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Sample records for valid cognitive support

  1. Resident Wellness and Social Support: Development and Cognitive Validation of a Resident Social Capital Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Stephen J; Seabott, Heather M; Cunningham, Erika B; Helman, James D; Calderon, Alvin; Thirlby, Richard C; Schenarts, Kimberly D

    The purpose of this study is to develop and generate validity evidence for an instrument to measure social capital in residents. Mixed-methods, phased approach utilizing a modified Delphi technique, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. Four residency training institutions in Washington state between February 2016 and March 2017. General surgery, anesthesia, and internal medicine residents ranging from PGY-1 to PGY-6. The initial resident-focused instrument underwent revision via Delphi process with 6 experts; 100% expert consensus was achieved after 4 cycles. Three focus groups were conducted with 19 total residents. Focus groups identified 6 of 11 instrument items with mean quality ratings ≤4.0 on a 1-5 scale. The composite instrument rating of the draft version was 4.1 ± 0.5. After refining the instrument, cognitive interviews with the final version were completed with 22 residents. All items in the final version had quality ratings >4.0; the composite instrument rating was 4.8 ± 0.1. Social capital may be an important factor in resident wellness as residents rely upon each other and external social support to withstand fatigue, burnout, and other negative sequelae of rigorous training. This instrument for assessment of social capital in residents may provide an avenue for data collection and potentially, identification of residents at-risk for wellness degradation. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Validating cognitive support for operators of complex human-machine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Wachtel, J.

    1995-01-01

    Modem nuclear power plants (NPPs) are complex systems whose performance is the result of an intricate interaction of human and system control. A complex system may be defined as one which supports a dynamic process involving a large number of elements that interact in many different ways. Safety is addressed through defense-in-depth design and preplanning; i.e., designers consider the types of failures that are most likely to occur and those of high consequence, and design their solutions in advance. However, complex interactions and their failure modes cannot always be anticipated by the designer and may be unfamiliar to plant personnel. These situations may pose cognitive demands on plant personnel, both individually and as a crew. Other factors may contribute to the cognitive challenges of NPP operation as well, including hierarchal processes, dynamic pace, system redundancy and reliability, and conflicting objectives. These factors are discussed in this paper

  3. Empirical support for DSM-IV schizoaffective disorder: clinical and cognitive validators from a large patient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosse, Pamela; Burdick, Katherine E; Lencz, Todd; Siris, Samuel G; Malhotra, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder has long maintained an uncertain status in psychiatric nosology. Studies comparing clinical and biological features of patients with schizoaffective disorder to patients with related disorders [e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder] can provide an evidence base for judging the validity of the diagnostic category. However, because most prior studies of schizoaffective disorder have only evaluated differences between groups at a static timepoint, it is unclear how these disorders may be related when the entire illness course is taken into consideration. We ascertained a large cohort [N = 993] of psychiatric patients with a range of psychotic diagnoses including schizophrenia with no history of major affective episodes [SZ-; N = 371], schizophrenia with a superimposed mood syndrome [SZ+; N = 224], schizoaffective disorder [SAD; N = 129] and bipolar I disorder with psychotic features [BPD+; N = 269]. Using cross-sectional data we designed key clinical and neurocognitive dependent measures that allowed us to test longitudinal hypotheses about the differences between these diagnostic entities. Large differences between diagnostic groups on several demographic and clinical variables were observed. Most notably, groups differed on a putative measure of cognitive decline. Specifically, the SAD group demonstrated significantly greater post-onset cognitive decline compared to the BP+ group, with the SZ- and SZ+ group both exhibiting levels of decline intermediate to BPD+ and SAD. These results suggest that schizoaffective disorder may possess distinct features. Contrary to earlier formulations, schizoaffective disorder may be a more severe form of illness.

  4. Empirical support for DSM-IV schizoaffective disorder: clinical and cognitive validators from a large patient sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela DeRosse

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder has long maintained an uncertain status in psychiatric nosology. Studies comparing clinical and biological features of patients with schizoaffective disorder to patients with related disorders [e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder] can provide an evidence base for judging the validity of the diagnostic category. However, because most prior studies of schizoaffective disorder have only evaluated differences between groups at a static timepoint, it is unclear how these disorders may be related when the entire illness course is taken into consideration.We ascertained a large cohort [N = 993] of psychiatric patients with a range of psychotic diagnoses including schizophrenia with no history of major affective episodes [SZ-; N = 371], schizophrenia with a superimposed mood syndrome [SZ+; N = 224], schizoaffective disorder [SAD; N = 129] and bipolar I disorder with psychotic features [BPD+; N = 269]. Using cross-sectional data we designed key clinical and neurocognitive dependent measures that allowed us to test longitudinal hypotheses about the differences between these diagnostic entities.Large differences between diagnostic groups on several demographic and clinical variables were observed. Most notably, groups differed on a putative measure of cognitive decline. Specifically, the SAD group demonstrated significantly greater post-onset cognitive decline compared to the BP+ group, with the SZ- and SZ+ group both exhibiting levels of decline intermediate to BPD+ and SAD.These results suggest that schizoaffective disorder may possess distinct features. Contrary to earlier formulations, schizoaffective disorder may be a more severe form of illness.

  5. Validation of Symptom Validity Tests Using a "Child-model" of Adult Cognitive Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, A.; Spaan, P. E. J.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Validation studies of symptom validity tests (SVTs) in children are uncommon. However, since children's cognitive abilities are not yet fully developed, their performance may provide additional support for the validity of these measures in adult populations. Four SVTs, the Test of Memory Malingering

  6. Validation of symptom validity tests using a "child-model" of adult cognitive impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, A.; Spaan, P.E.J.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Validation studies of symptom validity tests (SVTs) in children are uncommon. However, since children’s cognitive abilities are not yet fully developed, their performance may provide additional support for the validity of these measures in adult populations. Four SVTs, the Test of Memory Malingering

  7. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination validation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M A; Perez-Lloret, S; Lloret, S P; Roldan Gerschcovich, E; Gerscovich, E R; Martin, M E; Leiguarda, R; Merello, M

    2009-01-01

    There is a clear need for brief, sensitive and specific cognitive screening instruments in Parkinson's disease (PD). To study Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) validity for cognitive assessment of PD patient's using the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS) as reference method. A specific scale for cognitive evaluation in PD, in this instance the Scales for Outcomes of Parkinson's disease-Cognition (SCOPA-COG), as well as a general use scale the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) were also studied for further correlation. Forty-four PD patients were studied, of these 27 were males (61%), with a mean (SD) age of 69.5 (11.8) years, mean (SD) disease duration of 7.6 (6.4) years (range 1-25), mean (SD) total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score 37 (24) points, UPDRS III 16.5 (11.3) points. MDRS, ACE and SCOPA-COG scales were administered in random order. All patients remained in on-state during the study. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination correlated with SCOPA-COG (r = 0.93, P Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination appears to be a valid tool for dementia evaluation in PD, with a cut-off point which should probably be set at 83 points, displaying good correlation with both the scale specifically designed for cognitive deficits in PD namely SCOPA-COG, as well as with less specific tests such as MMSE.

  8. Using of Structural Equation Modeling Techniques in Cognitive Levels Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Curkovic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When constructing knowledge tests, cognitive level is usually one of the dimensions comprising the test specifications with each item assigned to measure a particular level. Recently used taxonomies of the cognitive levels most often represent some modification of the original Bloom’s taxonomy. There are many concerns in current literature about existence of predefined cognitive levels. The aim of this article is to investigate can structural equation modeling techniques confirm existence of different cognitive levels. For the purpose of the research, a Croatian final high-school Mathematics exam was used (N = 9626. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural regression modeling were used to test three different models. Structural equation modeling techniques did not support existence of different cognitive levels in this case. There is more than one possible explanation for that finding. Some other techniques that take into account nonlinear behaviour of the items as well as qualitative techniques might be more useful for the purpose of the cognitive levels validation. Furthermore, it seems that cognitive levels were not efficient descriptors of the items and so improvements are needed in describing the cognitive skills measured by items.

  9. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual's cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a 'good-enough' response instead of deliberating for the 'best' response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included

  10. Validity and reliability of The Johns Hopkins Adapted Cognitive Exam for critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, John J; LeDroux, Shannon N; Shermock, Kenneth M; Thompson, Carol B; Goodwin, Haley E; Mirski, Erin A; Gill, Randeep S; Mirski, Marek A

    2012-01-01

    To validate The Johns Hopkins Adapted Cognitive Exam designed to assess and quantify cognition in critically ill patients. Prospective cohort study. Neurosciences, surgical, and medical intensive care units at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. One hundred six adult critically ill patients. One expert neurologic assessment and four measurements of the Adapted Cognitive Exam (all patients). Four measurements of the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination in nonintubated patients only. Adapted Cognitive Exam and Mini-Mental State Examination were performed by 76 different raters. One hundred six patients were assessed, 46 intubated and 60 nonintubated, resulting in 424 Adapted Cognitive Exam and 240 Mini-Mental State Examination measurements. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing Adapted Cognitive Exam with a neurointensivist's assessment of cognitive status (ρ = 0.83, p validity was assessed by comparing Adapted Cognitive Exam with Mini-Mental State Examination in nonintubated patients (ρ = 0.81, p validity was assessed by surveying raters who used both the Adapted Cognitive Exam and Mini-Mental State Examination and indicated the Adapted Cognitive Exam was an accurate reflection of the patient's cognitive status, more sensitive a marker of cognition than the Mini-Mental State Examination, and easy to use. The Adapted Cognitive Exam demonstrated excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.997; 95% confidence interval 0.997-0.998) and interitem reliability of each of the five subscales of the Adapted Cognitive Exam and Mini-Mental State Examination (Cronbach's α: range for Adapted Cognitive Exam = 0.83-0.88; range for Mini-Mental State Examination = 0.72-0.81). The Adapted Cognitive Exam is the first valid and reliable examination for the assessment and quantification of cognition in critically ill patients. It provides a useful, objective tool that can be used by any member of the interdisciplinary critical care team to support

  11. The development and validation of the Memory Support Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Y; Worrell, Frank C; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-06-01

    Patient memory for treatment information is poor, and worse memory for treatment information is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Memory support techniques have been harnessed to improve patient memory for treatment. However, a measure of memory support used by treatment providers during sessions has yet to be established. The present study reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS)-an observer-rated scale designed to measure memory support. Adults with major depressive disorder (MDD; N = 42) were randomized to either cognitive therapy plus memory support (CT + MS; n = 22) or cognitive therapy as-usual (CT-as-usual; n = 20). At posttreatment, patients freely recalled treatment points via the patient recall task. Sessions (n = 171) were coded for memory support using the MSRS, 65% of which were also assessed for the quality of cognitive therapy via the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS). A unidimensional scale composed of 8 items was developed using exploratory factor analysis, though a larger sample is needed to further assess the factor structure of MSRS scores. High interrater and test-retest reliabilities of MSRS scores were observed across 7 MSRS coders. MSRS scores were higher in the CT + MS condition compared with CT-as-usual, demonstrating group differentiation ability. MSRS scores were positively associated with patient recall task scores but not associated with CTRS scores, demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, respectively. Results indicate that the MSRS yields reliable and valid scores for measuring treatment providers' use of memory support while delivering cognitive therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Validation of the NOSCA - nurses' observation scale of cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoon, Anke; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Melis, Rene J F; van Achterberg, Theo; Kessels, Roy P C; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde

    2012-11-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities. Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities is a behavioural rating scale comprising eight subscales that represent different cognitive domains. It is based on observations during contact between nurse and patient. Observational study. A total of 50 patients from two geriatric wards in acute care hospitals participated in this study. Reliability was examined via internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Construct validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities and its subscales were explored by means of convergent and divergent validity and post hoc analyses for group differences. Cronbach's αs of the total Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities and its subscales were 0·98 and 0·66-0·93, respectively. The item-total correlations were satisfactory (overall > 0·4). The intra-class coefficients were good (37 of 39 items > 0·4). The convergent validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities against cognitive ratings (MMSE, NOSGER) and severity of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating) demonstrated satisfactory correlations (0·59-0·70, p 0·05). The divergent validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities against depressive symptoms was low (0·12, p > 0·05). The construct validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales against 13 specific neuropsychological tests showed correlations varying from poor to fair (0·18-0·74; 10 of 13 correlations p Validity and reliability of the total Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities are excellent. The correlations between the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales and standard neuropsychological tests were moderate. More conclusive results may be found if the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales were to be validated using more ecologically valid tests and in a patient

  13. Towards Wearable Gaze Supported Augmented Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toshiaki Kurauchi, Andrew; Hitoshi Morimoto, Carlos; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    Augmented cognition applications must deal with the problem of how to exhibit information in an orderly, understandable, and timely fashion. Though context have been suggested to control the kind, amount, and timing of the information delivered, we argue that gaze can be a fundamental tool...... by the wearable computing community to develop a gaze supported augmented cognition application with three interaction modes. The application provides information of the person being looked at. The continuous mode updates information every time the user looks at a different face. The key activated discrete mode...

  14. Augmenting cognitive architectures to support diagrammatic imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Balakrishnan; Banerjee, Bonny; Kurup, Unmesh; Lele, Omkar

    2011-10-01

    Diagrams are a form of spatial representation that supports reasoning and problem solving. Even when diagrams are external, not to mention when there are no external representations, problem solving often calls for internal representations, that is, representations in cognition, of diagrammatic elements and internal perceptions on them. General cognitive architectures--Soar and ACT-R, to name the most prominent--do not have representations and operations to support diagrammatic reasoning. In this article, we examine some requirements for such internal representations and processes in cognitive architectures. We discuss the degree to which DRS, our earlier proposal for such an internal representation for diagrams, meets these requirements. In DRS, the diagrams are not raw images, but a composition of objects that can be individuated and thus symbolized, while, unlike traditional symbols, the referent of the symbol is an object that retains its perceptual essence, namely, its spatiality. This duality provides a way to resolve what anti-imagists thought was a contradiction in mental imagery: the compositionality of mental images that seemed to be unique to symbol systems, and their support of a perceptual experience of images and some types of perception on them. We briefly review the use of DRS to augment Soar and ACT-R with a diagrammatic representation component. We identify issues for further research. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. A Cognitive Support Framework for Ontology Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Sean M.; Storey, Margaret-Anne

    Ontology mapping is the key to data interoperability in the semantic web. This problem has received a lot of research attention, however, the research emphasis has been mostly devoted to automating the mapping process, even though the creation of mappings often involve the user. As industry interest in semantic web technologies grows and the number of widely adopted semantic web applications increases, we must begin to support the user. In this paper, we combine data gathered from background literature, theories of cognitive support and decision making, and an observational case study to propose a theoretical framework for cognitive support in ontology mapping tools. We also describe a tool called CogZ that is based on this framework.

  16. Validity and Reliability of Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire-Turkish Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül KART

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Validity and Reliability of Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire-Turkish Version Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire -Turkish Version (ACQ. Method: ACQ was administered to 92 patients with agoraphobia or panic disorder with agoraphobia. BSQ Turkish version completed by translation, back-translation and pilot assessment. Reliability of ACQ was analyzed by test-retest correlation, split-half technique, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated by factor analysis after the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett test had been performed. Principal component analysis and varimax rotation used for factor analysis. Results: 64% of patients evaluated in the study were female and 36% were male. Age interval was between 18 and 58, mean age was 31.5±10.4. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.91. Analysis of test-retest evaluations revealed that there were statistically significant correlations ranging between 24% and 84% concerning questionnaire components. In analysis performed by split-half method reliability coefficients of half questionnaires were found as 0.77 and 0.91. Again Spearmen-Brown coefficient was found as 0.87 by the same analysis. To assess construct validity of ACQ, factor analysis was performed and two basic factors found. These two factors explained 57.6% of the total variance. (Factor 1: 34.6%, Factor 2: 23% Conclusion: Our findings support that ACQ-Turkish version had a satisfactory level of reliability and validity

  17. Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC): Spanish Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahera, G.; Boada, L.; Pousa, E.; Mirapeix, I.; Morón-Nozaleda, G.; Marinas, L.; Gisbert, L.; Pamiàs, M.; Parellada, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Spanish validation of the "Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition" instrument (MASC-SP). We recruited 22 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 26 participants with typical development. The MASC-SP and three other social cognition instruments (Ekman Pictures of Facial Affect test, Reading the Mind in…

  18. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M; Port, Allison M; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J; Mott, Christopher M; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-11-01

    Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological, and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains, including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen's d = 1.00), cognitive throughput (d = 0.68), and abstract reasoning (d = 0.65). In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogues to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses.

  19. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M.; Port, Allison M.; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J.; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J.; Mott, Christopher M.; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. Methods We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Results Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen’s d=1.00), cognitive throughput (d=0.68), and abstract reasoning (d=0.65). Conclusions In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogs to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses. PMID:26564759

  20. Validation of the Adolescent Meta-cognition Questionnaire Version

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    Kazem Khoramdel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role and importance of meta-cognitive beliefs in creating and retaining of anxiety disorders were explained initially in meta-cognitive theory. The purpose of this study was to validate the Meta-cognitions Questionnaire-Adolescent version (MCQ-A in normal Iranian people and compare of meta-cognitive beliefs between adolescents with anxiety disorders and normal individuals.Materials and Method: This was a standardized study. First of all, the original version was translated into Persian then administered to 204 (101 boys and 103 girls adolescent aged 13 through 17 years. Theyhave been clustered randomly. They were selected from the schools of Isfahan, together with mood and feelings questionnaire and revised children's manifest anxiety scale. In order to assess reliability, method of internal consistency (Chronbach’s alpha and split-half coefficient was used, and also in order to assess validity, convergent validity, criterion validity and confirmatory factor analysis were used. Results: The results of correlation coefficient of convergent validity showed a relation between total score of (MCQ-A and its components with anxiety and depression except cognitive self-consciousness. Data were indicative of appropriate level of Coranbach’s alpha and split-half reliability coefficients of the MCQ-A and extracted factors. The results of factor analysis by principle components analysis and using varimax rotation showed 5 factors that account for 0.45% of the variance. Conclusion: MCQ-A has satisfactory psychometric properties in Iranian people

  1. Reliability, Validity, and Predictive Utility of the 25-Item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Furukawa, Emi; Kopelovich, Sarah; Meyer, Patrick; Cosby, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Theory, research, and clinical reports suggest that moral cognitions play a role in initiating and sustaining criminal behavior. The 25 item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) was designed to tap 5 dimensions: Notions of entitlement; Failure to Accept Responsibility; Short-Term Orientation; Insensitivity to Impact of Crime; and Negative Attitudes Toward Authority. Results from 552 jail inmates support the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of the measure. The CCS was linked to cri...

  2. Construct Validation of Wenger's Support Network Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Agnes; Stephens, Christine; Allen, Joanne; Alpass, Fiona

    2016-10-07

    The study aimed to validate Wenger's empirically derived support network typology of responses to the Practitioner Assessment of Network Type (PANT) in an older New Zealander population. The configuration of network types was tested across ethnic groups and in the total sample. Data (N = 872, Mage = 67 years, SDage = 1.56 years) from the 2006 wave of the New Zealand Health, Work and Retirement study were analyzed using latent profile analysis. In addition, demographic differences among the emerging profiles were tested. Competing models were evaluated based on a range of fit criteria, which supported a five-profile solution. The "locally integrated," "community-focused," "local self-contained," "private-restricted," and "friend- and family-dependent" network types were identified as latent profiles underlying the data. There were no differences between Māori and non-Māori in final profile configurations. However, Māori were more likely to report integrated network types. Findings confirm the validity of Wenger's network types. However, the level to which participants endorse accessibility of family, frequency of interactions, and community engagement can be influenced by sample and contextual characteristics. Future research using the PANT items should empirically verify and derive the social support network types, rather than use a predefined scoring system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p

  4. Cognitive performance and electrophysiological indices of cognitive control: a validation study of conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Peter E; Larson, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    Psychiatric and neurologic disorders are associated with deficits in the postconflict recruitment of cognitive control. The primary aim of this study was to validate the relationship between cognitive functioning and indices of conflict adaptation. Event-related potentials were obtained from 89 healthy individuals who completed an Eriksen flanker task. Neuropsychological domains tested included memory, verbal fluency, and attention/executive functioning. Behavioral measures and N2 amplitudes showed significant conflict adaptation (i.e., previous-trial congruencies influenced current-trial measures). Higher scores on the attention/executive functioning and verbal fluency domains were associated with larger incongruent-trial N2 conflict adaptation; measures of cognitive functioning were not related to behavioral indices. This study provides initial validation of N2 conflict adaptation effects as cognitive function-related aspects of cognitive control. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Development and initial validation of a cognitive-based work-nonwork conflict scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedeen, Souha R; Swiercz, Paul M

    2007-06-01

    Current research related to work and life outside work specifies three types of work-nonwork conflict: time, strain, and behavior-based. Overlooked in these models is a cognitive-based type of conflict whereby individuals experience work-nonwork conflict from cognitive preoccupation with work. Four studies on six different groups (N=549) were undertaken to develop and validate an initial measure of this construct. Structural equation modeling confirmed a two-factor, nine-item scale. Hypotheses regarding cognitive-based conflict's relationship with life satisfaction, work involvement, work-nonwork conflict, and work hours were supported. The relationship with knowledge work was partially supported in that only the cognitive dimension of cognitive-based conflict was related to extent of knowledge work. Hypotheses regarding cognitive-based conflict's relationship with family demands were rejected in that the cognitive dimension correlated positively rather than negatively with number of dependent children and perceived family demands. The study provides encouraging preliminary evidence of scale validity.

  6. Cognitive task load analysis : Allocating tasks and designing support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for Cognitive Task Analysis that guides the early stages of software development, aiming at an optimal cognitive load for operators of process control systems. The method is based on a practical theory of cognitive task load and support. In addition to the classical measure

  7. Criterion and convergent validity of the Montreal cognitive assessment with screening and standardized neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Benjamin; Middleton, Laura E; Masellis, Mario; Stuss, Donald T; Harry, Robin D; Kiss, Alex; Black, Sandra E

    2013-12-01

    To compare the validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) with the criterion standard of standardized neuropsychological testing and to compare the convergent validity of the MoCA with that of existing screening tools and global measures of cognition. Cross-sectional observational study. Tertiary care hospital-based cognitive neurology subspecialty clinic. A convenience sample of 107 individuals with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=75) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=32) from the Sunnybrook Dementia Study. In addition to the MoCA, all participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), and detailed neuropsychological testing. Convergent validity was supported, with MoCA scores correlating well with the MMSE (correlation coefficient (r)=0.66, Pvalidity was supported, with MoCA subscores according to cognitive domain correlating well with analogous neuropsychological tests and, in the case of memory (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.86), executive (AUC=0.79), and visuospatial function (AUC=0.79), being reasonably sensitive to impairment in those domains. The MoCA is a valid assessment of cognition that shows good agreement with existing screening tools and global measures (convergent validity) and was superior to the MMSE in this regard. The MoCA domain-specific subscores align with performance on more-detailed neuropsychological tests, suggesting not only good criterion validity for the MoCA, but also that it may be useful in guiding further neuropsychological testing. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Measurement of Functional Cognition and Complex Everyday Activities in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia: Validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Jacqueline; Clemson, Lindy; Crawford, John D; Kochan, Nicole A; Brodaty, Henry; Reppermund, Simone

    2017-05-01

    To explore the validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen-5 (LACLS-5) as a performance-based measure of functional cognition, representing an ability to perform complex everyday activities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia living in the community. Using cross-sectional data from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, 160 community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition (CN; N = 87), MCI (N = 43), or dementia (N = 30) were studied. Functional cognition (LACLS-5), complex everyday activities (Disability Assessment for Dementia [DAD]), Assessment of Motor and Process Skills [AMPS]), and neuropsychological measures were used. Participants with dementia performed worse than CN on all clinical measures, and MCI participants were intermediate. Correlational analyses showed that LACLS-5 was most strongly related to AMPS Process scores, DAD instrumental activities of daily living subscale, Mini-Mental State Exam, Block Design, Logical Memory, and Trail Making Test B. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both cognitive (Block Design) and functional measures (AMPS Process score) and sex predicted LACLS-5 performance. Finally, LACLS-5 was able to adequately discriminate between CN and dementia and between MCI and dementia but was unable to reliably distinguish between CN and MCI. Construct validity, including convergent and discriminative validity, was supported. LACLS-5 is a valid performance-based measure for evaluating functional cognition. Discriminativevalidity is acceptable for identifying mild dementia but requires further refinement for detecting MCI. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Technology as Teammate: Examining the Role of External Cognition in Support of Team Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we advance team theory by describing how cognition occurs across the distribution of members and the artifacts and technology that support their efforts. We draw from complementary theorizing coming out of cognitive engineering and cognitive science that views forms of cognition as external and extended and integrate this with theorizing on macrocognition in teams. Two frameworks are described that provide the groundwork for advancing theory and aid in the development of more precise measures for understanding team cognition via focus on artifacts and the technologies supporting their development and use. This includes distinctions between teamwork and taskwork and the notion of general and specific competencies from the organizational sciences along with the concepts of offloading and scaffolding from the cognitive sciences. This paper contributes to the team cognition literature along multiple lines. First, it aids theory development by synthesizing a broad set of perspectives on the varied forms of cognition emerging in complex collaborative contexts. Second, it supports research by providing diagnostic guidelines to study how artifacts are related to team cognition. Finally, it supports information systems designers by more precisely describing how to conceptualize team-supporting technology and artifacts. As such, it provides a means to more richly understand process and performance as it occurs within sociotechnical systems. Our overarching objective is to show how team cognition can both be more clearly conceptualized and more precisely measured by integrating theory from cognitive engineering and the cognitive and organizational sciences.

  10. Cognitive Support using BDI Agent and Adaptive User Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Shabbir

    2012-01-01

    -known framework to measure the individual health status and functioning level. The third goal is to develop an approach for supporting for users with irrational behaviour due to cognitive impairment. To deal with this challenge, a Belief, Desire and Intention (BDI) agent based approach is proposed due to its...... mentalistic characteristics, such as autonomy, adaptivity, extensibility, and human like reasoning capability. Although, BDI is unable to reason about plans, which is important for generating plans based on the current situation to handle the irrational behaviour of the user. An integration of Partially...... Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) in the BDI agent is proposed in this thesis to handle the irrational behaviour of the user. The fourth goal represents the implementation of the research approaches and performs validation of the system through experiments. The empirical results of the experiments...

  11. Performance Monitoring Techniques Supporting Cognitive Optical Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    High degree of heterogeneity of future optical networks, such as services with different quality-of-transmission requirements, modulation formats and switching techniques, will pose a challenge for the control and optimization of different parameters. Incorporation of cognitive techniques can help...... to solve this issue by realizing a network that can observe, act, learn and optimize its performance, taking into account end-to-end goals. In this letter we present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive...... Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We focus on the approaches developed in the project for optical performance monitoring, which enable the feedback from the physical layer to the cognitive decision system by providing accurate description of the performance of the established lightpaths....

  12. Cognitive Support in Teaching Football Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Henryk

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques. Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20-21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively,…

  13. Cognitive Flexibility Supports Preschoolers' Detection of Communicative Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Randall; Nilsen, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    To become successful communicators, children must be sensitive to the clarity/ambiguity of language. Significant gains in children's ability to detect communicative ambiguity occur during the early school-age years. However, little is known about the cognitive abilities that support this development. Relations between cognitive flexibility and…

  14. Rubric Authoring Tool Supporting Cognitive Skills Assessment across an Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simper, Natalie

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores a method to support instructors in assessing cognitive skills in their course, designed to enable aggregation of data across an institution. A rubric authoring tool, "BASICS" (Building Assessment Scaffolds for Intellectual Cognitive Skills) was built as part of the Queen's University Learning Outcomes Assessment (LOA)…

  15. Development and validation of a new cognitive screening test: The Hong Kong Brief Cognitive Test (HKBC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Helen F K; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Leung, Tony; Li, S W; Chow, Paulina; Tsoh, Joshua; Yan, Connie; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wong, Mike

    2018-07-01

    To develop and examine the validity of a new brief cognitive test with less educational bias for screening cognitive impairment. A new cognitive test, Hong Kong Brief Cognitive Test (HKBC), was developed based on review of the literature, as well as the views of an expert panel. Three groups of subjects aged 65 or above were recruited after written consent: normal older people recruited in elderly centres, people with mild NCD (neurocognitive disorder), and people with major NCD. The brief cognitive test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA), were administered to the subjects. The performance of HKBC in differentiating subjects with major NCD, mild NCD, and normal older people were compared with the clinical diagnosis, as well as the MMSE and MoCA scores. In total, 359 subjects were recruited, with 99 normal controls, 132 subjects with major NCD, and 128 with mild NCD. The mean MMSE, MoCA, and HKBC scores showed significant differences among the 3 groups of subjects. In the receiving operating characteristic curve analysis of the HKBC in differentiating normal subjects from those with cognitive impairment (mild NCD + major NCD), the area under the curve was 0.955 with an optimal cut-off score of 21/22. The performances of MMSE and MoCA in differentiating normal from cognitively impaired subjects are slightly inferior to the HKBC. The HKBC is a brief instrument useful for screening cognitive impairment in older adults and is also useful in populations with low educational level. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Optimising screening for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder: Validation and evaluation of objective and subjective tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Støttrup, Mette Marie; Nayberg, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    by correlation with established objective and subjective cognitive measures, and decision validity was determined with Receiver-Operating-Characteristic analyses. Correlations and linear regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between objective and subjective cognitive impairment......Introduction Cognitive impairment is common in bipolar disorder and contributes to socio-occupational difficulties. The objective was to validate and evaluate instruments to screen for and monitor cognitive impairments, and improve the understanding of the association between cognitive measures...

  17. Development and psychometric validation of social cognitive theory scales in an oral health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly; Parker, Eleanor J; Steffens, Margaret A; Logan, Richard M; Brennan, David; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate scales reflecting potentially modifiable social cognitive theory-based risk indicators associated with homeless populations' oral health. The scales are referred to as the social cognitive theory risk scales in an oral health context (SCTOH) and are referred to as SCTOH(SE), SCTOH(K) and SCTOH(F), respectively. The three SCTOH scales assess the key constructs of social cognitive theory: self-efficacy, knowledge and fatalism. The reliability and validity of the three scales were evaluated in a convenience sample of 248 homeless participants (age range 17-78 years, 79% male) located in a metropolitan setting in Australia. The scales were supported by exploratory factor analysis and established three distinct and internally consistent domains of social cognition: oral health-related self-efficacy, oral health-related knowledge and oral health-related fatalism, with Cronbach's alphas of 0.95, 0.85 and Spearman's-Brown ρ of 0.69. Concurrent ability was confirmed by each SCTOH scale's association with oral health status in the expected directions. The three SCTOH scales appear to be internally valid and reliable. If confirmed by further research, these scales could potentially be used for tailored educational and cognitive-behavioural interventions to reduce oral health inequalities among homeless and other vulnerable populations. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Cognitive Processes in Perceptions of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Eric S.; Wyer, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Though research is exploratory, it suggests ways in which individuals' a priori beliefs in available social support might affect their reactions to new information and the mechanisms that could underlie the maintenance of these beliefs in light of that information. Evaluates implications for the stability of perceived support availability. (LSR)

  19. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination are both valid cognitive tools in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, T B; Churilov, L; Linden, T; Bernhardt, J

    2013-08-01

    To determine the validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) as screening tools for cognitive impairment after stroke. Cognitive assessments were administered over 2 sessions (1 week apart) at 3 months post-stroke. Scores on the MoCA and MMSE were evaluated against a diagnosis of cognitive impairment derived from a comprehensive neuropsychological battery (the criterion standard). Sixty patients participated in the study [mean age 72.1 years (SD = 13.9), mean education 10.5 years (SD = 3.9), median acute NIHSS score 5 (IQR 3-7)]. The MoCA yielded lower scores (median = 21, IQR = 17-24; mean = 20.0, SD = 5.4) than the MMSE (median = 26, IQR = 22-27; mean = 24.2, SD = 4.5). MMSE data were more skewed towards ceiling than MoCA data (skewness = -1.09 vs -0.73). Area under the receiver operator curve was higher for MoCA than for MMSE (0.87 vs 0.84), although this difference was not significant (χ(2) = 0.48, P = 0.49). At their optimal cut-offs, the MoCA had better sensitivity than the MMSE (0.92 vs 0.82) but poorer specificity (0.67 vs 0.76). The MoCA is a valid screening tool for post-stroke cognitive impairment; it is more sensitive but less specific than the MMSE. Contrary to the prevailing view, the MMSE also exhibited acceptable validity in this setting. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Validation of the Cuban Version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised for Screening Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broche-Pérez, Yunier; López-Pujol, Héctor Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of the Cuban version of the revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) in identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in comparison with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was assessed. The Cuban ACE-R was administered to a group of 129 elderly subjects (92 cognitively healthy and 37 subjects with MCI). The t tests for independent samples were used to compare scores of different psychometric scales between groups, and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated. Cronbach's coefficient α was used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of ACE-R to screen for MCI was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The Cuban ACE-R had reliable internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0. 879). The optimal cut-off score for ACE-R for detecting MCI was 84/85. The sensitivity and specificity of ACE-R to screen for MCI was superior to those of MMSE. The area under the ROC curve of the Cuban ACE-R was much larger than that of MMSE (0.93 and 0.63) for detecting MCI. The Cuban ACE-R is a valid screening tool for detecting cognitive impairment. It is more sensitive and accurate in screening for MCI than MMSE. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Adaptive Pulvinar Circuitry Supports Visual Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Holly; Leopold, David A; Bourne, James A

    2016-02-01

    The pulvinar is the largest thalamic nucleus in primates and one of the most mysterious. Endeavors to understand its role in vision have focused on its abundant connections with the visual cortex. While its connectivity mapping in the cortex displays a broad topographic organization, its projections are also marked by considerable convergence and divergence. As a result, the pulvinar is often regarded as a central forebrain hub. Moreover, new evidence suggests that its comparatively modest input from structures such as the retina and superior colliculus may critically shape the functional organization of the visual cortex, particularly during early development. Here we review recent studies that cast fresh light on how the many convergent pathways through the pulvinar contribute to visual cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Validity of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test as a cognition performance outcome measure for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph Hb; DeLuca, John; Phillips, Glenn; LaRocca, Nicholas; Hudson, Lynn D; Rudick, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive and motor performance measures are commonly employed in multiple sclerosis (MS) research, particularly when the purpose is to determine the efficacy of treatment. The increasing focus of new therapies on slowing progression or reversing neurological disability makes the utilization of sensitive, reproducible, and valid measures essential. Processing speed is a basic elemental cognitive function that likely influences downstream processes such as memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS. Among the MSOAC goals is acceptance and qualification by regulators of performance outcomes that are highly reliable and valid, practical, cost-effective, and meaningful to persons with MS. A critical step for these neuroperformance metrics is elucidation of clinically relevant benchmarks, well-defined degrees of disability, and gradients of change that are deemed clinically meaningful. This topical review provides an overview of research on one particular cognitive measure, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), recognized as being particularly sensitive to slowed processing of information that is commonly seen in MS. The research in MS clearly supports the reliability and validity of this test and recently has supported a responder definition of SDMT change approximating 4 points or 10% in magnitude.

  3. Nuclear data to support computer code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, S.E.; Broadhead, B.L.; DeHart, M.D.; Primm, R.T. III

    1997-04-01

    The rate of plutonium disposition will be a key parameter in determining the degree of success of the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. Estimates of the disposition rate are dependent on neutronics calculations. To ensure that these calculations are accurate, the codes and data should be validated against applicable experimental measurements. Further, before mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel can be fabricated and loaded into a reactor, the fuel vendors, fabricators, fuel transporters, reactor owners and operators, regulatory authorities, and the Department of Energy (DOE) must accept the validity of design calculations. This report presents sources of neutronics measurements that have potential application for validating reactor physics (predicting the power distribution in the reactor core), predicting the spent fuel isotopic content, predicting the decay heat generation rate, certifying criticality safety of fuel cycle facilities, and ensuring adequate radiation protection at the fuel cycle facilities and the reactor. The U.S. in-reactor experience with MOX fuel is first presented, followed by information related to other aspects of the MOX fuel performance information that is valuable to this program, but the data base remains largely proprietary. Thus, this information is not reported here. It is expected that the selected consortium will make the necessary arrangements to procure or have access to the requisite information

  4. Feasibility and validity of mobile cognitive testing in the investigation of age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Pierre; Husky, Mathilde; Allard, Michèle; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Swendsen, Joel

    2017-09-01

    Mobile cognitive testing may be used to help characterize subtle deficits at the earliest stages of cognitive decline. Despite growing interest in this approach, comprehensive information concerning its feasibility and validity has been lacking in elderly samples. Over a one-week period, this study applied mobile cognitive tests of semantic memory, episodic memory and executive functioning in a cohort of 114 elderly non-demented community residents. While the study acceptance rate was moderate (66%), the majority of recruited individuals met minimal compliance thresholds and responded to an average of 82% of the repeated daily assessments. Missing data did not increase over the course of the study, but practice effects were observed for several test scores. However, even when controlling for practice effects, traditional neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with mobile cognitive test scores. In particular, the Isaacs Set Test was associated with mobile assessments of semantic memory (γ = 0.084, t = 5.598, p mobile assessments of episodic memory (γ = 0.069, t = 3.156, p mobile assessments of executive functioning (γ = 0.168, t = 4.562, p Mobile cognitive testing in the elderly may provide complementary and potentially more sensitive data relative to traditional neuropsychological assessment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight in a Sample of Highly Educated Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tyler M; Basner, Mathias; Nasrini, Jad; Hermosillo, Emanuel; Kabadi, Sushila; Roalf, David R; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Ruparel, Kosha; Port, Allison M; Jackson, Chad T; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-10-01

    Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions. We administered Cognition (on laptop and iPad) and the WinSCAT, counterbalanced for order and version, in a sample of 96 subjects (50% women; ages 25-56 yr) with at least a Master's degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). We assessed the associations of age, sex, and administration device with neurocognitive performance, and compared the scores on the Cognition battery with those of WinSCAT. Confirmatory factor analysis compared the structure of the iPad and laptop administration methods using Wald tests. Age was associated with longer response times (mean β = 0.12) and less accurate (mean β = -0.12) performance, women had longer response times on psychomotor (β = 0.62), emotion recognition (β = 0.30), and visuo-spatial (β = 0.48) tasks, men outperformed women on matrix reasoning (β = -0.34), and performance on an iPad was generally faster (mean β = -0.55). The WinSCAT appeared heavily loaded with tasks requiring executive control, whereas Cognition assessed a larger variety of neurocognitive domains. Overall results supported the interpretation of Cognition scores as measuring their intended constructs in high performing astronaut analog samples.Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, Kabadi S, Roalf DR, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Ruparel K, Port AM, Jackson CT, Dinges DF, Gur RC. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for spaceflight in a sample of highly educated adults. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):937-946.

  6. The Structure and Validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.

    2012-01-01

    The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…

  7. A model of individualized canonical microcircuits supporting cognitive operations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kunze

    Full Text Available Major cognitive functions such as language, memory, and decision-making are thought to rely on distributed networks of a large number of basic elements, called canonical microcircuits. In this theoretical study we propose a novel canonical microcircuit model and find that it supports two basic computational operations: a gating mechanism and working memory. By means of bifurcation analysis we systematically investigate the dynamical behavior of the canonical microcircuit with respect to parameters that govern the local network balance, that is, the relationship between excitation and inhibition, and key intrinsic feedback architectures of canonical microcircuits. We relate the local behavior of the canonical microcircuit to cognitive processing and demonstrate how a network of interacting canonical microcircuits enables the establishment of spatiotemporal sequences in the context of syntax parsing during sentence comprehension. This study provides a framework for using individualized canonical microcircuits for the construction of biologically realistic networks supporting cognitive operations.

  8. The Online Social Support Scale: Measure development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Elizabeth A; Cole, David A; Cho, Sun-Joo; Smith, Darcy K; Carter, T Grace; Zelkowitz, Rachel L

    2018-05-21

    A new measure, the Online Social Support Scale, was developed based on previous theory, research, and measurement of in-person social support. It includes four subscales: Esteem/Emotional Support, Social Companionship, Informational Support, and Instrumental Support. In college and community samples, factor analytic and item response theory results suggest that subtypes of in-person social support also pertain in the online world. Evidence of reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity provide excellent psychometric support for the measure. Construct validity accrues to the measure vis-à-vis support for three hypotheses: (a) Various broad types of Internet platforms for social interactions are differentially associated with online social support and online victimization; (b) similar to in-person social support, online social support offsets the adverse effect of negative life events on self-esteem and depression-related outcome; and (c) online social support counteracts the effects of online victimization in much the same way that in-person friends in one social niche counterbalance rejection in other social niches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Reliability, Validity, and Predictive Utility of the 25-Item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Furukawa, Emi; Kopelovich, Sarah; Meyer, Patrick; Cosby, Brandon

    2012-10-01

    Theory, research, and clinical reports suggest that moral cognitions play a role in initiating and sustaining criminal behavior. The 25 item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) was designed to tap 5 dimensions: Notions of entitlement; Failure to Accept Responsibility; Short-Term Orientation; Insensitivity to Impact of Crime; and Negative Attitudes Toward Authority. Results from 552 jail inmates support the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of the measure. The CCS was linked to criminal justice system involvement, self-report measures of aggression, impulsivity, and lack of empathy. Additionally, the CCS was associated with violent criminal history, antisocial personality, and clinicians' ratings of risk for future violence and psychopathy (PCL:SV). Furthermore, criminogenic thinking upon incarceration predicted subsequent official reports of inmate misconduct during incarceration. CCS scores varied somewhat by gender and race. Research and applied uses of CCS are discussed.

  10. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.

    OpenAIRE

    Benedict, R; Amato, Mp; Boringa, J; Brochet, B; Foley, F; Fredrikson, S; Hamalainen, P; Hartung, H; Krupp, L; Penner, I; Reder, A; Langdon, D.

    2012-01-01

    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different langu...

  11. Social Support Questionnaire for Children: Development and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Thompson, Julia E.; Geary, Meghan A.; Schexnaildre, Mark A.; Lai, Betty S.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2016-01-01

    The Social Support Questionnaire for Children (SSQC) is a 50-item scale that assesses children's social support from parents, relatives, nonrelative adults, siblings, and peers. The SSQC demonstrates good psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency, factorial validity). Furthermore, the SSQC appears to be an ethnically sensitive measure of…

  12. Validation of the Turkish Version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale–Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Bozkurt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study explored the psychometric properties of the newly designed Turkish version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale–Revised (CTAR. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed an unidimensional structure consistent with the conceptualized nature of cognitive test anxiety and previous examinations of the English version of the CTAR. Examination of the factor loadings revealed two items that were weakly related to the test anxiety construct and as such were prime candidates for removal. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to compare model fit for the 25- and 23-item version of the measure. Results indicated that the 23-item version of the measure provided a better fit to the data which support the removal of the problematic items in the Turkish version of the CTAR. Additional analyses demonstrated the internal consistency, test–retest reliability, concurrent validity, and gender equivalence for responses offered on the Turkish version of the measure. Results of the analysis revealed a 23-item Turkish version of the T-CTAR is a valid and reliable measure of cognitive test anxiety for use among Turkish students.

  13. Position Paper: Designing Complex Systems to Support Interdisciplinary Cognitive Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Melissa T.; Papalambros, Panos Y.; Mcgowan, Anna-Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper argues that the field we can call cognitive science of interdisciplinary collaboration is an important area of study for improving design of Large-Scale Complex Systems (LaCES) and supporting cognitive work. The paper mostly raised questions that have been documented in earlier qualitative analysis studies, and provided possible avenues of exploration for addressing them. There are likely further contributions from additional disciplines beyond those mentioned in this paper that should be considered and integrated into such a cognitive science framework. Knowledge and awareness of various perspectives will help to inform the types of interventions available for improving LaCES design and functionality. For example, a cognitive interpretation of interdisciplinary collaborations in LaCES elucidated the need for a "translator" or "mediator" in helping subject matter experts to transcend language boundaries, mitigate single discipline bias, support integrative activities, and correct misaligned objectives. Additional research in this direction is likely to uncover similar gaps and opportunities for improvements in practice.

  14. Cognitive visualization as a support instrument by individual education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Uglev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of individual education, as the most effective form of gaining domain knowledge can be intensified through the organizational methods (involving a tutor, hardware (using computing technology, and psychological techniques (in particular, applying a cognitive visual representation. Of particular interest is a combination of traditional and computer-aided tutor support for individualized learning approaches based on the specific means of mapping.A tutor is an intermediary between a student (pupil and a teacher or between a student and a knowledge source in case of self-learning to orient the educational process to the student's personal goals and implement the L. S. Vygotsky's mediation principle. Thus, the tutor faces a task to identify the personal learning goals, disclose the learning prospects and its supports, but the student plays a role of a decision-maker. One of the nuclear problems of tutorage is making an individual educational or didactic path, which expects making a kind of distinctive cognition route.An application of cognitive visualization as a tutor's tools, is aimed, primarily, at a comprehensive representation of subjective educational student's space. A student has to be oriented inside this space to reach the denoted goals. In this context it is possible to formulate the navigation problem, which may be solved it in the most rational way by educational space mapping and navigating in it at any moment of the educational process. All three basic qualities of maps (the presence of different spatial objects in the corresponding metric, vector and scale can be usefully applied to support an individualized learning process.The paper shows that personality-resource maps can be used for describing the learning situation and building an individual study program in graphical form when the specifics of direct individualized learning is taken into account. Performing both the implementation function and the signum one, a

  15. [Cognition-correlation indices of gender schema: tests of validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, E

    1994-02-01

    Four-hundred and seventy-seven subjects evaluated a set of traits and behaviors in terms of how masculine and feminine they were and in terms of how well they represented their real and ideal self-images. Within-individual correlation coefficients between these evaluations were proposed as measures of psychological gender schemata, because they would represent the degree of matching between the subjects' gender-image and ideal/real self-images of gender-related attributes. The present study aims at examining the construct validity of these measures, by testing them to psychological variables that are known to reflect gender identity. The individual difference variables used as criteria were (a) satisfaction with one's own sex, (b) general happiness, (c) self-esteem (d) gender-conflict, and (e) school and occupational achievement need. Correlations between the gender-schema indices and the criteria variables supported the construct validity of those measures. Advantages of the present measurement over the conventional simple trait approach, such as BSRI, or PAQ are discussed.

  16. Social Validity of a Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane

    2011-01-01

    As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…

  17. The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    emotional exhaustion were also gathered from employees in a variety of South African ... the cognitive and affective dimensions of job insecurity could be distinguished ...... from the perception of an external reality, whereas the affective response represents an internal .... 'Differentiating cognitive and affective job insecurity: ...

  18. Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): Validity as a co-primary measure of cognition across phases of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ered, Arielle; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Nuechterlein, Keith H

    2016-04-01

    Progress has been made in developing interview-based measures for the assessment of cognitive functioning, such as the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), as co-primary measures that compliment objective neurocognitive assessments and daily functioning. However, a few questions remain, including whether the relationships with objective cognitive measures and daily functioning are high enough to justify the CAI as an co-primary measure and whether patient-only assessments are valid. Participants were first-episode schizophrenia patients (n=60) and demographically-similar healthy controls (n=35), chronic schizophrenia patients (n=38) and demographically similar healthy controls (n=19). Participants were assessed at baseline with an interview-based measure of cognitive functioning (CAI), a test of objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and role functioning at baseline, and in the first episode patients again 6 months later (n=28). CAI ratings were correlated with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcomes in first-episode schizophrenia patients at similar magnitudes as in chronic patients. Comparisons of first-episode and chronic patients with healthy controls indicated that the CAI sensitively detected deficits in schizophrenia. The relationship of CAI Patient-Only ratings with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and daily functioning were comparable to CAI Rater scores that included informant information. These results confirm in an independent sample the relationship of the CAI ratings with objectively measured cognition, functional capacity, and role functioning. Comparison of schizophrenia patients with healthy controls further validates the CAI as an co-primary measure of cognitive deficits. Also, CAI change scores were strongly related to objective cognitive change indicating sensitivity to change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validity of Montreal Cognitive Assessment in non-english speaking patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Syam; Justus, Sunitha; Meluveettil, Radhamani; Menon, Ramshekhar N; Sarma, Sankara P; Kishore, Asha

    2015-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is a brief and easy screening tool for accurately testing cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. We tested its validity for use in non-English (Malayalam) speaking patients with Parkinson's disease. We developed a Malayalam (a south-Indian language) version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment and applied to 70 patients with Parkinson's disease and 60 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Metric properties were assessed, and the scores were compared with the performance in validated Malayalam versions of Mini Mental Status Examination and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Malayalam showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability and its scores correlated with Mini Mental Status Examination (patients: R = 0.70; P speaking Parkinson's disease patients for early screening and potential future interventions for cognitive dysfunction.

  20. The influence of social support on cognitive impairment in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of social support on cognitive impairment among elderly Malaysians. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted using a representative sample for Penang, Malaysia. The Elderly Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire (ECAQ was used to screen for cognitive impairment and Oslo-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3 was used to measure social support.

  1. Independent validation of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic/Cognitive and Validity scales in TBI Litigants tested for effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngjohn, James R; Wershba, Rebecca; Stevenson, Matthew; Sturgeon, John; Thomas, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) is replacing the MMPI-2 as the most widely used personality test in neuropsychological assessment, but additional validation studies are needed. Our study examines MMPI-2-RF Validity scales and the newly created Somatic/Cognitive scales in a recently reported sample of 82 traumatic brain injury (TBI) litigants who either passed or failed effort tests (Thomas & Youngjohn, 2009). The restructured Validity scales FBS-r (restructured symptom validity), F-r (restructured infrequent responses), and the newly created Fs (infrequent somatic responses) were not significant predictors of TBI severity. FBS-r was significantly related to passing or failing effort tests, and Fs and F-r showed non-significant trends in the same direction. Elevations on the Somatic/Cognitive scales profile (MLS-malaise, GIC-gastrointestinal complaints, HPC-head pain complaints, NUC-neurological complaints, and COG-cognitive complaints) were significant predictors of effort test failure. Additionally, HPC had the anticipated paradoxical inverse relationship with head injury severity. The Somatic/Cognitive scales as a group were better predictors of effort test failure than the RF Validity scales, which was an unexpected finding. MLS arose as the single best predictor of effort test failure of all RF Validity and Somatic/Cognitive scales. Item overlap analysis revealed that all MLS items are included in the original MMPI-2 Hy scale, making MLS essentially a subscale of Hy. This study validates the MMPI-2-RF as an effective tool for use in neuropsychological assessment of TBI litigants.

  2. Feasibility and validity of the self-administered computerized assessment of mild cognitive impairment with older primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Mary C; Naglie, Gary; Upshur, Ross; Moineddin, Rahim; Charles, Jocelyn; Jaakkimainen, R Liisa

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether a validated computerized cognitive test, the Computerized Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI), could be independently completed by older primary care patients. We also determined the optimal cut-off for the CAMCI global risk score for mild cognitive impairment against an independent neuropsychological reference standard. All eligible patients aged 65 years and older, seen consecutively over 2 months by 1 family practice of 13 primary care physicians, were invited to participate. Patients with a diagnosis or previous work-up for dementia were excluded. Primary care physicians indicated whether they, the patient, or family had concerns about each patient's cognition. A total of 130 patients with cognitive concerns and a matched sample of 133 without cognitive concerns were enrolled. The CAMCI was individually administered after instructions to work independently. Comments were recorded verbatim. A total of 259 (98.5%) completed the entire CAMCI. Two hundred and forty-one (91.6%) completed it without any questions or after simple acknowledgment of their question. Lack of computer experience was the only patient characteristic that decreased the odds of independent CAMCI completion. These results support the feasibility of using self-administered computerized cognitive tests with older primary care patients, given the increasing reliance on computers by people of all ages. The optimal cut-off score had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 74%.

  3. Evaluating the effects of cognitive support on psychiatric clinical comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalai, Venkata V; Khalid, Sana; Gottipati, Dinesh; Kannampallil, Thomas; John, Vineeth; Blatter, Brett; Patel, Vimla L; Cohen, Trevor

    2014-10-01

    Clinicians' attention is a precious resource, which in the current healthcare practice is consumed by the cognitive demands arising from complex patient conditions, information overload, time pressure, and the need to aggregate and synthesize information from disparate sources. The ability to organize information in ways that facilitate the generation of effective diagnostic solutions is a distinguishing characteristic of expert physicians, suggesting that automated systems that organize clinical information in a similar manner may augment physicians' decision-making capabilities. In this paper, we describe the design and evaluation of a theoretically driven cognitive support system (CSS) that assists psychiatrists in their interpretation of clinical cases. The system highlights, and provides the means to navigate to, text that is organized in accordance with a set of diagnostically and therapeutically meaningful higher-level concepts. To evaluate the interface, 16 psychiatry residents interpreted two clinical case scenarios, with and without the CSS. Think-aloud protocols captured during their interpretation of the cases were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively. In addition, the frequency and relative position of content related to key higher-level concepts in a verbal summary of the case were evaluated. In addition the transcripts from both groups were compared to an expert derived reference standard using latent semantic analysis (LSA). Qualitative analysis showed that users of the system better attended to specific clinically important aspects of both cases when these were highlighted by the system, and revealed ways in which the system mediates hypotheses generation and evaluation. Analysis of the summary data showed differences in emphasis with and without the system. The LSA analysis suggested users of the system were more "expert-like" in their emphasis, and that cognitive support was more effective in the more complex case. Cognitive support impacts

  4. Validation of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status and Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment Against Detailed Cognitive Testing and Clinical Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietemann, Vera; Kopczak, Anna; Müller, Claudia; Wollenweber, Frank Arne; Dichgans, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of cognitive status poststroke is recommended by guidelines but follow-up can often not be done in person. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS) and the Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (T-MoCA) are considered useful screening instruments. Yet, evidence to define optimal cut-offs for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) after stroke is limited. We studied 105 patients enrolled in the prospective DEDEMAS study (Determinants of Dementia After Stroke; NCT01334749). Follow-up visits at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months included comprehensive neuropsychological testing and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, both of which served as reference standards. The original TICS and T-MoCA were obtained in 2 separate telephone interviews each separated from the personal visits by 1 week (1 before and 1 after the visit) with the order of interviews (TICS versus T-MoCA) alternating between subjects. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves was determined. Ninety-six patients completed both the face-to-face visits and the 2 interviews. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves ranged between 0.76 and 0.83 for TICS and between 0.73 and 0.94 for T-MoCA depending on MCI definition. For multidomain MCI defined by multiple-tests definition derived from comprehensive neuropsychological testing optimal sensitivities and specificities were achieved at cut-offs <36 (TICS) and <18 (T-MoCA). Validity was lower using single-test definition, and cut-offs were higher compared with multiple-test definitions. Using Clinical Dementia Rating as the reference, optimal cut-offs for MCI were <36 (TICS) and approximately 19 (T-MoCA). Both the TICS and T-MoCA are valid screening tools poststroke, particularly for multidomain MCI using multiple-test definition. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Performance of a cognitive load inventory during simulated handoffs: Evidence for validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John Q; Boscardin, Christy K; van Dijk, Savannah M; Abdullah, Ruqayyah; Irby, David M; Sewell, Justin L; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2016-01-01

    Advancing patient safety during handoffs remains a public health priority. The application of cognitive load theory offers promise, but is currently limited by the inability to measure cognitive load types. To develop and collect validity evidence for a revised self-report inventory that measures cognitive load types during a handoff. Based on prior published work, input from experts in cognitive load theory and handoffs, and a think-aloud exercise with residents, a revised Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs was developed. The Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs has items for intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load. Students who were second- and sixth-year students recruited from a Dutch medical school participated in four simulated handoffs (two simple and two complex cases). At the end of each handoff, study participants completed the Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs, Paas' Cognitive Load Scale, and one global rating item for intrinsic load, extraneous load, and germane load, respectively. Factor and correlational analyses were performed to collect evidence for validity. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single factor that combined intrinsic and germane loads. The extraneous load items performed poorly and were removed from the model. The score from the combined intrinsic and germane load items associated, as predicted by cognitive load theory, with a commonly used measure of overall cognitive load (Pearson's r = 0.83, p load during handoffs may be measured via a self-report measure. Additional work is required to develop an adequate measure of extraneous load.

