occur. Of central importance in this regard is the need to establish reliable methods that guarantee convergent learning, rapid convergence (learning) rate, and algorithm stability. This paper presents the major problems of adaptive control systems that use learning to improve performance. The paper then presents the major procedures and tools presently developed or currently being developed to enable the verification, validation, and ultimate certification of these adaptive control systems. These technologies include the application of automated program analysis methods, techniques to improve the learning process, analytical methods to verify stability, methods to automatically synthesize code, simulation and test methods, and tools to provide on-line software assurance.

  3. An evaluation procedure of sodium environmental effects on FBR grade SUS316 (316FR) and Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. On the basis of the studies up to the fiscal year of 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of sodium environmental effects on structural materials of fast breeder reactors (FBR's) is one of the key issues for the integrity of the plants. The Elevated Temperature Structural Design Guide for Monju (ETSDG) incorporated an evaluation procedure of sodium environmental effects in the Appendix MA.2, for the conventional steels, such as SUS304, SUS316, SUS321 and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo. Following the establishment of the ETSDG, a new material with superior elevated temperature properties, FBR grade SUS316 (316FR), has been developed, and studies on Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel (Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel) has been performed, for the application to demonstration reactors and successive large-scale reactors. These materials were shown to have, at least equal, or better compatibility with sodium compared with the conventional steels. Moreover, studies have been continued with the conventional steels, particularly with SUS304, for the further validation of the procedure in the ETSDG, especially in terms of long-term properties. Those studies provide basis for the study on 316FR. This report proposed an evaluation procedure of sodium environmental effects on 316FR and Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel, which is to be incorporated into the structural design guide for demonstration fast breeder reactors. The procedure is summarized as follows: (1) Corrosion allowance of 316FR and Mod.9Cr-1Mo can be evaluated by the equation determined in the ETSTG. (2) Strength reduction factors on design allowable values are not necessary for either steel. Strength reduction due to the transfer of carbon and nitrogen, etc does not occur with 316FR, which was the same as SUS304. Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel does not show strength reduction, contrary to 2 l/4Cr-1Mo, similar ferritic steel. (3) Corrosion allowance can be determined separately for thin-walled components. The procedure allows design without correction factors for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel, which was not possible for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel in the ETSDG. (author)

  4. Simultaneous determination of local cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow by carbon-14 double-label autoradiography: method of procedure and validation studies in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, M.D.; Smith, D.W.; Wachtel, M.S.; Gonzalez-Carvajal, M.; Busto, R.

    1986-01-01

    Validation studies were undertaken to establish a computer-assisted double-label autoradiographic strategy employing [ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose ([ 14 C]2DG) and [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine ([ 14 C]IAP) to measure local CMRglu (LCMRglu) and CBF (LCBF). An organic solvent was used to extract the majority of IAP between first and second film exposures. In contrast to previously published data, all solvents tested produced partial losses of 2DG from tissue, and all allowed 2-6% of IAP to persist even after 5-day washes. Technical-grade chloroform permitted equal retention of unmetabolized and metabolized 2DG. A linear model was established, which was insensitive to the changes in tissue self-absorption that were shown to occur with chloroform extraction. Propagated error in computing tissue [ 14 C]2DG and [ 14 C]IAP was reduced by maximizing IAP extraction (by longer solvent wash times) and by administering 2.5 times as much IAP as 2DG. Fractional 2DG retention was measured in single-label 2DG sections placed on the films, and fractional IAP retention was evaluated by an optimization procedure. With this strategy, double-label values for LCMRglu and LCBF in anesthetized rats agreed with values obtained in matched single-label series to within 5%. The coefficients of variation for the double- and single-label LCMRglu data were virtually identical, whereas the coefficient of variation for double-label LCBF was 1.8 times that of single-label LCBF. The double-label strategy permitted pixel-by-pixel measurement and video display of the LCMRglu/LCBF ratio; the mean value among structures was 0.472 mumol/ml. With proper attention to methodological detail, this double-label strategy shows great promise for routine laboratory application

  5. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  6. Criterion Validity Evidence for the easyCBM© CCSS Math Measures: Grades 6-8. Technical Report #1402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Rowley, Brock; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The easyCBM© CCSS Math tests were developed to help inform teachers' instructional decisions by providing relevant information on students' mathematical skills, relative to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). This technical report describes a study to explore the validity of the easyCBM© CCSS Math tests by evaluating the relation between…

  7. Validation of International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading for prostatic adenocarcinoma in thin core biopsies using TROG 03.04 'RADAR' trial clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, B; Egevad, L; Srigley, J R; Steigler, A; Murray, J D; Atkinson, C; Matthews, J; Duchesne, G; Spry, N A; Christie, D; Joseph, D; Attia, J; Denham, J W

    2015-10-01

    In 2014 a consensus conference convened by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) adopted amendments to the criteria for Gleason grading and scoring (GS) for prostatic adenocarcinoma. The meeting defined a modified grading system based on 5 grading categories (grade 1, GS 3+3; grade 2, GS 3+4; grade 3, GS 4+3; grade 4, GS 8; grade 5, GS 9-10). In this study we have evaluated the prognostic significance of ISUP grading in 496 patients enrolled in the TROG 03.04 RADAR Trial. There were 19 grade 1, 118 grade 2, 193 grade 3, 88 grade 4 and 79 grade 5 tumours in the series, with follow-up for a minimum of 6.5 years. On follow-up 76 patients experienced distant progression of disease, 171 prostate specific antigen (PSA) progression and 39 prostate cancer deaths. In contrast to the 2005 modified Gleason system (MGS), the hazards of the distant and PSA progression endpoints, relative to grade 2, were significantly greater for grades 3, 4 and 5 of the 2014 ISUP grading scheme. Comparison of predictive ability utilising Harrell's concordance index, showed 2014 ISUP grading to significantly out-perform 2005 MGS grading for each of the three clinical endpoints.

  8. Cis-eQTL analysis and functional validation of candidate susceptibility genes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenson, Kate; Li, Qiyuan; Kar, Siddhartha; Seo, Ji-Heui; Tyrer, Jonathan; Spindler, Tassja J; Lee, Janet; Chen, Yibu; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chen, Anne; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T; Edwards, Robert P; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kruger Kjaer, Susanne; Kelemen, Linda E; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Nevanlinna, Heli; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Narod, Steven A; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Ramus, Susan J; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Schwaab, Ira; Sellers, Thomas A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Monteiro, Alvaro; Pharoah, Paul D; Gayther, Simon A; Freedman, Matthew L

    2015-09-22

    Genome-wide association studies have reported 11 regions conferring risk of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses can identify candidate susceptibility genes at risk loci. Here we evaluate cis-eQTL associations at 47 regions associated with HGSOC risk (P≤10(-5)). For three cis-eQTL associations (P<1.4 × 10(-3), FDR<0.05) at 1p36 (CDC42), 1p34 (CDCA8) and 2q31 (HOXD9), we evaluate the functional role of each candidate by perturbing expression of each gene in HGSOC precursor cells. Overexpression of HOXD9 increases anchorage-independent growth, shortens population-doubling time and reduces contact inhibition. Chromosome conformation capture identifies an interaction between rs2857532 and the HOXD9 promoter, suggesting this SNP is a leading causal variant. Transcriptomic profiling after HOXD9 overexpression reveals enrichment of HGSOC risk variants within HOXD9 target genes (P=6 × 10(-10) for risk variants (P<10(-4)) within 10 kb of a HOXD9 target gene in ovarian cells), suggesting a broader role for this network in genetic susceptibility to HGSOC.

  9. Reirradiation in progressive high-grade gliomas: outcome, role of concurrent chemotherapy, prognostic factors and validation of a new prognostic score with an independent patient cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, Felix; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Müller, Klaus; Zwiener, Isabella; Schlamann, Annika; Seidel, Clemens; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Bauer, Manfred; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Combs, Stephanie E; Bueren, André O von

    2013-01-01

    First, to evaluate outcome, the benefit of concurrent chemotherapy and prognostic factors in a cohort of sixty-four high-grade glioma patients who underwent a second course of radiation therapy at progression. Second, to validate a new prognostic score for overall survival after reirradiation of progressive gliomas with an independent patient cohort. All patients underwent fractionated reirradiation with a median physical dose of 36 Gy. Median planned target volume was 110.4 ml. Thirty-six patients received concurrent chemotherapy consisting in 24/36 cases (67%) of carboplatin and etoposide and in 12/36 cases (33%) of temozolomide. We used the Kaplan Meier method, log rank test and proportional hazards regression analysis for statistical assessment. Median overall survival from the start of reirradiation was 7.7 ± 0.7 months. Overall survival rates at 6 and 12 months were 60 ± 6% and 24 ± 6%, respectively. Despite relatively large target volumes we did not observe any major acute toxicity. Concurrent chemotherapy did not appear to improve outcome. In contrast, female gender, young age, WHO grade III histology, favorable Karnofsky performance score and complete resection of the tumor prior to reirradiation were identified as positive prognostic factors for overall survival. We finally validated a recent suggestion for a prognostic score with our independent but small patient cohort. Our preliminary findings suggest that its ability to discriminate between different prognostic groups is limited. Outcome of our patients was comparable to previous studies. Even in case of large target volumes reirradiation seems to be feasible without observing major toxicity. The benefit of concurrent chemotherapy is still elusive. A reassessment of the prognostic score, tested in this study, using a larger patient cohort is needed

  10. Validity of consumer-grade activity monitor to identify manual wheelchair propulsion in standardized activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leving, Marika T; Horemans, Henricus L D; Vegter, Riemer J K; de Groot, Sonja; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2018-01-01

    Hypoactive lifestyle contributes to the development of secondary complications and lower quality of life in wheelchair users. There is a need for objective and user-friendly physical activity monitors for wheelchair-dependent individuals in order to increase physical activity through self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback provision. To determine the validity of Activ8 Activity Monitors to 1) distinguish two classes of activities: independent wheelchair propulsion from other non-propulsive wheelchair-related activities 2) distinguish five wheelchair-related classes of activities differing by the movement intensity level: sitting in a wheelchair (hands may be moving but wheelchair remains stationary), maneuvering, and normal, high speed or assisted wheelchair propulsion. Sixteen able-bodied individuals performed sixteen various standardized 60s-activities of daily living. Each participant was equipped with a set of two Activ8 Professional Activity Monitors, one at the right forearm and one at the right wheel. Task classification by the Active8 Monitors was validated using video recordings. For the overall agreement, sensitivity and positive predictive value, outcomes above 90% are considered excellent, between 70 and 90% good, and below 70% unsatisfactory. Division in two classes resulted in overall agreement of 82.1%, sensitivity of 77.7% and positive predictive value of 78.2%. 84.5% of total duration of all tasks was classified identically by Activ8 and based on the video material. Division in five classes resulted in overall agreement of 56.6%, sensitivity of 52.8% and positive predictive value of 51.9%. 59.8% of total duration of all tasks was classified identically by Activ8 and based on the video material. Activ8 system proved to be suitable for distinguishing between active wheelchair propulsion and other non-propulsive wheelchair-related activities. The ability of the current system and algorithms to distinguish five various wheelchair-related activities

  11. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  12. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

  13. Validation and Development of a Modified Breast Graded Prognostic Assessment As a Tool for Survival in Patients With Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Ishwaria M; Lei, Xiudong; Weinberg, Jeffrey S; Sulman, Erik P; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Tripathy, Debu; Gupta, Rohan; Varma, Ankur; Chouhan, Jay; Guevarra, Richard P; Valero, Vicente; Gilbert, Mark R; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M

    2015-07-10

    Several indices have been developed to predict overall survival (OS) in patients with breast cancer with brain metastases, including the breast graded prognostic assessment (breast-GPA), comprising age, tumor subtype, and Karnofsky performance score. However, number of brain metastases-a highly relevant clinical variable-is less often incorporated into the final model. We sought to validate the existing breast-GPA in an independent larger cohort and refine it integrating number of brain metastases. Data were retrospectively gathered from a prospectively maintained institutional database. Patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases from 1996 to 2013 were identified. After validating the breast-GPA, multivariable Cox regression and recursive partitioning analysis led to the development of the modified breast-GPA. The performances of the breast-GPA and modified breast-GPA were compared using the concordance index. In our cohort of 1,552 patients, the breast-GPA was validated as a prognostic tool for OS (P three v ≤ three), both were independent predictors of OS. We therefore developed the modified breast-GPA integrating a fourth clinical parameter. Recursive partitioning analysis reinforced the prognostic significance of these four factors. Concordance indices were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.80) and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.85) for the breast-GPA and modified breast-GPA, respectively (P formative part of the clinician's discussion of prognosis and direction of care and as a potential patient selection tool for clinical trials. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Approaches for accounting and prediction of fast neutron fluence on WWER pressure vessels and results of validation of calculational procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodkin, P.G.; Khrennikov, N.N.; Ryabinin, Yu.A.; Adeev, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of the universal procedure for calculation of fast neutron fluence (FNF) on WWER vessels. Approbation of the calculation procedure was carried out by comparing the calculation results for this procedure and measurements on the outer surface of the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 vessels. In addition, an estimation of the uncertainty of the settlement procedure was made in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents. The developed procedure is applied at Kola NPP for independent fast neutron fluence estimates on the WWER-440 reactor vessels when planning core loads taking into account the introduction of new fuels. The results of the pilot operation of the procedure for calculating FNF at the Kola NPP were taken into account when improving the procedure and its application to the calculations of FNF on the WWER-1000 vessels [ru

  15. Validation of a paper-disk approach to facilitate the sensory evaluation of bitterness in dairy protein hydrolysates from a newly developed food-grade fractionation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Niamh M; O'Riordan, Dolores; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Cohen, Joshua L; Heymann, Hildegarde; Barile, Daniela; Dallas, David C

    2017-06-01

    Casein-hydrolysates (NaCaH) are desirable functional ingredients, but their bitterness impedes usage in foods. This study sought to validate a paper-disk approach to help evaluate bitterness in NaCaHs and to develop a food-grade approach to separate a NaCaH into distinct fractions, which could be evaluated by a sensory panel. Membrane filtration generated sensory evaluation. Bitterness differences observed in the membrane fractions using this sensory evaluation approach reflected those observed for the same fractions presented as a liquid. The flash-chromatography fractions increased in bitterness with an increase in hydrophobicity, except for the 50% EtOH fraction which had little bitterness. Amino acid analysis of the fractions showed enrichment of different essential amino acids in both the bitter and less bitter fractions. The developed food-grade fractionation system, allowed for a simple and reasonably scaled approach to separating a NaCaH, into physicochemically different fractions that could be evaluated by a sensory panel. The method of sensory evaluation used in this study, in which NaCaH samples are impregnated into paper-disks, provided potential solutions for issues such as sample insolubility and limited quantities of sample. As the impregnated paper-disk samples were dehydrated, their long storage life could also be suitable for sensory evaluations distributed by mail for large consumer studies. The research, in this study, allowed for a greater understanding of the physicochemical basis for bitterness in this NaCaH. As some essential amino acids were enriched in the less bitter fractions, selective removal of bitter fractions could allow for the incorporation of the less bitter NaCaH fractions into food products for added nutritional value, without negatively impacting sensory properties. There is potential for this approach to be applied to other food ingredients with undesirable tastes, such as polyphenols.

  16. Variables influencing wearable sensor outcome estimates in individuals with stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot investigation validating two research grade sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya Krishna; Mannix-Slobig, Alannah; McGee Koch, Lori; Jayaraman, Arun

    2018-03-13

    Monitoring physical activity and leveraging wearable sensor technologies to facilitate active living in individuals with neurological impairment has been shown to yield benefits in terms of health and quality of living. In this context, accurate measurement of physical activity estimates from these sensors are vital. However, wearable sensor manufacturers generally only provide standard proprietary algorithms based off of healthy individuals to estimate physical activity metrics which may lead to inaccurate estimates in population with neurological impairment like stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). The main objective of this cross-sectional investigation was to evaluate the validity of physical activity estimates provided by standard proprietary algorithms for individuals with stroke and iSCI. Two research grade wearable sensors used in clinical settings were chosen and the outcome metrics estimated using standard proprietary algorithms were validated against designated golden standard measures (Cosmed K4B2 for energy expenditure and metabolic equivalent and manual tallying for step counts). The influence of sensor location, sensor type and activity characteristics were also studied. 28 participants (Healthy (n = 10); incomplete SCI (n = 8); stroke (n = 10)) performed a spectrum of activities in a laboratory setting using two wearable sensors (ActiGraph and Metria-IH1) at different body locations. Manufacturer provided standard proprietary algorithms estimated the step count, energy expenditure (EE) and metabolic equivalent (MET). These estimates were compared with the estimates from gold standard measures. For verifying validity, a series of Kruskal Wallis ANOVA tests (Games-Howell multiple comparison for post-hoc analyses) were conducted to compare the mean rank and absolute agreement of outcome metrics estimated by each of the devices in comparison with the designated gold standard measurements. The sensor type, sensor location

  17. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  18. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Academic and Social-Emotional Screening Assessments for Measuring Academic and Social-Emotional Success at the End of First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Amber C.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the kindergarten, students are expected to possess early academic skills as well as the social maturity to be successful in first grade. Students leaving kindergarten without these readiness skills are sometimes held back in first grade or referred for a special education evaluation in later grades if they fail to make adequate…

  19. Construct validation of teacher portfolio assessment : Procedures for improving teacher competence assessment illustrated by teaching students research skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, M.F. van der

    2005-01-01

    The study aims to design and test procedures for teacher portfolio assessments. What are suitable procedures to assess teachers' competencies in developing students' research skills? We first searched into the tasks teachers have in teaching students research skills and the competencies needed to

  20. Validity of two recently-proposed prognostic grading indices for lung, gastro-intestinal, breast and renal cell cancer patients with radiosurgically-treated brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Serizawa, Toru; Sato, Yasunori; Kawabe, Takuya; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Barfod, Bierta E; Ono, Junichi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Urakawa, Yoichi

    2013-02-01

    We tested the validity of two prognostic indices for stereotactic radiosurgically (SRS)-treated patients with brain metastases (BMs) from five major original cancer categories. The two indices are Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) and our Modified Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA). Forty-six hundred and eight BM patients underwent gamma knife SRS during the 1998-2011 period. Primary cancer categories were non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 2827 patients), small cell lung cancer (SCLC, 460), gastro-intestinal cancer (GIC, 582), breast cancer (BC, 547) and renal cell cancer (RCC, 192). There were statistically significant survival differences among patients stratified into four groups based on the DS-GPA systems (p failed to reach statistical significance with this system. There were, however, statistically significant MST differences (p < 0.001) among the three groups without overlapping of 95 % CIs between any two pairs of groups with the Modified RPA system in all five categories. The DS-GPA system is applicable to our set of patients with NSCLC only. However, the Modified RPA system was shown to be applicable to patients with five primary cancer categories. This index should be considered when designing future clinical trials involving BM patients.

  1. The validity of using ROC software for analysing visual grading characteristics data: an investigation based on the novel software VGC analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Jonny; Maansson, Lars Gunnar; Baath, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the validity of using single-reader-adapted receiver operating characteristics (ROC) software for analysis of visual grading characteristics (VGC) data. VGC data from four published VGC studies on optimisation of X-ray examinations, previously analysed using ROCFIT, were reanalysed using a recently developed software dedicated to VGC analysis (VGC Analyzer), and the outcomes [the mean and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of the area under the VGC curve (AUC VGC ) and the p-value] were compared. The studies included both paired and non-paired data and were reanalysed both for the fixed-reader and the random-reader situations. The results showed good agreement between the softwares for the mean AUC VGC . For non-paired data, wider CIs were obtained with VGC Analyzer than previously reported, whereas for paired data, the previously reported CIs were similar or even broader. Similar observations were made for the p-values. The results indicate that the use of single-reader-adapted ROC software such as ROCFIT for analysing non-paired VGC data may lead to an increased risk of committing Type I errors, especially in the random-reader situation. On the other hand, the use of ROC software for analysis of paired VGC data may lead to an increased risk of committing Type II errors, especially in the fixed-reader situation. (authors)

  2. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A.

    2008-12-17

    This document proposes to provide a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers, and books reviewed is given in Appendix 1. Available validation documents and guides are listed in the appendix; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approaches to validation and varying descriptions of validation at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on validation and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all documents were published in English.

  3. Validation of an efficiency calibration procedure for a coaxial n-type and a well-type HPGe detector used for the measurement of environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera-Gómez, Yasser, E-mail: ymore24@gamail.com [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, CP 59350 Cienfuegos (Cuba); Departamento de Química y Edafología, Universidad de Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, Pamplona 31009, Navarra (Spain); Cartas-Aguila, Héctor A.; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Nuñez-Duartes, Carlos [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, CP 59350 Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    2016-05-11

    To obtain reliable measurements of the environmental radionuclide activity using HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detectors, the knowledge of the absolute peak efficiency is required. This work presents a practical procedure for efficiency calibration of a coaxial n-type and a well-type HPGe detector using experimental and Monte Carlo simulations methods. The method was performed in an energy range from 40 to 1460 keV and it can be used for both, solid and liquid environmental samples. The calibration was initially verified measuring several reference materials provided by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). Finally, through the participation in two Proficiency Tests organized by IAEA for the members of the ALMERA network (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) the validity of the developed procedure was confirmed. The validation also showed that measurement of {sup 226}Ra should be conducted using coaxial n-type HPGe detector in order to minimize the true coincidence summing effect. - Highlights: • An efficiency calibration for a coaxial and a well-type HPGe detector was performed. • The calibration was made using experimental and Monte Carlo simulations methods. • The procedure was verified measuring several reference materials provided by IAEA. • Calibrations were validated through the participation in 2 ALMERA Proficiency Tests.

  4. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2k experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2 k experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  5. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2{sup k} experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rpetroni@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2{sup k} experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  6. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-05-27

    Method validation is the process of evaluating whether an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. For pharmaceutical methods, guidelines from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) provide a framework for performing such valications. In general, methods for regulatory compliance must include studies on specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, detection limit, quantitation limit, and robustness. Elements of these guidelines are readily adapted to the issue of validation for beryllium sampling and analysis. This document provides a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers and books reviewed is given in the Appendix. Available validation documents and guides are listed therein; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approches to validation and varying descriptions of the valication process at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on valication and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all referenced documents were published in English.

  7. Validation of the Simbionix PROcedure Rehearsal Studio sizing module : A comparison of software for endovascular aneurysm repair sizing and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velu, Juliëtte F.; Groot Jebbink, Erik; de Vries, Jean-Paul P.M.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Geelkerken, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    An important determinant of successful endovascular aortic aneurysm repair is proper sizing of the dimensions of the aortic-iliac vessels. The goal of the present study was to determine the concurrent validity, a method for comparison of test scores, for EVAR sizing and planning of the recently

  8. A competency based selection procedure for Dutch postgraduate GP training: a pilot study on validity and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.I.; Tromp, F.; Zuithoff, N.P.; Pieters, R.H.; Damoiseaux, R.A.; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Historically, semi-structured interviews (SSI) have been the core of the Dutch selection for postgraduate general practice (GP) training. This paper describes a pilot study on a newly designed competency-based selection procedure that assesses whether candidates have the

  9. Pain management in the neonatal piglet during routine management procedures. Part 2: Grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piglets reared in swine production in the US undergo painful procedures that include castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and identification with ear notching or tagging. These procedures are usually performed without pain mitigation. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations...

  10. Design and validation of a consistent and reproducible manufacture process for the production of clinical-grade bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codinach, Margarita; Blanco, Margarita; Ortega, Isabel; Lloret, Mireia; Reales, Laura; Coca, Maria Isabel; Torrents, Sílvia; Doral, Manel; Oliver-Vila, Irene; Requena-Montero, Miriam; Vives, Joaquim; Garcia-López, Joan

    2016-09-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have achieved a notable prominence in the field of regenerative medicine, despite the lack of common standards in the production processes and suitable quality controls compatible with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Herein we describe the design of a bioprocess for bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC isolation and expansion, its validation and production of 48 consecutive batches for clinical use. BM samples were collected from the iliac crest of patients for autologous therapy. Manufacturing procedures included: (i) isolation of nucleated cells (NC) by automated density-gradient centrifugation and plating; (ii) trypsinization and expansion of secondary cultures; and (iii) harvest and formulation of a suspension containing 40 ± 10 × 10(6) viable cells. Quality controls were defined as: (i) cell count and viability assessment; (ii) immunophenotype; and (iii) sterility tests, Mycoplasma detection, endotoxin test and Gram staining. A 3-week manufacturing bioprocess was first designed and then validated in 3 consecutive mock productions, prior to producing 48 batches of BM-MSC for clinical use. Validation included the assessment of MSC identity and genetic stability. Regarding production, 139.0 ± 17.8 mL of BM containing 2.53 ± 0.92 × 10(9) viable NC were used as starting material, yielding 38.8 ± 5.3 × 10(6) viable cells in the final product. Surface antigen expression was consistent with the expected phenotype for MSC, displaying high levels of CD73, CD90 and CD105, lack of expression of CD31 and CD45 and low levels of HLA-DR. Tests for sterility, Mycoplasma, Gram staining and endotoxin had negative results in all cases. Herein we demonstrated the establishment of a feasible, consistent and reproducible bioprocess for the production of safe BM-derived MSC for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement pattern analysis of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma on dynamic MR imaging with histopathological correlation: Validity of portal phase imaging for predicting tumor grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Daisuke; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Nishie, Akihiro; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ishigami, Kousei; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Kakihara, Daisuke; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Nishihara, Yunosuke; Aishima, Shinichi; Taketomi, Akinobu; Kishimoto, Junji; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate the correlation between hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) enhancement patterns on dynamic MR imaging and histological findings. Materials and methods: Surgically proven 46 hypervascular HCCs of forty-one patients were enrolled. For each HCC, the signal intensity in the portal phase (SIPP) was evaluated. In this study, high, iso-, or low intensity in the portal phase was hypothesized as late, moderate, or early washout pattern, respectively. The SIPP of each HCC was correlated to histological grade and architectural subtypes that represent degrees of trabecular structure. For the trabecular HCCs, the thickness of tumor plate was also correlated for indirect estimation of tumor sinusoid. Results: There was a significant correlation between the SIPP vs. histological grade and also vs. architectural subtypes, namely the degree of trabecular structure. Washout of hypervascular HCC occurred earlier as the histological grade advanced and the histological architecture got closer to pure trabecular HCC. For the trabecular HCCs, the thickness of tumor plate correlated significantly with SIPP or histological grade. Hypervascular HCCs with thicker tumor plates showed worse histological grade and earlier washout pattern. Conclusions: Histological grade of hypervascular HCC may be predicted using SIPP. The thickness of tumor plate, resultantly the size of sinusoid between tumor plates, can account for the relationship between washout pattern and histological grade in the trabecular HCCs.

  12. RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan - Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) Part 2: Code Assessment Strategy, Procedure, and RTM Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jun Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Choi, Yong Joon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document addresses two subjects involved with the RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP): (i) the principles and plan to assure the independence of RELAP-7 assessment through the code development process, and (ii) the work performed to establish the RELAP-7 assessment plan, i.e., the assessment strategy, literature review, and identification of RELAP-7 requirements. Then, the Requirements Traceability Matrices (RTMs) proposed in previous document (INL-EXT-15-36684) are updated. These RTMs provide an efficient way to evaluate the RELAP-7 development status as well as the maturity of RELAP-7 assessment through the development process.

  13. Elasto-dynamic analysis of a gear pump-Part III: Experimental validation procedure and model extension to helical gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns external gear pumps for automotive applications, which operate at high speed and low pressure. In previous works of the authors (Part I and II, [1,2]), a non-linear lumped-parameter kineto-elastodynamic model for the prediction of the dynamic behaviour of external gear pumps was presented. It takes into account the most important phenomena involved in the operation of this kind of machine. The two main sources of noise and vibration are considered: pressure pulsation and gear meshing. The model has been used in order to foresee the influence of working conditions and design modifications on vibration generation. The model's experimental validation is a difficult task. Thus, Part III proposes a novel methodology for the validation carried out by the comparison of simulations and experimental results concerning forces and moments: it deals with the external and inertial components acting on the gears, estimated by the model, and the reactions and inertial components on the pump casing and the test plate, obtained by measurements. The validation is carried out comparing the level of the time synchronous average in the time domain and the waterfall maps in the frequency domain, with particular attention to identify system resonances. The validation results are satisfactory globally, but discrepancies are still present. Moreover, the assessed model has been properly modified for the application to a new virtual pump prototype with helical gears in order to foresee gear accelerations and dynamic forces. Part IV is focused on improvements in the modelling and analysis of the phenomena bound to the pressure evolution around the gears in order to achieve results closer to the measured values. As a matter of fact, the simulation results have shown that a variable meshing stiffness has a notable contribution on the dynamic behaviour of the pump but this is not as important as the pressure phenomena. As a consequence, the original model was modified with the

  14. Used-habitat calibration plots: A new procedure for validating species distribution, resource selection, and step-selection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieberg, John R.; Forester, James D.; Street, Garrett M.; Johnson, Douglas H.; ArchMiller, Althea A.; Matthiopoulos, Jason

    2018-01-01

    “Species distribution modeling” was recently ranked as one of the top five “research fronts” in ecology and the environmental sciences by ISI's Essential Science Indicators (Renner and Warton 2013), reflecting the importance of predicting how species distributions will respond to anthropogenic change. Unfortunately, species distribution models (SDMs) often perform poorly when applied to novel environments. Compounding on this problem is the shortage of methods for evaluating SDMs (hence, we may be getting our predictions wrong and not even know it). Traditional methods for validating SDMs quantify a model's ability to classify locations as used or unused. Instead, we propose to focus on how well SDMs can predict the characteristics of used locations. This subtle shift in viewpoint leads to a more natural and informative evaluation and validation of models across the entire spectrum of SDMs. Through a series of examples, we show how simple graphical methods can help with three fundamental challenges of habitat modeling: identifying missing covariates, non-linearity, and multicollinearity. Identifying habitat characteristics that are not well-predicted by the model can provide insights into variables affecting the distribution of species, suggest appropriate model modifications, and ultimately improve the reliability and generality of conservation and management recommendations.

  15. Studies of Sociosexual Interactions in Rats in an Externally Valid Procedure: Are They Relevant for Understanding Human Sexual Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When a prolonged observation of groups of rats in a seminatural environment is used as testing procedure, different behavioral patterns are shown compared with what observed in a pair housed in a small cage. Males and females copulate simultaneously, they show a promiscuously and random copulatory pattern. Females remain completely receptive from the first lordosis displayed in the period of behavioral estrus until the last. There is no reduction in paracopulatory behaviors and no increase in rejections towards the end of estrus. Female paracopulatory behavior and receptivity change in a most abrupt way at both initiation and termination of behavioral estrus. It appears that, in the seminatural environment, males copulate in bouts, and males do not pursue the females unless they are fully receptive. Non-sexual, social behavior including affiliative and nonaffiliative interaction among rats is rather unrelated to sexual activities in both sex.

  16. A procedure for calibration and validation of FE modelling of laser-assisted metal to polymer direct joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiase, F.; Genna, S.; Kant, R.

    2018-01-01

    The quality of the joints produced by means of Laser-Assisted Metal to Polymer direct joining (LAMP) is strongly influenced by the temperature field produced during the laser treatment. The main phenomena including the adhesion of the plastic to the metal sheet and the development of bubbles (on the plastic surface) depend on the temperature reached by the polymer at the interface. Such a temperature should be higher than the softening temperature, but lower than the degradation temperature of the polymer. However, the temperature distribution is difficult to be measured by experimental tests since the most polymers (which are transparent to the laser radiation) are often opaque to the infrared wavelength. Thus, infrared analysis involving pyrometers and infrared camera is not suitable for this purpose. On the other hand, thermocouples are difficult to be placed at the interface without influencing the temperature conditions. In this paper, an integrated approach involving both experimental measurements and a Finite Element (FE) model were used to perform such an analysis. LAMP of Polycarbonate and AISI304 stainless steel was performed by means of high power diode laser and the main process parameters i.e. laser power and scanning speed were varied. Comparing the experimental measurements and the FE model prediction of the thermal field, a good correspondence was achieved proving the suitability of the developed model and the proposed calibration procedure to be ready used for process design and optimization.

  17. Validation of a spectral correction procedure for sun and sky reflections in above-water reflectance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, Philipp M M; Gege, Peter; Simis, Stefan G H; Eleveld, Marieke A; Peters, Steef W M

    2017-08-07

    A three-component reflectance model (3C) is applied to above-water radiometric measurements to derive remote-sensing reflectance Rrs (λ). 3C provides a spectrally resolved offset Δ(λ) to correct for residual sun and sky radiance (Rayleigh- and aerosol-scattered) reflections on the water surface that were not represented by sky radiance measurements. 3C is validated with a data set of matching above- and below-water radiometric measurements collected in the Baltic Sea, and compared against a scalar offset correction Δ. Correction with Δ(λ) instead of Δ consistently reduced the (mean normalized root-mean-square) deviation between Rrs (λ) and reference reflectances to comparable levels for clear (Δ: 14.3 ± 2.5 %, Δ(λ): 8.2 ± 1.7 %), partly clouded (Δ: 15.4 ± 2.1 %, Δ(λ): 6.5 ± 1.4 %), and completely overcast (Δ: 10.8 ± 1.7 %, Δ(λ): 6.3 ± 1.8 %) sky conditions. The improvement was most pronounced under inhomogeneous sky conditions when measurements of sky radiance tend to be less representative of surface-reflected radiance. Accounting for both sun glint and sky reflections also relaxes constraints on measurement geometry, which was demonstrated based on a semi-continuous daytime data set recorded in a eutrophic freshwater lake in the Netherlands. Rrs (λ) that were derived throughout the day varied spectrally by less than 2 % relative standard deviation. Implications on measurement protocols are discussed. An open source software library for processing reflectance measurements was developed and is made publicly available.

  18. Interlaboratory study for the validation of an ecotoxicological procedure to monitor the quality of septic sludge received at a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P Y; Choucri, A; Bastien, C; Sunahara, G I; López-Gastey, J

    2001-01-01

    Septic tank sludge is regularly hauled to the Montreal Urban Community (MUC) wastewater treatment plant. It is then discharged and mixed with the wastewater inflow before entering the primary chemical treatment process. An ecotoxicological procedure integrating chemical and toxicological analyses has been recently developed and applied to screen for the illicit discharge of toxic substances in septic sludge. The toxicity tests used were the Microtox, the bacterial-respiration, and the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) root elongation tests. In order to validate the applicability of the proposed procedure, a two-year interlaboratory study was carried out. In general, the results obtained by two independent laboratories (MUC and the Centre d'expertise en analyse environnementale du Quebec) were comparable and reproducible. Some differences were found using the Microtox test. Organic (e.g., phenol and formaldehyde) and inorganic (e.g., nickel and cyanide) spiked septic sludge were detected with good reliability and high efficiency. The relative efficiency to detect spiked substances was > 70% and confirms the results of previous studies. In addition, the respiration test was the most efficient toxicological tool to detect spiked substances, whereas the Microtox was the least efficient (septic sludge.

  19. Experimentally Validated Combustion and Piston Fatigue Life Evaluation Procedures for the Bi-Fuel Engines, Using an Integral-Type Fatigue Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shariyat

    Full Text Available Abstract A relatively complete procedure for high cycle fatigue life assessment of the engine components is outlined in the present paper. The piston is examined as a typical component of the engine. In this regard, combustion process and transient heat transfer simulations, determination of the instantaneous variations of the pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber, kinematic and dynamic analyses of the moving parts of the engine, thermoelastic stress analyses, and fatigue life analyses are accomplished. Results of the simulation are compared with the test data to verify the results. The heat transfer results are validated by the experimental results measured by the Templugs. The nonlinear multipoint contact constraints are modeled accurately. Results of the more accurate available fatigue criteria are compared with those of a fatigue criterion recently proposed by the first author. These results are also evaluated by comparing them with the experimental durability tests. The presented procedure may be used, e.g., to decide whether it is suitable to convert a gasoline-based engine to a bi-fuel one. Results of the various thermomechanical fatigue analyses performed reveal that the piston life decreases considerably when natural gas is used instead of gasoline.

  20. Integrated System Validation Usability Questionnaire: Computerized Procedures; Desarrollo del Cuestionario de Facilidad de Uso para la Validación de Sistemas Integrados: Procedimientos de Operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, Ma. I.; Torralba, B.

    2015-07-01

    The Research and Development (R&D) project on “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Integrated System Validation of Control Rooms, 2014-2015”, in which the research activities described in this report are framed, has two main objectives: to develop the items for an usability methodology conceived as a part of the measurement framework for performance-based control room evaluation that the OECD Halden Reactor Project will test in the experiments planned for 2015; and the statistical analysis of the data generated in the experimental activities of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) facility, with previous usability questionnaires, in 2010 and 2011. In this report, the procedure designed to meet the first goal of the project is described, in particular, the process followed to identify the items related to operating procedures, both computer and paper-based, one of the elements to be included in the usability questionnaire. Three phases are performed, in the first one, the approaches developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, are reviewed, the models used by the nuclear industry and their technical support organizations, mainly, the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, are analyzed, and scientist advances are also explored. In the remaining stages, general and specific guidelines for computerized and paper-based procedures are compared and criteria for the preliminary selection of the items that should be incorporated into the usability questionnaire are defined. This proposal will be reviewed and adapted by the Halden Reactor Project to the design of the specific experiments performed in HAMLAB.

  1. Increasing On-Task Behavior in Every Student in a Second-Grade Classroom during Transitions: Validating the Color Wheel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Daniel L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Cowden, Dan; Clark, Janice; Bliss, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A single-case (B-C-B-C) experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel classroom management system (CWS) on on-task (OT) behavior in an intact, general-education, 2nd-grade classroom during transitions. The CWS included three sets of rules, posted cues to indicate the rules students are expected to be following at that…

  2. Multielemental analysis of 18 essential and toxic elements in amniotic fluid samples by ICP-MS: Full procedure validation and estimation of measurement uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, B; Sajnóg, A; Lorenc, W; Hanć, A; Komorowicz, I; Suliburska, J; Kocyłowski, R; Barałkiewicz, D

    2017-11-01

    Amniotic fluid is the substantial factor in the development of an embryo and fetus due to the fact that water and solutes contained in it penetrate the fetal membranes in an hydrostatic and osmotic way as well as being swallowed by the fetus. Elemental composition of amniotic fluid influences the growth and health of the fetus, therefore, an analysis of amniotic fluid is important because the results would indicate abnormal levels of minerals or toxic elements. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) is often used for determination of trace and ultra-trace level elements in a wide range of matrices including biological samples because of its unique analytical capabilities. In the case of trace and ultra-trace level analysis detailed characteristics of analytical procedure as well as properties of the analytical result are particularly important. The purpose of this study was to develop a new analytical procedure for multielemental analysis of 18 elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn) in amniotic fluid samples using ICP-MS. Dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with two reaction gases, ammonia and oxygen, was involved in the experiment to eliminate spectral interferences. Detailed validation was conducted using 3 certified reference mterials (CRMs) and real amniotic fluid samples collected from patients. Repeatability for all analyzed analytes was found to range from 0.70% to 8.0% and for intermediate precision results varied from 1.3% to 15%. Trueness expressed as recovery ranged from 80% to 125%. Traceability was assured through the analyses of CRMs. Uncertainty of the results was also evaluated using single-laboratory validation approach. The obtained expanded uncertainty (U) results for CRMs, expressed as a percentage of the concentration of an analyte, were found to be between 8.3% for V and 45% for Cd. Standard uncertainty of the precision was found to have a greater influence on the combined standard uncertainty

  3. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During…

  4. Development and Validation of a Classification System to Identify High-Grade Dysplasia and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus Using Narrow-Band Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Prateek; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Goda, Kenichi; Kato, Mototsugu; Messmann, Helmut; Alsop, Benjamin R.; Gupta, Neil; Vennalaganti, Prashanth; Hall, Matt; Konda, Vani; Koons, Ann; Penner, Olga; Goldblum, John R.; Waxman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Although several classification systems have been proposed for characterization of Barrett's esophagus (BE) surface patterns based on narrow-band imaging (NBI), none have been widely accepted. The Barrett's International NBI Group (BING) aimed to develop and validate an NBI classification system for

  5. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Rationale and description of V ampersand V guideline packages and procedures. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsky, S.M.; Hayes, J.E.; Miller, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This report is the fifth volume in a series of reports describing the results of the Expert System Verification C, and Validation (V ampersand V) project which is jointly funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute toward the objective of formulating Guidelines for the V ampersand V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. This report provides the rationale for and description of those guidelines. The actual guidelines themselves are presented in Volume 7, open-quotes User's Manual.close quotes Three factors determine what V ampersand V is needed: (1) the stage of the development life cycle (requirements, design, or implementation); (2) whether the overall system or a specialized component needs to be tested (knowledge base component, inference engine or other highly reusable element, or a component involving conventional software); and (3) the stringency of V ampersand V that is needed (as judged from an assessment of the system's complexity and the requirement for its integrity to form three Classes). A V ampersand V Guideline package is provided for each of the combinations of these three variables. The package specifies the V ampersand V methods recommended and the order in which they should be administered, the assurances each method provides, the qualifications needed by the V ampersand V team to employ each particular method, the degree to which the methods should be applied, the performance measures that should be taken, and the decision criteria for accepting, conditionally accepting, or rejecting an evaluated system. In addition to the Guideline packages, highly detailed step-by-step procedures are provided for 11 of the more important methods, to ensure that they can be implemented correctly. The Guidelines can apply to conventional procedural software systems as well as all kinds of Al systems

  6. Neuroendocrine tumors of colon and rectum: validation of clinical and prognostic values of the World Health Organization 2010 grading classifications and European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society staging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chaoyong; Yin, Yuan; Chen, Huijiao; Tang, Sumin; Yin, Xiaonan; Zhou, Zongguang; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhixin

    2017-03-28

    This study evaluated and compared the clinical and prognostic values of the grading criteria used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Neuroendocrine Tumors Society (ENETS). Moreover, this work assessed the current best prognostic model for colorectal neuroendocrine tumors (CRNETs). The 2010 WHO classifications and the ENETS systems can both stratify the patients into prognostic groups, although the 2010 WHO criteria is more applicable to CRNET patients. Along with tumor location, the 2010 WHO criteria are important independent prognostic parameters for CRNETs in both univariate and multivariate analyses through Cox regression (P<0.05). Data from 192 consecutive patients histopathologically diagnosed with CRNETs and had undergone surgical resection from January 2009 to May 2016 in a single center were retrospectively analyzed. Findings suggest that the WHO classifications are superior over the ENETS classification system in predicting the prognosis of CRNETs. Additionally, the WHO classifications can be widely used in clinical practice.

  7. EXTRAPOLATING THE SUITABILITY OF SOILS AS NATURAL REACTORS USING AN EXISTING SOIL MAP: APPLICATION OF PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS, SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND VALIDATION PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameli Guadalupe Aguilar Duarte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the spatial identification of the suitability of soils as reactors in the treatment of swine wastewater in the Mexican state of Yucatan, as well as the development of a map with validation procedures. Pedotransfer functions were applied to the existing soils database. A methodological approach was adopted that allowed the spatialization of pedotransfer function data points. A map of the suitability of soil associations as reactors was produced, as well as a map of the level of accuracy of the associations using numerical classification technique, such as discriminant analysis. Soils with the highest suitability indices were found to be Vertisols, Stagnosols, Nitisols and Luvisols. Some 83.9% of the area of Yucatan is marginally suitable for the reception of swine wastewater, 6.5% is moderately suitable, while 6% is suitable. The percentages of the spatial accuracy of the pedotransfer functions range from 62% to 95% with an overall value of 71.5%. The methodological approach proved to be practical, accurate and inexpensive.

  8. Development and validation of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry procedure for confirmation of para-toluenesulfonamide in edible fish fillet tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Olutosin R; Kijak, Philip J; Meinertz, Jeffery R; Schmidt, Larry J

    2004-01-01

    Chloramine-T is a disinfectant being developed as a treatment for bacterial gill disease in cultured fish. As part of the drug approval process, a method is required for the confirmation of chloramine-T residues in edible fish tissue. The marker residue that will be used to determine the depletion of chloramine-T residues from the edible tissue of treated fish is para-toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA), a metabolite of chloramine-T. The development and validation of a procedure for the confirmation of p-TSA is described. Homogenized fish tissue is dried by mixing with anhydrous sodium sulfate, and the mixture is extracted with methylene chloride. The extract is passed through a silica gel solid-phase extraction column, from which p-TSA is subsequently eluted with acetonitrile. The acetonitrile extract is evaporated, and the oily residue is dissolved in hexane. The hexane solution is shaken with fresh acetonitrile. The acetonitrile solution is evaporated and the residue is redissolved in dilute potassium hydroxide solution. The aqueous solution is extracted with methylene chloride to further remove more of the fat co-extractive. The aqueous solution is reacted with pentafluorobenzyl bromide in presence of tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate. The resulting di-(pentafluorobenzyl) derivative of p-TSA is analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This method permits the confirmation of p-TSA in edible fish tissue at 20 ppb.

  9. The Italian validation of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MACFIMS) and the application of the Cognitive Impairment Index scoring procedure in MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Ornella; Incerti, Chiara C; Quartuccio, Maria E; Magistrale, Giuseppe; Francia, Ada; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pisani, Valerio; Nocentini, Ugo

    2018-04-27

    Cognitive dysfunction occurs in almost 50-60% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) even in early stages of the disease and affects different aspects of patient's life. Aims of the present study were (1) to introduce and validate an Italian version of the minimal assessment of cognitive functions in MS (MACFIMS) battery and (2) to propose the use of the Cognitive Impairment Index (CII) as a scoring procedure to define the degree of impairment in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary-progressive (SPMS) patients. A total of 240 HC and 123 MS patients performed the Italian version of the MACFIMS composed by the same tests as the original except for the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. The CII was derived for each score of the 11 scales for participants of both groups. The results of the study show that cognitive impairment affects around 50% of our sample of MS patients. In RRMS group, only the 15.7% of patients reported a severe impairment, while in the group of SPMS, the 51.4% of patients felt in the "severely impaired" group. Results are in line with previously reported percentages of impairment in MS patients, showing that the calculation of the CII applied to the Italian version of the MACFIMS is sensitive and reliable in detecting different degrees of impairment in MS patients.

  10. Identification and validation of multiple cell surface markers of clinical-grade adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells as novel release criteria for good manufacturing practice-compliant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Emily T; Gustafson, Michael P; Dudakovic, Amel; Riester, Scott M; Garces, Catalina Galeano; Paradise, Christopher R; Takai, Hideki; Karperien, Marcel; Cool, Simon; Sampen, Hee-Jeong Im; Larson, A Noelle; Qu, Wenchun; Smith, Jay; Dietz, Allan B; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2016-08-11

    Clinical translation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) necessitates basic characterization of the cell product since variability in biological source and processing of MSCs may impact therapeutic outcomes. Although expression of classical cell surface markers (e.g., CD90, CD73, CD105, and CD44) is used to define MSCs, identification of functionally relevant cell surface markers would provide more robust release criteria and options for quality control. In addition, cell surface expression may distinguish between MSCs from different sources, including bone marrow-derived MSCs and clinical-grade adipose-derived MSCs (AMSCs) grown in human platelet lysate (hPL). In this work we utilized quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, and RNA-sequencing to characterize AMSCs grown in hPL and validated non-classical markers in 15 clinical-grade donors. We characterized the surface marker transcriptome of AMSCs, validated the expression of classical markers, and identified nine non-classical markers (i.e., CD36, CD163, CD271, CD200, CD273, CD274, CD146, CD248, and CD140B) that may potentially discriminate AMSCs from other cell types. More importantly, these markers exhibit variability in cell surface expression among different cell isolates from a diverse cohort of donors, including freshly prepared, previously frozen, or proliferative state AMSCs and may be informative when manufacturing cells. Our study establishes that clinical-grade AMSCs expanded in hPL represent a homogeneous cell culture population according to classical markers,. Additionally, we validated new biomarkers for further AMSC characterization that may provide novel information guiding the development of new release criteria. Use of Autologous Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate in Painful Knee Osteoarthritis (BMAC): Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01931007 . Registered August 26, 2013. MSC for Occlusive Disease of the Kidney: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01840540 . Registered April 23, 2013. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Multiple

  11. Validation of the 2015 prostate cancer grade groups for predicting long-term oncologic outcomes in a shared equal-access health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Ariel A; Howard, Lauren E; Tay, Kae Jack; Tsivian, Efrat; Sze, Christina; Amling, Christopher L; Aronson, William J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kane, Christopher J; Terris, Martha K; Freedland, Stephen J; Polascik, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    A 5-tier prognostic grade group (GG) system was enacted to simplify the risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer in which Gleason scores of ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9 or 10 are considered GG 1 through 5, respectively. The authors investigated the utility of biopsy GG for predicting long-term oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy in an equal-access health system. Men who underwent prostatectomy at 1 of 6 Veterans Affairs hospitals in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed. The prognostic ability of biopsy GG was examined using Cox models. Interactions between GG and race also were tested. In total, 2509 men were identified who had data available on biopsy Gleason scores, covariates, and follow-up. The cohort included men with GG 1 (909 patients; 36.2%), GG 2 (813 patients; 32.4%), GG 3 (398 patients; 15.9%), GG 4 (279 patients; 11.1%), and GG 5 (110 patients; 4.4%) prostate cancer. The cohort included 1002 African American men (41%). The median follow-up was 60 months (interquartile range, 33-90 months). Higher GG was associated with higher clinical stage, older age, more recent surgery, and surgical center (P prostate cancer, metastases, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (all P Cancer 2017;123:4122-4129. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, James O; Roggli, Victor L; Boelter, Fred W; Rasmuson, Eric J; Redinger, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    fiber-type. Both REA and pathology assessment are reliable and complementary predictive methods to characterize asbestos exposures. Correlation analysis between the two methods effectively validates both REA methodology and LBA procedures within the determined precision, particularly for cumulative amphibole asbestos exposures since chrysotile fibers, for the most part, are not retained in the lung for an extended period of time.

  13. Translation of cell therapy into clinical practice: validation of an application procedure for bone marrow progenitor cells and platelet rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Joerg; Farack, Jana; Vater, Corina; Johnsen, Matthias; Gelinsky, Michael; Tonn, Torsten; Kasten, Philip

    2016-04-06

    Tissue regeneration can be improved by local application of autologous bone marrow derived progenitor cells (BMSC) and platelet rich plasma (PRP). However, there is a lack of standardized application procedures for clinical use. Therefore, a technique in accordance with the guidelines for advanced therapies medical products of the European Medicine Agency was developed and established. In detail, a process for the isolation and formulation of autologous bone marrow cells (BMC) and PRP in a clinical setting was validated. To investigate the influence of storage time and temperature on gel formation and gel stability, different concentrations of BMC were stored with and without additional platelets, thrombin and fibrinogen and analyzed over a period of 28 days. In addition, cell vitality using a live-dead staining and migration ability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in the gel clot was investigated. For an optimized stable gel clot, human BMC and PRP should be combined with 10% to 20% fibrinogen (9 mg/mL to 18 mg/mL) and 5% to 20% thrombin (25 I.E. to 100 I.E.). Both freshly prepared and stored cells for 1 to 7 days had a stable consistence over 28 days at 37°C. Different platelet concentrations did not influence gel clot formation. The ratio of living cells did not decrease significantly over the observation period of 5 days in the live-dead staining. The study identified an optimal gel texture for local application of BMC and PRP. Seeded hMSC could migrate therein and were able to survive to initiate a healing cascade.

  14. Modeling Agricultural Watersheds with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT): Calibration and Validation with a Novel Procedure for Spatially Explicit HRUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshager, Awoke Dagnew; Gassman, Philip W; Secchi, Silvia; Schoof, Justin T; Misgna, Girmaye

    2016-04-01

    Applications of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model typically involve delineation of a watershed into subwatersheds/subbasins that are then further subdivided into hydrologic response units (HRUs) which are homogeneous areas of aggregated soil, landuse, and slope and are the smallest modeling units used within the model. In a given standard SWAT application, multiple potential HRUs (farm fields) in a subbasin are usually aggregated into a single HRU feature. In other words, the standard version of the model combines multiple potential HRUs (farm fields) with the same landuse/landcover, soil, and slope, but located at different places of a subbasin (spatially non-unique), and considers them as one HRU. In this study, ArcGIS pre-processing procedures were developed to spatially define a one-to-one match between farm fields and HRUs (spatially unique HRUs) within a subbasin prior to SWAT simulations to facilitate input processing, input/output mapping, and further analysis at the individual farm field level. Model input data such as landuse/landcover (LULC), soil, crop rotation, and other management data were processed through these HRUs. The SWAT model was then calibrated/validated for Raccoon River watershed in Iowa for 2002-2010 and Big Creek River watershed in Illinois for 2000-2003. SWAT was able to replicate annual, monthly, and daily streamflow, as well as sediment, nitrate and mineral phosphorous within recommended accuracy in most cases. The one-to-one match between farm fields and HRUs created and used in this study is a first step in performing LULC change, climate change impact, and other analyses in a more spatially explicit manner.