  6. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a cognitive screening test developed to detect dementia. It has been validated in several countries. Validation studies have predominantly included patients with various degrees of dementia and healthy controls. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... (MMSE >or=20), 30 non-demented patients diagnosed with depression (originally referred for evaluation of cognitive symptoms), and 63 healthy volunteers, all between 60 and 85 years of age, were included. All patients were given the ACE as a supplement to the standard diagnostic work-up. RESULTS: The cut...

  7. Validation analysis of informant's ratings of cognitive function in African Americans and Nigerians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianzhao; Gao, Sujuan; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Gureje, Oye; Hendrie, Hugh C.; Hall, Kathleen S.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives To examine informant validity using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSI ‘D’) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally in two very different cultures and to explore the effects of informants and study participants’ characteristics on the validity of informants’ reports. Methods Elderly African Americans age 65 years and older residing in Indianapolis, USA and elderly Yoruba Nigerians age 65 years and older residing in Ibadan, Nigeria were assessed on cognitive functioning using the CSI ‘D’ at baseline (1992–1993) and five-year follow-up (1997–1998). At baseline, the informant validity in both samples was evaluated against participants’ cognitive tests using Pearson correlation and regular regression models. At follow-up, informants ratings on cognitive decline were assessed against participants’ cognitive decline scores from baseline to follow-up using biserial correlation and logistic regressions. Results At baseline, informants’ reports on cognitive functioning significantly correlated with cognitive scores in both samples (Indianapolis:r = –0.43, p Yoruba Nigerians. At follow-up, informants’ ratings on cognitive decline significantly correlated with the cognitive decline scores (Indianapolis r = 0.38, p cultures, languages and environments. PMID:16802282

  8. The Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): development and validation of an empirically derived, brief interview-based measure of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Reise, Steven P; Keefe, Richard S E; Baade, Lyle E; Gold, James M; Green, Michael F; Kern, Robert S; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Seidman, Larry J; Bilder, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Practical, reliable "real world" measures of cognition are needed to supplement neurocognitive performance data to evaluate possible efficacy of new drugs targeting cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Because interview-based measures of cognition offer one possible approach, data from the MATRICS initiative (n=176) were used to examine the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) and the Clinical Global Impression of Cognition in Schizophrenia (CGI-CogS). We used classical test theory methods and item response theory to derive the 10-item Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI) from the SCoRS and CGI-CogS ("parent instruments"). Sources of information for CAI ratings included the patient and an informant. Validity analyses examined the relationship between the CAI and objective measures of cognitive functioning, intermediate measures of cognition, and functional outcome. The rater's score from the newly derived CAI (10 items) correlate highly (r=.87) with those from the combined set of the SCoRS and CGI-CogS (41 items). Both the patient (r=.82) and the informant (r=.95) data were highly correlated with the rater's score. The CAI was modestly correlated with objectively measured neurocognition (r=-.32), functional capacity (r=-.44), and functional outcome (r=-.32), which was comparable to the parent instruments. The CAI allows for expert judgment in evaluating a patient's cognitive functioning and was modestly correlated with neurocognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcome. The CAI is a brief, repeatable, and potentially valuable tool for rating cognition in schizophrenia patients who are participating in clinical trials. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We administered a short version of the measure of job insecurity originally devised by De Witte (2000), which distinguishes between cognitive and affective job insecurity. Data on job satisfaction, commitment, psychological ill-health and emotional exhaustion were also gathered from employees in a variety of South African ...

  10. Group treatment for trichotillomania: cognitive-behavioral therapy versus supportive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Edson Luiz; De Togni Muniz, Enilde; Brito, Antônio Marcelo Cabrita; de Abreu, Cristiano Nabuco; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-04-01

    Trichotillomania is a psychiatric condition characterized by the chronic pulling and plucking of one's own hair. Cognitive-behavioral therapy shows promise as a treatment for trichotillomania and might be preferable to pharmacotherapy. However, there have been no randomized, controlled studies of the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We evaluated 44 subjects, recruited from April 2009 to May 2010, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of trichotillomania. Subjects were randomized to receive 22 sessions of either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group supportive therapy (control). Treatment evaluation was non-blind and used self-report scales. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of hair-plucking behavior as assessed by the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale. Secondary measures included scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. Both groups showed significant posttreatment improvement in the scores from the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale (F = 23.762, P behavior over time was significantly greater in the study group than in the control group (F = 3.545, P cognitive-behavioral therapy is a valid treatment for trichotillomania. This treatment model should be further revised and expanded to address comorbidities such as anxiety and social maladjustment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01968343. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Reliability and validity of two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnco, Carly; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2014-12-01

    Neuropsychological testing currently represents the gold standard in assessing cognitive flexibility. However, this format presents some challenges in terms of time and skills required for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility have been developed to measure aspects of cognitive flexibility in everyday settings, although neither has been validated in an older sample. In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of 2 self-report measures of cognitive flexibility, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI; Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010) and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS; Martin & Rubin, 1995), against neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility in a clinical sample of 47 older adults with comorbid anxiety and depression and a nonclinical sample of 53 community-dwelling older adults. Internal consistency was good for the CFS and CFI in all samples. The clinical sample reported poorer cognitive flexibility than did the nonclinical sample on self-report measures and performed more poorly on some neuropsychological measures. There was evidence of convergent validity between the 2 self-report measures but little relationship between the self-report and neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility, suggesting that self-report measures assess a different aspect of cognitive flexibility than does neuropsychological testing. Divergent validity was weak from measures of anxiety and depression in the combined and nonclinical samples but acceptable in the clinical sample. Results suggest that these measures are suitable for use with an older adult sample but do not assess the same aspects of cognitive flexibility as are assessed by neuropsychological assessment. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Computer games supporting cognitive behaviour therapy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic computer games might enhance children's motivation for psychotherapy, facilitate their understanding of important therapeutic concepts, structure therapy sessions, enhance treatment of migrant children and disseminate evidence-based treatment approaches. The game Treasure Hunt was developed to support cognitive behaviour therapy with children who come into treatment for various mental health problems. To evaluate the applicability and appropriateness of the game, 124 therapists answered a questionnaire on their impression of Treasure Hunt three months after download. Of these, 42 consented to participate in the further evaluation and sent questionnaires of 218 children in whose therapy Treasure Hunt had been used. A limitation of these data is an eventual positive bias, as therapists with a positive attitude towards therapeutic computer games may have been more likely to participate. Data show that the vast majority of children were satisfied their therapist had used the game during treatment. Therapists used Treasure Hunt for a broad range of diagnoses. They judged the game as helpful in the explanation of cognitive-behavioural concepts, used it as reinforcement and reported it enhanced child motivation for psychotherapy and strengthened the therapeutic relationship with the child.

  13. Cognitive development support of adolescents in the family and school environment

    OpenAIRE

    Šíchová, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The thesis introduces a theme of cognitive development support of adolescents in the school and family environment. The first part defines the age group of adolescents which is described with particular emphasis on cognitive abilities. The following section explains the basic prerequisite for the development of cognitive abilities, about the theory of structural cognitive modifiability. The second part describes selected methods of cognitive development promotion. It includes approaches used ...

  14. The validity of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Katie; Hacker, Vicki; Lincoln, Nadina Berrice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the validity of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) as a screening measure to detect cognitive impairment after stroke. Stroke patients in hospital were recruited and the ACE-R, which includes the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), was administered, followed by a battery of neuropsychological tests, which served as the 'gold standard' for classification of cognitive impairment. The diagnostic validity of the ACE-R was determined by ROC analysis. Of the 101 patients who completed the ACE-R, 61 also completed the neuropsychological assessment. Both the MMSE and the ACE-R were found to have inadequate diagnostic validity for the detection of overall cognitive impairment (MMSE AUC = 0.53, p > 0.05; ACE-R AUC = 0.53, p > 0.05). The ACE-R subscales predicted impairment in specific cognitive domains significantly better than chance; Visuospatial (AUC = 0.71, p cognitive functioning. The ACE-R was not a suitable measure to screen for overall cognitive impairment in acute stroke patients, but was able to detect impairment in visuospatial, attention and executive domains.

  15. An evaluation of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy sessions for people with dementia and a concomitant support group for their carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jan; Kingston, Paul; Alford, Simon; Taylor, Louise; Tolhurst, Edward

    2017-11-01

    This research aimed to ascertain the impact of a pragmatic Cognitive Stimulation Therapy course of 10 sessions on the cognitive function of people living with dementia and whether attending a concomitant carers support group was beneficial to carers. A mixed method quasi-experimental approach was adopted; data were collected pre- and post-intervention. The quantitative arm utilised three validated questionnaires rated by the carers. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with carers regarding their perceptions of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and the carers support group. Quantitative data analysis found no statistically significant differences within or between groups. The qualitative data demonstrated that carers perceived Cognitive Stimulation Therapy had some benefits for the people living with dementia, especially social benefits. Carers also perceived that attending the carers support group was beneficial for them in terms of gaining a better understanding of dementia, developing coping skills and having peer support. The study was limited in scale and further research with a larger sample, using direct measures of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy with people living with dementia and supplementary research exploring which characteristic of carers support groups are effective would be worthwhile.

  16. Testing the Validity of a Cognitive Behavioral Model for Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian Po S; Loo, Jasmine M Y; Tsai, Jung-Shun

    2016-06-01

    Currently, cognitive behavioral therapies appear to be one of the most studied treatments for gambling problems and studies show it is effective in treating gambling problems. However, cognitive behavior models have not been widely tested using statistical means. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior using structural equation modeling (AMOS 20). Several questionnaires assessing a range of gambling specific variables (e.g., gambling urges, cognitions and behaviors) and gambling correlates (e.g., psychological states, and coping styles) were distributed to 969 participants from the community. Results showed that negative psychological states (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) only directly predicted gambling behavior, whereas gambling urges predicted gambling behavior directly as well as indirectly via gambling cognitions. Avoidance coping predicted gambling behavior only indirectly via gambling cognitions. Negative psychological states were significantly related to gambling cognitions as well as avoidance coping. In addition, significant gender differences were also found. The results provided confirmation for the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior. It also highlighted the importance of gender differences in conceptualizing gambling behavior.

  17. Validation of the fatigue scale for motor and cognitive functions in a danish multiple sclerosis cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oervik, M. S.; Sejbaek, T.; Penner, I. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Our objective was to validate the Danish translation of the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Materials and methods A Danish MS cohort (n = 84) was matched and compared to the original German validation cohort (n = 309) and a he......Background Our objective was to validate the Danish translation of the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Materials and methods A Danish MS cohort (n = 84) was matched and compared to the original German validation cohort (n = 309...... positive correlations between the two fatigue scales implied high convergent validity (total scores: r = 0.851, p gender). Correcting for depression did not result in any significant adjustments of the correlations...

  18. A Validation Study of the Japanese Version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos Kawata, Kelssy Hitomi; Hashimoto, Ryusaku; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Atsuko; Ogawa, Nanayo; Kanno, Shigenori; Hiraoka, Kotaro; Yokoi, Kayoko; Iizuka, Osamu; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) [Mori: Japanese Edition of Hodges JR’s Cognitive Assessment for Clinicians, 2010] designed to detect dementia, and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination. The ACE-R was administered to 85 healthy individuals and 126 patients with dementia. The reliability assessment revealed a strong correlation in both groups. The internal consistenc...

  19. [Validation of the Russian version of the modified Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, O S; Lavrov, A Yu; Lyashenko, Е А; Vasenina, E E; Trusova, N A; Datieva, V K; Makotrova, T A; Pilipenko, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of the Russian version of the modified Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE-m) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. ACE-m and MMSE, as a comparison scale, were administered to 78 patients including 49 patients with AD and 29 healthy people. ACE-m demonstrated the high validity in the diagnosis of dementia in AD. Cronbach's alpha was 0.89. ACE-m is a brief and simple in use test that measures a wide spectrum of cognitive functions, gives a general impression about cognitive deficit and diagnoses dementia in AD with the greater validity compared to MMSE. This scale is useful not only in diagnosis of AD but also in differentiation with other causes of dementia.

  20. Development and initial validation of a brief self-report measure of cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Anna L; Schilling, Stephen G; Goesling, Jenna; Williams, David A

    2015-06-01

    Pain is often the focus of research and clinical care in fibromyalgia (FM); however, cognitive dysfunction is also a common, distressing, and disabling symptom in FM. Current efforts to address this problem are limited by the lack of a comprehensive, valid measure of subjective cognitive dysfunction in FM that is easily interpretable, accessible, and brief. The purpose of this study was to leverage cognitive functioning item banks that were developed as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) to devise a 10-item short form measure of cognitive functioning for use in FM. In study 1, a nationwide (U.S.) sample of 1,035 adults with FM (age range = 18-82, 95.2% female) completed 2 cognitive item pools. Factor analyses and item response theory analyses were used to identify dimensionality and optimally performing items. A recommended 10-item measure, called the Multidimensional Inventory of Subjective Cognitive Impairment (MISCI) was created. In study 2, 232 adults with FM completed the MISCI and a legacy measure of cognitive functioning that is used in FM clinical trials, the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ). The MISCI showed excellent internal reliability, low ceiling/floor effects, and good convergent validity with the MASQ (r = -.82). This paper presents the MISCI, a 10-item measure of cognitive dysfunction in FM, developed through classical test theory and item response theory. This brief but comprehensive measure shows evidence of excellent construct validity through large correlations with a lengthy legacy measure of cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suitability Screening Test for Marine Corps Air Traffic Controllers Phase 3: Non-cognitive Test Validation and Cognitive Test Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    developed, pilot tested, and in its Beta form. Findings or Results The subset of NCAPS traits that demonstrated statistically significant prediction for...development and initial pilot testing of the Prototype Marine ATC Cognitive Test. Method The validation approach chosen for this project was a criterion... multitasking ability, and 5) inductive reasoning ability. A working memory capacity test was developed because working memory has been linked to

  2. Reliability and Validity of the Resistiveness to Care Scale Among Cognitively Impaired Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galik, Elizabeth; Resnick, Barbara; Vigne, Erin; Holmes, Sarah Dee; Nalls, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Resistiveness to care is behavior that prevents or interferes with caregivers' performing or assisting with activities of daily living and puts residents at risk for inappropriate use of antipsychotic drugs, other restraining interventions, social isolation, and physical abuse. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of a previously developed Resistiveness to Care measure. This was a descriptive study using baseline data from an ongoing randomized controlled trial testing a Function and Behavior Focused Care (FBFC) intervention. Residents were eligible to participate if they were 55 years of age or older, had a Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score of 15 or less, and were not enrolled in hospice or admitted for subacute care. Descriptive information included age, race, gender, cognitive status, and marital status. In addition to the Resistance to Care Scale, the Barthel Index, the Physical Activity Survey in Long Term Care (PAS-LTC), and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) were completed. Psychometric testing was done using Rasch analysis and the Winsteps statistical program. The participants were moderate to severely cognitively impaired (MMSE of 7.23), functionally dependent (Barthel Index 47.31, SD 27.59), and engaged in only 134.17 (SD = 207.32) minutes of physical activity daily. Reliability was supported based on a Cronbach alpha of 0.84 and the DIF analysis, as there was no difference in function of the items between male and female participants. Validity was supported as all items fit the measurement model based on INFIT and OUTFIT statistics. The findings support the reliability and validity of the Resistiveness to Care Scale for use with older adults with dementia in nursing home settings. Future work with the measure may benefit from the addition of items that are easier to endorse with regard to resistiveness to care (shutting eyes or spitting out food may be useful additions). Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The

  3. Assessment of validity of an OSATS for cystoscopic and ureteroscopic cognitive and psychomotor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Thekke Adiyat; Pedro, Renato N; Monga, Manoj; Sweet, Robert M

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the construct validity of an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) developed for cystoscopic and ureteroscopic cognitive and psychomotor skills. An OSATS was designed based on a 14-point comprehensive curriculum prepared by two experts that targeted both cognitive and psychomotor cystoscopic and ureteroscopic skills. Ten urology residents from a single institution with different levels of training were assessed on a series of stations that targeted these skills. Evaluation of cognitive skills was done via a written examination, and psychomotor skills assessment was done by experts using both subjective and objective metrics. Twelve of 15 cognitive tasks and 5 of 5 psychomotor tasks demonstrated construct validity with correlation coefficient (r) more than .75. All three of the cognitive tasks that failed to initially demonstrate validity did so on editorial revision and restructuring of the questions. Our cystoscopic and ureteroscopic OSATS showed excellent construct validity for our population of residents, and we have incorporated it into our urologic skills curriculum.

  4. Validation of the Dutch version of the quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci-D).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bunt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from dementia is important, as treatment options differ. There are few short (<5 min) but accurate screening tools that discriminate between MCI, normal cognition (NC) and dementia, in the Dutch language. The Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen is sensitive and specific in differentiating MCI from NC and mild dementia. Given this, we adapted the Qmci for use in Dutch-language countries and validated the Dutch version, the Qmci-D, against the Dutch translation of the Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE-D).

  5. Construct validity of a revised Physical Activity Scale and testing by cognitive interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise G; Groenvold, Mogens; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    ), previously found to overestimate physical activity. RESULTS: Cognitive interviewing revealed few problems in the questions on physical activity in different domains. No problems regarding the structure of the questionnaire were identified. The agreement between PAS 1 and PAS 2 MET-scores was high among...... was evaluated by cognitive interviewing in 16 Danish men and women aged 21-70 years. Construct validity was validated in 342 men and women aged 35-66 years by assessing agreement between 24-h MET-scores obtained from average weekly physical activity measured by PAS 2 and a 24-h Physical Activity Scale (PAS 1...

  6. Validation of the modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-m) in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Werner, Perla; Davidson, Michael; Schmidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy

    2003-05-01

    The validity of the Hebrew version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-Modified (TICS-m) for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), for dementia, and for cognitive impairment (either MCI or dementia) was investigated. Of the 10 059 who took part of the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease Cohort, 1902 of the 2901 survivors in 1999 had TICS-m interviews. Those with a score of 27 or below and a random sample with a score of 28 or 29 were invited to have a physician's examination for the diagnosis of dementia. The analysis was performed on the 576 who agreed. Based on physician's diagnosis, 269 were diagnosed as suffering from dementia, 128 as suffering from MCI, and 179 were diagnosed with no cognitive impairment. The TICS-m Hebrew version's internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98) and showed a strong convergent validity with the MMSE (r = 0.82; p education and hearing impairment, TICS-m was a strong predictor of dementia, MCI and cognitive impairment. At a cut-off of 27/50 the Hebrew version of the TICS-m is a useful screening instrument to identify subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment, dementia and cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia). Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reliability and Validity of Composite Scores from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Robert K.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Tulsky, David; Mungas, Dan; Weintraub, Sandra; Dikmen, Sureyya; Beaumont, Jennifer; Casaletto, Kaitlin B.; Conway, Kevin; Slotkin, Jerry; Gershon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This study describes psychometric properties of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) Composite Scores in an adult sample. The NIHTB-CB was designed for use in epidemiologic studies and clinical trials for ages 3 to 85. A total of 268 self-described healthy adults were recruited at four university-based sites, using stratified sampling guidelines to target demographic variability for age (20–85 years), gender, education, and ethnicity. The NIHTB-CB contains seven computer-based instruments assessing five cognitive sub-domains: Language, Executive Function, Episodic Memory, Processing Speed, and Working Memory. Participants completed the NIHTB-CB, corresponding gold standard validation measures selected to tap the same cognitive abilities, and sociodemographic questionnaires. Three Composite Scores were derived for both the NIHTB-CB and gold standard batteries: “Crystallized Cognition Composite,” “Fluid Cognition Composite,” and “Total Cognition Composite” scores. NIHTB Composite Scores showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alphas = 0.84 Crystallized, 0.83 Fluid, 0.77 Total), excellent test–retest reliability (r: 0.86–0.92), strong convergent (r: 0.78–0.90) and discriminant (r: 0.19–0.39) validities versus gold standard composites, and expected age effects (r = 0.18 crystallized, r = − 0.68 fluid, r = − 0.26 total). Significant relationships with self-reported prior school difficulties and current health status, employment, and presence of a disability provided evidence of external validity. The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery Composite Scores have excellent reliability and validity, suggesting they can be used effectively in epidemiologic and clinical studies. PMID:24960398

  8. Which Aspects of Social Support Are Associated With Which Cognitive Abilities for Which People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fleur, Claire G; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2017-10-01

    To assess the relations between 11 aspects of social support and five cognitive abilities (vocabulary, reasoning, spatial visualization, memory, and speed of processing) and to determine whether these relations between social support and cognition are moderated by age or sex. A sample of 2,613 individuals between the ages of 18 and 99 years completed a battery of cognitive tests and a questionnaire assessing aspects of social support. A measure of general intelligence was computed using principal components analysis. Multiple regressions were used to evaluate whether each aspect of support and/or its interactions with age or sex predicted each cognitive ability and g. Several aspects of social support were significantly related to all five cognitive abilities and to g. When g was included as a predictor, there were few relations with specific cognitive abilities. Age and sex did not moderate any of the relations. These results suggest that contact with family and friends, emotional and informational support, anticipated support, and negative interactions are related to cognition, whereas satisfaction with and tangible support were not. In addition, these aspects of support were primarily related to g, with the exception of family contact. Social support- cognition relations are comparable across the life span and the sexes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Development of a Human Performance Evaluation Support System for Human Factors Validation of MCR MMI Design in APR-1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    As CRT-based display and advanced information technology were applied to advanced reactors such as APR-1400 (Advanced Power Reactor-1400), human operators' tasks became more cognitive works. As a results, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) became more important in designing the MCR (Main Control Room) MMI (Man-Machine Interface) of an advanced reactor. According to the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model, human factors validation of MCR MMI design should be performed through performance-based tests to determine whether it acceptably supports safe operation of the plant. In order to support the evaluation of the performance, a HUman Performance Evaluation Support System (HUPESS) is in development

  10. Criteria for validation and selection of cognitive tests for investigating the effects of foods and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Celeste A; Dye, Louise; de Bruin, Eveline A; Butler, Laurie; Fletcher, John; Lamport, Daniel J; Latulippe, Marie E; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Wesnes, Keith

    2014-03-01

    This review is an output of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Europe Marker Initiative, which aims to identify evidence-based criteria for selecting adequate measures of nutrient effects on health through comprehensive literature review. Experts in cognitive and nutrition sciences examined the applicability of these proposed criteria to the field of cognition with respect to the various cognitive domains usually assessed to reflect brain or neurological function. This review covers cognitive domains important in the assessment of neuronal integrity and function, commonly used tests and their state of validation, and the application of the measures to studies of nutrition and nutritional intervention trials. The aim is to identify domain-specific cognitive tests that are sensitive to nutrient interventions and from which guidance can be provided to aid the application of selection criteria for choosing the most suitable tests for proposed nutritional intervention studies using cognitive outcomes. The material in this review serves as a background and guidance document for nutritionists, neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, and neurologists interested in assessing mental health in terms of cognitive test performance and for scientists intending to test the effects of food or food components on cognitive function.

  11. Screening for cognitive impairment in older individuals. Validation study of a computer-based test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R C; Green, J; Harrison, J M; Kutner, M H

    1994-08-01

    This study examined the validity of a computer-based cognitive test that was recently designed to screen the elderly for cognitive impairment. Criterion-related validity was examined by comparing test scores of impaired patients and normal control subjects. Construct-related validity was computed through correlations between computer-based subtests and related conventional neuropsychological subtests. University center for memory disorders. Fifty-two patients with mild cognitive impairment by strict clinical criteria and 50 unimpaired, age- and education-matched control subjects. Control subjects were rigorously screened by neurological, neuropsychological, imaging, and electrophysiological criteria to identify and exclude individuals with occult abnormalities. Using a cut-off total score of 126, this computer-based instrument had a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.96. Using a prevalence estimate of 10%, predictive values, positive and negative, were 0.70 and 0.96, respectively. Computer-based subtests correlated significantly with conventional neuropsychological tests measuring similar cognitive domains. Thirteen (17.8%) of 73 volunteers with normal medical histories were excluded from the control group, with unsuspected abnormalities on standard neuropsychological tests, electroencephalograms, or magnetic resonance imaging scans. Computer-based testing is a valid screening methodology for the detection of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly, although this particular test has important limitations. Broader applications of computer-based testing will require extensive population-based validation. Future studies should recognize that normal control subjects without a history of disease who are typically used in validation studies may have a high incidence of unsuspected abnormalities on neurodiagnostic studies.

  12. Development and Validation of Two Instruments Measuring Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepsch, Melina; Schmitz, Florian; Seufert, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 (N = 97), we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1) Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2) Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study (N = between 65 and 95 for each task), we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results. PMID:29201011

  13. Development and Validation of Two Instruments Measuring Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepsch, Melina; Schmitz, Florian; Seufert, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 ( N = 97), we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1) Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2) Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study ( N = between 65 and 95 for each task), we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results.

  14. Development and Validation of Two Instruments Measuring Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Klepsch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 (N = 97, we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1 Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2 Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study (N = between 65 and 95 for each task, we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results.

  15. Test Your Memory is sensitive to cognitive change but lacks prospective validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Arias, J; Turrión-Rojo, M Á

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prospective validity of Test Your Memory (TYM) and its sensitivity to change in cognitive state. This longitudinal prospective study followed 71 patients with subjective cognitive symptoms and 48 with mild cognitive impairment for a mean time period of 35.2 ± 15 months. Subjects did not have dementia or depression at the beginning of follow-up and each participant was given the TYM at least two times. A psychometric threshold was established to determine presence of a cognitive deficit (z-score ≤ 1.5 on at least one cognitive domain) and the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale was used to ensure full functional ability. The criterion for deterioration was a change in the stage on the Global Deterioration Scale. Sixty-one patients remained cognitively stable and 58 worsened. There were no differences between them with respect to sex, educational attainment, the initial stage on the GDS, or the score on the first TYM. Subjects who worsened were older than those who did not. The TYM increased an average of 0.04 points per month in patients who remained stable or improved (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.08) and decreased an average of 0.14 points per month in those whose condition worsened (95% CI, -0.19 to -0.09). Subjects with mild cognitive impairment who worsened displayed a sharper loss of TYM points than did subjects with subjective cognitive symptoms. While the TYM lacks prospective validity, it is sensitive to changes in cognitive state. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of the Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS instrument: a computerized telephonic measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brief screening tests have been developed to measure cognitive performance and dementia, yet they measure limited cognitive domains and often lack construct validity. Neuropsychological assessments, while comprehensive, are too costly and time-consuming for epidemiological studies. This study's aim was to develop a psychometrically valid telephone administered test of cognitive function in aging. Methods Using a sequential hierarchical strategy, each stage of test development did not proceed until specified criteria were met. The 30 minute Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS measure and a 2.5 hour in-person neuropsychological assessment were conducted with a randomly selected sample of 211 participants 65 years and older that included equivalent distributions of men and women from ethnically diverse populations. Results Overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the CALLS test was 0.81. A principal component analysis of the CALLS tests yielded five components. The CALLS total score was significantly correlated with four neuropsychological assessment components. Older age and having a high school education or less was significantly correlated with lower CALLS total scores. Females scored better overall than males. There were no score differences based on race. Conclusion The CALLS test is a valid measure that provides a unique opportunity to reliably and efficiently study cognitive function in large populations.

  17. Development of an integrated decision support system to aid cognitive activities of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    As digital and computer technologies have grown, Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) have evolved. In safety-critical systems, especially in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), HMIs are important for reducing operational costs, the number of necessary operators, and the probability of accident occurrence. Efforts have been made to improve Main Control Room (MCR) interface design and to develop automated or decision support systems to ensure convenient operation and maintenance. In this paper, an integrated decision support system to aid operator cognitive processes is proposed for advanced MCRs of future NPPs. This work suggests the design concept of a decision support system which accounts for an operator's cognitive processes. The proposed system supports not only a particular task, but also the entire operation process based on a human cognitive process model. In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed according to a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each cognitive process activity are suggested

  18. Assessing Academic Advising Outcomes Using Social Cognitive Theory: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2012-01-01

    The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…

  19. Is a "Complex" Task Really Complex? Validating the Assumption of Cognitive Task Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…

  20. Validation of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sharpley; Schubert, Samantha; Hoon, Christopher; Mioshi, Eneida; Hodges, John R

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to validate the newly developed version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) against standardised neuropsychological tests and its predecessor (ACE-R) in early dementia. A total of 61 patients with dementia (frontotemporal dementia, FTD, n = 33, and Alzheimer's disease, AD, n = 28) and 25 controls were included in the study. ACE-III cognitive domains correlated significantly with standardised neuropsychological tests used in the assessment of attention, language, verbal memory and visuospatial function. The ACE-III also compared very favourably with its predecessor, the ACE-R, with similar levels of sensitivity and specificity. The results of this study provide objective validation of the ACE-III as a screening tool for cognitive deficits in FTD and AD. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Validation of the Activities of Community Transportation model for individuals with cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Fickas, Stephen; Lemoncello, Rik; Hung, Pei-Fang

    2009-01-01

    To develop a theoretical, functional model of community navigation for individuals with cognitive impairments: the Activities of Community Transportation (ACTs). Iterative design using qualitative methods (i.e. document review, focus groups and observations). Four agencies providing travel training to adults with cognitive impairments in the USA participated in the validation study. A thorough document review and series of focus groups led to the development of a comprehensive model (ACTs Wheels) delineating the requisite steps and skills for community navigation. The model was validated and updated based on observations of 395 actual trips by travellers with navigational challenges from the four participating agencies. Results revealed that the 'ACTs Wheel' models were complete and comprehensive. The 'ACTs Wheels' represent a comprehensive model of the steps needed to navigate to destinations using paratransit and fixed-route public transportation systems for travellers with cognitive impairments. Suggestions are made for future investigations of community transportation for this population.

  2. The Dutch version of the Child Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory: validation in a clinical sample and a school sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehle, Julia; de Roos, Carlijn; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the inclusion of trauma-related cognitions in the DSM-5 criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the assessment of these cognitions has become essential. Therefore, valid tools for the assessment of these cognitions are warranted. Objective: The current study aimed at

  3. An Innovative Solution Based on Human-Computer Interaction to Support Cognitive Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Cogollor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses its objective in describing the design and implementation of an innovative system to provide cognitive rehabilitation. People who will take advantage of this platform suffer from a post-stroke disease called Apraxia and Action Disorganisation Syndrome (AADS. The platform has been integrated at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid and tries to reduce the stay in hospital or rehabilitation center by supporting self-rehabilitation at home. So, the system acts as an intelligent machine which guides patients while executing Activities of Daily Living (ADL, such as preparing a simple tea, by informing them about the errors committed and possible actions to correct them. A short introduction to other works related to stroke, patients to work with, how the system works and how it is implemented are provided in the document. Finally, some relevant information from experiment made with healthy people for technical validation is also shown.

  4. Test anxiety and the validity of cognitive tests: A confirmatory factor analysis perspective and some empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Zand Scholten, A.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of cognitive ability tests is often interpreted solely as a function of the cognitive abilities that these tests are supposed to measure, but other factors may be at play. The effects of test anxiety on the criterion related validity (CRV) of tests was the topic of a recent study by

  5. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F. C.; Spaan, Pauline E. J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Walstra, Gerard J. M.; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.; van Gool, Willem A.; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; Korkhov, Vladimir V.; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in

  6. German Translation and Validation of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire Short Form (CSQ-SF-D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J M Huys

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations.The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects.The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D including only 27 of the 72 items.The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers.

  7. Validity of Cognitive Load Measures in Simulation-Based Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) provides a rich framework to inform instructional design. Despite the applicability of CLT to simulation-based medical training, findings from multimedia learning have not been consistently replicated in this context. This lack of transferability may be related to issues in measuring cognitive load (CL) during simulation. The authors conducted a review of CLT studies across simulation training contexts to assess the validity evidence for different CL measures. PRISMA standards were followed. For 48 studies selected from a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and ERIC databases, information was extracted about study aims, methods, validity evidence of measures, and findings. Studies were categorized on the basis of findings and prevalence of validity evidence collected, and statistical comparisons between measurement types and research domains were pursued. CL during simulation training has been measured in diverse populations including medical trainees, pilots, and university students. Most studies (71%; 34) used self-report measures; others included secondary task performance, physiological indices, and observer ratings. Correlations between CL and learning varied from positive to negative. Overall validity evidence for CL measures was low (mean score 1.55/5). Studies reporting greater validity evidence were more likely to report that high CL impaired learning. The authors found evidence that inconsistent correlations between CL and learning may be related to issues of validity in CL measures. Further research would benefit from rigorous documentation of validity and from triangulating measures of CL. This can better inform CLT instructional design for simulation-based medical training.

  8. Bridging the gap between neurocognitive processing theory and performance validity assessment among the cognitively impaired: a review and methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Angela; Weinborn, Michael; Maybery, Murray

    2014-10-01

    Bigler (2012) and Larrabee (2012) recently addressed the state of the science surrounding performance validity tests (PVTs) in a dialogue highlighting evidence for the valid and increased use of PVTs, but also for unresolved problems. Specifically, Bigler criticized the lack of guidance from neurocognitive processing theory in the PVT literature. For example, individual PVTs have applied the simultaneous forced-choice methodology using a variety of test characteristics (e.g., word vs. picture stimuli) with known neurocognitive processing implications (e.g., the "picture superiority effect"). However, the influence of such variations on classification accuracy has been inadequately evaluated, particularly among cognitively impaired individuals. The current review places the PVT literature in the context of neurocognitive processing theory, and identifies potential methodological factors to account for the significant variability we identified in classification accuracy across current PVTs. We subsequently evaluated the utility of a well-known cognitive manipulation to provide a Clinical Analogue Methodology (CAM), that is, to alter the PVT performance of healthy individuals to be similar to that of a cognitively impaired group. Initial support was found, suggesting the CAM may be useful alongside other approaches (analogue malingering methodology) for the systematic evaluation of PVTs, particularly the influence of specific neurocognitive processing components on performance.

  9. Validation of the Chinese version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III for diagnosing dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bian-Rong; Ou, Zhou; Gu, Xiao-Hua; Wei, Cun-Sheng; Xu, Jun; Shi, Jian-Quan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the reliability of the Chinese version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) for detecting dementia. Furthermore, the present study compares the diagnostic accuracy of ACE-III with that of mini-mental state examination (MMSE). One hundred seventy-seven patients with dementia and 180 healthy controls were included in the study. The reliability of ACE-III was very good (α-coefficient = 0.888). There was a significant negative correlation between Clinical Dementia Rating Scale score and total ACE-III score. Further, there was a positive correlation between MMSE score and total ACE-III score. Age exerted a significant effect on total ACE-III score, memory score, and language score. In the present study, the cutoff score of 83 showed a sensitivity of 91.1% and a specificity of 83.1%. The present findings support that the Chinese version of ACE-III is a reliable assessment tool for dementia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Less thought, more punishment: need for cognition predicts support for punitive responses to crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Michael J

    2004-11-01

    Three studies examined the relationship between need for cognition and support for punitive responses to crime. The results of Study 1 (N = 110) indicated that individuals high in need for cognition were less supportive of punitive measures than their low need for cognition counterparts. This finding was replicated in Study 2 (N = 1,807), which employed a nationally representative probability sample and included a more extensive battery of control variables. The purpose of Study 3 (N = 255) was to identify a third variable that might explain this relationship. This final study's results suggest that attributional complexity mediates the relationship between need for cognition and punitiveness. High need for cognition individuals are less supportive of punitive measures because they endorse more complex attributions for human behavior than their low need for cognition peers.

  11. The Internal, External, and Diagnostic Validity of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo: A Meta-Analysis and Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P.; Leopold, Daniel R.; Burns, G. Leonard; Jarrett, Matthew A.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Marshall, Stephen A.; McBurnett, Keith; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct the first meta-analysis evaluating the internal and external validity of the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct as related to or distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as associated with functional impairment and neuropsychological functioning. Method Electronic databases were searched through September 2015 for studies examining the factor structure and/or correlates of SCT in children or adults. The search procedures identified 73 papers. The core SCT behaviors included across studies, as well as factor loadings and reliability estimates, were reviewed to evaluate internal validity. Pooled correlation effect sizes using random effects models were used to evaluate SCT in relation to external validity domains (i.e., demographics, other psychopathologies, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning). Results Strong support was found for the internal validity of the SCT construct. Specifically, across factor analytic studies including over 19,000 individuals, 13 SCT items loaded consistently on an SCT factor as opposed to an ADHD factor. Findings also support the reliability (i.e., internal consistency, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability) of SCT. In terms of external validity, there is some indication that SCT may increase with age (r = 0.11) and be associated with lower socioeconomic status (r = 0.10). Modest (potentially negligible) support was found for SCT symptoms being higher in males than females in children (r = 0.05) but not adults. SCT is more strongly associated with ADHD inattention (r = 0.63 in children, r = 0.72 in adults) than with ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity (r = 0.32 in children, r = 0.46 in adults), and it likewise appears that SCT is more strongly associated with internalizing symptoms than with externalizing symptoms. SCT is associated with significant global, social, and academic impairment (rs = 0.38–0.44). Effects for neuropsychological functioning are mixed

  12. Supporting cognition in systems biology analysis: findings on users' processes and design implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Barbara

    2009-02-13

    Current usability studies of bioinformatics tools suggest that tools for exploratory analysis support some tasks related to finding relationships of interest but not the deep causal insights necessary for formulating plausible and credible hypotheses. To better understand design requirements for gaining these causal insights in systems biology analyses a longitudinal field study of 15 biomedical researchers was conducted. Researchers interacted with the same protein-protein interaction tools to discover possible disease mechanisms for further experimentation. Findings reveal patterns in scientists' exploratory and explanatory analysis and reveal that tools positively supported a number of well-structured query and analysis tasks. But for several of scientists' more complex, higher order ways of knowing and reasoning the tools did not offer adequate support. Results show that for a better fit with scientists' cognition for exploratory analysis systems biology tools need to better match scientists' processes for validating, for making a transition from classification to model-based reasoning, and for engaging in causal mental modelling. As the next great frontier in bioinformatics usability, tool designs for exploratory systems biology analysis need to move beyond the successes already achieved in supporting formulaic query and analysis tasks and now reduce current mismatches with several of scientists' higher order analytical practices. The implications of results for tool designs are discussed.

  13. Reliability, validity and treatment sensitivity of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Richard S E; Davis, Vicki G; Spagnola, Nathan B; Hilt, Dana; Dgetluck, Nancy; Ruse, Stacy; Patterson, Thomas D; Narasimhan, Meera; Harvey, Philip D

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive functioning can be assessed with performance-based assessments such as neuropsychological tests and with interview-based assessments. Both assessment methods have the potential to assess whether treatments for schizophrenia improve clinically relevant aspects of cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the reliability, validity and treatment responsiveness of interview-based measures, especially in the context of clinical trials. Data from two studies were utilized to assess these features of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS). One of the studies was a validation study involving 79 patients with schizophrenia assessed at 3 academic research centers in the US. The other study was a 32-site clinical trial conducted in the US and Europe comparing the effects of encenicline, an alpha-7 nicotine agonist, to placebo in 319 patients with schizophrenia. The SCoRS interviewer ratings demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability in several different circumstances, including those that did not involve treatment (ICC> 0.90), and during treatment (ICC>0.80). SCoRS interviewer ratings were related to cognitive performance as measured by the MCCB (r=-0.35), and demonstrated significant sensitivity to treatment with encenicline compared to placebo (Pcognition in schizophrenia, and may be useful for clinical practice. The weaknesses of the SCoRS include its reliance on informant information, which is not available for some patients, and reduced validity when patient's self-report is the sole information source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. A validation study of the Chinese-Cantonese Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (C-ACER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ll; Chan, Cc; Leung, Jl; Yung, Cy; Wu, Kk; Cheung, Syy; Lam, Clm

    2013-01-01

    There is no valid instrument for multidomain cognitive assessment to aid the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia in Hong Kong. This study aimed to validate the Cantonese Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (C-ACER) in the identification of MCI and dementia. 147 participants (Dementia, n = 54; MCI, n = 50; controls, n = 43) aged 60 or above were assessed by a psychiatrist using C-ACER. The C-ACER scores were validated against the expert diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria for dementia and Petersen criteria for MCI. Statistical analysis was performed using the receiver operating characteristic method and regression analyses. The optimal cut-off score for the C-ACER to differentiate MCI from normal controls was 79/80, giving the sensitivity of 0.74, specificity of 0.84 and area under curve (AUC) of 0.84. At the optimal cut-off of 73/74, C-ACER had satisfactory sensitivity (0.93), specificity (0.95) and AUC (0.98) to identify dementia from controls. Performance of C-ACER, as reflected by AUC, was not affected after adjustment of the effect of education level. Total C-ACER scores were significantly correlated with scores of global deterioration scale (Spearman's rho = -0.73, P cognitive abilities, and to detect MCI and dementia of different severity. It can be used and interpreted with ease, without the need to adjust for education level in persons aged 60 or above.

  15. The hospital anxiety and depression scale--dimensionality, reliability and construct validity among cognitively intact nursing home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, Gørill; Drageset, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Depression and anxiety are particularly common among individuals living in long-term care facilities. Therefore, access to a valid and reliable measure of anxiety and depression among nursing home patients is highly warranted. To investigate the dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) in a cognitively intact nursing home population. Cross-sectional data were collected from two samples; 429 cognitively intact nursing home patients participated, representing 74 different Norwegian nursing homes. Confirmative factor analyses and correlations with selected constructs were used. The two-factor model provided a good fit in Sample1, revealing a poorer fit in Sample2. Good-acceptable measurement reliability was demonstrated, and construct validity was supported. Using listwise deletion the sample sizes were 227 and 187, for Sample1 and Sample2, respectively. Greater sample sizes would have strengthen the statistical power in the tests. The researchers visited the participants to help fill in the questionnaires; this might have introduced some bias into the respondents׳ reporting. The 14 HADS items were part of greater questionnaires. Thus, frail, older NH patients might have tired during the interview causing a possible bias. Low reliability for depression was disclosed, mainly resulting from three items appearing to be inappropriate indicators for depression in this population. Further research is needed exploring which items might perform as more reliably indicators for depression among nursing home patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph H B; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T; Langdon, Dawn

    2012-07-16

    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1-3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS.

  17. Cognitive Bias in the Verification and Validation of Space Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive bias is generally recognized as playing a significant role in virtually all domains of human decision making. Insight into this role is informally built into many of the system engineering practices employed in the aerospace industry. The review process, for example, typically has features that help to counteract the effect of bias. This paper presents a discussion of how commonly recognized biases may affect the verification and validation process. Verifying and validating a system is arguably more challenging than development, both technically and cognitively. Whereas there may be a relatively limited number of options available for the design of a particular aspect of a system, there is a virtually unlimited number of potential verification scenarios that may be explored. The probability of any particular scenario occurring in operations is typically very difficult to estimate, which increases reliance on judgment that may be affected by bias. Implementing a verification activity often presents technical challenges that, if they can be overcome at all, often result in a departure from actual flight conditions (e.g., 1-g testing, simulation, time compression, artificial fault injection) that may raise additional questions about the meaningfulness of the results, and create opportunities for the introduction of additional biases. In addition to mitigating the biases it can introduce directly, the verification and validation process must also overcome the cumulative effect of biases introduced during all previous stages of development. A variety of cognitive biases will be described, with research results for illustration. A handful of case studies will be presented that show how cognitive bias may have affected the verification and validation process on recent JPL flight projects, identify areas of strength and weakness, and identify potential changes or additions to commonly used techniques that could provide a more robust verification and validation of

  18. Battery for ECT Related Cognitive Deficits (B4ECT-ReCoDe): development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Biju; Harihara, Shashidhara N; Nahar, Abhinav; Phutane, Vivek Haridas; Taksal, Aarati; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2013-06-01

    The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in treatment of psychiatric disorders is associated with adverse cognitive effects. There is a need to develop a short assessment tool of cognitive functions during the course of ECT. This study aimed at developing and validating a short, sensitive battery to assess cognitive deficits associated with ECT in India. Battery for ECT Related Cognitive Deficits (B4ECT-ReCoDe), a brief cognitive battery (20-30 min) to assess verbal, visual, working and autobiographic memory, sustained attention, psychomotor speed and subjective memory impairment, was administered to 30 in-patients receiving bilateral ECT, one day after the 1st, 3rd and 6th ECT. Data was analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation. Significant deficits were found in verbal, visual and autobiographic memory, psychomotor speed. Subjective experience of memory loss correlated positively with verbal memory impairment. B4ECT-ReCoDe, a brief, sensitive measure of cognitive impairments associated with ECT can be used in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Process Validation Technical Support Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    2000-03-13

    The purpose of Process Validation is to confirm that nominal process operations are consistent with the expected process envelope. The Process Validation activities described in this document are not part of the safety basis, but are expected to demonstrate that the process operates well within the safety basis. Some adjustments to the process may be made as a result of information gathered in Process Validation.

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Process Validation Technical Support Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of Process Validation is to confirm that nominal process operations are consistent with the expected process envelope. The Process Validation activities described in this document are not part of the safety basis, but are expected to demonstrate that the process operates well within the safety basis. Some adjustments to the process may be made as a result of information gathered in Process Validation

  1. Validation of the Korean Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination for diagnosing Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment in the Korean elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Park, Tai-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Young; Kim, Min-Ky

    2012-01-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a valid dementia-screening test that is a simple and effective instrument. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Korean version of the ACE (K-ACE) in a Korean population. A total of 115 subjects (50 with Alzheimer's dementia [AD], 26 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 39 controls) who visited the Neurology Outpatient Clinic of Seoul Medical Center were included. The ACE was translated and modified to create the K-ACE. The sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve, reliability, and Verbal-Language/Orientation-Memory ratio were evaluated. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff score in screening for dementia. The ROC curves showed the superiority of the K-ACE over the Korean Mini-Mental Status Examination in the diagnosis of AD and MCI. The optimal cutoff of the K-ACE for the identification of AD was 68/69, which had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 84%. The K-ACE is a short, reliable, and valid neuropsychological test battery used to screen for dementia in the Korean elderly.

  2. Validation of a Smartphone-Based Approach to In Situ Cognitive Fatigue Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background Acquired Brain Injuries (ABIs) can result in multiple detrimental cognitive effects, such as reduced memory capability, concentration, and planning. These effects can lead to cognitive fatigue, which can exacerbate the symptoms of ABIs and hinder management and recovery. Assessing cognitive fatigue is difficult due to the largely subjective nature of the condition and existing assessment approaches. Traditional methods of assessment use self-assessment questionnaires delivered in a medical setting, but recent work has attempted to employ more objective cognitive tests as a way of evaluating cognitive fatigue. However, these tests are still predominantly delivered within a medical environment, limiting their utility and efficacy. Objective The aim of this research was to investigate how cognitive fatigue can be accurately assessed in situ, during the quotidian activities of life. It was hypothesized that this assessment could be achieved through the use of mobile assistive technology to assess working memory, sustained attention, information processing speed, reaction time, and cognitive throughput. Methods The study used a bespoke smartphone app to track daily cognitive performance, in order to assess potential levels of cognitive fatigue. Twenty-one participants with no prior reported brain injuries took place in a two-week study, resulting in 81 individual testing instances being collected. The smartphone app delivered three cognitive tests on a daily basis: (1) Spatial Span to measure visuospatial working memory; (2) Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to measure sustained attention, information processing speed, and reaction time; and (3) a Mental Arithmetic Test to measure cognitive throughput. A smartphone-optimized version of the Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS) self-assessment questionnaire was used as a baseline to assess the validity of the three cognitive tests, as the questionnaire has already been validated in multiple peer-reviewed studies. Results

  3. Validation of a Smartphone-Based Approach to In Situ Cognitive Fatigue Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edward; Moore, George; Galway, Leo; Linden, Mark

    2017-08-17

    Acquired Brain Injuries (ABIs) can result in multiple detrimental cognitive effects, such as reduced memory capability, concentration, and planning. These effects can lead to cognitive fatigue, which can exacerbate the symptoms of ABIs and hinder management and recovery. Assessing cognitive fatigue is difficult due to the largely subjective nature of the condition and existing assessment approaches. Traditional methods of assessment use self-assessment questionnaires delivered in a medical setting, but recent work has attempted to employ more objective cognitive tests as a way of evaluating cognitive fatigue. However, these tests are still predominantly delivered within a medical environment, limiting their utility and efficacy. The aim of this research was to investigate how cognitive fatigue can be accurately assessed in situ, during the quotidian activities of life. It was hypothesized that this assessment could be achieved through the use of mobile assistive technology to assess working memory, sustained attention, information processing speed, reaction time, and cognitive throughput. The study used a bespoke smartphone app to track daily cognitive performance, in order to assess potential levels of cognitive fatigue. Twenty-one participants with no prior reported brain injuries took place in a two-week study, resulting in 81 individual testing instances being collected. The smartphone app delivered three cognitive tests on a daily basis: (1) Spatial Span to measure visuospatial working memory; (2) Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to measure sustained attention, information processing speed, and reaction time; and (3) a Mental Arithmetic Test to measure cognitive throughput. A smartphone-optimized version of the Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS) self-assessment questionnaire was used as a baseline to assess the validity of the three cognitive tests, as the questionnaire has already been validated in multiple peer-reviewed studies. The most highly correlated results

  4. Validation of the Chinese version of Addenbrooke's cognitive examination-revised for screening mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rong; Wang, Gang; Huang, Yue; Zhuang, Jun-Peng; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wang, Ying; Deng, Yu-Lei; Xu, Wei; Chen, Sheng-Di; Ren, Ru-Jing

    2014-01-01

    As a suitable test to screen for Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), studies to validate the Chinese version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) are rare. A total of 151 subjects were recruited and the neuropsychological assessments were employed. One-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni correction were used to compare scores of different psychometric scales. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's coefficient α were used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of ACE-R to screen for mild AD and amnestic subtype of MCI (a-MCI) was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The Chinese ACE-R had good reliability (inter-rater ICC = 0.994; test-retest ICC = 0.967) as well as reliable internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0.859). With its cutoff of 67/68, the sensitivity (0.920) and specificity (0.857) were lower than for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) cutoff (sensitivity 1.000 and specificity 0.937) to screen for mild AD. However, the sensitivity of ACE-R to screen for a-MCI was superior to the MMSE with a cutoff of 85/86. The specificity of ACE-R was lower than that of the MMSE to screen for a-MCI. The area under the ROC curve of ACE-R was much larger than that of the MMSE (0.836 and 0.751) for detecting a-MCI rather than mild AD. The Chinese ACE-R is a reliable assessment tool for cognitive impairment. It is more sensitive and accurate in screening for a-MCI rather than for AD compared to the MMSE.

  5. Validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovany Eliberto Araújo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia by examining its temporal stability, internal consistency, and discriminant and convergent validity. METHODS: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was administered to 116 stable patients with schizophrenia and 58 matched control subjects. To assess concurrent validity, a subset of patients underwent a traditional neuropsychological assessment. RESULTS: The patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than the controls (p0.8. The internal consistency of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was high (Cronbach's α ϝ 0.874. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia exhibits good reliability and discriminant and concurrent validity and is a promising tool for easily assessing cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and for comparing the performance of Brazilian patients with that of patients from other countries.

  6. Simulating Cognitive Coping Strategies for Intelligent Support Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.; Catrambone, R.; Ohlsson, S.

    2010-01-01

    People react differently to stress. According to the Cognitive Motivational Relational Theory by Lazarus and Folkman, the appraisal of stress and the emotions related to it determine whether people cope with stress by focussing on altering the situation (problem focussed) or on changing the

  7. Cognitive Remediation for Individuals with Psychosis in a Supported Education Setting: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Kidd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive remediation (CR is a treatment approach that is being increasingly examined as a means through which the cognitive impacts of schizophrenia might be ameliorated. While CR has demonstrated good outcomes when paired with supported employment, little is known regarding how it might be integrated within supported education contexts. In this study CR was examined in a supported education context with 16 individuals with psychosis. The findings indicated that CR aligned well with the academic curriculum with very low attrition, was found useful by students, and showed similar pre-post differences on cognitive measures as those found in previous work.