  15. Relationship between surgical procedure and outcome for patients with grade I chondrosarcomas Evolução dos pacientes com condrossarcoma grau I em relação ao tipo de tratamento cirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Etchebehere

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the oncological outcome of patients with grade I chondrosarcomas according to the type of surgical treatment performed, since there is still controversy regarding the need for aggressive resections to reach a successful outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 23 patients with grade I chondrosarcomas were reviewed. The mean age was 38.4 years, ranging from 11 to 70 years; 52% were men and 48% were women. The femur was the site of 13 tumors. The tumors were staged as IA (17, 74% and IB (6, 26%. Regarding tumor location, 74% (17 were medullary, 22% (5 were peripheral, and 4% (1 was indeterminate. Tumor size ranged from 2 to 25 cm, mean 7.9 cm. Regarding the surgical procedure, 11 patients underwent intralesional resection, 9 patients underwent wide resection, and 3 underwent radical resection. The follow-up period ranged from 24 to 192 months. RESULTS: None of the patients developed local recurrence or metastases; 7 patients had other general complications. CONCLUSIONS: This data supports the use of less aggressive procedures for treatment of low-grade chondrosarcomas.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução oncológica de portadores de condrossarcomas grau I de acordo com o tipo de tratamento cirúrgico efetuado. Existe controvérsia em relação à necessidade de ressecções agressivas para obtenção de uma evolução clínica favorável. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Os prontuários de 23 portadores de condrossarcoma grau I foram analisados. A idade dos pacientes variou de 11 a 70 anos com média de 38,4 anos, 52% eram homens e 48% mulheres. O local mais acometido foi o fêmur com 13 pacientes. Dezessete lesões (74% foram classificadas como IA e seis (26% como IB. Setenta e quatro por cento dos tumores eram medulares, 22% eram periféricas e uma lesão indeterminada. O tamanho dos tumores variou de 2 a 25 cm, média de 7,9 cm. Onze pacientes foram submetidos a ressecção intralesional, nove a ressecção ampla e três a ressec

  16. Prediction of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux after pediatric urinary tract infection: external validation study of procalcitonin-based decision rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Leroy

    Full Text Available Predicting vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR ≥3 at the time of the first urinary tract infection (UTI would make it possible to restrict cystography to high-risk children. We previously derived the following clinical decision rule for that purpose: cystography should be performed in cases with ureteral dilation and a serum procalcitonin level ≥0.17 ng/mL, or without ureteral dilatation when the serum procalcitonin level ≥0.63 ng/mL. The rule yielded a 86% sensitivity with a 46% specificity. We aimed to test its reproducibility.A secondary analysis of prospective series of children with a first UTI. The rule was applied, and predictive ability was calculated.The study included 413 patients (157 boys, VUR ≥3 in 11% from eight centers in five countries. The rule offered a 46% specificity (95% CI, 41-52, not different from the one in the derivation study. However, the sensitivity significantly decreased to 64% (95%CI, 50-76, leading to a difference of 20% (95%CI, 17-36. In all, 16 (34% patients among the 47 with VUR ≥3 were misdiagnosed by the rule. This lack of reproducibility might result primarily from a difference between derivation and validation populations regarding inflammatory parameters (CRP, PCT; the validation set samples may have been collected earlier than for the derivation one.The rule built to predict VUR ≥3 had a stable specificity (ie. 46%, but a decreased sensitivity (ie. 64% because of the time variability of PCT measurement. Some refinement may be warranted.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL GRADES IN A STOCKPILE OF AN IRON MINE (CASE STUDY- CHOGHART IRON MINE, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tinti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In any mining operation due to the cut-off grade (economic criteria, materials classify into the ore and waste. The material with grade equal to or higher than the cut-off grade is considered as ore and the material with grade less than the cut-off grade is transported as wastes to the waste dumps. However, because of increasing metal demand, depleting of in situ ore reserves and so the reduction of cut-off grades for many metals, the mentioned waste dumps were considered as valuable ore reserves named stockpiles. In this paper, multivariate geostatistics was used to estimate the iron grades of two stockpiles following the sequential of piling procedures from the main source - the ore deposit - to the piling field. One stockpile is characterized by phosphorous concentration ((P % > 0.6 %, while the other by iron concentration ((Fe %< 50%. Since economic and physical constraints made sampling physically and economically problematic, the grade distribution and variability were estimated on the basis of primary blast-hole data from the main ore body and the mine’s long-term planning policy. A geostatistical model was applied to the excavated part of the iron deposit and the stockpile, by reconstructing ore selection, haulage and piling method. Results were validated through spatial variability of iron and phosphorous concentrations by comparing grade variability (Fe and P with mining and pilling units. This methodology allows characterizing the iron grades within stockpiles without any extra sampling.

  18. IEEE Validation of the Continuing Education Achievement of Engineers Registry System. Procedures for Use with a CPT 8000 Word Processor and Communications Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) validation program is designed to motivate persons practicing in electrical and electronics engineering to pursue quality technical continuing education courses offered by any responsible sponsor. The rapid acceptance of the validation program necessitated the additional development of a…

  19. Multiparametric analysis of magnetic resonance images for glioma grading and patient survival time prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, Benjamin; Emblem, Kyrre E.; Mouridsen, Kim; Nedregaard, Baard; Due-Toennessen, Paulina; Nome, Terje; Hald, John K.; Bjoernerud, Atle; Haaberg, Asta K.; Kvinnsland, Yngve

    2011-01-01

    Background. A systematic comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) options for glioma diagnosis is lacking. Purpose. To investigate multiple MR-derived image features with respect to diagnostic accuracy in tumor grading and survival prediction in glioma patients. Material and Methods. T1 pre- and post-contrast, T2 and dynamic susceptibility contrast scans of 74 glioma patients with histologically confirmed grade were acquired. For each patient, a set of statistical features was obtained from the parametric maps derived from the original images, in a region-of-interest encompassing the tumor volume. A forward stepwise selection procedure was used to find the best combinations of features for grade prediction with a cross-validated logistic model and survival time prediction with a cox proportional-hazards regression. Results. Presence/absence of enhancement paired with kurtosis of the FM (first moment of the first-pass curve) was the feature combination that best predicted tumor grade (grade II vs. grade III-IV; median AUC 0.96), with the main contribution being due to the first of the features. A lower predictive value (median AUC = 0.82) was obtained when grade IV tumors were excluded. Presence/absence of enhancement alone was the best predictor for survival time, and the regression was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Presence/absence of enhancement, reflecting transendothelial leakage, was the feature with highest predictive value for grade and survival time in glioma patients

  20. Multiparametric analysis of magnetic resonance images for glioma grading and patient survival time prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, Benjamin (Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)), email: benjamin.garzon@ntnu.no; Emblem, Kyrre E. (The Interventional Center, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Dept. of Radiology, MGH-HST AA Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)); Mouridsen, Kim (Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark)); Nedregaard, Baard; Due-Toennessen, Paulina; Nome, Terje; Hald, John K. (Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Bjoernerud, Atle (The Interventional Center, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Haaberg, Asta K. (Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Dept. of Medical Imaging, St Olav' s Hospital, Trondheim (Norway)); Kvinnsland, Yngve (NordicImagingLab, Bergen (Norway))

    2011-11-15

    Background. A systematic comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) options for glioma diagnosis is lacking. Purpose. To investigate multiple MR-derived image features with respect to diagnostic accuracy in tumor grading and survival prediction in glioma patients. Material and Methods. T1 pre- and post-contrast, T2 and dynamic susceptibility contrast scans of 74 glioma patients with histologically confirmed grade were acquired. For each patient, a set of statistical features was obtained from the parametric maps derived from the original images, in a region-of-interest encompassing the tumor volume. A forward stepwise selection procedure was used to find the best combinations of features for grade prediction with a cross-validated logistic model and survival time prediction with a cox proportional-hazards regression. Results. Presence/absence of enhancement paired with kurtosis of the FM (first moment of the first-pass curve) was the feature combination that best predicted tumor grade (grade II vs. grade III-IV; median AUC 0.96), with the main contribution being due to the first of the features. A lower predictive value (median AUC = 0.82) was obtained when grade IV tumors were excluded. Presence/absence of enhancement alone was the best predictor for survival time, and the regression was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Presence/absence of enhancement, reflecting transendothelial leakage, was the feature with highest predictive value for grade and survival time in glioma patients

  1. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  2. Statistical Outlier Detection for Jury Based Grading Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Rosas, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that was developed to identify statistical outliers from the scores of grading jury members in a large project-based first year design course. The background and requirements for the outlier detection system are presented. The outlier detection algorithm...... and the follow-up procedures for score validation and appeals are described in detail. Finally, the impact of various elements of the outlier detection algorithm, their interactions, and the sensitivity of their numerical values are investigated. It is shown that the difference in the mean score produced...... by a grading jury before and after a suspected outlier is removed from the mean is the single most effective criterion for identifying potential outliers but that all of the criteria included in the algorithm have an effect on the outlier detection process....

  3. Development, Validation, and Deployment of a Revised Air Traffic Control Color Vision Test: Incorporating Advanced Technologies and Oceanic Procedures and En Route Automation Modernization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    through direct sampling of form and content of critical display data. Evidence of construct validity is provided by correlation with the Colour ...measured by the Colour Assessment and Diagnosis (CAD; ARTS Background Colors STARS Background Colors ERAM Background Colors Figure 3...Gelade, G. (1980). A feature-integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology , 12, 97–136. Xing, J. & Schroeder, D.J. (2006). Reexamination of

  4. Pancreaticoduodenectomy: a rare procedure for the management of complex pancreaticoduodenal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Juan A; Petrone, Patrizio; Roldán, Gustavo; Kuncir, Eric; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2003-12-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure) is a formidable procedure when undertaken for severe pancreaticoduodenal injury. The purposes of this study were to review our experience with this procedure for trauma; to classify injury grades for both pancreatic and duodenal injuries in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-Organ Injury Scale for pancreatic and duodenal injury; and to validate existing indications for performance of this procedure. We performed a retrospective 126-month study (May 1992 to December 2002) of all patients admitted with proven complex pancreaticoduodenal injuries requiring pancreaticoduodenectomy. Eighteen patients were included; mean age was 32 +/- 12 years (SD), mean Revised Trauma Score was 6.84 +/- 2.13 (SD), and mean Injury Severity Score was 27 +/- 8 (SD). There were 17 penetrating injuries (94%) and 1 blunt injury (6%). One of 18 patients had an emergency department thoracotomy and died (100% mortality); 5 of the remaining 17 patients required operating room thoracotomies, and only 1 survived (80% mortality). There was 1 AAST-OIS pancreas grade IV injury, and there were 17 pancreas grade V injuries and 18 AAST-OIS duodenum grade V injuries. Indications for pancreaticoduodenectomy were: massive uncontrollable retropancreatic hemorrhage, 13 patients (72%); massive unreconstructable injury to the head of the pancreas/main pancreatic duct and intrapancreatic portion/distal common bile duct, 18 patients (100%); and massive unreconstructable injury, 18 patients (100%). Mean estimated blood loss was 6,888 +/- 7,866 mL, and overall survival was 67% (12 of 18 patients). Complex pancreaticoduodenal injuries requiring pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure) are uncommon but highly lethal; virtually all are classified as AAST-OIS grade V for both pancreas and duodenum. Current indications for performance of pancreaticoduodenectomy are valid and should be strictly

  5. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  6. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  7. Experimental Validation of an Efficient Fan-Beam Calibration Procedure for k-Nearest Neighbor Position Estimation in Monolithic Scintillator Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Giacomo; Tabacchini, Valerio; Seifert, Stefan; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2015-02-01

    Monolithic scintillator detectors can achieve excellent spatial resolution and coincidence resolving time. However, their practical use for positron emission tomography (PET) and other applications in the medical imaging field is still limited due to drawbacks of the different methods used to estimate the position of interaction. Common statistical methods for example require the collection of an extensive dataset of reference events with a narrow pencil beam aimed at a fine grid of reference positions. Such procedures are time consuming and not straightforwardly implemented in systems composed of many detectors. Here, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a new calibration procedure for k-nearest neighbor ( k-NN) position estimation that utilizes reference data acquired with a fan beam. The procedure is tested on two detectors consisting of 16 mm ×16 mm ×10 mm and 16 mm ×16 mm ×20 mm monolithic, Ca-codoped LSO:Ce crystals and digital photon counter (DPC) arrays. For both detectors, the spatial resolution and the bias obtained with the new method are found to be practically the same as those obtained with the previously used method based on pencil-beam irradiation, while the calibration time is reduced by a factor of 20. Specifically, a FWHM of 1.1 mm and a FWTM of 2.7 mm were obtained using the fan-beam method with the 10 mm crystal, whereas a FWHM of 1.5 mm and a FWTM of 6 mm were achieved with the 20 mm crystal. Using a fan beam made with a 4.5 MBq 22Na point-source and a tungsten slit collimator with 0.5 mm aperture, the total measurement time needed to acquire the reference dataset was 3 hours for the thinner crystal and 2 hours for the thicker one.

  8. Verification Results of Safety-grade Optical Modem for Core Protection Calculator (CPC) in Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jangyeol; Son, Kwangseop; Lee, Youngjun; Cheon, Sewoo; Cha, Kyoungho; Lee, Jangsoo; Kwon, Keechoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    We confirmed that the coverage criteria for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator is satisfactory using a traceability analysis matrix between high-level requirements and lower-level system test case data set. This paper describes the test environment, test components and items, a traceability analysis, and system tests as a result of system verification and validation based on Software Requirement Specifications (SRS) for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator (CPC) in a Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP), and Software Design Specifications (SDS) for a safety-grade optical modem of a CPC in a KSNP. All tests were performed according to the test plan and test procedures. Functional testing, performance testing, event testing, and scenario based testing for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator in a Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant as a thirty-party verifier were successfully performed.

  9. Outcome and clinical signs of arthroscopically graded patellar chondromalacia with or without lateral release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkala, O L; Isotalo, T M; Lavonius, M I; Niskanen, R O

    1995-01-01

    In a follow-up study of 67 patients with an arthroscopically diagnosed patellar chondromalacia, we compared the results of plain conservative treatment with those after an open lateral retinacular release. The mean follow-up was 35 months. In Grade I chondromalacia the lateral release did not affect the result, which was in all cases good or excellent. In Grade II to IV chondromalacia the lateral release appeared beneficial, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. We also examined the validity of three clinical signs in arthroscopically verified patellar chondromalacia. Patellar inhibition and tracking tests were clearly more sensitive than the lateral apprehension test, which often gave a false negative result. If the patellar inhibition test is positive and a Grade II to IV chondromalacia of the patella is found at arthroscopy, lateral release should be considered among other procedures, like patellar shaving or patellar resurfacing.

  10. Human factoring administrative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following

  11. Examining the validity of Stoney-equation for in-situ stress measurements in thin film electrodes using a large-deformation finite-element procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jici; Wei, Yujie; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2018-05-01

    During the lithiation and delithiation of a thin film electrode, stress in the electrode is deduced from the curvature change of the film using the Stoney equation. The accuracy of such a measurement is conditioned on the assumptions that (a) the mechanical properties of the electrode remain unchanged during lithiation and (b) small deformation holds. Here, we demonstrate that the change in elastic properties can influence the measurement of the stress in thin film electrodes. We consider the coupling between diffusion and deformation during lithiation and delithiation of thin film electrodes and implement the constitutive behavior in a finite-deformation finite element procedure. We demonstrate that both the variation in elastic properties in thin film electrodes and finite-deformation during lithiation and delithiation would challenge the applicability of the Stoney-equation for in-situ stress measurements of thin film electrodes.

  12. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Discriminating Low-Grade From High-Grade Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, E.K.; Kobus, T.; Litjens, G.J.S.; Hambrock, T.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Maas, M.C.; Scheenen, T.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and validate the optimal combination of parameters derived from 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging for discriminating low-grade from high-grade prostate cancer (PCa).The study was

  13. Validation of a closed bi-phasic extraction system and of the pancake probe as instruments to radiopharmaceutical quality control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, F.L.N.; Okamoto, M.R.Y.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ferraro, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Quality control of radiopharmaceuticals is not a common practice in Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil. One frequent limitation is that the well counter, used to radioactivity measurement of chromatographic strips, is not available in most services. On the other hand, it's mandatory that all services have a pancake probe to control contaminations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the quality control (QC) of technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals using a pancake probe, including chromatography of 99m Tc-MDP, 99m Tc-DMSA, 99m Tc-DMSA-V, 99m Tc-Pyp, 99m Tc-ECD, 99m Tc-Dextran, 99m Tc-colloid. Also, we had available a solvent extraction methods using a multi-use closed bi-phasic system to 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-MIBI, to replace the classical single-use open bi-phasic system. Material and Methods: Classical chromatographic well counter reading and solvent extraction radiochemical controls were used as standards. To variant radiation reading method, pancake probe was covered with a lead disk 3 mm thick, with a 40x10 mm slit; the activity on chromatographic strips (80x10 mm) was read over the slit. The multi-use closed bi-phasic system was done closing the extremities of a 5 or 10 mL glass pipette using flame in the point side, and rubber septa in the other side. The pipette was filled with 2.5 or 3 mL, both organic solvent and aqueous NaCl 0.9 %; then two or three drops of the sample were applied and the tube shook during 30 seconds. Two minutes after, the activity was measured over each phase using the pancake detector. The same solvent mixture was used 3 times, with 48 h interval to allow radioactivity decay. Results: Radiochemical purity determined by the classical or the modified procedures showed Pearson's correlation of 0.973 (n=17) to chromatography; 0.993 to ECD (n=14) extraction and 0.919 to MIBI (n=21) extraction. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the pancake can be used as a detection instrument in 99m Tc

  14. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  15. Graded manifolds and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with

  16. Quantization Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J. A.; Martin, R.

    1976-01-01

    We present in this work a review of the conventional quantization procedure, the proposed by I.E. Segal and a new quantization procedure similar to this one for use in non linear problems. We apply this quantization procedures to different potentials and we obtain the appropriate equations of motion. It is shown that for the linear case the three procedures exposed are equivalent but for the non linear cases we obtain different equations of motion and different energy spectra. (Author) 16 refs

  17. [Questions of terminology, systematization and grading of complications of contact ureteral lithotripsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutov, V V; Bazaev, V V; Mamedov, E A; Urenkov, S B; Podoinitsyn, A A

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the current variants of systematization and grading of complications of contact ureteral lithotripsy (CULT) and develop a working classification of CULT complications. The study analyzed results of 545 fluoroscopy-guided endoscopic procedures performed at the MRRCI Clinic of Urology from 2008 to 2015 in 506 patients with ureterolithiasis. The proposed and implemented classification and terminology of CULT complications unifies the diagnostic and management algorithm. This tool is more systematic and structured than the classical classification and universal methods of systematization and grading of CULT complications (classifying CULT complications in "major" and "minor", PULS scale, Satava and Clavien-Dindo grading systems). Given the lack of clear grading of ureteral rupture, it was divided into amputation (two-level rupture) and avulsion (one-level rupture). Using such term as extravasation of the contrast media and/or migration of the stone outside of the ureter is groundless because these complications occur only after the perforation of the ureteral wall. Therefore, these conditions are complications not of CULT, but of the ureteral wall perforation. The ureteral perforation was classified into macro- and micro-perforation. The existing terminology, classification and grading of the CULT complications should undergo a more detailed analysis. None of the existing classifications of CULT complications afford them to be fully staged and systematized. The working classification of complications of CULT developed at the M.F. Vladimirsky MRRCI Clinic of Urology warrants a multi-center prospective study to validate it and investigate its effectiveness.

  18. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  19. Small Bowel Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ≥3 Acute Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Peritoneal Space Versus Small Bowel Loop Contouring Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Robyn; Chakraborty, Santam; Nygren, Ian; Sinha, Richie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether volumes based on contours of the peritoneal space can be used instead of individual small bowel loops to predict for grade ≥3 acute small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A standardized contouring method was developed for the peritoneal space and retrospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 67 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and analyzed against patient toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Results: Grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity occurred in 16% (11/67) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between small bowel irradiation and acute small bowel toxicity was supported by the use of both small bowel loop and peritoneal space contouring techniques. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that, for both contouring methods, the greatest sensitivity for predicting toxicity was associated with the volume receiving between 15 and 25 Gy. Conclusion: DVH analysis of peritoneal space volumes accurately predicts grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, suggesting that the contours of the peritoneal space provide a reasonable surrogate for the contours of individual small bowel loops. The study finds that a small bowel V15 less than 275 cc and a peritoneal space V15 less than 830 cc are associated with a less than 10% risk of grade ≥3 acute toxicity

  20. The validation of an infrared simulation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available theoretical validation framework. This paper briefly describes the procedure used to validate software models in an infrared system simulation, and provides application examples of this process. The discussion includes practical validation techniques...

  1. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  2. Probabilistic Modeling of Graded Timber Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for quality grading in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established...... on the basis of the same type of information which is normally collected as a part of the quality control procedures and furthermore, how the efficiency of different control procedures may be quantified and compared. The tail behavior of the probability distributions of timber material characteristics plays...... such that they may readily be applied in structural reliability analysis and their format appears to be appropriate for codification purposes of quality control and selection for grading procedures....

  3. Developmental Predictors of Fraction Concepts and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Hansen, Nicole; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Siegler, Robert S.; Gersten, Russell; Micklos, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Developmental predictors of children's fraction concepts and procedures at the end of fourth grade were investigated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Participants were 357 children who started the study in third grade. Attentive behavior, language, nonverbal reasoning, number line estimation, calculation fluency, and reading fluency each…

  4. Procedures For Microbial-Ecology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    Microbial Ecology Laboratory Procedures Manual provides concise and well-defined instructions on routine technical procedures to be followed in microbiological laboratory to ensure safety, analytical control, and validity of results.

  5. [The WHO/ISUP grading system for renal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, H

    2016-07-01

    Histological tumor grading is an accepted prognostic parameter of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In 2012, the International Society of Urologic Pathologists (ISUP) proposed a novel grading system for RCC, mainly based on the evaluation of nucleoli: grade 1 tumors have nucleoli that are inconspicuous and basophilic at ×400 magnification; grade 2 tumors have nucleoli that are clearly visible at ×400 magnification and eosinophilic; grade 3 tumors have clearly visible nucleoli at ×100 magnification; and grade 4 tumors have extreme pleomorphism or rhabdoid and/or sarcomatoid morphology. This grading system was validated for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma. At the same time, the ISUP proposed not grading chromophobe renal cell carcinomas according to this system. At a consensus conference in Zurich the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the ISUP grading system; thus, the WHO/ISUP grading system is now going to be implemented internationally. The ISUP/WHO grading system has not been validated as a prognostic parameter for other tumor subtypes, but can be used for descriptive purposes.

  6. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  7. New Perspectives on the Validity of the "GRE"® General Test for Predicting Graduate School Grades. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GRE®-14-03. ETS Research Report. RR-14-26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, David M.; Cline, Frederick A.; Holtzman, Steven L.; Minsky, Jennifer L.; Lorenz, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Given the serious consequences of making ill-fated admissions and funding decisions for applicants to graduate and professional school, it is important to rely on sound evidence to optimize such judgments. Previous meta-analytic research has demonstrated the generalizable validity of the "GRE"® General Test for predicting academic…

  8. Grade Level Differences in Factors of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokenes, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, using approximately 1500 elementary school students. Also investigated grade level differences in preadolescent and adolescent children. (Author/ED)

  9. Comparison of cartilage thickness with radiologic grade of knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Frigo, Carlo A.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2008-01-01

    To compare joint space width (JSW) measurements obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a semi-automated computer algorithm to the Kellgren and Lawrence grading of osteoarthritis (OA). Three hundred and six patients (234 female, 72 male) with a mean age of 56.7 years (range 31-81 years) underwent MRI of their knees with a fast oblique spiral spoiled gradient (SPGR) sequence. A board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist graded the OA of all the patients in accordance with the Kellgren and Lawrence OA scale. A previously validated computer algorithm was used to determine the minimum JSW for both the tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Student-Newman-Kuels post-hoc test was used to determine if there were differences in JSW as a function of OA grade. The radiologic grade of OA was inversely associated with the JSW. In the medial compartment the JSW did not change significantly between grade 1 and grade 2, but there was a significant decrease in JSW between grade 0 (normal) and grade 1 and for each OA grade above grade 2. In the lateral compartment no statistical differences were found till grade 2, while grade 3 was found to be statistically different from the previous one. The number of patients with a grade 4 patellofemoral OA was too low for the statistical significance to be assessed. In the patellofemoral joint the JSW did not change significantly until grade 2, while a statistically significant reduction was found for both grade 3 and grade 4. This study showed that an inverse non-linear relationship exists between radiologic grade and JSW. The relationship differs for the tibiofemoral and the patellofemoral joint. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of cartilage thickness with radiologic grade of knee osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnesi, Filippo [Mayo Clinic, Motion Analysis Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Research, Rochester, MN (United States); Polytechnic of Milan, Department of Bioengineering, Milan (Italy); Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Frigo, Carlo A. [Polytechnic of Milan, Department of Bioengineering, Milan (Italy); Kaufman, Kenton R. [Mayo Clinic, Motion Analysis Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Research, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Motion Analysis Laboratory, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2008-07-15

    To compare joint space width (JSW) measurements obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a semi-automated computer algorithm to the Kellgren and Lawrence grading of osteoarthritis (OA). Three hundred and six patients (234 female, 72 male) with a mean age of 56.7 years (range 31-81 years) underwent MRI of their knees with a fast oblique spiral spoiled gradient (SPGR) sequence. A board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist graded the OA of all the patients in accordance with the Kellgren and Lawrence OA scale. A previously validated computer algorithm was used to determine the minimum JSW for both the tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Student-Newman-Kuels post-hoc test was used to determine if there were differences in JSW as a function of OA grade. The radiologic grade of OA was inversely associated with the JSW. In the medial compartment the JSW did not change significantly between grade 1 and grade 2, but there was a significant decrease in JSW between grade 0 (normal) and grade 1 and for each OA grade above grade 2. In the lateral compartment no statistical differences were found till grade 2, while grade 3 was found to be statistically different from the previous one. The number of patients with a grade 4 patellofemoral OA was too low for the statistical significance to be assessed. In the patellofemoral joint the JSW did not change significantly until grade 2, while a statistically significant reduction was found for both grade 3 and grade 4. This study showed that an inverse non-linear relationship exists between radiologic grade and JSW. The relationship differs for the tibiofemoral and the patellofemoral joint. (orig.)