  8. A Serious Game for Clinical Assessment of Cognitive Status: Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques

    2016-05-27

    We propose the use of serious games to screen for abnormal cognitive status in situations where it may be too costly or impractical to use standard cognitive assessments (eg, emergency departments). If validated, serious games in health care could enable broader availability of efficient and engaging cognitive screening. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a game-based cognitive assessment delivered on tablet technology to a clinical sample and to conduct preliminary validation against standard mental status tools commonly used in elderly populations. We carried out a feasibility study in a hospital emergency department to evaluate the use of a serious game by elderly adults (N=146; age: mean 80.59, SD 6.00, range 70-94 years). We correlated game performance against a number of standard assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). After a series of modifications, the game could be used by a wide range of elderly patients in the emergency department demonstrating its feasibility for use with these users. Of 146 patients, 141 (96.6%) consented to participate and played our serious game. Refusals to play the game were typically due to concerns of family members rather than unwillingness of the patient to play the game. Performance on the serious game correlated significantly with the MoCA (r=-.339, P games in a clinical setting. Further research is required to demonstrate the validity and reliability of game-based assessments for clinical decision making.

  9. A Serious Game for Clinical Assessment of Cognitive Status: Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C.; Lee, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background We propose the use of serious games to screen for abnormal cognitive status in situations where it may be too costly or impractical to use standard cognitive assessments (eg, emergency departments). If validated, serious games in health care could enable broader availability of efficient and engaging cognitive screening. Objective The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a game-based cognitive assessment delivered on tablet technology to a clinical sample and to conduct preliminary validation against standard mental status tools commonly used in elderly populations. Methods We carried out a feasibility study in a hospital emergency department to evaluate the use of a serious game by elderly adults (N=146; age: mean 80.59, SD 6.00, range 70-94 years). We correlated game performance against a number of standard assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Results After a series of modifications, the game could be used by a wide range of elderly patients in the emergency department demonstrating its feasibility for use with these users. Of 146 patients, 141 (96.6%) consented to participate and played our serious game. Refusals to play the game were typically due to concerns of family members rather than unwillingness of the patient to play the game. Performance on the serious game correlated significantly with the MoCA (r=–.339, P games in a clinical setting. Further research is required to demonstrate the validity and reliability of game-based assessments for clinical decision making. PMID:27234145

  10. A Validation Study of the Japanese Version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Kawata, Kelssy Hitomi; Hashimoto, Ryusaku; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Atsuko; Ogawa, Nanayo; Kanno, Shigenori; Hiraoka, Kotaro; Yokoi, Kayoko; Iizuka, Osamu; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) [Mori: Japanese Edition of Hodges JR's Cognitive Assessment for Clinicians, 2010] designed to detect dementia, and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination. The ACE-R was administered to 85 healthy individuals and 126 patients with dementia. The reliability assessment revealed a strong correlation in both groups. The internal consistency was excellent (α-coefficient = 0.88). Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes score was significant (r(s) = -0.61, p Examination. The cut-off score of 80 showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 94%. Like the original ACE-R and the versions designed for other languages, the Japanese version of the ACE-R is a reliable and valid test for the detection of dementia.

  11. Digital Game-Based Learning Supports Student Motivation, Cognitive Success, and Performance Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jeng-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Traditional multimedia learning is primarily based on the cognitive load concept of information processing theory. Recent digital game-based learning (DGBL) studies have focused on exploring content support for learning motivation and related game characteristics. Motivation, volition, and performance (MVP) theory indicates that cognitive load and…

  12. Incorporating an Ambient Agent to Support People with a Cognitive Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Zacarias, M.; Valente de Oliveira, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design of an intelligent agent application aimed at supporting people with a cognitive vulnerability to prevent the onset of a depression. For this, a computational model of the cognitive processes around depression is used. The agent application uses the principles of

  13. Design of an Intelligent Support Agent Model for People with a Cognitive Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Zhang, B.; Wang, Y.; Kinser, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent agent application aimed at supporting people with a cognitive vulnerability to prevent the onset of a depression. For this, a computational model of the cognitive processes around depression is used. The agent application uses the principles of

  14. How do cognitively impaired elderly patients define "testament": reliability and validity of the testament definition scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinik, J; Werner, P; Lin, R

    1999-01-01

    The testament definition scale (TDS) is a specifically designed six-item scale aimed at measuring the respondent's capacity to define "testament." We assessed the reliability and validity of this new short scale in 31 community-dwelling cognitively impaired elderly patients. Interrater reliability for the six items ranged from .87 to .97. The interrater reliability for the total score was .77. Significant correlations were found between the TDS score and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Cambridge Cognitive Examination scores (r = .71 and .72 respectively, p = .001). Criterion validity yielded significantly different means for subjects with MMSE scores of 24-30 and 0-23: mean 3.9 and 1.6 respectively (t(20) = 4.7, p = .001). Using a cutoff point of 0-2 vs. 3+, 79% of the subjects were correctly classified as severely cognitively impaired, with only 8.3% false positives, and a positive predictive value of 94%. Thus, TDS was found both reliable and valid. This scale, however, is not synonymous with testamentary capacity. The discussion deals with the methodological limitations of this study, and highlights the practical as well as the theoretical relevance of TDS. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the relationships between TDS and existing legal requirements of testamentary capacity.

  15. Development and initial validation of the vaginal penetration cognition questionnaire (VPCQ) in a sample of women with vaginismus and dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Maaike; Ter Kuile, Moniek M

    2009-06-01

    Although the relevance of cognitions has been implicated in the etiology, explanatory models, and treatment of female sexual pain disorders, an instrument that assesses vaginal penetration cognitions is nonexistent. The aim of this study was to develop and to investigate the psychometric properties of the Vaginal Penetration Cognition Questionnaire (VPCQ). The VPCQ was explicitly designed to assess cognitions regarding vaginal penetration in women with vaginismus and dyspareunia. A sample of 247 Dutch women with a female sexual dysfunction (FSD; 122 women with lifelong vaginismus and 125 women with dyspareunia) and 117 women without sexual complaints completed the questionnaire. Factor analyses were only conducted in the sample of women with FSD. Validation measures were conducted in both women with and without FSD. All women completed the VPCQ and several additional questions regarding biographic and complaint characteristics. Conduction of factor analyses yielded five subscales regarding cognitions about vaginal penetration: "control cognitions,"catastrophic and pain cognitions,"self-image cognitions,"positive cognitions," and "genital incompatibility cognitions." Reliability of these five VPCQ subscales ranged from 0.70 to 0.83, and the test-retest correlations were satisfactory. The five VPCQ subscales were reasonably stable across demographic variables and demonstrated good discriminant validity. All five subscales were able to detect significant differences between women with and without FSD. Additionally, the four subscales of the VPCQ concerning negative cognitions demonstrated the ability to differentiate between the two samples of women with FSD. Women with lifelong vaginismus reported lower levels of perceived penetration control and higher levels of catastrophic and pain cognitions, negative self-image cognitions, and genital incompatibility cognitions, when compared with women with dyspareunia. The present study indicates that the VPCQ is a valid and

  16. Development, content validity, and piloting of an instrument designed to measure managers' attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Tan; Wolfe, Edward W; Olson, Beth H

    2012-07-01

    Manager attitude is influential in female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Currently, no instrument is available to assess manager attitude toward supporting women who wish to combine breastfeeding with work. We developed and piloted an instrument to measure manager attitudes toward workplace breastfeeding support entitled the "Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire," an instrument that measures four constructs using 60 items that are rated agree/disagree on a 4-point Likert rating scale. We established the content validity of the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures through expert content review (n=22), expert assessment of item fit (n=11), and cognitive interviews (n=8). Data were collected from a purposive sample of 185 front-line managers who had experience supervising female employees, and responses were scaled using the Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model. Dimensionality analyses supported the proposed four-construct model. Reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.86, and correlations between the constructs were moderately strong (0.47 to 0.71). Four items in two constructs exhibited model-to-data misfit and/or a low score-measure correlation. One item was revised and the other three items were retained in the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire. Findings of this study suggest that the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures are reliable and valid indicators of manager attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support, and future research should be conducted to establish external validity. The Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire could be used to collect data in a standardized manner within and across companies to measure and compare manager attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. Organizations can subsequently develop targeted strategies to improve support for breastfeeding

  17. Technology-supported environments for learning through cognitive conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McDougall

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines ways in which the idea of cognitive conflict is used to facilitate learning, looking at the design and use of learning environments for this purpose. Drawing on previous work in science education and educational computing, three approaches to the design of learning environments utilizing cognitive conflict are introduced. These approaches are described as confrontational, guiding and explanatory, based on the level of the designer's concern with learners' pre-existing understanding, the extent of modification to the learner's conceptual structures intended by the designer, and the directness of steering the learner to the desired understanding. The examples used to illustrate the three approaches are taken from science education, specifically software for learning about Newtonian physics; it is contended however that the argument of the paper applies more broadly, to learning environments for many curriculum areas for school levels and in higher education.

  18. Validation of auditory detection response task method for assessing the attentional effects of cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojmenova, Kristina; Sodnik, Jaka

    2018-07-04

    There are 3 standardized versions of the Detection Response Task (DRT), 2 using visual stimuli (remote DRT and head-mounted DRT) and one using tactile stimuli. In this article, we present a study that proposes and validates a type of auditory signal to be used as DRT stimulus and evaluate the proposed auditory version of this method by comparing it with the standardized visual and tactile version. This was a within-subject design study performed in a driving simulator with 24 participants. Each participant performed 8 2-min-long driving sessions in which they had to perform 3 different tasks: driving, answering to DRT stimuli, and performing a cognitive task (n-back task). Presence of additional cognitive load and type of DRT stimuli were defined as independent variables. DRT response times and hit rates, n-back task performance, and pupil size were observed as dependent variables. Significant changes in pupil size for trials with a cognitive task compared to trials without showed that cognitive load was induced properly. Each DRT version showed a significant increase in response times and a decrease in hit rates for trials with a secondary cognitive task compared to trials without. Similar and significantly better results in differences in response times and hit rates were obtained for the auditory and tactile version compared to the visual version. There were no significant differences in performance rate between the trials without DRT stimuli compared to trials with and among the trials with different DRT stimuli modalities. The results from this study show that the auditory DRT version, using the signal implementation suggested in this article, is sensitive to the effects of cognitive load on driver's attention and is significantly better than the remote visual and tactile version for auditory-vocal cognitive (n-back) secondary tasks.

  19. NFC Enabled Smartphone Application For Instant Cognitive Support

    OpenAIRE

    Majoka, Muhammad Asif; Tahir, Naveed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context: Advancement in mobile technology is truth of this Century. Mobile phone is used mainly for calling and Short Message Service, but Smartphone are advanced form of mobile phone which have multiple features. Smartphone can have Global Positioning System, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and Near Field Communication like features. These Smartphone devices are designed considering general public and can be difficult to use by people with limited cognition. But proper use of Smartphone features w...

  20. Impact of social support on cognitive symptom burden in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Jana H; Rubenstein, Sarah L; Sota, Teresa L; Rueda, Sergio; Fenta, Haile; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B

    2010-07-01

    As many as 50% of people living with HIV/AIDS report cognitive difficulties, which can be associated with objective neuropsychological impairments and depression. A number of studies have demonstrated an association between higher social support and lower rates of depression. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the role social support may play in attenuating the effects of both neuropsychological status and depression on cognitive difficulties. A total of 357 participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, questionnaires about cognitive difficulties and depression, and an interview that included an assessment of perceived level of social support. A multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher levels of cognitive symptom burden were significantly associated with depression (Psocial support (Pinteraction between neuropsychological status and depression (Pinteraction between social support and depression (Psocial support was also associated with a lower cognitive symptom burden for non-depressed individuals living with HIV/AIDS. These findings have important clinical implications for promoting psychological well-being in persons living with HIV/AIDS. To improve quality of life, it is important to screen for and identify individuals with HIV/AIDS who may be depressed and to intervene appropriately. Further research should examine the potential role of social support interventions in modifying the effects of both depression and neuropsychological status on cognitive symptom burden.

  1. Just-in-time, Schematic Supportive Information Presentation During Cognitive Skill Acquisition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Liesbeth; Lehnen, Chris; Van Gerven, Pascal; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Kester, L., Lehnen, C., Van Gerven, P.W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Just-in-time, Schematic Supportive Information Presentation During Cognitive Skill Acquisition. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 93-112 .

  2. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather; Fontenot, Stephanie; Correro, Anthony; Allen, Ray; Martin, Corby K; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2013-01-01

    While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these "next-generation" assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST) in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r = 0.515, psmartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries of cognitive and motor function in the elderly is discussed.

  3. VALIDITY OF THE CONNECTION INTER-LEXICAL A-SEMANTICS IN THE COGNITIVE MODEL OF PROCESSING PRAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Gómez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Rothia Gonzalez et al. (1991, 1997 postulated a cognitive model of praxis on which changes were proposed (Cubelli et al., 2000, including the removal of the direct path between both input praxicon and output. Was suggested that to validate an inter-lexical a-semantics path (Cubelli et al., 2000 would enough to find a patientwith preserved ability for imitate familiar gestures, but with disturbances in the ability to access to the meaning of familiar gestures and alterations in ability for imitate unfamiliar gestures. The aim of this work is present two patients whose patterns ofperformance on praxis supports the existence of a pathway inter-lexical a-semantic. We evaluated two patients with Alzheimer type dementia unlikely with a battery of cognitive assessment of apraxia (Politis 2003. Both patients show alterations in test of Imitation of unfamiliar gestures and on tasks which assess semantic action objecttool watching and naming by function, with good performance on the task of imitating familiar gestures. Based on cognitive models of praxis Rothia Gonzalez et al. (1991, 1997 and Cubelli et al. (2000 is require a direct connection between both input praxicon and output to explain the performance of these patients. Of thus, the performance pattern showing both patients confirms existence of a pathway.Interlexical asemantics

  4. Science Adjustment, Parental and Teacher Autonomy Support and the Cognitive Orientation of Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas; Koestner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that autonomy support has positive effects on academic development, but no study has examined how systemising cognitive orientation is related to important outcomes for science students, and how it may interact with autonomy support. This prospective investigation considered how systemising and support from teachers and parents…

  5. Development and Initial Validation of the Need Satisfaction and Need Support at Work Scales: A Validity-Focused Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Tafvelin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the relevance of employee need satisfaction and manager need support have been examined, the integration of self-determination theory (SDT into work and organizational psychology has been hampered by the lack of validated measures. The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate measures of employees’ perception of need satisfaction (NSa-WS and need support (NSu-WS at work that were grounded in SDT. We used three Swedish samples (total 'N' = 1,430 to develop and validate our scales. We used a confirmatory approach including expert panels to assess item content relevance, confirmatory factor analysis for factorial validity, and associations with theoretically warranted outcomes to assess criterion-related validity. Scale reliability was also assessed. We found evidence of content, factorial, and criterion-related validity of our two scales of need satisfaction and need support at work. Further, the scales demonstrated high internal consistency. Our newly developed scales may be used in research and practice to further our understanding regarding how satisfaction and support of employee basic needs influence employee motivation, performance, and well-being. Our study makes a contribution to the current literature by providing (1 scales that are specifically designed for the work context, (2 an example of how expert panels can be used to assess content validity, and (3 testing of theoretically derived hypotheses that, although SDT is built on them, have not been examined before.

  6. The association between social support and cognitive function in Mexican adults aged 50 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Macorra, Mireya; de Castro, Elga Filipa Amorin; Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Shields, Pamela L; Del Campo, Daniel Samano Martin

    Social support networks are crucial for the health of older adults; however, personal characteristics and time of life may diminish the protective effect of social support. to determine if the presence of social support networks were associated with cognitive impairment among Mexican adults aged 50 or older and if this relationship was different based on age. This study analyzed data from the National Representation Survey performed in Mexico, Study on Global Ageing (SAGE) wave 1. Cognitive function was evaluated by a standardized test, social support was evaluated through latent class analysis (LCA). The LCA was run to obtain three subgroups of different Social Support Levels (SSL): low, medium, and high. Logistic regression models, stratified by age, were performed to analyze the association between SSL and cognitive function. For respondents ages 71-80 y/o, there was an inverse relationship with cognitive impairment for those with medium (OR 0.23, p=0.020) and high (OR 0.07, p=0.000) SSL in comparison with low SSL. While social support helped to improve cognitive function in older adults aged 71-80, this same association was not observed in adults of other ages. Those younger than 70 y/o may not need such a strong support network as a result of being more self-sufficient. After 80, social networks were not enough to help diminish the negative impact of cognitive impairment. Social support could improve the cognitive function of adults ages 71 and 80; suggesting there could be a window of opportunity to improve cognitive functioning for this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment as a preliminary assessment tool in general psychiatry: Validity of MoCA in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierus, J; Mosiołek, A; Koweszko, T; Wnukiewicz, P; Kozyra, O; Szulc, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the presented research was to obtain the initial data regarding the validity of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in diagnosing cognitive impairment in psychiatrically hospitalized patients. The results in MoCA obtained from 221 patients were analyzed in terms of proportional participation of patients with particular diagnosis in three result ranges. In 67 patients, additional version of the scale was also used. Comparative analysis of average results in particular diagnostic groups (organically based disorders, disorders due to psychoactive substance use, psychotic disorders, neurotic disorders and personality disorders) was also carried out, as well as an analysis of the scale's accuracy as a diagnostic test in detecting organic disorders. The reliability of the test measured with between tests correlation coefficient rho=0.92 (P=.000). Significant differences between particular diagnoses groups were detected (J-T=13736; P=.000). The cutoff points of 23 turned out to have a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity (0.82 and 0.70, respectively) in diagnosing organically based disorders. The area below the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC=0.854; P=.000) suggests that MoCA has a satisfactory value as a classifier. The initial data suggest MoCA's high value in prediction of future diagnosis of organically based disorders. The initial results obtained in particular group of diagnoses support construct validity of the method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Groningen orthopaedic social support scale: Validity and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker-Scheek, I.; Stevens, M.; Spriensma, A.; van Horn, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social support is an important factor in the rehabilitation process, as it has a positive influence on patients' health, functioning and recovery. In particular, perceived social support and instrumental support are important after total hip or knee arthroplasty. However, nursing staff

  9. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy Lawson; Miller, Terissa M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills. This study included 2,737 participants aged 5-85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test-retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93. The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan.

  10. Development and validation of the Japanese version of cognitive flexibility scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Keiko; Nagaoka, Sawako; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-05-17

    Various instruments have been developed to assess cognitive flexibility, which is an important construct in psychology. Among these, the self-report cognitive flexibility scale (CFS) is particularly popular for use with English speakers; however, there is not yet a Japanese version of this scale. This study reports on the development of a Japanese version of the cognitive flexibility scale (CFS-J), and the assessment of its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validities. We used the standard translation-back-translation process to develop the Japanese wording of the items and tested these using a sample of 335 eligible participants who did not have a mental illness, were aged 18 years or older, and lived in the suburbs of Tokyo. Participants included office workers, public servants, and college students; 71.6 % were women and 64.8 % were students. The translated scale's internal consistency reliability was assessed by calculating Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega, and test-retest reliability was assessed with 107 eligible participants via intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Spearman's correlation of coefficient. Exploratory factory analysis (EFA) and correlations with other scales were used to examine the factor-based and concurrent validities of the CFS-J. Results indicated that the CFS-J has good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.847, McDonald's omega = 0.871) and acceptable test-retest reliability (Spearman's = 0.687, ICC = 0.689). EFA provided evidence that the CFS-J has a one-factor structure and factor loadings were generally appropriate. The total CFS-J score was significantly and positively correlated with the cognitive flexibility inventory-Japanese version and its two subscales, along with the cognitive control scale and the positive subscale of the short Japanese version of the automatic thought questionnaire-revised (ATQ-R); further, it had a significantly negative correlation with the negative subscale

  11. Influence of social support on cognitive change and mortality in old age: results from the prospective multicentre cohort study AgeCoDe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany. Methods A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM). The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression. Results Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869): Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3) at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4) in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367): Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4), 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135) and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743). Conclusions Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist. This influence is

  12. When Affect Supports Cognitive Control – A Working Memory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolańczyk Alina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper delineates a study of executive functions (EFs, construed as procedural working memory (WM, from a motivational perspective. Since WM theories and motivation theories are both concerned with purposive activity, the role of implicit evaluations (affects observed in goal pursuit can be anticipated to arise also in the context of cognitive control, e.g., during the performance of the Stroop task. The role of positive and negative affect in goal pursuit consists in controlling attention resources according to the goal and situational requirements. Positive affect serves to maintain goals and means in the scope of attention (EF1, whereas negative affect activates the inhibition of non-functional contents, e.g., distractors and irrelevant objects (resulting in attention disengagement; EF2. Adaptation to conflict proceeds via sequential triggering of negative and positive affect (EF3. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the focus on action or reflection changes the scope of contents subjected to implicit (affective control. Therefore, I suggest that the motivational system, to a large extent, plays the role of the Central Executive. The paper opens a discussion and proposes studies on affective mechanisms of cognitive control.

  13. Investigating the incremental validity of cognitive variables in early mathematics screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ben; Shanley, Lina; Kosty, Derek; Baker, Scott K; Cary, Mari Strand; Fien, Hank; Smolkowski, Keith

    2018-03-26

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incremental validity of a set of domain general cognitive measures added to a traditional screening battery of early numeracy measures. The sample consisted of 458 kindergarten students of whom 285 were designated as severely at-risk for mathematics difficulty. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence (WASI) Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary subtests, and Digit Span Forward and Backward measures explained a small, but unique portion of the variance in kindergarten students' mathematics performance on the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-Third Edition (TEMA-3) when controlling for Early Numeracy Curriculum Based Measurement (EN-CBM) screening measures (R² change = .01). Furthermore, the incremental validity of the domain general cognitive measures was relatively stronger for the severely at-risk sample. We discuss results from the study in light of instructional decision-making and note the findings do not justify adding domain general cognitive assessments to mathematics screening batteries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2009-01-01

    Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a cognitive screening test developed to detect dementia. It has been validated in several countries. Validation studies have predominantly included patients with various degrees of dementia and healthy controls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Danish version of ACE as a screening test for early dementia in an outpatient memory clinic. Further, we wanted to investigate the ability of the ACE to discriminate patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from patients with depression. 78 patients with mild AD (MMSE >or=20), 30 non-demented patients diagnosed with depression (originally referred for evaluation of cognitive symptoms), and 63 healthy volunteers, all between 60 and 85 years of age, were included. All patients were given the ACE as a supplement to the standard diagnostic work-up. The cut-off points for optimal trade-off between sensitivity and specificity for ACE were 85/86 (sensitivity 0.99, specificity 0.94). When these cut-off points were applied to the group of depressive patients, the specificity dropped to 0.64, indicating a great overlap in individual test scores for demented and depressed patients. The optimal cut-off points for ACE found in this Danish study were close to what is reported in most other European studies. The great overlap in ACE scores for demented and depressed patients emphasize that test scores must be interpreted with great caution when used in diagnostic work-up.

  15. Validation of reaction time as a measure of cognitive function and quality of life in healthy subjects and patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lene Holm; Sorensen, Janice Marie; Rask, Ingeborg Krarup

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in hospitalized patients and is related to decreased cognitive function and impaired quality of life (QoL). We investigated the validity of reaction time as a simple bedside tool for measuring cognitive function in healthy subjects and patients, and additionally...

  16. C-TOC (Cognitive Testing on Computer): investigating the usability and validity of a novel self-administered cognitive assessment tool in aging and early dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacova, Claudia; McGrenere, Joanna; Lee, Hyunsoo S; Wang, William W; Le Huray, Sarah; Corenblith, Emily F; Brehmer, Matthew; Tang, Charlotte; Hayden, Sherri; Beattie, B Lynn; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Testing on Computer (C-TOC) is a novel computer-based test battery developed to improve both usability and validity in the computerized assessment of cognitive function in older adults. C-TOC's usability was evaluated concurrently with its iterative development to version 4 in subjects with and without cognitive impairment, and health professional advisors representing different ethnocultural groups. C-TOC version 4 was then validated against neuropsychological tests (NPTs), and by comparing performance scores of subjects with normal cognition, Cognitive Impairment Not Dementia (CIND) and Alzheimer disease. C-TOC's language tests were validated in subjects with aphasic disorders. The most important usability issue that emerged from consultations with 27 older adults and with 8 cultural advisors was the test-takers' understanding of the task, particularly executive function tasks. User interface features did not pose significant problems. C-TOC version 4 tests correlated with comparator NPT (r=0.4 to 0.7). C-TOC test scores were normal (n=16)>CIND (n=16)>Alzheimer disease (n=6). All normal/CIND NPT performance differences were detected on C-TOC. Low computer knowledge adversely affected test performance, particularly in CIND. C-TOC detected impairments in aphasic disorders (n=11). In general, C-TOC had good validity in detecting cognitive impairment. Ensuring test-takers' understanding of the tasks, and considering their computer knowledge appear important steps towards C-TOC's implementation.

  17. Visual Supports for Students with Behavior and Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Karen; Knowlton, Earle

    2007-01-01

    In many schools, supports for children with a dual diagnosis of mental retardation and behavioral disorders are inadequate or nonexistent. Often these students are placed with teachers who, although appropriately trained and licensed, are not familiar with support strategies for meeting the behavioral and emotional needs of these students at an…

  18. Cognitive autonomy among adolescents with and without hearing loss: Associations with perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rinat; Attias, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive autonomy is a skill which may help adolescents prepare for important decisions in adulthood. The current study examined the associations between cognitive autonomy and perceived social support among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Participants were 177 students: 55 were deaf and hard of hearing (dhh) and 122 were hearing. They completed the Cognitive Autonomy and Self-Evaluation Inventory, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and a demographic questionnaire. Significant positive correlations were found between some of the cognitive autonomy variables and some of the perceived social support variables. However, among the dhh group, they were fewer and weaker. Family support was found to be a significant predictor of three out of the five cognitive autonomy variables. In addition, significant differences were found between the dhh and hearing participants in some of the cognitive autonomy variables, but not in perceived social support. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Big-Data Based Decision-Support Systems to Improve Clinicians’ Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosan, Don; Samore, Matthew; Jones, Makoto; Livnat, Yarden; Clutter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Complex clinical decision-making could be facilitated by using population health data to inform clinicians. In two previous studies, we interviewed 16 infectious disease experts to understand complex clinical reasoning. For this study, we focused on answers from the experts on how clinical reasoning can be supported by population-based Big-Data. We found cognitive strategies such as trajectory tracking, perspective taking, and metacognition has the potential to improve clinicians’ cognition to deal with complex problems. These cognitive strategies could be supported by population health data, and all have important implications for the design of Big-Data based decision-support tools that could be embedded in electronic health records. Our findings provide directions for task allocation and design of decision-support applications for health care industry development of Big data based decision-support systems. PMID:27990498

  20. Big-Data Based Decision-Support Systems to Improve Clinicians' Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosan, Don; Samore, Matthew; Jones, Makoto; Livnat, Yarden; Clutter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Complex clinical decision-making could be facilitated by using population health data to inform clinicians. In two previous studies, we interviewed 16 infectious disease experts to understand complex clinical reasoning. For this study, we focused on answers from the experts on how clinical reasoning can be supported by population-based Big-Data. We found cognitive strategies such as trajectory tracking, perspective taking, and metacognition has the potential to improve clinicians' cognition to deal with complex problems. These cognitive strategies could be supported by population health data, and all have important implications for the design of Big-Data based decision-support tools that could be embedded in electronic health records. Our findings provide directions for task allocation and design of decision-support applications for health care industry development of Big data based decision-support systems.

  1. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): validation study for frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário R; Alves, Lara; Duro, Diana; Santana, Isabel

    2012-09-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a brief instrument developed for the screening of milder forms of cognitive impairment, having surpassed the well-known limitations of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The aim of the present study was to validate the MoCA as a cognitive screening test for behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Three matched subgroups of participants were considered: bv-FTD (n = 50), Alzheimer disease (n = 50), and a control group of healthy adults (n = 50). Compared with the MMSE, the MoCA demonstrated consistently superior psychometric properties and discriminant capacity, providing comprehensive information about the patients' cognitive profiles. The diagnostic accuracy of MoCA for bv-FTD was extremely high (area under the curve AUC [MoCA] = 0.934, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.866-.974; AUC [MMSE] = 0.772, 95% CI = 0.677-0.850). With a cutoff below 17 points, the MoCA results for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and classification accuracy were significantly superior to those of the MMSE. The MoCA is a sensitive and accurate instrument for screening the patients with bv-FTD and represents a better option than the MMSE.

  2. Adaptation and validation into Portuguese language of the six-item cognitive impairment test (6CIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Paiva, Diana Dos Santos; Silva, Rosa Carla Gomes da; Santos, Eduardo José Ferreira Dos; Schultz, Timothy John

    2017-07-25

    The six-item cognitive impairment test (6CIT) is a brief cognitive screening tool that can be administered to older people in 2-3 min. To adapt the 6CIT for the European Portuguese and determine its psychometric properties based on a sample recruited from several contexts (nursing homes; universities for older people; day centres; primary health care units). The original 6CIT was translated into Portuguese and the draft Portuguese version (6CIT-P) was back-translated and piloted. The accuracy of the 6CIT-P was assessed by comparison with the Portuguese Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A convenience sample of 550 older people from various geographical locations in the north and centre of the country was used. The test-retest reliability coefficient was high (r = 0.95). The 6CIT-P also showed good internal consistency (α = 0.88) and corrected item-total correlations ranged between 0.32 and 0.90. Total 6CIT-P and MMSE scores were strongly correlated. The proposed 6CIT-P threshold for cognitive impairment is ≥10 in the Portuguese population, which gives sensitivity of 82.78% and specificity of 84.84%. The accuracy of 6CIT-P, as measured by area under the ROC curve, was 0.91. The 6CIT-P has high reliability and validity and is accurate when used to screen for cognitive impairment.

  3. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore AL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Amy Lawson Moore, Terissa M Miller Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research, Colorado Springs, CO, USA Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills.Methods: This study included 2,737 participants aged 5–85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test–retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement.Results: Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test–retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93.Conclusion: The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan. Keywords: testing, cognitive skills, memory, processing speed, visual processing, auditory processing

  4. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralva, T; Roca, M; Gleichgerrcht, E; Bonifacio, A; Raimondi, C; Manes, F

    2011-01-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is an improved version of the earlier brief screening test which has been validated in English with high sensitivity and specificity to detect cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the ACE-R in an Argentine population. A group of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) and patients with behavioural variant Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) paired by age, sex, and years of education with healthy controls were assessed using the ACE-R. Stage of dementia was measured with the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). The English version of the ACE-R was first translated into Spanish and then back-translated into English by two blind independent experts. Internal reliability was very good (Cronbach's alpha=0.89). Concurrent validity, determined by the correlation between total ACE-R and CDR was significant (Pcognitive impairment and has shown to discriminate between bvFTD and AD. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Validity and Reliability of the Catastrophic Cognitions Questionnaire-Turkish Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Importance of catastrophic cognitions is well known for the development and maintance of panic disorder. Catastrophic Cognitions Questionnaire (CCQ measures thoughts associated with danger and was originally developed by Khawaja (1992. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of CCQ- Turkish version. Material and Method: CCQ was administered to 250 patients with panic disorder. Turkish version of CCQ was created by translation, back-translation and pilot assessment. Socio-demographic Data Form and CCQ Turkish version were administered to participants. Reliability of CCQ was analyzed by test-retest correlation, split-half technique, Cronbach%u2019s alpha coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated by factor analysis after the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett test had been performed. Principal component analysis and varimax rotation were used for factor analysis. Results: Fifty-five point six percent (n=139 of the participants were female and fourty-four point four percent (n=111 were male. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was calculated 0.920 by Cronbach alpha. In analysis performed by split-half method reliability coefficients of half questionnaire were found as 0.917 and 0.832. Again spearmen-brown coefficient was found as 0.875 by the same analysis. Factor analysis revealed five basic factors. These five factors explained %66.2 of the total variance. Discussion: The results of this study show that the Turkish version of CCQ is a reliable and valid scale.

  6. Reliability and Validity of a Novel Internet-Based Battery to Assess Mood and Cognitive Function in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candice A; Keller, Jeffrey N; Allen, H Raymond; Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather; Davis, Allison B; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K

    2016-10-18

    Dementia is a chronic condition in the elderly and depression is often a concurrent symptom. As populations continue to age, accessible and useful tools to screen for cognitive function and its associated symptoms in elderly populations are needed. The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of a new internet-based assessment battery for screening mood and cognitive function in an elderly population. Specifically, the Helping Hand Technology (HHT) assessments for depression (HHT-D) and global cognitive function (HHT-G) were evaluated in a sample of 57 elderly participants (22 male, 35 female) aged 59-85 years. The study sample was categorized into three groups: 1) dementia (n = 8; Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score 10-24), 2) mild cognitive impairment (n = 24; MMSE score 25-28), and 3) control (n = 25; MMSE score 29-30). Test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation coefficient, r) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha, α) of the HHT-D and HHT-G were assessed. Validity of the HHT-D and HHT-G was tested via comparison (Pearson r) to commonly used pencil-and-paper based assessments: HHT-D versus the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and HHT-G versus the MMSE. Good test-retest (r = 0.80; p validity of the HHT-D was obtained (r = 0.60 between the HHT-D and GDS; p Validity of the HHT-G was supported (r = 0.71 between the HHT-G and MMSE; p valid computerized assessments to screen for depression and cognitive status, respectively, in an elderly sample.

  7. Performance support system in higher engineering education - introduction and empirical validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Bastiaens, T.J.; Martinez Mediano, Catalina

    2008-01-01

    The paper defines and empirically validates the concept of performance support system in higher engineering education. The validation of the concept is based upon two studies: a pilot and an experiment, on the effect of performance support system on achievements and attitudes of students. The

  8. Cognitive System Engineering Approach to Design of Work Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1995-01-01

    The problem of designing work support systems for flexible, dynamic work environments is discussed and a framework for analysis of work in terms of behavior shaping constraints is described. The application of 'ecological interfaces' presenting to the user a map of the relational structure...... of the work space is advocated from the thesis that a map is a better guidance of discretionary tasks than is a route instruction. For the same reason, support of system design is proposed in terms of maps of the design territory, rather than in terms of guidelines....

  9. DARPA Improving Warfighter Information Intake Under Stress -- Augmented Cognition. Volume 1. Phase 2: Concept Validation Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, J. G; Kobus, D. A; Brown, C. M

    2006-01-01

    ...) systems that demonstrate how the limitations of human cognition can be addressed by augmenting cognition with advanced cognitive state sensors that provide input to complex computational systems...

  10. Telephone-based screening tools for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging studies: a review of validated instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Costa Castanho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments pose an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment.

  11. Supported Employment Improves Cognitive Performance in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garca-Villamisar, D.; Hughes, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supported employment programme on measures of executive functions for 44 adults with autism, assessed at the beginning and the end of the programme period. The average length of time of the community employment was 30 months. Methods: Based on their predominant work activity…

  12. Supported employment among veterans with serious mental illness: the role of cognition and social cognition on work outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Felice Reddy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a primary functional deficit for the majority of adults with schizophrenia. Research indicates that over two-thirds of adults living in the community with schizophrenia are unemployed. Despite effective programs to assist with job identification and placement, the ability to attain and maintain employment remains a pressing concern. Neurocognitive functioning is widely acknowledged to be a determinant of work outcome; however, effect sizes tend to be in the small to medium range. The present study sought to further understand the determinants of work outcome among a sample of 104 veterans with schizophrenia enrolled in a supported employment program. A small percentage of veterans in the study got competitive jobs; 53% who secured jobs maintained employment for longer than 6 months. Cognition, social cognition, and symptoms were unrelated to job attainment. However, speed of processing and social cognition were significant predictors of work outcomes such as wages and tenure. These findings suggest that cognitive abilities including processing speed and the ability to accurately interpret and respond to social cues are significant determinants of whether individuals with schizophrenia remain employed. The results are discussed in light of current available treatment options and domains to target in synergy with work rehabilitation efforts.

  13. A Validation Study of the Japanese Version of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelssy Hitomi dos Santos Kawata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R [Mori: Japanese Edition of Hodges JR’s Cognitive Assessment for Clinicians, 2010] designed to detect dementia, and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination. The ACE-R was administered to 85 healthy individuals and 126 patients with dementia. The reliability assessment revealed a strong correlation in both groups. The internal consistency was excellent (α-coefficient = 0.88. Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes score was significant (rs = –0.61, p < 0.001. The area under the curve was 0.98 for the ACE-R and 0.96 for the Mini-Mental State Examination. The cut-off score of 80 showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 94%. Like the original ACE-R and the versions designed for other languages, the Japanese version of the ACE-R is a reliable and valid test for the detection of dementia.

  14. [Development and validation of the Inventory of Needs in Memory Impairment (BIG-65): illness-related needs in people with cognitive impairment and dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, R; Eschen, A; Rüegger-Frey, B; Martin, M

    2013-06-01

    There is growing evidence that individuals with cognitive impairment and dementia require systematic assessment of needs for the selection of optimal treatments. Currently no valid instrument is applicable for illness-related need assessment in this growing population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new instrument ("Bedürfnisinventar bei Gedächtnisstörungen", BIG-65) that systematically assesses illness-related needs. The development was based on an adequate theoretical framework and standardised procedural guidelines and validated to an appropriate sample of individuals attending a Swiss memory clinic (n = 83). The BIG-65 provides a comprehensive range of biopsychosocial and environmental needs items and offers a dementia-friendly structure for the assessment of illness-related needs. The BIG-65 has high face validity and very high test-retest reliability (rtt = 0,916). On average 3.5 (SD = 3.7) unmet needs were assessed. Most frequently mentioned needs were: "forget less" (50%), "better concentration" (23.2%), "information on illness" (20.7%), "information on treatments" (17.1%), "less worry", "less irritable", "improve mood", "improve orientation" (13.4% each). Needs profiles differed between patients with preclinical (subjective cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment) and clinical (dementia) diagnosis. The BIG-65 reliably assesses illness-related needs in individuals with moderate dementia. With decreasing cognitive functions or an MMSE cognitive impairment and dementia pursue individual strategies to stabilize their quality of life level. In addition to the assessment of objective illness symptoms the selection of optimal treatments may profit from a systematic needs assessment to optimally support patients in their individual quality of life strategies.

  15. Concept of operator support system based on cognitive simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Takano, Kenichi

    1999-01-01

    Hazardous technologies such chemical plants, nuclear power plants, etc. have introduced multi-layered defenses to prevent accidents. One of those defenses is experienced operators in control rooms. Once an abnormal condition occurs, they are the front line people to cope with it. Therefore, operators' quick recognition of the plant conditions and fast decision making on responses are quite important for trouble shooting. In order to help operators to deal with abnormalities in process plants, lots of efforts had been done to develop operator support systems since early 1980s (IAEA, 1993). However, the boom in developing operator support systems has slumped due to the limitations of knowledge engineering, artificial knowledge, etc (Yamamoto, 1998). The limitations had also biased the focus of the system development to abnormality detection, root cause diagnosis, etc (Hajek, Hashemi, Sharma and Chandrasekaran, 1986). Information or guidance about future plant behavior and strategies/tactics to deal with abnormal events are important and helpful for operators but researches and development of those systems made a belated start. Before developing these kinds of system, it is essential to understand how operators deal with abnormalities. CRIEPI has been conducting a project to develop a computer system that simulates behavior of operators dealing with abnormal operating conditions in a nuclear power plant. This project had two stages. In the first stage, the authors developed a prototype system that simulates behavior of a team facing abnormal events in a very simplified power plant (Sasou, Takano and Yoshimura, 1995). In the second stage, the authors applied the simulation technique developed in the first stage to construct a system to simulate a team's behavior in a nuclear power plant. This paper briefly summarizes the simulation system developed in the second stage, main mechanism for the simulation and the concept of an operator support system based on this

  16. Cognitive Enhancement in Infants Associated with Increased Maternal Fruit Intake During Pregnancy: Results from a Birth Cohort Study with Validation in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois V. Bolduc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In-utero nutrition is an under-studied aspect of cognitive development. Fruit has been an important dietary constituent for early hominins and humans. Among 808 eligible CHILD-Edmonton sub-cohort subjects, 688 (85% had 1-year cognitive outcome data. We found that each maternal daily serving of fruit (sum of fruit plus 100% fruit juice consumed during pregnancy was associated with a 2.38 point increase in 1-year cognitive development (95% CI 0.39, 4.37; p < 0.05. Consistent with this, we found 30% higher learning Performance index (PI scores in Drosophila offspring from parents who consumed 30% fruit juice supplementation prenatally (PI: 85.7; SE 1.8; p < 0.05 compared to the offspring of standard diet parents (PI: 65.0 SE 3.4. Using the Drosophila model, we also show that the cyclic adenylate monophosphate (cAMP pathway may be a major regulator of this effect, as prenatal fruit associated cognitive enhancement was blocked in Drosophila rutabaga mutants with reduced Ca2+-Calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclase. Moreover, gestation is a critical time for this effect as postnatal fruit intake did not enhance cognitive performance in either humans or Drosophila. Our study supports increased fruit consumption during pregnancy with significant increases in infant cognitive performance. Validation in Drosophila helps control for potential participant bias or unmeasured confounders.

  17. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawayama Toru

    2012-05-01

    positive alcohol expectancies, high abstinence self-efficacy, high perception level of impaired control over drinking, and high perception level of drinking problems measured by DRCS. Conclusions The DRCS was considered to have satisfactory predictive validity, which further supports our previous findings. It was suggested that DRCS is a promising rating scale for evaluating multidimensional cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment.

  18. Validation of a Modified Life-Space Assessment in Multimorbid Older Persons With Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Phoebe; Werner, Christian; Bongartz, Martin; Kiss, Rainer; Bauer, Jürgen; Hauer, Klaus

    2018-01-31

    To investigate the validity, reliability, sensitivity to change, and feasibility of a modified University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging Life-Space Assessment (UAB-LSA) in older persons with cognitive impairment (CI). The UAB-LSA was modified for use in persons with CI Life-Space Assessment for Persons with Cognitive Impairment (LSA-CI). Measurement properties of the LSA-CI were investigated using data of 118 multimorbid older participants with CI [mean age (SD): 82.3 (6.0) years, mean Mini-Mental State Examination score: 23.3 (2.4) points] from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to improve motor performance and physical activity. Construct validity was asessed by Spearman's rank (rs) and point-biseral correlations (rpb) with age, gender, motor, and cognitive status, psychosocial factors, and sensor-derived (outdoor) physical activity variables. Test-retest reliability was analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Sensitivity to change was determined by standardized response means (SRMs) calculated for the RCT intervention group. The LSA-CI demonstrated moderate to high construct validity, with significant correlations of the LSA-CI scores with (outdoor) physical activity (rs = .23-.63), motor status (rs = .27-.56), fear of falling-related psychosocial variables (rs = |.24-.44|), and demographic characteristics (rpb = |.27-.32|). Test-retest reliability was good to excellent (ICC = .65-.91). Sensitivity to change was excellent for the LSA-CI composite score (SRM = .80) and small to moderate for the LSA-CI subscores (SRM = .35-.60). A completion rate of 100% and a mean completion time of 4.1 min) documented good feasibility. The LSA-CI represents a valid, reliable, sensitive, and feasible interview-based life-space assessment tool in multimorbid older persons with CI. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Association of Social Support and Family Environment with Cognitive Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Sun, Xiu-Mei; Du, Yun; Song, Yi-Fan; Ren, Ye-Ping; Dong, Jie

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) is a common phenomenon and predictive of high mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study aimed to analyze the association of social support and family environment with cognitive function in PD patients. ♦ METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of PD patients from Peking University First Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. Global cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), executive function was measured by the A and B trail-making tests, and other cognitive functions were measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Social support was measured with the Social Support Scale developed by Xiaoshuiyuan and family environment was measured with the Chinese Version of the Family Environment Scale (FES-CV). ♦ RESULTS: The prevalence of CI and executive dysfunction among the 173 patients in the study was, respectively, 16.8% and 26.3%. Logistic regression found that higher global social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 1.01 - 1.17, p = 0.027) and subjective social support predicted higher prevalence of CI (OR = 1.13, 1.02 - 1.25, p = 0.022), adjusting for covariates. Analyses of the FES-CV dimensions found that greater independence was significantly associated with better immediate memory and delayed memory. Moreover, higher scores on achievement orientation were significantly associated with poorer language skills. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that social support is negatively associated with the cognitive function of PD patients and that some dimensions of the family environment are significantly associated with several domains of cognitive function. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  20. Derivation and validation of the automated search algorithms to identify cognitive impairment and dementia in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amra, Sakusic; O'Horo, John C; Singh, Tarun D; Wilson, Gregory A; Kashyap, Rahul; Petersen, Ronald; Roberts, Rosebud O; Fryer, John D; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Gajic, Ognjen

    2017-02-01

    Long-term cognitive impairment is a common and important problem in survivors of critical illness. We developed electronic search algorithms to identify cognitive impairment and dementia from the electronic medical records (EMRs) that provide opportunity for big data analysis. Eligible patients met 2 criteria. First, they had a formal cognitive evaluation by The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Second, they were hospitalized in intensive care unit at our institution between 2006 and 2014. The "criterion standard" for diagnosis was formal cognitive evaluation supplemented by input from an expert neurologist. Using all available EMR data, we developed and improved our algorithms in the derivation cohort and validated them in the independent validation cohort. Of 993 participants who underwent formal cognitive testing and were hospitalized in intensive care unit, we selected 151 participants at random to form the derivation and validation cohorts. The automated electronic search algorithm for cognitive impairment was 94.3% sensitive and 93.0% specific. The search algorithms for dementia achieved respective sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 99%. EMR search algorithms significantly outperformed International Classification of Diseases codes. Automated EMR data extractions for cognitive impairment and dementia are reliable and accurate and can serve as acceptable and efficient alternatives to time-consuming manual data review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and validation of clinical prediction models for mortality, functional outcome and cognitive impairment after stroke: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Marion; Rudd, Anthony; Béjot, Yannick; Wolfe, Charles; Douiri, Abdel

    2017-08-18

    Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and death worldwide. The neurological impairments associated with stroke prevent patients from performing basic daily activities and have enormous impact on families and caregivers. Practical and accurate tools to assist in predicting outcome after stroke at patient level can provide significant aid for patient management. Furthermore, prediction models of this kind can be useful for clinical research, health economics, policymaking and clinical decision support. 2869 patients with first-ever stroke from South London Stroke Register (SLSR) (1995-2004) will be included in the development cohort. We will use information captured after baseline to construct multilevel models and a Cox proportional hazard model to predict cognitive impairment, functional outcome and mortality up to 5 years after stroke. Repeated random subsampling validation (Monte Carlo cross-validation) will be evaluated in model development. Data from participants recruited to the stroke register (2005-2014) will be used for temporal validation of the models. Data from participants recruited to the Dijon Stroke Register (1985-2015) will be used for external validation. Discrimination, calibration and clinical utility of the models will be presented. Patients, or for patients who cannot consent their relatives, gave written informed consent to participate in stroke-related studies within the SLSR. The SLSR design was approved by the ethics committees of Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Kings College Hospital, Queens Square and Westminster Hospitals (London). The Dijon Stroke Registry was approved by the Comité National des Registres and the InVS and has authorisation of the Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Reliability and Validity of the Beijing Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in the Evaluation of Cognitive Function of Adult Patients with OSAHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiong; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, Ying; Dong, Jiaqi; Niu, Xun; Kong, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    The patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) tend to develop cognitive deficits, which usually go unrecognized, and can affect their daily life. The Beijing version of the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA-BJ), a Chinese version of MoCA, has been used for the assessment of cognitive functions of OSAHS patients in clinical practice. So far, its reliability and validity have not been tested. This study examined the reliability and validity of MoCA-BJ in a cohort of adult OSAHS patients. 152 OSAHS patients, ranging from mild, moderate to severe, 49 primary snoring subjects and 40 normal controls were evaluated for cognitive functions by employing both MoCA-BJ and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Forty of them were re-tested by MoCA-BJ 14 days after the first test. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminate and concurrent validity of MoCA-BJ were analyzed. Internal consistency reliability by Cronbach's alpha was adequate (0.73). Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), an measure of test-retest reliability, was 0.87 (Preliable and stable. The MoCA-BJ was capable of detecting cognitive dysfunction by visuospatial and total MoCA-BJ score.

  3. Plume trajectory validation study: Brown cloud support project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-Strattan, M.A.; Smith, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The brown cloud is an air pollution phenomenon of great concern to the Denver metropolitan area. Regulatory agencies, academia, and research organizations are involved in characterizing the development and transport of the brown cloud and identifying mitigation approaches. In support of this effort, NOAA conducted releases of small (one cubic meter) constant density balloons from sites in Denver and along the South Platte Valley. These balloons, called ''tetroons'' because of their tetrahedral shape, carried five-ounce transponders and were tracked by radar as they rose to predetermined altitudes and followed airflow patterns at those altitudes. The data gathered from these releases included the geographic position and altitude of each tetroon over time. These data will aid efforts to understand brown cloud development, structure, and transport

  4. R&D for computational cognitive and social models : foundations for model evaluation through verification and validation (final LDRD report).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepoy, Alexander; Mitchell, Scott A.; Backus, George A.; McNamara, Laura A.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2008-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investing in projects that aim to develop computational modeling and simulation applications that explore human cognitive and social phenomena. While some of these modeling and simulation projects are explicitly research oriented, others are intended to support or provide insight for people involved in high consequence decision-making. This raises the issue of how to evaluate computational modeling and simulation applications in both research and applied settings where human behavior is the focus of the model: when is a simulation 'good enough' for the goals its designers want to achieve? In this report, we discuss two years' worth of review and assessment of the ASC program's approach to computational model verification and validation, uncertainty quantification, and decision making. We present a framework that extends the principles of the ASC approach into the area of computational social and cognitive modeling and simulation. In doing so, we argue that the potential for evaluation is a function of how the modeling and simulation software will be used in a particular setting. In making this argument, we move from strict, engineering and physics oriented approaches to V&V to a broader project of model evaluation, which asserts that the systematic, rigorous, and transparent accumulation of evidence about a model's performance under conditions of uncertainty is a reasonable and necessary goal for model evaluation, regardless of discipline. How to achieve the accumulation of evidence in areas outside physics and engineering is a significant research challenge, but one that requires addressing as modeling and simulation tools move out of research laboratories and into the hands of decision makers. This report provides an assessment of our thinking on ASC Verification and Validation, and argues for further extending V&V research in the physical and engineering sciences toward a broader program of model

  5. Validation of the Persian version of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Shahrzad; Ghafaree-Nejad, Ali R; Soleymani-Zade, Somayeh; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-06-01

    The Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) is an interview-based assessment of cognition that involves interviews with patients and informants. The SCoRS has shown good reliability, validity, and sensitivity to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, with the advantage of brief administration and scoring time. The present study aimed to test the concurrent validity of the Persian version of the SCoRS. A group of 35 patients with schizophrenia and a group of 35 healthy controls received the Persian-SCoRS in the first session, and a standardized performance-based cognitive battery, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), in the second session.Our results indicated that the Persian version of the SCoRS was sensitive to cognitive impairment in the patients. The Persian SCoRS global rating was significantly associated with the composite score generated from the Persian version of the BACS and predicted functional outcomes as measured by Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHO QOL). A Persian version of the SCoRS, an interview based measure of cognition that included informants, is related to cognitive performance and global functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Job Endings and Work Trajectories of Persons Receiving Supported Employment and Cognitive Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carina; Mueser, Kim T; Rogers, E Sally; McGurk, Susan R

    2018-05-02

    This study examined job endings and work trajectories among participants in a study comparing the effects of adding cognitive remediation to supported employment among individuals who had not benefited from supported employment. Data were from a controlled trial of 107 persons with serious mental illness enrolled in supported employment but who had not obtained or sustained competitive work. Participants were randomly assigned to enhanced supported employment only (with employment specialists trained to recognize cognitive difficulties and teach coping strategies) or to the Thinking Skills for Work program (enhanced supported employment plus cognitive remediation). For the 52 participants who worked, the two groups were compared on types of job endings, reasons for job endings, successful versus unsuccessful jobs, and work trajectories over the two-year study period. The two groups did not differ in types of job ending, although participants in Thinking Skills for Work were less likely than those in enhanced supported employment only to cite dissatisfaction with the job as a reason for the job ending. Participants in Thinking Skills for Work were also less likely to have an overall unsuccessful work trajectory, more likely to have only successful jobs, and more likely to be employed at the end of the study. The Thinking Skills for Work program appeared to help participants who had not benefited from supported employment stick with and master their jobs more effectively than those in enhanced supported employment only, resulting in better work trajectories over the course of the study.

  7. Energy source perceptions and policy support: Image associations, emotional evaluations, and cognitive beliefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes Truelove, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper represents the most in-depth effort conducted to date to assess affective, emotional and cognitive perceptions of coal, natural gas, nuclear, and wind energy and the relationship between these perceptions and support for the energy sources. U.S. residents, recruited from a consumer panel, completed surveys assessing image associations, emotional reactions, and cognitive beliefs about energy sources and support for increased reliance on energy sources and local siting of energy facilities. The content of images produced by participants when evaluating energy sources revealed several interesting findings. Additionally, analysis of the image evaluations, emotions, and beliefs about each energy source showed that coal and nuclear energy were viewed most negatively, with natural gas in the middle, and wind viewed most positively. Importantly, these affective, emotional, and cognitive perceptions explained significant amounts of variance in support for each of the energy sources. Implications for future researchers and policy makers are discussed. - Highlights: ► Image associations, emotions, and beliefs about energy sources were measured. ► A dual-process model of energy support was proposed and tested. ► Coal and nuclear were viewed most negatively and wind was viewed most positively. ► The cognitive-affective model predicted support for each energy source.

  8. Cognitive Human-Machine Interface Applied in Remote Support for Industrial Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kosicki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is currently being made to widely introduce industrial robots to Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs. Since the enterprises usually employ too small number of robot units to afford specialized departments for robot maintenance, they must be provided with inexpensive and immediate support remotely. This paper evaluates whether the support can be provided by means of Cognitive Info-communication – communication in which human cognitive capabilities are extended irrespectively of geographical distances. The evaluations are given with an aid of experimental system that consists of local and remote rooms, which are physically separated – a six-degree-of-freedom NACHI SH133-03 industrial robot is situated in the local room, while the operator, who supervises the robot by means of audio-visual Cognitive Human-Machine Interface, is situated in the remote room. The results of simple experiments show that Cognitive Info-communication is not only efficient mean to provide the support remotely, but is probably also a powerful tool to enhance interaction with any data-rich environment that require good conceptual understanding of system's state and careful attention management. Furthermore, the paper discusses data presentation and reduction methods for data-rich environments, as well as introduces the concepts of Naturally Acquired Data and Cognitive Human-Machine Interfaces.