  11. Readability of Invasive Procedure Consent Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Naqvi, Syed S; Ghanian, Soha; Eberson, Craig P; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Informed consent is a pillar of ethical medicine which requires patients to fully comprehend relevant issues including the risks, benefits, and alternatives of an intervention. Given the average reading skill of US adults is at the 8th grade level, the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend patient information materials should not exceed a 6th grade reading level. We hypothesized that text provided in invasive procedure consent forms would exceed recommended readability guidelines for medical information. To test this hypothesis, we gathered procedure consent forms from all surgical inpatient hospitals in the state of Rhode Island. For each consent form, readability analysis was measured with the following measures: Flesch Reading Ease Formula, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Fog Scale, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Linsear Write Formula. These readability scores were used to calculate a composite Text Readability Consensus Grade Level. Invasive procedure consent forms were found to be written at an average of 15th grade level (i.e., third year of college), which is significantly higher than the average US adult reading level of 8th grade (p readability guidelines for patient materials of 6th grade (p readability levels which makes comprehension difficult or impossible for many patients. Efforts to improve the readability of procedural consent forms should improve patient understanding regarding their healthcare decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  13. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  14. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  15. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  16. Software V and V methods for a safety - grade programmable logic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang Yeol Kim; Young Jun Lee; Kyung Ho Cha; Se Woo Cheon; Jang Soo Lee; Kee Choon Kwon

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the Verification and Validation(V and V) process and the methodology for an embedded real time software of a safety-grade Programmable Logic Controller(PLC). This safety- grade PLC is being developed as one of the Korean Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) projects. KNICS projects are developing a Reactor Protection System(RPS) and an Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System(ESF-CCS) as well as a safety-grade PLC. The safety-grade PLC will be a major component that encomposes the RPS systems and the ESF-CCS systems as nuclear instruments and control equipment. This paper describes the V and V guidelines and procedures, V and V environment, V and V process and methodology, and the V and V tools in the KNICS projects. Specifically, it describes the real-time operating system V and V experience which corresponds to the requirement analysis phase, design phase and the implementation and testing phase of the software development life cycle. Main activities of the V and V for the PLC system software are a technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, software safety analysis, and a software configuration management. The proposed V and V methodology satisfies the Standard Review Plan(SRP)/Branch Technical Position(BTP)-14 criteria for the safety software in nuclear power plants. The proposed V and V methodology is going to be used to verify the upcoming software life cycle in the KNICS projects. (author)

  17. Revisions of the Learning Mastery Systems for the Harper and Row Grades One and Two and the Macmillan Bank Street Grade One Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Jacqueline; And Others

    The revisions on the Learning Mastery Systems (LMSs) for the Harper & Row grade-one and grade-two and the Macmillan Bank Street grade-one reading programs are outlined in this document. A rationale for the revisions is presented. An LMS is a set of materials and procedures prepared by the southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) as an…

  18. Does direct observation of procedural skills reflect trainee's progress in otolaryngology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Z; Hayden, L; Muthuswamy, K; Ziprin, P; Darzi, A; Tolley, N S

    2014-06-01

    UK surgical trainees are required to undertake work-based assessments each year in order to progress in their training. Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) is one of these assessments. We aim to investigate the validity of DOPS in assessing otolaryngology trainees at all levels. A retrospective search of the portfolios of all otolaryngology trainees in North Thames was carried out to identify otolaryngology-specific DOPS. A score (Cs) was calculated for each DOPS based on the percentage of satisfactorily-rated items. The overall performance rating (Ps) was analysed as a separate variable and compared with Cs. The Ps and Cs results were then compared across trainee grades and levels within each grade: Core trainees (CT1-CT2) and specialty trainees (ST3-ST8). Seven hundred and sixty-seven otolaryngology DOPS were completed between August 2008 and September 2013. The tool was found to be reliable and internally consistent. Trainees in ST grade had higher Cs and Ps scores than CT grade (P Otolaryngology DOPS is a useful tool in assessing otolaryngology trainees especially from CT1-ST3 level. DOPS can also differentiate between junior and senior trainees. However, it was not able to demonstrate progress at levels above ST3, most likely due to the simplicity of the procedures which trainees tend to master in the first few years of training. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Validation Process Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, John E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); English, Christine M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gesick, Joshua C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mukkamala, Saikrishna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-04

    This report documents the validation process as applied to projects awarded through Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) within the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (DOE-BETO). It describes the procedures used to protect and verify project data, as well as the systematic framework used to evaluate and track performance metrics throughout the life of the project. This report also describes the procedures used to validate the proposed process design, cost data, analysis methodologies, and supporting documentation provided by the recipients.

  20. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  1. CRA Grade Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...

  2. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  3. Grade determination of crumb rubber-modified performance graded asphalt binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Due to particulates common in crumb rubber-modified asphalt binders, conventional PG grading using the Dynamic : Shear Rheometer (DSR) with a gap height of 1.0 mm may not be valid and in accordance with current specifications. : Asphalt binder testin...

  4. Validation of Rheological Models of Typical Structures : an Attempt to Work Out an Insurance-Quality Procedure Validation des modèles rhéologiques sur ouvrages types : une tentative de démarche d'assurance-qualité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meimon Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available For four years now, a validation of models for typical structuresgroup has been constituted inside the GRECO group on Rheology of Geomaterialssponsored by CNRS (French National Research Council. It has been working on the development of a methodology for validating rheological models of geomaterials. The aim was to reduce the gap between the theory and the practice of geomechanical computing. In a first step, the group work has been applied to shallow fondations. A complete validation process, which can be understood as an insurance-quality procedure, has been worked out, ranging from validation on the basis of homogeneous laboratory tests to validation based on boundary problems. Partial computerization of validation has been achieved with the help of a suitable software environment. A databank of laboratory and centrifuge tests has been created. An attempt has been made to define qualification criteria for models. Numerous rheological models have been applied, including some relatively sophisticated ones. This work has reached the point where the generalization of the procedure can been foreseen within the wider setting of the validation of geomechanical programs. Les travaux de validation Durant quatre ans (1986-1989, le groupe Validation des Modèles sur Ouvrages Typesdu GRECO CNRS Rhéologie des Géomatériaux , s'est efforcé de développer une méthodologie de validation des modèles rhéologiques de géomatériaux dans le but de réduire le décalage entre théorie et pratique des calculs en géomécanique, en appuyant son travail sur l'ouvrage type fondation superficielleet sur une collaboration étroite entre des équipes universitaires et des centres techniques et industriels. Les principaux travaux du groupe, constitué, d'une part de laboratoires universitaires français ou européen (École Centrale de Lyon (ECL, École Centrale de Paris (ECP, École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État (ENTPE, Institut de Mécanique de

  5. Explicating Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    How we choose to use a term depends on what we want to do with it. If "validity" is to be used to support a score interpretation, validation would require an analysis of the plausibility of that interpretation. If validity is to be used to support score uses, validation would require an analysis of the appropriateness of the proposed…

  6. Radiochemical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    The modern counting instrumentation has largely obviated the need for separation processes in the radiochemical analysis but problems in low-level radioactivity measurement, environmental-type analyses, and special situations caused in the last years a renaissance of the need for separation techniques. Most of the radiochemical procedures, based on the classic works of the Manhattan Project chemists of the 1940's, were published in the National Nuclear Energy Series (NNES). Improvements such as new solvent extraction and ion exchange separations have been added to these methods throughout the years. Recently the Los Alamos Group have reissued their collected Radiochemical Procedures containing a short summary and review of basic inorganic chemistry - 'Chemistry of the Elements on the Basis of Electronic Configuration'. (A.L.)

  7. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies associated with acute and chronic grade III and grade V acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gunnar; Millett, Peter J; Tahal, Dimitri S; Al Ibadi, Mireille; Lill, Helmut; Katthagen, Jan Christoph

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies with acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III and V. Patients who underwent arthroscopically-assisted stabilization of acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III or grade V between 01/2007 and 12/2015 were identified in the patient databases of two surgical centres. Gender, age at index surgery, grade of acromioclavicular joint injury (Rockwood III or Rockwood V), and duration between injury and index surgery (classified as acute or chronic) were of interest. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies were noted and their treatment was classified as debridement or reconstructive procedure. A total of 376 patients (336 male, 40 female) were included. Mean age at time of arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint reconstruction surgery was 42.1 ± 14.0 years. Overall, 201 patients (53%) had one or more concomitant glenohumeral pathologies. Lesions of the biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff were the most common. Forty-five patients (12.0%) had concomitant glenohumeral pathologies that required an additional repair. The remaining 156 patients (41.5%) received a debridement of their concomitant pathologies. Rockwood grade V compared to Rockwood grade III (p = 0.013; odds ratio 1.7), and chronic compared to acute injury were significantly associated with having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology (p = 0.019; odds ratio 1.7). The probability of having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology was also significantly associated with increasing age (p acromioclavicular joint injury of either grade III or V. Twenty-two percent of these patients with concomitant glenohumeral pathologies received an additional dedicated repair procedure. Although a significant difference in occurrence of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies was seen between Rockwood grades III and V, and between acute and chronic lesions, increasing age was identified as the most dominant predictor. Level IV, case series.

  8. Beta-Test Data On An Assessment Of Textbook Problem Solving Ability: An Argument For Right/Wrong Grading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Karen; Marx, Jeffrey D.

    2010-10-01

    We have developed an assessment of students' ability to solve standard textbook style problems and are currently engaged in the validation and revision process. The assessment covers the topics of force and motion, conservation of momentum and conservation of energy at a level consistent with most calculus-based, introductory physics courses. This tool is discussed in more detail in an accompanying paper by Marx and Cummings. [1] Here we present preliminary beta-test data collected at four schools during the 2009/2010 academic year. Data include both pre- and post-instruction results for introductory physics courses as well as results for physics majors in later years. In addition, we present evidence that right/wrong grading may well be a perfectly acceptable grading procedure for a course-level assessment of this type.

  9. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  10. Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for the analysis of raw and upgraded pyrolysis bio-oils. These standard procedures have been validated and allow for reliable bio-oil analysis. Procedures Determination

  11. Validated Test Method 1314: Liquid-Solid Partitioning as a Function of Liquid-Solid Ratio for Constituents in Solid Materials Using An Up-Flow Percolation Column Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes procedures written based on the assumption that they will be performed by analysts who are formally trained in at least the basic principles of chemical analysis and in the use of the subject technology.

  12. INAA of polyacrylic hydrogels of pharmaceutical grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, C.; Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.

    1998-01-01

    Polyacrylic acid (PA) and its salts are promising biomaterials used in the pharmaceutical industry. They could be used as pharmaceutical additives, as a burn dressing and also in the slow released implants or trans-derma patch formulations. Polyacrylic acid of pharmaceutical grade can be obtained by gamma irradiation polymerization. The influence of the raw materials and of the technological procedure on the final product purity has been investigated by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method. The following materials have been analyzed by INAA: 1) acrylic acid of technical grade; 2) acrylic acid purified by double crystallisation; 3) NaOH of analytical grade; 4) CaCl-2·6H 2 O of pharmaceutical grade; 5) CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O of analytical grade; 6) granulated PANa; 7) ungranulated PANa; 8) ungranulated PANaCa; 9) PANaCa granulated by milling in IFIN-HH using the mill nr. 1; 10) PANaCa granulated by milling in Institute of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (ICPR); 11) PANaCa granulated by milling in IFIN-HH using the mill nr. 2. The first five samples, marked from 1 to 5, are raw materials and the other six samples, marked from 6 to 11, are the final polyacrylic structures processed by various technological procedures. The samples together with the appropriate reference materials have been irradiated at WWR-S reactor in a neutron flux of 2.5·10 12 cm -2 s -1 and the induced radioactivity was registered by a HPGe detector (EG/G ORTEC) of 30% efficiency and 2.1 keV resolution. The concentrations of As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Sb, Sc, Zn have been determined. For the final polyacrylic structures, except for granulated PANa (sample 6), only the elements Co, Cr, Fe, Sc, Zn were found at the following concentration levels: tens of ppm (Co), ppm (Zn), hundreds of ppb (Cr), tens of ppb (Co), ppb (Co, Sc), 10 -1 ppb (Sc). In the granulated PANa, in comparison with the other analyzed final products, similar concentration values were found for Fe, Sc and Zn

  13. Establishment of Traceability of Reference Grade Hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (npli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Harish; Mandal, Goutam; Das, M. B.; Sharma, D. C.

    The present paper discusses the establishment of traceability of reference grade hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI). The reference grade hydrometers are calibrated and traceable to the primary solid density standard. The calibration has been done according to standard procedure based on Cuckow's Method and the reference grade hydrometers calibrated covers a wide range. The uncertainty of the reference grade hydrometers has been computed and corrections are also calculated for the scale readings, at which observations are taken.

  14. Nuclear grade and necrosis predict prognosis in malignant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Lauren E; Karrison, Theodore; Ananthanarayanan, Vijayalakshmi; Gallan, Alexander J; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Alchami, Fouad S; Attanoos, Richard; Brcic, Luka; Butnor, Kelly J; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Kadota, Kyuichi; Klampatsa, Astero; Stang, Nolween Le; Lindenmann, Joerg; Litzky, Leslie A; Marchevsky, Alberto; Medeiros, Filomena; Montero, M Angeles; Moore, David A; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Roggli, Victor L; Sauter, Jennifer L; Sharma, Anupama; Sheaff, Michael; Travis, William D; Vigneswaran, Wickii T; Vrugt, Bart; Walts, Ann E; Tjota, Melissa Y; Krausz, Thomas; Husain, Aliya N

    2018-04-01

    A recently described nuclear grading system predicted survival in patients with epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. The current study was undertaken to validate the grading system and to identify additional prognostic factors. We analyzed cases of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma from 17 institutions across the globe from 1998 to 2014. Nuclear grade was computed combining nuclear atypia and mitotic count into a grade of I-III using the published system. Nuclear grade was assessed by one pathologist for three institutions, the remaining were scored independently. The presence or absence of necrosis and predominant growth pattern were also evaluated. Two additional scoring systems were evaluated, one combining nuclear grade and necrosis and the other mitotic count and necrosis. Median overall survival was the primary endpoint. A total of 776 cases were identified including 301 (39%) nuclear grade I tumors, 354 (45%) grade II tumors and 121 (16%) grade III tumors. The overall survival was 16 months, and correlated independently with age (P=0.006), sex (0.015), necrosis (0.030), mitotic count (0.001), nuclear atypia (0.009), nuclear grade (<0.0001), and mitosis and necrosis score (<0.0001). The addition of necrosis to nuclear grade further stratified overall survival, allowing classification of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma into four distinct prognostic groups: nuclear grade I tumors without necrosis (29 months), nuclear grade I tumors with necrosis and grade II tumors without necrosis (16 months), nuclear grade II tumors with necrosis (10 months) and nuclear grade III tumors (8 months). The mitosis-necrosis score stratified patients by survival, but not as well as the combination of necrosis and nuclear grade. This study confirms that nuclear grade predicts survival in epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma, identifies necrosis as factor that further stratifies overall survival, and validates the grading system across multiple

  15. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  16. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  17. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  18. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  19. The Fifth Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Michael; And Others

    An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…

  20. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  1. DEVELOPING SIGNS AND SONGS MATERIALS DEALING WITH THE 2013 CURRICULUM FOR THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS IN MTSN BALANG-BALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop Signs and Songs Materials based on 2013 curriculum for the Seventh Grade Student at MTsN. BalangBalang, Gowa. It was Research and Development (R&D applied ADDIE model standing for Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. The procedures were; 1 analyzing materials needed by students; 2designing the blueprint; 3 developing the materials through the syllabus of 2013 Curriculum; 4 implementing the product (try-out product; and 5 evaluating the product. The product was tried out to the seventh grade students at MTsN Balang-balang. Type of data obtained in this study was qualitative. The instruments used in this study were questionnaire and rubrics for teacher and expert. Then, the teacher and expert were involved in order to validate the product. They validated three systematic aspects of the product, namely; the organization of the Materials, English Teaching strategies or method, and the content of the materials. Finally, based on the teacher and expert judgment as well as try-out design result, it was found that the developed materials were applicable to be taught for the Seventh Grade of Junior High School as additional learning and teaching materials which help both students and teachers in learning process based on 2013 Curriculum.

  2. The Predictive Validity of using Admissions Testing and Multiple Mini-interviews in Undergraduate University Admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Havmose, Philip S.; Vang, Maria Louison

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of a two-step admissions procedure that included a cognitive ability test followed by multiple mini-interviews (MMI) used to assess non-cognitive skills compared to a grade-based admissions relative to subsequent drop-out rates...... and academic achievement after one and two years of study. The participants consisted of the entire population of 422 psychology students who were admitted to the University of Southern Denmark between 2010 and 2013. The results showed significantly lower drop-out rates after the first year of study, and non......-significant lower drop-out rates after the second year of study for the admission procedure that included the assessment of non-cognitive skills though the MMI. Furthermore, this admission procedure resulted in a significant lower risk of failing the final exam after the first and second year of study, compared...

  3. Pretreatment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    It is frequently in the patient's best interest that radiation treatments are initiated soon after the decision to treat is made. However, it is essential to good radiation therapy that the patient's treatment course be planned and beam-modifying devices be fabricated with utmost care prior to treatment. The objectives of the treatment, along with the treatment parameters and techniques necessary to achieve these objectives, must be discussed prior to initiating planning procedures. Determination of the target volume is made by the radiation oncologist; this is based on knowledge of the history of the tumor, the patterns of spread of the disease, and on diagnostic findings during the work-up of each patient. It is then necessary to obtain several measurements of the patient and also to identify the position of the target volume and of adjacent normal organs with respect to known external skin marks before the actual treatment planning is begun. Such localization can be done through several methods. The two most commonly used methods are radiographic and computed tomography (CT), both of which are discussed in this chapter. The measurements often include contours of the patient's external surface, usually in the axial plane of the central axis of the beam, and often in multiple levels within the region to be treated. Three dimensional localization and treatment planning requires thorough understanding of geometry as well as of patient positioning and immobilization. This chapter attempts to clarify some of these complicated but essential preparations for treatment

  4. Photodynamic therapy of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) high grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Belotto, Renata; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-02-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the precursor of invasive cervical cancer and associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors. PDT is based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer in target cells that will generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species upon illumination, inducing the death of abnormal tissue and PDT with less damaging to normal tissues than surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy and seems to be a promising alternative procedure for CIN treatment. The CIN high grades (II and III) presents potential indications for PDT due the success of PDT for CIN low grade treatment. The patients with CIN high grade that were treated with new clinic protocol shows lesion regression to CIN low grade 60 days after the treatment. The new clinical protocol using for treatment of CIN high grade shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  5. The predictive and discriminant validity of the zone of proximal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, J; Elshout, J J

    2001-03-01

    Dynamic measurement procedures are supposed to uncover the zone of proximal development and to increase predictive validity in comparison to conventional, static measurement procedures. Two alternative explanations for the discrepancies between static and dynamic measurements were investigated. The first focuses on Vygotsky's learning potential theory, the second considers the role of anxiety tendency during test taking. If test anxious tendencies are mitigated by dynamic testing procedures, in particular the availability of assistance, the concept of the zone of proximal development may be superfluous in explaining the differences between the outcomes of static and dynamic measurement. Participants were students from secondary education in the Netherlands. They were tested repeatedly in grade three as well as in grade four. Participants were between 14 and 17 years old; their average age was 15.4 years with a standard deviation of .52. Two types of mathematics tests were used in a longitudinal experiment. The first type of test consisted of open-ended items, which participants had to solve completely on their own. With the second type of test, assistance was available to participants during the test. The latter so-called learning test was conceived of as a dynamic testing procedure. Furthermore, a test anxiety questionnaire was administered repeatedly. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. Apart from emotionality and worry, lack of self-confidence appears to be an important constituent of test anxiety. The learning test appears to contribute to the predictive validity of conventional tests and thus a part of Vygotsky's claims were substantiated. Moreover, the mere inclusion of a test anxiety factor into an explanatory model for the gathered data is not sufficient. Apart from test anxiety and mathematical ability it is necessary to assume a factor which may be construed as mathematics learning potential. The results indicate that the observed

  6. Use of commercial grade item dedication to reduce procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, the Nuclear Regulatory Industry (NRC) began inspecting utility practices of procuring and dedicating commercial grade items intended for plant safety-related applications. As a result of the industry efforts to address NRC concerns, nuclear utilities have enhanced existing programs and procedures for dedication of commercial grade items. Though these programs were originally enhanced to meet NRC concerns, utilities have discovered that the dedication of commercial grade items can also reduce overall procurement costs. This paper will discuss the enhancement of utility dedication programs and demonstrates how utilities have utilized them to reduce procurement costs

  7. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  8. FACTAR validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.B.; Wadsworth, S.L.; Rock, R.C.; Sills, H.E.; Langman, V.J.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed strategy to validate fuel channel thermal mechanical behaviour codes for use of current power reactor safety analysis is presented. The strategy is derived from a validation process that has been recently adopted industry wide. Focus of the discussion is on the validation plan for a code, FACTAR, for application in assessing fuel channel integrity safety concerns during a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). (author)

  9. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  10. Validity in assessment of prior learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2015-01-01

    , the article discusses the need for specific criteria for assessment. The reliability and validity of the assessment procedures depend on whether the competences are well-defined, and whether the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures. Keywords: assessment, prior learning, adult...... education, vocational training, lifelong learning, validity...

  11. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  12. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  13. Validity and reliability of three definitions of hip osteoarthritis: cross sectional and longitudinal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Reijman (Max); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); B.W. Koes (Bart); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To compare the reliability and validity in a large open population of three frequently used radiological definitions of hip osteoarthritis (OA): Kellgren and Lawrence grade, minimal joint space (MJS), and Croft grade; and to investigate whether the

  14. What is validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Criteria for establishing the validity of a computational method to be used in assessing nuclear criticality safety, as set forth in ''American Standard for Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactors,'' ANSI/ANS-8.1-1983, are examined and discussed. Application of the criteria is illustrated by describing the procedures followed in deriving subcritical limits that have been incorporated in the Standard

  15. Design for validation: An approach to systems validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William C.; Dunham, Janet R.; Laprie, Jean-Claude; Williams, Thomas; Howden, William; Smith, Brian; Lewis, Carl M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Every complex system built is validated in some manner. Computer validation begins with review of the system design. As systems became too complicated for one person to review, validation began to rely on the application of adhoc methods by many individuals. As the cost of the changes mounted and the expense of failure increased, more organized procedures became essential. Attempts at devising and carrying out those procedures showed that validation is indeed a difficult technical problem. The successful transformation of the validation process into a systematic series of formally sound, integrated steps is necessary if the liability inherent in the future digita-system-based avionic and space systems is to be minimized. A suggested framework and timetable for the transformtion are presented. Basic working definitions of two pivotal ideas (validation and system life-cyle) are provided and show how the two concepts interact. Many examples are given of past and present validation activities by NASA and others. A conceptual framework is presented for the validation process. Finally, important areas are listed for ongoing development of the validation process at NASA Langley Research Center.

  16. MEDICAL AND PHARMACY STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE GRADING AND ASSESSMENT PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoré eMITONGA KABWEBWE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many students at the University of Namibia have frequently complained about ineffective assessment practices used at the institution. On many occasions, these complaints have not been substantiated with evidence of any kind. The purpose of this study was to obtain some empirical evidence that would ascertain undergraduate students’ perceptions of the University of Namibia’s grading and assessment practices. Using a structured scaled questionnaire, data were obtained from a representative sample of the University’s undergraduate students studying for Medical and Pharmacy degrees. The questionnaire items covered matters related to students’ experiences of assessment practices, feedback on assessment tasks, reliability and validity of assessment tools used by lecturers, efficacy of processes of administering examinations, perceptions of irregular and unfair assessment practices, impact of assessment regimes on students’ cost of studies, motivation, morale, rate of progression in studies and graduation, the degree of compliance with assessment ethics and on academic quality assurance.According to the data reported in this article, the majority of the respondents perceived that the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Namibia applied assessment practices that yielded reliable and valid results. This was the case because most lecturers in the two schools used appropriate assessment tools and provided their students with prompt and informative feedback on the results of assignments, tests and examinations. In addition, most respondents reported that whereas examination procedures used in the two schools were efficient and effective, lecturers graded examination scripts fairly. These and other results are discussed in the article to communicate the message that the assessment procedures used in the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Namibia would promote effective learning and understanding amongst students

  17. Medical and pharmacy students' perceptions of the grading and assessment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanda, C D; Mitonga, K H; Veii, K; Zimba, R F

    2013-01-01

    Many students at the University of Namibia have frequently complained about ineffective assessment practices used at the institution. On many occasions, these complaints have not been substantiated with evidence of any kind. The purpose of this study was to obtain some empirical evidence that would ascertain undergraduate students' perceptions of the University of Namibia's grading and assessment practices. Using a structured scaled questionnaire, data were obtained from a representative sample of the University's undergraduate students studying for Medical and Pharmacy degrees. The questionnaire items covered matters related to students' experiences of assessment practices, feedback on assessment tasks, reliability and validity of assessment tools used by lecturers, efficacy of processes of administering examinations, perceptions of irregular and unfair assessment practices, impact of assessment regimes on students' cost of studies, motivation, morale, rate of progression in studies and graduation, the degree of compliance with assessment ethics and on academic quality assurance. According to the data reported in this article, the majority of the respondents perceived that the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Namibia applied assessment practices that yielded reliable and valid results. This was the case because most lecturers in the two schools used appropriate assessment tools and provided their students with prompt and informative feedback on the results of assignments, tests and examinations. In addition, most respondents reported that whereas examination procedures used in the two schools were efficient and effective, lecturers graded examination scripts fairly. These and other results are discussed in the article to communicate the message that the assessment procedures used in the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Namibia would promote effective learning and understanding amongst students as they were of high quality.

  18. Procedures for, and Experiences in, Introducing Algebra in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, John; Redden, Edward

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the philosophy and procedures behind the introduction of algebra to students in grade 7 in Australia. Included are the importance of concrete experiences, language development, and the consequences involved in this procedure. (CW)

  19. Laboratory compliance with the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing guidelines: a 3-year comparison of validation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhdalo, Kathryn S; Fitzgibbons, Patrick L; Goldsmith, Jeffery D; Souers, Rhona J; Nakhleh, Raouf E

    2014-07-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) published guidelines in 2007 regarding testing accuracy, interpretation, and reporting of results for HER2 studies. A 2008 survey identified areas needing improved compliance. To reassess laboratory response to those guidelines following a full accreditation cycle for an updated snapshot of laboratory practices regarding ASCO/CAP guidelines. In 2011, a survey was distributed with the HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) proficiency testing program identical to the 2008 survey. Of the 1150 surveys sent, 977 (85.0%) were returned, comparable to the original survey response in 2008 (757 of 907; 83.5%). New participants submitted 124 of 977 (12.7%) surveys. The median laboratory accession rate was 14,788 cases with 211 HER2 tests performed annually. Testing was validated with fluorescence in situ hybridization in 49.1% (443 of 902) of the laboratories; 26.3% (224 of 853) of the laboratories used another IHC assay. The median number of cases to validate fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 40) and IHC (n = 27) was similar to those in 2008. Ninety-five percent concordance with fluorescence in situ hybridization was achieved by 76.5% (254 of 332) of laboratories for IHC(-) findings and 70.4% (233 of 331) for IHC(+) cases. Ninety-five percent concordance with another IHC assay was achieved by 71.1% (118 of 168) of the laboratories for negative findings and 69.6% (112 of 161) of the laboratories for positive cases. The proportion of laboratories interpreting HER2 IHC using ASCO/CAP guidelines (86.6% [798 of 921] in 2011; 83.8% [605 of 722] in 2008) remains similar. Although fixation time improvements have been made, assay validation deficiencies still exist. The results of this survey were shared within the CAP, including the Laboratory Accreditation Program and the ASCO/CAP panel revising the HER2 guidelines published in October 2013. The Laboratory Accreditation Program checklist was

  20. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  1. Verification and validation benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-01-01

    Verification and validation (V and V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V and V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V and V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the

  2. Verification and validation benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberkampf, William L.; Trucano, Timothy G.

    2008-01-01

    Verification and validation (V and V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V and V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V and V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the

  3. Validated method for the determination of perfluorinated compounds in placental tissue samples based on a simple extraction procedure followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Zafra-Gómez, A; Alonso, E; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A

    2016-04-01

    Xenobiotic exposure during pregnancy is inevitable. Determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), chemicals described as environmental contaminants by Public Health Authorities due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, is a challenge. In the present work, a method based on a simplified sample treatment involving freeze-drying, solvent extraction and dispersive clean-up of the extracts using C18 sorbents followed by an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of five perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C4-C8) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in placental tissue samples. The most influential parameters affecting the extraction method and clean-up were optimized using Design of Experiments (DOE). The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration. Found limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.03 to 2 ng g(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.08 to 6 ng g(-1), while inter- and intra-day variability was under 14% in all cases. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 94% to 113%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of compounds in human placental tissue samples collected at delivery from 25 randomly selected women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Standard operating procedures for ESPEN guidelines and consensus papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Stephan C; Singer, Pierre; Koller, Michael; Barazzoni, Rocco; Cederholm, Tommy; van Gossum, André

    2015-12-01

    The ESPEN Guideline standard operating procedures (SOP) is based on the methodology provided by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies of Germany (AWMF), the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), and the Centre for Evidence-based Medicine at the University of Oxford. The SOP is valid and obligatory for all future ESPEN-sponsored guideline projects aiming to generate high-quality guidelines on a regular basis. The SOP aims to facilitate the preparation of guideline projects, to streamline the consensus process, to ensure quality and transparency, and to facilitate the dissemination and publication of ESPEN guidelines. To achieve this goal, the ESPEN Guidelines Editorial board (GEB) has been established headed by two chairmen. The GEB will support and supervise the guideline processes and is responsible for the strategic planning of ESPEN guideline activities. Key elements of the SOP are the generation of well-built clinical questions according to the PICO system, a systemic literature search, a classification of the selected literature according to the SIGN evidence levels providing an evidence table, and a clear and straight-forward consensus procedure consisting of online voting's and a consensus conference. Only experts who meet the obligation to disclosure any potential conflict of interests and who are not employed by the Industry can participate in the guideline process. All recommendations will be graded according to the SIGN grading and novel outcome models besides biomedical endpoints. This approach will further extent the leadership of ESPEN in creating up-to-date and suitable for implementation guidelines and in sharing knowledge on malnutrition and clinical nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. TSUNAMI analysis of the applicability of proposed experiments to reactor-grade and weapons-grade mixed-oxide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Hopper, Calvin M.; Elam, Karla R.

    2005-01-01

    The applicability of proposed critical experiments for the criticality code validation of a series of prototypic reactor-grade and weapons-grade mixed-oxide systems has been assessed with the TSUNAMI methodology from SCALE 5. The application systems were proposed by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety MOX Experimental Needs Working Group. Forty-eight application systems were conceived to envelope the range of conditions in processing and fabrication of reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX fuel. The applicability of 303 existing critical benchmarks to each of the 48 applications was assessed, and validation coverage was found to be lacking for certain applications. Two series of proposed critical experiments were also considered in this analysis. The TSUNAMI analysis has revealed that both series of proposed experiments are applicable to numerous configurations of the reactor-grade and weapons-grade systems. A detailed assessment of which experiments were revealed by TSUNAMI to be most applicable to specific prototypic fuel processing systems has been performed. (author)

  6. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  7. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - CFD modelling evaluation - Summary of WindSim CFD modelling procedure and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Cattin, R. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The report describes the development of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. The report deals with the use of computational fluid dynamics and wind simulation modelling techniques and their validation. Recommendations on the use of the results are made.

  8. Design, Manufacturing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Flextensional Piezoelectric Actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amigo, R C R; Vatanabe, S L; Silva, E C N

    2013-01-01

    Previous works have been shown several advantages in using Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) for the performance of flextensional devices, such as reduction of stress concentrations and gains in reliability. In this work, the FGM concept is explored in the design of graded devices by using the Topology Optimization Method (TOM), in order to determine optimal topologies and gradations of the coupled structures of piezoactuators. The graded pieces are manufactured by using the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique and are bonded to piezoelectric ceramics. The graded actuators are then tested by using a modular vibrometer system for measuring output displacements, in order to validate the numerical simulations. The technological path developed here represents the initial step toward the manufacturing of an integral piezoelectric device, constituted by piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric materials without bonding layers.

  9. Standardized Curriculum for Enrichment Agriculture. Grades 7 and 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents are provided for two courses in Mississippi: agriculture, grades seven and eight. The first course contains the following units: (1) agricultural careers; (2) leadership and Future Farmers of America (FFA); (3) public speaking; (4) parliamentary procedures; (5) introduction to…

  10. Job Grading Standard for Materials Expediter WG-6705.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard is used to grade nonsupervisory jobs involved in routing and expediting the movement of parts, end items, supplies, and materials within production and repair facilities to meet priority needs. The work requires knowledge of material characteristics, uses, condition, industrial production shop procedures, shop layout, and internal…

  11. Chapter 4:Grading and properties of hardwood structural lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green

    2005-01-01

    Structural lumber markets have traditionally been dominated by softwood species. Historically, however, hardwood species have been extensively used for certain structural products such as timbers for railway and highway bridges, railway ties, mine timbers, and for pallets and containers. In the 1920s, when uniform procedures were first developed for structural grading...

  12. Grading sacroiliitis with emphasis on MRI imaging; Grading der Sakroiliitis mit Betonung der MRT-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurik, A.G.; Egund, N. [The Department of Radiology R, Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark)

    2004-03-01

    Cross-sectional imaging techniques play a decisive role in identification, localization, and characterization of alterations in the sacroiliac joint during the early stage of seronegative spondylarthropathy (SpA). Although several studies showed that the diagnostic capabilities of MRI and CT are superior to those of conventional radiography, they have not yet become established and accepted as methods for evaluating the grade of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in contrast to conventional radiography. The lack of acceptance for MRI and/or CT methods for evaluating and grading changes in the sacroiliac joint makes it difficult to include the results of these procedures in classifying the grade of SpA. Moreover, grading the changes in the sacroiliac joint in SpA with a method more sensitive than conventional radiography will be of prime importance in assessing treatment, e.g., the efficacy of new biological therapeutic agents directed against the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}). An overview of the available grading methods is provided and MRI and CT techniques are presented. (orig.) [German] Schnittbildverfahren spielen bei der Identifizierung, Lokalisation und Charakterisierung von Veraenderungen des Sakroiliakalgelenks (SIG) im Fruehstadium der seronegativen Spondylarthropathie (SpA) eine entscheidende Rolle. Obwohl mehrere Studien zeigten, dass der diagnostische Wert der MRT und CT jenem der konventionellen Radiographie ueberlegen ist, hat sich das Schnittbildverfahren als Mittel zur Evaluierung des Grades der ankylosierenden Spondylitis (AS) im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Radiographie noch nicht etabliert und durchgesetzt. Dieses Fehlen eines akzeptierten MRT- und/oder CT-Verfahrens zur Evaluierung und zum Grading der Veraenderungen am SIG macht es schwierig, die Ergebnisse dieser Verfahren bei der Einstufung des Grades der AS-Veraenderungen und Erarbeitung von Diagnosekriterien fuer andere Formen der SpA einzubeziehen. Ausserdem wird das Grading der SIG

  13. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...... have been profiled in the news. The model is provided to ensure that degree candidates are academic experts in their field, having earned the credential through rigorous study....

  14. Rapid grading of fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy using crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Kirchner, Thomas R; Gupta, Omesh P; Shah, Chirag P

    2014-10-30

    Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading. An interface for fundus photo classification was developed for the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We posted 19 expert-graded images for grading by Turkers, with 10 repetitions per photo for an initial proof-of-concept (Phase I). Turkers were paid US $0.10 per image. In Phase II, one prototypical image from each of the four grading categories received 500 unique Turker interpretations. Fifty draws of 1-50 Turkers were then used to estimate the variance in accuracy derived from randomly drawn samples of increasing crowd size to determine the minimum number of Turkers needed to produce valid results. In Phase III, the interface was modified to attempt to improve Turker grading. Across 230 grading instances in the normal versus abnormal arm of Phase I, 187 images (81.3%) were correctly classified by Turkers. Average time to grade each image was 25 seconds, including time to review training images. With the addition of grading categories, time to grade each image increased and percentage of images graded correctly decreased. In Phase II, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) indicated that sensitivity and specificity were maximized after 7 graders for ratings of normal versus abnormal (AUC=0.98) but was significantly reduced (AUC=0.63) when Turkers were asked to specify the level of severity. With improvements to the interface in Phase III, correctly classified images by the mean Turker grade in four-category grading increased to a maximum of 52.6% (10/19 images

  15. Automated tone grading of granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalina Hernández, J.C.; Fernández Ramón, G.

    2017-01-01

    The production of a natural stone processing plant is subject to the intrinsic variability of the stone blocks that constitute its raw material, which may cause problems of lack of uniformity in the visual appearance of the produced material that often triggers complaints from customers. The best way to tackle this problem is to classify the product according to its visual features, which is traditionally done by hand: an operator observes each and every piece that comes out of the production line and assigns it to the closest match among a number of predefined classes, taking into account visual features of the material such as colour, texture, grain, veins, etc. However, this manual procedure presents significant consistency problems, due to the inherent subjectivity of the classification performed by each operator, and the errors caused by their progressive fatigue. Attempts to employ automated sorting systems like the ones used in the ceramic tile industry have not been successful, as natural stone presents much higher variability than ceramic tiles. Therefore, it has been necessary to develop classification systems specifically designed for the treatment of the visual parameters that distinguish the different types of natural stone. This paper describes the details of a computer vision system developed by AITEMIN for the automatic classification of granite pieces according to their tone, which provides an integral solution to tone grading problems in the granite processing and marketing industry. The system has been designed to be easily trained by the end user, through the learning of the samples established as tone patterns by the user. [es

  16. Automation of cellular therapy product manufacturing: results of a split validation comparing CD34 selection of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis product with a semi-manual vs. an automatic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hümmer, Christiane; Poppe, Carolin; Bunos, Milica; Stock, Belinda; Wingenfeld, Eva; Huppert, Volker; Stuth, Juliane; Reck, Kristina; Essl, Mike; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2016-03-16

    Automation of cell therapy manufacturing promises higher productivity of cell factories, more economical use of highly-trained (and costly) manufacturing staff, facilitation of processes requiring manufacturing steps at inconvenient hours, improved consistency of processing steps and other benefits. One of the most broadly disseminated engineered cell therapy products is immunomagnetically selected CD34+ hematopoietic "stem" cells (HSCs). As the clinical GMP-compliant automat CliniMACS Prodigy is being programmed to perform ever more complex sequential manufacturing steps, we developed a CD34+ selection module for comparison with the standard semi-automatic CD34 "normal scale" selection process on CliniMACS Plus, applicable for 600 × 10(6) target cells out of 60 × 10(9) total cells. Three split-validation processings with healthy donor G-CSF-mobilized apheresis products were performed; feasibility, time consumption and product quality were assessed. All processes proceeded uneventfully. Prodigy runs took about 1 h longer than CliniMACS Plus runs, albeit with markedly less hands-on operator time and therefore also suitable for less experienced operators. Recovery of target cells was the same for both technologies. Although impurities, specifically T- and B-cells, were 5 ± 1.6-fold and 4 ± 0.4-fold higher in the Prodigy products (p = ns and p = 0.013 for T and B cell depletion, respectively), T cell contents per kg of a virtual recipient receiving 4 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg was below 10 × 10(3)/kg even in the worst Prodigy product and thus more than fivefold below the specification of CD34+ selected mismatched-donor stem cell products. The products' theoretical clinical usability is thus confirmed. This split validation exercise of a relatively short and simple process exemplifies the potential of automatic cell manufacturing. Automation will further gain in attractiveness when applied to more complex processes, requiring frequent interventions or handling at

  17. Exploring PE Teachers' "Gut Feelings": An Attempt to Verbalise and Discuss Teachers' Internalised Grading Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennberg, Lena; Meckbach, Jane; Redelius, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that teachers' grading is influenced by non-achievement factors in addition to official criteria, such as knowledge and skills. Some grading criteria are internalised by the teacher, who is sometimes unable to verbalise the criteria used and refers to what is called a "gut feeling". Therefore, transparency, validity and…

  18. A Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainty in the Grading of Written Exams in Mathematics and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Hugo Lewi; Habib, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The most common way to grade students in courses at university and university college level is to use final written exams. The aim of final exams is generally to provide a reliable and a valid measurement of the extent to which a student has achieved the learning outcomes for the course. A source of uncertainty in grading students based on an exam…

  19. Validation philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornehm, D.

    1994-01-01

    To determine when a set of calculations falls within an umbrella of an existing validation documentation, it is necessary to generate a quantitative definition of range of applicability (our definition is only qualitative) for two reasons: (1) the current trend in our regulatory environment will soon make it impossible to support the legitimacy of a validation without quantitative guidelines; and (2) in my opinion, the lack of support by DOE for further critical experiment work is directly tied to our inability to draw a quantitative open-quotes line-in-the-sandclose quotes beyond which we will not use computer-generated values

  20. Monte Carlo study of holding forces for tank cars on grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    This paper describes a numerical procedure to examine the holding forces needed to secure a cut of railroad tank cars staged on a grade during loading and unloading operations. Holding forces are created by applying emergency brake systems and blocki...

  1. Developing, adopting and adapting operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture specifies all the dispositions which have been taken by EDF Nuclear and Fossil Generation Department - according to the fact that availability and safety largely depend on the quality of the procedures and their easy handling - in order to develop, adopt and adapt the operating procedures. The following points are treated: General organization of procedures for plant operation during normal and abnormal conditions; Personnel and extend of responsibility involved into the development of procedures (research center, training center, specialized services, nuclear station, etc.); Validation of the procedures by means of full-scope simulators; Modifications of the procedures taking into account operation experience in material and human fields; Development of simulation softs in order to perform the procedures in abnormal situations; Evolution of operating technics and future skills. (orig.)

  2. A Situative Metaphor for Teacher Learning: The Case of University Tutors Learning to Grade Student Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Pete; Bloxham, Sue

    2014-01-01

    In the continuing concern about academic standards in the higher education sector a great deal of emphasis has been placed on quality assurance procedures rather than on considering how university tutors learn to grade the quality of work produced by students. As part of a larger research project focused on how tutors grade student coursework,…

  3. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs...

  4. GRADING: Involving Students in a Time-saving Solution to the Homework Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafi, Mohammad

    1989-01-01

    A procedure where homework assignments are collected, graded, and returned each week is suggested. Students were used to grade each other's homework against copies of the solutions according to criteria established at the beginning of the course. Student response has been positive. (MVL)

  5. Virtual reality simulation training in a high-fidelity procedure suite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lönn, Lars; Edmond, John J; Marco, Jean

    2012-01-01

    To assess the face and content validity of a novel, full physics, full procedural, virtual reality simulation housed in a hybrid procedure suite.......To assess the face and content validity of a novel, full physics, full procedural, virtual reality simulation housed in a hybrid procedure suite....

  6. Artificial neural network aided non-invasive grading evaluation of hepatic fibrosis by duplex ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial neural networks (ANNs are widely studied for evaluating diseases. This paper discusses the intelligence mode of an ANN in grading the diagnosis of liver fibrosis by duplex ultrasonogaphy. Methods 239 patients who were confirmed as having liver fibrosis or cirrhosis by ultrasound guided liver biopsy were investigated in this study. We quantified ultrasonographic parameters as significant parameters using a data optimization procedure applied to an ANN. 179 patients were typed at random as the training group; 60 additional patients were consequently enrolled as the validating group. Performance of the ANN was evaluated according to accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Youden’s index and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results 5 ultrasonographic parameters; i.e., the liver parenchyma, thickness of spleen, hepatic vein (HV waveform, hepatic artery pulsatile index (HAPI and HV damping index (HVDI, were enrolled as the input neurons in the ANN model. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ANN model for quantitative diagnosis of liver fibrosis were 95.0%, 85.0% and 88.3%, respectively. The Youden’s index (YI was 0.80. Conclusions The established ANN model had good sensitivity and specificity in quantitative diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis or liver cirrhosis. Our study suggests that the ANN model based on duplex ultrasound may help non-invasive grading diagnosis of liver fibrosis in clinical practice.

  7. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Egevad, Lars; Amin, Mahul B; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Humphrey, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    of 10, it implies that their prognosis is intermediate and contributes to their fear of having a more aggressive cancer. Also, in the literature and for therapeutic purposes, various scores have been incorrectly grouped together with the assumption that they have a similar prognosis. For example, many classification systems consider Gleason score 7 as a single score without distinguishing 3+4 versus 4+3, despite studies showing significantly worse prognosis for the latter. The basis for a new grading system was proposed in 2013 by one of the authors (J.I.E.) based on data from Johns Hopkins Hospital resulting in 5 prognostically distinct Grade Groups. This new system was validated in a multi-institutional study of over 20,000 radical prostatectomy specimens, over 16,000 needle biopsy specimens, and over 5,000 biopsies followed by radiation therapy. There was broad (90%) consensus for the adoption of this new prostate cancer Grading system in the 2014 consensus conference based on: (1) the new classification provided more accurate stratification of tumors than the current system; (2) the classification simplified the number of grading categories from Gleason scores 2 to 10, with even more permutations based on different pattern combinations, to Grade Groups 1 to 5; (3) the lowest grade is 1 not 6 as in Gleason, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of indolent cancer; and (4) the current modified Gleason grading, which forms the basis for the new grade groups, bears little resemblance to the original Gleason system. The new grades would, for the foreseeable future, be used in conjunction with the Gleason system [ie. Gleason score 3+3=6 (Grade Group 1)]. The new grading system and the terminology Grade Groups 1-5 have also been accepted by the World Health Organization for the 2016 edition of Pathology and Genetics: Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs.

  8. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  9. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  10. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  11. Validation of EAF-2005 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Validation procedures applied on EAF-2003 starter file, which lead to the production of EAF-2005 library, are described. The results in terms of reactions with assigned quality scores in EAF-20005 are given. Further the extensive validation against the recent integral data is discussed together with the status of the final report 'Validation of EASY-2005 using integral measurements'. Finally, the novel 'cross section trend analysis' is presented with some examples of its use. This action will lead to the release of improved library EAF-2005.1 at the end of 2005, which shall be used as the starter file for EAF-2007. (author)

  12. Can Patients Comprehend the Educational Materials that Hospitals Provide about Common IR Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigh, Gelareh; Hawkins, C Matthew; O'Keefe, John J; Khan, Ramsha; Duszak, Richard

    2015-08-01

    To assess the readability of online education materials offered by hospitals describing commonly performed interventional radiology (IR) procedures. Online patient education materials from 402 hospitals selected from the Medicare Hospital Compare database were assessed. The presence of an IR service was determined by representation in the Society of Interventional Radiology physician finder directory. Patient online education materials about (i) uterine artery embolization for fibroid tumors, (ii) liver cancer embolization, (iii) varicose vein treatment, (iv) central venous access, (v) inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement, (vi) nephrostomy tube insertion, (vii) gastrostomy tube placement, and (viii) vertebral augmentation were targeted and assessed by using six validated readability scoring systems. Of 402 hospitals sampled, 156 (39%) were presumed to offer IR services. Of these, 119 (76%) offered online patient education material for one or more of the eight service lines. The average readability scores corresponding to grade varied between the ninth- and 12th-grade levels. All were higher than the recommended seventh-grade level (P Reading Ease scores ranged from 42 to 69, corresponding with fairly difficult to difficult readability for all service lines except IVC filter and gastrostomy tube placement, which corresponded with standard readability. A majority of hospitals offering IR services provide at least some online patient education material. Most, however, are written significantly above the reading comprehension level of most Americans. More attention to health literacy by hospitals and IR physicians is warranted. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring variability of procedure progression in proceduralized scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The VPP measure was developed to quantify how differently operators follow the procedures. ► Sources that cause variability of ways to follow a given procedure were identified. ► The VPP values for the scenarios are positively related to the scenario performance time. ► The VPP measure is meaningful for explaining characteristics of several PSFs. -- Abstract: Various performance shaping factors (PSFs) have been presented to explain the contributors to unsafe acts in a human failure event or predict a human error probability of new human performance. However, because most of these parameters of an HRA depend on the subjective knowledge and experience of HRA analyzers, the results of an HRA insufficiently provide unbiased standards to explain human performance variations or compare collected data with other data from different analyzers. To secure the validity of the HRA results, we propose a quantitative measure, which represents the variability of procedure progression (VPP) in proceduralized scenarios. A VPP measure shows how differently the operators follow the steps of the procedures. This paper introduces the sources of the VPP measure and relevance to PSFs. The assessment method of the VPP measure is also proposed, and the application examples are shown with a comparison of the performance time. Although more empirical studies should be conducted to reveal the relationship between the VPP measure and other PSFs, it is believed that the VPP measure provides evidence to quantitatively evaluate human performance variations and to cross-culturally compare the collected data.

  14. A simple method for assigning genomic grade to individual breast tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennmalm, Kristian; Bergh, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The prognostic value of grading in breast cancer can be increased with microarray technology, but proposed strategies are disadvantaged by the use of specific training data or parallel microscopic grading. Here, we investigate the performance of a method that uses no information outside the breast profile of interest. In 251 profiled tumours we optimised a method that achieves grading by comparing rank means for genes predictive of high and low grade biology; a simpler method that allows for truly independent estimation of accuracy. Validation was carried out in 594 patients derived from several independent data sets. We found that accuracy was good: for low grade (G1) tumors 83- 94%, for high grade (G3) tumors 74- 100%. In keeping with aim of improved grading, two groups of intermediate grade (G2) cancers with significantly different outcome could be discriminated. This validates the concept of microarray-based grading in breast cancer, and provides a more practical method to achieve it. A simple R script for grading is available in an additional file. Clinical implementation could achieve better estimation of recurrence risk for 40 to 50% of breast cancer patients

  15. A simple method for assigning genomic grade to individual breast tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jonas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognostic value of grading in breast cancer can be increased with microarray technology, but proposed strategies are disadvantaged by the use of specific training data or parallel microscopic grading. Here, we investigate the performance of a method that uses no information outside the breast profile of interest. Results In 251 profiled tumours we optimised a method that achieves grading by comparing rank means for genes predictive of high and low grade biology; a simpler method that allows for truly independent estimation of accuracy. Validation was carried out in 594 patients derived from several independent data sets. We found that accuracy was good: for low grade (G1 tumors 83- 94%, for high grade (G3 tumors 74- 100%. In keeping with aim of improved grading, two groups of intermediate grade (G2 cancers with significantly different outcome could be discriminated. Conclusion This validates the concept of microarray-based grading in breast cancer, and provides a more practical method to achieve it. A simple R script for grading is available in an additional file. Clinical implementation could achieve better estimation of recurrence risk for 40 to 50% of breast cancer patients.

  16. HASL procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.

    1977-08-01

    Additions and corrections to the following sections of the HASL Procedures Manual are provided: General, Sampling, Field Measurements; General Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Procedures, Data Section, and Specifications

  17. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  18. Video observation of procedural skills for assessment of trabeculectomy performed by residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Narges; Chen, Rebecca; Baikpour, Masoud; Moghimi, Sasan

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy and sufficiency of a healthcare system is directly related to the knowledge and skills of graduates working in the system. In this regard, many different assessment methods have been proposed to evaluate various skills of the learners. Video Observation of Procedural Skills (VOPS) is one newly-proposed method. In this study we aimed to compare the results of the VOPS method with the more commonly used Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS). In this prospective study conducted in 2012, all 10 ophthalmology residents of post graduate year 4 were selected for participation. Three months into training in the glaucoma ward, these residents performed trabeculectomy surgery on patients, and their procedural skills were assessed in real time by an expert via the DOPS method. All surgeries were also recorded and later evaluated via the VOPS method by an expert. Bland-Altman plot also was used to compare the two methods and calculating the mean and 95% limit of agreement. Residents have been done a mean of 14.9 ± 3.5 (range 10-20) independent trabeculectomy before the assessments. DOPS grade was positively associated with number of independent trabeculectomy during glaucoma rotation (β=0.227, p = 0.004). The intra-observer reproducibility of VOPS measurements was 0.847 (95% CI: 0.634, 0.961). The mean VOPS grade was significantly lower than the mean DOPS grade (8.4 vs. 8.9, p = 0.02). However, a good correlation was observed between the grades of VOPS and DOPS (r = 0.89, p = 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that all data points fell within the 95% limits of agreement (-1.46, 0.46). The present study showed that VOPS might be considered a feasible, valid, and reliable assessment method for procedural skills of medical students and residents that can be used as an alternative to the DOPS method. However, VOPS might underestimate DOPS in evaluating surgical skills of residents.

  19. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline var...

  20. 77 FR 67862 - Air Traffic Procedures Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ...The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public that the FAA's Air Traffic Procedures Advisory Committee (ATPAC) two year charter has been coordinated and signed by the FAA Administrator. The ATPAC charter is valid for two years and provides a venue to review air traffic control procedures and practices for standardization, revision, clarification, and upgrading of terminology and procedures.