  9. Measuring achievement goal motivation, mindsets and cognitive load: validation of three instruments' scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Castillo, Richmond M; Gas, Becca; Artino, Anthony R

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of motivation and cognitive load has potential value in health professions education. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of scores from Dweck's Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale (ITIS), Elliot's Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) and Leppink's cognitive load index (CLI). This was a validity study evaluating internal structure using reliability and factor analysis, and relationships with other variables using the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Two hundred and thirty-two secondary school students participated in a medical simulation-based training activity at an academic medical center. Pre-activity ITIS (implicit theory [mindset] domains: incremental, entity) and AGQ-R (achievement goal domains: mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance), post-activity CLI (cognitive load domains: intrinsic, extrinsic, germane) and task persistence (self-directed repetitions on a laparoscopic surgery task) were measured. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) was > 0.70 for all domain scores except AGQ-R performance-avoidance (alpha 0.68) and CLI extrinsic load (alpha 0.64). Confirmatory factor analysis of ITIS and CLI scores demonstrated acceptable model fit. Confirmatory factor analysis of AGQ-R scores demonstrated borderline fit, and exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-domain model for achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance and avoidance). Correlations among scores from conceptually-related domains generally aligned with expectations, as follows: ITIS incremental and entity, r = -0.52; AGQ-R mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance, r = 0.71; mastery-approach and performance-approach, r = 0.55; performance-approach and performance-avoidance, r = 0.43; mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance, r = 0.36; CLI germane and extrinsic, r = -0.35; ITIS incremental and AGQ-R mastery-approach, r = 0.34; ITIS incremental and CLI germane, r = 0.44; AGQ-R mastery

  10. Validation of conversion between mini-mental state examination and montreal cognitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Michael; Kasten, Meike; May, Margaret T; Mollenhauer, Brit; Schaumburg, Martina; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Maetzler, Walter; Vollstedt, Eva-Juliane; Hu, Michele T M; Berg, Daniela; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2016-04-01

    Harmonizing data across cohorts is important for validating findings or combining data in meta-analyses. We replicate and validate a previous conversion of MoCA to MMSE in PD. We used five studies with 1,161 PD individuals and 2,091 observations measured with both the MoCA and MMSE. We compared a previously published conversion table using equipercentile equating with log-linear smoothing to our internally derived scores. Both conversions found good agreement within and across the studies when comparing true and converted MMSE (mean difference: 0.05; standard deviation: 1.84; median difference: 0; interquartile range: -1 to 1, using internal conversion). These results show that one can get a reliable and valid conversion between two commonly used measures of cognition in PD studies. These approaches need to be applied to other scales and domains to enable large-scale collaborative analyses across multiple PD cohorts. © 2016 The Authors. International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Development and quantitative effect estimation of an integrated decision support system to aid operator's cognitive activities for NPP advanced main control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun

    2007-02-01

    As digital and computer technologies have grown, human-machine interfaces (HMIs) have evolved. In safety critical systems, especially in nuclear power plants (NPPs), HMIs are important for reducing operational costs, for reducing the number of necessary operators, and for reducing the probability of accident occurrence. Efforts have been made to improve main control room (MCR) interface design and to develop automation or support systems to ensure convenient operation and maintenance. In this paper, an integrated decision support system to aid the cognitive activities of operators is proposed for advanced MCRs in future NPPs. The proposed system supports not merely a particular task, but also the entire operation process based on a human cognitive process model. It supports the operator's entire cognitive process by integrating decision support systems that support each cognitive activity. In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed based on a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each activity of the human cognitive process are suggested. Two decision support systems were developed in this paper. The first one is the fault diagnosis advisory system (FDAS) which detects faults and diagnoses them. The FDAS provides a list of possible faults and expected causes to operators. It was implemented using two kinds of neural networks for more reliable diagnosis results. The second system is the multifunctional operator support system for operation guidance, which includes the FDAS and the operation guidance system. The operation guidance system is to prevent operator's commission errors and omission errors. Furthermore, the effect of the proposed system was estimated because to evaluate decision support systems in order to validate their efficiency is as important as to design highly reliable decision support systems. The effect estimations were performed theoretically and experimentally. The Bayesian

  12. Instructional Support System--Occupational Education II. ISSOE Automotive Mechanics Content Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Theodore

    A study was conducted to validate the Instructional Support System-Occupational Education (ISSOE) automotive mechanics curriculum. The following four steps were undertaken: (1) review of the ISSOE materials in terms of their "validity" as task statements; (2) a comparison of the ISSOE tasks to the tasks included in the V-TECS Automotive…

  13. Relationship between cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers: Exploring multiple mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Peng; Pan, Yu; Zhang, Shui-Miao; Wei, Cun; Dong, Wei; Deng, Guang-Hui

    2017-10-01

    The current study aimed to explore the association of cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers and to understand the multiple mediation effects of social support and resilience on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. A total of 1477 male soldiers completed mental scales, including the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire-Chinese version, the perceived social support scale, the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and the military acute stress scale. As hypothesized, physiological responses, psychological responses, and acute stress were associated with negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation, and negatively associated with positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social supports and resilience. Besides, positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience were significantly associated with one another, and negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation was negatively associated with social support. Regression analysis and bootstrap analysis showed that social support and resilience had partly mediating effects on negative strategies and acute stress, and fully mediating effects on positive strategies and acute stress. These results thus indicate that military acute stress is significantly associated with cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience, and that social support and resilience have multiple mediation effects on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary findings on the reliability and validity of the Cantonese Birmingham Cognitive Screen in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoping; Chen, Haobo; Bickerton, Wai-Ling; Lau, Johnny King Lam; Kong, Anthony Pak Hin; Rotshtein, Pia; Guo, Aihua; Hu, Jianxi; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-01-01

    There are no currently effective cognitive assessment tools for patients who have suffered stroke in the People's Republic of China. The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) has been shown to be a promising tool for revealing patients' poststroke cognitive deficits in specific domains, which facilitates more individually designed rehabilitation in the long run. Hence we examined the reliability and validity of a Cantonese version BCoS in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in Guangzhou. A total of 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke were assessed with the Cantonese version of the BCoS, and an additional 133 healthy individuals were recruited as controls. Apart from the BCoS, the patients also completed a number of external cognitive tests, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (MoCA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Albert's cancellation test, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and six gesture matching tasks. Cutoff scores for failing each subtest, ie, deficits, were computed based on the performance of the controls. The validity and reliability of the Cantonese BCoS were examined, as well as interrater and test-retest reliability. We also compared the proportions of cases being classified as deficits in controlled attention, memory, character writing, and praxis, between patients with and without spoken language impairment. Analyses showed high test-retest reliability and agreement across independent raters on the qualitative aspects of measurement. Significant correlations were observed between the subtests of the Cantonese BCoS and the other external cognitive tests, providing evidence for convergent validity of the Cantonese BCoS. The screen was also able to generate measures of cognitive functions that were relatively uncontaminated by the presence of aphasia. This study suggests good reliability and validity of the Cantonese version of the BCoS. The Cantonese BCoS is a very promising tool for the detection of cognitive problems in

  15. Validation of a new mass screening tool for cognitive impairment: Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoda K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Keiichi Onoda,1 Tsuyoshi Hamano,2 Yoko Nabika,1 Atsuo Aoyama,1 Hiroyuki Takayoshi,1 Tomonori Nakagawa,1 Masaki Ishihara,1 Shingo Mitaki,1 Takuya Yamaguchi,1 Hiroaki Oguro,1 Kuninori Shiwaku,3 Shuhei Yamaguchi1 1Department of Neurology, 2Center for Community-Based Health Research and Education, Shimane University, Izumo, 3Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan Background: We have developed a new screening test for dementia that runs on an iPad and can be used for mass screening, known as the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version (CADi. The CADi consists of items involving immediate recognition memory for three words, semantic memory, categorization of six objects, subtraction, backward repetition of digits, cube rotation, pyramid rotation, trail making A, trail making B, and delayed recognition memory for three words. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the CADi. Methods: CADi evaluations were conducted for patients with dementia, healthy subjects selected from a brain checkup system, and community-dwelling elderly people participating in health checkups. Results: CADi scores were lower for dementia patients than for healthy elderly individuals and correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Cronbach’s alpha values for the CADi were acceptable (over 0.7, and test–retest reliability was confirmed via a significant correlation between scores separated by a one-year interval. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CADi is a useful tool for mass screening of dementia in Japanese populations. Keywords: dementia, mass screening, early detection, iPad

  16. The Role of Cognitive and Affective Empathy in Spouses' Support Interactions: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhofstadt, Lesley; Devoldre, Inge; Buysse, Ann; Stevens, Michael; Hinnekens, Céline; Ickes, William; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined how support providers’ empathic dispositions (dispositional perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) as well as their situational empathic reactions (interaction-based perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) relate to the provision of spousal support during observed support interactions. Forty-five committed couples provided questionnaire data and participated in two ten-minute social support interactions designed to assess behaviors when partners are offering and soliciting social support. A video-review task was used to assess situational forms of perspective taking (e.g., empathic accuracy), empathic concern and personal distress. Data were analyzed by means of the multi-level Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Results revealed that providers scoring higher on affective empathy (i.e., dispositional empathic concern), provided lower levels of negative support. In addition, for male partners, scoring higher on cognitive empathy (i.e., situational perspective taking) was related to lower levels of negative support provision. For both partners, higher scores on cognitive empathy (i.e., situational perspective taking) correlated with more instrumental support provision. Male providers scoring higher on affective empathy (i.e., situational personal distress) provided higher levels of instrumental support. Dispositional perspective taking was related to higher scores on emotional support provision for male providers. The current study furthers our insight into the empathy-support link, by revealing differential effects (a) for men and women, (b) of both cognitive and affective empathy, and (c) of dispositional as well as situational empathy, on different types of support provision. PMID:26910769

  17. Can we forget the Mini-Mental State Examination? A systematic review of the validity of cognitive screening instruments within one month after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heugten, Caroline M; Walton, L; Hentschel, U

    2015-07-01

    To review systematically studies investigating the convergent, criterion, and predictive validity of multi-domain cognitive screening instruments in the first four weeks after stroke. Electronic databases (Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase) were searched until June 2014. Studies concerning screening for cognitive dysfunction in stroke patients using multi-domain instruments, within four weeks postinfarct or haemorrhagic stroke, using tests taking no longer than one hour. Convergent, criterion, and predictive validity were examined. A total of 51 studies investigating 16 cognitive screening instruments were identified. None of the instruments covered all of the most affected cognitive domains. Only one study investigated the convergent validity of a multi-domain test during the (sub)acute phase after stroke. A total of 15 studies examined the criterion validity of cognitive measurements during the acute phase after stroke. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Higher Cortical Function Deficit Test had good criterion validity. A total of 24 studies examined the predictive ability of multi-domain cognitive instruments applied in the acute phase after stroke. The Cognistat, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Functional Independence Measure-cognitive showed good predictive validity. The Mini-Mental State Examination is the most widely used cognitive screening instrument, but shows insufficient criterion validity. None of the existing instruments fulfils all criteria. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is the best candidate at present, provided items measuring speed of information processing are added, and further studies investigating the optimal cut-offs are conducted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Validity of the mini-mental state examination and the montreal cognitive assessment in the prediction of driving test outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Ann M; Duncanson, Haley; Kapust, Lissa R; Xi, Patricia M; O'Connor, Margaret G

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of two cognitive screening measures, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in predicting driving test outcome for individuals with and without cognitive impairment. Retrospective cohort study. A clinical driving evaluation program at a teaching hospital in the United States. Adult drivers who underwent assessment with the MMSE and MoCA as part of a comprehensive driving evaluation between 2010 and 2014 (N=92). MMSE and MoCA total scores were independent variables. The outcome measure was performance on a standardized road test. A preestablished diagnosis of cognitive impairment enhanced the validity of cognitive screening measures in the identification of at-risk drivers. In individuals with cognitive impairment there was a significant relationship between MoCA score and on-road outcome. Specifically, an individual was 1.36 times as likely to fail the road test with each 1-point decrease in MoCA score. No such relationship was detected in those without a diagnosis of cognitive impairment. For individuals who have not been diagnosed with cognitive impairment, neither the MMSE nor the MoCA can be reliably used as an indicator of driving risk, but for individuals with a preestablished diagnosis of cognitive impairment, the MoCA is a useful tool in this regard. A score on the MoCA of 18 or less should raise concerns about driving safety. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Tagclouds and Group Cognition: Effect of Tagging Support on Students' Reflective Learning in Team Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Lin, Shu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of supported tagging (a prompting mechanism for students to stop and think about their writing) for team blogging on undergraduate students' reflective learning and the relationship between tagclouds and group cognition. Thirty-nine students were randomly assigned to six groups and blogged for 5 weeks. Three groups were…

  20. Unpacking the Complexity of Planning with Persons with Cognitive Disability and Complex Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Susan; Dew, Angela; Dowse, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    Background: Planners will engage with people with cognitive disability and complex support needs in the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme, but the specific skills needed to build sustainable plans with this group are not yet known. Method: A qualitative study was conducted to explore the barriers and facilitators to planning with…

  1. Academic Supports, Cognitive Disability and Mathematics Acheivement for Visually Imparied Youth: A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, J. Martin; Cavenaugh, Brenda S.; McDonnall, Michele Capella

    2012-01-01

    Elementary and middle school students who are blind or visually impaired (VI) lag up to three years behind non-disabled peers in mathematics achievement. We investigated the impact of academic supports in the school on mathematics achievement, controlling grade, gender, cognitive disability, and family SES. Data were from SEELS (Special Education…

  2. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  3. Validation of the Dutch version of the quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Steven; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Krijnen, Wim P; Molloy, D William; Goodijk, Geert Pieter; van der Schans, Cees P; Hobbelen, Hans J S M

    2015-10-02

    Differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from dementia is important, as treatment options differ. There are few short (Dutch language. The Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen is sensitive and specific in differentiating MCI from NC and mild dementia. Given this, we adapted the Qmci for use in Dutch-language countries and validated the Dutch version, the Qmci-D, against the Dutch translation of the Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE-D). The Qmci was translated into Dutch with a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. In all, 90 participants were recruited from a hospital geriatric clinic (25 with dementia, 30 with MCI, 35 with NC). The Qmci-D and SMMSE-D were administered sequentially but randomly by the same trained rater, blind to the diagnosis. The Qmci-D was more sensitive than the SMMSE-D in discriminating MCI from dementia, with a significant difference in the area under the curve (AUC), 0.73 compared to 0.60 (p = 0.024), respectively, and in discriminating dementia from NC, with an AUC of 0.95 compared to 0.89 (p = 0.006). Both screening instruments discriminated MCI from NC with an AUC of 0.86 (Qmci-D) and 0.84 (SMMSE-D). The Qmci-D shows similar,(good) accuracy as the SMMSE-D in separating NC from MCI; greater,(albeit fair), accuracy differentiating MCI from dementia, and significantly greater accuracy in separating dementia from NC. Given its brevity and ease of administration, the Qmci-D seems a useful cognitive screen in a Dutch population. Further study with a suitably powered sample against more sensitive screens is now required.

  4. Validity and reliability of the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Kuniyoshi; Fujii, Yutaka; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Kako, Yuki; Asakura, Satoshi; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    In Japan, there are currently no reliable rating scales for the evaluation of subjective cognitive impairment in patients with bipolar disorder. We studied the relationship between the Japanese version of the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and objective cognitive assessments in patients with bipolar disorder. We further assessed the reliability and validity of the COBRA. Forty-one patients, aged 16-64, in a remission period of bipolar disorder were recruited from Hokkaido University Hospital in Sapporo, Japan. The COBRA (Japanese version) and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), the gold standard in subjective cognitive assessment, were administered. A battery of neuropsychological tests was employed to measure objective cognitive impairment. Correlations among the COBRA, FCQ, and neuropsychological tests were determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The Japanese version of the COBRA had high internal consistency, good retest reliability, and concurrent validity-as indicated by a strong correlation with the FCQ. A significant correlation was also observed between the COBRA and objective cognitive measurements of processing speed. These findings are the first to demonstrate that the Japanese version of the COBRA may be clinically useful as a subjective cognitive impairment rating scale in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effort testing in children: can cognitive and symptom validity measures differentiate malingered performances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Philip L; Callahan, Jennifer L; Hogan, Lindsey R; Hullmann, Stephanie; Wrape, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have contributed to significant advances in the detection of malingered performances in adults during cognitive assessment. However, children's ability to purposefully underperform has received relatively little attention. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine children's performances on common intellectual measures, as well as two symptom validity measures: the Test of Memory Malingering and the Dot-Counting Test. This was accomplished through the administration of measures to children ages 6 to 12 years old in randomly assigned full-effort (control) and poor-effort (treatment) conditions. Prior to randomization, children's general intellectual functioning (i.e., IQ) was estimated via administration of the Kaufman Brief Intellectual Battery-Second Edition (KBIT-2). Multivariate analyses revealed that the conditions significantly differed on some but not all administered measures. Specifically, children's estimated IQ in the treatment condition significantly differed from the full-effort IQ initially obtained from the same children on the KBIT-2, as well as from the IQs obtained in the full-effort control condition. These findings suggest that children are fully capable of willfully underperforming during cognitive testing; however, consistent with prior investigations, some measures evidence greater sensitivity than others in evaluating effort.

  6. The Adolescent HIV Disclosure Cognition and Affect Scale: Preliminary Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Globally, there are 2 million HIV-positive 10-19-year-olds. One challenge for this population is sharing their HIV status with others (onward HIV disclosure). There are no multi-item, multidimensional scales of HIV disclosure cognitions and affect for young people living with HIV. An 18-item measure of HIV disclosure cognition and affect was developed, administered to 65 adolescents living with HIV (aged 12-16 years). Data were explored using principal component analysis and preliminary construct and criterion validity assessed. Three factors were revealed: negative disclosure attitudes and feelings, self-efficacy, and positive disclosure attitudes and feelings. The full scale and its subscales were internally consistent. The total score showed statistically significant positive relationships with HIV disclosure in the past 6 months, HIV disclosure intention and self-perception. Preliminary evidence of the measure's good psychometric properties suggests it may be helpful in future clinical and research work. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Development of a Taiwan cancer-related fatigue cognition questionnaire: reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Chiung; Lin, Wei-Chun; Chen, Chien-Hsin; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2017-04-25

    We prospectively designed a Taiwan cancer-related fatigue cognition questionnaire, version 1.0 (TCRFCQ-V1.0), for Taiwanese patients with cancer and investigated the reliability and validity of this questionnaire. The completion rate of the TCRFCQ-V1.0 was high (97% of the patients completed all items), and the rate of missing data was low (0.2%-1.1% for each item). Moreover, the Cronbach alpha value was 0.889. We eliminated 5 items because their respective Cronbach alpha values were higher than the total mean value of Cronbach's alpha. Overall, the TCRFCQ-V1.0 had adequate Cronbach alpha coefficients (range, from 0.882 to 0.889). In addition, the results of Bartlett's test were significant (chi-squared, 2390.11; p Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin statistic of 0.868. Through exploratory factor analysis, we identified 6 factors with eigenvalues of > 1, and the scree plot indicated no flattening factors. Overall, 28 items achieved a factor loading of ≥ 0.55. We enrolled patients with cancer who were aged > 18 years, had received a pathological diagnosis of cancer, and had undergone cancer treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or concurrent chemoradiotherapy at a single institute in Taiwan. Of the identified 167 eligible patients, 161 (96.4%) were approached. Of these patients, 6 (7.2%) declined to participate and 155 (92.8%) were interviewed. The initial 43 items in the TCRFCQ-V1.0 were assessed for ceiling and floor effects. The TCRFCQ-V1.0 is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring CRF cognition in Taiwanese patients with cancer.

  8. Development and validation of the Pictorial Cognitive Screening Inventory for illiterate people with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soowon Park,1,* Se-Eun Park,1,* Min-Ji Kim,2 Hee-Yeon Jung,1,2 Jung-Seok Choi,1,2 Kee-Hwan Park,3 Inhye Kim,1 Jun-Young Lee1,2 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a tool called the Pictorial Cognitive Screening Inventory (PCSI, which consists of pictorial memory and attention tests that are not influenced by literacy level.Patients and methods: PCSI, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR questionnaires were administered to 80 elderly participants (20 illiterate normal, 20 illiterate with dementia, 20 literate normal, and 20 literate with dementia.Results: PCSI scores were highly correlated with those of the MMSE (r 0.51 and the CDR (r -0.71. In addition, the PCSI scores differed significantly between the normal group and the dementia group (mean difference 1.71, standard error [SE] 0.14, P<0.001, while no such difference was observed between the illiterate group and the literate group (mean difference 0.00, SE 0.24, P=0.997. Diagnostic validity of the PCSI is excellent, with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 98% for screening dementia, whereas the MMSE has a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 60%.Conclusion: These results indicate that the PCSI is a sensitive and reliable test for screening dementia, regardless of an individual’s literacy skills. The PCSI meets the increasing needs for screening of dementia in illiterate elderly populations in developing countries. Keywords: screening, dementia, literacy, cognition 

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of depression: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kool Simone

    2007-10-01

    -effectiveness. Clinical predictors of treatment outcome include demographic variables, psychiatric symptoms, cognitive and psychological patient characteristics and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. Discussion This study evaluates Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy as a treatment for depressed outpatients by comparing it to the established evidence-based treatment Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Specific strengths of this study include its strong external validity and the clinical relevance of its research aims. Limitations of the study are discussed. Trial registration Current Controlled Trails ISRCTN31263312

  10. Episodic memory and organizational strategy in free recall in unipolar depression: the role of cognitive support and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconnat, Laurence; Baudouin, Alexia; Fay, Severine; Raz, Naftali; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; El-Hage, Wissam; Isingrini, Michel; Ergis, Anne-Marie

    2010-08-01

    Executive functioning and memory impairment have been demonstrated in adults with depression. Executive functions and memory are related, mainly when the memory tasks require controlled processes (attentional resource demanding processes)--that is, when a low cognitive support (external aid) is provided. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 45 participants: 21 with depression, and 24 healthy controls matched for age, verbal ability, education level, and anxiety score. Cognitive support was manipulated by providing a categorized word list at encoding, presented either clustered (high cognitive support) or randomized (low cognitive support) to both depressed and healthy adults. The number of words recalled was calculated, and an index of clustering was computed to assess organizational strategies. Participants were also administered cognitive tests (executive functions, cognitive speed, and categorical fluency) to explore the mediators of organizational strategies. Depressed participants had greater difficulty recalling and organizing the words, but the differences between the two groups were reduced for both measures when high cognitive support was provided at encoding. Healthy adults performed better on all cognitive tests. Statistical analyses revealed that in the depressed group, executive functions were the only variable associated with clustering and only when low cognitive support was provided. These findings support the view that the decrement in executive function due to depression may lead to impairment in organization when this mnemonic strategy has to be self-initiated.

  11. Validation and diagnostic accuracy of predictive curves for age-associated longitudinal cognitive decline in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Patrick J.; Gourdeau, Christian; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Beauchemin, Jean-Pierre; Verreault, René; Bouchard, Rémi W.; Kröger, Edeltraut; Laforce, Robert

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Mini-Mental State Examination continues to be used frequently to screen for cognitive impairment in older adults, but it remains unclear how to interpret changes in its score over time to distinguish age-associated cognitive decline from an early degenerative process. We aimed to generate cognitive charts for use in clinical practice for longitudinal evaluation of age-associated cognitive decline. METHODS: We used data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging from 7569 participants aged 65 years or older who completed a Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline, and at 5 and 10 years later to develop a linear regression model for the Mini-Mental State Examination score as a function of age and education. Based on this model, we generated cognitive charts designed to optimize accuracy for distinguishing participants with dementia from healthy controls. We validated our model using a separate data set of 6501 participants from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s Uniform Data Set. RESULTS: For baseline measurement, the cognitive charts had a sensitivity of 80% (95% confidence interval [CI] 75% to 84%) and a specificity of 89% (95% CI 88% to 90%) for distinguishing healthy controls from participants with dementia. Similar sensitivities and specificities were observed for a decline over time greater than 1 percentile zone from the first measurement. Results in the validation sample were comparable, albeit with lower sensitivities. Negative predictive value was 99%. INTERPRETATION: Our innovative model, which factors in age and education, showed validity and diagnostic accuracy for determining whether older patients show abnormal performance on serial Mini-Mental State Examination measurements. Similar to growth curves used in pediatrics, cognitive charts allow longitudinal cognitive evaluation and enable prompt initiation of investigation and treatment when appropriate. PMID:29203616

  12. Validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Screener in Adolescents and Young Adults With and Without Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Poulsen, Marie K; Woo, Mary A

    Cognitive deficits are common, long-term sequelae in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) who have undergone surgical palliation. However, there is a lack of a validated brief cognitive screening tool appropriate for the outpatient setting for adolescents with CHD. One candidate instrument is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) questionnaire. The purpose of the research was to validate scores from the MoCA against the General Memory Index (GMI) of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, 2nd Edition (WRAML2), a widely accepted measure of cognition/memory, in adolescents and young adults with CHD. We administered the MoCA and the WRAML2 to 156 adolescents and young adults ages 14-21 (80 youth with CHD and 76 healthy controls who were gender and age matched). Spearman's rank order correlations were used to assess concurrent validity. To assess construct validity, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences in scores in youth with CHD and the healthy control group. Receiver operating characteristic curves were created and area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were also calculated. The MoCA median scores in the CHD versus healthy controls were (23, range 15-29 vs. 28, range 22-30; p young adults aged 14-21 with CHD when a cutoff score of 26 is used to differentiate youth with and without significant cognitive impairment. Future studies are needed in other adolescent disease groups with known cognitive deficits and healthy populations to explore the generalizability of validity of MoCA scores in adolescents and young adults.

  13. Validation of the Spanish version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III for diagnosing dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias-Guiu, J A; Fernández de Bobadilla, R; Escudero, G; Pérez-Pérez, J; Cortés, A; Morenas-Rodríguez, E; Valles-Salgado, M; Moreno-Ramos, T; Kulisevsky, J; Matías-Guiu, J

    2015-01-01

    Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination is a screening test used to diagnose dementia. The third edition of this test (ACE-III) was recently developed. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the ACE-III in Spanish. The ACE-III was translated and adapted to Spanish. It was then administered to a group of healthy subjects as well as a group of patients with different types of mild dementia treated in 2 hospitals in Spain. Internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.927), inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.976) and test-retest reliability (kappa 0.995) were excellent. Age (r = -0.512) and education (r = 0.659) showed a significant correlation with total test scores. The diagnostic accuracy of ACE-III was higher than that of the Mini-Mental State Examination, particularly for the group with the highest educational level. Researchers obtained normative data and cut-off points for the diagnosis of dementia. The Spanish version of the ACE-III is a reliable and valid test for diagnosing dementia. Its diagnostic accuracy is high, especially in patients with a higher level of education. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Examining the Reliability and Validity of the Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…

  15. Measuring participation of social-support clients: : validity and reliability of IPA-MO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berenschot, L.; Grift, Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the reliability and validity of the Impact on Autonomy and Participation instrument (IPA) for heterogeneous populations of social support clients. Decentralisation of social support and accompanying budget cuts spurred interest in outcome-related payment systems to foster

  16. System for supporting operator's cognitive activity in the decision-making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, A.

    1992-01-01

    New views upon the formation of a system of means for an efficient support of the operator are presented. The development of a system to promote cognitive activities at the Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute is outlined. As the major issues, changes in the operator's working environment and the starting model of the working situation during stress are briefly described. The fundamental elements of the supporting system under development, which constitute its didactical and engineering-cognitive basis, are explained. The suitability of using expert system technology in this supporting system is substantiated. A particular example of expert counselling of the NPPO-TINA type (Nuclear Power Plant Operation - Transparent Inference Architecture) is reported. (Z.S.). 5 figs., 6 refs

  17. [Perception of social support in the aspect of a cognitive style of patients with affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradowska-Trzos, Magdalena; Dudek, Dominika; Rogoz, Monika; Zieba, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    According to Aaron Beck, dysfunctional thinking patterns appear also in euthymic patients, after withdrawal of acute diseases symptoms. Patients have a disordered, negative image of themselves, of their future and the surrounding world. It has been shown that a way a man perceives possessed social support has a basic meaning for him. The purpose of the research was to analyze the relationship between perceived social support and the patient's cognitive style. The study group consisted of euthymic outpatients diagnosed with recurrent depressive disorder (UID) or bipolar affective disorder (BID). Assessment of a cognitive style was made according to the Rosenberg Scale, Hopelessness Scale HS-20 and Automatique Thoughts Questionnaire ATQ 30, assessment of the amount of received support - according to Cohen's ISEL. The presented study revealed that, in both groups of patients, a thinking style is disturbed and that there is a link between a cognitive style and the perception of the level of received support. The link was stronger in the group of patients with unipolar affective disorder. In both groups, correlations concerning emotional support were the highest.

  18. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in ALS: validation of the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) using age and education adjusted normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Grau, Marta; Burke, Tom; Lonergan, Katie; McHugh, Caroline; Mays, Iain; Madden, Caoifa; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; Elamin, Marwa; Hardiman, Orla; Pender, Niall

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive and behavioural changes are an important aspect in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) briefly assesses these changes in ALS. To validate the ECAS against a standardised neuropsychological battery and assess its sensitivity and specificity using age and education adjusted cut-off scores. 30 incident ALS cases were assessed on both, ECAS and neuropsychological battery. Age and education adjusted cut-off scores were created from a sample of 82 healthy controls. ECAS composite scores (Total, ALS Specific and Non-Specific) were highly correlated with battery composite scores. High correlations were also observed between ECAS and full battery cognitive domains and subtests. The ECAS Total, ALS Specific and Non-Specific scores were highly sensitive to cognitive impairment. ECAS ALS-Specific cognitive domains also evidenced high sensitivity. Individual subtest sensitivity was medium to low, suggesting that caution should be used when interpreting these scores. Low positive predictive values indicated the presence of false positives. Psychometric properties of the ECAS using age and education adjusted norms indicate that the ECAS, when used as an overall measure of cognitive decline, is highly sensitive. Further comprehensive assessment is required for patients that present as impaired on the ECAS.

  19. Staff training and outreach support for Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and its implementation in practice: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streater, Amy; Spector, Aimee; Hoare, Zoe; Aguirre, Elisa; Russell, Ian; Orrell, Martin

    2017-12-01

    There is evidence that Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy are effective in mild to moderate dementia. There is, however, little evidence available for its implementation in practice and the impact of outreach support on the sustainability of the programme. Two hundred and forty-one staff members were randomised from 63 dementia care settings between outreach support including an online forum, email, and telephone support, compared to usual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy control group. The primary outcome was average number of attendees to the Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy programmes. There was no difference in average number of attendees between the intervention and usual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy control groups for the Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (p = 0.82) or the maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy programme (p = 0.97). Outreach support does not affect the average number of people with dementia attending the Cognitive Stimulation Therapy or maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy programme. Irrespective of outreach support, the programmes remain widely implemented and yield perceived benefits for people with dementia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. VIRTUAL COGNITIVE CENTERS AS INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS FOR MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SUPPORT OF REGIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Masloboev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with engineering problems and application perspectives of virtual cognitive centers as intelligent systems for information support of interagency activities in the field of complex security management of regional development. A research prototype of virtual cognitive center for regional security management in crisis situations, implemented as hybrid cloud service based on IaaS architectural framework with the usage of multi-agent and web-service technologies has been developed. Virtual cognitive center is a training simulator software system and is intended for solving on the basis of distributed simulation such problems as: strategic planning and forecasting of risk-sustainable development of regional socioeconomic systems, agents of management interaction specification synthesis for regional components security in different crisis situations within the planning stage of joint anti-crisis actions.

  2. Signal Detection for QPSK Based Cognitive Radio Systems using Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Mushtaq

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio based network enables opportunistic dynamic spectrum access by sensing, adopting and utilizing the unused portion of licensed spectrum bands. Cognitive radio is intelligent enough to adapt the communication parameters of the unused licensed spectrum. Spectrum sensing is one of the most important tasks of the cognitive radio cycle. In this paper, the auto-correlation function kernel based Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier along with Welch's Periodogram detector is successfully implemented for the detection of four QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying based signals propagating through an AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise channel. It is shown that the combination of statistical signal processing and machine learning concepts improve the spectrum sensing process and spectrum sensing is possible even at low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR values up to -50 dB.

  3. Preliminary findings on the reliability and validity of the Cantonese Birmingham Cognitive Screen in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan X

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Pan,1,* Haobo Chen,1,2,* Wai-Ling Bickerton,2 Johnny King Lam Lau,2 Anthony Pak Hin Kong,3 Pia Rotshtein,2 Aihua Guo,1 Jianxi Hu,1 Glyn W Humphreys4 1Department of Neurology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 3Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA; 4Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: There are no currently effective cognitive assessment tools for patients who have suffered stroke in the People’s Republic of China. The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS has been shown to be a promising tool for revealing patients’ poststroke cognitive deficits in specific domains, which facilitates more individually designed rehabilitation in the long run. Hence we examined the reliability and validity of a Cantonese version BCoS in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in Guangzhou.Method: A total of 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke were assessed with the Cantonese version of the BCoS, and an additional 133 healthy individuals were recruited as controls. Apart from the BCoS, the patients also completed a number of external cognitive tests, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (MoCA, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Albert’s cancellation test, the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and six gesture matching tasks. Cutoff scores for failing each subtest, ie, deficits, were computed based on the performance of the controls. The validity and reliability of the Cantonese BCoS were examined, as well as interrater and test–retest reliability. We also compared the proportions of cases being classified as deficits in controlled attention, memory, character writing, and praxis, between patients with and without spoken language impairment

  4. Visualizing complex processes using a cognitive-mapping tool to support the learning of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Grotzer, Tina A; Liu, Jun; Johnson, Janice M

    2016-08-22

    Practical experience with clinical cases has played an important role in supporting the learning of clinical reasoning. However, learning through practical experience involves complex processes difficult to be captured by students. This study aimed to examine the effects of a computer-based cognitive-mapping approach that helps students to externalize the reasoning process and the knowledge underlying the reasoning process when they work with clinical cases. A comparison between the cognitive-mapping approach and the verbal-text approach was made by analyzing their effects on learning outcomes. Fifty-two third-year or higher students from two medical schools participated in the study. Students in the experimental group used the computer-base cognitive-mapping approach, while the control group used the verbal-text approach, to make sense of their thinking and actions when they worked with four simulated cases over 4 weeks. For each case, students in both groups reported their reasoning process (involving data capture, hypotheses formulation, and reasoning with justifications) and the underlying knowledge (involving identified concepts and the relationships between the concepts) using the given approach. The learning products (cognitive maps or verbal text) revealed that students in the cognitive-mapping group outperformed those in the verbal-text group in the reasoning process, but not in making sense of the knowledge underlying the reasoning process. No significant differences were found in a knowledge posttest between the two groups. The computer-based cognitive-mapping approach has shown a promising advantage over the verbal-text approach in improving students' reasoning performance. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of the cognitive-mapping approach in improving the construction of subject-matter knowledge on the basis of practical experience.

  5. Quality of life in patients with cognitive impairment: validation of the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease scale in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárrios, Helena; Verdelho, Ana; Narciso, Sofia; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Logsdon, Rebecca; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2013-07-01

    Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QOL-AD) is a widely used scale for the study of quality of life in patients with dementia. The aim of this study is the transcultural adaptation and validation of the QOL-AD scale in Portugal. Translation and transcultural adaptation was performed according to state-of-the-art recommendations. For the validation study, 104 patient/caregiver pairs were enrolled. Patients had mild cognitive impairment or mild-to-moderate dementia (due to Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia). Participants were recruited in a dementia outpatient clinic setting and a long-term care dementia ward. An additional comparison group of 22 patients without cognitive impairment, and their proxies, was recruited in a family practice outpatient clinic. Sociodemographic information on patients and caregivers was obtained. Acceptability, reliability, and construct validity were analyzed. Internal consistency of the Portuguese version of QOL-AD was good for both patient and caregiver report (Cronbach's α = 0.867 and 0.858, respectively). Construct validity was confirmed by the correlation of patient reported QOL-AD with patient geriatric depression scale scores (ρ = -0.702, p cognitive impairment than in the comparison group without cognitive impairment (p < 0.01). A Portuguese version of QOL-AD with consistent psychometric properties was obtained and is proposed as a useful tool for research and clinical purposes.

  6. Measuring cognitive task demands using dual task methodology, subjective self-ratings, and expert judgments : A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgements in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 ESL teachers. The students, 48 English

  7. The Flexibility Scale: Development and Preliminary Validation of a Cognitive Flexibility Measure in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Anthony, Laura G.; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Hardy, Kristina K.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Armour, Anna C.; Dudley, Katerina; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Flexibility is a key component of executive function, and is related to everyday functioning and adult outcomes. However, existing informant reports do not densely sample cognitive aspects of flexibility; the Flexibility Scale (FS) was developed to address this gap. This study investigates the validity of the FS in 221 youth with ASD and 57…

  8. Measuring Cognitive Task Demands Using Dual-Task Methodology, Subjective Self-Ratings, and Expert Judgments: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgments in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 English as a second language (ESL) teachers. The students, 48 English native speakers and…

  9. The Community College Survey of Men: An Initial Validation of the Instrument's Non-Cognitive Outcomes Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. \\Luke; Harris, Frank, III.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the utility of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM[c]), an instrument designed to examine predictors of student success for men in community colleges. The authors highlight initial validation results from a recent pilot of the CCSM[c], with a focus on the non-cognitive outcomes construct employed…

  10. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Brouillette

    Full Text Available While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these "next-generation" assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r = 0.515, p<0.0001 and multiple measures of processing speed and attention (Digit Span: r = 0.427, p<0.0001; Trail Making Test: r = -0.651, p<0.00001; Digit Symbol Test: r = 0.508, p<0.0001. The CST was not correlated with naming and verbal fluency tasks (Boston Naming Test, Vegetable/Animal Naming or memory tasks (Logical Memory Test. Test re-test reliability was observed to be significant (r = 0.726; p = 0.02. Together, these data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using a smartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries

  11. The reliability and validity of the Danish Draft Board Cognitive Ability Test: Børge Prien's Prøve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Thomas W; Hartmann, Peter V W; Pedersen, Christoffer H; Bertelsen, Mette

    2011-04-01

    The Danish Draft Board has used the same test for assessing general cognitive ability, the Børge Prien's Prøve (BPP), for over 50 years during which time all men on reaching the age of 18 become liable for conscription. Data from the test has, over the decades, been used in numerous and wide-ranging research studies. Nonetheless, owing to the special circumstances of its administration, some psychometric properties, which are generally assessed for psychological tests, have not previously been investigated for the BPP. First, since the test is only used at the assessment phase, retesting with the BPP occurs only rarely and under exceptional circumstances. Therefore, its Test-Retest reliability has hitherto not been documented. Second, questions have often been raised as to whether the validity of the BPP is undermined by either a lack of motivation and under-performing among some of the men taking the test, being, as they are, compelled to do so, and/or by gradual obsolescence of the test over the decades of its use. We here present findings from three new studies to show that (a) the BPP has a satisfactory Test-Retest reliability, r=0.77, (b) BPP test scores are not positively associated with expressed attitude to being called upon to serve conscription and (c) the correlation between the BPP and a measure of educational level has remained stable (at about 0.5) through the last two decades. Taken together these three findings further support the continuing value of the BPP in research relating to cognitive ability. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  12. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 2: A Cognitive Framework to Support HRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.

  13. Reliability and validity of the perspectives of Support From God Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill B; Crandell, Jamie L; Carter, J Kameron; Lynn, Mary R

    2010-01-01

    Existing spiritual support scales for use with cancer survivors focus on the support believed to come from a religious community, clergy, or health care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a new measure of spiritual support believed to come from God in older Christian African American cancer survivors. The Perceived Support From God Scale was administered to 317 African American cancer survivors aged 55-89 years. Psychometric evaluation involved identifying underlying factors, conducting item analysis and estimating reliability, and obtaining evidence on the relationship to other variables or the extent to which the Perceived Support From God Scale correlates with religious involvement and depression. The Perceived Support From God Scale consists of 15 items in two subscales (Support From God and God's Purpose for Me). The two subscales explained 59% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .94 and .86 for the Support From God and God's Purpose for Me subscales, respectively. Test-retest correlations were strong, supporting the temporal stability of the instrument. Pearson's correlations to an existing religious involvement and beliefs scale were moderate to strong. Subscale scores on Support From God were negatively correlated to depression. Initial support for reliability and validity was demonstrated for the Perceived Support From God Scale. The scale captures a facet of spirituality not emphasized in other measures. Further research is needed to evaluate the scale with persons of other racial/ethnic groups and to explore the relationship of spirituality to other outcome measures.

  14. Knowledge of the Disease, Perceived Social Support, and Cognitive Appraisals in Women with Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szymona-Pałkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social support and knowledge of the disease have been shown to facilitate adaptation to a chronic disease. However, the adaptation process is not fully understood. We hypothesized that these factors can contribute to better adaptation to the disease through their impact on disease-related cognitive appraisal. To analyze the links between social support and the knowledge of the disease, on one hand, and disease-related appraisals, on the other hand, one hundred fifty-eight women with stress UI, aged 32 to 79, took part in the study. Questionnaire measures of knowledge of UI, social support, and disease-related appraisals were used in the study. The level of knowledge correlated significantly negatively with the appraisal of the disease as Harm. The global level of social support correlated significantly positively with three disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, and Value. Four subgroups of patients with different constellations of social support and knowledge of the disease were identified in cluster analysis and were demonstrated to differ significantly on four disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, Harm, and Value. Different cognitive appraisals of UI may be specifically related to social support and knowledge of the disease, with social support affective positive disease-related appraisals, and the knowledge affecting the appraisal of Harm.

  15. Validation of the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination in a rural community in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Caballero, A; García-Lado, I; González-Hermida, J; Recimil, Mj; Area, R; Manes, F; Lamas, S; Berrios, Ge

    2006-03-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a brief cognitive test battery designed to detect and differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Translations of this instrument into French and Malayalam have been recently published To adapt and validate the ACE into Spanish in a rural population of low-educational level. A clinical group, composed of 70 patients affected by dementia and 25 patients with memory complaints without dementia, was compared with 72 controls matched for gender, age and educational level The clinical group was studied with standard neuropsychological instruments, all patients underwent neuroimaging [Computerized Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) in all cases of suspected FTD], as well as routine neurological examination. Both groups were studied with the ACE and Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). Sensitivity, specificity, area under curve, reliability and Verbal-Language/ Orientation-Memory (VLOM) ratio were calculated. Subsequently, the sample was stratified regarding educational level in two groups. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were calculated for these conditions. Different cut-off points were calculated addressing educational level. ROC curves demonstrated the superiority of the ACE in the sub sample of patients that finished school at over 14 years old. VLOM ratio confirmed its usefulness for differential diagnosis between AD and FTD CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish version of the ACE is a useful instrument for dementia diagnosis. In our sample VLOM ratio results were useful for differential diagnosis between AD and FTD. Different cut-off points must be used for different educational levels.

  16. The Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL: A Brief, Reliable, and Valid Tool for Capturing Interindividual Differences in Cognitive Functioning in Epidemiological and Aging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ihle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The present study set out to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL in 2 different samples of older adults. Methods: We assessed COGTEL in 116 older adults, with retest after 7 days to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Moreover, we assessed COGTEL in 868 older adults to evaluate convergent validity to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results: Test-retest reliability of the COGTEL total score was good at 0.85 (p < 0.001. Latent variable analyses revealed that COGTEL and MMSE correlated by 0.93 (p < 0.001, indicating convergent validity of the COGTEL. Conclusion: The present analyses suggest COGTEL as a brief, reliable, and valid instrument for capturing interindividual differences in cognitive functioning in epidemiological and aging studies, with the advantage of covering more cognitive domains than traditional screening tools such as the MMSE, as well as differentiating between individual performance levels, in healthy older adults.

  17. Validation of virtual learning object to support the teaching of nursing care systematization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétala Tuani Candido de Oliveira Salvador

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the content validation process of a Virtual Learning Object to support the teaching of nursing care systematization to nursing professionals. Method: methodological study, with quantitative approach, developed according to the methodological reference of Pasquali's psychometry and conducted from March to July 2016, from two-stage Delphi procedure. Results: in the Delphi 1 stage, eight judges evaluated the Virtual Object; in Delphi 2 stage, seven judges evaluated it. The seven screens of the Virtual Object were analyzed as to the suitability of its contents. The Virtual Learning Object to support the teaching of nursing care systematization was considered valid in its content, with a Total Content Validity Coefficient of 0.96. Conclusion: it is expected that the Virtual Object can support the teaching of nursing care systematization in light of appropriate and effective pedagogical approaches.

  18. Verification and validation of decision support software: Expert Choice{trademark} and PCM{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q.H.; Martin, J.D.

    1994-11-04

    This report documents the verification and validation of two decision support programs: EXPERT CHOICE{trademark} and PCM{trademark}. Both programs use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) -- or pairwise comparison technique -- developed by Dr. Thomas L. Saaty. In order to provide an independent method for the validating the two programs, the pairwise comparison algorithm was developed for a standard mathematical program. A standard data set -- selecting a car to purchase -- was used with each of the three programs for validation. The results show that both commercial programs performed correctly.

  19. Screening of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: diagnostic validity of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Sobreira; Márcio A. Pena-Pereira; Alan L. Eckeli; Manoel A. Sobreira-Neto; Marcos H. N. Chagas; Maria P. Foss; Brenna Cholerton; Cyrus P. Zabetian; Ignacio F. Mata; Vitor Tumas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective The aim of the present study is to examine the accuracy of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) to screen for mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI) and dementia (PDD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).Method Both scales were administered to a final convenience sample of 79 patients with PD. Patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist using UPDRS,...

  20. Effect of response format on cognitive reflection: Validating a two- and four-option multiple choice question version of the Cognitive Reflection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Miroslav; Juanchich, Marie

    2018-03-27

    The Cognitive Reflection Test, measuring intuition inhibition and cognitive reflection, has become extremely popular because it reliably predicts reasoning performance, decision-making, and beliefs. Across studies, the response format of CRT items sometimes differs, based on the assumed construct equivalence of tests with open-ended versus multiple-choice items (the equivalence hypothesis). Evidence and theoretical reasons, however, suggest that the cognitive processes measured by these response formats and their associated performances might differ (the nonequivalence hypothesis). We tested the two hypotheses experimentally by assessing the performance in tests with different response formats and by comparing their predictive and construct validity. In a between-subjects experiment (n = 452), participants answered stem-equivalent CRT items in an open-ended, a two-option, or a four-option response format and then completed tasks on belief bias, denominator neglect, and paranormal beliefs (benchmark indicators of predictive validity), as well as on actively open-minded thinking and numeracy (benchmark indicators of construct validity). We found no significant differences between the three response formats in the numbers of correct responses, the numbers of intuitive responses (with the exception of the two-option version, which had a higher number than the other tests), and the correlational patterns of the indicators of predictive and construct validity. All three test versions were similarly reliable, but the multiple-choice formats were completed more quickly. We speculate that the specific nature of the CRT items helps build construct equivalence among the different response formats. We recommend using the validated multiple-choice version of the CRT presented here, particularly the four-option CRT, for practical and methodological reasons. Supplementary materials and data are available at https://osf.io/mzhyc/ .

  1. SITUATION ASSESSMENT THROUGH MULTI-MODAL SENSING OF DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS TO SUPPORT COGNITIVE ROBOT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Badii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of emerging situations in a dynamic operational environment of a robotic assistive device is an essential capability of such a cognitive system, based on its effective and efficient assessment of the prevailing situation. This allows the system to interact with the environment in a sensible (semiautonomous / pro-active manner without the need for frequent interventions from a supervisor.  In this paper, we report a novel generic Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems directly assisting humans as developed in the CORBYS project. This paper presents the overall architecture for situation assessment and its application in proof-of-concept Demonstrators as developed and validated within the CORBYS project. These include a robotic human follower and a mobile gait rehabilitation robotic system. We present an overview of the structure and functionality of the Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems with results and observations as collected from initial validation on the two CORBYS Demonstrators.

  2. Measurement Development and Validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees’ family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine if the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice. PMID:23730803

  3. Sensory and cognitive neurophysiology in rats. Part 2: Validation and demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, George; Fransen, Anne M M; Maris, Eric

    2014-07-30

    We have developed a novel setup for rats that allows for controlled sensory input to an animal engaged in a task while recording both electrophysiological signals and behavioral output. Our setup is described in a companion paper. We validate our setup by replicating (1) the functionally nonspecific spread of neural activity following tactile stimulation, and (2) the effects of anesthesia on the tactile evoked responses. We also demonstrate for the first time that the ECoG can be used to record evoked responses in a signal that reflects neural output (spiking activity), and illustrate the usefulness of our setup by demonstrating that these evoked responses are modulated by both the phase of pre-stimulus oscillations and by expectation. Compared with high-density wire recordings, micro-ECoG offers a much more stable signal without readjustments, and a much better scalability. Compared with extracranial and regular ECoG recordings, micro-ECoG allows us to measure signals that reflect both neural input and neural output. For sensory and cognitive research, our setup provides a unique combination of possibilities that cannot be achieved in other setups for rodents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: diagnostic validity of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Emmanuelle; Pena-Pereira, Márcio A; Eckeli, Alan L; Sobreira-Neto, Manoel A; Chagas, Marcos H N; Foss, Maria P; Cholerton, Brenna; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Mata, Ignacio F; Tumas, Vitor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the accuracy of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) to screen for mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI) and dementia (PDD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Both scales were administered to a final convenience sample of 79 patients with PD. Patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist using UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, global deterioration scale, a psychiatric structured interview, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and other cognitive tests. There were 32 patients with PDMCI and 17 patients with PDD. The MoCA and the ACE-R were able to discriminate patients with PDD from the others. Both scales showed to be useful to screen for dementia but not for mild cognitive impairment in patients with PD.

  5. Screening of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: diagnostic validity of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Sobreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective The aim of the present study is to examine the accuracy of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R to screen for mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI and dementia (PDD in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD.Method Both scales were administered to a final convenience sample of 79 patients with PD. Patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist using UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, global deterioration scale, a psychiatric structured interview, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and other cognitive tests.Results There were 32 patients with PDMCI and 17 patients with PDD. The MoCA and the ACE-R were able to discriminate patients with PDD from the others.Conclusion Both scales showed to be useful to screen for dementia but not for mild cognitive impairment in patients with PD.

  6. Human cognitive task distribution model for maintenance support system of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Ho

    2007-02-15

    In human factors research, more attention has been devoted to the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) than to their maintenance. However, human error related to maintenance is 45% among the total human errors from 1990 to 2005 in Korean nuclear power plants. Therefore, it is necessary to study human factors in the maintenance of an NPP. There is a current trend toward introducing digital technology into both safety and non-safety systems in NPPs. A variety of information about plant conditions can be used digitally. In the future, maintenance support systems will be developed based on an information-oriented NPP. In this context, it is necessary to study the cognitive tasks of the personnel involved in maintenance and the interaction between the personnel and maintenance support systems. The fundamental purpose of this work is how to distribute the cognitive tasks of the personnel involved in the maintenance in order to develop a maintenance support system that considers human factors. The second purpose is to find the causes of errors due to engineers or maintainers and propose system functions that are countermeasures to reduce these errors. In this paper, a cognitive task distribution model of the personnel involved in maintenance is proposed using Rasmussen's decision making model. First, the personnel were divided into three groups: the operators (inspectors), engineers, and maintainers. Second, human cognitive tasks related to maintenance were distributed based on these groups. The operators' cognitive tasks are detection and observation; the engineers' cognitive tasks are identification, evaluation, target state, select target, and procedure: and the maintainers' cognitive task is execution. The case study is an analysis of failure reports related to human error in maintenance over a period of 15years. By using error classification based on the information processing approach, the human errors involved in maintenance were classified

  7. Human cognitive task distribution model for maintenance support system of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Ho

    2007-02-01

    In human factors research, more attention has been devoted to the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) than to their maintenance. However, human error related to maintenance is 45% among the total human errors from 1990 to 2005 in Korean nuclear power plants. Therefore, it is necessary to study human factors in the maintenance of an NPP. There is a current trend toward introducing digital technology into both safety and non-safety systems in NPPs. A variety of information about plant conditions can be used digitally. In the future, maintenance support systems will be developed based on an information-oriented NPP. In this context, it is necessary to study the cognitive tasks of the personnel involved in maintenance and the interaction between the personnel and maintenance support systems. The fundamental purpose of this work is how to distribute the cognitive tasks of the personnel involved in the maintenance in order to develop a maintenance support system that considers human factors. The second purpose is to find the causes of errors due to engineers or maintainers and propose system functions that are countermeasures to reduce these errors. In this paper, a cognitive task distribution model of the personnel involved in maintenance is proposed using Rasmussen's decision making model. First, the personnel were divided into three groups: the operators (inspectors), engineers, and maintainers. Second, human cognitive tasks related to maintenance were distributed based on these groups. The operators' cognitive tasks are detection and observation; the engineers' cognitive tasks are identification, evaluation, target state, select target, and procedure: and the maintainers' cognitive task is execution. The case study is an analysis of failure reports related to human error in maintenance over a period of 15years. By using error classification based on the information processing approach, the human errors involved in maintenance were classified

  8. Cognitive and Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: Validation of Expert Panel Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Tamara G; Gleason, Lauren J; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N; Schmitt, Eva M; de Rooij, Sophia E; Saczynski, Jane S; Gross, Alden L; Bean, Jonathan F; Brown, Cynthia J; Fick, Donna M; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; O'Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A; Marcantonio, Edward R; Inouye, Sharon K

    2015-07-01

    Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to complete typical functional activities in older adults. Expert panel survey. Web-based platform. Eleven experts from 8 academic medical centers and 300 community-dwelling elderly adults age 70 and older scheduled for elective noncardiac surgery from 2 academic medical centers. Sum scores of expert ratings were calculated and then validated against objective data collected from a prospective longitudinal study. Correlation between expert ratings and objective neuropsychologic tests (memory, language, complex attention) and physical measures (gait speed and grip strength) for performance-based tasks. Managing money, self-administering medications, using the telephone, and preparing meals were rated as requiring significantly more cognitive demand, whereas walking and transferring, moderately strenuous activities, and climbing stairs were assessed as more physically demanding. Largely cognitive activities correlated with objective neuropsychologic performance (r = 0.13-0.23, P cognitive and/or physical demand for completing a specific task adds an additional dimension to standard measures of functional assessment. This additional information may significantly influence decisions about rehabilitation, postacute care needs, treatment plans, and caregiver education. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and preliminary validation of the physician support of skin self-examination scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroiu, Adina; Moran, Chelsea; Garland, Rosalind; Körner, Annett

    2018-05-01

    Skin self-examination (SSE) is a crucial preventive health behaviour in melanoma survivors, as it facilitates early detection. Physician endorsement of SSE is important for the initiation and maintenance of this behaviour. This study focussed on the preliminary validation of a new nine-item measure assessing physician support of SSE in melanoma patients. English and French versions of this measure were administered to 188 patients diagnosed with melanoma in the context of a longitudinal study investigating predictors and facilitators of SSE. Structural validity was investigated using exploratory factor analysis conducted in Mplus and convergent and divergent validity was assessed using bivariate correlations conducted in spss. Results suggest that the scale is a unidimensional and reliable measure of physician support for SSE. Given the uncertainty regarding the optimal frequency of SSE for at-risk individuals, we recommend that future psychometric evaluations of this scale consider tailoring items according to the most up-to-date research on SSE effectiveness.

  10. Validation Support for Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems in VDM++

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fitzgerald, John; Gorm Larsen, Peter; Tjell, Simon

    2007-01-01

    We present a tool-supported approach to the validation of system-level timing properties in formal models of distributed real-time embedded systems. Our aim is to provide system architects with rapid feedback on the timing characteristics of alternative designs in the often volatile early stages ...

  11. Parent-reported social support for child’s fruit and vegetable intake: validity of measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our study was to develop and validate measures of parental social support to increase their child’s fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. We used a cross-sectional study design by studying participants at school and home. We studied two hundred three parents with at least 1 elemen...

  12. Framework to parameterize and validate APEX to support deployment of the nutrient tracking tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidelines have been developed to parameterize and validate the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) to support the Nutrient Tracking Tool (NTT). This follow-up paper presents 1) a case study to illustrate how the developed guidelines are applied in a headwater watershed located in cent...

  13. Supporting Clinical Cognition: A Human-Centered Approach to a Novel ICU Information Visualization Dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Anthony; Srinivas, Preethi; Duke, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Advances in intensive care unit bedside displays/interfaces and electronic medical record (EMR) technology have not adequately addressed the topic of visual clarity of patient data/information to further reduce cognitive load during clinical decision-making. We responded to these challenges with a human-centered approach to designing and testing a decision-support tool: MIVA 2.0 (Medical Information Visualization Assistant, v.2). Envisioned as an EMR visualization dashboard to support rapid analysis of real-time clinical data-trends, our primary goal originated from a clinical requirement to reduce cognitive overload. In the study, a convenience sample of 12 participants were recruited, in which quantitative and qualitative measures were used to compare MIVA 2.0 with ICU paper medical-charts, using time-on-task, post-test questionnaires, and interviews. Findings demonstrated a significant difference in speed and accuracy with the use of MIVA 2.0. Qualitative outcomes concurred, with participants acknowledging the potential impact of MIVA 2.0 for reducing cognitive load and enabling more accurate and quicker decision-making.

  14. Radiological emergency response for community agencies with cognitive task analysis, risk analysis, and decision support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Travis S; Muething, Joseph Z; Lima, Gustavo Amoras Souza; Torres, Breno Raemy Rangel; del Rosario, Trystyn Keia; Gomes, José Orlando; Lambert, James H

    2012-01-01

    Radiological nuclear emergency responders must be able to coordinate evacuation and relief efforts following the release of radioactive material into populated areas. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a nuclear emergency, high-level coordination is needed between a number of large, independent organizations, including police, military, hazmat, and transportation authorities. Given the complexity, scale, time-pressure, and potential negative consequences inherent in radiological emergency responses, tracking and communicating information that will assist decision makers during a crisis is crucial. The emergency response team at the Angra dos Reis nuclear power facility, located outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presently conducts emergency response simulations once every two years to prepare organizational leaders for real-life emergency situations. However, current exercises are conducted without the aid of electronic or software tools, resulting in possible cognitive overload and delays in decision-making. This paper describes the development of a decision support system employing systems methodologies, including cognitive task analysis and human-machine interface design. The decision support system can aid the coordination team by automating cognitive functions and improving information sharing. A prototype of the design will be evaluated by plant officials in Brazil and incorporated to a future trial run of a response simulation.

  15. THE PROBLEM OF THE VALUES SUPPORTING REASONING IN THE HUMANITIES: A COGNITIVE-PRAGMATIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Savtchouk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main cognitive models of the values supporting reasoning in the discourse of the humanities are identified, the typology of selected schemes is made, their modifications are characterised, the pragmatic differences of the models are determined. Particular attention is paid to the “cause to aim” justification of the value judgments that prevails in the humanities. The regularities of verbal representation of cognitive structures are ascertained, pragmatic properties of argumentative markers are explicated. The author’s typology of tactics that implements rational and emotional value-study strategies is proposed. A number of fallacies in the justification of normative value judgments are revealed, such as “semantic-pragmatic dissonance”, “simulation of reasoning”, “pseudoauthority”, “superfluity of argumentative resource”. The sources of such shortcomings are exemplified by the facts from the evidence base. The conclusion is that the author of the article chooses the cognitive model of argumentation in support of the values, the ways of its verbal presentation and the tactics of reasoning on the basis of pragmatic factors.

  16. Testing a mobile digital cognitive support system for high functioning adolescents with ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyori, Miklos; Aagaard, Morten; Kanizsai-Nagy, Ildiko

    HANDS Project is aimed at developing a cognitive support system for high functioning (HF) adolescents with ASD, running on smartphones and PDAs, complemented by a webbased management system. It is designed to teach/facilitate adaptive social behaviours and daily living skills, and is based...... on a detailed understanding of the cognitiveprofile of ASD, and on evidence‐based intervention techniques. Development of the system was based on recurrent interactions of expert groups from persuasive design, child psychiatry,cognitive psychology, (special) education, software development, and intended users...... clinical trial, with a total sample of 54 HF adolescents with ASD (27 test & 27 matched control subjects) in 4 test‐sites, internationally. Results In preliminary analysis, SRS measurements did not yield overall conclusive results on the efficiency of the system. E‐T testing was done and analysed on a semi...

  17. Development and Validation of an Abbreviated Questionnaire to Easily Measure Cognitive Failure in ICU Survivors: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, Annelies; de Reus, Jorn; Donders, A Rogier T; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Cremer, Olaf L; de Lange, Dylan W; van Dijk, Diederik; Slooter, Arjen J C; Pickkers, Peter; van den Boogaard, Mark

    2018-01-01

    To develop and validate an abbreviated version of the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire that can be used by patients as part of self-assessment to measure functional cognitive outcome in ICU survivors. A retrospective multicenter observational study. The ICUs of two Dutch university hospitals. Adult ICU survivors. None. Cognitive functioning was evaluated between 12 and 24 months after ICU discharge using the full 25-item Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ-25). Incomplete CFQ-25 questionnaires were excluded from analysis. Forward selection in a linear regression model was used in hospital A to assess which of the CFQ-25 items should be included to prevent a significant loss of correlation between an abbreviated and the full CFQ-25. Subsequently, the performance of an abbreviated Cognitive Failure Questionnaire was determined in hospital B using Pearson's correlation. A Bland-Altman plot was used to examine whether the reduced-item outcome scores of an abbreviated Cognitive Failure Questionnaire were a replacement for the full CFQ-25 outcome scores. Among 1,934 ICU survivors, 1,737 were included, 819 in hospital A, 918 in hospital B. The Pearson's correlation between the abbreviated 14-item Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ-14) and the CFQ-25 was 0.99. The mean of the difference scores was -0.26, and 95% of the difference scores fell within +5 and -5.5 on a 100-point maximum score. It is feasible to use the abbreviated CFQ-14 to measure self-reported cognitive failure in ICU survivors as this questionnaire has a similar performance as the full CFQ-25.

  18. Development of Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scale and tests for its reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-hong TANG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To develop Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scaleand verify its reliability and validity. Methods  The Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalewas initiated, organized and compiled based upon open-ended questionnaire survey done in a systematic manner, and previous researches were taken as references. A total of 630 military personnel were chosen by random cluster sampling and tested with the Scale, among them 50 were tested with Social Support Rating Scale(SSRS and Chinese Military Psychosomatic Health Scale(CMPHS simultaneously, and the test was done solely a second time with CMPHS 2 weeks later. The reliability and validity were assessed and verified by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis. Results  The Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalecomprised three factors, namely subjective support, objective support and utility of social support. Eighteen items were left in official scale after amendment by factor analysis, and one lying subscale was added. The correlation coefficients between the public factors ranged from 0.477 to 0.589 (P<0.01, and the correlation coefficients between factors and total scale ranged from 0.721 to 0.823 (P<0.01. The test-retest correlation coefficients of total scale and subscales ranged from 0.622 to 0.803 (P<0.01, the Cronbach α coefficients ranged from 0.624 to 0.874, and the split-half correlation coefficients ranged from 0.551 to 0.828. Significant correlation existed between this Scale and two criterion scales, namely SSRS and CMPHS. Conclusion  It is verified that the Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalehas excellent reliability and validity, and complying with psychometric standards, it may be used to evaluate the social support level of Chinese military personnel.

  19. Validation of the revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) for detecting mild cognitive impairment and dementia in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hidenori; Terada, Seishi; Honda, Hajime; Kishimoto, Yuki; Takeda, Naoya; Oshima, Etsuko; Hirayama, Keisuke; Yokota, Osamu; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of dementia will be important for implementation of disease-modifying treatments in the near future. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R J) for identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We translated and adapted the original ACE-R for use with a Japanese population. Standard tests for evaluating cognitive decline and dementing disorders were applied. A total of 242 subjects (controls = 73, MCI = 39, dementia = 130) participated in this study. The optimal cut-off scores of ACE-R J for detecting MCI and dementia were 88/89 (sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.92) and 82/83 (sensitivity 0.99, specificity 0.99) respectively. ACE-R J was superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination in the detection of MCI (area under the curve (AUC): 0.952 vs. 0.868), while the accuracy of the two instruments did not differ significantly in identifying dementia (AUC: 0.999 vs. 0.993). The inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.999), test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.883), and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.903) of ACE-R J were excellent. ACE-R J proved to be an accurate cognitive instrument for detecting MCI and mild dementia. Further neuropsychological evaluation is required for the differential diagnosis of dementia subtypes.

  20. The Italian validation of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MACFIMS) and the application of the Cognitive Impairment Index scoring procedure in MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Ornella; Incerti, Chiara C; Quartuccio, Maria E; Magistrale, Giuseppe; Francia, Ada; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pisani, Valerio; Nocentini, Ugo

    2018-04-27

    Cognitive dysfunction occurs in almost 50-60% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) even in early stages of the disease and affects different aspects of patient's life. Aims of the present study were (1) to introduce and validate an Italian version of the minimal assessment of cognitive functions in MS (MACFIMS) battery and (2) to propose the use of the Cognitive Impairment Index (CII) as a scoring procedure to define the degree of impairment in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary-progressive (SPMS) patients. A total of 240 HC and 123 MS patients performed the Italian version of the MACFIMS composed by the same tests as the original except for the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. The CII was derived for each score of the 11 scales for participants of both groups. The results of the study show that cognitive impairment affects around 50% of our sample of MS patients. In RRMS group, only the 15.7% of patients reported a severe impairment, while in the group of SPMS, the 51.4% of patients felt in the "severely impaired" group. Results are in line with previously reported percentages of impairment in MS patients, showing that the calculation of the CII applied to the Italian version of the MACFIMS is sensitive and reliable in detecting different degrees of impairment in MS patients.

  1. Social Support, Social Strain, and Cognitive Function Among Community-Dwelling U.S. Chinese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoqing; Wu, Bei; Bailey, Donald E; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Limited research is available on the relationship between social support, social strain, and cognitive function among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. This study aims to examine the associations between social support/strain and cognitive outcomes. Data were drawn from the Population-Based Study of Chinese Elderly (N = 3,159). Cognitive function was measured by a battery of tests including the East Boston Memory Test, the Digit Span Backwards assessment, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Social support and strain were measured by the scales drawn from the Health and Retirement study. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. Social support was significantly associated with global cognitive function (β = .11, SE = .02, p function (β = 1.44, SE = .37, p cognitive function (β = .23, SE = .05, p function (β = 2.75, SE = .85, p cognitive function (β = .04, SE = .02, p function (β = .71, SE = .29, p cognitive function (β = .10, SE = .03, p function (β = 1.28, SE = .49, p function (β = 3.59, SE = 1.17, p cognitive outcomes. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Noncredible cognitive performance at clinical evaluation of adult ADHD: An embedded validity indicator in a visuospatial working memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Lara

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of performance validity is an essential part of the neuropsychological evaluation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most available tools, however, are inaccurate regarding the identification of noncredible performance. This study describes the development of a visuospatial working memory test, including a validity indicator for noncredible cognitive performance of adults with ADHD. Visuospatial working memory of adults with ADHD (n = 48) was first compared to the test performance of healthy individuals (n = 48). Furthermore, a simulation design was performed including 252 individuals who were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 48) or to 1 of 3 simulation groups who were requested to feign ADHD (n = 204). Additional samples of 27 adults with ADHD and 69 instructed simulators were included to cross-validate findings from the first samples. Adults with ADHD showed impaired visuospatial working memory performance of medium size as compared to healthy individuals. Simulation groups committed significantly more errors and had shorter response times as compared to patients with ADHD. Moreover, binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to derive a validity index that optimally differentiates between true and feigned ADHD. ROC analysis demonstrated high classification rates of the validity index, as shown in excellent specificity (95.8%) and adequate sensitivity (60.3%). The visuospatial working memory test as presented in this study therefore appears sensitive in indicating cognitive impairment of adults with ADHD. Furthermore, the embedded validity index revealed promising results concerning the detection of noncredible cognitive performance of adults with ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A Novel and Intelligent Home Monitoring System for Care Support of Elders with Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, Ioulietta; Karakostas, Anastasios; Stavropoulos, Thanos G; Tsompanidis, Theodoros; Meditskos, Georgios; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Tsolaki, Magda

    2016-10-18

    Assistive technology, in the form of a smart home environment, is employed to support people with dementia. To propose a system for continuous and objective remote monitoring of problematic daily living activity areas and design personalized interventions based on system feedback and clinical observations for improving cognitive function and health-related quality of life. The assistive technology of the proposed system, including wearable, sleep, object motion, presence, and utility usage sensors, was methodically deployed at four different home installations of people with cognitive impairment. Detection of sleep patterns, physical activity, and activities of daily living, based on the collected sensor data and analytics, was available at all times through comprehensive data visualization solutions. Combined with clinical observation, targeted psychosocial interventions were introduced to enhance the participants' quality of life and improve their cognitive functions and daily functionality. Meanwhile, participants and their caregivers were able to visualize a reduced set of information tailored to their needs. Overall, paired-sample t-test analysis of monitored qualities revealed improvement for all participants in neuropsychological assessment. Moreover, improvement was detected from the beginning to the end of the trial, in physical condition and in the domains of sleep. Detecting abnormalities via the system, for example in sleep quality, such as REM sleep, has proved to be critical to assess current status, drive interventions, and evaluate improvements in a reliable manner. It has been proved that the proposed system is suitable to support clinicians to reliably drive and evaluate clinical interventions toward quality of life improvement of people with cognitive impairment.

  4. The Italian version of cognitive function instrument (CFI): reliability and validity in a cohort of healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipi, Elena; Frattini, Giulia; Eusebi, Paolo; Mollica, Anita; D'Andrea, Katia; Russo, Mirella; Bernardelli, Alice; Montanucci, Chiara; Luchetti, Elisa; Calabresi, Paolo; Parnetti, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease Cooperative Study (ADCS)-Cognitive Function Instrument (CFI) is a 14-item questionnaire administered to the subject and the referent, aimed at detecting early changes in cognitive and functional abilities in individuals without clinical impairment. It is used for monitoring annual variations in cognitive functioning in prevention trials. The aim of the present study was to validate the Italian version of the CFI. A consecutive series of 257 functionally independent subjects was recruited among relatives of patients or as volunteers. They were administered CFI and global cognition measurements: Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). The reliability and criterion validity were comparable to the original in both self- and partner-report. Similarly to what reported in the original version, we found a corrected item-total correlation ranging between 0.38 and 0.54 in self-report and between 0.33 and 0.64 in partner-report. Cronbach's α was 0.77 (95% CI 0.72-0.83) in self-report and 0.78 (95% CI 0.73-0.84) in partner-report. Total partner- and self-report scores were significantly correlated (rS = 0.31, p reliability and validity of the Italian version of CFI. In order to definitely propose the use of CFI for tracking longitudinal changes of cognitive and functional abilities in subjects without clinical impairment, data from the follow-up of this cohort are needed.

  5. An Experimental Study on the Effectiveness of Disclosing Stressful Life Events and Support Messages: When Cognitive Reappraisal Support Decreases Emotional Distress, and Emotional Support Is Like Saying Nothing at All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Anika; Das, Enny

    2014-01-01

    How can we best support others in difficult times? Studies testing the effects of supportive communication revealed mixed findings. The current study focuses on the effects of supportive communication following different disclosure styles, and includes outcome measures to assess emotional well-being. Hypotheses were tested in a 2 (disclosure style: cognitive reappraisal disclosure vs. emotional disclosure) ×3 (support message: cognitive reappraisal response vs. socio-affective response vs. no response) between subjects factorial design. Receiving a cognitive reappraisal response, rather than a socio-affective response or no response, decreased emotional distress in the emotional disclosure group. Support messages showed no effects in the cognitive reappraisal disclosure group. Although socio-affective responses were positively evaluated, cognitive reappraisal responses may be more effective during emotional upheaval because they provide a positive way out of negative emotions. PMID:25531509

  6. The Impacts of Social Support and Cognitive Function on Depression among Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Nakaoka, Susan; Underwood, Charna

    2017-02-17

    Research has demonstrated a relationship between social support, cognitive function, and depression among older adults, yet fewer studies have explored this association with Japanese American elders. This study aims to examine depression and describe its relationship with social support, cognitive function, and socioeconomic condition among Japanese American elders. A cross-sectional study of 205 Japanese American elders was conducted in Honolulu and Los Angeles County. A hierarchical regression model was used with depression as a dependent variable and with independent variables such as social support, cognitive function, and socioeconomic status. The study found that social support and cognitive function were significantly associated with depression for Japanese American elders. Also age and education were significantly associated with depression. Based on the findings, the study indicates the importance of developing preventive strategies to reduce the depression issue using culturally tailored programs to the study population.

  7. Effect of problem solving support and cognitive style on idea generation: Implications for Technology-Enhanced-Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., & Kirschner, P. (2007). Effect of problem solving support and cognitive style on idea generation: Implications for Technology-Enhanced-Learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(1), 49-63.

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Beijing Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in the Evaluation of Cognitive Function of Adult Patients with OSAHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chen

    Full Text Available The patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS tend to develop cognitive deficits, which usually go unrecognized, and can affect their daily life. The Beijing version of the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA-BJ, a Chinese version of MoCA, has been used for the assessment of cognitive functions of OSAHS patients in clinical practice. So far, its reliability and validity have not been tested. This study examined the reliability and validity of MoCA-BJ in a cohort of adult OSAHS patients.152 OSAHS patients, ranging from mild, moderate to severe, 49 primary snoring subjects and 40 normal controls were evaluated for cognitive functions by employing both MoCA-BJ and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Forty of them were re-tested by MoCA-BJ 14 days after the first test. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminate and concurrent validity of MoCA-BJ were analyzed.Internal consistency reliability by Cronbach's alpha was adequate (0.73. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, an measure of test-retest reliability, was 0.87 (P<0.001. The total MoCA-BJ scores were significant higher in normal controls than in OSAHS groups (p<0.05. The performances of visuospatial ability in severe OSAHS group were significantly weaker than in normal controls and primary snoring group. The performances of executive ability in severe OSAHS patients were weaker than in normal controls. An optimal cut-off between normal controls and non-normal subjects was at 26 points (total MoCA score. Moreover, cut-off between non-severe and severe OSAHS was at 2 points on visuospatial subscale. Analysis of the correlation between MoCA total scores and MMSE total scores revealed a statistically significant, though relatively weak, correlation (r=0.41, P<0.05.In conclusion, our study showed that the Beijing version of the MoCA was reliable and stable. The MoCA-BJ was capable of detecting cognitive dysfunction by visuospatial and total MoCA-BJ score.

  9. Argentinian/Chilean validation of the Spanish-language version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III for diagnosing dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, D; Slachevsky, A; Fiorentino, N; Rueda, D S; Bruno, G; Tagle, A R; Olavarria, L; Flores, P; Lillo, P; Roca, M; Torralva, T

    2017-08-30

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III), an adaptation of the ACE cognitive screening test, has been demonstrated to have high sensitivity and specificity in detecting cognitive impairment in patients with dementia and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although the Spanish-language version of the ACE-III has already been validated in Spain, it is yet to be validated in Latin America. The aim of this study was to validate the ACE-III test in an Argentinean and Chilean population. ACE-III was administered to 70 patients with Alzheimer disease, 31 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, and a control group of 139 healthy volunteers. Participants were recruited at centres in both countries. The Spanish-language version of ACE-III was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.87). We found significant differences in total ACE-III scores between patients with Alzheimer disease and controls (pcognitive dysfunction in patients with dementia. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F C; Spaan, Pauline E J; Majoie, Charles B L M; Nederveen, Aart J; Walstra, Gerard J M; de Jonghe, Jos F M; van Gool, Willem A; Olabarriaga, Silvia D; Korkhov, Vladimir V; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in a memory clinic sample and its effect on the associations between hippocampal volume and memory performance. Eleven of 170 consecutive patients (6.5%; 13% of patients younger than 65 years) referred to memory clinics showed noncredible performance on symptom validity tests (SVTs, viz. Word Memory Test and Test of Memory Malingering). They were compared to a demographically matched group (n = 57) selected from the remaining patients. Hippocampal volume, measured by an automated volumetric method (Freesurfer), was correlated with scores on six verbal memory tests. The median correlation was r = .49 in the matched group. However, the relation was absent (median r = -.11) in patients who failed SVTs. Memory clinic samples may include patients who show noncredible performance, which invalidates their MCI diagnosis. This underscores the importance of applying SVTs in evaluating patients with cognitive complaints that may signify a predementia stage, especially when these patients are relatively young.

  11. Decision Support System Requirements Definition for Human Extravehicular Activity Based on Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; McGuire, Kerry M; Feigh, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    The design and adoption of decision support systems within complex work domains is a challenge for cognitive systems engineering (CSE) practitioners, particularly at the onset of project development. This article presents an example of applying CSE techniques to derive design requirements compatible with traditional systems engineering to guide decision support system development. Specifically, it demonstrates the requirements derivation process based on cognitive work analysis for a subset of human spaceflight operations known as extravehicular activity . The results are presented in two phases. First, a work domain analysis revealed a comprehensive set of work functions and constraints that exist in the extravehicular activity work domain. Second, a control task analysis was performed on a subset of the work functions identified by the work domain analysis to articulate the translation of subject matter states of knowledge to high-level decision support system requirements. This work emphasizes an incremental requirements specification process as a critical component of CSE analyses to better situate CSE perspectives within the early phases of traditional systems engineering design.

  12. Universal immunogenicity validation and assessment during early biotherapeutic development to support a green laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Ami C; Zhou, Lei; Jawa, Vibha

    2013-10-01

    Immunogenicity support during nonclinical biotherapeutic development can be resource intensive if supported by conventional methodologies. A universal indirect species-specific immunoassay can eliminate the need for biotherapeutic-specific anti-drug antibody immunoassays without compromising quality. By implementing the R's of sustainability (reduce, reuse, rethink), conservation of resources and greener laboratory practices were achieved in this study. Statistical analysis across four biotherapeutics supported identification of consistent product performance standards (cut points, sensitivity and reference limits) and a streamlined universal anti-drug antibody immunoassay method implementation strategy. We propose an efficient, fit-for-purpose, scientifically and statistically supported nonclinical immunogenicity assessment strategy. Utilization of a universal method and streamlined validation, while retaining comparability to conventional immunoassays and meeting the industry recommended standards, provides environmental credits in the scientific laboratory. Collectively, individual reductions in critical material consumption, energy usage, waste and non-environment friendly consumables, such as plastic and paper, support a greener laboratory environment.

  13. Contextualization and standardization of the supportive leadership behavior questionnaire based on socio- cognitive theory in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mandana; Emami, Amir Hosein; Mirmoosavi, Seyed Jamal; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Hadi; Fathollahbeigi, Faezeh; Masiello, Italo

    2014-01-01

    Effective leadership is of prime importance in any organization and it goes through changes based on accepted health promotion and behavior change theory. Although there are many leadership styles, transformational leadership, which emphasizes supportive leadership behaviors, seems to be an appropriate style in many settings particularly in the health care and educational sectors which are pressured by high turnover and safety demands. Iran has been moving rapidly forward and its authorities have understood and recognized the importance of matching leadership styles with effective and competent care for success in health care organizations. This study aimed to develop the Supportive Leadership Behaviors Scale based on accepted health and educational theories and to psychometrically test it in the Iranian context. The instrument was based on items from established questionnaires. A pilot study validated the instrument which was also cross-validated via re-translation. After validation, 731 participants answered the questionnaire. The instrument was finalized and resulted in a 20-item questionnaire using the exploratory factor analysis, which yielded four factors of support for development, integrity, sincerity and recognition and explaining the supportive leadership behaviors (all above 0.6). Mapping these four measures of leadership behaviors can be beneficial to determine whether effective leadership could support innovation and improvements in medical education and health care organizations on the national level. The reliability measured as Cronbach's alpha was 0.84. This new instrument yielded four factors of support for development, integrity, sincerity and recognition and explaining the supportive leadership behaviors which are applicable in health and educational settings and are helpful in improving self -efficacy among health and academic staff.

  14. The Needs-Based Assessment of Parental (Guardian) Support: a test of its validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca M; Leah Lamb, J; Gradante, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a newly developed measure of guardian support, the Needs-Based Assessment of Parental (Guardian) Support (NAPS), an empirical evaluation of that measure, and its comparison with another measure of guardian support. The theoretical model that underlies this measure applies humanistic theory and Maslow's hierarchy of needs to the understanding of guardian support. The study employed a cross-sectional nonexperimental survey design using 183 nonoffending guardians who accompanied children presenting for a medical/forensic examination for sexual abuse. The NAPS and an existing measure of guardian support were administered during the hospital outpatient visit, and basic information concerning the child and abuse situations were gathered. The NAPS had robust psychometric properties and was culturally sensitive. Tests of specific hypotheses supported the construct validity of the measure and a conceptualization of guardian support as hierarchical, with four stages of support. The brevity and ease of administration of the NAPS for both the clinician and guardian suggest that it is a viable assessment tool. The strong support for the NAPS' underlying theoretical model suggests that the nonoffending guardians' available resources need to be considered when assessing guardian support.

  15. Evaluating validity and reliability of Persian version of Supports Intensity Scale in adults with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Soltani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shifting paradigms regarding the ways to assess the support needs of people with intellectual disability in 1980 necessitates the design and development of appropriate tools more than ever. In this regard, American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD developed Supports Intensity Scale (SIS to respond the lack of an appropriate measurement tool. The aim of this study is the cultural adaptation and evaluation of psychometric properties of Supports Intensity Scale in adults with intellectual disability. Methods: Validity of Persian version of SIS was assessed by Content validity. The reliability of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha and test–retest reliability with a 3-week interval. In this study, the sample contained 43 adults (29 men and 14 women with intellectual disability. Results: The content of the Persian version of SIS was approved by the experts. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients for the subscales ranged between 0.80 and 0.99. Also, Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between 0.90 and 0.99 (P<0.001. Furthermore, all Pearson correlation coefficients among the SIS subscales ranged between 0.63 and 0.98 (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the validity and reliability of the equivalent Persian version of SIS for identifying pattern and required supports intensity in adults with intellectual disability is acceptable.

  16. Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment: application and validation of the criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, Gert J.; Hoogland, Jeroen; Goldman, Jennifer G.; Schmand, Ben A.; Tröster, Alexander I.; Burn, David J.; Litvan, Irene; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Hurtig, Howard; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Adler, Charles H.; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Leverenz, Jim; Zabetian, Cyrus; Huang, Xuemei; Eslinger, Paul J.; Marras, Connie; Duff-Canning, Sarah; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.; Anderson, Tim J.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Lewis, Simon J. G.; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Yu, Rwei-Ling; Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Breen, David P.; Barker, Roger A.; Yarnall, Alison J.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Koene, Ted; Klein, Martin; Trautmann, Ellen; Mollenhauer, Brit; Dodel, Richard; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Pagonabaragga, Javier; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C.; Gasca-Salas, Carmen; Junque, Carme; Segura, Barbara; Sportiello, Marco Timpano; Cammisuli, Davide M.; Barone, Paolo; Pedersen, Kenn Freddy; Alves, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a serious health issue and a major concern for many patients. In most cases mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional stage between normal cognitive functioning and dementia which is of potential importance in the early identification of

  17. Testing the validity of wireless EEG for cognitive research with auditory and visual paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Kratschmer, Alexandra Regina; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard

    and smaller cognitive components. To test the feasibility of these headsets for cognitive research, we compared performance of the Emotiv Epoc wireless headset (EM) with Brain Products ActiCAP (BP) active electrodes on two well-studied components: the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and the visual face...

  18. Effects of Cognitive Complexity and Emotional Upset on Processing Supportive Messages: Two Tests of a Dual-Process Theory of Supportive Communication Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D.; Burleson, Brant R.; Holmstrom, Amanda J.; McCullough, Jennifer D.; Rack, Jessica J.; Hanasono, Lisa K.; Rosier, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    We report tests of hypotheses derived from a theory of supportive communication outcomes that maintains the effects of supportive messages are moderated by factors influencing the motivation and ability to process these messages. Participants in two studies completed a measure of cognitive complexity, which provided an assessment of processing…

  19. The FACIT-Sp spiritual well-being scale: an investigation of the dimensionality, reliability and construct validity in a cognitively intact nursing home population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, Gørill

    2015-03-01

    Spiritual well-being has been found to be a strong individual predictor of overall nursing home satisfaction and a fundamental dimension of global as well as health-related quality-in-life among nursing home patients. Therefore, access to a valid and reliable measure of spiritual well-being among nursing home patients is highly warranted. The aim of this study was to investigate the dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Wellbeing scale in a cognitively intact nursing home population. A cross-sectional design was applied, selecting two counties in central Norway from which 20 municipalities representing 44 different nursing homes took part in this study. Long-term care was defined as 24-hour care with duration of 6 months or longer. Participants were 202 cognitively intact long-term nursing home patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Approval by all regulatory institutions dealing with research issues in Norway and the Management Unit at the 44 nursing homes was obtained. Explorative and confirmative factor analyses as well as correlation with selected construct were used. Though three items loaded very low (λ = 0.22, 0.26, 0.32) indicating low reliability, the three-factor model for the FACIT-Sp spiritual well-being scale provided an acceptable fit (χ(2) = 101.15 (df = 50), p-value <0.001, RMSEA = 0.075 p = 0.030, NFI = 0.90, GFI = 0.91, AGFI = 0.85) for older nursing home patients, demonstrating acceptable measurement reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations in the hypothesised direction with the selected constructs. The three-factor model is an improvement over the original two-factor construct, based on these nursing home data. The measure yielded significantly factor loadings, good composite reliability and construct validity. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. The design and validation of advanced operator support systems for a role in plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.

    1989-06-01

    Advanced operator support systems have the potential of making a significant contribution to plant safety. This note reviews the different support functions required, the specification of performance criteria and possible approaches for system validation. The importance of the different functions that can be provided is related to the stage of the accident sequence. Also, because of the restricted reliability of any single system, subdivision of the systems is suggested in order to make the maximum contribution at a number of sequential stages. In this way it should be possible to make a significant claim for reduced operator error over the full accident progression, from incipient fault to disaster. The use of performance criteria currently associated with the classification of safety-grade trip systems (e.g. detection failure probability) would seem to provide a sound basis for validation. The validation of systems is seen as a significant task which will rely on the use of design and training-simulator data together with specific plant measurements. Expert systems appear to present particular problems for validation. (author)

  1. Reliability and validity of a physical activity social support assessment scale in adolescents - ASAFA Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the reliability and validity of a scale used to measure social support for physical activity in adolescents - ASAFA Scale. Methods: This study included 2,755 adolescents (57.6% girls, 16.5 ± 1.2 years of age, from Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. Initially, the scale was consisted of 12 items (6 for social support from parents and 6 from friends. The reliability of the scale was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α, by the Composite Reliability (CR, and by the model with two factors and factorial invariance by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA adequacy. Results: The CFA results confirmed that the social support scale contained two factors (factor 1: social support from parents; factor 2: social support from friends with five items each (one item was excluded from each scale, all with high factor loadings (> 0.65 and acceptable adjustment indexes (RMR = 0.050; RMSEA = 0.063; 90%CI: 0.060 - 0.067; AGFI = 0.903; GFI = 0.940; CFI = 0.934, NNFI = 0.932. The internal consistency was satisfactory (parents: α ≥ 0.77 and CR ≥ 0.83; friends: α ≥ 0.87 and CR ≥ 0.91. The scale's factorial invariance was confirmed (p > 0.05; Δχ2 and ΔCFI ≤ 0.01 across all subgroups analyzed (gender, age, economic class. The construct validity was evidenced by the significant association (p < 0.05 between the adolescents physical activity level and the social support score of parents (rho = 0.29 and friends (rho = 0.39. Conclusions: The scale showed reliability, factorial invariance and satisfactory validity, so it can be used in studies with adolescents.

  2. Validation of the Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS) as a cognitive screening test in patients with acquired brain injury in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlay, Sehim; Kuçukdeveci, Ayse A; Elhan, Atilla H; Yavuzer, Gunes; Tennant, Alan

    2007-02-28

    Assessment of cognitive impairment with a valid cognitive screening tool is essential in neurorehabilitation. The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish-adapted version of the Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS) among acquired brain injury patients in Turkey. Some 155 patients with acquired brain injury admitted for rehabilitation were assessed by the adapted version of MEAMS at admission and discharge. Reliability was tested by internal consistency, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and person separation index; internal construct validity by Rasch analysis; external construct validity by associations with physical and cognitive disability (FIM); and responsiveness by Effect Size. Reliability was found to be good with Cronbach's alpha of 0.82 at both admission and discharge; and likewise an ICC of 0.80. Person separation index was 0.813. Internal construct validity was good by fit of the data to the Rasch model (mean item fit -0.178; SD 1.019). Items were substantially free of differential item functioning. External construct validity was confirmed by expected associations with physical and cognitive disability. Effect size was 0.42 compared with 0.22 for cognitive FIM. The reliability and validity of the Turkish version of MEAMS as a cognitive impairment screening tool in acquired brain injury has been demonstrated.

  3. IAEA programme to support development and validation of advanced design and safety analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J., E-mail: J.H.Choi@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been organized many international collaboration programs to support the development and validation of design and safety analysis computer codes for nuclear power plants. These programs are normally implemented with a frame of Coordinated Research Project (CRP) or International Collaborative Standard Problem (ICSP). This paper introduces CRPs and ICSPs currently being organized or recently completed by IAEA for this purpose. (author)

  4. Development and Validation of the Adolescent Psychological Need Support in Exercise Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emm-Collison, Lydia G; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B

    2016-10-01

    Grounded within self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, in press), three studies were conducted to develop and psychometrically test a measure of adolescents' perceptions of psychological need support for exercise (viz., for autonomy, competence, and relatedness): the Adolescent Psychological Need Support in Exercise Questionnaire (APNSEQ). In Study 1, 34 items were developed in collaboration with an expert panel. Through categorical confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, responses from 433 adolescents were used to identify the best fitting and performing items in Study 2. Here, a three-factor nine-item measure showed good fit to the data. In Study 3, responses from an independent sample of 373 adolescents provided further evidence for the nine-item solution as well as for internal consistency, criterion validity, and invariance across gender and social agent (friends, family, and physical education teacher). The APNSEQ was supported as a measure of adolescents' perceptions of psychological need support within the context of exercise.

  5. Test your memory-Turkish version (TYM-TR): reliability and validity study of a cognitive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maviş, Ilknur; Özbabalik Adapinar, Belgin Demet; Yenilmez, Çinar; Aydin, Ayşe; Olgun, Engin; Bal, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The test your memory (TYM) is reported to be a sensitive cognitive function assessment scale for people with dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of an adapted Turkish version of the TYM (TYM-TR) among Turkish dementia patients. The TYM-TR was given to 59 patients with dementia aged 60+ and 336 normal controls aged 23-75+. The diagnostic utility of the TYM-TR was compared with that of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) to validate it. The internal consistency of the TYM-TR was a = 0.85. The test-retest reliability was 0.97 (P reliability and validity to distinguish dementia in the Turkish population.

  6. Is residual memory variance a valid method for quantifying cognitive reserve? A longitudinal application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Brickman, Adam M.; Narkhede, Atul; Griffith, Erica Y.; Guzman, Vanessa A.; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve describes the mismatch between brain integrity and cognitive performance. Older adults with high cognitive reserve are more resilient to age-related brain pathology. Traditionally, cognitive reserve is indexed indirectly via static proxy variables (e.g., years of education). More recently, cross-sectional studies have suggested that reserve can be expressed as residual variance in episodic memory performance that remains after accounting for demographic factors and brain pathology (whole brain, hippocampal, and white matter hyperintensity volumes). The present study extends these methods to a longitudinal framework in a community-based cohort of 244 older adults who underwent two comprehensive neuropsychological and structural magnetic resonance imaging sessions over 4.6 years. On average, residual memory variance decreased over time, consistent with the idea that cognitive reserve is depleted over time. Individual differences in change in residual memory variance predicted incident dementia, independent of baseline residual memory variance. Multiple-group latent difference score models revealed tighter coupling between brain and language changes among individuals with decreasing residual memory variance. These results suggest that changes in residual memory variance may capture a dynamic aspect of cognitive reserve and could be a useful way to summarize individual cognitive responses to brain changes. Change in residual memory variance among initially non-demented older adults was a better predictor of incident dementia than residual memory variance measured at one time-point. PMID:26348002

  7. Is residual memory variance a valid method for quantifying cognitive reserve? A longitudinal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Manly, Jennifer J; Brickman, Adam M; Narkhede, Atul; Griffith, Erica Y; Guzman, Vanessa A; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive reserve describes the mismatch between brain integrity and cognitive performance. Older adults with high cognitive reserve are more resilient to age-related brain pathology. Traditionally, cognitive reserve is indexed indirectly via static proxy variables (e.g., years of education). More recently, cross-sectional studies have suggested that reserve can be expressed as residual variance in episodic memory performance that remains after accounting for demographic factors and brain pathology (whole brain, hippocampal, and white matter hyperintensity volumes). The present study extends these methods to a longitudinal framework in a community-based cohort of 244 older adults who underwent two comprehensive neuropsychological and structural magnetic resonance imaging sessions over 4.6 years. On average, residual memory variance decreased over time, consistent with the idea that cognitive reserve is depleted over time. Individual differences in change in residual memory variance predicted incident dementia, independent of baseline residual memory variance. Multiple-group latent difference score models revealed tighter coupling between brain and language changes among individuals with decreasing residual memory variance. These results suggest that changes in residual memory variance may capture a dynamic aspect of cognitive reserve and could be a useful way to summarize individual cognitive responses to brain changes. Change in residual memory variance among initially non-demented older adults was a better predictor of incident dementia than residual memory variance measured at one time-point. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Clinical global impression of cognition in schizophrenia (CGI-CogS): reliability and validity of a co-primary measure of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Cienfuegos, Angel; Boxer, Oren; Bilder, Robert

    2008-11-01

    -CogS showed moderate validity with respect to neurocognitive performance and functional outcome, and correlations of CGI-CogS with functional outcomes were stronger than correlations of objective neurocognitive performance with functional outcomes. The CGI-CogS appears to offer a reliable and valid method for clinical rating of cognitive deficits and their impact on everyday functioning in schizophrenia.

  9. HapHop-Physio: a computer game to support cognitive therapies in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico-Olarte C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Rico-Olarte,1 Diego M López,1 Santiago Narváez,1 Charic D Farinango,1 Peter S Pharow2 1Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad del Cauca, Telematics Engineering Research Group, Popayán, Colombia; 2Fraunhofer Institute of Digital Media and Technology IDMT, Ilmenau, Germany Background: Care and support of children with physical or mental disabilities are accompanied with serious concerns for parents, families, healthcare institutions, schools, and their communities. Recent studies and technological innovations have demonstrated the feasibility of providing therapy and rehabilitation services to children supported by computer games. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present HapHop-Physio, an innovative computer game that combines exercise with fun and learning, developed to support cognitive therapies in children. Methods: Conventional software engineering methods such as the Scrum methodology, a functionality test and a related usability test, were part of the comprehensive methodology adapted to develop HapHop-Physio. Results: The game supports visual and auditory attention therapies, as well as visual and auditory memory activities. The game was developed by a multidisciplinary team, which was based on the Hopscotch® platform provided by Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT Institute in Germany, and designed in collaboration with a rehabilitation clinic in Colombia. HapHop-Physio was tested and evaluated to probe its functionality and user satisfaction. Conclusion: The results show the development of an easy-to-use and funny game by a multidisciplinary team using state-of-the-art videogame technologies and software methodologies. Children testing the game concluded that they would like to play again while undergoing rehabilitation therapies. Keywords: computer game, exer-games, cognitive therapies, rehabilitation

  10. Examination on Validity of Mothers' Parenting Skills Scale: The Relationship among Scale for Mother's Cognitive and Affective Attitudes on Adolescent and Mother's parenting Attitude toward Adolescent Child

    OpenAIRE

    渡邉, 賢二; 平石, 賢二; WATANABE, Kenji; HIRAISHI, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of parenting skills scale, and the relationship among the parenting skills scale and scale for mother's cognitive and affective attitudes on adolescent and mother's parenting attitude toward adolescent child. 3 subscales of the parenting skills were positively related to "positive cognition and affection" and negatively related to "negative cognition and affection." They were negatively related to "sense of uncertainly" and positively rela...

  11. Measuring illness insight in patients with alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction using the Q8 questionnaire: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walvoort SJW

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Serge JW Walvoort,1–3 Paul T van der Heijden,3,4 Roy PC Kessels,1,2,5 Jos IM Egger1–3,6 1Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, 3Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, 4Reinier van Arkel Mental Health Institute, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 5Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, the Netherlands Aim: Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8 was investigated in patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS and in alcohol use disorder (AUD patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods: First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD. Furthermore, correlations with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX were investigated. Finally, Q8 total scores were correlated with neuropsychological tests for processing speed, memory, and executive function. Results: Internal consistency of the Q8 was acceptable (ie, Cronbach’s α =0.73. The Q8 items represent one factor, and scores differ significantly between AUD and KS patients. The Q8 total score, related to the DEX discrepancy score and scores on neuropsychological tests as was hypothesized, indicates that a higher degree of illness insight is associated with a higher level of cognitive functioning. Conclusion: The Q8 is a short, valid, and easy-to-administer questionnaire to reliably assess illness insight in patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction. Keywords: illness insight, anosognosia, alcohol use disorder, Korsakoff

  12. Web-Based Cognitive Remediation Improves Supported Employment Outcomes in Severe Mental Illness: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony Wf; Kosic, Tanya; Xu, Jean; Walker, Chris; Gye, William; Redoblado Hodge, Antoinette

    2017-09-20

    Finding work is a top priority for most people; however, this goal remains out of reach for the majority of individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) who remain on benefits or are unemployed. Supported employment (SE) programs aimed at returning people with a severe mental illness to work are successful; however, they still leave a significant number of people with severe mental illness unemployed. Cognitive deficits are commonly found in SMI and are a powerful predictor of poor outcome. Fortunately, these deficits are amenable to treatment with cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) that significantly improves cognition in SMI. CRT combined with SE significantly increases the likelihood of individuals with severe mental illness obtaining and staying in work. However, the availability of CRT is limited in many settings. The aim of this study was to examine whether Web-based CRT combined with a SE program can improve the rate return to work of people with severe mental illness. A total of 86 people with severe mental illness (mean age 39.6 years; male: n=55) who were unemployed and who had joined a SE program were randomized to either a Web-based CRT program (CogRem) or an Internet-based control condition (WebInfo). Primary outcome measured was hours worked over 6 months post treatment. At 6 months, those participants randomized to CogRem had worked significantly more hours (P=.01) and had earned significantly more money (P=.03) than those participants randomized to the WebInfo control condition. No change was observed in cognition. This study corroborates other work that has found a synergistic effect of combining CRT with a SE program and extends this to the use of Web-based CRT. The lack of any improvement in cognition obscures the mechanism by which an improved wage outcome for participants randomized to the active treatment was achieved. However, the study substantially lowers the barrier to the deployment of CRT with other psychosocial interventions for

  13. Development and validation of a parent-report measure for detection of cognitive delay in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Graham; Genesoni, Lucia; Boden, Greg; Doll, Helen; Jones, Rosamond A K; Gray, Ron; Adams, Eleri; Jefferson, Ros

    2014-12-01

    To develop a brief, parent-completed instrument (ERIC - Early Report by Infant Caregivers) for detection of cognitive delay in 10- to 24-month-olds born preterm, or of low birthweight, or with perinatal complications, and to establish ERIC's diagnostic properties. Scores for ERIC were collected from the parents of 317 children meeting ≥inclusion criterion (birthweight Toddler Development-III cognitive scale. Items were retained according to their individual associations with delay. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were estimated and a truncated ERIC was developed for use in children cognitive delay in 10- to 24-month-old preterm infants and as a screen for cognitive delay. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Validation study of the Italian Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised in a young-old and old-old population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigliautile, M; Ricci, M; Mioshi, E; Ercolani, S; Mangialasche, F; Monastero, R; Croce, M F; Federici, S; Mecocci, P

    2011-01-01

    The main aims of the study were the translation and the subsequent validation in Italian of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R), and the evaluation of its usefulness in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia in an elderly population. The ACE-R was translated and adapted into Italian. The Italian ACE-R was administered to a group of 179 elderly subjects (72 cognitively healthy and 107 subjects with mild dementia, mean age 75.4±6.4 years). The group was stratified into two subsamples according to age, i.e. a young-old (<75 years) and an old-old (≥75 years) group, in order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the test in detecting dementia in different age strata of elderly subjects. The reliability of the Italian ACE-R was extremely good (α-coefficient=0.85). Two different cutoffs were identified for young-old (cutoff 79; sensitivity 90% and specificity 80%) and old-old subjects (cutoff 60; sensitivity 82% and specificity 100%). The Italian ACE-R is a valid screening tool to detect dementia, especially in the old-old population, which represents not only the fastest growing age group but also the group at the highest risk of dementia in Western countries. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Social Support, Insomnia, and Adherence to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia After Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Garland, Sheila N; Heckler, Charles E; Peoples, Anita R; Kleckner, Ian R; Cole, Calvin L; Perlis, Michael L; Morrow, Gary R; Mustian, Karen M; Roscoe, Joseph A

    2017-01-27

    While cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been shown to be efficacious in treating cancer survivors' insomnia, 30-60% of individuals have difficulty adhering to intervention components. Psychosocial predictors of adherence and response to CBT-I, such as social support, have not been examined in intervention studies for cancer survivors. Data from a randomized placebo-controlled 2 x 2 trial of CBT-I and armodafinil (a wakefulness promoting agent) were used to assess adherence. Ninety-six cancer survivors participated in the trial (mean age 56, 86% female, 68% breast cancer). CBT-I and armodafinil were administered over the course of seven weeks, and participants were assessed at baseline, during intervention, postintervention, and at a three-month follow-up. Social support was assessed using a Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy subscale, insomnia severity was assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index, and adherence was measured based on CBT-I sleep prescriptions. At baseline, social support was negatively correlated with insomnia severity (r = -0.30, p = 0.002) and associations between social support, CBT-I, and insomnia were maintained through the three-month follow-up. Social support was positively associated with adherence to CBT-I during intervention weeks 3, 4, and 5, and with overall intervention adherence. At postintervention, both social support and treatment with CBT-I independently predicted decreased insomnia severity (p adherence and improved sleep independent of CBT-I. Additional research is needed to determine whether social support can be leveraged to improve adherence and response to CBT-I.

  16. Validation of the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for detecting early Alzheimer's disease and mild vascular dementia in a German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, P; Greim, B; Nadler, K; Martens, U; Krecklow, B; Domes, G; Herpertz, S; Kurz, A

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the German version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) in identifying early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild vascular dementia (VaD) in comparison with the conventional Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The study refers to 50 patients with mild dementia of AD, 26 patients with mild dementia of vascular etiology and to 54 cognitively normal subjects. The ACE and MMSE were validated against an expert diagnosis based on a comprehensive diagnostic workup. Statistical analysis was performed using the receiver operator characteristics method. The optimal cut-off score for the ACE for detecting dementia in patients with early AD was 85/86, which had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 86%. The optimal cut-off for the ACE for the identification of dementia in patients with mild VaD was also 85/86 and it had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100%. The kappa values imply a substantial agreement between the diagnoses made by the ACE and the MMSE. The German version of the ACE is a short and practical but accurate test battery for the identification of AD and VaD, assessing a broad range of cognitive functions and providing a wide profile of cognitive functions/dysfunctions.

  17. Validation of the Persian version of the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Shahrzad; Parvaresh, Nooshin; Eslami Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Sadeghi, Mohammad M; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Keefe, Richard S E

    2014-02-01

    The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is designed for assessment of cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Versions of the BACS in English and other languages have been shown to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard test battery, with the advantage of brief administration and scoring time. The present study aimed to test the concurrent validity of the Persian version of the BACS (Persian-BACS). A group of 50 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a group of 50 healthy controls received the Persian-BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard neurocognitive battery. Cronbach's alpha for the Persian-BACS was 0.74. All the Persian-BACS subscales were significantly correlated with the corresponding standard neurocognitive subscales and the Pearson correlation of the composite scores from the two instruments was 0.71. Moreover, a one-factor solution was found that accounted for 67.9% of the variance. Finally, the Persian-BACS demonstrated high ability to discriminate patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. Good psychometric properties of the Persian-BACS suggest that it is a useful tool for assessing cognition in schizophrenic patients with Persian as their primary language. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. HapHop-Physio: a computer game to support cognitive therapies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Olarte, Carolina; López, Diego M; Narváez, Santiago; Farinango, Charic D; Pharow, Peter S

    2017-01-01

    Care and support of children with physical or mental disabilities are accompanied with serious concerns for parents, families, healthcare institutions, schools, and their communities. Recent studies and technological innovations have demonstrated the feasibility of providing therapy and rehabilitation services to children supported by computer games. The aim of this paper is to present HapHop-Physio, an innovative computer game that combines exercise with fun and learning, developed to support cognitive therapies in children. Conventional software engineering methods such as the Scrum methodology, a functionality test and a related usability test, were part of the comprehensive methodology adapted to develop HapHop-Physio. The game supports visual and auditory attention therapies, as well as visual and auditory memory activities. The game was developed by a multidisciplinary team, which was based on the Hopscotch ® platform provided by Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT Institute in Germany, and designed in collaboration with a rehabilitation clinic in Colombia. HapHop-Physio was tested and evaluated to probe its functionality and user satisfaction. The results show the development of an easy-to-use and funny game by a multidisciplinary team using state-of-the-art videogame technologies and software methodologies. Children testing the game concluded that they would like to play again while undergoing rehabilitation therapies.

  19. Danish version of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator-translation, cross-cultural adaption and validity pretest by cognitive interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jane; Sørensen, Erik E; Gobbens, Robbert J J

    2014-01-01

    The Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) is a self-administered questionnaire with a bio-psycho-social integrated approach that measures the degree of frailty in elderly persons. The TFI was developed in the Netherlands and tested in a population of elderly Dutch men and women. The aim of this study...... was to translate and culturally adapt the TFI to a Danish context, and to test face validity of the Danish version by cognitive interviewing. An internationally recognized procedure was applied as a basis for the translation process. The primary tasks were forward translation, reconciliation, back translation......, harmonization and pretest. Pretest and review of the preliminary version by cognitive interviewing, were performed at a local community center and in an acute medical ward at the University Hospital in Aalborg, Denmark respectively. A large agreement regarding meaning of the items in the forward translation...

  20. Utility, reliability, sensitivity and validity of an online test system designed to monitor changes in cognitive function in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Keith A; Brooker, Helen; Ballard, Clive; McCambridge, Laura; Stenton, Robert; Corbett, Anne

    2017-12-01

    The advent of long-term remotely conducted clinical trials requires assessments which can be administered online. This paper considers the utility, reliability, sensitivity and validity of an internet-based system for measuring changes in cognitive function which is being used in one such trial. The Platform for Research Online to investigate Genetics and Cognition in Ageing is a 10-year longitudinal and entirely remote study launched in November 2015. The CogTrack TM System is being used to monitor changes in important aspects of cognitive function using tests of attention, information processing and episodic memory. On study entry, the participants performed CogTrack TM up to three times over seven days, and these data are evaluated in this paper. During the first six months of the study, 14 531 individuals aged 50 to 94 years enrolled and performed the CogTrack TM System, 8627 of whom completed three test sessions. On the first administration, 99.4% of the study tasks were successfully completed. Repeated testing showed training/familiarisation effects on four of the ten measures which had largely stabilised by the third test session. The factor structure of the various measures was found to be robust. Evaluation of the influence of age identified clinically relevant declines over the age range of the population on one or more measures from all tasks. The results of these analyses identify CogTrack TM to be a practical and valid method to reliably, sensitively, remotely and repeatedly collect cognitive data from large samples of individuals aged 50 and over. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The hippocampus supports multiple cognitive processes through relational binding and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Kathleen Olsen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that the hippocampus plays a pivotal role in explicit long-term recognition memory. However, findings from amnesia, lesion and recording studies with non-human animals, eye-movement recording studies, and functional neuroimaging have recently converged upon a similar message: the functional reach of the hippocampus extends far beyond explicit recognition memory. Damage to the hippocampus affects performance on a number of cognitive tasks including recognition memory after short and long delays and visual discrimination. Additionally, with the advent of neuroimaging techniques that have fine spatial and temporal resolution, findings have emerged that show the elicitation of hippocampal responses within the first few hundred milliseconds of stimulus/task onset. These responses occur for novel and previously viewed information during a time when perceptual processing is traditionally thought to occur, and long before overt recognition responses are made. We propose that the hippocampus is obligatorily involved in the binding of disparate elements across both space and time, and in the comparison of such relational memory representations. Furthermore, the hippocampus supports relational binding and comparison with or without conscious awareness for the relational representations that are formed, retrieved and/or compared. It is by virtue of these basic binding and comparison functions that the reach of the hippocampus extends beyond long-term recognition memory and underlies task performance in multiple cognitive domains.