  1. [Validity and reliability of the Culture of Quality Health Services questionnaire in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Kiengelher, L; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Austria-Corrales, F; Vázquez-Zarate, V M

    2013-01-01

    Patient Safety is a major public health problem worldwide and is responsibility of all those involved in health care. Establishing a Safety Culture has proved to be a factor that favors the integration of work teams, communication and construction of clear procedures in various organizations. Promote a culture of safety depends on several factors, such as organization, work unit and staff. Objective assessment of these factors will help to identify areas for improvement and establish strategic lines of action. [corrected] To adapt, validate and calibrate the questionnaire Culture of Quality in Health Services (CQHS) in Mexican population. A cross with a stratified representative sample of 522 health workers. The questionnaire was translated and adapted from Singer's. Content was validated by experts, internal consistency, confirmatory factorial validity and item calibration with Samejima's Graded Response Model. Convergent and divergent construct validity was confirmed from the CQHS, item calibration showed that the questionnaire is able to discriminate between patients and represent different levels of the hypothesized dimensions with greater accuracy and lower standard error. The CQHS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess patient safety culture in hospitals in Mexico. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Validity and Reliability of Surface Electromyography Measurements from a Wearable Athlete Performance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Lynn, Casey M. Watkins, Megan A. Wong, Katherine Balfany, Daniel F. Feeney

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Athos ® wearable system integrates surface electromyography (sEMG electrodes into the construction of compression athletic apparel. The Athos system reduces the complexity and increases the portability of collecting EMG data and provides processed data to the end user. The objective of the study was to determine the reliability and validity of Athos as compared with a research grade sEMG system. Twelve healthy subjects performed 7 trials on separate days (1 baseline trial and 6 repeated trials. In each trial subjects wore the wearable sEMG system and had a research grade sEMG system’s electrodes placed just distal on the same muscle, as close as possible to the wearable system’s electrodes. The muscles tested were the vastus lateralis (VL, vastus medialis (VM, and biceps femoris (BF. All testing was done on an isokinetic dynamometer. Baseline testing involved performing isometric 1 repetition maximum tests for the knee extensors and flexors and three repetitions of concentric-concentric knee flexion and extension at MVC for each testing speed: 60, 180, and 300 deg/sec. Repeated trials 2-7 each comprised 9 sets where each set included three repetitions of concentric-concentric knee flexion-extension. Each repeated trial (2-7 comprised one set at each speed and percent MVC (50%, 75%, 100% combination. The wearable system and research grade sEMG data were processed using the same methods and aligned in time. The amplitude metrics calculated from the sEMG for each repetition were the peak amplitude, sum of the linear envelope, and 95th percentile. Validity results comprise two main findings. First, there is not a significant effect of system (Athos or research grade system on the repetition amplitude metrics (95%, peak, or sum. Second, the relationship between torque and sEMG is not significantly different between Athos and the research grade system. For reliability testing, the variation across trials and averaged across speeds was 0.8%, 7

  3. Computer software review procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauck, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews the procedures which are used to review software written for computer based instrumentation and control functions in nuclear facilities. The utilization of computer based control systems is becoming much more prevalent in such installations, in addition to being retrofit into existing systems. Currently, the Nuclear Regulatory System uses Regulatory Guide 1.152, open-quotes Criteria for Programmable Digital Computer System Software in Safety-Related Systems of Nuclear Power Plantsclose quotes and ANSI/IEEE-ANS-7-4.3.2-1982, open-quotes Application Criteria for Programmable Digital Computer Systems in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Generating Stationsclose quotes for guidance when performing reviews of digital systems. There is great concern about the process of verification and validation of these codes, so when inspections are done of such systems, inspectors examine very closely the processes which were followed in developing the codes, the errors which were detected, how they were found, and the analysis which went into tracing down the causes behind the errors to insure such errors were not propagated again in the future

  4. Embryo apoptosis identification: Oocyte grade or cleavage stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Noraina Mohd; Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Nurul Atikah; Hasan, Nurhaslina; Jaffar, Farah Hanan Fathihah; Rahman, Zulaiha Abdul; Osman, Khairul

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a programed cell death that is vital for tissue homeostasis. However, embryo apoptosis had been known to be related to embryo fragmentation which should be avoided in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of embryo apoptosis with the grade of immature oocytes and cleavage stage of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos. This study consisted of 345 oocytes collected through ovary slicing. Immature oocytes were graded as A, B and C. This grading was based on cumulus cell thickness and compactness. All oocytes then underwent an in vitro maturation (IVM) procedure. An IVF was done 24 h after IVM culture. Prior to staining, stage of cleaved embryos was determined and classified as either 2, 4, 8 or >8-cell embryo stage. Apoptosis status of cleaved IVP embryos was determined by using annexin V-FITC staining technique at 48 and 72 h post insemination (hpi). Apoptosis status for each embryo was classified as either early or late. The result showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status among grade A, B and C embryos. All grades of oocytes showed embryo apoptosis where 1.5% late apoptosis for grade A, 4.5% and 10.4% of early and late apoptosis for grade B and grade C. Early apoptosis was not seen in grade A embryo. We also noted no significant difference (p > 0.05) of apoptosis status between 2, 4, 8 and >8-cell embryo stage. Early apoptosis was also not seen in >8-cell stage. Even though there were no differences in apoptosis expression between the three classes, the cleavage rate of grade A oocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than grade B and grade C. In conclusion, the apoptosis expression in the embryo can occur regardless of the oocyte quality and the cleavage stage of the embryo produced. PMID:26858565

  5. Computer assisted procedure maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, R.; Hulsund, J. E.; Nilsen, S.

    2004-04-01

    The maintenance of operating procedures in a NPP is a tedious and complicated task. Through the whole life cycle of the procedures they will be dynamic, 'living' documents. Several aspects of the procedure must be considered in a revision process. Pertinent details and attributes of the procedure must be checked. An organizational structure must be created and responsibilities allotted for drafting, revising, reviewing and publishing procedures. Available powerful computer technology provides solutions within document management and computerisation of procedures. These solutions can also support the maintenance of procedures. Not all parts of the procedure life cycle are equally amenable to computerized support. This report looks at the procedure life cycle in todays NPPs and discusses the possibilities associated with introduction of computer technology to assist the maintenance of procedures. (Author)

  6. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  7. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  8. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  9. Validating a Spanish Developmental Spelling Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Lou; Krajenta, Marilyn

    The creation and validation of a Spanish version of an English developmental spelling test (DST) is described. An introductory section reviews related literature on the rationale for and construction of DSTs, spelling development in the early grades, and Spanish-English bilingual education. Differences between the English and Spanish test versions…

  10. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments. Exp...

  11. Characterization of the viscoelastic behavior of the pure bitumen grades 10/20 and 35/50 with macroindentation and finite element computation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah; Guessasma, Sofiane; Bennabi, Abdelkrim

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present an identification procedure that allows the determination of the viscoelasticity behavior of different grades of pure bitumen (bitumen 35/50 and bitumen 10/20). The procedure required in the first stage a mechanical

  12. Accordion complication grading predicts short-term outcome after right colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Coen L; Safar, Bashar; Hunt, Steven R; Wise, Paul E; Birnbaum, Elisa H; Mutch, Matthew G; Fleshman, James W; Dharmarajan, Sekhar

    2014-08-01

    The Accordion severity grading system is a novel system to score the severity of postoperative complications in a standardized fashion. This study aims to demonstrate the validity of the Accordion system in colorectal surgery by correlating severity grades with short-term outcomes after right colectomy for colon cancer. This is a retrospective cohort review of patients who underwent right colectomy for cancer between January 1, 2002, and January 31, 2007, at a single tertiary care referral center. Complications were categorized according to the Accordion severity grading system: grades 1 (mild), 2 (moderate), 3-5 (severe), and 6 (death). Outcome measures were hospital stay, 30-d readmission rate and 1-y survival. Correlation between Accordion grades and outcome measures is reflected by Spearman rho (ρ). One-year survival was obtained per Kaplan-Meier method and compared by logrank test for trend. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, 235 patients underwent right colectomy for cancer of which 122 (51.9%) had complications. In total, 52 (43%) had an Accordion grade 1 complication; 44 (36%) grade 2; four (3%) grade 3; 11 (9%) grade 4; seven (6%) grade 5; and four (3%) grade 6. There was significant correlation between Accordion grades and hospital stay (ρ = 0.495, P trend in 1-y survival as complication severity by Accordion grade increased (P = 0.02). The Accordion grading system is a useful tool to estimate short-term outcomes after right colectomy for cancer. High-grade Accordion complications are associated with longer hospital stay and increased risk of readmission and mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Content validation applied to job simulation and written examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.M.; McCutchen, M.A.; White, A.S.; Huenefeld, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    The application of content validation strategies in work settings have become increasingly popular over the last few years, perhaps spurred by an acknowledgment in the courts of content validation as a method for validating employee selection procedures (e.g., Bridgeport Guardians v. Bridgeport Police Dept., 1977). Since criterion-related validation is often difficult to conduct, content validation methods should be investigated as an alternative for determining job related selection procedures. However, there is not yet consensus among scientists and professionals concerning how content validation should be conducted. This may be because there is a lack of clear cut operations for conducting content validation for different types of selection procedures. The purpose of this paper is to discuss two content validation approaches being used for the development of a licensing examination that involves a job simulation exam and a written exam. These represent variations in methods for applying content validation. 12 references

  14. Cracks in functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, H.-A.; Balke, H.; Fett, T.; Hofinger, I.; Kirchhoff, G.; Munz, D.; Neubrand, A.; Semenov, A.S.; Weiss, H.-J.; Yang, Y.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The weight function method is described to analyze the crack growth behavior in functionally graded materials and in particular materials with a rising crack growth resistance curve. Further, failure of graded thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under cyclic surface heating by laser irradiation is modeled on the basis of fracture mechanics. The damage of both graded and non-graded TBCs is found to develop in several distinct stages: vertical cracking→delamination→blistering→spalling. This sequence can be understood as an effect of progressive shrinkage due to sintering and high-temperature creep during thermal cycling, which increases the energy-release rate for vertical cracks which subsequently turn into delamination cracks. The results of finite element modeling, taking into account the TBC damage mechanisms, are compatible with experimental data. An increase of interface fracture toughness due to grading and a decrease due to ageing have been measured in a four-point bending test modified by a stiffening layer. Correlation with the damage observed in cyclic heating is discussed. It is explained in which way grading is able to reduce the damage

  15. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  16. Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer-Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Hal; Swartz, Carl W.; Stenner, A. Jackson; Fitzgerald, Jill; Burdick, Don; Hanlon, Sean T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the validity of a novel computer-analytic developmental scale, the Writing Ability Developmental Scale. On the whole, collective results supported the validity of the scale. It was sensitive to writing ability differences across grades and sensitive to within-grade variability as compared to human-rated…

  17. Validity and reliability of three definitions of hip osteoarthritis: Cross sectional and longitudinal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Reijman (Max); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); B.W. Koes (Bart); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To compare the reliability and validity in a large open population of three frequently used radiological definitions of hip osteoarthritis (OA): Kellgren and Lawrence grade, minimal joint space (MJS), and Croft grade; and to investigate whether the validity of the three

  18. PA03.13. Effect of triphaladi rasayana along with yoga therapy on low grade non hodgkins lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade non hodgkins lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, MS Surya; Sarasa, TP

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: 1. To find out the effect of Thriphaladi Rasayana along with Yoga Therapy on low grade Non Hodgkins Lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade NonHodgkins Lymphoma. 2. To apply a less costly, less morbid, well accepted method of treatment on NHL. 3.To find a simple method to increase the immunity. 4.To try a drug which is easy to prepare? Method: Purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Sample of 30 patients age range 25 75 years with histologicaly proven NonHodgkins lymphoma, attending the M.O.I.O.P of the regional cancer centre during a period of 18 months. Groups1) Low grade NonHodgkins Lymphoma 2) Resistant intermediate &High grade NonHodgkins lymphoma (failed chemotherapy) were taken. Procedure : 2 groups were given Triphaladhi Rasayana (15 grams of powder with ghee and honey) twice dailymorning& at bed time with milk as anupana for period of 1month along with selected yoga asanas and niyama? Result: Symptoms included were fever, night sweats, weight loss, lymph nodes enlargement, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly. In low grade symptom relief was noted in almost all cases. Lymph node changes notedLow grade5 2% (complete remission), 38% (partial remission), 10% (no change), intermediate35% (CR), 52% (PR) & 13% (NC), High grade67% (CR), 33%(PR). Hepatomegaly changes :ve in low grade92.86%, intermediate 90.9% & high grade100%. Splenomegaly changes :ve in low grade92.86%, intermediate72.72% & high grade80% Over all remission status of 30 patientscomplete remission30%, partial remission 30% & no change30%? Conclusion: Thriphaladirasayana along with Yoga therapy is very effective in Low grade NonHodgkins lymphoma and resistant intermediate and high grade Non hodgkins Lymphoma?

  19. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  20. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  1. Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Grade 2 Reading Measures. Technical Report #1004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamgochian, Elisa; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saez, Leilani; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In this technical report, we provide reliability and validity evidence for the easyCBM[R] Reading measures for grade 2 (word and passage reading fluency and multiple choice reading comprehension). Evidence for reliability includes internal consistency and item invariance. Evidence for validity includes concurrent, predictive, and construct…

  2. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-02-24

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  3. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-01-01

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  4. Validation of the Netherlands pacemaker patient registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, WA; Kingma, T; Hooijschuur, CAM; Dassen, WRM; Hoorntje, JCA; van Gelder, LM

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the validation of the information stored in the Netherlands central pacemaker patient database. At this moment the registry database contains information on more than 70500 patients, 85000 pacemakers and 90000 leads. The validation procedures consisted of an internal

  5. Splenic trauma management in relation to mode and grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangat, S.A.; Khaskhali, A.A.; Memon, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    To study the prevalence and management of splenic trauma in relation to its mode and grade. All cases admitted in emergency with abdominal trauma and splenic injury. The data of all the patients who had splenic trauma was entered on a proforma and analyzed. A total of 44 patients with ages between 20-40 years presented with splenic injury; 32(72.7%) were male. The commonest mode of splenic trauma was blunt abdominal injury (50%), and most (47%) patients had Grade- III injury. Splenectomy was carried out in 84% patients, while 9% underwent splenic salvage. Seven (15.9%) patients with splenectomy died in the series. Splenic injury was mostly caused by blunt abdominal trauma. Proper assessment of the grade of injury at the time of laparotomy resulted in more splenic salvage procedures with decreased risk of complications. (author)

  6. Construction and Validation of the Marital Justice Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghaffari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to construct and validate a scale for measuring marital justice. A sample of three hundred and four voluntary and unpaid married participants (194 females, 110 males, aged between 20 and 35 years old (29.01 ± 4.44 years, were selected randomly through multi-stage sampling in Isfahan, Iran; the participants included in this sample had preschool child/children, were all in the first decade of marriage, and had at least eight grades of education. All participants were asked to complete the Marital Justice Scale (MJS, the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (R-DAS; Busby, Christensen, Crane, & Larson, 1995, and the Marital Conflict Questionnaire (MCQ; Sanai Zaker, 2000. The exploratory factor analysis extracted two factors labelled ‘Procedural/interactional justice’ (twelve items and ‘Distributive justice’ (eight items which accounted for 66.70% of the total variance. The convergent and discriminant validity of the 20-item MJS were supported by an expected pattern of correlations between the scale and the measures of marital quality and marital conflict. All correlation coefficients between the mean scores of the MJS and the scores of the RDAS and the MCQ were statistically significant. The obtained internal consistency was markedly high (Cronbach’s α = .97. The test-retest reliability of the MJS was .87. The results suggest that the MJS is a reliable and valid measure; however, further studies should be carried out in other countries, based on different age groups and socio-economic levels, various developmental stages of family life cycles, diverse cultures and sub-cultures, and according to gender difference so as to validate the MJS.

  7. Validation for chromatographic and electrophoretic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ribani, Marcelo; Bottoli, Carla Beatriz Grespan; Collins, Carol H.; Jardim, Isabel Cristina Sales Fontes; Melo, Lúcio Flávio Costa

    2004-01-01

    The validation of an analytical method is fundamental to implementing a quality control system in any analytical laboratory. As the separation techniques, GC, HPLC and CE, are often the principal tools used in such determinations, procedure validation is a necessity. The objective of this review is to describe the main aspects of validation in chromatographic and electrophoretic analysis, showing, in a general way, the similarities and differences between the guidelines established by the dif...

  8. Computerized procedures system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  9. Site characterization and validation - validation drift fracture data, stage 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursey, G.; Gale, J.; MacLeod, R.; Straahle, A.; Tiren, S.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the mapping procedures and the data collected during fracture mapping in the validation drift. Fracture characteristics examined include orientation, trace length, termination mode, and fracture minerals. These data have been compared and analysed together with fracture data from the D-boreholes to determine the adequacy of the borehole mapping procedures and to assess the nature and degree of orientation bias in the borehole data. The analysis of the validation drift data also includes a series of corrections to account for orientation, truncation, and censoring biases. This analysis has identified at least 4 geologically significant fracture sets in the rock mass defined by the validation drift. An analysis of the fracture orientations in both the good rock and the H-zone has defined groups of 7 clusters and 4 clusters, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the fracture patterns in five consecutive sections along the validation drift further identified heterogeneity through the rock mass, with respect to fracture orientations. These results are in stark contrast to the results form the D-borehole analysis, where a strong orientation bias resulted in a consistent pattern of measured fracture orientations through the rock. In the validation drift, fractures in the good rock also display a greater mean variance in length than those in the H-zone. These results provide strong support for a distinction being made between fractures in the good rock and the H-zone, and possibly between different areas of the good rock itself, for discrete modelling purposes. (au) (20 refs.)

  10. Determinação da força de adesão da metalização com alumínio em filmes plásticos utilizados em embalagens flexíveis Adhesion strength of aluminum on metallized plastic films used in flexible packages - development and validation of a test procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa M. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Filmes de BOPP e de PET metalizados são muito utilizados em embalagens multicamadas, pois reúnem boas propriedades mecânicas e de barreira a gases e umidade, as quais, bem como a aparência e a integridade, são comprometidas quando ocorre a delaminação da estrutura multicamada. Um dos principais fatores que influem na resistência à delaminação é a força de adesão da camada de alumínio ao substrato polimérico, parâmetro para o qual não há um método de quantificação normalizado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer e validar um método de ensaio para determinar esta força de adesão. O método foi definido usando um planejamento experimental com fatores fixos e variáveis sendo que, para cada variável, foram definidos dois níveis. O método de ensaio estabelecido mostrou-se estável, preciso, robusto e replicável. Consiste, basicamente, na termosselagem de um filme plástico à face metalizada da amostra, em condições específicas de temperatura/tempo/pressão, e medida da força para destacamento da metalização, em ângulo e velocidade específicos, em máquina universal de ensaios.OPP and OPET metallized films are widely used as substrates in multilayer packages, since they bring together good mechanical properties and barrier to gases and water vapor, which are damaged with delamination of the film layers, together with the visual appearance and package integrity. One of the main factors that affect the package delamination is the adhesion strength of aluminum layer to the polymeric substrate, a parameter for which there is no standard procedure to quantify. The aim of this work was to establish and validate a procedure to determine the adhesion strength of the aluminum to the polymer. This test procedure was carried out using experimental design with fixed and variables parameters with two levels for each variable. The test procedure was stable, robust and replicable. It consisted basically of the heat sealing

  11. Grade III or Grade IV Hypertensive Retinopathy with Severely Elevated Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Henderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertensive retinopathy describes a spectrum of retinal changes in patients with elevated blood pressure (BP. It is unknown why some patients are more likely to develop acute ocular end-organ damage than others with similar BP. We examined risk factors for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency in the emergency department (ED and compared healthcare utilization and mortality between patients with and without grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy.Methods: A preplanned subanalysis of patients who presented to a university hospital ED with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg and who enrolled in the Fundus Photography versus Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the ED study was performed. Bilateral nonmydriatic ocular fundus photographs, vital signs, and demographics were obtained at presentation. Past medical history, laboratory values, healthcare utilization, and mortality were ascertained from medical record review at least 8 months after initial ED visit.Results: Twenty-one patients with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg, 7 of whom (33% had grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, were included. Patients with retinopathy were significantly younger than those without (median 33 vs 50 years, P = 0.02. Mean arterial pressure (165 vs 163 mmHg was essentially equal in the 2 groups. Patients with retinopathy had substantially increased but nonsignificant rates of ED revisit (57% vs 29%, P = 0.35 and hospital admission after ED discharge (43% vs 14%, P = 0.28. One of the patients with retinopathy died, but none without.Conclusion: Younger patients may be at higher risk for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency. Chronic compensatory mechanisms may have not yet developed in these younger patients. Alternatively, older patients with retinopathy may be underrepresented secondary to increased mortality among these patients at a younger age (survivorship bias. Further research is needed to

  12. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  13. Commercial Grade Item (CGI) dedication - on complex electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Kwang Young; Kim, Joong Han; Koo, In Soo; Lee, Sang Yong

    2008-01-01

    In future more complicated IT-based hardware and software is supposed to used in the safety-grade systems in nuclear power plants. Also there are the efforts to establish the criteria for CGI dedications in NRC and CEC dedication in other standard organizations. The highly complicated components, i.e. CEC should be dedication plans. Thus work to be done in later is to prepare the strategies, plans, guide and procedures that is more specific for CEC dedication

  14. Number & operations task & drill sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  15. Geometry task & drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  16. Standard specification for nuclear-grade beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements of nuclear-grade beryllium oxide (BeO) powder to be used in fabricating nuclear components. This specification does not include requirements for health and safety. It recognizes the material as a Class B poison and suggests that producers and users become thoroughly familiar with and comply to applicable federal, state and local regulations and handling guidelines. Special tests and procedures are given

  17. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  18. Development and Validation of Shipboard Noise Exposure Data Acquisition Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-05

    ational modes, etc. 2) Analytic Models. The analytic models are represented by the mathematical and statistical relationships used to analyze the...INFORMATION CODE OPERATING CONDITIONS Ship’s Class FF1052 KNOX Readiness (D .Cond. 10 Conid. 1110 Space Surveyed Aux. Rm. *1, Upper Lvel Cond. IV[]Cond. VO

  19. Validation of Virtual Environments Incorporating Virtual Operators for Procedural Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Percent Correct RADHAZ Radiation Hazard RAM Random Access Memory DRDC Toronto TM 2011-132 xiii RCA Radio Corporation of America RSD Rapid... colour head mounted display (HMD; for hardware details, see Appendix B). The instantaneous point of view was determined by a magnetic, head- tracking...readily recalled ; deck landings are not tracked, so the values provided are crude estimates at best. For those subjects who provided an estimated range

  20. Procedural Media Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Henrysson, Anders

    2002-01-01

    We present a concept for using procedural techniques to represent media. Procedural methods allow us to represent digital media (2D images, 3D environments etc.) with very little information and to render it photo realistically. Since not all kind of content can be created procedurally, traditional media representations (bitmaps, polygons etc.) must be used as well. We have adopted an object-based media representation where an object can be represented either with a procedure or with its trad...

  1. Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlholm, Per

    2011-07-01

    torque are combined with observations of the road altitude from a GPS receiver, using vehicle and road models. The operation of the estimators is adjusted during gearshifts, braking, and poor satellite coverage, to account for variations in sensor and model reliability. The estimated error covariances of the road grade estimates are used together with their absolute positions to update a stored road grade map. Highway driving trials show that the proposed estimators produce accurate road grade data. The estimation performance improves as the number of road segment traces increases. A vehicle equipped with the proposed system will rapidly develop a road grade map for its area of operation. Simulations show that collaborative generation of the third dimension for a pre-existing large area two-dimensional map is feasible. The experimental results indicate that road grade estimates from the proposed methods are accurate enough to be used in predictive vehicle control systems to enhance safety, efficiency, and driver comfort in heavy duty vehicles. The grade estimators may also be used for on-line validation of road grade information from other sources. This is important in on-board applications, since the envisioned control applications can degrade vehicle performance if inaccurate data are used

  2. Estimation of intermediate grade uranium resources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambie, F.W.; Kendall, G.R.; Klahn, L.J.; Davis, J.C.; Harbaugh, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to analyze the technique currently used by DOE to estimate intermediate grade uranium (0.01 to 0.05% U 3 O 8 ) and, if possible, suggest alternatives to improve the accuracy and precision of the estimate. There are three principal conclusions resulting from this study. They relate to the quantity, distribution and sampling of intermediate grade uranium. While the results of this study must be validated further, they indicate that DOE may be underestimating intermediate level reserves by 20 to 30%. Plots of grade of U 3 O 8 versus tonnage of ore and tonnage U 3 O 8 indicate grade-tonnage relationships that are essentially log-linear, at least down to 0.01% U 3 O 8 . Though this is not an unexpected finding, it may provide a technique for reducing the uncertainty of intermediate grade endowment. The results of this study indicate that a much lower drill hole density is necessary for DOE to estimate uranium resources than for a mining company to calculate ore resources. Though errors in local estimates will occur, they will tend to cancel over the entire deposit

  3. Grading system for migrated lumbar disc herniation on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging. An agreement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.; Jeong, T.S. [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, T.; Jeon, J.Y. [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    Migrated lumbar disc herniations (LDHs) in the sagittal plane are common. Disc migration grading can be applied as a useful measurement tool in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome evaluation of migrated LDH. No study has evaluated the reliability of migrated LDH grading. We evaluated the reliability and functionality of the current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading system for migrated LDH. We assessed a six-level grading system developed based on sagittal MRI and graded according to the direction (rostral and caudal) and degree (low, high, and very high) of disc migration. One-hundred and one migrated LDHs treated with minimally invasive endoscopic discectomy were analyzed independently by two experienced radiologists. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were assessed by kappa statistics. The most common migrated LDH grade was grade 4 (30.94%; caudal, low-grade migration). Rostral and caudal migrations were more common in the upper and lower lumbar levels, respectively. Interobserver agreement in the grading of migrated LDH was good at both the first (kappa = 0.737) and second assessment (kappa = 0.657). The intraobserver agreement for reader 1 was very good (kappa = 0.827) and for reader 2 was good (kappa = 0.620). The current grading system for migrated LDH was found to be reliable and functional with good interobserver and intraobserver agreement. It may be useful in the interpretation of disc migration patterns and outcomes of various minimally invasive surgical procedures. (orig.)

  4. Classification of radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A classification for departments in Danish hospitals which use radiological procedures. The classification codes consist of 4 digits, where the first 2 are the codes for the main groups. The first digit represents the procedure's topographical object and the second the techniques. The last 2 digits describe individual procedures. (CLS)

  5. A new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, Ali; Taşdelen, Neslihan; Fırat, Zeynep

    2017-04-01

    Background Chondromalacia patellae is a very common disorder. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to investigate patellar cartilage lesions, there is no descriptive MRI-based grading system for chondromalacia patellae. Purpose To propose a new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae with corresponding high resolution images which might be useful in precisely reporting and comparing knee examinations in routine daily practice and used in predicting natural course and clinical outcome of the patellar cartilage lesions. Material and Methods High resolution fat-saturated proton density (FS PD) images in the axial plane with corresponding T2 mapping images were reviewed. A detailed MRI grading system covering the deficiencies of the existing gradings has been set and presented on these images. Two experienced observers blinded to clinical data examined 44 knee MR images and evaluated patellar cartilage changes according to the proposed grading system. Inter- and intra-rater validity testing using kappa statistics were calculated. Results A descriptive and detailed grading system with corresponding FS PD and T2 mapping images has been presented. Inter-rater agreement was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.89). Intra-rater agreements were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.91) for observer A and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.70-0.88) for observer B (k-values). Conclusion We present a new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae with corresponding images and good inter- and intra-rater agreement which might be useful in reporting and comparing knee MRI examinations in daily practice and may also have the potential for using more precisely predicting prognosis and clinical outcome of the patients.

  6. Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may...