  2. Cognitive and Affective Uses of a Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Facebook Support Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kimberly K

    2014-09-01

    There are currently many disease-specific groups on Facebook in which patients may take an active part (Greene, Choudhry, Kilabuk, & Shrank, 2011). Although uses and gratifications of patient-disease groups have begun to be identified for chronic diseases, rare diseases have been omitted, even though they collectively affect roughly 30 million people in the United States and 350 million people worldwide. This study is a content analysis of one Facebook rare disease patient group, the Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) Awareness group. All wall posts were recorded and content analyzed for cognitive and affective categories and subcategories between October 9, 2011 (date of site origin), and May 1, 2012. Analysis of cognitive needs indicated TOS patients used the site more to share information about their own TOS symptoms and journey with diagnosis than to seek information. Analysis of affective needs found patients were more likely to use the site to give support and encouragement to others than to express concerns and complaints. The complaints they did express were primarily related to their frustration with the general medical community's perceived inability to diagnose and understand their disease or to question a specific doctor's diagnosis/recommendation. Results point to needs specific to TOS patients that uses and gratifications research can help clarify.

  3. The effects of music-supported therapy on motor, cognitive, and psychosocial functions in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takako; Dawson, Deirdre R; Wright, Rebecca; Honjo, Kie; Chen, Joyce L; Chen, J Jean; Black, Sandra E; Stuss, Donald T; Ross, Bernhard

    2018-05-24

    Neuroplasticity accompanying learning is a key mediator of stroke rehabilitation. Training in playing music in healthy populations and patients with movement disorders requires resources within motor, sensory, cognitive, and affective systems, and coordination among these systems. We investigated effects of music-supported therapy (MST) in chronic stroke on motor, cognitive, and psychosocial functions compared to conventional physical training (GRASP). Twenty-eight adults with unilateral arm and hand impairment were randomly assigned to MST (n = 14) and GRASP (n = 14) and received 30 h of training over a 10-week period. The assessment was conducted at four time points: before intervention, after 5 weeks, after 10 weeks, and 3 months after training completion. As for two of our three primary outcome measures concerning motor function, all patients slightly improved in Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment hand score, while the time to complete Action Research Arm Test became shorter in the MST group. The third primary outcome measure for well-being, Stroke Impact Scale, was improved for emotion and social communication earlier in MST and coincided with the improved executive function for task switching and music rhythm perception. The results confirmed previous findings and expanded the potential usage of MST for enhancing quality of life in community-dwelling chronic-stage survivors. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. The "DOC" screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Richard H; Cayley, Megan L; Lanctôt, Krista L; Murray, Brian J; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E; Sicard, Michelle N; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J; Herrmann, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment ("DOC") are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and treatment

  5. [Validation of the Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-S) Screen Scale in Patients with Bipolar Disorder I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño Ramírez, Oscar Mauricio; Martínez Ramírez, Yeferson André; Marulanda Mejía, Felipe; Díaz Cabezas, Ricardo; Valderrama Sánchez, Lenis Alexandra; Varela Cifuentes, Vilma; Aguirre Acevedo, Daniel Camilo

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish version of the cognitive impairment in psychiatry scale screening scale has been developed as a response to the needs arising in clinical practice during the evaluation of mental illness patients, but the performance is not known in the Colombian population with bipolar disorder I. This paper tries to establish construct validity and stability of the scale in patients with bipolar disorder I in the city of Manizales. Construct validity was estimated by comparing the measurement in two divergent groups, a control group and a group with bipolar disorder I. It was also compared to a Neuropsychological battery measuring the same scale domains. The correlation between each one of the sub-tests of the scale and stability was evaluated through the reliability test-retest in the group with bipolar disorder I. The scale showed discriminatory capacity in cognitive functioning between the control group and the group with bipolar disorder I. The correlation with the neuropsychological battery was estimated by the Spearman test showing results between 0.36 and 0.77, and the correlation between each sub-test of the scale showed correlations between 0.39 and 0.72. Test-retest was measured with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and their values were between 0.77 and 0.91. The Spanish version of screening scale in the cognitive disorder in psychiatry shows acceptable validity and reliability as a measurement tool in clinical psychiatric practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. The Korean Version of the Cognitive Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (K-CASP): A Reliability and Validity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwon-Hee; Lee, Hee-Won; Park, Kee-Boem; Lee, Jin-Youn; Cho, Ah-Ra; Oh, Hyun-Mi; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-06-01

    To develop the Korean version of the Cognitive Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (K-CASP) and to evaluate the test reliability and validity of the K-CASP in stroke patients. The original CASP was translated into Korean, back-translated into English, then reviewed and compared with the original version. Thirty-three stroke patients were assessed independently by two examiners using the K-CASP twice, with a one-day interval, for a total of four test results. To evaluate the reliability of the K-CASP, intra-class correlation coefficients were used. Pearson correlations were calculated and simple regression analyses performed with the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and the aphasia quotient (AQ) to assess the validity. The mean score was 24.42±9.47 (total score 36) for the K-CASP and 21.50±7.01 (total score 30) for the K-MMSE. The inter-rater correlation coefficients of the K-CASP were 0.992 on the first day and 0.995 on the second day. The intra-rater correlation coefficients of the K-CASP were 0.997 for examiner 1 and 0.996 for examiner 2. In the Pearson correlation analysis, the K-CASP score significantly correlated with the K-MMSE score (r=0.825, preliable and valid instrument for cognitive dysfunction screening in post-stroke patients. It is more applicable than other cognitive assessment tools in stroke patients with aphasia.

  7. Validation of the French version of the BACS (the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia) among 50 French schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralet, Marie-Cécile; Falissard, Bruno; Neveu, Xavier; Lucas-Ross, Margaret; Eskenazi, Anne-Marie; Keefe, Richard S E

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenic patients demonstrate impairments in several key dimensions of cognition. These impairments are correlated with important aspects of functional outcome. While assessment of these cognition disorders is increasingly becoming a part of clinical and research practice in schizophrenia, there is no standard and easily administered test battery. The BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) has been validated in English language [Keefe RSE, Golberg TE, Harvey PD, Gold JM, Poe MP, Coughenour L. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: reliability, sensibility, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophr. Res 2004;68:283-97], and was found to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard battery of tests, with the advantage of requiring less than 35 min to complete. We developed a French adaptation of the BACS and this study tested its ease of administration and concurrent validity. Correlation analyses between the BACS (version A) and a standard battery were performed. A sample of 50 stable schizophrenic patients received the French Version A of the BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard battery. All the patients completed each of the subtests of the French BACS . The mean duration of completion for the BACS French version was 36 min (S.D.=5.56). A correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) global score and the standard battery global score showed a significant result (r=0.81, p<0.0001). The correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) sub-scores and the standard battery sub-scores showed significant results for verbal memory, working memory, verbal fluency, attention and speed of information processing and executive functions (p<0.001) and for motor speed (p<0.05). The French Version of the BACS is easier to use in French schizophrenic patients compared to a standard battery (administration shorter and completion rate better) and its good psychometric properties suggest

  8. Concurrent validation of a neurocognitive assessment protocol for clients with mental illness in job matching as shop sales in supported employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S S W; Lak, D C C; Lee, S C K; Ng, P P K

    2015-03-01

    Occupational therapists play a major role in the assessment and referral of clients with severe mental illness for supported employment. Nonetheless, there is scarce literature about the content and predictive validity of the process. In addition, the criteria of successful job matching have not been analysed and job supervisors have relied on experience rather than objective standards in recruitment. This study aimed to explore the profile of successful clients working in 'shop sales' in a supportive environment using a neurocognitive assessment protocol, and to validate the protocol against 'internal standards' of the job supervisors. This was a concurrent validation study of criterion-related scales for a single job type. The subjective ratings from the supervisors were concurrently validated against the results of neurocognitive assessment of intellectual function and work-related cognitive behaviour. A regression model was established for clients who succeeded and failed in employment using supervisor's ratings and a cutoff value of 10.5 for the Performance Fitness Rating Scale (R(2) = 0.918, F[41] = 3.794, p = 0.003). Classification And Regression Tree was also plotted to identify the profile of cases, with an overall accuracy of 0.861 (relative error, 0.26). Use of both inference statistics and data mining techniques enables the decision tree of neurocognitive assessments to be more readily applied by therapists in vocational rehabilitation, and thus directly improve the efficiency and efficacy of the process.

  9. Trauma exposure, resilience, social support, and PTSD construct validity among former prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P B; Engdahl, B E; Eberly, R E; Blake, R J; Page, W F; Frueh, B C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of persistent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to examine the construct validity of PTSD in a national sample of 270 World War II and Korean Conflict prisoners of war (POWs). POWs were interviewed at two points in time (1965 and 1990). Predictors included PTSD symptomatology measured in 1965 by items from the Cornell Medical Index (CMI), severity of captivity trauma, resilience factors, and post-trauma social support. The criterion, symptomatology in the early 1990s, was evaluated with the PTSD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). The CMI provided only partial coverage of PTSD criteria and appeared to provide only a general index of distress. Clustering of SCID items in two-dimensional space via multidimensional scaling analysis offers some construct validation for the DSM's differentiation of PTSD symptoms into criterion groups, although there was not a perfect match. Trauma severity is best related to PTSD symptomatology experienced in 1990, mitigated in part by greater education level and age at the time of trauma exposure. Surprisingly, 1965 distress added only a modest amount to the prediction of current distress, while post-trauma social support added none. These findings support previous work showing the severe psychological sequelae of POW status 40-50 years after captivity, and indicate that trauma severity during captivity is the best predictor of current PTSD symptomatology. Results also add to our understanding of the conceptual differentiation of PTSD symptoms into separate and distinct symptom clusters.

  10. Cognitive processing therapy versus supportive counseling for acute stress disorder following assault: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Reginald D V

    2012-12-01

    The study tested the efficacy and tolerability of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for survivors of assault with acute stress disorder. Participants (N=30) were randomly allocated to CPT or supportive counseling. Therapy comprised six individual weekly sessions of 90-min duration. Independent diagnostic assessment for PTSD was conducted at posttreatment. Participants completed self-report measures of posttraumatic stress, depression, and negative trauma-related beliefs at pre-, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Results indicated that both interventions were successful in reducing symptoms at posttreatment with no statistical difference between the two; within and between-group effect sizes and the proportion of participants not meeting PTSD criteria was greater in CPT. Treatment gains were maintained for both groups at 6-month follow-up. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Comparative efficacy of spirituality, cognitive, and emotional support groups for treating eating disorder inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P Scott; Berrett, Michael E; Hardman, Randy K; Eggett, Dennis L

    2006-01-01

    Spiritual interventions are rarely used in contemporary treatment programs and little empirical evidence is available concerning their effectiveness. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a spiritual group intervention for eating disorder inpatients. We compared the effectiveness of a Spirituality group with Cognitive and Emotional Support groups using a randomized, control group design. Participants were 122 women receiving inpatient eating disorder treatment. Patients in the Spirituality group tended to score significantly lower on psychological disturbance and eating disorder symptoms at the conclusion of treatment compared to patients in the other groups, and higher on spiritual well-being. On weekly outcome measures, patients in the Spirituality group improved significantly more quickly during the first four weeks of treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that attending to eating disorder patients' spiritual growth and well-being during inpatient treatment may help reduce depression and anxiety, relationship distress, social role conflict, and eating disorder symptoms.

  12. Cognitive Tutoring based on Intelligent Decision Support in the PENTHA Instructional Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    dall'Acqua, Luisa

    2010-06-01

    The research finality of this paper is how to support Authors to develop rule driven—subject oriented, adaptable course content, meta-rules—representing the disciplinary epistemology, model of teaching, Learning Path structure, and assessment parameters—for intelligent Tutoring actions in a personalized, adaptive e-Learning environment. The focus is to instruct the student to be a decision manager for himself, able to recognize the elements of a problem, select the necessary information with the perspective of factual choices. In particular, our research intends to provide some fundamental guidelines for the definition of didactical rules and logical relations, that Authors should provide to a cognitive Tutoring system through the use of an Instructional Design method (PENTHA Model) which proposes an educational environment, able to: increase productivity and operability, create conditions for a cooperative dialogue, developing participatory research activities of knowledge, observations and discoveries, customizing the learning design in a complex and holistic vision of the learning / teaching processes.

  13. The Choice Is Yours: The Role of Cognitive Processes for IT-Supported Idea Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeber, Isabella; Weber, Barbara; Maier, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    of selection direction and selection type. A laboratory experiment using eye-tracking will investigate variations in selection type and selection direction. Moreover, the experiment will test the effects on the decision-making process and the number and quality of ideas in a filtered set. Findings will provide......The selection of good ideas out of hundreds or even thousands has proven to be the next big challenge for organizations that conduct open idea contests for innovation. Cognitive load and attention loss hinder crowds to effectively run their idea selection process. Facilitation techniques...... for the reduction and clarification of ideas could help with such problems, but have not yet been researched in crowd settings that are prevalent in idea contests. This research-in-progress paper aims to contribute to this research gap by investigating IT-supported selection techniques that differ in terms...

  14. The meaning and validation of social support networks for close family of persons with advanced cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjolander Catarina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study’s empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Methods Seventeen family members with a relative who 8–14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. Results The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. Conclusions The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could

  15. The meaning and validation of social support networks for close family of persons with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolander, Catarina; Ahlstrom, Gerd

    2012-09-17

    To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study's empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Seventeen family members with a relative who 8-14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could encourage nurses and other health-care professionals to focus on family members

  16. The impact of social, cognitive and attitudinal dimensions on college students' support for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A M; Peltier, J W; Dahl, A J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how college students can be social support catalysts for organ donation and how social, cognitive and attitudinal dimensions impact organ donor registration. A total of 317 people participated in the exploratory portion of the project and a total of 1800 responses were obtained from an online survey to members of a national student organization. The findings show that perceptions of the benefits of organ donation and altruistic motives had the greatest impact on the support for organ donation while respondents' knowledge about how to register to be an organ donor was the dominant dimension for donor registration status. Social-based communications had the next greatest impact for both support and donor registration. Based on the findings, an 18-month social media campaign was launched with the student organization that had 20 421 website visitors, 4473 Facebook members, 1189 YouTube video submissions with 164 000 views, motivated 19 623 people to go to a state's organ donor registration page, and had 9000 documented organ donor registrations. Within the student organization, organ donor registration increased by 28%. On the basis of these project results, Donate Life America and other sponsors have provided funding for two additional years. ©Copyright 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Validation of the German revised Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for detecting mild cognitive impairment, mild dementia in alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, P; Ebert, A; Richter-Schmidinger, T; Schöll, E; Natale, B; Aguilar, C A; Gourzis, P; Weih, M; Perneczky, R; Diehl-Schmid, J; Kneib, T; Förstl, H; Kurz, A; Danek, A; Kornhuber, J

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of the German version of the revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) in identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild dementia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in comparison with the conventional Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was assessed. The study encompasses 76 cognitively healthy elderly individuals, 75 patients with MCI, 56 with AD and 22 with FTLD. ACE-R and MMSE were validated against an expert diagnosis based on a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using the receiver operating characteristic method and regression analyses. The optimal cut-off score for the ACE-R for detecting MCI, AD, and FTLD was 86/87, 82/83 and 83/84, respectively. ACE-R was superior to MMSE only in the detection of patients with FTLD [area under the curve (AUC): 0.97 vs. 0.92], whilst the accuracy of the two instruments did not differ in identifying MCI and AD. The ratio of the scores of the memory ACE-R subtest to verbal fluency subtest contributed significantly to the discrimination between AD and FTLD (optimal cut-off score: 2.30/2.31, AUC: 0.77), whereas the MMSE and ACE-R total scores did not. The German ACE-R is superior to the most commonly employed MMSE in detecting mild dementia in FTLD and in the differential diagnosis between AD and FTLD. Thus it might serve as a valuable instrument as part of a comprehensive diagnostic workup in specialist centres/clinics contributing to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the cause of dementia.

  18. Effective Team Support: From Task and Cognitive Modeling to Software Agents for Time-Critical Complex Work Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor); John, Bonnie E.; Sycara, Katia

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research contract was to perform multidisciplinary research between CMU psychologists, computer scientists and NASA researchers to design a next generation collaborative system to support a team of human experts and intelligent agents. To achieve robust performance enhancement of such a system, we had proposed to perform task and cognitive modeling to thoroughly understand the impact technology makes on the organization and on key individual personnel. Guided by cognitively-inspired requirements, we would then develop software agents that support the human team in decision making, information filtering, information distribution and integration to enhance team situational awareness. During the period covered by this final report, we made substantial progress in completing a system for empirical data collection, cognitive modeling, and the building of software agents to support a team's tasks, and in running experiments for the collection of baseline data.

  19. Validation of Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE) in a Persian-speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretemad, Hamid Reza; Khatibi, Ali; Ganjavi, Anahita; Shams, Jamal; Zarei, Mojtaba

    2009-01-01

    Use of reliable screening and diagnostic tests for assessment of cognitive abilities in neurological patients is rapidly increasing in clinical practice. This is due to the increase in the prevalence of dementias and the raised awareness of cognitive impairment in neurological disorders. Two well-known bedside screening tests for dementias among the English-speaking population are the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE). However, such tests have not been developed for the Persian-speaking population, which is estimated at 120 million worldwide. In this study we developed the Persian ACE and MMSE, adopted from the English version. We also assessed the sensitivity and specificity of these tests in the identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We found that the Persian ACE at a cutoff point of 84, has a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 91% in discriminating MCI from a normal population; at 78, the test has a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in differentiating MCI from AD, and at a similar cutoff point has a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 96% in discriminating AD from a normal population. We conclude that the Persian ACE is a valuable tool in clinical practice in the Persian-speaking population. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Development and Validation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Skills Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Karen L.; Christopher, Michael S.; Neuhaus, Edmund C.

    2011-01-01

    Although several theories exist to describe why patients improve in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in only a limited number of studies has CBT skill acquisition been examined, particularly among patients with complex clinical profiles. Thus, the overarching aim of this research was to develop a tool to measure patients' use of CBT skills,…

  1. Exploring assistive technology use to support cognition in college students with histories of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessica; Wollersheim, Madeline

    2018-01-19

    College students with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may experience chronic cognitive deficits necessitating use of external supports for daily task completion. The purpose of this study was to explore cognitive support system selection and use by students with histories of mTBI when completing novel prospective memory tasks. We implemented a multiple case study, sequential explanatory mixed-methods design with three participants. Participants completed four experimental phases: (1) background history collection, cognitive assessment completion, pre-trial interview, and selection of two external supports for trial phase use; (2) trial Phase 1 (i.e., 10-days); (3) trial Phase 2 (i.e., 10 days); and (4) post-trial exit interview. We examined participants' support type and characteristic preferences and evaluated task execution accuracy when implementing differing supports. Participants expressed both collective and unique cognitive aid preferences before trial completion. Trial phase results revealed that task completion accuracy did not alter substantially between trials; however, personal preferences and perceived usefulness of trialled cognitive aid systems appeared to impact support implementation and effectiveness. Themes emerged from post-trial interview relating to the (a) necessity for differing functions of individual systems and (b) importance of trialling devices prior to selection. Results emphasize the necessity of person-centred approaches to treatment due to the variability of performance accuracy and system preferences. The cognitive aid selection and implementation intervention protocol piloted in this study appears beneficial for understanding unique strengths and challenges for college students following mTBI and may be useful for clinicians working with individuals with mTBI. Implications for rehabilitation College-aged students with mild traumatic brain injury report unique preferences for no- and high-tech cognitive aids; however, similar

  2. Use of a training program to enhance NICU nurses' cognitive abilities for assessing preterm infant behaviors and offering supportive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2003-06-01

    This study tested the use of a developmentally supportive care (DSC) training program in the form of videotaped and personalized instruction to increase nurses' cognitive abilities for assessing preterm infant behavioral signals and offering supportive care. The study used a two-group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental repeated measures design. The participants were 25 NICU nurses, 13 in the intervention group, and 12 in the control group. An instrument developed for the purpose of the study was a video test that measured the effectiveness of the DSC training. The video test questionnaires were administered to the participants twice with an interval of four weeks. ANCOVA controlling the baseline scores was used for data analysis. In general, the results support the hypothesis that nurses' cognitive abilities were enhanced after the DSC training. The increase in nurses' cognitive abilities is the prerequisite for behavioral change, based on the assumptions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Learning Theory (Bandura, 1986). As nurses' cognitive abilities increased, it would be possible that nurse behaviors in taking care of these preterm infants might change. Therefore, the author recommends that in order to improve NICU care quality and the outcomes of preterm infants, the concepts of developmentally supportive care be incorporated into NICU caregiving practice by educating nurses.

  3. A Cost-Constrained Sampling Strategy in Support of LAI Product Validation in Mountainous Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Yin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid on leaf area index (LAI retrieval in mountainous areas. Mountainous areas present extreme topographic variability, and are characterized by more spatial heterogeneity and inaccessibility compared with flat terrain. It is difficult to collect representative ground-truth measurements, and the validation of LAI in mountainous areas is still problematic. A cost-constrained sampling strategy (CSS in support of LAI validation was presented in this study. To account for the influence of rugged terrain on implementation cost, a cost-objective function was incorporated to traditional conditioned Latin hypercube (CLH sampling strategy. A case study in Hailuogou, Sichuan province, China was used to assess the efficiency of CSS. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, land cover type, and slope were selected as auxiliary variables to present the variability of LAI in the study area. Results show that CSS can satisfactorily capture the variability across the site extent, while minimizing field efforts. One appealing feature of CSS is that the compromise between representativeness and implementation cost can be regulated according to actual surface heterogeneity and budget constraints, and this makes CSS flexible. Although the proposed method was only validated for the auxiliary variables rather than the LAI measurements, it serves as a starting point for establishing the locations of field plots and facilitates the preparation of field campaigns in mountainous areas.

  4. Measuring illness insight in patients with alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction using the Q8 questionnaire: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoort, Serge JW; van der Heijden, Paul T; Kessels, Roy PC; Egger, Jos IM

    2016-01-01

    Aim Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8) was investigated in patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS) and in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD. Furthermore, correlations with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) were investigated. Finally, Q8 total scores were correlated with neuropsychological tests for processing speed, memory, and executive function. Results Internal consistency of the Q8 was acceptable (ie, Cronbach’s α =0.73). The Q8 items represent one factor, and scores differ significantly between AUD and KS patients. The Q8 total score, related to the DEX discrepancy score and scores on neuropsychological tests as was hypothesized, indicates that a higher degree of illness insight is associated with a higher level of cognitive functioning. Conclusion The Q8 is a short, valid, and easy-to-administer questionnaire to reliably assess illness insight in patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27445476

  5. Development and validity of a new model for assessing pressure redistribution properties of support surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Junko; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi; Okuwa, Mayumi; Nakatani, Toshio; Konya, Chizuko; Sakamoto, Jirou

    2011-05-01

    Pressure ulcers are a common problem, especially in older patients. In Japan, most institutionalized older people are malnourished and show extreme bony prominence (EBP). EBP is a significant factor in the development of pressure ulcers due to increased interface pressure concentrated at the skin surface over the EBP. The use of support surfaces is recommended for the prophylaxis of pressure ulcers. However, the present equivocal criteria for evaluating the pressure redistribution of support surfaces are inadequate. Since pressure redistribution is influenced by physique and posture, evaluations using human subjects are limited. For this reason, models that can substitute for humans are necessary. We developed a new EBP model based on the anthropometric measurements, including pelvic inclination, of 100 bedridden elderly people. A comparison between the pressure distribution charts of our model and bedridden elderly subjects demonstrated that maximum contact pressure values, buttock contact pressure values, and bone prominence rates corresponded closely. This indicates that the model provides a good approximation of the features of elderly people with EBP. We subsequently examined the validity of the model through quantitative assessment of pressure redistribution functions consisting of immersion, envelopment, and contact area change. The model was able to detect differences in the hardness of urethane foam, differences in the internal pressure of an air mattress, and sequential changes during the pressure switching mode. These results demonstrate the validity of our new buttock model in evaluating pressure redistribution for a variety of surfaces. Copyright © 2010 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and validation of an exercise performance support system for people with lower extremity impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, M A; Reid, J C; Griffin, J Z; Pittman, C B; Patrick, T B; Cutts, J H

    1998-02-01

    To identify innovative strategies to support appropriate, self-directed exercise that increase physical activity levels of people with arthritis. This article reports on one interactive, multimedia exercise performance support system (PSS) for people with lower extremity impairments in strength or flexibility. An interdisciplinary team developed the PSS using self-report of lower extremity musculoskeletal impairments (flexibility and strength) to produce an individualized exercise program with video and print educational materials. Initial evaluation has investigated the validity and reliability of program assessments and recommendations. PSS self-report and professional assessments were similar, with more impairments indicated by self-report. PSS exercise recommendations were similar to those made by 3 expert physical therapists using the same exercise data base. Results of PSS impairment assessments were stable over a 1-week period. PSS exercise recommendations appear to be reliable and a valid reflection of current exercise knowledge in rheumatology. Furthermore, users were able to complete the computer-based program with minimal assistance and reported it to be enjoyable and informative.

  7. Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm Based Support Vector Machines for Determining Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utku Kose

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The definition, diagnosis and classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its complications are very important. First of all, the World Health Organization (WHO and other societies, as well as scientists have done lots of studies regarding this subject. One of the most important research interests of this subject is the computer supported decision systems for diagnosing diabetes. In such systems, Artificial Intelligence techniques are often used for several disease diagnostics to streamline the diagnostic process in daily routine and avoid misdiagnosis. In this study, a diabetes diagnosis system, which is formed via both Support Vector Machines (SVM and Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm (CoDOA has been proposed. Along the training of SVM, CoDOA was used for determining the sigma parameter of the Gauss (RBF kernel function, and eventually, a classification process was made over the diabetes data set, which is related to Pima Indians. The proposed approach offers an alternative solution to the field of Artificial Intelligence-based diabetes diagnosis, and contributes to the related literature on diagnosis processes.

  8. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Brain Connectivity Supporting Catastrophizing in Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Asimina; Kim, Jieun; Cahalan, Christine M; Loggia, Marco L; Franceschelli, Olivia; Berna, Chantal; Schur, Peter; Napadow, Vitaly; Edwards, Robert R

    2017-03-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic, common pain disorder characterized by hyperalgesia. A key mechanism by which cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) fosters improvement in pain outcomes is via reductions in hyperalgesia and pain-related catastrophizing, a dysfunctional set of cognitive-emotional processes. However, the neural underpinnings of these CBT effects are unclear. Our aim was to assess CBT's effects on the brain circuitry underlying hyperalgesia in FM patients, and to explore the role of treatment-associated reduction in catastrophizing as a contributor to normalization of pain-relevant brain circuitry and clinical improvement. In total, 16 high-catastrophizing FM patients were enrolled in the study and randomized to 4 weeks of individual treatment with either CBT or a Fibromyalgia Education (control) condition. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans evaluated functional connectivity between key pain-processing brain regions at baseline and posttreatment. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Catastrophizing correlated with increased resting state functional connectivity between S1 and anterior insula. The CBT group showed larger reductions (compared with the education group) in catastrophizing at posttreatment (PCBT produced significant reductions in both pain and catastrophizing at the 6-month follow-up (PCBT group also showed reduced resting state connectivity between S1 and anterior/medial insula at posttreatment; these reductions in resting state connectivity were associated with concurrent treatment-related reductions in catastrophizing. The results add to the growing support for the clinically important associations between S1-insula connectivity, clinical pain, and catastrophizing, and suggest that CBT may, in part via reductions in catastrophizing, help to normalize pain-related brain responses in FM.

  9. Cognitive-behavioural theories of helplessness/hopelessness: valid models of depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, V; Bussfeld, P; Möller, H-J; Hegerl, U

    2002-10-01

    Helplessness and hopelessness are central aspects of cognitive-behavioural explanations for the development and persistence of depression. In this article a general overview concerning the evolution of those approaches to depression is provided. Included is a critical examination of the theories. The review of the literature suggests that those cognitive models describing helplessness/hopelessness as trait factors mediating depression do not really have a strong empirical base. The majority of those studies had been conducted in healthy or only mildly depressed subjects. Thus, there seems to be little justification for broad generalisations beyond the populations studied. It seems that some of the reported studies have not tested the underlying theories adequately (e. g. correlation had sometimes been interpreted as causation; adequate prospective longitudinal study designs had seldom been applied). Moreover, the theoretical models are not generally prepared to explain all depressive features (e. g. the possibility of a spontaneous shift in a manic episode). Despite those limitations, there is a relevant impact of the learned helplessness paradigm on preclinical research in neurobiological correlates of depressive states. Last but not least, the models are of high interest with respect to the theoretical background of important modules of cognitive-behavioural therapy and its acute and prophylactic effects.

  10. Validation of Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for detecting early dementia in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hidenori; Terada, Seishi; Honda, Hajime; Ata, Toshie; Takeda, Naoya; Kishimoto, Yuki; Oshima, Etsuko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Kuroda, Shigetoshi

    2011-01-30

    There is a clear need for brief, but sensitive and specific, cognitive screening instruments for dementia. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the Japanese version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) in identifying early dementia in comparison with the conventional Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Standard tests for evaluating dementia screening tests were applied. A total of 201 subjects (Alzheimer's disease (AD)=65, frontotemporal dementia (FTD)=24, vascular dementia=26, dementia with Lewy bodies=11, mild cognitive impairment (MCI)=13, and controls=62) participated in this study. The reliability of the ACE was very good (alpha coefficient=0.82). In our patient series, the sensitivity for diagnosing dementia with an ACE score of ≤74 was 0.889 with a specificity of 0.987, and the sensitivity of an ACE score of ≤80 was 0.984 with a specificity of 0.867. The Japanese version of the ACE is a very accurate instrument for the detection of early dementia, and should be widely used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing Cognitive Performance in Badminton Players: A Reproducibility and Validity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Water Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast reaction and good inhibitory control are associated with elite sports performance. To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a newly developed Badminton Reaction Inhibition Test (BRIT, fifteen elite (25 ± 4 years and nine non-elite (24 ± 4 years Dutch male badminton players participated in the study. The BRIT measured four components: domain-general reaction time, badminton-specific reaction time, domain-general inhibitory control and badminton-specific inhibitory control. Five participants were retested within three weeks on the badminton-specific components. Reproducibility was acceptable for badminton-specific reaction time (ICC = 0.626, CV = 6% and for badminton-specific inhibitory control (ICC = 0.317, CV = 13%. Good construct validity was shown for badminton-specific reaction time discriminating between elite and non-elite players (F = 6.650, p 0.05. Concurrent validity for domain-general reaction time was good, as it was associated with a national ranking for elite (p = 0.70, p 0.05. In conclusion, reproducibility and validity of inhibitory control assessment was not confirmed, however, the BRIT appears a reproducible and valid measure of reaction time in badminton players. Reaction time measured with the BRIT may provide input for training programs aiming to improve badminton players’ performance.

  12. Assessing Cognitive Performance in Badminton Players: A Reproducibility and Validity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Tanja; Huijgen, Barbara; Faber, Irene; Elferink-Gemser, Marije

    2017-01-01

    Fast reaction and good inhibitory control are associated with elite sports performance. To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a newly developed Badminton Reaction Inhibition Test (BRIT), fifteen elite (25 ± 4 years) and nine non-elite (24 ± 4 years) Dutch male badminton players participated in the study. The BRIT measured four components: domain-general reaction time, badminton-specific reaction time, domain-general inhibitory control and badminton-specific inhibitory control. Five participants were retested within three weeks on the badminton-specific components. Reproducibility was acceptable for badminton-specific reaction time (ICC = 0.626, CV = 6%) and for badminton-specific inhibitory control (ICC = 0.317, CV = 13%). Good construct validity was shown for badminton-specific reaction time discriminating between elite and non-elite players (F = 6.650, p 0.05). Concurrent validity for domain-general reaction time was good, as it was associated with a national ranking for elite (p = 0.70, p badminton-specific reaction time, nor both components of inhibitory control (p > 0.05). In conclusion, reproducibility and validity of inhibitory control assessment was not confirmed, however, the BRIT appears a reproducible and valid measure of reaction time in badminton players. Reaction time measured with the BRIT may provide input for training programs aiming to improve badminton players' performance.

  13. Using Cognitive Work Analysis to fit decision support tools to nurse managers' work flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effken, Judith A; Brewer, Barbara B; Logue, Melanie D; Gephart, Sheila M; Verran, Joyce A

    2011-10-01

    To better understand the environmental constraints on nurse managers that impact their need for and use of decision support tools, we conducted a Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA). A complete CWA includes system analyses at five levels: work domain, decision-making procedures, decision-making strategies, social organization/collaboration, and worker skill level. Here we describe the results of the Work Domain Analysis (WDA) portion in detail then integrate the WDA with other portions of the CWA, reported previously, to generate a more complete picture of the nurse manager's work domain. Data for the WDA were obtained from semi-structured interviews with nurse managers, division directors, CNOs, and other managers (n = 20) on 10 patient care units in three Arizona hospitals. The WDA described the nurse manager's environment in terms of the constraints it imposes on the nurse manager's ability to achieve targeted outcomes through organizational goals and priorities, functions, processes, as well as work objects and resources (e.g., people, equipment, technology, and data). Constraints were identified and summarized through qualitative thematic analysis. The results highlight the competing priorities, and external and internal constraints that today's nurse managers must satisfy as they try to improve quality and safety outcomes on their units. Nurse managers receive a great deal of data, much in electronic format. Although dashboards were perceived as helpful because they integrated some data elements, no decision support tools were available to help nurse managers with planning or answering "what if" questions. The results suggest both the need for additional decision support to manage the growing complexity of the environment, and the constraints the environment places on the design of that technology if it is to be effective. Limitations of the study include the small homogeneous sample and the reliance on interview data targeting safety and quality. Copyright © 2011

  14. The Validity and Reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination-2 for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease in a Korean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Baek

    Full Text Available To examine the validity and reliability of the MMSE-2 for assessing patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD in a Korean population. Specifically, the usefulness of the MMSE-2 as a screening measure for detecting early cognitive change, which has not been detectable through the MMSE, was examined.Two-hundred and twenty-six patients with MCI, 97 patients with AD, and 91 healthy older adults were recruited. All participants consented to examination with the MMSE-2, the MMSE, and other detailed neuropsychological assessments.The MMSE-2 performed well in discriminating participants across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR stages and CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB, and it showed excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high interrater reliability, and good concurrent validity with the MMSE and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests that are sensitive to decline in cognitive functions vs. tests that are not sensitive to decline in cognitive functions in normal cognitive aging. Moreover, the MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests related overall cognitive functioning other than memory vs. tests related to episodic memory in patients with AD. Finally, the MMSE-2 was divided into three factors (tests related to working memory and frontal lobe functioning vs. tests related to verbal memory vs. tests related to orientation and immediate recall in patients with MCI. The sensitivity and specificity of the three versions of the MMSE-2 were relatively high in discriminating participants with normal cognitive aging from patients with MCI and AD.The MMSE-2 is a valid and reliable cognitive screening instrument for assessing cognitive impairment in a Korean population, but its ability to distinguish patients with MCI from those with normal cognitive aging may not be as highly sensitive as expected.

  15. The Validity and Reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination-2 for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease in a Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Karyeong; Park, Young Ho; Kim, SangYun

    To examine the validity and reliability of the MMSE-2 for assessing patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a Korean population. Specifically, the usefulness of the MMSE-2 as a screening measure for detecting early cognitive change, which has not been detectable through the MMSE, was examined. Two-hundred and twenty-six patients with MCI, 97 patients with AD, and 91 healthy older adults were recruited. All participants consented to examination with the MMSE-2, the MMSE, and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 performed well in discriminating participants across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) stages and CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB), and it showed excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high interrater reliability, and good concurrent validity with the MMSE and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests that are sensitive to decline in cognitive functions vs. tests that are not sensitive to decline in cognitive functions) in normal cognitive aging. Moreover, the MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests related overall cognitive functioning other than memory vs. tests related to episodic memory) in patients with AD. Finally, the MMSE-2 was divided into three factors (tests related to working memory and frontal lobe functioning vs. tests related to verbal memory vs. tests related to orientation and immediate recall) in patients with MCI. The sensitivity and specificity of the three versions of the MMSE-2 were relatively high in discriminating participants with normal cognitive aging from patients with MCI and AD. The MMSE-2 is a valid and reliable cognitive screening instrument for assessing cognitive impairment in a Korean population, but its ability to distinguish patients with MCI from those with normal cognitive aging may not be as highly sensitive as expected.

  16. Supporting meningitis diagnosis amongst infants and children through the use of fuzzy cognitive mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Meningitis is characterized by an inflammation of the meninges, or the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for a positive outcome, yet identifying meningitis is a complex process involving an array of signs and symptoms and multiple causal factors which require novel solutions to support clinical decision-making. In this work, we explore the potential of fuzzy cognitive map to assist in the modeling of meningitis, as a support tool for physicians in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of the condition. Methods Fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) is a method for analysing and depicting human perception of a given system. FCM facilitates the development of a conceptual model which is not limited by exact values and measurements and thus is well suited to representing relatively unstructured knowledge and associations expressed in imprecise terms. A team of doctors (physicians), comprising four paediatricians, was formed to define the multifarious signs and symptoms associated with meningitis and to identify risk factors integral to its causality, as indicators used by clinicians to identify the presence or absence of meningitis in patients. The FCM model, consisting of 20 concept nodes, has been designed by the team of paediatricians in collaborative dialogue with the research team. Results The paediatricians were supplied with a form containing various input parameters to be completed at the time of diagnosing meningitis among infants and children. The paediatricians provided information on a total of 56 patient cases amongst children whose age ranged from 2 months to 7 years. The physicians’ decision to diagnose meningitis was available for each individual case which was used as the outcome measure for evaluating the model. The FCM was trained using 40 cases with an accuracy of 95%, and later 16 test cases were used to analyze the accuracy and reliability of the model. The system produced the results

  17. Fisk-based criteria to support validation of detection methods for drinking water and air.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, M.; Bhattacharyya, M.; Finster, M.; Williams, M.; Picel, K.; Chang, Y.-S.; Peterson, J.; Adeshina, F.; Sonich-Mullin, C.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

    2009-02-18

    This report was prepared to support the validation of analytical methods for threat contaminants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) program. It is designed to serve as a resource for certain applications of benchmark and fate information for homeland security threat contaminants. The report identifies risk-based criteria from existing health benchmarks for drinking water and air for potential use as validation targets. The focus is on benchmarks for chronic public exposures. The priority sources are standard EPA concentration limits for drinking water and air, along with oral and inhalation toxicity values. Many contaminants identified as homeland security threats to drinking water or air would convert to other chemicals within minutes to hours of being released. For this reason, a fate analysis has been performed to identify potential transformation products and removal half-lives in air and water so appropriate forms can be targeted for detection over time. The risk-based criteria presented in this report to frame method validation are expected to be lower than actual operational targets based on realistic exposures following a release. Note that many target criteria provided in this report are taken from available benchmarks without assessing the underlying toxicological details. That is, although the relevance of the chemical form and analogues are evaluated, the toxicological interpretations and extrapolations conducted by the authoring organizations are not. It is also important to emphasize that such targets in the current analysis are not health-based advisory levels to guide homeland security responses. This integrated evaluation of chronic public benchmarks and contaminant fate has identified more than 200 risk-based criteria as method validation targets across numerous contaminants and fate products in drinking water and air combined. The gap in directly applicable values is

  18. Social support, posttraumatic cognitions, and PTSD: The influence of family, friends, and a close other in an interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Matthew J; Eddinger, Jasmine; Henschel, Aisling V; Dodson, Thomas S; Tran, Han N; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-10-01

    Research has suggested that social support can shape posttraumatic cognitions and PTSD. However, research has yet to compare the influence of separate domains of support on posttraumatic cognitions. Multiple-group path analysis was used to examine a model in a sample of 170 victims of intimate partner violence and 208 motor vehicle accident victims in which support from friends, family, and a close other were each predicted to influence posttraumatic cognitions, which were in turn predicted to influence PTSD. Analyses revealed that support from family and friends were each negatively correlated with posttraumatic cognitions, which in turn were positively associated with PTSD. Social support from a close other was not associated with posttraumatic cognitions. No significant differences in the model were found between trauma groups. Findings identify which relationships are likely to influence posttraumatic cognitions and are discussed with regard to interpersonal processes in the development and maintenance of PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distant from input: Evidence of regions within the default mode network supporting perceptually-decoupled and conceptually-guided cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Charlotte; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Sormaz, Mladen; Wang, Hao-Ting; Margulies, Daniel S; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    The default mode network supports a variety of mental operations such as semantic processing, episodic memory retrieval, mental time travel and mind-wandering, yet the commonalities between these functions remains unclear. One possibility is that this system supports cognition that is independent of the immediate environment; alternatively or additionally, it might support higher-order conceptual representations that draw together multiple features. We tested these accounts using a novel paradigm that separately manipulated the availability of perceptual information to guide decision-making and the representational complexity of this information. Using task based imaging we established regions that respond when cognition combines both stimulus independence with multi-modal information. These included left and right angular gyri and the left middle temporal gyrus. Although these sites were within the default mode network, they showed a stronger response to demanding memory judgements than to an easier perceptual task, contrary to the view that they support automatic aspects of cognition. In a subsequent analysis, we showed that these regions were located at the extreme end of a macroscale gradient, which describes gradual transitions from sensorimotor to transmodal cortex. This shift in the focus of neural activity towards transmodal, default mode, regions might reflect a process of where the functional distance from specific sensory enables conceptually rich and detailed cognitive states to be generated in the absence of input. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Media as a Communication Support for Persons with Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment: A Social Network Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghdam, Aboozar; Hamidi, Ulrika; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted as a social network analysis of a Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain to address the lack of research examining social media and the potential value of on-line support for persons with mild acquired cognitive impairment.

  1. Cognitive Readiness of Students at Teacher Colleges to Support Individuals with Stigmatized Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprienko, T. P.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the evidence of the professional readiness of future educational psychologists to perform professional functions, and consider the levels of general cognitive and psychological aptitude of students at teacher colleges to support people with stigmatized gender identity and sexual orientation. [This article was translated by…

  2. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Child and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…

  3. The cognition battery of the NIH toolbox for assessment of neurological and behavioral function: validation in an adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Sandra; Dikmen, Sureyya S; Heaton, Robert K; Tulsky, David S; Zelazo, Philip David; Slotkin, Jerry; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Bauer, Patricia J; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Fox, Nathan; Havlik, Richard; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Mungas, Dan; Manly, Jennifer J; Moy, Claudia; Conway, Kevin; Edwards, Emmeline; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard

    2014-07-01

    This study introduces a special series on validity studies of the Cognition Battery (CB) from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) (Gershon, Wagster et al., 2013) in an adult sample. This first study in the series describes the sample, each of the seven instruments in the NIHTB-CB briefly, and the general approach to data analysis. Data are provided on test-retest reliability and practice effects, and raw scores (mean, standard deviation, range) are presented for each instrument and the gold standard instruments used to measure construct validity. Accompanying papers provide details on each instrument, including information about instrument development, psychometric properties, age and education effects on performance, and convergent and discriminant construct validity. One study in the series is devoted to a factor analysis of the NIHTB-CB in adults and another describes the psychometric properties of three composite scores derived from the individual measures representing fluid and crystallized abilities and their combination. The NIHTB-CB is designed to provide a brief, comprehensive, common set of measures to allow comparisons among disparate studies and to improve scientific communication.

  4. New Multiple-Choice Measures of Historical Thinking: An Investigation of Cognitive Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark D.

    2018-01-01

    History education scholars have recognized the need for test validity research in recent years and have called for empirical studies that explore how to best measure historical thinking processes. The present study was designed to help answer this call and to provide a model that others can adapt to carry this line of research forward. It employed…

  5. Assessing Cognitive Performance in Badminton Players : A Reproducibility and Validity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tanja; Huijgen, Barbara; Faber, Irene R.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije

    2017-01-01

    Fast reaction and good inhibitory control are associated with elite sports performance. To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a newly developed Badminton Reaction Inhibition Test (BRIT), fifteen elite (25 +/- 4 years) and nine non-elite (24 +/- 4 years) Dutch male badminton players

  6. Evaluation of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination's validity in a brain injury rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Tarek A-Z K

    2008-07-01

    Several reports have warned of the Mini Mental State Examination's (MMSE) inability to detect gross memory and high executive impairments. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) has gained enormous popularity in dementia screening as it addresses the main shortcomings of MMSE. This study aimed at evaluating the use of ACE-R and to establish its sensitivity compared to MMSE in a cohort of brain injury patients. ACE-R was administered to a cohort of chronic brain injury patients. All patients had a cognitive impairment which was severe enough to prevent them working or studying. Patients with significant mental health, sensory, communication or physical impairments were excluded. Thirty-six patients were recruited, 31 males with a mean age of 37 years. For an upper cut-off value of 27/30 for MMSE and 88/100 for ACE-R, their sensitivities were 36% and 72%, respectively. For a lower cut-off value of 24/30 and 82/100 the tests sensitivities were 11% and 56%, respectively. Analysis of the ACE-R sub-tests indicated that memory and verbal fluency sub-tests showed the most dramatic impairment. MMSE is insensitive as a screening test in brain injury patients. The results show ACE-R to be a sensitive, easily administered test.

  7. Parenting stress in mothers of adults with an intellectual disability: parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C; Rose, J

    2009-12-01

    There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to mothers of adults with ID. Of particular interest were the parental cognitions of parenting self-esteem and parental locus of control. Face-to face interviews were administered with 44 mothers of adults with ID. They completed the Vineland Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour Scale, the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened version of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Correlations were observed between parenting stress and the other study variables. Regression analysis revealed that parental cognitive variables predicted 61% of the variance in parenting stress. Parenting satisfaction, a subscale of the measure of parenting sense of competence, mediated the relationships between adaptive behaviour and parenting stress and between family support and parenting stress. These results indicate the importance of cognitive variables in the stress of mothers of adults with ID. Potential avenues of future research might focus on the experience of fathers and the impact of positive perceptions as a cognitive factor.

  8. Supporting the Loewenstein occupational therapy cognitive assessment using distributed user interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, Ricardo; Gallud Lazaro, Jose A; Altalhi, Abdulrahman H

    2017-02-01

    Improve the quantity and quality of information obtained from traditional Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment Battery systems to monitor the evolution of patients' rehabilitation process as well as to compare different rehabilitation therapies. The system replaces traditional artefacts with virtual versions of them to take advantage of cutting edge interaction technology. The system is defined as a Distributed User Interface (DUI) supported by a display ecosystem, including mobile devices as well as multi-touch surfaces. Due to the heterogeneity of the devices involved in the system, the software technology is based on a client-server architecture using the Web as the software platform. The system provides therapists with information that is not available (or it is very difficult to gather) using traditional technologies (i.e. response time measurements, object tracking, information storage and retrieval facilities, etc.). The use of DUIs allows therapists to gather information that is unavailable using traditional assessment methods as well as adapt the system to patients' profile to increase the range of patients that are able to take this assessment. Implications for Rehabilitation Using a Distributed User Interface environment to carry out LOTCAs improves the quality of the information gathered during the rehabilitation assessment. This system captures physical data regarding patient's interaction during the assessment to improve the rehabilitation process analysis. Allows professionals to adapt the assessment procedure to create different versions according to patients' profile. Improves the availability of patients' profile information to therapists to adapt the assessment procedure.

  9. Genotet: An Interactive Web-based Visual Exploration Framework to Support Validation of Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bowen; Doraiswamy, Harish; Chen, Xi; Miraldi, Emily; Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario Luis; Hafemeister, Christoph; Madar, Aviv; Bonneau, Richard; Silva, Cláudio T

    2014-12-01

    Elucidation of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) is a fundamental goal in biology, and one of the most important components of TRNs are transcription factors (TFs), proteins that specifically bind to gene promoter and enhancer regions to alter target gene expression patterns. Advances in genomic technologies as well as advances in computational biology have led to multiple large regulatory network models (directed networks) each with a large corpus of supporting data and gene-annotation. There are multiple possible biological motivations for exploring large regulatory network models, including: validating TF-target gene relationships, figuring out co-regulation patterns, and exploring the coordination of cell processes in response to changes in cell state or environment. Here we focus on queries aimed at validating regulatory network models, and on coordinating visualization of primary data and directed weighted gene regulatory networks. The large size of both the network models and the primary data can make such coordinated queries cumbersome with existing tools and, in particular, inhibits the sharing of results between collaborators. In this work, we develop and demonstrate a web-based framework for coordinating visualization and exploration of expression data (RNA-seq, microarray), network models and gene-binding data (ChIP-seq). Using specialized data structures and multiple coordinated views, we design an efficient querying model to support interactive analysis of the data. Finally, we show the effectiveness of our framework through case studies for the mouse immune system (a dataset focused on a subset of key cellular functions) and a model bacteria (a small genome with high data-completeness).

  10. Reliability and Validity of the ‘‘Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability’’ on Mentally Retarded Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Agha Yousefi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Having a good quality of life has always been desirable for humans, and the concept of a good life and the ways of achieving it have become important over the years. Personal wellbeing is the mental component of quality of life. Thus, the current study was conducted to assess the reliability and validity of the ‘‘Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability’’ on mentally retarded students.Method:200 mentally retarded students in north districts of Tehran (districts 1, 2 and 3 were selected by systematic random sampling. The collected data using Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability was analyzed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for internal consistency and linear multivariate regression for construct validity.Results:Results confirmed the reliability and validity for the Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability in mentally retarded students of exceptional schools. Studying the internal consistency of seven items showed that all the items were correlated with the total score and their scores averages were similar to each other. This indicates that the test’s questions have reliability with regard to evaluation of a common feature and results showed Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability had the most extensive coverage of construct validity .Conclusion:Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability scale could be applied to measure personal wellbeing in mentally retarded students.

  11. Validity study of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test in the identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-bo SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the sensitivity and specificity of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test (ACFT differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal controls.  Methods A total of 121 MCI patients, 104 AD patients and 104 healthy controls, who were matched in sex, age and education level, were enrolled in this study. They performed Animal Category Verbal Fluency Test (AFT, City Category Verbal Fluency Test (CFT and ACFT. A series of standard neuropsychological tests were also administered to reflect episodic memory, verbal ability, working memory, executive function and processing speed. The validity and related influencing factors of ACFT was evaluated.  Results Compared with control group, the ACFT correct number in MCI and AD groups reduced significantly (P = 0.000, 0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed the sensitivity and specificity of ACFT in discriminating MCI (P = 0.012, 0.030 and AD (P = 0.004, 0.003 from normal controls were higher than those of AFT and CFT. There was no correlation of correct number in ACFT with age and education (P > 0.05, for all. The correlations of ACFT with Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Digital Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, Shape Trail Test (STT and Digit Span Test (DS, all of which reflected attention and executive function, were significantly closer than those of AFT and CFT (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusions ACFT is more efficient in early cognitive impairment identification than the other traditional category verbal fluency tests. It is a new variant form of category verbal fluency test that could assess cognitive function and could be broadly applied in clinical practice. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.010

  12. Does Multimedia Support Individual Differences?--EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines how display model, English proficiency and cognitive preference affect English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' listening comprehension of authentic videos and cognitive load degree. EFL learners were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The control group received single coding and the experimental group received…

  13. Cognitive Indicators of Different Levels of Special Educational Support Needs in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljunied, Mariam; Frederickson, Norah

    2011-01-01

    Potential cognitive indicators of the level of special educational needs (SEN) were investigated in 52 children with autism. Two general indicators (intelligence quotient and cognitive modifiability) and three specific indicators (theory of mind, executive functioning and central coherence) were evaluated for their ability to discriminate three…

  14. Culture and Embodied Cognition: Moral Discourses in Internet Support Groups for Overeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatow, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that a modified version of Bourdieu's "habitus" concept can generate insights into moral culture and the ways people use culture to make changes in their lives. If revised in light of recent findings from cognitive neuroscience, the habitus allows for the analysis of culture as embodied cognitive structures linking individuals…

  15. Cognitive Load for Configuration Comprehension in Computer-Supported Geometry Problem Solving: An Eye Movement Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John Jr-Hung; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated (a) whether the perceived cognitive load was different when geometry problems with various levels of configuration comprehension were solved and (b) whether eye movements in comprehending geometry problems showed sources of cognitive loads. In the first investigation, three characteristics of geometry configurations…

  16. A pilot validation of a modified Illness Perceptions Questionnaire designed to predict response to cognitive therapy for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Elena; Garety, Philippa; Weinman, John; Emsley, Richard; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul; Freeman, Daniel; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Fowler, David; Hardy, Amy; Waller, Helen; Jolley, Suzanne

    2014-12-01

    Clinical responsiveness to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) varies. Recent research has demonstrated that illness perceptions predict active engagement in therapy, and, thereby, better outcomes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of a modification of the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (M-IPQ) designed to predict response following CBTp. Fifty-six participants with persistent, distressing delusions completed the M-IPQ; forty before a brief CBT intervention targeting persecutory ideation and sixteen before and after a control condition. Additional predictors of outcome (delusional conviction, symptom severity and belief inflexibility) were assessed at baseline. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at follow-up four to eight weeks later. The M-IPQ comprised two factors measuring problem duration and therapy-specific perceptions of Cure/Control. Associated subscales, formed by summing the relevant items for each factor, were reliable in their structure. The Cure/Control subscale was also reliable over time; showed convergent validity with other predictors of outcome; predicted therapy outcomes; and differentially predicted treatment effects. We measured outcome without an associated measure of engagement, in a small sample. Findings are consistent with hypothesis and existing research, but require replication in a larger, purposively recruited sample. The Cure/Control subscale of the M-IPQ shows promise as a predictor of response to therapy. Specifically targeting these illness perceptions in the early stages of cognitive behavioural therapy may improve engagement and, consequently, outcomes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the criterion validity of four highly abbreviated measures from the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromisch, Elizabeth S; Zemon, Vance; Holtzer, Roee; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John; Beier, Meghan; Farrell, Eileen; Snyder, Stacey; Schairer, Laura C; Glukhovsky, Lisa; Botvinick, Jason; Sloan, Jessica; Picone, Mary Ann; Kim, Sonya; Foley, Frederick W

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in multiple sclerosis. As self-reported cognitive functioning is unreliable, brief objective screening measures are needed. Utilizing widely used full-length neuropsychological tests, this study aimed to establish the criterion validity of highly abbreviated versions of the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Sorting Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) in order to begin developing an MS-specific screening battery. Participants from Holy Name Medical Center and the Kessler Foundation were administered one or more of these four measures. Using test-specific criterion to identify impairment at both -1.5 and -2.0 SD, receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses of BVMT-R Trial 1, Trial 2, and Trial 1 + 2 raw data (N = 286) were run to calculate the classification accuracy of the abbreviated version, as well as the sensitivity and specificity. The same methods were used for SDMT 30-s and 60-s (N = 321), D-KEFS Sorting Free Card Sort 1 (N = 120), and COWAT letters F and A (N = 298). Using these definitions of impairment, each analysis yielded high classification accuracy (89.3 to 94.3%). BVMT-R Trial 1, SDMT 30-s, D-KEFS Free Card Sort 1, and COWAT F possess good criterion validity in detecting impairment on their respective overall measure, capturing much of the same information as the full version. Along with the first two trials of the California Verbal Learning Test - Second Edition (CVLT-II), these five highly abbreviated measures may be used to develop a brief screening battery.

  18. Merging Empiricism and Humanism: Role of Social Validity in the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Miramontes, Nancy Y.

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for evaluating behavior support programs are changing. Consumer-based educational and behavioral programs, such as School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), are particularly influenced by consumer opinion. Unfortunately, the need for and use of social validity measures have not received adequate attention in the empirical literature…

  19. A preliminary investigation of a new pictorial method of measuring aggression-supportive cognition among young aggressive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Jade N; Gannon, Theresa A; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    A new pictorial assessment was developed to measure aggression-supportive cognitions among young aggressive male students. The assessment was comprised of 17 watercolor ambiguous sketches that could be interpreted in either an aggressive or a benign manner (e.g., two young people facing each other with their arms folded). The results showed that high trait aggressive male students were more likely to make hostile attributions of the pictures, providing significantly more themes of entitlement and power in the stories they generated about the pictures. Aggressive male students also endorsed significantly more aggression-supportive cognitions on a self-report measure and provided some supporting qualitative accounts of physically aggressive encounters. The results of this study are discussed and evaluated with reference to future work with young violent adolescents.

  20. Reliability and validity of DS-ADHD: A decision support system on attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kuo-Chung; Huang, Yu-Shu; Tseng, Chien-Fu; Huang, Hsin-Jou; Wang, Chih-Huan; Tai, Hsin-Yi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of the clinical use of the self-built decision support system, diagnosis-supported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (DS-ADHD), in an effort to develop the DS-ADHD system, by probing into the development of indicating patterns of past screening support systems for ADHD. The study collected data based on 107 subjects, who were divided into two groups, non-ADHD and ADHD, based on the doctor's determination, using the DSM-IV diagnostic standards. The two groups then underwent Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) and DS-ADHD testing. The survey and testing results underwent one-way ANOVA and split-half method statistical analysis, in order to further understand whether there were any differences between the DS-ADHD and the identification tools used in today's clinical trials. The results of the study are as follows: 1) The ROC area between the TOVA and the clinical identification rate is 0.787 (95% confidence interval: 0.701-0.872); 2) The ROC area between the DS-ADHD and the clinical identification rate is 0.867 (95% confidence interval: 0.801-0.933). The study results show that DS-ADHD has the characteristics of screening for ADHD, based on its reliability and validity. It does not display any statistical differences when compared with TOVA systems that are currently on the market. However, the system is more effective and the accuracy rate is better than TOVA. It is a good tool to screen ADHD not only in Chinese children, but also in western country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A preliminary validation of the brief international cognitive assessment for multiple sclerosis (BICAMS) tool in an Irish population with multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, K; Langdon, D; Tubridy, N; Hutchinson, M; McGuigan, C

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) irrespective of disease stage or subtype. It is typically underreported and neuropsychological testing can be required to detect more subtle evidence of cognitive impairment. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) was an initiative undertaken by a panel of experts with the primary objective of identifying a brief cognitive assessment tool that could be administered by healthcare professionals without formal neuropsychological training to identify early or subtle cognitive impairment among MS patients. To validate BICAMS in Irish patients with MS and healthy controls. Consecutive patients attending the MS outpatient department from January to April 2014 were recruited. Age, gender, education, handedness, MS subtype, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and disease duration were recorded. They were administered BICAMS composed of Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (BVMT-R). Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Control participants were composed of unaffected relatives, spouses or carers attending the clinic with a patient and were matched by age, gender and years of education. Impairment on individual tests was defined as -1.5 SD below reference group means. 67 patients [73% women; mean age: 43.9 yrs (12.1); mean years of education: 13.6 yrs (2.7)] and 66 controls [68% women; mean age 42.7 yrs (12.7); mean years of education: 14.1 yrs (3.2)] were recruited. Of the MS patient group: 70% were classified as having relapsing remitting MS, 28% secondary progressive MS and 2% primary progressive MS (PPMS). Mean EDSS scores were 1.8 (SD: 0.9), 5.7 (SD: 1.4) and 7.0 in each group respectively with mean disease duration of 10.2 (SD: 8.4) years, 20.6 (10.2) and 17 years. Mean scores and standard deviations for patients and control participants

  2. Therapist-supported Internet cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V; Watt, Margo C; Bailey, Kristen; Hayden, Jill A; Stewart, Sherry H

    2016-03-12

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders. Many people have difficulty accessing treatment, due to a variety of obstacles. Researchers have therefore explored the possibility of using the Internet to deliver CBT; it is important to ensure the decision to promote such treatment is grounded in high quality evidence. To assess the effects of therapist-supported Internet CBT (ICBT) on remission of anxiety disorder diagnosis and reduction of anxiety symptoms in adults as compared to waiting list control, unguided CBT, or face-to-face CBT. Effects of treatment on quality of life and patient satisfaction with the intervention were also assessed. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) to 16 March 2015. The CCDANCTR includes relevant randomised controlled trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CENTRAL. We also searched online clinical trial registries and reference lists of included studies. We contacted authors to locate additional trials. Each identified study was independently assessed for inclusion by two authors. To be included, studies had to be randomised controlled trials of therapist-supported ICBT compared to a waiting list, attention, information, or online discussion group; unguided CBT (that is, self-help); or face-to-face CBT. We included studies that treated adults with an anxiety disorder (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and specific phobia) defined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III, III-R, IV, IV-TR or the International Classification of Disesases 9 or 10. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and judged overall study quality. We used data from intention-to-treat analyses wherever possible. We assessed treatment effect for the dichotomous outcome

  3. [Cultural adaptation and validation of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey questionnaire (MOS-SSS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Fachado, A; Montes Martinez, A; Menendez Villalva, C; Pereira, M Graça

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assesment of psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the instrument "Medical Outcomes Study - Social Support Survey (MOSSSS)". This questionnaire has been translated and adapted in a Portuguese sample of 101 patients with chronic illness of a rural health centre in Portugal. The average age of patients was 63.4 years, 56.4% female. 29% were illiterate and 2% had completed high school. 78% had arterial hypertension and the 56.4% had diabetes mellitus type 2. The internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis were performed in order to confirm reliability and validity of the scale and its multidimensional characteristics. The 2-week test-retest reliability was estimated using weighted kappa for the ordinals variables and intraclass coefficient correlation for the quantitative variables. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales ranged from 0.873 to 0.967 at test, and 0.862 to 0.972 at retest. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors (emotional, tangible, positive interaction and affection support) that explain the 72.71% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the existence of four factors that allowed the application of the scale with original items. The goodness-of-fit measures corroborate the initial structure, with chi2/ df=2.01, GFI=0.998, CFI=0.999, AGFI=0.998, TLI=0.999, NFI=0.998, SRMR=0.332, RMSEA=0.76. The 2-weeks test-retest reliability of the Portuguese MOS-SSS as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient was ranged from 0.941 to 0.966 for the four dimensions and the overall support index. The weighted kappa was ranged from 0.67 to 0.87 for all the items. The MOS-SSS Portuguese version demonstrates good psychometric properties and seems to be useful to measure multidimensional aspects of social support in the Portuguese population.

  4. Fixing the Problem With Empathy: Development and Validation of the Affective and Cognitive Measure of Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R

    2016-04-01

    Low empathy is a criterion for most externalizing disorders, and empathy training is a regular component of treatment for aggressive people, from school bullies to sex offenders. However, recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that current measures of empathy explain only 1% of the variance in aggressive behavior. A new assessment of empathy was developed to more fully represent the empathy construct and better predict important outcomes--particularly aggressive behavior and externalizing psychopathology. Across three independent samples (N = 210-708), the 36-item Affective and Cognitive measure of Empathy (ACME) was internally consistent, structurally reliable, and invariant across sex. The ACME bore significant associations to important outcomes, which were incremental relative to other measures of empathy and generalizable across sex. Importantly, the affective scales of the ACME-particularly a new "Affective Dissonance" scale--yielded moderate to strong associations with aggressive behavior and externalizing disorders. The ACME is a short, reliable, and useful measure of empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The reliability and validity of Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument C-2.0 in Screening elderly people in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zhuming; Lu Rong

    2000-01-01

    Background: Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument C-2.0 (CASI C-2.0) is founded on Chinese culture apply to person with little or no formal education.Objective: In order to assess the reliability and validity of Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument C-2.0 (CASI C-2.0), we surveyed 807 persons aged from 55 to 100 years and with little or no formal education in the town and country of Chengdu city. Methods: Phase I: 807 persona were assessed by different doctors with CASI C-2.0 and Mini mental State Examination (MMSE). Phase Ⅱ: The positive persons of phase I were assessed by trained field physicians who did not know the CASI C-2.0 and MMSE scores. The physicians assessment included a detail history, a systematic physical examination and a selected group of psychometric tests to ascertain the clinical diagnoses of dementia、 Alzheimer′s disease and vascular dementia utilizing the ICD-10 and NINCDS-ADRAD、 DSM-Ⅳ criteria respectively. Phase Ⅲ: 30 persons were retest with CASI C-2.0 randomly after 3--4 weeks. Results: Among the 807 persons, 55 cases of dementia were identified, including 50 cases of probable Alzheimer′s disease and 5 cases of vascular dementia. Discussion: On reliability, the test-retest reliability coefficient of CASI C-2.0 is 0.97,p<0.001, the person′s correlation coefficient between nine items scores and total scores are all above 0.66, the Cronback a is 0.9056, the split-half reliability coefficient is 0.8355. On validity, using ICD-10 criteria as ”Gold Criteria" and 50 as a cut-offscore, the sensitivity、 specificity、 accuracy of CASI C-2.0 are 94.5%、 89.5%、 89.8% respectively, kappa is 0.5123. Comparing with MMSE, CAS1 C-2.0 has a better specificity, x2 test, p<0.01; a same sensitivity; and a lower refusal answer ratio, x2 test, p<0.005. Conclusion: We consider that CASI C-2.0 has excellent reliability and validity. It is worthy of disseminating and applying for both clinical and epidemiological surveys.

  6. The Social Cognitive Model of Job Satisfaction among Teachers: Testing and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Masood A.; Mohaidat, Jihad; Ferrandino, Vincent; El Mourad, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The study empirically tests an integrative model of work satisfaction (0280, 0140, 0300 and 0255) in a sample of 5,022 teachers in Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The study provided more support for the Lent and Brown (2006) model. Results revealed that this model was a strong fit for the data and accounted for 82% of the variance in work…

  7. Converting three general-cognitive function scales into Persian and assessment of their validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Moin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE, Galveston Amnesia and orientation Test (GOAT and Disability Rating Scale (DRS are three popular outcome measure tools used principally in traumatic brain injury (TBI patients. We conducted this study to provide a Farsi version of these outcome scales for use in Iran. Methods: Following a comprehensive literature review, Farsi transcripts were prepared by "forward-backward" translation and reviewed by subject experts. After a pretest on a few patients, the final versions were obtained. 38 patients with closed head injury were interviewed simultaneously by two interviewers. Main statistics used to assess validity and reliability included "Factor analysis" for construct validity, Cronbach′s alpha for internal consistency, and Pearson Correlation and Kappa Coefficient for inter-rater agreement. Results: Factor analysis for Farsi-GOAT (FGOAT revealed 5 independent factors with a total distribution variance of 80.2%. For Farsi-DRS (FDRS, 3 independent factors were found with a 92.3% variance. The Cronbach′s alpha (95% confidence interval was 0.84 (0.763- 0.919 and 0.91 (0.901-0.919 for FGOAT and FDRS, respectively. Pearson Correlation between total scores of two raters was 0.98 and 0.97 for FGOAT and FDRS, in order. Kappa coefficient (95% CI between outcome rankings of raters was 0.73 (0.618-0.852 and 0.68 (0.594-0.770 for FGOAT and FDRS, respectively. As for Farsi-GOSE scale, Kappa value was 0.4 (0.285-0.507 for 8-level outcome ranking and improved to 0.7 (0.585-0.817 for 5-level scale. We found a good correlation between FDRS and FGOSE predicted prognoses (Spearman′s rho= 0.74, 95% CI: 0.676-0.802. Conclusions: FDRS and FGOAT had appropriate validity and reliability. The 8-level outcome FGOSE scale disclosed a low inter-rater agreement, but a suitable observer agreement was achieved when the 5-level outcome was applied.

  8. Situated cognitive engineering: Developing adaptive track handling support for naval command and control centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Brake, G.M. te; Ven, J.G.M. van de; Arciszewski, H.F.R.; Greef, T.E. de; Lindenberg, J.

    2008-01-01

    Dit artikel presenteert een 'situated cognitive engineering' (SCE) methode voor het verkrijgen van een theoretisch en empirisch onderbouwde Requirements Baseline, waarin operationele, human factors, en technische eisen in samenhang naar voren komen. De methode wordt toegelicht met een ontwerp van

  9. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  10. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Braverman

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54, 57.14% central atrophy (N=88, and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69. A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740 was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115. Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787. In the centrum semiovale (CS, reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622. Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002. Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064. Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165. Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087. In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740; high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417; and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166. Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294: the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  11. Development and Validation of a Portable Platform for Deploying Decision-Support Algorithms in Prehospital Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, A. T.; Khitrov, M. Y.; Chen, L.; Blood, A.; Wilkins, K.; Doyle, W.; Wilcox, S.; Denison, T.; Reifman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Advanced decision-support capabilities for prehospital trauma care may prove effective at improving patient care. Such functionality would be possible if an analysis platform were connected to a transport vital-signs monitor. In practice, there are technical challenges to implementing such a system. Not only must each individual component be reliable, but, in addition, the connectivity between components must be reliable. Objective We describe the development, validation, and deployment of the Automated Processing of Physiologic Registry for Assessment of Injury Severity (APPRAISE) platform, intended to serve as a test bed to help evaluate the performance of decision-support algorithms in a prehospital environment. Methods We describe the hardware selected and the software implemented, and the procedures used for laboratory and field testing. Results The APPRAISE platform met performance goals in both laboratory testing (using a vital-sign data simulator) and initial field testing. After its field testing, the platform has been in use on Boston MedFlight air ambulances since February of 2010. Conclusion These experiences may prove informative to other technology developers and to healthcare stakeholders seeking to invest in connected electronic systems for prehospital as well as in-hospital use. Our experiences illustrate two sets of important questions: are the individual components reliable (e.g., physical integrity, power, core functionality, and end-user interaction) and is the connectivity between components reliable (e.g., communication protocols and the metadata necessary for data interpretation)? While all potential operational issues cannot be fully anticipated and eliminated during development, thoughtful design and phased testing steps can reduce, if not eliminate, technical surprises. PMID:24155791

  12. The Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest): Validation in a Sample of Adults with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, SC; Morrison, AS; Goldin, PR; Olino, TM; Heimberg, RG; Gross, JJ

    2017-01-01

    © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Cognitive distortions are thought to be central to the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders and are a widely acknowledged treatment target in cognitive-behavioral interventions. However, little research has focused on the measurement of cognitive distortions. The Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest; de Oliveira, Trial-based cognitive therapy: A manual for clinicians, Routledge, New York, 2015), a brief, 15-item questionna...

  13. Dealing with missing behavioral endpoints in health promotion research by modeling cognitive parameters in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions : a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M.A.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M.A.A.; van der Palen, Job

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  14. DEALING WITH MISSING BEHAVIORAL ENDPOINTS IN HEALTH PROMOTION RESEARCH BY MODELING COGNITIVE PARAMETERS IN COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSES OF BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS : A VALIDATION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M. A.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; van der Palen, Job

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  15. DEALING WITH MISSING BEHAVIORAL ENDPOINTS IN HEALTH PROMOTION RESEARCH BY MODELING COGNITIVE PARAMETERS IN COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSES OF BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS : A VALIDATION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Feenstra, Talitha L; Smit, Eline S.; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M A A; van der Palen, Job

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  16. Dealing with missing behavioral endpoints in health promotion research by modeling cognitive parameters in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions: a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, R.; Pieterse, M.E.; Braakman-Jansen, L.M.A.; Feenstra, T.L.; Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; de Vries, H.; van Ommeren, J.K.; Evers, S.M.A.A.; van der Palen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of

  17. Investigating the Substantive Aspect of Construct Validity for the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children: A Focus on Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the substantive aspect of construct validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C; Gadermann et al. in Soc Indic Res 96:229-247, "2010"). Specifically, the study examined the cognitive processes of children when responding to the items of the SWLS-C to find out how they…

  18. The Cognitive Symptom Checklist-Work in cancer patients is related with work functioning, fatigue and depressive symptoms : a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorland, H. F.; Abma, F. I.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Smink, A.; Feuerstein, M.; Amick, B. C.; Ranchor, A. V.; Bultmann, U.

    The study objectives are to translate the 21-item Cognitive Symptom Checklist-Work (CSC-W21) to Dutch (CSC-W DV) and to validate the CSC-W DV in working cancer patients. The CSC-W21 was cross-culturally translated and adapted to a Dutch version. In this 19-item version, the dichotomous response

  19. Sustained Implementation Support Scale: Validation of a Measure of Program Characteristics and Workplace Functioning for Sustained Program Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T; Sanders, Matthew R; Filus, Ania

    2017-07-01

    An evaluation measure of enablers and inhibitors to sustained evidence-based program (EBP) implementation may provide a useful tool to enhance organizations' capacity. This paper outlines preliminary validation of such a measure. An expert informant and consumer feedback approach was used to tailor constructs from two existing measures assessing key domains associated with sustained implementation. Validity and reliability were evaluated for an inventory composed of five subscales: Program benefits, Program burden, Workplace support, Workplace cohesion, and Leadership style. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 593 Triple P-Positive Parenting Program-practitioners led to a 28-item scale with good reliability and good convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Practitioners sustaining implementation at least 3 years post-training were more likely to have supervision/peer support, reported higher levels of program benefit, workplace support, and positive leadership style, and lower program burden compared to practitioners who were non-sustainers.

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS): Thai Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Ruktrakul, Ruk

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the Thai version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) for its psychometric properties. In total 462 participants were recruited - 310 medical students from Chiang Mai University and 152 psychiatric patients, and they completed the Thai version of the MSPSS, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI). Test-retest reliability was conducted over a four week period. Factor analysis produced three-factor solutions for both patient (PG) and student groups (SG), and overall the model demonstrated adequate fit indices. The mean total score and the sub-scale score for the SG were statistically higher than those in the PG, except for 'Significant Others'. The internal consistency of the scale was good, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.91 for the SG and 0.87 for the PG. After a four week retest for reliability exercise, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was found to be 0.84. The Thai-MSPSS was found to have a negative correlation with the STAI and the TDI, but was positively correlated with the RSES. The Thai MSPSS is a reliable and valid instrument to use.

  1. A goal-based approach for qualification of new technologies: Foundations, tool support, and industrial validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabetzadeh, Mehrdad; Falessi, Davide; Briand, Lionel; Di Alesio, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    New technologies typically involve innovative aspects that are not addressed by the existing normative standards and hence are not assessable through common certification procedures. To ensure that new technologies can be implemented in a safe and reliable manner, a specific kind of assessment is performed, which in many industries, e.g., the energy sector, is known as Technology Qualification (TQ). TQ aims at demonstrating with an acceptable level of confidence that a new technology will function within specified limits. Expert opinion plays an important role in TQ, both to identify the safety and reliability evidence that needs to be developed and to interpret the evidence provided. Since there are often multiple experts involved in TQ, it is crucial to apply a structured process for eliciting expert opinions, and to use this information systematically when analyzing the satisfaction of the technology's safety and reliability objectives. In this paper, we present a goal-based approach for TQ. Our approach enables analysts to quantitatively reason about the satisfaction of the technology's overall goals and further to identify the aspects that must be improved to increase goal satisfaction. The approach is founded on three main components: goal models, expert elicitation, and probabilistic simulation. We describe a tool, named Modus, that we have developed in support of our approach. We provide an extensive empirical validation of our approach through two industrial case studies and a survey

  2. [A group cognitive behavioral intervention for people registered in supported employment programs: CBT-SE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, T; Corbière, M; Lysaker, P H

    2014-06-01

    Supported employment programs are highly effective in helping people with severe mental illness obtain competitive jobs quickly. However, job tenure is often a problem for many. Of the various obstacles to job tenure documented, dysfunctional beliefs regarding the workplace and one's own abilities has been proposed as a therapeutic target. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) to describe the development and the content of a novel group cognitive behavioral intervention designed to increase job tenure for people receiving supported employment services; (2) to present the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention; and (3) to investigate some preliminary data regarding employment outcomes. A group CBT intervention offered during 8 sessions over the course of one month, in order to respect the rapid job search principle of IPS (individual placement and support), was developed. The content was tailored to facilitate the learning of skills specific to the workplace, such as recognizing and managing one's stressors at work, determining and modifying dysfunctional thoughts (e.g. not jumping to conclusions, finding alternatives, seeking facts), overcoming obstacles (e.g. problem solving), improving one's self-esteem as a worker (recognizing strengths and qualities), dealing with criticism, using positive assertiveness, finding coping strategies (for symptoms and stress) to use at work, negotiating work accommodations and overcoming stigma. A trial is currently underway, with half the participants receiving supported employment as well as CBT-SE and the other half receiving only supported employment. A subsample of the first 24 participants having completed the 12-month follow-up were used for the analyses, including 12 having received at least 3 sessions out of the 8 group sessions and 12 receiving only supported employment. Feasibility and acceptability were determined by the group therapists' feedback, the participants' feedback as well as attendance to

  3. Cognitive and affective determinants of decisions to attend a group psychosocial support program for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda D; Booth, Roger J; Schlatter, Melanie; Ziginskas, Danute; Harman, John E; Benson, Stephen R C

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study assesses the roles of illness beliefs, emotion regulation factors, and sociodemographic characteristics in decisions to participate in a group support program for women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Women recruited during clinic visits 2 to 4 weeks after diagnosis completed measures of affective and cognitive factors identified by Leventhal's Common-Sense Model of illness self-regulation: cancer-related distress, avoidance tendencies, beliefs that the breast cancer was caused by stress and altered immunity, and personal control beliefs. Measures of general anxiety and depression, social support, and demographic characteristics were also completed; prognostic status information was obtained from medical records. All women were encouraged to participate in a free, 12-week program offering coping skills training and group support. Participation was recorded by program staff. Of the 110 women, 54 (49%) participated in the group support program and 56 (51%) did not. Logistic regression analyses revealed that participation was predicted by stronger beliefs that the cancer was caused by altered immunity, higher cancer-related distress, lower avoidance tendencies, and younger age. Participation in the group psychosocial support program appeared to be guided by cognitive and affective factors identified by the Common-Sense Model. Psychosocial support programs and informational materials promoting their use may attract more participants if they are tailored to focus on resolving cancer-related distress rather than on general anxiety or depression, appeal to those with high avoidance tendencies, address the role of immune function in cancer progression, and meet the needs of older participants.

  4. Validation of the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition in Adolescents with ASD: Fixation Duration and Pupil Dilation as Predictors of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nico; Baumeister, Sarah; Dziobek, Isabel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Poustka, Luise

    2016-09-01

    Impaired social cognition is one of the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Appropriate measures of social cognition for high-functioning adolescents with ASD are, however, lacking. The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) uses dynamic social stimuli, ensuring ecological validity, and has proven to be a sensitive measure in adulthood. In the current study, 33 adolescents with ASD and 23 controls were administered the MASC, while concurrent eye tracking was used to relate gaze behavior to performance levels. The ASD group exhibited reduced MASC scores, with social cognition performance being explained by shorter fixation duration on eyes and decreased pupil dilation. These potential diagnostic markers are discussed as indicators of different processing of social information in ASD.

  5. Translation of Contextual Control Model to chronic disease management: A paradigm to guide design of cognitive support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leecaster, Molly K; Weir, Charlene R; Drews, Frank A; Hellewell, James L; Bolton, Daniel; Jones, Makoto M; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2017-07-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) continue to be criticized for providing poor cognitive support. Defining cognitive support has lacked theoretical foundation. We developed a measurement model of cognitive support based on the Contextual Control Model (COCOM), which describes control characteristics of an "orderly" joint system and proposes 4 levels of control: scrambled, opportunistic, tactical, and strategic. 35 clinicians (5 centers) were interviewed pre and post outpatient clinical visits and audiotaped during the visit. Behaviors pertaining to hypertension management were systematically mapped to the COCOM control characteristics of: (1) time horizon, (2) uncertainty assessment, (3) consideration of multiple goals, (4) causal model described, and (5) explicitness of plan. Each encounter was classified for overall mode of control. Visits with deviation versus no deviation from hypertension goals were compared. Reviewer agreement was high. Control characteristics differed significantly between deviation groups (Wilcox rank sum p<.01). K-means cluster analysis of control characteristics, stratified by deviation were distinct, with higher goal deviations associated with more control characteristics. The COCOM control characteristics appear to be areas of potential yield for improved user-experience design. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Collection of human reaction times and supporting health related data for analysis of cognitive and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Brůha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking, excessive drinking, overeating and physical inactivity are well-established risk factors decreasing human physical performance. Moreover, epidemiological work has identified modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor diet and physical and cognitive inactivity that are associated with the risk of reduced cognitive performance. Definition, collection and annotation of human reaction times and suitable health related data and metadata provides researchers with a necessary source for further analysis of human physical and cognitive performance. The collection of human reaction times and supporting health related data was obtained from two groups comprising together 349 people of all ages - the visitors of the Days of Science and Technology 2016 held on the Pilsen central square and members of the Mensa Czech Republic visiting the neuroinformatics lab at the University of West Bohemia. Each provided dataset contains a complete or partial set of data obtained from the following measurements: hands and legs reaction times, color vision, spirometry, electrocardiography, blood pressure, blood glucose, body proportions and flexibility. It also provides a sufficient set of metadata (age, gender and summary of the participant's current life style and health to allow researchers to perform further analysis. This article has two main aims. The first aim is to provide a well annotated collection of human reaction times and health related data that is suitable for further analysis of lifestyle and human cognitive and physical performance. This data collection is complemented with a preliminarily statistical evaluation. The second aim is to present a procedure of efficient acquisition of human reaction times and supporting health related data in non-lab and lab conditions. Keywords: Reaction time, Health related data, Cognitive and physical performance, Chronic disease, Data acquisition, Data collection, Software for data collection

  7. Analytical support of plant specific SAMG development validation of SAMG using MELCOR 1.8.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duspiva, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    They are two NPPs in operation in Czech Republic. Both of NPPs operated in CR have already implemented EOPs, developed under collaboration with the WESE. The project on SAMG development has started and follows the previous one for EOPs also with the WESE as the leading organization. Plant specific SAMGs for the Temelin as well as Dukovany NPPs are based on the WOG generic SAMGs. The analytical support of plant specific SAMGs development is performed by the NRI Rez within the validation process. Basic conditions as well as their filling by NRI Rez are focused on analyst, analytical tools and their applications. More detail description is attended to the approach of the preparation of the MELCOR code application to the evaluation of hydrogen risk, validation of recent set of hydrogen passive autocatalytic recombiners and definition of proposals to amend system of hydrogen removal. Such kind of parametric calculations will request to perform very wide set of runs. It could not be possible with the whole plant model and decoupling of such calculation with storing of mass and energy sources into the containment is only one way. The example of this decoupling for the LOCA scenario is shown. It includes seven sources - heat losses from primary and secondary circuits, fluid blowndown through cold leg break, fission products blowndown through cold leg break, fluid blowndown through break in reactor pressure vessel bottom head, fission products through break in reactor pressure vessel bottom head, melt ejection from reactor pressure vessel to cavity and gas masses and heat losses from corium in cavity. The stand alone containment analysis was tested in two configurations - with or without taking of fission products into account. Testing showed very good agreement of all calculations until lower head failure and acceptable agreement after that. Also some problematic features appeared. The stand alone test with fission product was possible only after the changes in source code

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of 7-Day Intensive and Standard Weekly Cognitive Therapy for PTSD and Emotion-Focused Supportive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Liness, Sheena; Albert, Idit; Deale, Alicia; Stott, Richard; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice weekly over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals, (1) to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD, and (2) to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment. Method Patients with chronic PTSD (N=121) were randomly allocated to 7-day intensive or standard 3-month weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD, 3-month weekly emotion-focused supportive therapy, or a 14-week waitlist condition. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms and diagnosis as assessed by independent assessors and self-report. Secondary outcomes were disability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Measures were taken at initial assessment, 6 weeks and 14 weeks (post-treatment/wait). For groups receiving treatment, measures were also taken at 3 weeks, and follow-ups at 27 and 40 weeks after randomization. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results At post-treatment/wait assessment, 73%, 77%, 43%, 7% of the intensive cognitive therapy, standard cognitive therapy, supportive therapy, and waitlist groups, respectively, had recovered from PTSD. All treatments were well tolerated and were superior to waitlist on all outcome measures, with the exception of no difference between supportive therapy and waitlist on quality of life. For primary outcomes, disability and general anxiety, intensive and standard cognitive therapy were superior to supportive therapy. Intensive cognitive therapy achieved faster symptom reduction and comparable overall outcomes to standard cognitive therapy. Conclusions Cognitive therapy for PTSD delivered intensively over little more than a week is as effective as cognitive therapy delivered

  9. A validation study of the Hong Kong version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (HK-MoCA) in Chinese older adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, P Y; Wong, L L; Chan, C C; Leung, Jess L M; Yung, C Y

    2014-12-01

    To validate the Hong Kong version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (HK-MoCA) in identification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional study. Cognition clinic and memory clinic of a public hospital in Hong Kong. A total of 272 participants (dementia, n=130; mild cognitive impairment, n=93; normal controls, n=49) aged 60 years or above were assessed using HK-MoCA. The HK-MoCA scores were validated against expert diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) criteria for dementia and Petersen's criteria for mild cognitive impairment. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve and regression analyses. Additionally, comparison was made with the Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination and Global Deterioration Scale. The optimal cutoff score for the HK-MoCA to differentiate cognitive impaired persons (mild cognitive impairment and dementia) from normal controls was 21/22 after adjustment of education level, giving a sensitivity of 0.928, specificity of 0.735, and area under the curve of 0.920. Moreover, the cutoff to detect mild cognitive impairment was 21/22 with a sensitivity of 0.828, specificity of 0.735, and area under the curve of 0.847. Score of the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect mild cognitive impairment was 26/27 with a sensitivity of 0.785, specificity of 0.816, and area under the curve of 0.857. At the optimal cutoff of 18/19, HK-MoCA identified dementia from controls with a sensitivity of 0.923, specificity of 0.918, and area under the curve of 0.971. The HK-MoCA is a useful cognitive screening instrument for use in Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. A score of less than 22 should prompt further diagnostic assessment. It has comparable sensitivity with the Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination for detection of mild cognitive impairment. It is brief and feasible to conduct in the

  10. [Overal cognitive assessment in Basque-speaking people with advanced dementia. Validation to the Basque language of the Severe Mini-Mental State Examination SMMSE (SMMSE-eus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiza, Cristina; Yanguas, Javier; Zulaica, Amaia; Antón, Iván; Arriola, Enrique; García, Alvaro

    2018-04-13

    Adaptation and validation to the Basque language of tests to assess advanced cognitive impairment is a not covered need for Basque-speaking people. The present work shows the validation of the Basque version of the Severe Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE). A total of 109 people with advanced dementia (MECinternal consistency (alpha=0.92), a good test-retest reliability (r=0.88; Pinternal consistency and inter-rater reliability, and to a lesser extent, test-retest reliability, made the SMMSE-eus a valid test for the brief assessment of cognitive status in people with advanced dementia in Basque-speaking people. For this reason, the SMMSE-eus is a usable and reliable alternative for assessing Basque-speaking people in their mother-tongue, or preferred language. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Weaker cognitive control abilities of Pi (Spleen) qi-deficient individuals supported Chinese medicine diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Yan; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Xu, Gui-Ping; Li, Yun-Si; Xie, Wei-Yun; Bai, Li-Hua; Jin, Hua

    2017-07-28

    To investigate whether Pi (Spleen) qi-deficiency affected psychological and neural responses in relevance to cognitive control. Pi qi-deficient and balanced participants were asked to perform the Stroop task, a classical cognitive control paradigm. In this paradigm, participants had to judge the color of the prompted word. The word's meaning indicated the color (the consistent condition) or not (the inconsistent condition), or were unrelated to the color (the neutral condition). Electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded during the task. Event-related potential (ERP) results showed that Pi qi-deficient individuals failed to exhibit a normal Stroop effect as Balanced individuals did, such as the accuracy differences between the consistent and the inconsistent conditions as well as the N450 effect (P>0.05). Meanwhile, Pi qi-deficient individuals displayed larger P2 and P3 amplitudes than balanced individuals did during performing the cognitive control task (Pcognitive control aspect.

  12. The relative contributions of function, perceived psychological burden and partner support to cognitive distress in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Susan M; Bond, Malcolm J; Harrington, Ann; Belan, Ingrid

    2016-09-01

    Bladder cancer is a genitourinary disease of increasing incidence. Despite improvements in treatment, outcomes remain equivocal with high recurrence rates. It is associated with poor psychosocial outcomes due to reduced functioning of the genitourinary system. The objective of these analyses was to query whether reported loss of function or the perception of psychological burden caused by this functional impedance was the key to understanding psychosocial outcomes. The sample comprised 119 participants with a confirmed diagnosis of bladder cancer. They completed a self-report questionnaire comprising the Bladder Cancer Index, Mini-mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale, Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale and standard sociodemographic details. Simple mediation and serial mediation were used to explore the potential for psychological burden to mediate associations between loss of function and cognitive distress, and the potential additional contribution of positive partner support on these relationships. Age and duration of cancer were considered as covariates. Simple mediation demonstrated that the association between function and cognitive distress was fully mediated by perceived psychological burden. Serial mediation, which allowed for the addition of partner support, again demonstrated full mediation, with partner support being the key predictive variable. These analyses emphasise the importance of an appreciation of individuals' interpretation of the burden occasioned by bladder cancer and the role of a supportive partner. The implications for management discussions and support services in alleviating negative psychological outcomes in bladder cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A multi-faceted knowledge translation approach to support persons with stroke and cognitive impairment: evaluation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Sara E; Donald, Michelle; Dawson, Deirdre; Egan, Mary Y; Hunt, Anne; Quant, Sylvia; Runions, Sharron; Linkewich, Elizabeth

    2015-11-05

    Patients with cognitive impairments following a stroke are often denied access to inpatient rehabilitation. The few patients with cognitive impairment admitted to rehabilitation generally receive services based on outdated impairment-reduction models, rather than recommended function-based approaches. Both reduced access to rehabilitation and the knowledge-to-practice gap stem from a reported lack of skills and knowledge regarding cognitive rehabilitation on the part of inpatient rehabilitation team members. To address these issues, a multi-faceted knowledge translation (KT) initiative will be implemented and evaluated. It will be targeted specifically at the inter-professional application of the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP). CO-OP training combined with KT support is called CO-OP KT. The long-term objective of CO-OP KT is to optimize functional outcomes for individuals with stroke and cognitive impairments. Three research questions are posed: 1. Is the implementation of CO-OP KT associated with a change in the proportion of patients with cognitive impairment following a stroke accepted to inpatient rehabilitation? 2. Is the implementation of CO-OP KT associated with a change in rehabilitation clinicians' practice, knowledge, and self-efficacy related to implementing the CO-OP approach, immediately following and 1 year later? 3. Is CO-OP KT associated with changes in activity, participation, and self-efficacy to perform daily activities in patients with cognitive impairment following stroke at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-ups? Three interrelated studies will be conducted. Study 1 will be a quasi-experimental, interrupted time series design measuring monthly summaries of stroke unit level data. Study 2, which relates to changes in health care professional practice and self-efficacy, will be a single group pre-post evaluation design incorporating chart audits and a self-report survey

  14. Development of the Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills program for adults on the autism spectrum: Results of initial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Ericzén, Mary J; Fitch, Meghan A; Kinnear, Mikaela; Jenkins, Melissa M; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Smith, Linda; Montano, Gabriel; Feder, Joshua; Crooke, Pamela J; Winner, Michelle G; Leon, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The population of adults on the autism spectrum continues to increase, and vocational outcomes are particularly poor. Longitudinal studies of adults with autism spectrum and without intellectual disability have shown consistent and persistent deficits across cognitive, social, and vocational domains, indicating a need for effective treatments of functional disabilities as each impact employment. This initial pilot study is an open trial investigation of the feasibility, acceptability, and initial estimates of outcomes for the newly developed Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills intervention, a manualized "soft skills" curriculum, to enhance both cognitive and social development in adults with autism spectrum. A total of eight adults with autism spectrum, without intellectual disability (78% males), participated in the study. Results support the original hypothesis that adults with autism spectrum can improve both cognitive (i.e. executive functioning) and social cognitive (i.e. social thinking and social communication) abilities. Further Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills was found to be feasible, acceptable, and highly satisfactory for participants and parents. Employment rates more than doubled post-intervention, with an increase from 22% to 56% of participants employed. Conclusion is that Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills has promise as an intervention that can be easily embedded into exiting supported employment vocational training programs to improve cognitive, social, and vocational outcomes.

  15. Structure and validity of sluggish cognitive tempo using an expanded item pool in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurnett, Keith; Villodas, Miguel; Burns, G Leonard; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Beaulieu, Allyson; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the latent structure and validity of an expanded pool of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) items. An experimental rating scale with 44 candidate SCT items was administered to parents and teachers of 165 children in grades 2-5 (ages 7-11) recruited for a randomized clinical trial of a psychosocial intervention for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were used to extract items with high loadings (>0.59) on primary factors of SCT and low cross-loadings (0.30 or lower) on other SCT factors and on the Inattention factor of ADHD. Items were required to meet these criteria for both informants. This procedure reduced the pool to 15 items. Generally, items representing slowness and low initiative failed these criteria. SCT factors (termed Daydreaming, Working Memory Problems, and Sleepy/Tired) showed good convergent and discriminant validity in EFA and in a confirmatory model with ADHD factors. Simultaneous regressions of impairment and comorbidity on SCT and ADHD factors found that Daydreams was associated with global impairment, and Sleepy/Tired was associated with organizational problems and depression ratings, across both informants. For teachers, Daydreams also predicted ODD (inversely); Sleepy/Tired also predicted poor academic behavior, low social skills, and problem social behavior; and Working Memory Problems predicted organizational problems and anxiety. When depression, rather than ADHD, was included among the predictors, the only SCT-related associations rendered insignificant were the teacher-reported associations of Daydreams with ODD; Working Memory Problems with anxiety, and Sleepy/Tired with poor social skills. SCT appears to be meaningfully associated with impairment, even when controlling for depression. Common behaviors resembling Working Memory problems may represent a previously undescribed factor of SCT.

  16. Treatment of TBI with Hormonal and Pharmacological Support, Preclinical Validation Using Diffuse and Mechanical TBI Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Award Number: PT075653 (grant) W81XWH-08-2-0153 (contract) TITLE: Treatment of TBI with Hormonal and Pharmacological Support, Preclinical...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0153 Treatment of TBI with Hormonal and Pharmacological Support, Preclinical Validation Using...rats. Our in vivo tests also included MRI imaging, focusing on edema resolution and reduction of diffuse axonal damage (fractional anisotropy

  17. A feasible, aesthetic quality evaluation of implant-supported single crowns: an analysis of validity and reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the reliability and validity of six aesthetic parameters and to compare the professional- and patient-reported aesthetic outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with 66 implant-supported premolar crowns were included. Two prosthodontists and 11 dental students......,24) were found between patient and professional evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: The feasibility, reliability and validity of the CIS make the parameters useful for quality control of implant-supported restorations. The professional- and patient-reported aesthetic outcomes had no significant correlation....... and the internal consistency were analysed by Cohen's ¿ and Cronbach's a, respectively. The validity of CIS parameters was tested against the corresponding Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) scores. The Spearman correlation coefficients were used. Six aesthetic Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questions were correlated...

  18. [Short evaluation of cognitive state in advanced stages of dementia: preliminary results of the Spanish validation of the Severe Mini-Mental State Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiza, Cristina; Navarro, Ana; Díaz-Orueta, Unai; González, Mari Feli; Alaba, Javier; Arriola, Enrique; Hernández, Carmen; Zulaica, Amaia; Yanguas, José Javier

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive assessment of patients with advanced dementia needs proper screening instruments that allow obtain information about the cognitive state and resources that these individuals still have. The present work conducts a Spanish validation study of the Severe Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE). Forty-seven patients with advanced dementia (Mini-Cognitive Examination [MEC]Cognitive Impairment Profile scales. All test items were discriminative. The test showed high internal (α=0.88), test-retest (0.64 to 1.00, Pvalidity was tested through correlations between the instrument and MEC scores (r=0.59, Pinformation on the construct validity was obtained by dividing the sample into groups that scored above or below 5 points in the MEC and recalculating their correlations with SMMSE. The correlation between the scores in the SMMSE and MEC was significant in the MEC 0-5 group (r=0.55, P5 group. Additionally, differences in scores were found in the SMMSE, but not in the MEC, between the three GDS groups (5, 6 and 7) (H=11.1, Pcognitive impairment which prevents the floor effect through an extension of lower measurement range relative to that of the MEC. From our results, this rapid screening tool and easy to administer, can be considered valid and reliable. Copyright © 2010 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of networks in business model innovation : three shaping processes supporting cognitive shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, Inge; de Man, Ard-Pieter; Bossink, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Stakeholders and in particular customers are an important source for business model innovation. Especially for sustainable business models, stakeholder integration may radically change the business logic and help to revise the business model. In this process cognition plays a central role,

  20. Initial Assessment for K-12 English Language Support in Six Countries: Revisiting the Validity-Reliability Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jeanne; Lau, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    It is common practice for K-12 schools to assess multilingual students' language proficiency to determine language support program placement. Because such programs can provide essential scaffolding, the policies guiding these assessments merit careful consideration. It is well accepted that quality assessments must be valid (representative of the…

  1. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  2. The development and psychometric validation of the self-efficacy and performance in self-management support (SEPSS) Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. J. Dwarswaard; A. van Hecke; Dr. S.M. van Hooft; M.M.H. Strating; Dr. A.L. van Staa; V. Duprez

    2015-01-01

    Facilitating persons with a chronic condition to take an active role in the management of their condition, implicates that nurses acquire new competencies. An instrument that can validly and reliably measure nurses’ performance and their perceived capacity to perform self-management support

  3. Cognitive and Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: Validation of Expert Panel Ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fong, Tamara G.; Gleason, Lauren J.; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N.; Schmitt, Eva M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Gross, Alden L.; Bean, Jonathan F.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Fick, Donna M.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; O'Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to

  4. Comparing Cognitive Models of Domain Mastery and Task Performance in Algebra: Validity Evidence for a State Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Zachary B.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared an expert-based cognitive model of domain mastery with student-based cognitive models of task performance for Integrated Algebra. Interpretations of student test results are limited by experts' hypotheses of how students interact with the items. In reality, the cognitive processes that students use to solve each item may be…

  5. The reliability and validity of the informant AD8 by comparison with a series of cognitive assessment tools in primary healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Muhammad Amin; Xu, Xin; Chan, Qun Lin; Hui, Richard Jor Yeong; Chong, Steven Shih Tsze; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian; Dong, YanHong

    2016-03-01

    The validity and reliability of the informant AD8 in primary healthcare has not been established. Therefore, the present study examined the validity and reliability of the informant AD8 in government subsidized primary healthcare centers in Singapore. Eligible patients (≥60 years old) were recruited from primary healthcare centers and their informants received the AD8. Patient-informant dyads who agreed for further cognitive assessments received the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and a locally validated formal neuropsychological battery at a research center in a tertiary hospital. 1,082 informants completed AD8 assessment at two primary healthcare centers. Of these, 309 patients-informant dyads were further assessed, of whom 243 (78.6%) were CDR = 0; 22 (7.1%) were CDR = 0.5; and 44 (14.2%) were CDR≥1. The mean administration time of the informant AD8 was 2.3 ± 1.0 minutes. The informant AD8 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.85); inter-rater reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.85); and test-retest reliability (weighted κ = 0.80). Concurrent validity, as measured by the correlation between total AD8 scores and CDR global (R = 0.65, p validity, as measured by convergent validity (R ≥ 0.4) between individual items of AD8 with CDR and neuropsychological domains was acceptable. The informant AD8 demonstrated good concurrent and construct validity and is a reliable measure to detect cognitive dysfunction in primary healthcare.

  6. Basic life support skills training in a first year medical curriculum: six years' experience with two cognitive-constructivist designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Halil Ibrahim; Certuğ, Agah; Calişkan, Ayhan; van Dalen, Jan

    2006-03-01

    Although the Basic Life Support (BLS) ability of a medical student is a crucial competence, poor BLS training programs have been documented worldwide. Better training designs are needed. This study aims to share detailed descriptions and the test results of two cognitive-constructivist training models for the BLS skills in the first year of medical curriculum. A BLS skills training module was implemented in the first year curriculum in the course of 6 years (1997-2003). The content was derived from the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines. Initially, a competence-based model was used and was upgraded to a cognitive apprenticeship model in 2000. The main performance-content type that was expected at the end of the course was: competent application of BLS procedures on manikins and peers at an OSCE as well as 60% achievement in a test consisting of 25 MCQ items. A retrospective cohort survey design using exam results and a self-completed anonymous student ratings' questionnaire were used in order to test models. Training time for individual students varied from 21 to 29 hours. One thousand seven hundred and sixty students were trained. Fail rates were very low (1.0-2.2%). The students were highly satisfied with the module during the 6 years. In the first year of the medical curriculum, a competence-based or cognitive apprenticeship model using cognitive-constructivist designs of skills training with 9 hours theoretical and 12-20 hours long practical sessions took place in groups of 12-17 students; medical students reached a degree of competence to sufficiently perform BLS skills on the manikins and their peers. The cognitive-constructivist designs for skills training are associated with high student satisfaction. However, the lack of controls limits the extrapolation of this conclusion.

  7. Development and preliminary validation of the Scleroderma Support Group Leader Self-efficacy Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, N.E.; Gumuchian, S.T.; Delisle, V.C.; Pé pin, M.; Malcarne, V.L.; Carrier, M.E.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Pelá ez, S.; El-Baalbaki, G.; Thombs, B.D.

    2018-01-01

    Support groups are an important resource for people living with systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Peer support group leaders play an important role in the success and sustainability of SSc support groups, but face challenges that include a lack of formal training. An SSc support group leader

  8. An 'integrative neuroscience' perspective on ADHD: linking cognition, emotion, brain and genetic measures with implications for clinical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leanne M; Tsang, Tracey W; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael

    2010-10-01

    There remains a translational gap between research findings and their implementation in clinical practice that applies to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as to other major disorders of brain health in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Research studies have identified potential 'markers' to support diagnostic, functional assessment and treatment decisions, but there is little consensus about these markers. Of these potential markers, cognitive measures of thinking functions, such as sustaining attention and associated electrical brain activity, show promise in complementing the clinical management process. Emerging evidence highlights the relevance of emotional, as well as thinking, functions to ADHD. Here, we outline an integrative neuroscience framework for ADHD that offers one means to bring together cognitive measures of thinking functions with measures of emotion, and their brain and genetic correlates. Understanding these measures and the relationships between them is a first step towards the development of tools that will help to assess the heterogeneity of ADHD, and aid in tailoring treatment choices.

  9. Facebook as communication support for persons with potential mild acquired cognitive impairment: A content and social network analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghdam, Aboozar; Hamidi, Ulrika; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Social media has the potential to increase social participation and support for the well-being of individuals with chronic medical conditions. To date, Facebook is the most popular social medium for different types of communication. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the potential use of Facebook as a means of communication for persons with potential Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment (MACI), a non-progressive mild cognitive impairment after an acquired brain injury. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with potential MACI, specifically persons with perceived brain fatigue after brain injury, communicate through Facebook, to classify the content of the communication and to visualize the frequency and types of interactions. A social network analysis of the interactions between members' and a qualitative content analysis of a whole year's communication of a public Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain were performed. The results showed how members use social media technology and Facebook as a means for communication and support for their condition. Individual group members showed very different patterns of communication and interactions. However, for the group as a whole, the most frequent topics in their communication were related to informational support and banter in posts, and socialization in comments. The findings also showed that the majority of members only communicated with few other members and had few direct communications. The most used communication feature of Facebook was likes in form of "thumbs-up". This study indicated that social media and in this case Facebook is used for communication and social support by persons with potential MACI, and revealed that their communication behavior is similar to the healthy population. Further studies relating specific cognitive problems of the participants to the use of social media would provide more

  10. Facebook as communication support for persons with potential mild acquired cognitive impairment: A content and social network analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ulrika; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Social media has the potential to increase social participation and support for the well-being of individuals with chronic medical conditions. To date, Facebook is the most popular social medium for different types of communication. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the potential use of Facebook as a means of communication for persons with potential Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment (MACI), a non-progressive mild cognitive impairment after an acquired brain injury. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with potential MACI, specifically persons with perceived brain fatigue after brain injury, communicate through Facebook, to classify the content of the communication and to visualize the frequency and types of interactions. Methods and materials A social network analysis of the interactions between members’ and a qualitative content analysis of a whole year’s communication of a public Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain were performed. Results The results showed how members use social media technology and Facebook as a means for communication and support for their condition. Individual group members showed very different patterns of communication and interactions. However, for the group as a whole, the most frequent topics in their communication were related to informational support and banter in posts, and socialization in comments. The findings also showed that the majority of members only communicated with few other members and had few direct communications. The most used communication feature of Facebook was likes in form of “thumbs-up”. Conclusions This study indicated that social media and in this case Facebook is used for communication and social support by persons with potential MACI, and revealed that their communication behavior is similar to the healthy population. Further studies relating specific cognitive problems of the

  11. Can integrating the Memory Support Intervention into cognitive therapy improve depression outcome? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G; Dong, Lu; Lee, Jason Y; Gumport, Nicole B; Hollon, Steven D; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Hein, Kerrie; Haman, Kirsten; McNamara, Mary E; Weaver, Claire; Martinez, Armando; Notsu, Haruka; Zieve, Garret; Armstrong, Courtney C

    2017-11-14

    The Memory Support Intervention was developed in response to evidence showing that: (1) patient memory for treatment is poor, (2) poor memory for treatment is associated with poorer adherence and poorer outcome, (3) the impact of memory impairment can be minimized by the use of memory support strategies and (4) improved memory for treatment improves outcome. The aim of this study protocol is to conduct a confirmatory efficacy trial to test whether the Memory Support Intervention improves illness course and functional outcomes. As a "platform" for the next step in investigating this approach, we focus on major depressive disorder (MDD) and cognitive therapy (CT). Adults with MDD (n = 178, including 20% for potential attrition) will be randomly allocated to CT + Memory Support or CT-as-usual and will be assessed at baseline, post treatment and at 6 and 12 months' follow-up (6FU and 12FU). We will compare the effects of CT + Memory Support vs. CT-as-usual to determine if the new intervention improves the course of illness and reduces functional impairment (aim 1). We will determine if patient memory for treatment mediates the relationship between treatment condition and outcome (aim 2). We will evaluate if previously reported poor treatment response subgroups moderate target engagement (aim 3). The Memory Support Intervention has been developed to be "transdiagnostic" (relevant to a broad range of mental disorders) and "pantreatment" (relevant to a broad range of types of treatment). This study protocol describes a "next step" in the treatment development process by testing the Memory Support Intervention for major depressive disorder (MDD) and cognitive therapy (CT). If the results are promising, future directions will test the applicability to other kinds of interventions and disorders and in other settings. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT01790919 . Registered on 6 October 2016.