  8. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  9. INITIATION AND CONDUCT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Stipic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available General administrative procedure act contains legal norms that are valid for all identical cases. In addition to the general, there are special administrative procedures, customized to the specific administrative areas. Procedure initiation is regulated. Administrative procedure can be initiated at the request of the proponent and ex officio. When the official determines that the conditions for the conduct of administrative procedure are met, before making a decision, all the facts and circumstances relevant to the resolution of administrative matter have to be identified. When there are no legal requirements for the initiation of procedures, the official shall make a decision to reject the application of the party. The procedure is initiated ex officio when stipulated by law or when protection of public interest requires it. When initiating procedure ex officio, the public authority shall take into consideration the petition or other information that indicate the need to protect the public interest. In such cases the applicant is not a party, and the official is obliged to notify the applicant, if initiation of procedures is not accepted ex officio. Based on the notification, the applicant has a right to complain, including the situation when there is no response within the prescribed period of 30 days. Public authority may, therefore it is not obliged to, initiate administrative procedure by public announcement only in a situation where the parties are unknown, while it is obliged to initiate procedure by public announcement when this method of initiating the procedure is prescribed by law. Initiation of procedure with public announcement occurs in rare cases. Due to the application of efficiency and cost-effectiveness principle, two or more administrative procedures can be merged into one procedure by a conclusion. The condition for this is that the rights or obligations of the parties are based on the same legal basis and on the same or

  10. The need for culture sensitive diagnostic procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandi, Tekleh; Havenaar, Johan M.; Limburg-Okken, Annechien G.; van Es, Hans; Sidali, Salah; Kadri, Nadia; van den Brink, Wim; Kahn, Rene S.

    Objective We examine the procedural validity of a standardized instrument for the diagnosis of psychotic disorders in Morocco. Method Twenty-nine patients from Casablanca, Morocco, with a psychotic or mood disorder were examined using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) an

  11. 32 CFR 1288.5 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... validation sticker will be determined locally. (4) Decals or other media used to identify vehicles of... OF PRIVATELY OWNED MOTOR VEHICLES § 1288.5 Procedures. (a) Issuance of DLA POV decal and 3-year... vehicle. An additional decal may be placed on the rear bumper of the vehicle. For vehicles not equipped...

  12. A practical MRI grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee: Association with Kellgren–Lawrence radiographic scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee-Jin, E-mail: parkhiji@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Baengnyeong-ro 156, Chuncheon-Si, Gangwon-Do Kangwon National University Hospital 200-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo, E-mail: samskim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Baengnyeong-ro 156, Chuncheon-Si, Gangwon-Do Kangwon National University Hospital 200-722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Yeon, E-mail: parkhiji@kwandong.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh-Hyuck, E-mail: nhpark904@kwandong.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, 697-24 Hwajung-dong, Dukyang-ku, Koyang, Kyunggi 412-270 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yeon, E-mail: zzzz3@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, 697-24 Hwajung-dong, Dukyang-ku, Koyang, Kyunggi 412-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-Jung, E-mail: yoonchoi99@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, #108 Pyung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyun-Jun, E-mail: ostrich-13@hanmail.net [Department of Occupational Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-ku, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To propose a reproducible and constant MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint that provides high interobserver and intraoberver agreement and that does not require complicated calculation procedures. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 44 men and 65 women who underwent both MRI and plain radiography of the knee at our institution. All patients were older than 50 years of age (mean 57.7) and had clinically suspected osteoarthritis of the knee. The standard of 4 grades on the MR grade scale was based mainly on cartilage injury and additional findings. Kellgren–Lawrence grades were assessed for the same patient group. The relationship between the results was determined. Statistical analyses were performed including kappa statistics, categorical regression analysis and nonparametric correlation analysis. Results: The interobserver and intraoberver agreements between the two readers in the grading of osteoarthritis were found to be almost perfect. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were slightly lower for the MR grading system than for the Kellgren–Lawrence grading scale. The correlation between the MR grade and Kellgren–Lawrence grade was very high and did not differ with patient age. The MR grades were highly correlated with the Kellgren–Lawrence grades and showed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreements. Conclusion: This new MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint is reproducible and may be helpful for the grading of osteoarthritis of the knee without requiring reference to plain radiography.

  13. A practical MRI grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee: Association with Kellgren–Lawrence radiographic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, So-Yeon; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Jeon, Hyun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a reproducible and constant MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint that provides high interobserver and intraoberver agreement and that does not require complicated calculation procedures. Materials and methods: This retrospective study sample included 44 men and 65 women who underwent both MRI and plain radiography of the knee at our institution. All patients were older than 50 years of age (mean 57.7) and had clinically suspected osteoarthritis of the knee. The standard of 4 grades on the MR grade scale was based mainly on cartilage injury and additional findings. Kellgren–Lawrence grades were assessed for the same patient group. The relationship between the results was determined. Statistical analyses were performed including kappa statistics, categorical regression analysis and nonparametric correlation analysis. Results: The interobserver and intraoberver agreements between the two readers in the grading of osteoarthritis were found to be almost perfect. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were slightly lower for the MR grading system than for the Kellgren–Lawrence grading scale. The correlation between the MR grade and Kellgren–Lawrence grade was very high and did not differ with patient age. The MR grades were highly correlated with the Kellgren–Lawrence grades and showed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreements. Conclusion: This new MR grading system for osteoarthritis of the knee joint is reproducible and may be helpful for the grading of osteoarthritis of the knee without requiring reference to plain radiography

  14. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available -3146. [50] X. Jin, L. Wu, L. Guo, H. Yu, and Y. Sun, ?Experimental investigation of the mixed-mode crack propagation in ZrO2/NiCr functionally graded materials,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 76(12), (2009), pp. 1800-1810. [51] Z. Cheng, D. Gao... by stable crack growth,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.72(15), (2005), pp. 2359-2372. [47] Z.-H. Jin, and R.H. Dodds Jr, ?Crack growth resistance behavior of a functionally graded material: computational studies,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics...

  15. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  16. Assessment of Competence in EVAR Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, M; Lönn, L; Bech, B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To develop a procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of operator competence in endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). METHODS: A Delphi approach was used to achieve expert consensus. A panel of 32 international experts (median 300 EVAR procedures, range 200...... suggested by the panel and reduced to seven pivotal assessment items that reached consensus, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82. The seven item rating scale covers key elements of competence in EVAR stent placement and deployment. Each item has well defined grades with explicit anchors at unacceptable, acceptable......, and superior performance on a 5 point Likert scale. CONCLUSION: The Delphi methodology allowed for international consensus on a new procedure specific global rating scale for assessment of competence in EVAR. The resulting scale, EndoVascular Aortic Repair Assessment of Technical Expertise (EVARATE...

  17. Development and Validation of a Mobile Device-based External Ventricular Drain Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, Peter J; Bekelis, Kimon; Root, Brandon K; Singer, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Multiple external ventricular drain (EVD) simulators have been created, yet their cost, bulky size, and nonreusable components limit their accessibility to residency programs. To create and validate an animated EVD simulator that is accessible on a mobile device. We developed a mobile-based EVD simulator that is compatible with iOS (Apple Inc., Cupertino, California) and Android-based devices (Google, Mountain View, California) and can be downloaded from the Apple App and Google Play Store. Our simulator consists of a learn mode, which teaches users the procedure, and a test mode, which assesses users' procedural knowledge. Twenty-eight participants, who were divided into expert and novice categories, completed the simulator in test mode and answered a postmodule survey. This was graded using a 5-point Likert scale, with 5 representing the highest score. Using the survey results, we assessed the module's face and content validity, whereas construct validity was evaluated by comparing the expert and novice test scores. Participants rated individual survey questions pertaining to face and content validity a median score of 4 out of 5. When comparing test scores, generated by the participants completing the test mode, the experts scored higher than the novices (mean, 71.5; 95% confidence interval, 69.2 to 73.8 vs mean, 48; 95% confidence interval, 44.2 to 51.6; P mobile-based EVD simulator that is inexpensive, reusable, and accessible. Our results demonstrate that this simulator is face, content, and construct valid. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  18. Validation of IT-based Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K. I.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The communication network designed to transmit control and processing signals in digital Instrument and Control (I and C) systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), should provide a high level of safety and reliability. There are different features between the communication networks of NPPs and other commercial communication networks. Safety and reliability are the most important factors in the communication networks of an NPP rather than efficiency which are important factors of a commercial communication network design. To develop Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant, We analyze the design criteria and performance requirements of existing commercial communication protocols based on Information Technology(IT). And also, we examine the adaptability to the communication protocol of an NPP. Based on these results, we developed our own protocol(Nuclear power plant Safety Communication Protocol : NSCP) for NPP I and C, which meet the required specifications through design overall protocol architecture and data frame format, definition of functional requirements and specifications. NSCP is the communication protocol designed for a safety-grade control network in the nuclear power plant. In this report, we had specified NSCP protocol by FDT(Formal Description Technique) and established validation procedures based on the validation methodology. It was confirmed specification error, major function's validity and reachability of NSCP by performing simulation and the validation process using Telelogic Tau tool

  19. Procedure generation and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy has used Artificial Intelligence of ''AI'' concepts to develop two powerful new computer-based techniques to enhance safety in nuclear applications. The Procedure Generation System, and the Procedure Verification System, can be adapted to other commercial applications, such as a manufacturing plant. The Procedure Generation System can create a procedure to deal with the off-normal condition. The operator can then take correct actions on the system in minimal time. The Verification System evaluates the logic of the Procedure Generator's conclusions. This evaluation uses logic techniques totally independent of the Procedure Generator. The rapid, accurate generation and verification of corrective procedures can greatly reduce the human error, possible in a complex (stressful/high stress) situation

  20. Influence of Tönnis Grade on Outcomes of Arthroscopic Management of Symptomatic Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Bardowski, Elizabeth A; Jones, Kay S

    2018-05-19

    To define the outcomes of arthroscopic correction of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) based on Tönnis findings within a previously reported patient population, including a comparative analysis of Tönnis grade 0 and 1 versus grade 2 changes. Outcomes (modified Harris Hip Score [mHHS]) of a previously published study of arthroscopic correction of FAI were correlated with Tönnis grade. The inclusion criteria were the first 100 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopic FAI correction with minimum 2-year follow-up. These procedures were performed between December 2003 and May 2006. Grades were determined independently by 2 experienced clinicians. Tönnis grades 0 and 1 were compared with Tönnis grade 2. Independent variables of sex and age were also evaluated. The average age of the entire group was 34.7 years (range, 13-76 years), with 66 male and 34 female patients. Of the patients, 17 had Tönnis grade 0, 49 had Tönnis grade 1, 29 had Tönnis grade 2, and 4 had Tönnis grade 3 (1 unknown). The average mHHS improvement for Tönnis grade 0 was 20.6 points; Tönnis grade 1, 22.2 points; Tönnis grade 2, 14.9 points; and Tönnis grade 3, 18.8 points. The improvement was statistically (P 8 points) significant across all Tönnis grades. There was no difference (P = .077) between Tönnis grades 0 and 1 (21.8 points) versus grade 2 (14.9 points). There was no difference based on sex or age. These data support that statistically and clinically meaningful successful patient-reported outcomes (mHHS) at 2 years can be encountered even in the presence of Tönnis grade 2 radiographic features. Neither age nor sex was an indicator of poorer results within similar Tönnis grades. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of statistical methodology to determine the accuracy of grading within a diabetic retinopathy screening programme

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, J L; Stratton, I M; Aldington, S J; Stevens, R J; Scanlon, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    AIMS:\\ud We aimed to use longitudinal data from an established screening programme with good quality assurance and quality control procedures and a stable well-trained workforce to determine the accuracy of grading in diabetic retinopathy screening.\\ud METHODS:\\ud We used a continuous time-hidden Markov model with five states to estimate the probability of true progression or regression of retinopathy and the conditional probability of an observed grade given the true grade (misclassification...

  2. First-Grade Spelling Scores within the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Screening: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Kristen A.; Murray, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity evidence of first-grade spelling scores from a standardized test of nonsense word spellings and their potential value within universal literacy screening. Spelling scores from the Test of Phonological Awareness: Second Edition PLUS for 47 first-grade children were scored using a standardized…

  3. Examining Variations in Fourth-Grade Children's Participation in School Breakfast and Lunch Programs by Student and Program Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Finney, Christopher J.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Analyses were conducted to examine variations in fourth-grade children's participation in school-breakfast and school-lunch programs by weekday, month, socioeconomic status, absenteeism, gender, and school-breakfast location. Methods: Fourth-grade children were participants in a dietary-reporting validation study during either…

  4. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  5. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  6. Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…

  7. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  8. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  9. Natural history of nonoperative management for grade 4 and 5 liver and spleen injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeannie C; Sharp, Susan W; Ostlie, Daniel J; Holcomb, George W; St Peter, Shawn D

    2008-12-01

    Nonoperative management is standard treatment of blunt liver or spleen injuries. However, there are few reports outlining the natural history and outcomes of severe blunt hepatic and splenic trauma. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with nonoperative management of grade 4 or 5 liver and spleen injuries. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with grade 4 or 5 (high-grade) blunt liver and/or spleen injuries from April 1997 to July 2007 at our children's hospital. Demographics, hospital course data, and follow-up data were analyzed. There were 74 high-grade injuries in 72 patients. There were 30 high-grade liver and 44 high-grade spleen injuries. Two patients had both a liver and splenic injury. High-grade liver injuries had a significantly longer length of intensive care and hospital stay compared to high-grade spleen injuries. There were also a significantly higher number of transfusions, radiographs, and total charges in the high-grade liver injuries when compared to the high-grade splenic injuries. The only mortality from solid organ injury was a grade 4 liver injury with portal vein disruption. In contrast, there was only one complication from a high-grade splenic injury-a pleural effusion treated with thoracentesis. There were 5 patients with complications from their liver injury requiring 18 therapeutic procedures. Three patients (10%) with liver injury required readmission as follows: one 5 times, one 3 times, and another one time. Patients with high-grade liver injuries have a longer recovery, more complications, and greater use of resources than in patients with similar injuries to the spleen.

  10. Spare Items validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Carratala, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing difficulty for purchasing safety related spare items, with certifications by manufacturers for maintaining the original qualifications of the equipment of destination. The main reasons are, on the top of the logical evolution of technology, applied to the new manufactured components, the quitting of nuclear specific production lines and the evolution of manufacturers quality systems, originally based on nuclear codes and standards, to conventional industry standards. To face this problem, for many years different Dedication processes have been implemented to verify whether a commercial grade element is acceptable to be used in safety related applications. In the same way, due to our particular position regarding the spare part supplies, mainly from markets others than the american, C.N. Trillo has developed a methodology called Spare Items Validation. This methodology, which is originally based on dedication processes, is not a single process but a group of coordinated processes involving engineering, quality and management activities. These are to be performed on the spare item itself, its design control, its fabrication and its supply for allowing its use in destinations with specific requirements. The scope of application is not only focussed on safety related items, but also to complex design, high cost or plant reliability related components. The implementation in C.N. Trillo has been mainly curried out by merging, modifying and making the most of processes and activities which were already being performed in the company. (Author)

  11. Quality data validation: Comprehensive approach to environmental data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejka, L.A. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental data validation consists of an assessment of three major areas: analytical method validation; field procedures and documentation review; evaluation of the level of achievement of data quality objectives based in part on PARCC parameters analysis and expected applications of data. A program utilizing matrix association of required levels of validation effort and analytical levels versus applications of this environmental data was developed in conjunction with DOE-ID guidance documents to implement actions under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order in effect at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This was an effort to bring consistent quality to the INEL-wide Environmental Restoration Program and database in an efficient and cost-effective manner. This program, documenting all phases of the review process, is described here

  12. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  13. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    scientific activities conducted by the author, partly based on the author's experience as a member, through a number of years, of the Danish Standing Committee on Procedural Law (Retsplejeraadet), which on a continuous basis evaluates the need for civil procedural reforms in Denmark, and finally also based......The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...... procedural questions, including relations to the Brussels I Regulation and Denmark's participation in this Regulation via a parallel convention with the EU countries, impact on Danish civil procedure of the convention on human rights, preparation and pronouncement of judgment and verdict, questions of appeal...

  14. Spline-procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1976-12-01

    This report contains a short introduction to spline functions as well as a complete description of the spline procedures presently available in the HMI-library. These include polynomial splines (using either B-splines or one-sided basis representations) and natural splines, as well as their application to interpolation, quasiinterpolation, L 2 -, and Tchebycheff approximation. Special procedures are included for the case of cubic splines. Complete test examples with input and output are provided for each of the procedures. (orig.) [de

  15. Procedural sedation analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sheta, Saad A

    2010-01-01

    The number of noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures performed outside of the operating room has grown exponentially over the last several decades. Sedation, analgesia, or both may be needed for many of these interventional or diagnostic procedures. Individualized care is important when determining if a patient requires procedural sedation analgesia (PSA). The patient might need an anti-anxiety drug, pain medicine, immobilization, simple reassurance, or a combination of these interve...

  16. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context  Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2...... appeared to have an independent, protective effect on dropout in this setting....

  17. Anaplasia and grading in medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Charles G; Burger, Peter C

    2003-07-01

    The variable clinical outcomes of medulloblastoma patients have prompted a search for markers with which to tailor therapies to individuals. In this review, we discuss clinical, histological and molecular features that can be used in such treatment customization, focusing on how histopathological grading can impact both patient care and research on the molecular basis of CNS embryonal tumors. Medulloblastomas span a histological spectrum ending in overtly malignant large cell/anaplastic lesions characterized by increased nuclear size, marked cytological anaplasia, and increased mitotic and apoptotic rates. These "high-grade" lesions make up approximately one quarter of medulloblastomas, and recur and metastasize more frequently than tumors lacking anaplasia. We believe anaplastic change represents a type of malignant progression common to many medulloblastoma subtypes and to other CNS embryonal lesions as well. Correlation of these histological changes with the accumulation of genetic events suggests a model for the histological and molecular progression of medulloblastoma.

  18. Gradings on simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Elduque, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of E_8 as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.

  19. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Handbook of radiologic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgcock, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is organized around radiologic procedures with each discussed from the points of view of: indications, contraindications, materials, method of procedures and complications. Covered in this book are: emergency radiology chest radiology, bone radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, GU radiology, pediatric radiology, computerized tomography, neuroradiology, visceral and peripheral angiography, cardiovascular radiology, nuclear medicine, lymphangiography, and mammography

  1. Decision-making Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2009-01-01

    define procedures as mechanisms that influence the probabilities of reaching different endnodes. We show that for such procedural games a sequential psychological equilibrium always exists. Applying this approach within a principal-agent context we show that the way less attractive jobs are allocated...

  2. Maintenance procedure upgrade programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.J.; Zimmerman, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach to upgrading nuclear power plant maintenance procedures. The approach consists of four phases: diagnosis, program planning, program implementation, and program evaluation. Each phase is explained as a series of steps to ensure that all factors in a procedure upgrade program are considered

  3. Actor-Network Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Meadows, Catherine; Ramanujam, R.; Ramaswamy, Srini

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose actor-networks as a formal model of computation in heterogenous networks of computers, humans and their devices, where these new procedures run; and we introduce Procedure Derivation Logic (PDL) as a framework for reasoning about security in actor-networks, as an extension

  4. Analytical procedures. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.

    1985-01-01

    In analytical procedures (Boole procedures) there is certain to be a close relationship between the safety assessment and reliability assessment of technical facilities. The paper gives an overview of the organization of models, fault trees, the probabilistic evaluation of systems, evaluation with minimum steps or minimum paths regarding statistically dependent components and of systems liable to suffer different kinds of outages. (orig.) [de

  5. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  6. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  7. In-service behavior of creep strength enhanced ferritic steels Grade 91 and Grade 92 – Part 1 parent metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    In creep strength enhanced ferritic steels, such as Grade 91 and Grade 92, control of both composition and heat treatment of the parent steel is necessary to avoid producing components which have creep strength below the minimum expected by applicable ASME and other International Codes. These efforts are required to ensure that the steel develops a homogeneous fully tempered martensitic microstructure, with the appropriate distribution of precipitates and the required dislocation substructure. In-service creep related problems with Grade 91 steel have been reported associated with factors such as incorrect microstructure and heat treatment, welded connections in headers and piping, dissimilar metal welds as well as the manufacture and performance of castings. Difficulties associated with remediation of in-service damage include challenges over detection and removal of damaged material as well as the selection and qualification of appropriate methodologies for repair. Since repeated heat treatment leads to continued tempering, and a potential degradation of properties, specific procedures for performing and then lifing repair welds are a key aspect of Asset Management. This paper presents a summary of in-service experience with Grade 91 steel and outlines approaches for repair welding. Highlights: ► The steel alloy known as Grade 91 is widely used to fabricate critical pressure part components. ► Designers favor Grade 91 because it provides superior elevated temperature strength at substantially lower cost than the austenitic stainless steels. ► Service experience has confirmed that early failures can occur. ► Life management solutions involved attention to detail at Purchase, during design and all stages of fabrication.

  8. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...

  9. Linguistic Feature Development Across Grades and Genre in Elementary Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Mills, Shannon; Apel, Kenn

    2015-07-01

    As children develop skills in writing across academic contexts, clinicians and educators need to have a fundamental understanding of typical writing development as well as valid and reliable assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to examine the progression of linguistic elements in school-age children's narrative and expository writing development. Narrative and expository writing samples produced by 89 children in Grades 2 through 4 were analyzed at the microstructure and macrostructure levels. Measures of receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, and reading comprehension were obtained. Exploratory factor analyses revealed 4 microstructure factors (e.g., productivity, grammatical complexity, grammatical accuracy, and lexical density) and 1 macrostructure factor (e.g., a combination of organization, text structure, and cohesion). Multivariate analyses of covariance with reading comprehension as a covariate showed that productivity and macrostructure were sensitive to grade-level and genre differences and that expository grammatical complexity was sensitive to grade-level differences. Findings are discussed in light of grade-level standards for narrative and expository writing and current practices in writing assessment. Multiple suggestions are offered for clinical and educational implications, and specific directions are provided for future research.

  10. Selection procedures in sports: Improving predictions of athletes’ future performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartigh, Jan Rudolf; Niessen, Anna; Frencken, Wouter; Meijer, Rob R.

    The selection of athletes has been a central topic in sports sciences for decades. Yet, little consideration has been given to the theoretical underpinnings and predictive validity of the procedures. In this paper, we evaluate current selection procedures in sports given what we know from the

  11. Measure of uncertainty in regional grade variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutmez, B.; Kaymak, U.; Melin, P.; Castillo, O.; Gomez Ramirez, E.; Kacprzyk, J.; Pedrycz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Because the geological events are neither homogeneous nor isotropic, the geological investigations are characterized by particularly high uncertainties. This paper presents a hybrid methodology for measuring of uncertainty in regional grade variability. In order to evaluate the fuzziness in grade

  12. PENILE ENHANCEMENT PROCEDURES: UROLOGICAL AND ETHICOLEGAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Vella

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Phalloplasty procedures for most men requiring penile augmentation surgery are cosmetic procedures; generally the patients have a normal-sized and fully functional penis but they think that their penis is too small. There are not well defined indications for penile enhancement surgery and, except for the treatment of “micropenis”, there are not established guidelines and the outcome measures for success are still unclear. All penile enhancement techniques often do not reach the expected result and the grade of patient’s satisfaction is frequently poor. Phalloplasty procedures for psychological dysmorfism are not approved by any scientific society and the majority of these procedures are performed in private settings. The ethical and medicolegal problems resulting from a penis enhancement can be various and numerous, but few of them are reported in literature. After phalloplasty an attribution of professional responsibility and request of reimbursement is not rare. In this contribution the authors summarize a panorama of several urological and medico-legal aspects related to phalloplasty procedures.

  13. Construct Validity and Case Validity in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both "construct validity", which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and "case validity", which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is…

  14. Validation of the OMNI RPE Seven Day Exertional Recall Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Mark A.; Robertson, Robert J.; Thekkada, Savitha J.; Gallagher, Michael, Jr.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Goss, Fredric L.; Aaron, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the validity of the Seven Day Recall Questionnaire among recreationally active men and women. Method: Initially, participants completed a level walk (2.5 mph [4.0 kph]), hill walk (3.5 mph [5.6 kph], 5% grade), and run (5.0 mph [8.0 kph], 2.5% grade). Seven days later, participants were given the Seven Day…

  15. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  16. The grading management of the quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaozheng; Han Shufang; Yu Bei; Tian Xuehang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the quality assurance grading management of the items, services and technology process on nuclear power plants (nuclear island, conventional island, BOP), such as the requirements and aim in the related code, guide, technical document, the requirements for the related units, the grading principle and grading, the considering method for the differences of QA requirements of the each QA grand, as well as the status and propositions in the QA grading management in China. (authors)

  17. Validation of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    been calibrated and already validated precisely for this purpose. In addition, multiparametric MRI shows good correlation with grade in that only the...StanfordUniversity, Stanford,California 2Departmentof ExperimentalandClinical Pharmacology ,UniversityofMinnesota,Minneapolis,Minnesota BACKGROUND. Protein...repeat biopsies, and more recently, MRI examinations [9–11]. This follow-up is necessitated by the inability to characterize the biological potential of

  18. The pathologist's mean grade is constant and individualizes the prognostic value of bladder cancer grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn, Bas W G; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Ooms, Bert C M; Kirkels, Wim J; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Boevé, Egbert R; Jöbsis, Adriaan C; van der Kwast, Theo H

    2010-06-01

    A new grading system for bladder cancer (BCa) was adopted in 2004 to reduce observer variability and provide better prognostic information. We compared the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 and 2004 systems for observer variability and prognosis. Slides of 173 primary non-muscle-invasive BCa were reviewed two times by four pathologists. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed using κ statistics. We determined the mean grade (eg, G1/low malignant potential is 1 grade point, G2/low grade is 2 grade points) of the pathologists per grading cycle. Kaplan-Meier analyses were applied for prediction of recurrence and progression. For WHO 2004 and 1973 grading, the agreement between the pathologists was 39-74% (κ: 0.14-0.58) and 39-64% (κ: 0.15-0.41), respectively. The intraobserver agreement varied from 71% to 88% (κ: 0.55-0.81). The mean grade of a pathologist was constant (difference below 0.1 grade point) irrespective of the grading system. Conversely, mean-grade differences among the pathologists were high, up to 0.7 grade point. The mean grades for the WHO 2004 system were 0.3-0.5 grade point higher than those of WHO 1973. Mean grade distinguished low and high graders among the pathologists and was strongly linked with risk of progression in each grade category. The variation in mean grade among individual pathologists exceeded the grade shift caused by WHO 2004 grading. Knowledge of the pathologist's mean grade allows a better assessment of the prognostic value of grading. Mean grade has the potential to become a tool for quality assurance in pathology. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial ecology laboratory procedures manual NASA/MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1990-01-01

    An essential part of the efficient operation of any microbiology laboratory involved in sample analysis is a standard procedures manual. The purpose of this manual is to provide concise and well defined instructions on routine technical procedures involving sample analysis and methods for monitoring and maintaining quality control within the laboratory. Of equal importance is the safe operation of the laboratory. This manual outlines detailed procedures to be followed in the microbial ecology laboratory to assure safety, analytical control, and validity of results.

  20. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  1. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  2. Forecasting and recruitment in graded manpower systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nunen, J.A.E.E.; Wessels, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper a generalized Markov model is introduced to describe the dynamic behaviour of an individual employee in a graded Manpower system. Characteristics like the employee's grade, his educational level, his age and the time spent in his actual grade, can be incorporated in the Markov model.

  3. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  4. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  5. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  6. Application of the graded management approach to Battelle's nuclear project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voth, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    Battelle's graded management approach provides an effective and efficient method to perform the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). The project is managed by Battelle under their US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license but is partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on a cost-shared basis. Battelle's graded management approach adheres to the regulations and orders governing the BCLDP by the interaction of various plans, procedures, permits, and work instructions. By independent assessment, quality control, and worker training, Battelle has been able to establish a cost-effective approach to performing work and, at the same time, have a controlled checks and balance system to assure the proper safety considerations and project particulars are taken into account

  7. Cost-effectiveness of decompression according to Gill versus instrumented spondylodesis in the treatment of sciatica due to low grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: A prospective randomised controlled trial [NTR1300

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Arts (Mark); M.J.T. Verstegen (Marco); R. Brand (René); B.W. Koes (Bart); M.E. van den Akker-van Marle (Elske); W.C. Peul (Wilco)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Nerve root decompression with instrumented spondylodesis is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in the treatment of patients with symptomatic low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Nerve root decompression without instrumented fusion, i.e. Gill's procedure,

  8. Feature Extraction for Structural Dynamics Model Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nishio, Mayuko [Yokohama University; Hemez, Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stull, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Univesity; Cornwell, Phil [Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology; Figueiredo, Eloi [Universidade Lusófona; Luscher, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worden, Keith [University of Sheffield

    2016-01-13

    As structural dynamics becomes increasingly non-modal, stochastic and nonlinear, finite element model-updating technology must adopt the broader notions of model validation and uncertainty quantification. For example, particular re-sampling procedures must be implemented to propagate uncertainty through a forward calculation, and non-modal features must be defined to analyze nonlinear data sets. The latter topic is the focus of this report, but first, some more general comments regarding the concept of model validation will be discussed.

  9. Radiation risk of diagnostical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlit, W.

    1986-01-01

    The environmental radiation burden of man in Germany is about 1 mGy (Milligray) per year. This is, of course, also valid for children. Due to diagnostical procedures this burden is increased to about 1.3 mGy. The question arises wether this can be neglected, or important consequences have to be drawn. To give a clear answer, the action of ionizing radiation in living cells and in organisms is explained in detail. Many of the radiation actions at the DNA can soon be repaired by the cell, if the radiation dose was small. Some damage, however will remain irreparable for the cell and consequently leads to cell death, to mutations or to cell transformation. The number of these lesion increases or decreases linearily with radiation dose. Therefore, it must be expected that the risk of tumour induction is increased to above the normal background even by the smallest doses. This small but not negligible risk has to be compared with other risks of civilization or with other medical risks. But also the benefit and the efficacy of diagnostic procedures have to be considered. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. A prediction model for the grade of liver fibrosis using magnetic resonance elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuka, Yusuke; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Abe, Hayato; Matsumoto, Naoki; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Haradome, Hiroki; Sugitani, Masahiko; Tsuji, Shingo; Takayama, Tadatoshi

    2017-11-28

    Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) has recently become available for assessment of liver fibrosis. We aimed to develop a prediction model for liver fibrosis using clinical variables, including LSM. We performed a prospective study to compare liver fibrosis grade with fibrosis score. LSM was measured using magnetic resonance elastography in 184 patients that underwent liver resection, and liver fibrosis grade was diagnosed histologically after surgery. Using the prediction model established in the training group, we validated the classification accuracy in the independent test group. First, we determined a cut-off value for stratifying fibrosis grade using LSM in 122 patients in the training group, and correctly diagnosed fibrosis grades of 62 patients in the test group with a total accuracy of 69.3%. Next, on least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis in the training group, LSM (r = 0.687, P prediction model. This prediction model applied to the test group correctly diagnosed 32 of 36 (88.8%) Grade I (F0 and F1) patients, 13 of 18 (72.2%) Grade II (F2 and F3) patients, and 7 of 8 (87.5%) Grade III (F4) patients in the test group, with a total accuracy of 83.8%. The prediction model based on LSM, ICGR15, and platelet count can accurately and reproducibly predict liver fibrosis grade.

  11. Application of ANFIS for analytical modeling of tensile strength of functionally graded steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the tensile strength of ferritic and austenitic functionally graded steels produced by electroslag remelting has been modeled. To produce functionally graded steels, two slices of plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steels were spot welded and used as electroslag remelting electrode. Functionally graded steel containing graded layers of ferrite and austenite may be fabricated via diffusion of alloying elements during remelting stage. Vickers microhardness profile of the specimen has been obtained experimentally and modeled with adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS. To build the model for graded ferritic and austenitic steels, training, testing and validation using respectively 174 and 120 experimental data were conducted. According to the input parameters, in the ANFIS model, the Vickers microhardness of each layer was predicted. A good fit equation which correlates the Vickers microhardness of each layer to its corresponding chemical composition was achieved by the optimized network for both ferritic and austenitic graded steels. Afterwards; the Vickers microhardness of each layer in functionally graded steels was related to the yield stress of the corresponding layer and by assuming Holloman relation for stress-strain curve of each layer, they were acquired. Finally, by applying the rule of mixtures, tensile strength of functionally graded steels configuration was found through a numerical method. The obtained results from the proposed model are in good agreement with those acquired from the experiments.

  12. The Relationship of Grade Span in 9th Grade to Math Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…

  13. High grade glioma: Imaging combined with pathological grade defines management and predicts prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, Neil G.; Lynch, Andrew G.; Jefferies, Sarah J.; Price, Stephen J.; Jones, Phil H.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Xuereb, John H.; Pohl, Ute

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is ambiguity in pathological grading of high grade gliomas within the WHO 2000 classification, especially those with predominant oligodendroglial differentiation. Patients and methods: All adult high grade gliomas treated radically, 1996-2005, were assessed. Cases in which pathology was grade III but radiology suggested glioblastoma (GBM) were classified as 'grade III/IV'; their pathology was reviewed. Results: Data from 245 patients (52 grade III, 18 grade III/IV, 175 GBM) were analysed using a Cox Proportional Hazards model. On pathology review, features suggestive of more aggressive behaviour were found in all 18 grade III/IV tumours. Oligodendroglial components with both necrosis and microvascular proliferation were present in 7. MIB-1 counts for the last 8 were all above 14%, mean 27%. Median survivals were: grade III 34 months, grade III/IV 10 months, GBM 11 months. Survival was not significantly different between grade III/IV and GBM. Patients with grade III/IV tumours had significantly worse outcome than grade III, with a hazard of death 3.7 times higher. Conclusions: The results highlight the current inconsistency in pathological grading of high grade tumours, especially those with oligodendroglial elements. Patients with histological grade III tumours but radiological appearances suggestive of GBM should be managed as glioblastoma

  14. Association of Grade Configuration with School Climate for 7th and 8th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marisa; Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan

    2017-01-01

    Educational authorities have questioned whether middle schools provide the best school climate for 7th and 8th grade students, and proposed that other grade configurations such as K-8th grade schools may provide a better learning environment. The purpose of this study was to compare 7th and 8th grade students' perceptions of 4 key features of…

  15. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  16. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  17. The effect of various grading scales on student grade point averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelli D; Buring, Shauna M

    2012-04-10

    To investigate changes in and the impact of grading scales from 2005 to 2010 and explore pharmacy faculty and student perceptions of whole-letter and plus/minus grading scales on cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) in required courses. Grading scales used in 2010 at the University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy were retrospectively identified and compared to those used in 2005. Mean GPA was calculated using a whole-letter grading scale and a plus/minus grading scale to determine the impact of scales on GPA. Faculty members and students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of plus/minus grading. Nine unique grading scales were used throughout the curriculum, including plus/minus (64%) and whole-letter (21%) grading scales. From 2005 to 2010 there was transition from use of predominantly whole-letter scales to plus/minus grading scales. The type of grading scale used did not affect the mean cumulative GPA. Students preferred use of a plus-only grading scale while faculty members preferred use of a plus/minus grading scale. The transition from whole-letter grading to plus/minus grading in courses from 2005 to 2010 reflects pharmacy faculty members' perception that plus/minus grading allows for better differentiation between students' performances.

  18. HASL procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    Addition and corrections to the following sections of the HASL Procedures Manual are provided: Table of Contents; Bibliography; Fallout Collection Methods; Wet/Dry Fallout Collection; Fluoride in Soil and Sediment; Strontium-90; Natural Series; Alpha Emitters; and Gamma Emitters

  19. EML procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1982-01-01

    This manual contains the procedures that are used currently by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. In addition a number of analytical methods from other laboratories have been included. These were tested for reliability at the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research of the AEC. These methods are clearly distinguished. The manual is prepared in loose leaf form to facilitate revision of the procedures and inclusion of additional procedures or data sheets. Anyone receiving the manual through EML should receive this additional material automatically. The contents are as follows: (1) general; (2) sampling; (3) field measurements; (4) general analytical chemistry; (5) chemical procedures; (6) data section; (7) specifications

  20. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  1. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assisted Medical Procedures (AMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DOCUMENTATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PROGRESS The AMP was initially being developed as part the Advanced Integrated Clinical System (AICS)-Guided Medical Procedure System...

  3. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back Injectable Deoxycholic Acid Injectable Hyaluronic Acid Injectable Poly-l-lactic Acid Injectable Polymethylmethacrylate + Bovine Collagen Filler ... time of their procedure. 6. What are my pain management and anesthesia options? To help avoid the ...

  4. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  5. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache R , IIS R , TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape R , Microsoft Internet Explorer R , Mozilla Firefox R , Opera R , and others. (authors)

  6. Radiochemical procedures and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, K.

    1975-04-01

    A summary is presented of the radiochemical procedures and techniques currently in use by the Chemistry Division Nuclear Chemistry Group at Argonne National Laboratory for the analysis of radioactive samples. (U.S.)

  7. Soil Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  8. Bariatric Surgery Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meetings of Interest Online Education Job Board CME Policies CBN Fellowship Certificate Research Grant Program Resources All Resources Approved Procedures Patient Safety Vignettes Dr. Mason Historical Library Governing Documents Guidelines Access and Insurance Position and ...

  9. Nuclear materials management procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veevers, K.; Silver, J.M.; Quealy, K.J.; Steege, E. van der.

    1987-10-01

    This manual describes the procedures for the management of nuclear materials and associated materials at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The procedures are designed to comply with Australia's nuclear non-proliferation obligations to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), bilateral agreements with other countries and ANSTO's responsibilities under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act, 1987. The manual replaces those issued by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission in 1959, 1960 and 1969

  10. Developing Cognitive Test Based on the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy on The Structure and Cell Function Material for XI Grade Students in Senior High School of Tarakan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfadli Zulfadli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was to develop a cognitive test tool based on Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. This study aimed to determine the quality of the test based on experts assessment, to measure the level of validity, reliability, and to determine the difficulty levels of the questions, discrimination power, and distractors. This research employed Research and Development (R&D method. The development test model used was the 4D procedure which was modified into three steps: define, design, and develop. The subjects were the Science students of XI grade at SMAN 2 Tarakan and SMA Muhammadiyah Tarakan. The results of the study were: (1 the experts validation analysis showed that the cognitive test has been categorized as valid which the value was 4.28 (2 The quality of cognitive test were: (A the 90% items were valid, while 10% were invalid. (B the reliability value was 0.79 (highly reliable (C the levels of difficulty were: easy (27%, moderate (53%, difficult (20%. (Dthe test discrimination index were: weak (10%, sufficient (33%, good (53%, and either once (3%. (E distractors effectiveness: effective category (85%, ineffective (15%. Assessment results from expert validators and empirical tests indicate that this cognitive test device is feasible to use and apply. The uniformity of this level of difficulty makes the quality of items were good to use. The discrimination power of these test tool, which has good value, indicate that the high diversity of items is able to measure students' abilities.

  11. Crowd-sourced assessment of surgical skills in cricothyrotomy procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdasi, Nava; Bly, Randall; White, Lee W; Hannaford, Blake; Moe, Kris; Lendvay, Thomas S

    2015-06-15

    Objective assessment of surgical skills is resource intensive and requires valuable time of expert surgeons. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a large group of laypersons using a crowd-sourcing tool to grade a surgical procedure (cricothyrotomy) performed on a simulator. The grading included an assessment of the entire procedure by completing an objective assessment of technical skills survey. Two groups of graders were recruited as follows: (1) Amazon Mechanical Turk users and (2) three expert surgeons from University of Washington Department of Otolaryngology. Graders were presented with a video of participants performing the procedure on the simulator and were asked to grade the video using the objective assessment of technical skills questions. Mechanical Turk users were paid $0.50 for each completed survey. It took 10 h to obtain all responses from 30 Mechanical Turk users for 26 training participants (26 videos/tasks), whereas it took 60 d for three expert surgeons to complete the same 26 tasks. The assessment of surgical performance by a group (n = 30) of laypersons matched the assessment by a group (n = 3) of expert surgeons with a good level of agreement determined by Cronbach alpha coefficient = 0.83. We found crowd sourcing was an efficient, accurate, and inexpensive method for skills assessment with a good level of agreement to experts' grading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  13. Semiconductor Grade, Solar Silicon Purification Project. [photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, W. M.; Rosler, R. S.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost by-product, SiF4, is reacted with mg silicon to form SiF2 gas which is polymerized. The (SiF2)x polymer is heated forming volatile SixFy homologues which disproportionate on a silicon particle bed forming silicon and SiF4. The silicon analysis procedure relied heavily on mass spectroscopic and emission spectroscopic analysis. These analyses demonstrated that major purification had occured and some samples were indistinguishable from semiconductor grade silicon (except possibly for phosphorus). However, electrical analysis via crystal growth reveal that the product contains compensated phosphorus and boron.

  14. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  15. Method validation in pharmaceutical analysis: from theory to practical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Kaleian Eserian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The validation of analytical methods is required to obtain high-quality data. For the pharmaceutical industry, method validation is crucial to ensure the product quality as regards both therapeutic efficacy and patient safety. The most critical step in validating a method is to establish a protocol containing well-defined procedures and criteria. A well planned and organized protocol, such as the one proposed in this paper, results in a rapid and concise method validation procedure for quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis.   Type: Commentary

  16. Developing Conceptual Understanding and Procedural Skill in Mathematics: An Iterative Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Siegler, Robert S.; Alibali, Martha Wagner

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that conceptual and procedural knowledge develop in an iterative fashion and improved problem representation is one mechanism underlying the relations between them. Two experiments were conducted with 5th and 6th grade students learning about decimal fractions. Results indicate conceptual and procedural knowledge do develop, iteratively,…

  17. Simplified Transit Procedure in Railway Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kokorović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The current transit procedure in railway transport that iscarried out on the basis of the Customs Act [ 11 of the Republicof Croatia is applied only up to the border, i. e. the issued documentsand guarantees are valid only up to the border, and byjoining the Convention on Common transit procedure, i. e. integrationof the Republic of Croatia in the European Union, theRepublic of Croatia will also have to implement the regulationsand rules of Simplified transit procedure valid in each of thethirty member states. In international railway traffic, the transportof goods is regulated by the Convention concerning InternationalCarriage by Rail- COT IF [2 1 and usage of the CIMwaybill (Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Rail.If the goods are transported in Simplified transit procedure, theformalities regarding the transport of goods performed by railcarriers using the international waybill CIM will be significantlysimplified and accelerated. In principle there are no delays dueto customs on the borders when crossing the EU borders andborders of the Convention member states, contributing greatlyto the acceleration of the transport of goods, reduction of waitingcosts and paperwork, as well as influence on the schedulereliability.

  18. Procedural learning and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, R I; Fawcett, A J; Brookes, R L; Needle, J

    2010-08-01

    Three major 'neural systems', specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed (Trends Neurosci., 30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief overview of the increasing evidence relating to the hypothesis, noting that the framework involves two main claims: first that 'neural systems' provides a productive level of description avoiding the underspecificity of cognitive descriptions and the overspecificity of brain structural accounts; and second that a distinctive feature of procedural learning is its extended time course, covering from minutes to months. In this article, we focus on the second claim. Three studies-speeded single word reading, long-term response learning, and overnight skill consolidation-are reviewed which together provide clear evidence of difficulties in procedural learning for individuals with dyslexia, even when the tasks are outside the literacy domain. The educational implications of the results are then discussed, and in particular the potential difficulties that impaired overnight procedural consolidation would entail. It is proposed that response to intervention could be better predicted if diagnostic tests on the different forms of learning were first undertaken. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Procedural sedation analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheta Saad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures performed outside of the operating room has grown exponentially over the last several decades. Sedation, analgesia, or both may be needed for many of these interventional or diagnostic procedures. Individualized care is important when determining if a patient requires procedural sedation analgesia (PSA. The patient might need an anti-anxiety drug, pain medicine, immobilization, simple reassurance, or a combination of these interventions. The goals of PSA in four different multidisciplinary practices namely; emergency, dentistry, radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are discussed in this review article. Some procedures are painful, others painless. Therefore, goals of PSA vary widely. Sedation management can range from minimal sedation, to the extent of minimal anesthesia. Procedural sedation in emergency department (ED usually requires combinations of multiple agents to reach desired effects of analgesia plus anxiolysis. However, in dental practice, moderate sedation analgesia (known to the dentists as conscious sedation is usually what is required. It is usually most effective with the combined use of local anesthesia. The mainstay of success for painless imaging is absolute immobility. Immobility can be achieved by deep sedation or minimal anesthesia. On the other hand, moderate sedation, deep sedation, minimal anesthesia and conventional general anesthesia can be all utilized for management of gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  20. Ultrasonic techniques validation on shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, J.; Gonzalez, E.

    1998-01-01

    Due to the results obtained in several international RRT during the 80's, it has been necessary to prove the effectiveness of the NDT techniques. For this reason it has been imperative to verify the goodness of the Inspection Procedure over different mock-ups, representative of the inspection area and with real defects. Prior to the revision of the inspection procedure and with the aim of updating the techniques used, it is a good practice to perform different scans on the mock-ups until the validation is achieved. It is at this point, where all the parameters of the inspection at hands are defined; transducer, step, scan direction,... and what it's more important, it will be demonstrated that the technique to be used for the area required to inspection is suitable to evaluate the degradation phenomena that could appear. (Author)

  1. Development and Validation of Nature of Science Instrument for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument for assessing elementary students' nature of science (NOS) views and to explain the elementary school students' NOS views, in terms of varying grade levels and gender. The sample included 782 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Exploratory factor analysis…

  2. Validation process of simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Isidro, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    It is presented a methodology on empirical validation about any detailed simulation model. This king of validation it is always related with an experimental case. The empirical validation has a residual sense, because the conclusions are based on comparisons between simulated outputs and experimental measurements. This methodology will guide us to detect the fails of the simulation model. Furthermore, it can be used a guide in the design of posterior experiments. Three steps can be well differentiated: Sensitivity analysis. It can be made with a DSA, differential sensitivity analysis, and with a MCSA, Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. Looking the optimal domains of the input parameters. It has been developed a procedure based on the Monte-Carlo methods and Cluster techniques, to find the optimal domains of these parameters. Residual analysis. This analysis has been made on the time domain and on the frequency domain, it has been used the correlation analysis and spectral analysis. As application of this methodology, it is presented the validation carried out on a thermal simulation model on buildings, Esp., studying the behavior of building components on a Test Cell of LECE of CIEMAT. (Author) 17 refs

  3. Anesthesia for radiologic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestner, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Anesthetic techniques for neurodiagnostic studies and radiation therapy have been recently reviewed, but anesthetic involvement in thoracic and abdominal radiology has received little attention. Patient reactions to radiologic contrast media may be of concern to the anesthesiologist, who is often responsible for injecting these agents during diagnostic procedures, and thus is included in this discussion. Finally, the difficulties of administering anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are outlined, in an effort to help anesthesiologist to anticipate problems with this new technologic development. Although there are very few indications for the use of general anesthesia for diagnostic radiologic studies in adults, most procedures performed with children, the mentally retarded, or the combative adult require either heavy sedation or general anesthesia. In selecting an anesthetic technique for a specific procedure, both the patient's disease process and the requirements of the radiologist must be carefully balanced

  4. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  5. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all.

  6. Using Arabic word identification fluency to monitor first-grade reading progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the applicability, reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the curriculum-based measurement word identification fluency (CBM WIF) measure in Jordanian students. A sample of 75 first-grade students, 50 average readers and 25 with reading difficulties, were recruited from two public primary schools. Results indicated that the CBM WIF is a reliable, valid and cost-effective measure. A 15-week trial demonstrated the effectiveness of using CBM WIF with the first-grade students. In addition, CBM WIF was a good predictor of grade point average in the native language. Moreover, students who were struggling with reading scored significantly lower on CBM WIF probes than did average readers. Results suggest that the CBM WIF measures may be useful for evaluating and predicting reading performance in Arabic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Assessment of Lexical and Non-Lexical Spelling in Students in Grades 1-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Saskia; Colenbrander, Danielle; Krajenbrink, Trudy; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop standardised tests that assess some of the most important spelling skills for children in primary school: sound-letter mappings (non-lexical spelling) and word spelling accuracy (lexical spelling). We present normative comparison data for children in Grades 1-7 as well as measures of validity and…

  8. The "School Safety & Security Questionnaire": Middle Grades Students' Perceptions of Safety at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Janice Williams; Nickell, Linda K.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the development and basic psychometric characteristics of the "School Safety and Security Questionnaire" (SSSQ). This new measure was constructed to assess middle grade students' perceptions of safety and security during the school year. The content validity of the theoretically-based instrument was assessed and the measure was…

  9. Identification of Reading Problems in First Grade within a Response-to-Intervention Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, Deborah L.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Silverman, Rebecca; Case, Lisa Pericola; Cooper, David H.; Jacobs, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Models of Response to Intervention (RTI) include parameters of assessment and instruction. This study focuses on assessment with the purpose of developing a screening battery that validly and efficiently identifies first-grade children at risk for reading problems. In an RTI model, these children would be candidates for early intervention. We…

  10. Validity and reliability of three definitions of hip osteoarthritis: cross sectional and longitudinal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijman, M; Hazes, J M W; Pols, H A P; Bernsen, R M D; Koes, B W; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A

    2004-11-01

    To compare the reliability and validity in a large open population of three frequently used radiological definitions of hip osteoarthritis (OA): Kellgren and Lawrence grade, minimal joint space (MJS), and Croft grade; and to investigate whether the validity of the three definitions of hip OA is sex dependent. from the Rotterdam study (aged > or= 55 years, n = 3585) were evaluated. The inter-rater reliability was tested in a random set of 148 x rays. The validity was expressed as the ability to identify patients who show clinical symptoms of hip OA (construct validity) and as the ability to predict total hip replacement (THR) at follow up (predictive validity). Inter-rater reliability was similar for the Kellgren and Lawrence grade and MJS (kappa statistics 0.68 and 0.62, respectively) but lower for Croft's grade (kappa statistic, 0.51). The Kellgren and Lawrence grade and MJS showed the strongest associations with clinical symptoms of hip OA. Sex appeared to be an effect modifier for Kellgren and Lawrence and MJS definitions, women showing a stronger association between grading and symptoms than men. However, the sex dependency was attributed to differences in height between women and men. The Kellgren and Lawrence grade showed the highest predictive value for THR at follow up. Based on these findings, Kellgren and Lawrence still appears to be a useful OA definition for epidemiological studies focusing on the presence of hip OA.

  11. Motive Criminal Procedure Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Вапнярчук

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the need for such a level of mental regulation of behavior of proving motivation. The latter refers to internal motivation conscious entity Criminal Procedure proof, due to specific needs, interests and goals that cause a person to act rishymist. Detailed attention is given to the first two determinants, namely the nature of needs and interests. In particular, analyzes highlighted in the literature variety of needs (physiological, ekzistentsionalni, social, prestige, cognitive, aesthetic and spiritual and the manifestation of some of them in the criminal procedural proof.

  12. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  13. Validity and reliability of three definitions of hip osteoarthritis: cross sectional and longitudinal approach

    OpenAIRE

    Reijman, Max; Hazes, Mieke; Pols, Huib; Bernsen, Roos; Koes, Bart; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To compare the reliability and validity in a large open population of three frequently used radiological definitions of hip osteoarthritis (OA): Kellgren and Lawrence grade, minimal joint space (MJS), and Croft grade; and to investigate whether the validity of the three definitions of hip OA is sex dependent. METHODS: SUBJECTS: from the Rotterdam study (aged > or= 55 years, n = 3585) were evaluated. The inter-rater reliability was tested in a random set of 148 x rays. ...

  14. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  15. Get on Board the Underground Railroad: A Sample Unit for Fifth-Grade History Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Phyllis M.; Young, Terrell A.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the materials and procedures used in a fifth-grade history unit on the Underground Railroad. The unit integrated a variety of teaching methods and materials making extensive use of historical literature, K-W-L (what we Know, what we Want to find out, what we Learned) charts, and activities aimed at different learning styles. (MJP)

  16. The Auto Industry. Grade Nine. Resource Unit (Unit IV). Project Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Unit four of this curriculum plan for ninth grade social studies outlines a study of the automobile industry in the United States. Objectives state the desired generalizations, skills, and attitudes to be developed. A condensed outline of course content precedes expanded guidelines for teaching procedures and suggested resource materials. A…

  17. Course Placement Series: Spotlight on Eighth Grade Algebra I. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Tennessee Department of Education explored course enrollment patterns in an effort to better understand in which courses students are enrolling and whether course enrollment policies and procedures are promoting students' interests. This report focuses on eighth grade Algebra I enrollment, which can propel students to take more rigorous math…

  18. Implementation of GPS Machine Controlled Grading - Phase III (2008) and Technical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Beginning in 2006, WisDOT and the Construction Material and Support Center (CMSC) at UW-Madison worked together to develop the specifications and the QA/QC procedures for GPS machine guidance on highway grading projects. These specifications and proc...

  19. Learning Barriers among Grade 6 Pupils Attending Rural Schools in Uganda: Implications to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Ngware, Moses; Mahuro, Gerald; Muhia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The paper uses multilevel analysis procedures to examine individual- and group-level learning barriers that have the greatest impact on pupil achievement in Uganda. The data for this study were collected in 2014 among 2711 Grade 6 pupils attending 82 schools in two rural districts of Iganga and Mayuge in Uganda. Data used in this paper are part of…

  20. Enhancing On-Task Behavior in Fourth-Grade Students Using a Modified Color Wheel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Carolyn; Skinner, Christopher; Parkhurst, John; Wood, Allison; Snyder, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel System (M-CWS) on the on-task behavior of 7 students enrolled in the 4th grade. Standard CWS procedures were modified to include a 4th set of rules designed to set behavioral expectation for cooperative learning activities. Mean data showed that immediately…