  12. Lifelong exposure to multilingualism: new evidence to support cognitive reserve hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Perquin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Investigate the protective effect of multilingualism on cognition in seniors. METHODS: As part of the MemoVie study conducted on 232 non-demented volunteers aged 65 and more, neurogeriatric and neuropsychological evaluations were performed. Participants were classified as presenting either cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND or being free of any cognitive impairment (CIND-free. Language practices, socio-demographic data and lifestyle habits were recorded. In this retrospective nested case-control design, we used as proxies of multilingualism: number of languages practiced, age of acquisition and duration of practice, emphasizing the temporal pattern of acquisition, and the resulting practice of several languages sequentially or concomitantly during various periods of life. This special angle on the matter offered to our work a dimension particularly original and innovative. RESULTS: 44 subjects (19% had CIND, the others were cognitively normal. All practiced from 2 to 7 languages. When compared with bilinguals, participants who practiced more than 2 languages presented a lower risk of CIND, after adjustment for education and age (odds ratio (OR = 0.30, 95% confidence limits (95%CL = [0.10-0.92]. Progressing from 2 to 3 languages, instead of staying bilingual, was associated with a 7-fold protection against CIND (OR = 0.14, 95%CL = [0.04-0.45], p = 0.0010. A one year delay to reach multilingualism (3 languages practiced being the threshold multiplied the risk of CIND by 1.022 (OR = 1.022, 95%CL = [1.01-1.04], p = 0.0044. Also noteworthy, just as for multilingualism, an impact of cognitively stimulating activities on the occurrence of CIND was found as well (OR = 0.979, 95%CL = [0.961-0.998], p = 0.033. CONCLUSION: The study did not show independence of multilingualism and CIND. Rather it seems to show a strong association toward a protection against CIND. Practicing multilingualism

  13. Lifelong exposure to multilingualism: new evidence to support cognitive reserve hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perquin, Magali; Vaillant, Michel; Schuller, Anne-Marie; Pastore, Jessica; Dartigues, Jean-François; Lair, Marie-Lise; Diederich, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Investigate the protective effect of multilingualism on cognition in seniors. As part of the MemoVie study conducted on 232 non-demented volunteers aged 65 and more, neurogeriatric and neuropsychological evaluations were performed. Participants were classified as presenting either cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) or being free of any cognitive impairment (CIND-free). Language practices, socio-demographic data and lifestyle habits were recorded. In this retrospective nested case-control design, we used as proxies of multilingualism: number of languages practiced, age of acquisition and duration of practice, emphasizing the temporal pattern of acquisition, and the resulting practice of several languages sequentially or concomitantly during various periods of life. This special angle on the matter offered to our work a dimension particularly original and innovative. 44 subjects (19%) had CIND, the others were cognitively normal. All practiced from 2 to 7 languages. When compared with bilinguals, participants who practiced more than 2 languages presented a lower risk of CIND, after adjustment for education and age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.30, 95% confidence limits (95%CL) = [0.10-0.92]). Progressing from 2 to 3 languages, instead of staying bilingual, was associated with a 7-fold protection against CIND (OR = 0.14, 95%CL = [0.04-0.45], p = 0.0010). A one year delay to reach multilingualism (3 languages practiced being the threshold) multiplied the risk of CIND by 1.022 (OR = 1.022, 95%CL = [1.01-1.04], p = 0.0044). Also noteworthy, just as for multilingualism, an impact of cognitively stimulating activities on the occurrence of CIND was found as well (OR = 0.979, 95%CL = [0.961-0.998], p = 0.033). The study did not show independence of multilingualism and CIND. Rather it seems to show a strong association toward a protection against CIND. Practicing multilingualism from early life on, and/or learning it at a fast pace

  14. Users’ support as a social resource in educational services: construct validity and measurement invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Loera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.’ (2011 research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers’ well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011, translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children’s parents, to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS. In Study 1 (105 teachers, which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA. In Study 2 (304 teachers, the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators, measurement invariance was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%. The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = .88. The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (CFI = .987; SRMR = .054. Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of measurement invariance performed on the Study 3 data confirmed the equality

  15. Users’ Support as a Social Resource in Educational Services: Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera, Barbara; Martini, Mara; Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.’s (2011) research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers’ well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011), translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children’s parents), to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS). In Study 1 (105 teachers), which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 2 (304 teachers), the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators), measurement invariance (MI) was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%). The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = 0.88). The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (comparative fit index = 0.987; standardized root mean square residual = 0.054). Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent) with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent) with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of MI performed on the

  16. Users' Support as a Social Resource in Educational Services: Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera, Barbara; Martini, Mara; Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.'s (2011) research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers' well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011), translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children's parents), to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS). In Study 1 (105 teachers), which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 2 (304 teachers), the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators), measurement invariance (MI) was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%). The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = 0.88). The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (comparative fit index = 0.987; standardized root mean square residual = 0.054). Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent) with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent) with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of MI performed on the Study 3

  17. CRED Optical Validation Data in the Auau Channel, Hawaii, 2007, to Support Benthic Habitat Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a RCV-150 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) operated by the Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL). Data were...

  18. The Second Victim Experience and Support Tool: Validation of an Organizational Resource for Assessing Second Victim Effects and the Quality of Support Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlison, Jonathan D; Scott, Susan D; Browne, Emily K; Thompson, Sierra G; Hoffman, James M

    2017-06-01

    Medical errors and unanticipated negative patient outcomes can damage the well-being of health care providers. These affected individuals, referred to as "second victims," can experience various psychological and physical symptoms. Support resources provided by health care organizations to prevent and reduce second victim-related harm are often inadequate. In this study, we present the development and psychometric evaluation of the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (SVEST), a survey instrument that can assist health care organizations to implement and track the performance of second victim support resources. The SVEST (29 items representing 7 dimensions and 2 outcome variables) was completed by 303 health care providers involved in direct patient care. The survey collected responses on second victim-related psychological and physical symptoms and the quality of support resources. Desirability of possible support resources was also measured. The SVEST was assessed for content validity, internal consistency, and construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis results suggested good model fit for the survey. Cronbach α reliability scores for the survey dimensions ranged from 0.61 to 0.89. The most desired second victim support option was "A respected peer to discuss the details of what happened." The SVEST can be used by health care organizations to evaluate second victim experiences of their staff and the quality of existing support resources. It can also provide health care organization leaders with information on second victim-related support resources most preferred by their staff. The SVEST can be administered before and after implementing new second victim resources to measure perceptions of effectiveness.

  19. Comprehensive risk assessment for rail transportation of dangerous goods: a validated platform for decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, Adrian V.; Birchmeier, Juerg; Vamanu, Dan; Papazoglou, Ioannis; Kroeger, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Currently, the most advanced and well documented risk assessments for the transportation of dangerous goods by railway take into account:(i)statistics-based loss of containment frequencies, (ii) specification of potential consequences for a given release situations using event tree methodology as an organisational tool and (iii) consequence calculation models to determine a risk figure known as CCDF (Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function). Such procedures for the risk assessment (including for example decision-making on preventive measures) may offer only a limited insight into the causes and sequences leading to an accident and do not allow for any kind of predictive analysis. The present work introduces an enhanced solution, and a related software platform, which attempts to integrate loss of containment causes and consequences with system's infrastructure and its environment. The solution features:(i)the use of a detailed Master Logical Diagram, including fault/event tree analysis to determine a loss of containment frequency based on different initiating events, scenarios and specific basic data, (ii) the characterization of a resulting source term following a release situation, and (iii) the calculation of various potential impacts on the neighbouring site. Results are wrapped into a CCDF format for each selected traffic segment. The risk-related results are integrated on a software platform, structured as a decision support system using intelligent maps and a variety of GIS (Geographical Information System) data processing procedures. The introduction of the hot spot approach, allows us to focus on the most risk-relevant areas and to use information on various railway infrastructure elements (e.g. points, tunnels), are the basis of the new models employed. The software is applicable to any railway transportation system, comprising its technical infrastructure, rolling stock, human actions, regulation and management procedures. It provides the

  20. The Relation of Maternal Emotional and Cognitive Support During Problem Solving to Pre-Academic Skills in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 263 mother-child dyads, we examined the extent to which maternal emotional and cognitive support during a joint problem solving task when children were 3-years-old predicted children’s academic skills one year later independent of each other, the quality of the home learning environment, and maternal emotional responsiveness. When all parenting measures were examined simultaneously, only maternal emotional support during problem solving and the quality of the home learning environment predicted unique variation in gains in pre-academic skills from age 3 to age 4. The positive effect of emotional support during problem solving was especially apparent for children whose pre-academic skills were low at age 3. These findings are discussed in light of the changing demands placed on young children and their parents as they prepare for entry to the formal school system. PMID:22121336

  1. Puzzling with online games (BAM-COG): reliability, validity, and feasibility of an online self-monitor for cognitive performance in aging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Teun; Baars, Maria A E; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Kessels, Roy P C

    2013-12-03

    Online interventions are aiming increasingly at cognitive outcome measures but so far no easy and fast self-monitors for cognition have been validated or proven reliable and feasible. This study examines a new instrument called the Brain Aging Monitor-Cognitive Assessment Battery (BAM-COG) for its alternate forms reliability, face and content validity, and convergent and divergent validity. Also, reference values are provided. The BAM-COG consists of four easily accessible, short, yet challenging puzzle games that have been developed to measure working memory ("Conveyer Belt"), visuospatial short-term memory ("Sunshine"), episodic recognition memory ("Viewpoint"), and planning ("Papyrinth"). A total of 641 participants were recruited for this study. Of these, 397 adults, 40 years and older (mean 54.9, SD 9.6), were eligible for analysis. Study participants played all games three times with 14 days in between sets. Face and content validity were based on expert opinion. Alternate forms reliability (AFR) was measured by comparing scores on different versions of the BAM-COG and expressed with an intraclass correlation (ICC: two-way mixed; consistency at 95%). Convergent validity (CV) was provided by comparing BAM-COG scores to gold-standard paper-and-pencil and computer-assisted cognitive assessment. Divergent validity (DV) was measured by comparing BAM-COG scores to the National Adult Reading Test IQ (NART-IQ) estimate. Both CV and DV are expressed as Spearman rho correlation coefficients. Three out of four games showed adequate results on AFR, CV, and DV measures. The games Conveyer Belt, Sunshine, and Papyrinth have AFR ICCs of .420, .426, and .645 respectively. Also, these games had good to very good CV correlations: rho=.577 (P=.001), rho=.669 (Pgame Viewpoint provided less desirable results with an AFR ICC of .167, CV rho=.202 (P=.15), and DV rho=-.162 (P=.21). This study provides evidence for the use of the BAM-COG test battery as a feasible, reliable, and

  2. Going with the Grain of Cognition: Applying insights from psychology to build support for childhood vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Rossen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology. Consequently, such strategies are sometimes at variance with basic psychological principles and assumptions. By going against the grain of cognition, such strategies potentially run the risk of undermining persuasive efforts to reduce vaccine hesitancy. We demonstrate this by drawing on key insights from cognitive and social psychology to show how various known features of human psychology can lead many intuitively appealing intervention strategies to backfire, yielding unintended and undesirable repercussions. We conclude with a summary of potential avenues of investigation that may be more effective in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Our key message is that intervention strategies must be crafted that go with the grain of cognition by incorporating key insights from the psychological sciences.

  3. Glycemic control, cognitive function, and family support among middle-aged and older Hispanics with diabetes: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizich, Garrett; Kaplan, Robert C; González, Hector M; Daviglus, Martha L; Giachello, Aida L; Teng, Yanping; Lipton, Richard B; Grober, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    To examine among Hispanics in the U.S., a population with increased reliance on informal healthcare support structures, (1) the association between cognitive function and control of diabetes; and (2) whether this association is modified by family support. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), word fluency, and learning and delayed recall components of the Spanish English Verbal Learning Test were administered to 1794 Hispanic adults aged 45-76years with diagnosed diabetes. An executive function index and global cognitive function index (GCFI) were derived. Uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c⩾7% [53mmol/mol]) was compared across quartiles of cognitive function using multivariable logit models with interaction terms for cognitive function and family support. After adjustment, lower DSST scores were associated with uncontrolled diabetes (P=0.03). Family support modified the relationship between other measures of cognition and diabetes control (Pinteraction: 0.002, 0.09). Among individuals with low family support, as cognitive function declined, the odds of uncontrolled diabetes increased (P-trend across quartiles of the GCFI, 0.015). Among those with low family support, persons in the lowest quartile of global cognitive function were more than twice as likely to have uncontrolled diabetes as those in the highest performing quartile (OR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.55). There was no similar effect among those with high family support. Family support may buffer the negative association between low cognitive functioning and diabetes control in US Hispanics/Latinos. Educational programs targeted at family members of middle-age and older persons with diabetes regardless of neurocognitive status may help improve population-level glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An investigation into the content validity of the Antimicrobial Self-Assessment Toolkit for NHS Trusts (ASAT v15a) using cognitive interviews with antimicrobial pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C; Tully, M; Cooke, J

    2015-04-01

    The Antimicrobial Self-Assessment Toolkit for NHS Trusts (ASAT) was developed to evaluate the organizational strategies used to implement hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship programmes. An iterative approach was used to develop ASAT v15a, which has been previously investigated for face validity; however, further investigation into other types of validity was required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the content validity of ASAT v15a and hence modify and improve the content validity of the toolkit. A purposive sample of eight antimicrobial pharmacists was interviewed using cognitive interviewing techniques from within the former North-west Strategic Health Authority in England. Respondents were asked to 'think aloud' and to verbally express their thought processes as they generated responses to each question with the ASAT. There were no cognitive difficulties reported by respondents in response to 26/83 (31·3%) questions within the ASAT. However, cognitive difficulties were reported by respondents at each stage of the cognitive processing pathway in response to 57/83 (68·7%) questions. These difficulties were comprehension/interpretation in 27/83 (32·5%) questions, information retrieval in 10/83 (12%) questions, judgment/decision in 6/83 (7·2%) questions and response generation/formatting in 13/83 (15·7%) questions. Other findings included disagreement with the weightings applied to 13/83 (15·7%) questions. Respondents recommended that these questions should be modified to reflect their impact on hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs). Based on these findings, modifications were made to ASAT v15a to produce the next iteration (ASAT v16). Furthermore, respondents indicated that the role of clinical microbiologists was underrepresented in the current version of the toolkit; therefore, seven proposed questions were drafted, based on a literature review. Cognitive interviews were effectively able to detect problems

  5. Reliability, Validity, and Optimal Cutoff Score of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (Changsha Version) in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease Patients of Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiu-yun; Jin, Hui; Ding, Bin-rong; Yang, Xia; Lei, Zeng-hui; Bai, Song; Zhang, Ying-dong; Tang, Xiang-qi

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The goal of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Changsha version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-CS) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients of Hunan Province, China, and to explore the optimal cutoff score for detecting vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND) and vascular dementia (VD). Methods Three hundred and thirty-eight ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients (131 with normal cognition, 111 with VCI-ND, and 96 with VD) and 132 healthy controls were recruited. All participants accepted examination by the MoCA-CS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and other related scales. A detailed neuropsychological battery was used for making a final cognitive diagnosis. SPSS 16.0 statistical software was used for reliability, validity examination, and optimal cutoff score detection. Results Cronbach's α of the MoCA-CS was 0.884, and test-retest and interrater reliability of the MoCA-CS were 0.966 and 0.926, respectively. MoCA-CS scores were highly correlated with MMSE scores (r = 0.867) and simplified intelligence quotients (r = 0.822). The results indicate that 1 point should be added for subjects with less than 6 years of education, and that the optimal cutoff score for detecting VCI-ND is 26/27 (sensitivity 96.1%, specificity 75.6%), whereas the optimal cutoff score for detecting VD is 16/17 (sensitivity 92.7%, specificity 96.3%). Conclusion The MoCA-CS has good reliability and validity, and is a useful cognitive screening instrument for detecting VCI in the Chinese population. PMID:23637698

  6. Reliability, Validity, and Optimal Cutoff Score of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (Changsha Version in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease Patients of Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-yun Tu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The goal of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Changsha version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-CS in ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients of Hunan Province, China, and to explore the optimal cutoff score for detecting vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND and vascular dementia (VD. Methods: Three hundred and thirty-eight ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients (131 with normal cognition, 111 with VCI-ND, and 96 with VD and 132 healthy controls were recruited. All participants accepted examination by the MoCA-CS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and other related scales. A detailed neuropsychological battery was used for making a final cognitive diagnosis. SPSS 16.0 statistical software was used for reliability, validity examination, and optimal cutoff score detection. Results: Cronbach’s α of the MoCA-CS was 0.884, and test-retest and interrater reliability of the MoCA-CS were 0.966 and 0.926, respectively. MoCA-CS scores were highly correlated with MMSE scores (r = 0.867 and simplified intelligence quotients (r = 0.822. The results indicate that 1 point should be added for subjects with less than 6 years of education, and that the optimal cutoff score for detecting VCI-ND is 26/27 (sensitivity 96.1%, specificity 75.6%, whereas the optimal cutoff score for detecting VD is 16/17 (sensitivity 92.7%, specificity 96.3%. Conclusion: The MoCA-CS has good reliability and validity, and is a useful cognitive screening instrument for detecting VCI in the Chinese population.

  7. Social support for healthy eating: development and validation of a questionnaire for the French-Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Elise; Bradette-Laplante, Maude; Lamarche, Benoît; Provencher, Véronique; Bégin, Catherine; Robitaille, Julie; Desroches, Sophie; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Corneau, Louise; Lemieux, Simone

    2018-05-28

    The present study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire assessing social support for healthy eating in a French-Canadian population. A twenty-one-item questionnaire was developed. For each item, participants were asked to rate the frequency, in the past month, with which the actions described had been done by family and friends in two different environments: (i) at home and (ii) outside of home. The content was evaluated by an expert panel. A validation study sample was recruited and completed the questionnaire twice. Exploratory factor analysis was performed on items to assess the number of subscales. Internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach's ɑ. Test-retest reliability was evaluated with intraclass correlations between scores of the two completions. Online survey. Men and women from the Québec City area (n 150). The content validity assessment led to a few changes, resulting in a twenty-two-item questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure for both environments, resulting in four subscales: supportive actions at home; non-supportive actions at home; supportive actions outside of home; and non-supportive actions outside of home. Two items were removed from the questionnaire due to low loadings. The four subscales were found to be reliable (Cronbach's ɑ=0·82-0·94; test-retest intraclass correlation=0·51-0·70). The Social Support for Healthy Eating Questionnaire was developed for a French-Canadian population and demonstrated good psychometric properties. This questionnaire will be useful to explore the role of social support and its interactions with other factors in predicting eating behaviours.

  8. Validation study of the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) for the Portuguese patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Joana; Freitas, Sandra; Duro, Diana; Almeida, Jorge; Santana, Isabel

    2018-03-23

    The Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) is a battery to assess cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and was developed according to the core characteristics of cognitive decline in AD: memory, language, praxis, constructive ability, and orientation. The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic accuracy and discriminative capacity of the ADAS-Cog for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and AD, using cut-off points for the Portuguese population. The European Portuguese version of the ADAS-Cog was administrated to 650 participants, divided into a control group (n = 210), an MCI group (n = 240), and an AD group (n = 200). The clinical groups fulfilled standard international diagnostic criteria. Controls were healthy cognitive participants actively integrated in the community. The neuropsychological assessment protocol included the ADAS-Cog, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Adults and Older Adults Functional Assessment Inventory (IAFAI). The ADAS-Cog revealed good psychometric indicators, and the total scores were significantly different between the three groups (p  9 points (AUC = .835; sensitivity = 58% and specificity = 91%) and AD > 12 points (AUC = .996; sensitivity = 94% and specificity = 98%). Our findings confirmed the capacity of the ADAS-Cog total score to identify cognitive impairment in AD patients, with poor sensitivity for MCI, in a Portuguese cohort.

  9. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lo, Yi-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD), 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI), were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined. Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663) than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541). The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965) to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%. The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  10. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy.Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD, 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI, were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined.Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p <0.01. Notably, the TPIADL had a higher correlation coefficient with the cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663 than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541. The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965 to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%.The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  11. An Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory: Using the Human Motor System and Collaboration to Support the Learning of Complex Cognitive Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.C. Paas (Fred); J. Sweller (John)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCognitive load theory is intended to provide instructional strategies derived from experimental, cognitive load effects. Each effect is based on our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, primarily the limited capacity and duration of a human working memory. These limitations are

  12. An Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory: Using the Human Motor System and Collaboration to Support the Learning of Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paas, Fred; Sweller, John

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive load theory is intended to provide instructional strategies derived from experimental, cognitive load effects. Each effect is based on our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, primarily the limited capacity and duration of a human working memory. These limitations are ameliorated by changes in long-term memory associated with…

  13. The validity of the Brain Injury Cognitive Screen (BICS) as a neuropsychological screening assessment for traumatic and non-traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Frances L; Neal, Jo Anne; Mulla, Farzana Nizam; Edwards, Barbara; Coetzer, Rudi

    2017-04-01

    The Brain Injury Cognitive Screen (BICS) was developed as an in-service cognitive assessment battery for acquired brain injury patients entering community rehabilitation. The BICS focuses on domains that are particularly compromised following TBI, and provides a broader and more detailed assessment of executive function, attention and information processing than comparable screening assessments. The BICS also includes brief assessments of perception, naming, and construction, which were predicted to be more sensitive to impairments following non-traumatic brain injury. The studies reported here examine preliminary evidence for its validity in post-acute rehabilitation. In Study 1, TBI patients completed the BICS and were compared with matched controls. Patients with focal lesions and matched controls were compared in Study 2. Study 3 examined demographic effects in a sample of normative data. TBI and focal lesion patients obtained significantly lower composite memory, executive function and attention and information processing BICS scores than healthy controls. Injury severity effects were also obtained. Logistic regression analyses indicated that each group of BICS memory, executive function and attention measures reliably differentiated TBI and focal lesion participants from controls. Design Recall, Prospective Memory, Verbal Fluency, and Visual Search test scores showed significant independent regression effects. Other subtest measures showed evidence of sensitivity to brain injury. The study provides preliminary evidence of the BICS' sensitivity to cognitive impairment caused by acquired brain injury, and its potential clinical utility as a cognitive screen. Further validation based on a revised version of the BICS and more normative data are required.

  14. A study on the validity of a computer-based game to assess cognitive processes, reward mechanisms, and time perception in children aged 4-8 years

    OpenAIRE

    Peijnenborgh, Janneke; Hurks, PM Petra; Aldenkamp, AP Albert; Spek, van der, ED Erik; Rauterberg, GWM Matthias; Vles, JSH Johan; Hendriksen, JGM

    2016-01-01

    Background A computer-based game, named Timo?s Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo?s Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hy...

  15. Assessment of Advanced Life Support competence when combining different test methods--reliability and validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, C; Lippert, F; Hesselfeldt, R

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac Arrest Simulation Test (CASTest) scenarios for the assessments according to guidelines 2005. AIMS: To analyse the reliability and validity of the individual sub-tests provided by ERC and to find a combination of MCQ and CASTest that provides a reliable and valid single effect measure of ALS...... that possessed high reliability, equality of test sets, and ability to discriminate between the two groups of supposedly different ALS competence. CONCLUSIONS: ERC sub-tests of ALS competence possess sufficient reliability and validity. A combined ALS score with equal weighting of one MCQ and one CASTest can...... competence. METHODS: Two groups of participants were included in this randomised, controlled experimental study: a group of newly graduated doctors, who had not taken the ALS course (N=17) and a group of students, who had passed the ALS course 9 months before the study (N=16). Reliability in terms of inter...

  16. Adherence support strategies for exercise interventions in people with mild cognitive impairment and dementia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika van der Wardt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-based therapy may improve health status for people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI or dementia but cannot work without adherence, which has proven difficult. This review aimed to evaluate strategies to support adherence among people with MCI or Dementia and was completed in Nottingham/UK in 2017. A narrative synthesis was used to investigate the effectiveness or usefulness of adherence support strategies. Fifteen adherence support strategies were used including theoretical underpinning (programmes based on behavior change theories, individual tailoring, worksheets and exercise booklets, goal setting, phone calls or reminders, newsletters, support to overcome exercise barriers, information, adaptation periods, individual supervision, support for clinicians, group setting, music, accelerometers/pedometers and emphasis on enjoyable activities. Music was the only strategy that was investigated in a comparative design but was found to be effective only for those who were generally interested in participating in activities. A wide range of adherence support strategies are being included in exercise interventions for people with MCI or dementia, but the evidence regarding their effectiveness is limited.

  17. Advancing cognitive engineering methods to support user interface design for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Dziabiak, Michael P; Johnson, Raymond; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel Humberto; Acharya, Amit; Yabes, Jonathan; Schleyer, Titus K

    2014-04-01

    Despite many decades of research on the effective development of clinical systems in medicine, the adoption of health information technology to improve patient care continues to be slow, especially in ambulatory settings. This applies to dentistry as well, a primary care discipline with approximately 137,000 practitioners in the United States. A critical reason for slow adoption is the poor usability of clinical systems, which makes it difficult for providers to navigate through the information and obtain an integrated view of patient data. In this study, we documented the cognitive processes and information management strategies used by dentists during a typical patient examination. The results will inform the design of a novel electronic dental record interface. We conducted a cognitive task analysis (CTA) study to observe ten general dentists (five general dentists and five general dental faculty members, each with more than two years of clinical experience) examining three simulated patient cases using a think-aloud protocol. Dentists first reviewed the patient's demographics, chief complaint, medical history and dental history to determine the general status of the patient. Subsequently, they proceeded to examine the patient's intraoral status using radiographs, intraoral images, hard tissue and periodontal tissue information. The results also identified dentists' patterns of navigation through patient's information and additional information needs during a typical clinician-patient encounter. This study reinforced the significance of applying cognitive engineering methods to inform the design of a clinical system. Second, applying CTA to a scenario closely simulating an actual patient encounter helped with capturing participants' knowledge states and decision-making when diagnosing and treating a patient. The resultant knowledge of dentists' patterns of information retrieval and review will significantly contribute to designing flexible and task

  18. Adding support to cross-cultural emotional assessment: Validation of the International Affective Picture System in a Chilean sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Mayol Troncoso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to obtain a valid set of images of the International Affective Picture System (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005 –a widely used instrumentation in emotion research- in a Chilean sample, as well as to compare these results with those obtained from the US study in order to contribute to its cross-cultural validation. A sample of 135 college students assessed 188 pictures according to standard instructions in valence and arousal dimensions. The results showed the expected organization of affectivity, with main variations between sex in valence judgments, and differences between countries in the arousal dimension. It is concluded that the Chilean adaptation of the IAPS is consistent with previous evidence, adding support to it cross-cultural validity.

  19. Older adults' preferences for formal social support of autonomy and dependence in pain: development and validation of a scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Sónia F; Matos, Marta; Goubert, Liesbet

    2017-09-01

    Chronic pain among older adults is common and often disabling. Pain-related formal social support (e.g., provided by staff at day-care centers, nursing homes), and the extent to which it promotes functional autonomy or dependence, plays a significant role in the promotion of older adults' ability to engage in their daily activities. Assessing older adults' preferences for pain-related social support for functional autonomy or dependence could contribute to increase formal social support responsiveness to individuals' needs. Therefore, this study aimed at developing and validating the preferences for formal social support of autonomy and dependence in pain inventory (PFSSADI). One hundred and sixty-five older adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain ( M age  = 79.1, 67.3% women), attending day-care centers, completed the PFSSADI, the revised formal social support for autonomy and dependence in pain inventory, and a measure of desire for (in)dependence; the PFSSADI was filled out again 6 weeks later. Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure of two correlated factors ( r  = .56): (a) preferences for autonomy support ( α  = .99) and (b) preferences for dependence support ( α  = .98). The scale showed good test-retest reliability, sensitivity and discriminant and concurrent validity; the higher the preferences for dependence support, the higher the desire for dependence ( r  = .33) and the lower the desire for independence ( r  = -.41). The PFSSADI is an innovative tool, which may contribute to explore the role of pain-related social support responsiveness on the promotion of older adults' functional autonomy when in pain.

  20. [Support of the nursing process through electronic nursing documentation systems (UEPD) – Initial validation of an instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hediger, Hannele; Müller-Staub, Maria; Petry, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nursing documentation systems, with standardized nursing terminology, are IT-based systems for recording the nursing processes. These systems have the potential to improve the documentation of the nursing process and to support nurses in care delivery. This article describes the development and initial validation of an instrument (known by its German acronym UEPD) to measure the subjectively-perceived benefits of an electronic nursing documentation system in care delivery. The validity of the UEPD was examined by means of an evaluation study carried out in an acute care hospital (n = 94 nurses) in German-speaking Switzerland. Construct validity was analyzed by principal components analysis. Initial references of validity of the UEPD could be verified. The analysis showed a stable four factor model (FS = 0.89) scoring in 25 items. All factors loaded ≥ 0.50 and the scales demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.73 – 0.90). Principal component analysis revealed four dimensions of support: establishing nursing diagnosis and goals; recording a case history/an assessment and documenting the nursing process; implementation and evaluation as well as information exchange. Further testing with larger control samples and with different electronic documentation systems are needed. Another potential direction would be to employ the UEPD in a comparison of various electronic documentation systems.

  1. The impact of social activities, social networks, social support and social relationships on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle E; Duff, Hollie; Kelly, Sara; McHugh Power, Joanna E; Brennan, Sabina; Lawlor, Brian A; Loughrey, David G

    2017-12-19

    Social relationships, which are contingent on access to social networks, promote engagement in social activities and provide access to social support. These social factors have been shown to positively impact health outcomes. In the current systematic review, we offer a comprehensive overview of the impact of social activities, social networks and social support on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults (50+) and examine the differential effects of aspects of social relationships on various cognitive domains. We followed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, and collated data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), genetic and observational studies. Independent variables of interest included subjective measures of social activities, social networks, and social support, and composite measures of social relationships (CMSR). The primary outcome of interest was cognitive function divided into domains of episodic memory, semantic memory, overall memory ability, working memory, verbal fluency, reasoning, attention, processing speed, visuospatial abilities, overall executive functioning and global cognition. Thirty-nine studies were included in the review; three RCTs, 34 observational studies, and two genetic studies. Evidence suggests a relationship between (1) social activity and global cognition and overall executive functioning, working memory, visuospatial abilities and processing speed but not episodic memory, verbal fluency, reasoning or attention; (2) social networks and global cognition but not episodic memory, attention or processing speed; (3) social support and global cognition and episodic memory but not attention or processing speed; and (4) CMSR and episodic memory and verbal fluency but not global cognition. The results support prior conclusions that there is an association between social relationships and cognitive function but the exact nature of this association remains unclear

  2. Left Frontal Hub Connectivity during Memory Performance Supports Reserve in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Hartmann, Julia C; Taylor, Alexander N W; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Buerger, Katharina; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana M; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Mueller, Claudia; Catak, Cihan; Janowitz, Daniel; Stahl, Robert; Dichgans, Martin; Duering, Marco; Ewers, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reserve in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined as maintaining cognition at a relatively high level in the presence of neurodegeneration, an ability often associated with higher education among other life factors. Recent evidence suggests that higher resting-state functional connectivity within the frontoparietal control network, specifically the left frontal cortex (LFC) hub, contributes to higher reserve. Following up these previous resting-state fMRI findings, we probed memory-task related functional connectivity of the LFC hub as a neural substrate of reserve. In elderly controls (CN, n = 37) and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 17), we assessed global connectivity of the LFC hub during successful face-name association learning, using generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. Reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance, accounted for gender and proxies of neurodegeneration (age, hippocampus atrophy, and APOE genotype). We found that greater education was associated with higher LFC-connectivity in both CN and MCI during successful memory. Furthermore, higher LFC-connectivity predicted higher residualized memory (i.e., reserve). These results suggest that higher LFC-connectivity contributes to reserve in both healthy and pathological aging.

  3. Disentangling the cognitive components supporting Austin Maze performance in left versus right temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Julia; Thomas, Hannah J; Dzafic, Ilvana; Williams, Rebecca J; Reutens, David C; Spooner, Donna M

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological tests requiring patients to find a path through a maze can be used to assess visuospatial memory performance in temporal lobe pathology, particularly in the hippocampus. Alternatively, they have been used as a task sensitive to executive function in patients with frontal lobe damage. We measured performance on the Austin Maze in patients with unilateral left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), with and without hippocampal sclerosis, compared to healthy controls. Performance was correlated with a number of other neuropsychological tests to identify the cognitive components that may be associated with poor Austin Maze performance. Patients with right TLE were significantly impaired on the Austin Maze task relative to patients with left TLE and controls, and error scores correlated with their performance on the Block Design task. The performance of patients with left TLE was also impaired relative to controls; however, errors correlated with performance on tests of executive function and delayed recall. The presence of hippocampal sclerosis did not have an impact on maze performance. A discriminant function analysis indicated that the Austin Maze alone correctly classified 73.5% of patients as having right TLE. In summary, impaired performance on the Austin Maze task is more suggestive of right than left TLE; however, impaired performance on this visuospatial task does not necessarily involve the hippocampus. The relationship of the Austin Maze task with other neuropsychological tests suggests that differential cognitive components may underlie performance decrements in right versus left TLE. © 2013.

  4. What's in a Friendship? Partner Visibility Supports Cognitive Collaboration between Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Allison A; Enns, James T

    2015-01-01

    Not all cognitive collaborations are equally effective. We tested whether friendship and communication influenced collaborative efficiency by randomly assigning participants to complete a cognitive task with a friend or non-friend, while visible to their partner or separated by a partition. Collaborative efficiency was indexed by comparing each pair's performance to an optimal individual performance model of the same two people. The outcome was a strong interaction between friendship and partner visibility. Friends collaborated more efficiently than non-friends when visible to one another, but a partition that prevented pair members from seeing one another reduced the collaborative efficiency of friends and non-friends to a similar lower level. Secondary measures suggested that verbal communication differences, but not psychophysiological arousal, contributed to these effects. Analysis of covariance indicated that females contributed more than males to overall levels of collaboration, but that the interaction of friendship and visibility was independent of that effect. These findings highlight the critical role of partner visibility in the collaborative success of friends.

  5. What’s in a Friendship? Partner Visibility Supports Cognitive Collaboration between Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Allison A.; Enns, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Not all cognitive collaborations are equally effective. We tested whether friendship and communication influenced collaborative efficiency by randomly assigning participants to complete a cognitive task with a friend or non-friend, while visible to their partner or separated by a partition. Collaborative efficiency was indexed by comparing each pair’s performance to an optimal individual performance model of the same two people. The outcome was a strong interaction between friendship and partner visibility. Friends collaborated more efficiently than non-friends when visible to one another, but a partition that prevented pair members from seeing one another reduced the collaborative efficiency of friends and non-friends to a similar lower level. Secondary measures suggested that verbal communication differences, but not psychophysiological arousal, contributed to these effects. Analysis of covariance indicated that females contributed more than males to overall levels of collaboration, but that the interaction of friendship and visibility was independent of that effect. These findings highlight the critical role of partner visibility in the collaborative success of friends. PMID:26619079

  6. Mechanisms of interactive specialization and emergence of functional brain circuits supporting cognitive development in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Christian; Evans, Tanya M.; Ngoon, Tricia J.; Chen, Tianwen; Chen, Lang; Kochalka, John; Menon, Vinod

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive development is thought to depend on the refinement and specialization of functional circuits over time, yet little is known about how this process unfolds over the course of childhood. Here we investigated growth trajectories of functional brain circuits and tested an interactive specialization model of neurocognitive development which posits that the refinement of task-related functional networks is driven by a shared history of co-activation between cortical regions. We tested this model in a longitudinal cohort of 30 children with behavioral and task-related functional brain imaging data at multiple time points spanning childhood and adolescence, focusing on the maturation of parietal circuits associated with numerical problem solving and learning. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed selective strengthening as well as weakening of functional brain circuits. Connectivity between parietal and prefrontal cortex decreased over time, while connectivity within posterior brain regions, including intra-hemispheric and inter-hemispheric parietal connectivity, as well as parietal connectivity with ventral temporal occipital cortex regions implicated in quantity manipulation and numerical symbol recognition, increased over time. Our study provides insights into the longitudinal maturation of functional circuits in the human brain and the mechanisms by which interactive specialization shapes children's cognitive development and learning.

  7. Validity-Supporting Evidence of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Jennifer R.; Wang, Chuang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide evidence of reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics Instrument (SETMI). Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest provided insights into the…

  8. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Safety I and C Related Verification and Validation Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, G.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness of safety I and C related verification and validation activities within nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. (Author)

  9. HPCMP CREATE (trademark)-AV Quality Assurance: Best Practices for Validating and Supporting Computation-Based Engineering Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    30/2015 Oct 2008-Sep 2015 HPCMP CREATE™- AV Quality Assurance: Best Practices for Validating and Supporting Computation-Based Engineering Software...2) “Does this tool adequately perform any and all advertised capabilities?” This paper will describe how the HPCMP CREATE Air Vehicles ( AV ...discussed and their strengths and weaknesses within the CREATE- AV framework addressed. Work toward the HPCMP CREATE, Quality Assurance, Aviation

  10. Validity and sensitivity to change of the falls efficacy scales international to assess fear of falling in older adults with and without cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Klaus A; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Schwenk, Michael; Yardley, Lucy; Beyer, Nina; Todd, Chris; Oster, Peter; Zijlstra, G A Rixt

    2011-01-01

    Measures of fear of falling have not yet been validated in patients with dementia, leaving a methodological gap that limits research in a population at high risk of falling and fall-related consequences. The objectives of this study are to determine: (1) the validity of the 7-item Short Falls Efficacy Scale International (Short FES-I) in geriatric patients with and without cognitive impairment, and (2) the sensitivity to change of the 10-item Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), the 16-item FES-I and the 7-item Short FES-I in geriatric patients with dementia. Cross-sectional data of community-dwelling older adults and geriatric rehabilitation patients (n = 284) collected during face-to-face interviews were used to determine construct and discriminant validity by testing for differences within variables related to fear of falling. Sensitivity to change was studied in an intervention study including patients with mild to moderate dementia (n = 130) as determined by standard response means (SRMs). The Short FES-I showed excellent construct and discriminant validity in the total group and subsamples according to cognitive status. Sensitivity to change was adequate to good in the FES (range SRM: 0.18-0.77) and FES-I (range SRM: 0.21-0.74), with the Short FES-I showing the highest peak sensitivity to change (range SRM: 0.18-0.91). The Short FES-I is a valid measure to assess fear of falling in frail older adults with and without cognitive impairment, yet it may show floor effects in higher functioning older people. All scales, including the Short FES-I, were sensitive to detecting intervention-induced changes in concerns about falling in geriatric patients with dementia. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial of Nurse-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Supportive Psychotherapy Telehealth Interventions for Chronic Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Thomas; Atkinson, J Hampton; Holloway, Rachael; Chircop-Rollick, Tatiana; D'Andrea, John; Garfin, Steven R; Patel, Shetal; Penzien, Donald B; Wallace, Mark; Weickgenant, Anne L; Slater, Mark

    2018-04-16

    This study evaluated a nurse-delivered, telehealth intervention of cognitive behavioral therapy versus supportive psychotherapy for chronic back pain. Participants (N=61) had chronic back pain (pain "daily" ≥ 6 months at an intensity ≥4/10 scale) and were randomized to an 8-week, 12-session, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or to Supportive Care (SC) matched for frequency, format, and time, with each treatment delivered by a primary care nurse. The primary outcome was the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Secondary outcomes included the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the Patient Global Impressions Scale (CGI). CBT participants (n=30) showed significant improvements on the RMDQ (means=11.4[5.9] vs. 9.4[6.1] at baseline and post-treatment, respectively, p.10). The results suggest that telehealth, nurse-delivered CBT and SC treatments for chronic back pain can offer significant and relatively comparable benefits. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00608530. This article describes the benefits of training primary care nurses to deliver evidence-based behavioral therapies for low back pain. Due to the high prevalence of chronic pain and the growing emphasis on non-opioid therapies, training nurses to provide behavior therapies could be a cost-effective way to improve pain management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Detection of Q-Matrix Misspecification Using Two Criteria for Validation of Cognitive Structures under the Least Squares Distance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Sonia J.; Ordoñez, Xavier G.; Ponsoda, Vincente; Revuelta, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Diagnostic Models (CDMs) aim to provide information about the degree to which individuals have mastered specific attributes that underlie the success of these individuals on test items. The Q-matrix is a key element in the application of CDMs, because contains links item-attributes representing the cognitive structure proposed for solve…

  13. Age-correction of test scores reduces the validity of mild cognitive impairment in predicting progression to dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessler, Johannes; Tucha, Oliver; Förstl, Hans; Mönsch, Edelgard; Bickel, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: A phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) precedes most forms of neurodegenerative dementia. Many definitions of MCI recommend the use of test norms to diagnose cognitive impairment. It is, however, unclear whether the use of norms actually improves the detection of individuals at risk

  14. Reliability and validity of a self-administered tool for online neuropsychological testing : The Amsterdam Cognition Scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, H.E.M.; Murre, J.M.J.; Vermeulen, I. E.; Kieffer, J.M.; Schagen, S.B.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction : To facilitate large-scale assessment of a variety of cognitive abilities in clinical studies, we developed a self-administered online neuropsychological test battery: the Amsterdam Cognition Scan (ACS). The current studies evaluate in a group of adult cancer patients: test–retest

  15. Reliability and validity of a self-administered tool for online neuropsychological testing : The Amsterdam Cognition Scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Heleen E.M.; Murre, Jaap M.J.; Vermeulen, Ivar E.; Kieffer, Jacobien M.; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: To facilitate large-scale assessment of a variety of cognitive abilities in clinical studies, we developed a self-administered online neuropsychological test battery: the Amsterdam Cognition Scan (ACS). The current studies evaluate in a group of adult cancer patients: test–retest

  16. Efficacy and Social Validity of Peer Support Arrangements for Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hoffman, Alicia; Chung, Yun-Ching; Sisco, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Current research and policy emphasize providing students with severe disabilities with the supports needed to participate socially and academically within inclusive classrooms. The authors examined the efficacy and acceptability of peer support arrangements as an avenue for promoting the participation of 3 students with severe disabilities in high…

  17. How Can We Best Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Malaysia? A Pilot of the IDEA Cognitive Screen and Picture-Based Memory Impairment Scale and Comparison of Criterion Validity with the Mini Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Roshaslina; Tan, Maw Pin; Gray, William K; Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Mohd Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn

    2017-01-01

    To pilot two new cognitive screening tools for use in an urban Malaysian population and to compare their criterion validity against a gold standard, the well-established Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The IDEA cognitive screen, Picture-based Memory Impairment Scale (PMIS), and MMSE were administered to a convenience sample of elderly (≥ 65 years) from the community and outpatient clinics at an urban teaching hospital. Consensus diagnosis was performed by two geriatricians blinded to PMIS and IDEA cognitive screen scores using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) clinical criteria. The MMSE performance was used as a reference. The study enrolled 66 participants, with a median age of 78.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 72.5-83.0) years and 11.0 median years of education (IQR, 9.0-13.0). Forty-three (65.2%) were female, and 32 (48.4%) were Chinese. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve values were .962 (IDEA cognitive screen), .970 (PMIS), and .935 (MMSE). The optimal cutoff values for sensitivity and specificity were: IDEA cognitive screen: ≤ 11, 90.9% and 89.7%; PMIS: ≤ 6, 97.3% and 69.0%; and MMSE: ≤ 23, 84.6% and 76.0%. Although the sample size was small, multivariable logistic regression modelling suggested that all three screen scores did not appear to be educationally biased. The IDEA and PMIS tools are potentially valid screening tools for dementia in urban Malaysia, and perform at least as well as the MMSE. Further work on larger representative, cohorts is needed to further assess the psychometric properties. Study provides alternative screening tools for dementia for both non-specialists and specialists.

  18. Sluggish cognitive tempo and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention in the home and school contexts: Parent and teacher invariance and cross-setting validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P; Servera, Mateu; Bernad, Maria Del Mar; García-Banda, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention (IN) symptoms demonstrated cross-setting invariance and unique associations with symptom and impairment dimensions across settings (i.e., home SCT and ADHD-IN uniquely predicting school symptom and impairment dimensions, and vice versa). Mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, academic impairment, social impairment, and peer rejection dimensions for 585 Spanish 3rd-grade children (53% boys). Within-setting (i.e., mothers, fathers; primary, secondary teachers) and cross-settings (i.e., home, school) invariance was found for both SCT and ADHD-IN. From home to school, higher levels of home SCT predicted lower levels of school ADHD-HI and higher levels of school academic impairment after controlling for home ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of home ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of school ADHD-HI, ODD, anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and peer rejection after controlling for home SCT. From school to home, higher levels of school SCT predicted lower levels of home ADHD-HI and ODD and higher levels of home anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment after controlling for school ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of school ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of home ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment after controlling for school SCT. Although SCT at home and school was able to uniquely predict symptom and impairment dimensions in the other setting, SCT at school was a better predictor than ADHD-IN at school of psychopathology and impairment at home. Findings provide additional support for SCT's validity relative to ADHD-IN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Protocol for the saMS trial (supportive adjustment for multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy to supportive listening for adjustment to multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrone Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an incurable, chronic, potentially progressive and unpredictable disease of the central nervous system. The disease produces a range of unpleasant and debilitating symptoms, which can have a profound impact including disrupting activities of daily living, employment, income, relationships, social and leisure activities, and life goals. Adjusting to the illness is therefore particularly challenging. This trial tests the effectiveness of a Cognitive Behavioural intervention compared to Supportive Listening to assist adjustment in the early stages of MS. Methods/Design This is a two arm randomized multi-centre parallel group controlled trial. 122 consenting participants who meet eligibility criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Supportive Listening. Eight one hour sessions of therapy (delivered over a period of 10 weeks will be delivered by general nurses trained in both treatments. Self-report questionnaire data will be collected at baseline (0 weeks, mid-therapy (week 5 of therapy, post-therapy (15 weeks and at six months (26 weeks and twelve months (52 weeks follow-up. Primary outcomes are distress and MS-related social and role impairment at twelve month follow-up. Analysis will also consider predictors and mechanisms of change during therapy. In-depth interviews to examine participants' experiences of the interventions will be conducted with a purposively sampled sub-set of the trial participants. An economic analysis will also take place. Discussion This trial is distinctive in its aims in that it aids adjustment to MS in a broad sense. It is not a treatment specifically for depression. Use of nurses as therapists makes the interventions potentially viable in terms of being rolled out in the NHS. The trial benefits from incorporating patient input in the development and evaluation stages. The trial will provide important information about the

  20. Human Cognitive Limitations. Broad, Consistent, Clinical Application of Physiological Principles Will Require Decision Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alan H

    2018-02-01

    Our education system seems to fail to enable clinicians to broadly understand core physiological principles. The emphasis on reductionist science, including "omics" branches of research, has likely contributed to this decrease in understanding. Consequently, clinicians cannot be expected to consistently make clinical decisions linked to best physiological evidence. This is a large-scale problem with multiple determinants, within an even larger clinical decision problem: the failure of clinicians to consistently link their decisions to best evidence. Clinicians, like all human decision-makers, suffer from significant cognitive limitations. Detailed context-sensitive computer protocols can generate personalized medicine instructions that are well matched to individual patient needs over time and can partially resolve this problem.

  1. Food and Drug Administration process validation activities to support 99Mo production at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, M.J.; Bourcier, S.C.; Talley, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to 1989 99 Mo was produced in the US by a single supplier, Cintichem Inc., Tuxedo, NY. Because of problems associated with operating its facility, in 1989 Cintichem elected to decommission the facility rather than incur the costs for repair. The demise of the 99 Mo capability at Cintichem left the US totally reliant upon a single foreign source, Nordion International, located in Ottawa Canada. In 1992 the DOE purchased the Cintichem 99 Mo Production Process and Drug Master File (DMF). In 1994 the DOE funded Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to produce 99 Mo. Although Cintichem produced 99 Mo and 99m Tc generators for many years, there was no requirement for process validation which is now required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition to the validation requirement, the requirements for current Good manufacturing Practices were codified into law. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process validation being conducted at SNL for the qualification of SNL as a supplier of 99 Mo to US pharmaceutical companies

  2. A cognitive framework to inform the design of professional development supporting teachers' classroom assessment of inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matese, Gabrielle

    Inquiry-based science places new demands on teachers for assessing students' growth, both of deep conceptual understanding as well as developing inquiry skills. In addition, new ideas about classroom assessment, such as the importance of formative assessment, are gaining currency. While we have ideas about what classroom assessment consistent with inquiry-based pedagogy might look like, and why it is necessary, we have little understanding of what it takes to implement it. That teachers face a challenge in doing so is well-documented. Researchers have noted that teachers attempting changes in classroom assessment often bring with them incompatible beliefs, knowledge, and practices. However, noting general incompatibility is insufficient to support addressing these issues through professional development. In response to this need, I initiated a research project to identify and describe in more detail the categories of beliefs, knowledge and skills that play an important role in inquiry-based science assessment practices. I created an assessment framework outlining specific categories of beliefs, knowledge, and skills affecting particular classroom assessment practices. I then used the framework to examine teachers' classroom assessment practices and to create comparative cases between three middle-school science teachers, highlighting how the different cognitive factors affect four particular assessment practices. The comparative cases demonstrate the framework's utility for analyzing and explicating teacher assessment practices. As a tool for analyzing and understanding teacher practice, the framework supports the design of professional development. To demonstrate the value of the framework, I draw on the comparative cases to identify implications for the design of professional development to support teachers' classroom assessment of inquiry-based science. In this dissertation I provide a brief overview of the framework and its rationale, present an example of the

  3. Hawaiian Electric Advanced Inverter Grid Support Function Laboratory Validation and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prabakar, Kumar [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nepal, Shaili [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shindo, Jon [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kubojiri, Kandice [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ceria, Riley [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The objective for this test plan was to better understand how to utilize the performance capabilities of advanced inverter functions to allow the interconnection of distributed energy resource (DER) systems to support the new Customer Self-Supply, Customer Grid-Supply, and other future DER programs. The purpose of this project was: 1) to characterize how the tested grid supportive inverters performed the functions of interest, 2) to evaluate the grid supportive inverters in an environment that emulates the dynamics of O'ahu's electrical distribution system, and 3) to gain insight into the benefits of the grid support functions on selected O'ahu island distribution feeders. These goals were achieved through laboratory testing of photovoltaic inverters, including power hardware-in-the-loop testing.

  4. Predictive validity of social support relative to psychological well-being in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Diana H

    2013-11-01

    Compare predictive validity (relative to psychological well-being) of long and short versions of 2 measures of social support for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Sixty-nine men with SCI completed (a) a long and short version of the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL), (b) a structured interview regarding the frequency with which a person receives 11 kinds of support from each of their most important supporters (maximum of 5), and (c) a global measure of the same 11 kinds of support. Approximately 3 years later they completed 4 measures of psychological well-being--the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CESD), the Life Satisfaction Index A (LSIA), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Comparisons were made among the social support measures with regard to their ability to predict each of the 4 measures of psychological well-being at a later point in time. The long version of the ISEL had more predictive power than the long version of the structured interview. The long version of the ISEL is a good choice for measuring social support in persons with SCI and the short ISEL may be an acceptable choice when minimizing respondent burden is critical if the number of response options is increased to 4. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Weekly brief phone support in self-help cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia disorder: Relevance to adherence and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Chung, Ka-Fai; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Ng, Tommy Ho-Yee; Cheng, Sammy Kin-Wing

    2014-12-01

    Self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an acceptable, low-intensity treatment in a stepped care model for insomnia. We tested the application of self-help CBT-I in a Chinese population. 312 participants with self-report of insomnia associated with distress or daytime impairment 3 or more nights per week for at least 3 months were randomized to self-help CBT-I with telephone support (SHS), self-help CBT-I (SH) and waiting-list (WL). The program was Internet-based with treatment materials delivered once per week, and lasted for 6 consecutive weeks, while the telephone support was limited to 15 min weekly. Mixed-effects analyses found significant group by time interaction in sleep and sleep-related cognitions at immediate and 4-week posttreatment. Post-hoc pairwise comparison with WL revealed that both SHS and SH had significantly higher sleep efficiency at immediate (p = .004 and p = .03, respectively) and 4-week posttreatment (p = .002 and p = .02, respectively) and lower insomnia and dysfunctional beliefs scores. The SHS group had additional improvements in sleep onset latency and sleep quality. Benefits with self-help CBT-I were maintained at 12-week posttreatment, but attrition rate was about 35%. Internet-based self-help CBT-I was effective and acceptable for treating insomnia in the Chinese population. A brief telephone support further enhanced the efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Six factors of adult dyslexia assesed by cognitive tests and self-report questions: Very high predictive validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamboer, P.; Vorst, H.C.M.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    The Multiple Diagnostic Digital Dyslexia Test for Adults (MDDDT-A) consists of 12 newly developed tests and self-report questions in the Dutch language. Predictive validity and construct validity were investigated and compared with validity of a standard test battery of dyslexia (STB) in a sample of

  7. Prediction of cognitive and motor development in preterm children using exhaustive feature selection and cross-validation of near-term white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadl, Kornél; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Yeom, Kristin W; Stevenson, David K; Rose, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Advanced neuroimaging and computational methods offer opportunities for more accurate prognosis. We hypothesized that near-term regional white matter (WM) microstructure, assessed on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), using exhaustive feature selection with cross-validation would predict neurodevelopment in preterm children. Near-term MRI and DTI obtained at 36.6 ± 1.8 weeks postmenstrual age in 66 very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates were assessed. 60/66 had follow-up neurodevelopmental evaluation with Bayley Scales of Infant-Toddler Development, 3rd-edition (BSID-III) at 18-22 months. Linear models with exhaustive feature selection and leave-one-out cross-validation computed based on DTI identified sets of three brain regions most predictive of cognitive and motor function; logistic regression models were computed to classify high-risk infants scoring one standard deviation below mean. Cognitive impairment was predicted (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity; AUC = 1) by near-term right middle-temporal gyrus MD, right cingulate-cingulum MD, left caudate MD. Motor impairment was predicted (90% sensitivity, 86% specificity; AUC = 0.912) by left precuneus FA, right superior occipital gyrus MD, right hippocampus FA. Cognitive score variance was explained (29.6%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.296) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, Genu RD, right fusiform gyrus AD. Motor score variance was explained (31.7%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.317) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, right parahippocampal gyrus AD, right middle-temporal gyrus AD. Search in large DTI feature space more accurately identified neonatal neuroimaging correlates of neurodevelopment.

  8. The design explorer project: Using a cognitive framework to support knowledge exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, A. M.; Sonnenwald, D.H.; Buur, J.

    1997-01-01

    the 'Design Explorer' research project whose goal is to specify requirements for an information system that will effectively help design team members from different domains and organizational cultures to locate and utilize diverse information sources and interact more effectively throughout the design process....... The project introduces a new approach to support of design; instead of design guidelines, support is given by creating a transparent information environment in which designers can navigate freely according to their individual preferences. The project is based on a framework that structures the dimensions......, and various related task spaces, domain activities, decisionmaking activities, division and coordination of work, and social organization. The framework is the result of a generalization of experiences from field studies in and design of support systems for a variety of modern work domains, such as process...

  9. Validity, rel